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1

Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18?years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

2014-01-01

2

Race, Advertising, and Prime-Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critics have frequently noted the lack of diversity in TV programs, but few have analyzed diversity in TV commercials. This article focuses on prime-time TV commercials, noting the amount and type of representation of people of color. Although people of color appear regularly in ads, they usually appear as secondary (not primary) characters. A distinct racial segregation exists in prime-time

Jennifer Jacobs Henderson; Gerald J. Baldasty

2003-01-01

3

Commercial Network Television: Strategies for Programming and the Content of Prime Time TV, 1976-1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1976-79 schedules of the three major television networks were analyzed to determine what strategies were used to organize prime time schedules and what types of programs appeared during prime time viewing periods. Five essential programing strategies were identified: fraction of selection (cost versus reward), lowest common denominator (wide…

Austin, Bruce A.

4

An analysis of alcohol portrayal on prime-time television.  

PubMed

A content and functional analysis of alcohol use was conducted on the 15 most popular prime-time television programs in late 1979. These shows were videotaped and then rated by two independent observers. Interrater agreement, averaged over all code categories, was 91%. Results indicated that alcohol use and verbalizations about alcohol are frequent occurrences on prime-time television. Antecedent conditions to alcohol ingestion were identified. However, no consistent behavioral consequences of alcohol use were observed. PMID:6480172

Futch, E J; Lisman, S A; Geller, M I

1984-07-01

5

Food and nutrition in Canadian "prime time" television commercials.  

PubMed

Television is, arguably, the most influential mass medium and "prime time" viewing attracts the largest audiences. To assess the type, number and nutritional content of foods advertised on TV, commercial breaks during "prime time" (7:00 to 11:00 p.m.) on five Canadian channels (CBC-English, CBC-French, CTV, CFPL, Much Music) were recorded and analyzed. A similar analysis of Saturday morning children's TV commercials was also performed. Commercials for foods and food products constituted between 24-35% of all commercials, the largest advertising output for any group of products. The combination of food presented in commercials reflected average current consumption patterns. Of special concern was the emphasis on low nutrition beverages, especially beer, as well as snacks and candy on Much Music. While further government intervention to restrict advertising practices may be an impractical option, there is scope for increasing the alternative promotion of healthy dietary choices. PMID:8131138

Ostbye, T; Pomerleau, J; White, M; Coolich, M; McWhinney, J

1993-01-01

6

On learning science and pseudoscience from prime-time television programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the present dissertation is to determine whether the viewing of two particular prime-time television programs, ER and The X-Files, increases viewer knowledge of science and to identify factors that may influence learning from entertainment television programming. Viewer knowledge of scientific dialogue from two science-based prime-time television programs, ER, a serial drama in a hospital emergency room and The X-Files, a drama about two Federal Bureau of Investigation agents who pursue alleged extraterrestrial life and paranormal activity, is studied. Level of viewing, education level, science education level, experiential factors, level of parasocial interaction, and demographic characteristics are assessed as independent variables affecting learning from entertainment television viewing. The present research involved a nine-month long content analysis of target television program dialogue and data collection from an Internet-based survey questionnaire posted to target program-specific on-line "chat" groups. The present study demonstrated that entertainment television program viewers incidentally learn science from entertainment television program dialogue. The more they watch, the more they learn. Viewing a pseudoscientific fictional television program does necessarily influence viewer beliefs in pseudoscience. Higher levels of formal science study are reflected in more science learning and less learning of pseudoscience from entertainment television program viewing. Pseudoscience learning from entertainment television programming is significantly related to experience with paranormal phenomena, higher levels of viewer parasocial interaction, and specifically, higher levels of cognitive parasocial interaction. In summary, the greater a viewer's understanding of science the more they learn when they watch their favorite science-based prime-time television programs. Viewers of pseudoscience-based prime-time television programming with higher levels of paranormal experiences and parasocial interaction demonstrate cognitive interest in and learning of their favorite television program characters ideas and beliefs. What television viewers learn from television is related to what they bring to the viewing experience. Television viewers are always learning, even when their intentions are to simply relax and watch the tube.

Whittle, Christopher Henry

7

Sex differences in reinforcement and punishment on prime-time television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prime-time television programs were analyzed for frequencies of positive reinforcement and punishment exchanged among performers varying in age and sex. Results indicated that most responses were given by and directed to adult males. Moreover, while adult males exhibited and received similar frequencies of reinforcement and punishment, adult females were likely to give and to be the recipients of more reinforcement

A. Chris Downs; Darryl C. Gowan

1980-01-01

8

Health and Nutrient Content Claims in Food Advertisements on Hispanic and Mainstream Prime-Time Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Characterize frequency and type of health and nutrient content claims in prime-time weeknight Spanish- and English-language television advertisements from programs shown in 2003 with a high viewership by women aged 18 to 35 years. Design: Comparative content analysis design was used to analyze 95 hours of Spanish-language and 72 hours…

Abbatangelo-Gray, Jodie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Austin, S. Bryn

2008-01-01

9

Prosocial and Antisocial Interaction on Television: Conflict and Jealousy on Prime Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed prime time television programs for the presence of interpersonal predicaments, specifically family conflict and situations involving jealousy, envy, and rivalry. The portrayal of these situations was evaluated according to relevant pro- and antisocial criteria. A total of 17 one-hour episodes and 24 half-hour episodes were…

Comstock, Jamie; Strzyzewski, Krystyna

10

Portrayal of Religion in Prime-Time Television Drama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to stimulate scholars to investigate systematically and fully the religious dimension of dramatic television content, the first part of this paper develops a basic framework for such study. After establishing the importance of this kind of research, it defines and explains the four basic variables that would have to be examined: general…

Virts, Paul H.; Keeler, John D.

11

Physical Contact and Sexual Behavior on Prime-Time TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents data on the kinds of physically intimate and sexual behaviors dealt with on prime-time television during the 1977-1978 season. Results indicate an increasing tendency to tease the audience behaviorally (through flirting), verbally (through innuendo), and visually (through contextually implied intercourse). (JMF)

Silverman, L. Theresa; And Others

1979-01-01

12

The prime time diet: a content analysis of eating behavior and food messages in television program content and commercials.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze messages related to food and eating behavior as presented on prime time television (8:00-11:00 pm) both in programming and commercials. Food references occurred an average of 4.8 times per 30 minutes of programming time. Over half (60 percent) of all food references in programs were for low nutrient beverages and sweets. The prime time diet is inconsistent with dietary guidelines for healthy Americans. PMID:2343968

Story, M; Faulkner, P

1990-06-01

13

Groups in Action on Prime-Time TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed six prime-time television shows--"The Cosby Show,""Cheers,""Dear John,""Designing Women,""Golden Girls," and "Roseanne"--to examine group communication as it is portrayed on a daily basis in these shows, or how groups interact in the sitcom genre. One episode of each of the six 30-minute shows was selected for analysis, in each…

Keyton, Joann

14

Update: physically intimate and sexual behavior on prime-time television, 1978-79.  

PubMed

The 1978-79 prime time television programming season was examined to determine the frequency and portrayal of sex, and it was compared to the 2 previous seasons analyzed (1975 and 1977). 68 programs, representative of the 1978-79 season, were recorded directly off the air between the hours of 8 p.m. and 11 p.m. during a 2-week period beginning on October 1978. During the 1st week, all regularly scheduled prime time drama, crime/adventure, situation comedy, and variety prorams and movies broadcast by the 3 major networks (ABC, CBS, and NBC) were videotaped. During the 2nd week, all regularly scheduled programming which had been preempted by sports events and specials the previous week were recorded. Thus, the final sample included 1 week of the regularly scheduled prime time offerings of the 3 major networks plus 2 weeks of movies. The videotape of each program was coded independently by 2 of 9 trained coders, 1 male and 1 female, using the same formal coding scheme that had been used in the 1978 analysis. The original coding scheme included 12 categories of physically intimate and sexual behavior ranging from nonsexual interpersonal touching (e.g., handshakes) to affectionate displays (e.g., kissing) to typical sexual behaviors of references (e.g., flirtatious behavior, verbal innuendo, heterosexual intercourse). A new category was added, sex education and romance, which was comprised of verbal references to issues such as contraception, pregnancy, and going steady. The frequency of appearance of the least intimate behaviors (kissing and hugging) showed a gradual increase over the 3 sampled years. In contrast, the frequency of occurrence of several of the controversial categories increased substantially. Specifically, contextually implied intercourse from no weekly occurrences in 1975 to 15 in 1977 and 24 in 1978; sexual innuendos increased in frequency from about 1 reference/hour in 1975 to 7 in 1977, and to almost 11 in 1978. Direct verbal references to intercourse increased from 2 occurrences/week in 1975 to 6 references in 1977 and 53 in 1978. Only 3 categories showed a decrease in frequency since the 1977 analysis: nonaggressive touching, physical suggestiveness, and aggressive touching. Several of the discouraged sexual practice categories were rarely if ever coded in the 1977-78 analyses (e.g., incest, pederosis, exhibitionism, fetishism, and masturbation). There was a substantial increase in frequency for 2 categories: allusions to prostitution increased more than 4-fold, and allusions to aggressive sexual contacts increased 3-fold from 1977 to 1978. For 2 categories, transvestism/transsexualism and voyeurism, there was a drop in frequency over the year. PMID:7204627

Sprafkin, J N; Silverman, L T

1981-01-01

15

Recognition and Respect: A Content Analysis of Prime-Time Television Characters Across Three Decades  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis of week-long samples ofprime-time network dramatic programs broadcast betweenthe fall of 1967 and the spring of 1998 found thatwomenconsistently receive less recognition than men on television. While programs broadcast in the1990's had more women than those broadcast in the 1960'sand early 1970's, the women were still under representedin relation to their numbers in the U.S. population. There

Nancy Signorielli; Aaron Bacue

1999-01-01

16

Sex Differences in Reinforcement and Punishment on Prime-Time Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television programs were analyzed for frequencies of positive reinforcement and punishment exchanged among performers varying in age and sex. Females were found to more often exhibit and receive reinforcement, whereas males more often exhibited and received punishment. These findings have implications for children's learning of positive and…

Downs, A. Chris; Gowan, Darryl C.

1980-01-01

17

Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television claims to report reality but largely creates its own reality. There is very little autonomy, largely because the competition for market share is so intense. The pressure to fill the space is strong; hence, it must be something for everyone. Everyone is looking over their shoulder to see what their rivals are saying; to know what to say, you

PIERRE BOURDIEU

2001-01-01

18

Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior  

PubMed Central

Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone.

Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

2009-01-01

19

Removing the Bedroom Television Set: A Possible Method for Decreasing Television Viewing Time in Overweight and Obese Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

U.S. adults watch television (TV) for an average of 5 hours per day, an amount associated with increased obesity risk. Studies in children have found bedroom TV sets, which result in greater time spent by watching TV and shorter sleep durations, both of which increase a child's odds of becoming overweight. The authors examined associations between…

Jones, Katherine E.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Harvey-Berino, Jean R.

2010-01-01

20

Television violence and children's aggression: testing the priming, social script, and disinhibition predictions.  

PubMed

The effect of television violence on boys' aggression was investigated with consideration of teacher-rated characteristic aggressiveness, timing of frustration, and violence-related cues as moderators. Boys in Grades 2 and 3 (N = 396) watched violent or nonviolent TV in groups of 6, and half the groups were later exposed to a cue associated with the violent TV program. They were frustrated either before or after TV viewing. Aggression was measured by naturalistic observation during a game of floor hockey. Groups containing more characteristically high-aggressive boys showed higher aggression following violent TV plus the cue than following violent TV alone, which in turn produced more aggression than did the nonviolent TV condition. There was evidence that both the violent content and the cue may have suppressed aggression among groups composed primarily of boys low in characteristic aggressiveness. Results were interpreted in terms of current information-processing theories of media effects on aggression. PMID:3681656

Josephson, W L

1987-11-01

21

An Evaluation of the Television Reading Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This evaluation report is based on several types of data collected during the 1978-79 school year for the Television Reading Program (TVRP), a supplemental reading instruction project which is based on commercial television programs aired at prime time--scripts of TV programs with high popular appeal for youth serve as the basis for instructional…

Lamiell-Landy, Ann; And Others

22

Intertextuality and Television Discourse: The Max Headroom Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Max Headroom, the computer-generated media personality, presents a good opportunity for an investigation of the degree of intertextuality in television. Max combines narrative genres (science fiction and film noir), television program types (prime-time episodic narrative, made-for-TV movie, talkshows), advertising and programming, and electronic…

Braddlee

23

How Young Children Spend Their Time: Television and Other Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined television viewing over three years among two cohorts of 2- and 4-year olds. Found that viewing declined with age. With age, time in reading and educational activities increased on weekdays but declined on weekends, and sex differences in time-use patterns increased. Increased time in educational activities, social interaction, and video…

Huston, Aletha C.; Wright, John C.; Marquis, Janet; Green, Samuel B.

1999-01-01

24

Exposure to television food advertising primes food-related cognitions and triggers motivation to eat.  

PubMed

Objective: This study investigated the effect of exposure to television food advertising on accessibility of food-related cognitions and motivation to eat. Design and main outcome measures: We initially developed a word stem completion task to measure accessibility of food-related cognitions. In two subsequent experiments, 160 female undergraduate students (Experiment 1) and 124 overweight or obese community-dwelling women (Experiment 2) viewed a series of television commercials advertising either food or non-food products. They then completed the word stem task and also rated their desire to eat. Results: Exposure to televised food advertisements led to the completion of word stems with more food- and eating-related words in both experiments. It also increased self-reported desire to eat, but only for overweight and obese individuals (Experiment 2). In both samples, there was a positive association between accessibility of food-related cognitions and reported desire to eat, following priming with television food advertisements. Conclusion: We conclude that an increased activation of food-related cognitions may provide a mechanism for the link between food advertising and consumption. This has implications for tackling pathological (over)eating. PMID:24773418

Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Hollitt, Sarah

2014-10-01

25

Longitudinal Effects of Television on Children's Leisure-Time Reading: A Test of Three Explanatory Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study that investigated the longitudinal effects of television viewing on the frequency with which children read books and comic books at home; and the causal mechanisms that underlie television's effects on leisure-time reading. Suggests that television viewing reduced attitudes toward reading and toward ability to concentrate. (TB)

Koolstra, Cees M.; Van Der Voort, Tom H. A.

1996-01-01

26

Television as a Source of Learning Sex Role Stereotypes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of heavy versus light television viewing on the degree to which children possess sex role stereotypes. Reference was made to content analyses of children's television programs, prime time dramatic programs, and commercials, to show that traditional sex role stereotypes are present in most aspects of television

McGhee, Paul E.

27

Real-Time Digital Compression Of Television Image Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital encoding/decoding system compresses color television image data in real time for transmission at lower data rates and, consequently, lower bandwidths. Implements predictive coding process, in which each picture element (pixel) predicted from values of prior neighboring pixels, and coded transmission expresses difference between actual and predicted current values. Combines differential pulse-code modulation process with non-linear, nonadaptive predictor, nonuniform quantizer, and multilevel Huffman encoder.

Barnes, Scott P.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.

1990-01-01

28

ACTION SAMPLING OF TELEVISION VIEWING: A FAVORITE WASTE OF TIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

TV watching is one of the most important ways of spending leisure time, the average daily watching time in the Swedish population is about 141 minutes - about 15 % of non-sleep time. Yet, there is little research on the psychological processes taking place while watching TV. In the present study using still-relevant data from a 1985-86 data base, the

Lennart Sjöberg; Rutger Magneberg; Datagram HB; Göteborg Sweden

2009-01-01

29

An Evaluation of the Television Reading Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This evaluation report is based on several types of data collected during the 1978-79 school year for the Television Reading Program (TVRP), a supplemental reading instruction project which is based on commercial television programs aired at prime time--s...

A. Lamiell-Landy

1979-01-01

30

Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ) television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June\\/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral

Rob McGee; Juanita Ketchel; Anthony I Reeder

2007-01-01

31

Too Much Tube Time? Television Viewing and Childhood Obesity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rates of overweight in infancy and childhood are rapidly growing. One contributor to the rising tide of childhood obesity, and a target included in many obesity prevention and intervention programs, is television (TV) use. This article examines the amount of media to which young children are exposed, and considers the evidence for the…

Cardinal, Tiffany M.; Lumeng, Julie C.

2007-01-01

32

The Impact of the Newer Television Technologies on Television Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds that use of new television technologies (cable television, videocassette recorders, and remote control devices) had an impact on receiving, pass-the-time, and companionship gratifications from television viewing. Shows that instrumental viewing motives, television exposure, and receiving informational gratifications from television viewing…

Perse, Elizabeth M.; Ferguson, Douglas A.

1993-01-01

33

Social and Interactive-Television Applications Based on Real-Time Ambient-Audio Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes mass personalization , a framework for combining mass media with a highly personalized Web-based experience. We introduce four applications for mass personalization: personalized content layers, ad hoc social communities, real-time popularity ratings and virtual media library services. Using the ambient audio originating from the television, the four applications are available with no more effort than simple television

Michael Fink; Michele Covell; Shumeet Baluja

34

Time spent watching television, sleep duration and obesity in adults living in Valencia, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association of time watching television (TV) and physical activity with obesity in the Mediterranean area of Spain with the highest prevalence of obesity.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SETTING: Valencia Region in Spain.PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 814 men and 958 women, aged 15 y and older, participating in a Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 1994.MEASUREMENTS: Height and weight

J Vioque; A Torres; J Quiles

2000-01-01

35

The portrayal of women in prime time, 1953–1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content analysis of 1314 television programs and 2444 starring characters appearing on prime-time television from 1953–1977 revealed that the number of females in starring roles has remained relatively constant over the last 25 years and that most women are still found in situation comedies. While the number of women shown as housewives or housekeepers has declined from the 1950s

Joseph R. Dominick

1979-01-01

36

Audience Duplication in the Video Age: Changes in Prime Time Inheritance Effects between 1976 and 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluating the impact of the changing media environment on television programming, a study examined inheritance effects--the percentage of one television program's audience that also watches the program immediately following--in network prime time programming between 1976 and 1985. Inheritance effect was calculated as the correlation between a…

Walker, James R.

37

Television Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The compilation 'Television Technology' presents the results of new research and constructional developments in various areas of television. There are articles on equipment of the All-Union Radio and Television Transmitting Station (ORPS) and of the All-U...

A. V. Gorokhovskii M. I. Krivosheev

1973-01-01

38

Violence and Sex in Music Videos: TV and Rock n' Roll.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study measuring the amount and kind of violence and sex presented in prime time music videos during a seven-week period. Compares sex and violence on music television to known data on conventional TV. (MS)

Sherman, Barry L.; Dominick, Joseph R.

1986-01-01

39

Television and video viewing time among children aged 2 years - Oregon, 2006-2007.  

PubMed

Excessive exposure of children to television and videos (viewing time) is associated with impaired childhood development and childhood obesity. In 2001, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended that children watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of "quality programming" per day, and that televisions be removed from children's bedrooms. To determine the risk for excessive viewing time among children aged 2 years, CDC and the Oregon Public Health Division analyzed 2006 and 2007 data from the Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring Survey follow-back survey (Oregon PRAMS-2), which was used to re-interview mothers who had participated in PRAMS. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, on a typical day, 19.6% of children aged 2 years spent >or=2 hours watching television or videos. A total of 18.2% of children had a television in their bedroom; these children were more likely to have >or=2 hours viewing time compared with children without a television in the bedroom (34.1% versus 16.3%). In multivariable analysis, >or=2 hours of viewing time was positively associated with the presence of a television in the child's bedroom, non-Hispanic black maternal race/ethnicity, fewer than four outings with the child during the preceding week, and was negatively associated with obtaining child care in a child care center. In Oregon, these findings support the AAP recommendations that health professionals, parents, and caregivers recognize the extent of children's media consumption, and that televisions be removed from children's bedrooms. Other states should consider conducting similar surveys. PMID:20631672

2010-07-16

40

The Demography of Fictional Television Characters in 1975-76.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines the messages presented by fictional characters during the family hour, later prime time, and Saturday morning television in the 1975-76 season. Demographic variables of program attributes include type of program--family or medical dram...

K. W. Simmons

1977-01-01

41

Educational Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television in medical education is featured in this supplement to "Educational Television." James Lieberman offers an overview of the present state of medical instructional television. He concludes his article by suggesting that the primary requisite for making optimum use of television in biomedical education is the preparation of a cadre of…

Educational Television, 1969

1969-01-01

42

TV Links Film and Television Website Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TV Links Film and Television Website Archive is a site that points to almost anything you can think of relating to film and television. Categories include television shows, motion picture production companies, screen and video professional organizations, awards (Oscar, Emmy, and Tony), world TV schedules, 30 TV networks, Usenet newsgroups, and film festivals, among others. This is a definitive site for the definitive couch potato.

2005-11-29

43

TV Links Film and Television Website Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TV Links Film and Television Website Archive is a site that points to almost anything you can think of relating to film and television. Categories include television shows, motion picture production companies, screen and video professional organizations, awards (Oscar, Emmy, and Tony), world TV schedules, 30 TV networks, Usenet newsgroups, and film festivals, among others. This is a definitive site for the definitive couch potato.

44

Naturally Occurring Changes in Time Spent Watching Television Are Inversely Related to Frequency of Physical Activity during Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with…

Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.

2006-01-01

45

The Impact of Leisure-Time Television on School Learning: A Research Synthesis (Preliminary Version).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of 23 studies, including doctoral dissertations, statewide assessments, national surveys, journal articles, technical reports, books, and unpublished papers, sought to integrate empirical findings concerning the impact of leisure time television viewing on student achievement in grades K through 12. For each study, the reviewers coded the…

Williams, Patricia A.; And Others

46

Television Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as an introduction to the economics of commercial television for the general reader, this volume considers the theory and analytical basis of television and the policy implications of those economics. Part I considers the economics of television markets with particular attention of the determinants of viewer markets; the supply of…

Owen, Bruce M.; And Others

47

Family Perceptions of Television Viewing Habits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined families' television viewing habits during prime time and family members' perceptions of their viewing habits. Individually interviewed 24 mother-father-child triads to determine viewing patterns over a four-evening period. Both boys and girls were more concordant with fathers than with mothers. Age differences were not significant for…

Hopkins, M. Nancy; Mullis, Ann K.

1985-01-01

48

Analyzing Value Content in Television Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four prime time television programs--"Charlie's Angels,""Little House on the Prairie,""Grizzly Adams," and "Lou Grant" --were rated by university students for their portrayal of moral reasoning and values. Data were obtained from three episodes of each program by randomly assigning raters to one of two viewing groups, both of which used an…

Jensen, Larry; Zelig, Mark

49

Television and the Humanist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mass media and especially television pose problems for teachers in humanities disciplines traditionally associated with leisure, time for reflection, and the quiet contemplation of the good, true, and beautiful. Although other media have been criticized for their deleterious effects, television most affects humanists in their mission because…

Zigerell, James

50

Television and Voter Turnout  

Microsoft Academic Search

I use variation across markets in the timing of television's introduction to identify its impact on voter turnout. The estimated effect is significantly negative, accounting for between a quarter and a half of the total decline in turnout since the 1950s. I argue that substitution away from other media with more political coverage provides a plausible mechanism linking television to

Matthew Gentzkow

2006-01-01

51

Television and Attitudes toward Mental Health Issues: Cultivation Analysis and the Third-Person Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A television content analysis and survey of 419 community respondents supports the hypothesis that media stereotypes affect public attitudes toward mental health issues. A content analysis of network, prime-time television demonstrates that portrayals are violent, false, and negative. The mentally disordered are portrayed as 10 times more likely…

Diefenbach, Donald L.; West, Mark D.

2007-01-01

52

"Television" Artists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an art class, children browse through space-age knobs, robot antennas and gyroscopic signal searchers. They extend space needle antennas before turning on an old TV. They discover the sights and sounds of televisions past, hearing the hiss, the gathering power, and seeing the blinking eye, the black-and-white light and blurry images projected…

Szekely, George

2010-01-01

53

Optical on-axis real-time phase-dominant correlator using liquid crystal television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of a commercial liquid crystal television (LCTV) for encoding the on-axis phase-only filter (POF) in a real-time VanderLugt-type optical correlator. The filter, called the phase-dominant filter (PDF), has phase\\/amplitude hybrid modulation and the phase mismatching, but the phase modulation is dominant. The experimental test on the modulation characteristics of the LCTV is presented, performance of

Gilles Paul-Hus; Yunlong Sheng

1993-01-01

54

The History of Television  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The report provides a relevant explanation about the advance of the television technology, especially about the systems and the receivers, from the beginning of the television development. (1) From the beginning of TV development to World War II. (2) Resumption of TV development by the end of war. (3) Monochrome TV to color TV. (4) Television technology in New Media, Multimedia and IT era.

Kuno, Hisao; Kamemoto, Kazuhiro

55

Crankier Babies May Get More TV Time  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Crankier Babies May Get More TV Time Study didn't look at type of programming ... demanding babies are likely to spend slightly more time plopped in front of a TV or computer ...

56

Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.  

PubMed

The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ?2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity. PMID:24892903

Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

2014-08-01

57

Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ) television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television.

McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita; Reeder, Anthony I

2007-01-01

58

Television Viewing Time is Associated with Overweight/Obesity Among Older Adults, Independent of Meeting Physical Activity and Health Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown associations of sedentary behavior with cardiovascular risk, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). However, few studies have focused on older adults. This study examined the joint associations of television (TV) viewing time and MVPA with overweight/obesity among Japanese older adults. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional mail survey was used to collect self-reported height, weight, time spent in TV viewing, and MVPA from 1806 older adults (age: 65–74 years, men: 51.1%). Participants were classified into 4 categories according to TV viewing time (dichotomized into high and low around the median) and MVPA level (dichotomized into sufficient and insufficient by the physical activity guideline level of ?150 minutes/week). Odds ratios (ORs) for overweight/obesity (body mass index ?25 kg/m2) were calculated according to the 4 TV/MVPA categories, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Of all participants, 20.1% were overweight/obese. The median TV viewing time (25th, 75th percentile) was 840 (420, 1400) minutes/week. As compared with the reference category (high TV/insufficient MVPA), the adjusted ORs (95% CI) of overweight/obesity were 0.93 (0.65, 1.34) for high TV/sufficient MVPA, 0.58 (0.37, 0.90) for low TV/insufficient MVPA, and 0.67 (0.47, 0.97) for low TV/sufficient MVPA. Conclusions In this sample of older adults, spending less time watching TV, a predominant sedentary behavior, was associated with lower risk of being overweight or obese, independent of meeting physical activity guidelines. Further studies using prospective and/or intervention designs are warranted to confirm the presently observed effects of sedentary behavior, independent of physical activity, on the health of older adults.

Inoue, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Takemi; Takamiya, Tomoko; Oka, Koichiro; Owen, Neville; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

2012-01-01

59

Reducing Excessive Television Viewing While Increasing Physical Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

One family participated in a study evaluating the effectiveness of a product aimed at reducing television viewing by providing television viewing time in exchange for bicycle riding. The device, called Control-the-TV, is comprised of a control box which attaches to the electrical cord of a television set, and two sensors which attach to the wheel and corresponding wheel rim of

Leonard A Jason; Sharon Z. Johnson

1995-01-01

60

Optical on-axis real-time phase-dominant correlator using liquid crystal television  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the use of a commercial liquid crystal television (LCTV) for encoding the on-axis phase-only filter (POF) in a real-time VanderLugt-type optical correlator. The filter, called the phase-dominant filter (PDF), has phase/amplitude hybrid modulation and the phase mismatching, but the phase modulation is dominant. The experimental test on the modulation characteristics of the LCTV is presented, performance of the PDF is analyzed, and the correlation results of the optical PDF are shown.

Paul-Hus, Gilles; Sheng, Yunlong

1993-09-01

61

Relation of adiposity, television and screen time in offspring to their parents  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have examined the relations of adiposity and lifestyle factors in young offspring with their parents as children (parentschild) or at their current age (parentsadult). Therefore, we compared measures of adiposity and lifestyle in parentschild and parentsadult with their offspring. Methods Two generations (one parent and his/her offspring) participated in this study: 234 parents from a previously established cohort and 382 offspring. Parentsadult and offspring underwent measurements for height, weight, waist circumference, % body fat, visceral fat, and lifestyle habits. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, obese based on age-specific BMI criteria. Mixed model linear regression analysis evaluated the associations of adiposity and lifestyle factors of parentschild and parentsadult with that of their offspring, adjusting for age, sex, race, and family membership. Results The prevalence of obesity was greater among offspring mean age 12.3 years compared to their parentschild mean age 12.6 years (18.4% vs 10.1%, p<0.001) even though hours of television (TV) watching were similar between the two generations as children (p=0.80). Sixty percent of parents (as children and adults) and offspring reported more than 2 hours of TV/day. Offspring of parents who were overweight and obese as children had greater BMI (all p<0.001) than offspring of parents who were normal weight as children. For both parentadult and offspring, adiposity was greater with greater total screen time. Conclusions Identifying high-risk families is important for early intervention of overweight, especially in children.

2013-01-01

62

Only Two Hours? A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Parents Perceive in Restricting Child Television Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…

Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer

2011-01-01

63

A Survey of Public Television Viewing in the WBRA-TV and WSVN-TV Signal Areas of Southwestern Virginia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A telephone survey was conducted in November 1973 to determine television viewing patterns in southwestern Virginia. Data were collected concerning family characteristics and time spent watching the various programs offered by WBRA-TV and WSVN-TV, the local public broadcasting stations. Income and occupational status proved to be significant…

Valenzuela, Nicholas A.; Spain, Peter

64

TV and the 1956 Presidential Campaign: Insights into the Evolution of Political Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrary to the prevailing view that 1952 was the year of the first nationally televised political conventions, only 32 states had TV stations at that time; nor did the term "TV candidate" originate in the Kennedy (1960) or Nixon (1968) campaigns. In fact, it is Dwight Eisenhower and the campaign of 1956 that deserve this recognition. Contemporary…

Allen, Craig M.

65

Mobile TV's Time to Shine Has Arrived  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MoFilm, the first mobile film festival, achieved some legitimacy when multiple Academy Award-winning actor Kevin Spacey hosted the show in 2009. Spacey commented: "[I]n some countries, this might be the first time they [people] ever see a movie. … They won't see it on that big screen; they'll see it on a small one."1 According to a 2007 Gartner report, sales of cell phones skyrocketed for the first time to more than 1 billion.2 In 2008, the number of worldwide subscribers topped 4 billion, covering 60% of the world population.3 There are more mobile phones than TVs (there are 1.4 billion TVs worldwide4). Spacey concluded: "The quality of work and the simple ability at storytelling, the thing that ignites someone and inspires them to tell a story, can really come from anywhere."5

Kitson, Fred

66

CHILDREN AND TV, TELEVISION'S IMPACT ON THE CHILD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

VARIOUS POINTS OF VIEW ARE PRESENTED ON THE EFFECT OF TELEVISION UPON CHILDREN. CONTENTS--(1) TELEVISION, TIGER BY THE TAIL--ERNA CHRISTENSEN. (2) TELEVISION'S IMPACT ON THE CHILD--RALPH GARRY. (3) SOME RESEARCH ON TV--PAUL A. WITTY. (4) THE CURRICULUM CONTENT OF CHILDREN'S TELEVISION PROGRAMS AND COMMERCIALS--MARIE TOWNSEND MOORE AND JULIANA…

GRAY, NAN; SUNDERLIN, SYLVIA

67

The Association of Screen Time, Television in the Bedroom, and Obesity among School-Aged Youth: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Among school-aged youth, we sought to identify characteristics associated with (1) exceeding screen time recommendations (ie, television/videos/video games more than 2 hours/weekday), and (2) exceeding screen time recommendations, the presence of a television in the bedroom, and obesity. Methods: Using 2007 National Survey of…

Wethington, Holly; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou

2013-01-01

68

NFE-TV: Television for Nonformal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study develops guidelines for the use of television in nonformal education in developing countries. Its recommendations are based on analysis of three cases of television usage: in the formal educational system in El Salvador, community development in village Alaska, and in nonformal education for parenthood in Bogota, Colombia. A selective…

Gunter, Jonathan Forrest

69

Guerrilla Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of post-McLuhan perceptions reiterates that new media have made possible new ways of experiencing the world. For the young in "Media-America" who have grown up with television, completed products like books are less important than ongoing process. The best means for recording this ongoing process is videotape camera. The introduction of a…

Shamberg, Michael

1971-01-01

70

Educational Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report summarizes information about the history, technology and operation of educational television (ETV) in the U.S. The history of educational broadcasting is outlined from 1941 when the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved applications for five noncommercial FM radio channels, to 1967 and the passing of the Public Broadcasting…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

71

Helping Parents Reduce Children's Television Viewing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…

Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael

2004-01-01

72

Closed Circuit Television Model Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resources of closed circuit television can improve teaching and learning in schools. Three junior high schools in Arlington Heights, Illinois have inaugurated a closed circuit television model program. The program's objectives are improvement of the quality of standard teacher-lesson presentations, redirection of teacher time and energy to…

Elms, Glen D.

73

Role of television in childhood obesity prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of television as tool for childhood obesity prevention.METHOD:Review of the available literature about the relationship between television and childhood obesity, eating habits and body shape perception.RESULTS: The reviewed studies showed the following: television watching replaces more vigorous activities; there is a positive correlation between time spent watching television and being overweight or obese on populations

M Caroli; L Argentieri; M Cardone; A Masi

2004-01-01

74

Life Stage and Motives for Television Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed 140 adults to examine motivation for watching television. Results showed entertainment was the most frequently cited reason for watching television, followed by learning things and passing time. Life stage was related to five motives and indicated television was a way of seeking intellectual or social involvement. (JAC)

Ostman, Ronald E.; Jeffers, Dennis W.

1983-01-01

75

Television screen time, but not computer use and reading time, is associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers in a multiethnic Asian population: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence shows that sedentary behaviour may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and all-cause mortality. However, results are not consistent and different types of sedentary behaviour might have different effects on health. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between television screen time, computer/reading time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in a multiethnic urban Asian population. We also sought to understand the potential mediators of this association. Methods The Singapore Prospective Study Program (2004–2007), was a cross-sectional population-based study in a multiethnic population in Singapore. We studied 3305 Singaporean adults of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity who did not have pre-existing diseases and conditions that could affect their physical activity. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of television screen time and computer/reading time with cardio-metabolic biomarkers [blood pressure, lipids, glucose, adiponectin, C reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Path analysis was used to examine the role of mediators of the observed association. Results Longer television screen time was significantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C reactive protein, HOMA-IR, and lower adiponectin after adjustment for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Dietary factors and body mass index, but not physical activity, were potential mediators that explained most of these associations between television screen time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers. The associations of television screen time with triglycerides and HOMA-IR were only partly explained by dietary factors and body mass index. No association was observed between computer/ reading time and worse levels of cardio-metabolic biomarkers. Conclusions In this urban Asian population, television screen time was associated with worse levels of various cardio-metabolic risk factors. This may reflect detrimental effects of television screen time on dietary habits rather than replacement of physical activity.

2013-01-01

76

Traditional sex role development and amount of time spent watching television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested the hypothesis that the amount of time spent watching TV is significantly related to the strength of traditional sex-role development. Data from 80 kindergartners and 2nd, 4th, and 6th graders support the hypothesis and suggest that this relationship holds equally for both sexes and does not change with increasing age.

Terry Frueh; Paul E. McGhee

1975-01-01

77

Does Advertising on Black Entertainment Television Portray More Positive Gender Representations Compared to Broadcast Networks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a content analysis of television commercials (n?=?434) aired during prime-time on US general networks (ABC, NBC, CBS, and FOX) and an African American niche station (Black\\u000a Entertainment Television—BET) in 2002. Targeted group\\/nontargeted group representations are explored in relation to depictions\\u000a of domestic\\/romantic fulfillment and agency. The findings reveal that although the majority of characters on all

Melinda J. Messineo

2008-01-01

78

NASA Television Schedules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online television schedule provides listings of NASA's televised programming, including mission coverage, educational shows, and historical programs. A link is provided to a list of organizations that transmit NASA television to the World Wide Web.

79

Enhanced Television Strategy Models: A Study of TV Web Sites.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the use of enhanced television features and television commerce features on the Web sites of cable and broadcast television networks. Shows differences in strategies and site usability; proposes three enhanced television strategy models; and discusses implications on television revenue and viewership. (Author/LRW)

Ha, Louisa

2002-01-01

80

Historical Development of Television Aesthetics/Television Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though television scholar Herbert Zettl singlehandedly created the term "television aesthetics" by proclaiming that TV is an art, television studies are still excluded from the respectable divisions and disciplines of knowledge. Television is considered the epitome of mass culture/kitsch, and the very idea of a TV "masterpiece," for example,…

Burns, Gary

81

Hidden addiction: Television  

PubMed Central

Background and aims The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods Selective review. Results We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed.

SUSSMAN, STEVE; MORAN, MEGHAN B.

2014-01-01

82

Guia Para Ver La Television En Familia (Guidelines for Family Television Viewing). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

83

Beyond Entertainment: Television's Effects on Children and Youth. Television and Socialisation Research Report No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent worldwide studies on the viewing habits of children emphasize the large amount of time spent viewing television and the potential influence that television has to shape the behavior of children. Extensive research has investigated the short and long term effects of viewing television violence, and the results, though complex, suggest that…

1976

84

High speed imaging television system  

DOEpatents

A television system for observing an event which provides a composite video output comprising the serially interlaced images the system is greater than the time resolution of any of the individual cameras.

Wilkinson, William O. (Silver Spring, MD); Rabenhorst, David W. (Silver Spring, MD)

1984-01-01

85

Television Viewing and Symptoms of Inattention and Hyperactivity across Time: The Importance of Research Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of well-specified research questions in the evaluation of early predictors of later inattention and hyperactivity is examined. In an analysis of a nationally representative sample of 2,717 children aged 4 to 10, latent growth trajectories for television viewing and inattention and hyperactivity are determined and the relationship of…

Stevens, Tara; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; To, Yen

2009-01-01

86

Play-by-Play: Radio, Television, and Big-Time College Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores the broadcast media coverage of college athletics from the early days of radio through the development of television. It examines the culture of college athletics, the role of the National Collegiate Athletic Association in media coverage, and the political infighting in college sports. The chapters are: (1) "The Media and Early…

Smith, Ronald A.

87

PUBLIC TELEVISION IN THE DIGITAL AGE: TOWN HALL OR CYBER MALL?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1996 Telecommunications Act, passed overwhelmingly by both houses of Congress, provided one of the biggest giveaways in U.S. history. The Act provided every television licensee with an additional channel free of charge to develop digital television transmission (DTV). This technology permits high-density television (HDTV), which produces a picture at six times the resolution of today's standard definition TV (SDTV).

Jerold M. Starr

88

TV and Teens: Television In Adolescent Social Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents television as an instrument through which adolescents can gain social experience and strengthen social development. Examines the link between watching television and social relationships, discussing how television viewing can provide "blueprints" for behavior in social situations. Lists four steps for using television as a learning tool.…

Luker, Richard; Johnston, Jerome

1988-01-01

89

FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE GROWTH AND PROGRESS OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IS DESCRIBED. GRANTS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF NONCOMMERCIAL TELEVISION (TV) BROADCASTING STATIONS (EDUCATIONAL TV FACILITIES ACT), GRANTS OF SURPLUS PROPERTY UNDER THE NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT HAVE AIDED THE GROWTH OF EDUCATIONAL TV. GREATER USE IS MADE OF EDUCATIONAL TV BECAUSE OF GREATER USE…

BYSTROM, JOHN W.

90

Television Quiz Show Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

Hill, Jonnie Lynn

2007-01-01

91

Television viewing and snacking  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rise in obesity in America, the search for potential causes for this epidemic has begun to include a focus on environmental factors. Television (TV) viewing is one such factor, partially due to its potential as a stimulus for eating. The current study investigated the relationship between food intake and self-reported TV viewing in an effort to identify the

Stacy A Gore; Jill A Foster; Vicki G DiLillo; Kathy Kirk; Delia Smith West

2003-01-01

92

Television for the Deaf.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology now permits the transmission of caption information during the vertical interval of regular television broadcast signals. This development promises the feasibility of television for the deaf. Demonstrations of devices that televise captions are reviewed. These demonstrations have shown that three steps are necessary to put such a…

Ball, John E. D.

93

Underwater television equipment described  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An underwater television system for general observational purposes was developed on the basis of an industrial television camera for remote observation. Such an underwater television system is required for underwater work, inspection, research, salvage, and search. The mechanical and electrical structures of the underwater camera are discussed. Circuit diagrams are provided and the filter section and plug connections are mentioned.

Borgelt, D.; Kiekbusch, A.; Lippman, L.; Schwuchow, V.

1984-08-01

94

Living Happily with Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amount of violence and inappropriate information that children receive through television and other media is a matter of concern. This paper reviews the values of fantasy play and compares those values with the effects of television viewing on New Zealand children. Both obvious and subtle messages that children receive from television are…

McGilvary, Linda; Penrose, Pat

95

Coping with Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book could be a useful supplement in any course dealing with television, such as mass media, communication, film, and humanities. The book is divided into six sections. "The Impact of Television" discusses the impact of television on society, the broadcast media, the Federal Communications Commission, public broadcasting, educational…

Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.

96

Action for Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…

Ranly, Donald P.

97

Television and the Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television is a large part of growing up in America, and a part that meshes in various ways with other influences. Teachers should understand it, and as the occasion requires, confront, correct, or take advantage of it. Research on television viewing yields five lessons. Television experience is an individual one, although there are definite…

Comstock, George

98

The Turtle and the Peacock : collaboration for prosocial change : the entertainment - education strategy on television  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early eighties, a popular prime time drama serial Zeg eens A was being broadcast in the Netherlands. Health communication professionals who saw this series regarded it as an interesting setting in which to introduce and deal with health communication messages (see for example Bouman, 1984). At that time, however, collaborating with scriptwriters of popular television programmes was a

M. Bouman

1999-01-01

99

An Analysis of Family Role Structures and Interactions in Commercial Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of a study of family role structures and family role interaction patterns of U.S. television families appearing during prime time and Saturday morning programs for the 1976-1977 season. The content analysis constitutes a ...

M. Hines

1978-01-01

100

The Technique of Special Effects in Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television, with its special need for movement and continuous shooting, often demands different special effects techniques from those used in films. This book covers the techniques used to create special effects for television which meet these requirements and which also require less time and money than many film techniques. Included are…

Wilkie, Bernard

101

Television in the Daily Lives of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To parallel a study done by Schramm, Lyle and Parker (1961), data were gathered from first, sixth, and tenth grade students about television viewing during a week in early May, 1970. Results of analyses of the data suggest several points: Compared to children in the same age group ten years ago, children are spending more time watching television;…

Lyle, Jack; Hoffman, Heidi R.

102

The Effect of Television on the Religious Activities of English-Speaking Secondary School Pupils. Research Finding COMM N-119.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By the time SABC TV became operational in January 1976 in South Africa, television had already been firmly established in most overseas countries. Therefore prior to the introduction of television there was the opportunity to do research work to determine the effects of television on society. Between 1974 and 1981 the Institute for Communication…

Senekal, J. E.

103

Dinosaurs Approaching Extinction: Local Television Sports Threatened by Job Losses, Cuts in Time and Changes in Newsroom Philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current economic climate has led to substantial job cuts across the local television news industry, significantly impacting their sports departments. These cuts have led to reductions in the length and quality of sports coverage, and have increased anxiety among local television sports personnel. This study surveys local network-affiliated sports personnel nationwide, examining staff size, changes in coverage, working relationships

Jeffrey A. Halliday

2012-01-01

104

Teaching with Television: New Evidence Supports an Old Medium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television--public television, in particular--has come to be seen as a great educational resource for the home, but it hasn't been as widely embraced in the classroom. Thanks to a number of recent, large-scale research projects, it's time to put those concerns to rest. Not only does educational television have powerful effects on children's…

Linebarger, Deborah L.

2011-01-01

105

Television Watching, Leisure-Time Physical Activity and the Genetic Predisposition in Relation to Body Mass Index in Women and Men  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies on gene-lifestyle interaction and obesity have mostly focused on the FTO gene and physical activity, while little attention has been paid to sedentary behavior as indicated by television (TV) watching. Methods and Results We analyzed interactions between TV watching, leisure-time physical activity and genetic predisposition in relation to body mass index (BMI) in 7740 women and 4564 men from 2 prospective cohorts: the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Data on physical activity and TV watching were collected 2 years prior to assessment of BMI. A weighted genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated on the basis of 32 established BMI-associated variants. In both women and men, the genetic associations with BMI strengthened with increased hours of TV watching. An increment of 10 points in the weighted GRS was associated with 0.8 [SE 0.4], 0.8 [0.2], 1.4 [0.2], 1.5 [0.2] and 3.4 [1.0] kg/m2 higher BMI across the 5 categories of TV watching (0-1, 2-5, 6-20, 21-40, and >40h/wk) (P for interaction=0.001). In contrast, the genetic association with BMI weakened with increased levels of physical activity. An increment of 10 points in the weighted GRS was associated with 1.5 [0.2], 1.3 [0.2], 1.2 [0.2], 1.2 [0.2] and 0.8 [0.2] kg/m2 higher BMI across the quintiles of physical activity. The interactions of TV watching and physical activity with genetic predisposition in relation to BMI were independent of each other. Conclusions Sedentary lifestyle indicated by prolonged TV watching may accentuate predisposition to elevated adiposity, whereas greater leisure-time physical activity may attenuate the genetic association.

Qi, Qibin; Li, Yanping; Chomistek, Andrea K.; Kang, Jae H.; Curhan, Gary C.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Hu, Frank B.; Qi, Lu

2013-01-01

106

The Future of Educational Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to predict the future of educational television, the author discusses first instructional television, then public television, and also comments on the applications of communications satellites to television in both industrialized and developing nations. He predicts that in the future instructional television will be mainly carried by…

Hudson, Robert B.

107

TV, Computer Time Tied to Heavier, Less Happy Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... there's still intense debate about exactly how TV, video games and computer use affect children. Still, "parents who ... television and other types of technology -- such as video games -- play in encouraging obesity or violence. For example, ...

108

Interactive Television, Prospects for Two-Way Services on Cable.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The technology of cable television is advancing rapidly. Of prime importance to cable television in the 1970s will be the development of two-way interactive communication services on cable systems. This report describes that development; the technical, economic, and regulatory forces that influence it; and the public policy issues that it raises.…

Baer, Walter S.

109

Television's New Sex Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author is concerned with sexual identity as it may be being learned by youngsters (including her youngster) from their TV screens. She is concerned that young people are viewing as natural and normal the presentation of sex on television as a routine, affectless experience in which women are the objects of men's lust. (Editor/RK)

Levinsohn, Florence Hamlish

1977-01-01

110

MASTER TELEVISION ANTENNA SYSTEM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE FURNISHING AND INSTALLATION OF TELEVISION MASTER ANTENNA SYSTEMS FOR SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE GIVEN. CONTRACTOR REQUIREMENTS, EQUIPMENT, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, AND FUNCTIONS ARE DESCRIBED. (MS)

Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

111

The Chinese Television University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of China's Beijing Broadcasting and Television University: background, establishment, administration and structure, students, courses, teaching package, and course production. (JD)

McCormick, R.

1980-01-01

112

Television and Children: Research Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines major issues and problems for research on television and its effects on children through a critical discussion of Cullingford's book, "Children and Television," which focuses on ways in which children learn and what they learn from television. (MBR)

Hart, Andrew

1986-01-01

113

47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication FEDERAL...

2013-10-01

114

“The McSpoons”: Using puppetry's narrative impact to reduce family TV time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a theoretically based puppetry intervention, The McSpoon Family puppet show, and evaluate its narrative impact on families' intentions to reduce television (TV) time.Methods: Development of The McSpoons was guided by the application of theory and empirical evidence using an Intervention Mapping framework. A single group post-test design (n = 19 family dyads) assessed narrative impact and feasibility.Results: Parents (89.5%)

Soledad Liliana Escobar-Chaves; Ross Shegog; Christine Markham; Brenda J. Brehm

2010-01-01

115

Payload operation television system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Payload Operation Television System is a high performance closed-circuit TV system designed to determine the feasibility of using TV to augment purely visual monitoring of operations, and to establish optimum system design of an operating unit which can ultimately be used to assist the operator of a remotely manipulated space-borne cargo loading device. The TV system assembled on this program is intended for laboratory experimentation which would develop operational techniques and lead to the design of space-borne TV equipment whose purpose would be to assist the astronaut-operator aboard a space station to load payload components. The equipment consists principally of a good quality TV camera capable of high resolving power; a TV monitor; a sync generator for driving camera and monitor; and two pan/tilt units which are remotely controlled by the operator.

1976-01-01

116

Religion and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2-year study was conducted to investigate the nature of religious television, its viewers, and its effect on mainline or other local churches. Four specific areas were addressed: the nature of the viewing audience, the content of religious television, the appeals and satisfactions (uses and functions) of religious programs, and behavioral…

Gerbner, George; And Others

117

Television: Polysemy and popularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay argues that the television audience is composed of a wide variety of groups or subcultures, and that in order to be popular a television program must be polysemic so that different subcultures can find in it different meanings that correspond to their differing social relations. The dominant ideology is structured into the text as into the social system,

John Fiske

1986-01-01

118

RX for Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his remarks delivered at the Second National Symposium on Children and Television, Federal Communications Commissioner Nicholas Johnson charges that television is not adequately serving those 20 million Americans under the age of five. He scores the networks for the inane, if not actually harmful, nature of their programming and for the…

Johnson, Nicholas

119

Expanding Instructional Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Governors State University looked to television as a strategy for improving the efficiency of its instructional programs in 1982, a proposal was made to turn certain courses taught by professors semester after semester to large numbers of students into television courses that could be taken by students throughout the academic year. The…

Ainsworth, David

120

Science on Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television is frequently blamed for the problems adults face with some young people. Does television affect their understanding and behaviour? Of course it does. "Sesame Street", the most researched educational programme in the world, gave its pre-school viewers a head start in literacy that was still measurable ten years later. BBC Schools…

Stringer, John

2011-01-01

121

Community Antenna Television (CATV).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of households hooked up to cable television or community antenna television (CATV) is expanding rapidly, and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been developing regulations since 1962 to guide the growth of the industry. By 1965 the FCC had claimed jurisdiction over all CATV systems in the U. S. This jurisdiction was challenged…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

122

Digital television's position and effect in the media ecology environment of broadcast and television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various media owns its living space for its specific dissemination feature and ecological niche with special time and space. This article uses media ecology theory to study the effect and function of digital television on the living environment of television media, with the purpose of analyzing the change for the whole media ecology environment. With the application of basic analysis

Lun Liu

2010-01-01

123

[Some aspects of the influence of television on children in early adolescence].  

PubMed

Television is treated not only as a carrier of information, but first of all as a source of entertainment. From the other sites, it also carries many threats to young spectator. It is known already today, that many remittances are full of aggression. In what way does this special group of audience uses the TV remittances? This problem is analyzed in presented study. Diagnosis of problem was conducted among children attending to secondary schools. An investigative tool was a questionnaire of inquiry which included following questions: quantity of time spent in front of television set, influence of television on functioning of a child, rules of using the television at home, what kinds of televisions' offers children use, influence of television on social functioning of child (contacts with peers, with family) and influence of television on intellectual functioning of a child. PMID:15884268

Warmuz, Aneta; Stemplewska, Bozena; Witanowska, Jolanta; Sikora, Alicja

2004-01-01

124

UTAH SURVEY ON EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A BRIEF HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IN UTAH WAS GIVEN AS WELL AS RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STATEWIDE ORGANIZATION FOR EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IN UTAH. A LISTING OF THE OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IN UTAH, AN ENGINEERING REPORT, AND GUIDELINES FOR FINANCING EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IN UTAH WERE INCLUDED. (LP)

ENGAR, KEITH M.

125

Computerized Television: New Developments in Television Production Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the notion that technological and artistic developments in the area of television production affect viewers' comprehension and appreciation of televised programs, this essay examines the impact of telecommunication advances on the industry. The first section briefly considers the technological advances of the last decade in major TV

Metallinos, Nikos

126

Pressures on TV Programs: Coalition for Better Television's Case.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1981, the conservative Coalition for Better Television (CBTV) threatened an economic boycott against advertisers who marketed their wares on programs that the coalition felt had excessive sex and violence. Because television networks are dependent on advertising, the coalition believed economic pressure on advertisers would force a…

Shipman, John M., Jr.

127

Familial Relationships, Topics, and Conversation Styles in Family Interaction on Television in the U.S.A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research presented here is a descriptive account, consonant with ethnographic methods, of interactions between and among family members in selected segments of documentary, prime time and soap opera television programming. The analysis of each program format was based on kinship relationships of participants, topics of conversation involving…

Johnson, Fern L.; And Others

128

The Impact of Cable Television in Canada on the Audiences to Canadian TV Stations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was made of television viewing in Canada in order to show the impact of cable television on television viewing in general, with special emphasis on examining the effect on the various categories of television station ownership. The report shows the extent to which television viewing habits vary between (a) those who watch television via…

Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

129

Scriptwriting and Television Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses how scriptwriting can help educators to become more discriminating in determining effective techniques for analyzing and producing instructional television programs (ITV). The use of scriptwriting to design and develop locally produce...

J. A. Hortin R. G. Hause

1980-01-01

130

Active Learning and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The substantial use of educational television by the Open University has not yet taken advantage of the potential for interactive learning through use of video replay. The traditional broadcast format has predominated. (MSE)

Dallos, Rudi

1980-01-01

131

Maglev ready for prime time.  

SciTech Connect

Putting Maglev on Track' (Issues, Spring 1990) observed that growing airline traffic and associated delays were already significant and predicted that they would worsen. The article argued that a 300-mile-per-hour (mph) magnetic levitation (maglev) system integrated into airport and airline operations could be a part of the solution. Maglev was not ready for prime time in 1990, but it is now.

Rote, D. M.; Johnson, L. R.; Energy Systems

2003-01-01

132

High definition television: Evaluation for remote task performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High definition television (HDTV) transmits a video image with more than twice the number of horizontal scan lines that standard resolution television provides (1125 for HDTV to 525 for standard resolution television), with impressive picture quality improvement. These experimental activities are part of a joint collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan in the field of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Reprocessing Technology. Objects in the HDTV picture have more sharply defined edges, better contrast, and more accurate shading and color pattern reproduction. Because television is a key component for teleoperator performance, picture quality improvement could improve speed and accuracy. This paper describes three experiments which evaluated the impact of HDTV on remote task performance. HDTV was compared to standard resolution, monochromatic television and standard resolution, stereoscopic, monochromatic television. Tasks included judgement of depth in a televised scene, visual inspection, and a remote maintenance task. The experiments show that HDTV can improve performance. HDTV is superior to monoscopic, monochromatic, standard resolution television and to stereoscopic television for remote inspection tasks; it is less proficient than stereo television for distance matching. HDTV leads to lower error rate during tasks but does not reduce time required to complete tasks.

Draper, J. V.; Handel, S. J.; Herndon, J. N.

133

Enhancing cable television pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real time image enhancement of video pictures is discussed. Video pictures such as cable TV pictures are by nature noisy. The problem is how to enhance the picture's appearance without amplifying the noise. Two basic restrictions are that the pictures should be processed at video rate and the cost of the system has to be very low. The authors' scheme

Pingnan Shi; Julong Du; R. K. Ward

1995-01-01

134

A Study on the Timing Technology of Digital Satellite TV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on analyzing and summarizing the modern timing technologies, through intensive analyzing the characteristics of the current digital satellite TV signals, and without changing equipment configuration of the digital satellite TV transmitter and signal system, this thesis puts forward the method of using the digital TV signal to transmit the standard time and frequency, and carries out the relevant researches on the key technologies. Meanwhile, we make experiments on the digital satellite TV timing system, which are based on the proposed timing method. Through analyzing the test data, the timing method is proved practicable and with a high precision. The main research work is as follows: (1) Firstly, we summarize the necessary conditions and key elements required for timing by analyzing the characteristics of modern timing methods, and analyze China’s digital satellite TV signal system; Secondly, we propose the idea that the inherent flag bit of source coding signals of TV is used to trigger event of timing and then complete this task; Thirdly, we propose the principle of transmitting the standard time and frequency through digital satellite TV signal, analyze the error sources which affect the accuracy of timing, and find the ways to reduce the error effect. (2) Synchronization clock signal is recovered from asynchronous serial interface (ASI) data to achieve bit synchronization, so that the transmitter can accurately access to the high-precision standard time code. At the same time, the TV signal transmission delay on the transmission channel is accurately measured in order to supply the necessary information for timing. Based on the analysis of the ASI data transmission characteristics and transmission standards, a method using over-sampling to recover the ASI clock signal and synchronize the digital TV signal source coding is proposed in this paper. This method is proved effective by the implementation on the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). (3) Using the model to predict the digital TV signal transmission delay can make the user’s receiver obtain the real-time timing information, and can resist the timing information errors caused by the delay jitter of the transmitter devices and the TV signal transmission links within a certain range, so that the user’s receiver can obtain more accurate timing information. In this paper, a differential measurement method of TV signal transmission delay is proposed which provides the necessary data for TV signal transmission delay mod-eling. Then, the fitting model is obtained according to the analysis of the delay variation factors. Finally, the optimal time-lengths of the observation data and forecasting data used to obtain the fitting model in theory are calculated by verifying the simulation data. (4) The insertion method of the timing information is determined, and the timinginformation signal frame format is designed based on the objective conditions of insertion devices. Such a transmission format can ensure that the users could obtain the correct timing information quickly after turning on the receiver. (5) A program of timing system through digital satellite TV is designed. The connection relations of subsystems, divided according to different functions, and the data interfaces are clearly defined. After analyzing the experimental environment of Jiangsu TV station, which is the project partner, we determine the transmission links and TV signal collection points. Through analyzing the experimental data, it is proved that the timing programis practicable, the key approaches are correct, and the timing principle is accurate.

Song, K. X.

2013-03-01

135

A Simple Computer-Television Interface System for Gait Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for analysis and recording of gait parameters is reported. This method consists of a television camera interfaced with a PDP-11\\/10 minicomputer. The TV camera picks up anatomical points of interest such as knee joint, ankle joint, etc., to which small lights are attached and the computer calculates their coordinates and joint angles as a function of time.

In-Sheng Cheng; S. H. Koozekanani; M. T. Fatehi

1975-01-01

136

Real-Time Person Identification System for Intelligent Digital TV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent digital TV (iDTV) is an enhanced digital TV that can automatically provide user-personalized services for each audience. For the user-personalized services, the iDTV should recognize audiences in real-time. Thus, in this paper, we define a novel structure of the iDTV and propose a real-time person identification system embedded in the iDTV. The proposed system consists of three phases: preprocessing

Min-Cheol Hwang; Le Thanh Ha; Seung-Kyun Kim; Sung-Jea Ko

2007-01-01

137

Television--Pedagogie et Recherche (Television --Teaching Methodology and Research).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the positive contributions of TV to language learning, especially on the semantic and cultural levels. Compares TV with film strips, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the two media, and points out the technical and methodological obstacles to a more widely spread use of commercial television for instructional purposes. (MES)

Bufe, Wolfgang

1980-01-01

138

The Hidden Compulsion in Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how television viewing encourages nonrationality, alienation, idiocy, dependency, deindividuation, consumer lust, and hyperkinesis, and provides a framework for a critical response to the pervasive force of television. (JMF)

Berger, Arthur Asa

1978-01-01

139

Selective Representation of Gender, Ethnicity, and Nationality in American Television Coverage of the 2000 Summer Olympics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research of American Olympic telecasts has suggested that gender, ethnic, and national biases may hide within prime-time network telecasts. Analysis of host and reporter commentary in the 2000 Sydney Olympics confirmed that men athletes, Whites, and Americans continued to be the most-mentioned and most-positively portrayed in the television coverage, yielding more than their fair share of coverage. Analysis of

Andrew C. Billings; Susan Tyler Eastman

2002-01-01

140

Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Radio and T.V. Repair. Course: Television Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of four individualized courses included in a radio and television repair, curriculum, this course focuses on trouble-shooting procedures for both black and white and color television equipment. The course is comprised of ten units: (1) Introduction to/and Block Diagrams of Television, (2) Television Audio Section Troubles, (3) Television Video…

Arneson, R.; And Others

141

Vocabulary Demands of Television Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…

Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

2009-01-01

142

Television and the Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys ERIC/ChESS resources on both the influence of television on children and methods for using television effectively in the classroom. Titles of documents include "Getting Through: The Use of Media in the Classroom"; "Censorship, the Classroom, and the Electronic Environment"; and "Inside Television. Instructor's Guide (and) Students…

Seiter, David M.

1988-01-01

143

Coming of Age on Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unlike commercial television, whose portrayal of older adults is often negative or degrading, cable television could offer an opportunity for more positive programming directed at older adults. Those who are interested in the portrayal of older adults and aging on television should seek control of the medium available to them, i.e., local cable…

DeJesus, Ora M.

144

Television and the Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the potential for television as an instructional medium. Recognizes that television is a fact of life and a major determinant of what citizens know about history. Concludes that television has helped to create the information age, and the challenge of the information age needs to be addressed by our schools. (GEA)

Fontana, Lynn A.

1988-01-01

145

A Study in Instructional Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes television research findings and theories, discusses research problems, categorizes instructional television variables, defines and describes "task relatedness," and presents the results of a survey of instructional media professionals concerning their opinions on instructional television use and their reactions to the concept of task…

Dube, Catherine

1980-01-01

146

Real-time computer-generated hologram by means of liquid-crystal television spatial light modulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of an inexpensive liquid-crystal television) (LCTV) as a spatial light modulator for coherent-optical processing in the writing and reconstruction of a single computer-generated hologram has been demonstrated. The thickness nonuniformities of the LCTV screen were examined in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and the phase distortions were successfully removed using a technique in which the LCTV screen was submerged in

Fai Mok; Demetri Psaltis; Joseph Diep; Hua-Kuang Liu

1986-01-01

147

Tactile Television System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Tactile Vision Substitution System (TVSS) has been developed to provide pictorial information to blind users. The output of a closed-circuit television camera is displayed on the user's skin by a matrix of between 100 and 400 tactile stimulators. With t...

L. A. Scadden C. C. Collins P. Bach-y-Rita

1975-01-01

148

Television and Human Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compile a comprehensive review of English language scientific literature regarding the effects of television on human behavior, the authors of this book evaluated more than 2,500 books, articles, reports, and other documents. Rather than taking a traditional approach, the authors followed a new model for the retrieval and synthesis of…

Comstock, George; And Others

149

Pediatrics and Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Community Medicine of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (New York City), in cooperation with the TelePrompTer Corporation and with funding from the Health Services and Mental Health Administration of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, has developed a bidirectional television system using coaxial cable which links…

Wallerstein, Edward; And Others

150

Teaching by Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because good teachers are in short supply, it is necessary to find ways of increasing their effectiveness. Students learn as much from television as from conventional instruction when the programs are viewed for academic credit. Experiments at Pennsylvania State University (1954; 1956-57) showed that it is difficult to assess the value of such…

Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

151

Filming for Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Film makers, professional or amateur, will find in this volume an extensive discussion of the adaptation of film technique to television work, of the art of the camera operator, and of the productive relationships between people, organization, and hardware. Chapters include "The Beginnings," an overview of the interrelationship between roles in…

Englander, A. Arthur; Petzold, Paul

152

GPN Instructional Television Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a cursory description of 22 new items available at the Great Plains National (GPN) Instructional Television Library--programs in history, geography, reading, language, and mathematics for elementary or secondary school students; course materials in accounting, management, and mathematics at college level; informative materials…

Schupbach, Paul H.

153

Children's Attention to Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes a series of studies investigating the nature of children's attention to television. In a study of distraction, children's visual attention was found to be affected by distractions in the environment, by the nature of the program and by the viewer's own patterns of attending. A study of the general patterns of attention to…

Anderson, Daniel R.

154

Television Microwave--1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since it became a reality just before World War II, terrestrial microwave has improved in systems and equipments, but with the improvements have come higher costs. Television microwave costs are so high because users are demanding more capability, land prices have increased, operating costs are higher, and there is frequency congestion along many…

Peterson, Roger E.

155

Television noise reduction IC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A noise reduction IC for consumer television has been designed. The IC contains a spatial filter for Gaussian noise and a temporal filter for clamp noise. To reduce clamp noise, the average value of the pixels in a line-segment are filtered rather than individual pixels. This reduces the cost of the temporal filter significantly, enabling the use of embedded memory.

G. de Haan; T. G. Kwaaitaal-Spassova; M. M. Larragy; O. A. Ojo; R. J. Schutten

1998-01-01

156

"Feedback" For Instructioal Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of different methods have been used by instructional television (ITV) projects to obtain audience feedback, and some of these are now being used in the ITV system in El Salvador. We know that pretesting programs on a representative sample can bring considerable gains in learning. Another feedback source can be a classroom of pupils in the…

Schramm, Wilbur

157

Children's Play and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses adverse effects of FCC deregulation of children's television programming on children's play behavior. Discusses the difference between play and imitation, the role of high quality dramatic play in healthy child development, the popularity of war play, and use of toys to increase dramatic play. Considers ways to help children gain control…

Powell, Mark

2001-01-01

158

A Vilestone for Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television programming has reached a point at which most viewers are getting up and turning off their sets because there is little worth watching. This means an opportunity is available for creativity and if the industry's executives are smart they will let in some fresh air. (Author/IRT)

Kohn, Sherwood Davidson

1977-01-01

159

Relationship between parental estimate and an objective measure of child television watching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many young children have televisions in their bedrooms, which may influence the relationship between parental estimate and objective measures of child television usage\\/week. Parental estimates of child television time of eighty 4–7 year old children (6.0 ± 1.2 years) at the 75th BMI percentile or greater (90.8 ± 6.8 BMI percentile) were compared to an objective measure of television time

Jodie L Robinson; Dana D Winiewicz; Janene H Fuerch; James N Roemmich; Leonard H Epstein

2006-01-01

160

Television: the Community Hearth for the College Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined how college students watch television: Are there gender differences in how students watch? Is watching a form of socialization or a means of escape and diversion? Is there a relationship between students' GPA and the number of hours they spend watching television? Subjects were 379 full-time undergraduates--half of whom were male…

Porter, Michael J.; Sapp, Aimee

161

Estimates of Children's Television Viewing by Mother and Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted to examine developmental changes in children's interpretations of their own television viewing, and the correlation between children's self reports and their mothers' estimates of the children's television viewing time. A total of 813 second, fifth, and eighth grade students were interviewed during one school year. These…

Alexander, Alison; And Others

162

Wake in faint television meteors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two component dustball model was used in numerical lag computation. Detached grain lag is typically less than 2 km, with expected wakes of a few hundred meters. True wake in television meteors is masked by apparent wake due to the combined effects of image persistence and blooming. To partially circumvent this problem, we modified a dual MCP intensified CID video system by addition of a rotating shutter to reduce the effective exposure time to about 2.0 ms. Preliminary observations showed that only 2 of 27 analyzed meteors displayed statistically significant wake.

Robertson, M. C.; Hawkes, Robert L.

1992-01-01

163

Real-time computer-generated hologram by means of liquid-crystal television spatial light modulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The usefulness of an inexpensive liquid-crystal television) (LCTV) as a spatial light modulator for coherent-optical processing in the writing and reconstruction of a single computer-generated hologram has been demonstrated. The thickness nonuniformities of the LCTV screen were examined in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and the phase distortions were successfully removed using a technique in which the LCTV screen was submerged in a liquid gate filled with an index-matching nonconductive mineral oil with refractive index of about 1.45.

Mok, Fai; Psaltis, Demetri; Diep, Joseph; Liu, Hua-Kuang

1986-01-01

164

A SIMLIFIED ANALYSIS OF COST FACTORS IN THE PRODUCTION AND RECORDING OF INSTUCTIONAL TELEVISION PROGRAMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

COST FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION PROGRAMS ARE ANALYZED. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING THE ANALYSIS ARE--(1) TELEVISION IS TO BE USED AS A MAJOR RESOURCE IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS, (2) FOR PURPOSES OF ANALYSIS, A TELEVISION COURSE CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF 144 HALF-HOUR PROGRAMS, PRESENTED FOUR TIMES WEEKLY THROUGHOUT A 36-WEEK SCHOOL…

WENTWORTH, JOHN W.

165

Does Television Rot Your Brain? New Evidence from the Coleman Study. NBER Working Paper No. 12021  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use heterogeneity in the timing of television's introduction to different local markets to identify the effect of preschool television exposure on standardized test scores later in life. Our preferred point estimate indicates that an additional year of preschool television exposure raises average test scores by about .02 standard deviations. We…

Gentzkow, Matthew; Shapiro, Jesse M.

2006-01-01

166

Digital Television: Sharpening the Focus on Children. Media Now, Spring 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As television transitions from analog to digital, questions arise as to how to best meet the needs of children. What are the potential benefits of digital television? How can the technology be used to serve children and families, while at the same time protect them from possible harm? The transition to digital television offers a unique…

Espejo, Eileen; Miller, Patti

2004-01-01

167

The Relationship between Television Viewing and Obesity in Young Children: A Review of Existing Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has often been proposed that young (three to six years old) children's television viewing habits contribute to early-onset obesity. Three explanations that link television viewing patterns of young children with the development of obesity are considered. First, television viewing displaces time available for physical activity, reduces energy…

Jenvey, Vickii B.

2007-01-01

168

Radiation-Emitting Products: Televisions and Video Display Monitors  

MedlinePLUS

... displays images on an electronic screen. Most modern computers monitors and televisions (TVs) today use liquid crystal ... this hazard. Today, electronic technology for TVs and computer monitors with CRTs has changed so drastically that ...

169

Television noise reduction device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A noise reduction system that divides the color video signal into its luminance and chrominance components is reported. The luminance component of a given frame is summed with the luminance component of at least one preceding frame which was stored on a disc recorder. The summation is carried out so as to achieve a signal amplitude equivalent to that of the original signal. The averaged luminance signal is then recombined with the chrominance signal to achieve a noise-reduced television signal.

Gordon, B. L.; Stamps, J. C. (inventors)

1975-01-01

170

MESSAGE COMPLEXITY AND ATTENTION TO TELEVISION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments investigated the processing costs of watching television messages. Processing costs were indexed with a secondary task reaction time measure in which subjects were asked to pay attention to commercial messages while responding with button presses to randomly occuring tones or flashes. Response time to the secondary tasks was used as a measure of attention to the primary task

ESTHER THORSON; BYRON REEVES; JOAN SCHLEUDER

1985-01-01

171

Children and Television: Natural Partners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many young people consider watching television as repetitive and unchallenging as going to school. Putting children both behind and in front of the TV camera can tap creative energies and spark the desire to learn. Suggestions for school-based video production programs are offered. (PGD)

Merrow, John

1985-01-01

172

49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393...Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of...

2013-10-01

173

Housing Television: Architectures of the Archive  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores the cultural logics of television archives by looking at the architectural designs of buildings that have housed TV collections since the early 1960s and by tracing this to the more recent viral architecture of Internet sites on which people post clips of old TV shows and programs. In particular, the essay examines how the television archive (often

Lynn Spigel

2010-01-01

174

The Impact of the Cable Television Industry on Public Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This assessment of the possible impact of the cable television industry upon public television relies primarily on audience demographic characteristics as a convenient summary indicator and, in many instances, the only kind of evidence available for review. Primary sources of information used were the national Nielsen ratings; mail surveys of…

LeRoy, David J.; LeRoy, Judith M.

175

PERCEPTION AND TELEVISION--PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF TELEVISION VIEWING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM WAS DEVELOPED FOR RECORDING EYE-MOVEMENT DATA. RAW DATA WERE IN THE FORM OF MOTION PICTURES TAKEN OF THE MONITOR OF A CLOSED LOOP TELEVISION SYSTEM. A TELEVISION CAMERA WAS MOUNTED ON THE SUBJECTS' FIELD OF VIEW. THE EYE MARKER APPEARED AS A SMALL SPOT OF LIGHT AND INDICATED THE POINT IN THE VISUAL FIELD AT WHICH THE SUBJECT…

GUBA, EGON; AND OTHERS

176

Television and music video exposure and adolescent 'alcopop' use.  

PubMed

Alcohol abuse among adolescents is a cause for concern. Around 1995 alcopops (sweetened alcoholic drinks) entered the scene and caused even more concern. Many fear that the sweet taste makes is easier to start drinking for those not yet used to drinking alcohol and the marketing appears aimed at adolescents. Because alcohol use has been linked to television viewing in general and music video viewing in particular this article examined whether a relationship existed between television and music video exposure and the consumption of alcopops. Data were collected with a questionnaire focused on television exposure and alcohol behavior. Respondents were a random sample of 2,546 first- and fourth year schoolchildren of Flanders, the Dutch speaking region of Belgium (60% of the Belgian population). Self reported general TV viewing, music video exposure and drinking of alcopops at home and/or while going out were measured. 68.4% of the respondents watched music videos at least several times a week. The odds of being an alcopop drinker at home increased by 196% for those, who watched music videos at least several times a week (OR = 1.961). For each additional hour of TV viewed per day, the respondents were 17% more likely to be drinkers of altopops at home (OR = 1.169). The odds of being an alcopop drinker, when going out increased by 239% for those who watched music videos at least several times a week (OR = 2.394). For each additional hour of TV viewed per day, the respondents were 19% more likely to be drinkers of alcopops when going out (OR = 1.186). These findings suggest that there is an association between music video exposure and use of alcopops not explained by overall exposure to television. This relationship merits further attention as it is a better predictor of alcopop use, than the control variables and overall TV viewing. PMID:16639864

Van den Bulck, Jan; Beullens, Kathleen; Mulder, Joost

2006-01-01

177

Television observations of Phobos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In February and March 1989 the Phobos 2 spacecraft took 37 television images of Phobos from a distance of 190-1100 km. The data are being used to update the three-dimensional model of Phobos, to provide improved determinations of its density and orbital dynamics, and to study its surface color, composition, and texture. Preliminary findings are presented here which include different integrated photometric behavior in visible and near-infrared bands, observation of a region immediately west of Stickney which is relatively free of large grooves, the prevalence of bright rims on grooves and younger craters, and low bulk density.

Avanesov, G. A.; Bonev, B. I.; Boicheva, V.; Kempe, F.; Bazilevskii, A. T.; Duxbury, T.

1989-01-01

178

Television and contraception.  

PubMed

This article consists of excerpts from a speach made on October 19th at the 1986 annual meeting of the Association of Planned Parenthood Professionals by Dr. Luella Klein, President of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) between 1984-85. The speaker described the reaction of US television network to the ACOG's request that the networks air a public service announcement encouraging responsible sexual behavior among the nation's young people. In 1984 the ACOG initiated a public information program aimed at reducing the high number of unwanted births among young people. The ACOG with the help of an advertising agency developed a 27-second public service announcement stressing responsible parenthood and informing young people that they could write or call for further information. A booklet, entitled "Facts," was prepared for distribution to those who inquired. It advised young people to consider postponing sexual intercourse but to use the most effective methods of contraception if they decided to be sexually active. Oral contraceptives for females and condoms for males were recommended as the most effective methods. When the 3 major television networks, i.e., the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), were requested to carry the announcement, all 3 networks claimed the announcement was too controversial to air. These same networks do not hesitate to show blatant, irresponsible sexual behavior repeatedly during their entertainment programming, and commercials with sexual innuendos are routinely accepted for airing by the networks. In July, 1986, the ACOG called a news conference in New York City to inform the news media about the rejection of the announcement by the networks. The conference stimulated considerable interest, and the story was carried by many newspapers and by radio and television news programs. Many of the news accounts of the story contained the public service announcement itself. As a result, young people began calling and writing for the booklet. Editorials critical of the networks' handling of the ACOG request appeared in numerous publications. The author then wrote to the presidents of each network asking them to reconsider the ACOG request. The presidents of ABC and CBS flatly rejected the request, but the president of NBC agreed to meet with the ACOG to work out an acceptable announcement. The networks must be encouraged to promote a more responsible and realistic image of sexual behavior than the image currently being conveyed in television programs and ads. PMID:12340617

Klein, L

1986-01-01

179

Instructional Television: Potentials or Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential of instructional television (ITV) for creating excitement for learning has been demonstrated by such productions as Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood, The Electric Company, and The Adams Chronicles. However, not all producers have been this successful in merging the capabilities of television with the needs of learners, and a review of the…

Pekich, John

180

Television Colorimetry for Receiver Engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colorimetric characteristics of cameras and displays, and the inter-relationship between them, are as pertinent to the subject of color reproduction as are the electrical characteristics. Colorimetry in general, and television colorimetry in particular are not however well understood by most television receiver engineers. In part, at least, this is due to the lack of a concise survey of the

C. Bailey Neal

1973-01-01

181

Empirical Studies on Television Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of research on television's major compositional factors was undertaken to determine the status of such research and to note the major variables involved in the structure of television pictures. It was found that such research could be grouped in four categories--lighting and color, staging, editing, and sound--and that these areas covered…

Metallinos, Nikos

182

Timed priming system with temperature override  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an engine having an engine block including the following: a combustion chamber; primary fuel supply means for delivering fuel to the chamber; an electric power supply; electrically operated priming means responsive to energization thereof to deliver fuel to the chamber in addition to the fuel delivered by the primary means; control means operative to energize the priming means to deliver fuel to the chamber for a predetermined period of time following enablement; switch means operative when closed to energize the priming means; and means responsive to the switch opening after being closed to enable the control means.

Dogadko, P.

1987-06-09

183

Piecewise Patching for Time-shifted TV Over HFC Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In video-on-demand (VOD) systems, a number of sophisticated architectures have been proposed to provide instantaneous services through the use of multicast technology. Most of the architectures focus on minimizing bandwidth requirements under the assumption that clients play from beginning to end, but this assumption is not suitable for time-shifted TV. Moreover, they have been proposed on an IP network, and

Wei Xiang; Gang Wu; Qing Ling; Lei Wang

2007-01-01

184

Tobacco imagery on New Zealand television 2002-2004  

PubMed Central

Considerable emphasis has been placed on the importance of tobacco imagery in the movies as one of the “drivers” of smoking among young people. Findings are presented from a content analysis of 98?hours of prime?time programming on New Zealand television 2004, identifying 152 scenes with tobacco imagery, and selected characteristics of those scenes. About one in four programmes contained tobacco imagery, most of which might be regarded as “neutral or positive”. This amounted to about two scenes containing such imagery for every hour of programming. A comparison with our earlier content analysis of programming in 2002 indicated little change in the level of tobacco imagery. The effect of this imagery in contributing to young viewers taking up smoking, and sustaining the addiction among those already smoking, deserves more research attention.

McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita

2006-01-01

185

Cultural schemas for racial identity in Canadian television advertising.  

PubMed

What meanings are attached to race in advertising? We analyze a sample of prime-time Canadian television advertising to identify cultural schemas for what it means to be White, Black, and East/Southeast Asian. Our empirical focus is on food and dining advertising. Through quantitative content analysis of associations between race and food subtypes, we show that there are systematic differences in the types of foods that groups are associated with. Through a qualitative content analysis of the commercials, we illuminate these quantitative patterns and discuss six cultural schemas for racial identity. The schemas allow for both diversity and privilege in the representation of Whites, and poignant contrasts regarding status and emotionality in the narrow representations of the other two groups. PMID:24964520

Baumann, Shyon; Ho, Loretta

2014-05-01

186

Does television violence cause aggression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study 3rd graders who preferred violent TV programs were rated more aggressive in school by peers. In a 10-yr follow-up, 211 males and 216 females of the original 875 Ss were interviewed as to their television habits and again rated their peers on aggressive behavior. It was found that the violence of programs preferred by male 3rd

Leonard D. Eron; L. Rowell Huesmann; Monroe M. Lefkowitz; Leopold O. Walder

1972-01-01

187

TV Bullies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Childhood bullying is an age-old problem that's drawing more and more concern from parents. A recent study identified several factors that influence a child's chance of becoming a bully. Four-year-old children who watch a lot of television are more likely to become bullies later in life. That's according to University of Washington public health professor Fred Zimmerman. The research looks at how much television influence a child's behavior. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to the findings presented and offers links to other sources for further inquiry and a Science New York Times lesson plan geared towards grades 6-12.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-05-09

188

The Market for Television Advertising: Model and Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a model of television advertising based on an explicit characterization of an advertisement's contribution to an advertiser's profits that suggests that each program faces a downward sloping demand for its ad time. Hence Fournier and Martin's (1983) \\

Robert Kieschnick; B. McCullough; Steven Wildman

2001-01-01

189

Talkback Television: A Partial Solution to Declining Enrollment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a system which makes postsecondary education courses available to individuals throughout Oklahoma. The Talkback Television System (TBTV) uses broadcast time and two-way telephone hook-ups to reach 62 locations statewide. (MER)

DeChenne, James A.

1980-01-01

190

National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

191

Television and the American Family. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting drastic changes in both television and the family since the 1990 edition, this revised volume provides an extensive consideration of television's role in the American family, from the uses families make of television and how extensions such as remote controls and VCRs affect usage, to the meanings families have for television, families'…

Bryant, Jennings, Ed.; Bryant, J. Alison, Ed.

192

Presidential Elections in the Age of Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the role of television in politics providing historical examples of the use of television and its possible effects on elections. Focuses on television as the dominant medium for politics, the connections among television, advertising, and political money, and ideas for reforming the electoral process. Includes a teaching activity on…

Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

2000-01-01

193

Television Receivership Skills: The New Social Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature relating television viewing to the cognitive, social, moral, and behavioral development of children can be divided into three general areas: investigations of the relationship between televised violence and aggressive behavior, studies of television as an agent of consumer socialization, and examinations of the role of television as…

Anderson, James A.; Ploghoft, Milton E.

194

Bay Area Television Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1982, the Bay Area Television Archive is housed in the San Francisco State University J. Paul Leonard LibraryâÂÂs Department of Special Collections. The Archive preserves over 4,000 hours of newsfilm, documentaries and other programs produced around the Bay Area from 1939 to 2005. This online archive contains just five films, but they are all gems. The first is a a clip of Marlon Brando and Black Panthers at a funeral in 1968 and other items include a conversation with Harvey Milk and an excerpt from the series "Blacks, Blues, Blacks.â This particular vignette features Maya Angelou interviewing political activists and community members on the streets of Watts in Los Angeles.

195

[Television, children and epilepsy].  

PubMed

Two girls and one boy suffered seizures caused by television and other visual stimuli from 11, 12 and 12 years of age onwards, respectively. EEG recording revealed that intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) provoked epileptiform activity. Technological progress (video games, computer, disco, car, train) has considerably increased the risk for visually-induced seizures. A comprehensive clinical history with special attention to the environmental circumstances is important. For correct diagnosis an EEG with standardised IPS is necessary. Treatment consists of avoidance of strong visual stimuli. Patients may need prophylaxis with valproic acid, which should only be withdrawn after clear reduction of the EEG response to IPS. Repeating the EEG after the dosage has been lowered will help avoiding unnecessary recurrence of seizures. PMID:12085553

Stroink, H; Dekker, E; Trenité, D G A Kasteleijn-Nolst

2002-06-01

196

Broadcasting presence: immersive television  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being present at a live event is undeniably the most exciting way to experience any entertainment. This is true whether we are talking about a musical concert, a theatrical performance, a cricket match, or even a firework display. The ability to direct your gaze where you wish, to hear sounds from all around you, to experience the immediacy and expectation of an unscripted happening, to feel the buzz of the crowd and to smell the grass or smoke, are all sensory cues which contribute to the powerful experience of being there. This paper examines the ways in which entertainment media have attempted to recreate experiences which encourage the viewer to suspend disbelief and become part of a remote or recorded event. We introduce the concept of immersive television and look at some of the research, spanning many disciplines of science and art, which the ITC is conducting to explore the potential of this new medium.

Harrison, David; Lodge, Nicholas

2000-06-01

197

Use of television, videogames, and computer among children and adolescents in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background This survey determined the practices about television (video inclusive), videogames, and computer use in children and adolescents in Italy. Methods A self-administered anonymous questionnaire covered socio-demographics; behaviour about television, videogames, computer, and sports; parental control over television, videogames, and computer. Results Overall, 54.1% and 61% always ate lunch or dinner in front of the television, 89.5% had a television in the bedroom while 52.5% of them always watched television there, and 49% indicated that parents controlled the content of what was watched on television. The overall mean length of time daily spent on television viewing (2.8 hours) and the frequency of watching for at least two hours per day (74.9%) were significantly associated with older age, always ate lunch or dinner while watching television, spent more time playing videogames and using computer. Those with parents from a lower socio-economic level were also more likely to spend more minutes viewing television. Two-thirds played videogames for 1.6 daily hours and more time was spent by those younger, males, with parents that do not control them, who watched more television, and who spent more time at the computer. The computer was used by 85% of the sample for 1.6 daily hours and those older, with a computer in the bedroom, with a higher number of computers in home, who view more television and play videogames were more likely to use the computer. Conclusion Immediate and comprehensive actions are needed in order to diminish time spent at the television, videogames, and computer.

Patriarca, Alessandro; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Albano, Luciana; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F

2009-01-01

198

TV FOR MONTANA EDUCATION, REPORT OF THE MONTANA EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION COMMITTEE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS DOCUMENT IS A FULL REPORT OF THE MONTANA EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION COMMITTEE. IT CONTAINS DETAILED INFORMATION ON THE FOLLOWING POINTS, AS WELL AS PLANS FOR EDUCATIONAL TV DEVELOPMENT IN MONTANA--(1) MONTANA HAS GROWING NEEDS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF EDUCATIONAL METHODS, (2) EDUCATIONAL TV IS ENRICHING AND EXPANDING INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS IN THE U.S.,…

JORGENSEN, ERLING S.

199

Hierarchical coding of digital television  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the same digital television signal is used for multiple resolutions, bit rates, or transmission and storage mechanisms, then hierarchical coding offers several advantages. The FCC has decided to adopt the \\

Tihao Chiang; D. Anastassiou

1994-01-01

200

Biometric Communication Research for Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biometric communication research is defined as research dealing with the information impact of a film or television show, photographic picture, painting, exhibition, display, or any literary or functional texts or verbal stimuli on human beings, both as i...

M. F. Malik

1978-01-01

201

Vallecito Middle School's Educational Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vallecito Middle School in San Rafael (California) has been using video production techniques since 1981, and the staff has observed many positive changes in learning, attitudes, and behavior resulting from the use of television. Videotaping has facilitat...

1984-01-01

202

Priming the Mental Time Line  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing experimental evidence suggests that temporal events are represented on a mental time line, spatially oriented from left to right. Support for the spatial representation of time comes mostly from studies that have used spatially organized responses. Moreover, many of these studies did not avoid possible confounds attributable to target…

Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Casarotti, Marco; Priftis, Konstantinos; Gava, Lucia; Umilta, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco

2012-01-01

203

Television Transmission Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The VKP-7990 Multistage Depressed Collector (MDC) Klystron is a result of cooperative development by Varian Associates, Inc., the National Association of Broadcasters, Lewis Research Center, the Public Broadcasting System and TV transmitter manufacturers. The effort was initiated to make power amplifying devices with efficiencies comparable to VHF available to UHF operators. The klystron is a vacuum tube used to generate and amplify ultrahigh frequencies but at low efficiencies because most of the energy is dissipated as waste heat. Lewis had earlier developed the MDC to enhance the efficiency of communications satellite transmissions. Varian Microwave Power Tube Products, which has since become Communications and Power Industries, and Lewis combined the MDC and the klystron, resulting in a product which increases efficiency by recovering some of the residual energy that normally would be lost as heat. The MDC klystron cuts the electric power consumption of UHF-TV transmitters in half; there are 90 units in operation in 36 UHF-TV stations.

1996-01-01

204

Remembering Life with Television: An Analysis of Israeli Students' TV Autobiographies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes Israeli students' memories of television in the context of family life, and considers culture and systems as well. The study was geared toward broadening the understanding of individuals' perceptions of the role of television in the family, as well as gaining insight into the collective story or stories of life with television

Aidman, Amy; Ginossar, Tamar

205

Television in the operating room.  

PubMed

Television serves a number of useful purposes in the operating room. For the operating room supervisor, television surveillance provides an easy, economical method of keeping abreast of surgical and turnaround activities in each operating room. For the surgeon it provides an excellent vehicle for teaching, record keeping, remote viewing, and two way communication with the clinical pathology and x-ray departments, as well as with other consultants. PMID:1154271

Laufman, H; Rosenberg, N

1975-09-01

206

Overview of free viewpoint television  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been developing ray-based 3D information systems that consist of ray acquisition, ray processing, and ray display. Free viewpoint television (FTV) based on the ray-space method is a typical example. FTV will bring an epoch-making change in the history of television because it enables us to view a distant 3D world freely by changing our viewpoints as if we

Masayuki Tanimoto

2006-01-01

207

Impact of television on children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television viewing has a great impact on various aspects of child’s life. This study was carried out at Sir Padampat Mother\\u000a & Child Health Institute, Jaipur (Rajasthan). The aim was to study the effects of television viewing on a child’s eating habits,\\u000a general physical health, physical activities, interest in study and school performance. Only 250 children of 3–10 years age

R. K. Gupta; D. P. Saini; U. Acharya; N. Miglani

1994-01-01

208

Taxonomy of XML-based metadata in a real-time digiTV deployment environment: digital broadcast item taxonomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XML based metadata schemes and Interactive Digital Television (digiTV) are two new paradigms in the world of multimedia. Both paradigms shall be converged and provide an integrated solution for several participants in a digital, interactive television broadcast. The local digiTV equipment and software requirements for a metadata based service provision move more to an integrated multimedia experience. To be able to present a heterogeneous solution to the participants, certain preliminary assignments and structures have to be introduced. One integral requirement is the conceptualization of a XML based real-time metadata architecture in the world of digiTV to be able to apply advanced interactive narrative patterns (e.g. parallel stories), content descriptions (based on MPEG-7), and the description of items that are exchanged between users and the broadcast- and interaction service provider (e.g. MPEG-21). Within the scope of this research work we focus on the appliance of basic metadata concepts, real-time constrains, description schemes design for interactive broadcasts, cover conceptual design issues, metadata life-cycle, and synchronization mechanisms. We consider Digital Video Broadcasts (DVB) compliant design as entire requirement and show how metadata can be useful applied in accordance with this standard

Lugmayr, Artur R.; Kalli, Seppo

2003-04-01

209

Recognizing primes in random polynomial time  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first in a sequence of papers which will prove the existence of a random polynomial time algorithm for the set of primes. The techniques used are from arithmetic algebraic geometry and to a lesser extent algebraic and analytic number theory. The result complements the well known result of Strassen and Soloway that there exists a random

Leonard M. Adleman; Ming-Deh A. Huang

1987-01-01

210

Associations of Television Content Type and Obesity in Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We tested the associations of content types of children's television viewing with subsequent body mass index (BMI) to assess the plausibility of different causal pathways. Methods. We used time-use diary data from the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics to measure television viewing categorized by format and educational and commercial content. Analyses were stratified by age because children younger than 7 years are less able to understand the persuasive intent of advertising. BMI z scores in 2002 were regressed on television viewing, sociodemographic variables, mother's BMI, and BMI in 1997 (for older children only). Results. Among children aged 0 to 6 years in 1997, commercial viewing in 1997 was significantly associated with BMI z scores in 2002 in fully adjusted regressions. Among children older than 6 years, commercial viewing in 2002 was associated with 2002 BMI. These results were robust after adjustment for exercise and eating while watching television. Conclusions. The evidence does not support the contention that television viewing contributes to obesity because it is a sedentary activity. Television advertising, rather than viewing per se, is associated with obesity.

Bell, Janice F.

2010-01-01

211

75 FR 3695 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MB Docket No. 10-21; RM-11590] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham...rulemaking filed by Alabama Educational Television Commission (``AETC''), the licensee...List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For...

2010-01-22

212

75 FR 10692 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10-21; RM-11590] Television Broadcasting Services...Alabama Educational Television Commission, the licensee...Adrienne Y. Denysyk, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. [FR...

2010-03-09

213

78 FR 12967 - Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FCC 95-502] Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules--Clarification...requirements related to Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules, which were...

2013-02-26

214

The Impact of Internet and Television Use on the Reading Habits and Practices of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How much time do college students spend reading for recreational and academic purposes? Do Internet and television use displace or interfere with reading time? In this study, we used an innovative time-diary survey method to explore whether the time students spend on the Internet or watching television displaces time that would be spent reading…

Mokhtari, Kouider; Reichard, Carla A.; Gardner, Anne

2009-01-01

215

Question of Standards for Digital Interactive Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pervasive change is near. Among the central elements of this change will be digital interactive television. It is generally thought that interactive television can have a profound beneficial impact on every element of the economy from average homeowner, t...

R. Thibadeau

1993-01-01

216

Schools and the Power of Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interview with National Education Association (NEA) Executive Director Terry Herndon probes the NEA's involvement and concern with television programing. The NEA has looked for ways to become a constructive influence on television programing. (CJ)

Robbins, Maria

1980-01-01

217

21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television...Requirements â(1) Exposure rate limit. Radiation exposure rates produced by a television...measurements made with an instrument, the radiation sensitive volume of which shall...

2013-04-01

218

Television in the Schools: Instructional Television and Educational Media Resources at the National Public Broadcasting Archives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1964, in "A Guide to Instructional Television," editor Robert M. Diamond defined "educational television" as a "broad term usually applied to cultural and community broadcasting which may include some programs for in-school use" (p. 278). His definition for instructional television was "television used within the formal classroom context on any…

King, Karen

2008-01-01

219

The Impact of Television on Children's Antisocial Behavior in a Novice Television Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the impact of new television services on children's social behavior in a broadcast television-naive community. Surveyed children at age 3-4 and again at age 7-8 after the introduction of television. Found that children's responses on the Preschool Behavior Checklist and Rutter Behavior Questionnaire indicated that after television,…

Gunter, Barrie; Charlton, Tony; Coles, David; Panting, Charlie

2000-01-01

220

The Portrayal of Older People in Television Advertisements: A Cross-Cultural Content Analysis of the United States and South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cross-cultural content analysis of 2,295 prime-time television ads--859 ads from the United States and 1,436 ads from South Korea--was conducted to examine the differences in the portrayal of older people between U.S. and Korean ads. In two countries, the underrepresentation of older people in ads was found in terms of proportions of the actual…

Lee, Byoungkwan; Kim, Bong-Chul; Han, Sangpil

2006-01-01

221

Early childhood television viewing and adolescent behavior: the recontact study.  

PubMed

In this Monograph, we report the follow-up of 570 adolescents who had been studied as preschoolers in one of two separate investigations of television use. The primary goal of the study was to determine the long-term relations between preschool television viewing and adolescent achievement, behavior, and attitudes. Using a telephone interview and high school transcripts, we assessed adolescent media use; grades in English, science, and math; leisure reading; creativity; aggression; participation in extracurricular activities; use of alcohol and cigarettes; and self-image. In each domain, we tested theories emphasizing the causal role of television content (e.g., social learning, information processing) as contrasted with those theories positing effects of television as a medium, irrespective of content (e.g., time displacement, pacing, interference with language). The results provided much stronger support for content-based hypotheses than for theories emphasizing television as a medium; moreover, the patterns differed for boys and girls. Viewing educational programs as preschoolers was associated with higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, greater creativity, and less aggression. These associations were more consistent for boys than for girls. By contrast, the girls who were more frequent preschool viewers of violent programs had lower grades than those who were infrequent viewers. These associations held true after taking into account family background, other categories of preschool viewing, and adolescent media use. One hypothesis accounting for the sex differences is that early experiences, such as television viewing, have greater effects when they counteract normative developmental trends and predominant sex-typed socialization influences than when they reinforce them. Adolescents in the study used both television and print media to support ongoing interests. Television content (e.g., entertainment, sports, or world events) predicted extracurricular activities, role models, and body image. The only evidence for possible effects of television as a medium was the positive relation of total viewing to obesity for girls. The medium of television is not homogeneous or monolithic, and content viewed is more important than raw amount. The medium is not the message: The message is. PMID:11326591

Anderson, D R; Huston, A C; Schmitt, K L; Linebarger, D L; Wright, J C

2001-01-01

222

Technology for Television  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A project being conducted by Varian Associates, Inc. and Lewis Research Center would allow a Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) TV station to save 50% of its electricity cost. Because UHF stations need substantially more transmitter power, an amplifying device was needed. In the early 1970's Dr. Henry Kosmahl of Lewis had developed a radiowave amplifier to improve satellite transmission. He later worked with modifying klystron transmitters, electronic vacuum tubes used to generate and amplify UHF frequencies. If Dr. Kosmahl's multistage depressed collector or MDC can be incorporated into the klystron, the magnetic field shapes of electron beams can be changed to aid the energy recovery function of the MDC.

1986-01-01

223

Television viewing associated with adverse dietary outcomes in children ages 2-6.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to systematically review the evidence for the association between television viewing and diet in children ages 2-6. Data sources included PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, ERIC, SportDISCUS, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and hand searches of reference lists of relevant articles. Twelve studies were reviewed in which the relationship between television viewing and diet was assessed in children between the ages of 2 and 6. All but one study reported significant relationship between television viewing time and adverse dietary outcomes. Parent-reported television viewing time was used to assay child television viewing in all included studies. Food frequency survey was the most frequent method of dietary assessment, and parent served as proxies for children in all studies. Lower fruit and/or vegetable intake was the most frequently reported dietary outcome, followed by increased energy intake with increased television viewing. The majority of studies reported adverse dietary outcomes with as little as 1?h of daily television exposure. While these results are consistent with recommendations from child health advocates to limit television viewing in young children, they also suggest that further efforts to limit television viewing in young children may be needed to aid in obesity prevention. PMID:22958789

Ford, C; Ward, D; White, M

2012-12-01

224

Digital television system design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of digital techniques for transmission of pictorial data is discussed for multi-frame images (television). Video signals are processed in a manner which includes quantization and coding such that they are separable from the noise introduced into the channel. The performance of digital television systems is determined by the nature of the processing techniques (i.e., whether the video signal itself or, instead, something related to the video signal is quantized and coded) and to the quantization and coding schemes employed.

Huth, G. K.

1976-01-01

225

Exploring the Margins of Television Viewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines those at the margins of television viewing (self-defined heavy viewers and non-viewers who neither own nor watch television) in order to understand how these groups situate television in their lives. Finds that both populations address themes of motivation, consequences, and importance but choose different actions based on those…

Foss, Karen A.; Alexander, Alison F.

1996-01-01

226

BETTER CLOSED CIRUIT TELEVISION VIA BETTER LIGHTING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

LIGHTING IS A VERY IMPORTANT ASPECT OF CLOSED-CIRUIT TELEVISION OPERATION. BETTER TELEVISION LIGHTING IS OBTAINED THROUGH CAREFUL PLANNING AND PURCHASING. SEVERAL IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT THE PRACTICAL EDUCATIONAL APPLICATION OF LIGHTING IN A CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION STUDIO ARE PRESENTED. IN EARLY STAGES, LIGHTS WERE USED FOR PORTABLE ARRANGEMENTS.…

BRIER, JAMES

227

Attracting Minority Audiences to Public Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on specific needs and interests of three minority groups (Blacks, Hispanics, and the elderly) as television audiences. The study was based on a survey of American television audiences, conducted by Ronald Frank and Marshall Greenberg for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, to determine directions for television program…

Booz Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Washington, DC.

228

Curriculum's Technology Lag (Curricula and Television Literacy).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television has become such an important factor in our culture that it must be made a part of the educational curriculum if our free and democratic society is to survive. Those who know how to use the television medium are able to brainwash the rest of us easily, for most of us are television illiterates. The development of print literacy, opposed…

Hilliard, Robert L.

229

Public Television: Commitment to Children's Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates public television's early commitment to children's programming, discussing the popularity of "Sesame Street" and noting other shows launched under Joan Ganz Cooney, president of CTW from 1970 until 1988. Discusses the erosion of television network ratings by cable television in the mid '80s, and concludes by posing questions (to be…

Distance Education Report, 2000

2000-01-01

230

Television and Oracy: A Psychological Viewpoint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australian studies show that television assists in the socialization of immigrants, changing and shaping their self-images and perceptions of reality and fostering their interpersonal communication skills. Studies conducted to evaluate the introduction of television have found that television helps in the vocabulary development of young children.…

Noble, Grant

231

CATV; A History of Community Antenna Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of community antenna television (CATV) is traced from its beginnings in various local efforts to bring television to areas of poor reception. The history of federal, state, and municipal regulatory practices and problems are examined, and the potential applications of cable television are discussed in some detail. (JY)

Phillips, Mary Alice Mayer

232

Children and Television: Audience and Influence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second article in a series on the relationship between television and children summarizes shortcomings of studies of effects based on traditional psychology. Other approaches to study of television and children using sociological ideas are explored, focusing on what children do to, and with, television as active viewers. (MBR)

Hart, Andrew

1986-01-01

233

Sex role stereotyping in Australian television advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of alleged bias in its sex-role content. Studies of television in Great Britain and the United States have generally fuelled concerns that the medium presents male and female characters in traditionally stereotyped ways. Comparatively little research has focused on the way men and women are depicted in other nations' television. Such

Carmela Mazzella; Kevin Durkin; Emma Cerini; Paul Buralli

1992-01-01

234

Teaching Conversation Using a Television Soap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines an approach to teaching conversation in New Zealand to adult migrants studying English as a Second Language, using language data from a television soap opera. Compares teacher-made samples of conversation and the scripted conversation of television soaps and points to advantages of using videoed television samples. (15 references)…

Grant, Lynn E.

1996-01-01

235

Clinical Supervision Using Interactive/Compressed Television (I/C-TV).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the impact of interactive/compressed television (I/C-TV) on a technologically based clinical supervision model for preservice teachers, discussing the clinical supervision model as framed in a traditional school experience, noting the need for technology training for preservice teachers and for change in the clinical supervision process,…

Lacey, Candace H.; Guffey, J. Stephen; Rampp, Lary C.

2000-01-01

236

Tapping the television cable.  

PubMed

Immediate access to patient data is essential to support good clinical decision making and support. However, away from the surgery, the doctor is currently unable to have any access to the clinical database. Solutions exist to support remote access, such as modems or radio data networks, but these are slow, with typical speeds in the 2-10 kbaud region. We propose a novel solution, to use the TV cable already installed in many homes. Using this technology, a suitably equipped computer (RF modern) is capable of connecting at speeds in excess of 500 kbaud and will run applications in exactly the same way as if connected to a surgery network: the cable TV becomes a LAN, but on a metropolitan scale. Brunel University, in collaboration with the Cable Corporation, has been piloting such a network. Issues include not only levels of service, but also security on the network and access, since the data are being effectively received in every home. However, close scrutiny of channel use can create closed networks reserved for specific users. The technology involves use of an RF modem to transmit data on a reverse channel (based at 16 MHz) on each subnet to a router at the head end of the cable network. This frequency translates the packet and retransmits it to all the subnets on a forward channel (based at 178 MHz). Each channel occupies the bandwidth normally allocated to one TV channel. Access is based on a modified CSMA/CD protocol, so treating the cable network as single multiple access network. The modem comes as a standard card installed in a PC and appears much as an ethernet card, but at reduced speed. With an NDIS driver it is quite able to support almost any network software, and has successfully demonstrated Novell and TCP/IP. We describe the HomeWorker network and the results from a pilot study being undertaken to determine the performance of the system and its impact on working practice. PMID:9375105

Clarke, M; Findlay, A; Canac, J F; Vergez, A

1996-01-01

237

Cable Television and Public Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most promising applications of cable television (CATV) is municipal surveillance of public areas for protection against crime, fire detection, control of air pollution, and traffic. Thus far, however, the CATV industry has made minimal efforts to realize the potential of CATV for community protection--the use of cable for public safety…

Cranberg, Gilbert

238

Stereotyping of Women on Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to delineate what kind of image of women has emerged on televsion programs, the author reviewed first-run serialized television crime dramas for the 1976-77 season. He examines the consequences of this stereotyping on the status of women. (Author/RK)

Simson, Eve

1978-01-01

239

Sexuality, Television and Broadcast Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph provides a rationale for contemporary guidelines for the television and broadcast network management of sexual content in proposed progam materials. Beginning with a brief outline of the professional practices and responsibilities of broadcast standards editors, it then explores the relationships between sexual development,…

Heller, Melvin S.

240

1984 Summer Instructional Television Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation was conducted of the Atlanta Public Schools Sunclasses program, which was designed to reinforce basic reading and mathematics skills of retained or administratively placed students in grades 1-4, through 10 instructional television programs aired during a 6-week period in the summer of 1984. Supplementary activities implemented to…

Hayes, LaMarian

241

Television, Censorship and South Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

242

The Television and Delinquency Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the continuing debate about the effects of televised violence on viewers, particularly children, in terms of aggressive behavior. The two opposing views, the psychologistic and the relational, are each supported by research which, in turn, affects the use of censorship. (JMF)

Murdock, Graham; McCron, Robin

1979-01-01

243

Biometric Communication Research for Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biometric communication research is defined as research dealing with the information impact of a film or television show, photographic picture, painting, exhibition, display, or any literary or functional texts or verbal stimuli on human beings, both as individuals and in groups (mass audiences). Biometric communication research consists of a…

Malik, M. F.

244

Television Data Display System (TDDS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A television data display system at KSC is described which displays computer processed data derived from space vehicle launch and prelaunch tests. The general system capabilities and technical features are discussed in separate sections under the headings of: (1) operational use, (2) system description, (3) computer programs, (4) computer hardware, and (5) adaptability.

Sendler, K.

1972-01-01

245

Preschoolers' Viewing of Instructional Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structural relations among viewing behaviors, viewing conditions, background characteristics, and intellectual ability to preschoolers' learning from instructional television were investigated. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups who viewed tapes designed to teach seriation concepts. A School Aptitude factor made…

Henderson, Ronald W.; Rankin, Richard J.

1986-01-01

246

Targeted Advertising Strategies on Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

The personal video recorder (PVR) facilitates the use of targeted advertising by allowing companies to monitor television viewing behavior and to build demographic profiles of viewers from the data that are collected. Our research explores the extent to which an advertiser should allocate resources to increase the quality of its targeting. We present a game-theoretic model that extends the conventional

Esther Gal-Or; Mordechai Gal-Or; Jerrold H. May; William E. Spangler

2006-01-01

247

UHF Television: Breaking the Monolith  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates that the Federal Communications Council should remove unnecessary UHF restrictions to dramatically increase the number of UHF stations, put all existing stations on the UHF band, and license new low-power stations on the UHF channels, arguing that television fails to serve a sizable number of viewers. (Author/JM)

Oppenheim, Jerrold

1975-01-01

248

Putting Interaction into Interactive Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current technology provides many new ideas and alternatives to traditional education and training practices. From the experience of the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Academic Instructor School (AIS) and current research in the field, teaching via interactive television (teleseminar/video teletraining) requires new teaching skills and new ways of thinking…

Wolfe, Thomas E.

249

Satellite Instructional Television Experiment. Television Comes to Village: An Evaluation of Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and conclusions of India's satellite instructional television experiment (SITE) are presented and discussed. The socio-cultural changes triggered by the introduction of satellite TV were the central interest of the investigation. Seven villages...

B. C. Agrawal

1978-01-01

250

Television, computer and portable display device use by people with central vision impairment  

PubMed Central

Purpose To survey the viewing experience (e.g. hours watched, difficulty) and viewing metrics (e.g. distance viewed, display size) for television (TV), computers and portable visual display devices for normally-sighted (NS) and visually impaired participants. This information may guide visual rehabilitation. Methods Survey was administered either in person or in a telephone interview on 223 participants of whom 104 had low vision (LV, worse than 6/18, age 22 to 90y, 54 males), and 94 were NS (visual acuity 6/9 or better, age 20 to 86y, 50 males). Depending on their situation, NS participants answered up to 38 questions and LV participants answered up to a further 10 questions. Results Many LV participants reported at least “some” difficulty watching TV (71/103), reported at least “often” having difficulty with computer displays (40/76) and extreme difficulty watching videos on handheld devices (11/16). The average daily TV viewing was slightly, but not significantly, higher for the LV participants (3.6h) than the NS (3.0h). Only 18% of LV participants used visual aids (all optical) to watch TV. Most LV participants obtained effective magnification from a reduced viewing distance for both TV and computer display. Younger LV participants also used a larger display when compared to older LV participants to obtain increased magnification. About half of the TV viewing time occurred in the absence of a companion for both the LV and the NS participants. The mean number of TVs at home reported by LV participants (2.2) was slightly but not significantly (p=0.09) higher than NS participants (2.0). LV participants were equally likely to have a computer but were significantly (p=0.004) less likely to access the internet (73/104) compared to NS participants (82/94). Most LV participants expressed an interest in image enhancing technology for TV viewing (67/104) and for computer use (50/74), if they used a computer. Conclusion In this study, both NS and LV participants had comparable video viewing habits. Most LV participants in our sample reported difficulty watching TV, and indicated an interest in assistive technology, such as image enhancement. As our participants reported that at least half their video viewing hours are spent alone and that there is usually more than one TV per household, this suggests that there are opportunities to use image enhancement on the TVs of LV viewers without interfering with the viewing experience of NS viewers.

Woods, Russell L; Satgunam, PremNandhini

2011-01-01

251

Television viewing and food habits in toddlers and preschoolers in Greece: the GENESIS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between television (TV) viewing time and dietary habits of preschoolers.\\u000a A representative sample of 2,374 Greek children aged 1–5 years was examined (GENESIS study). The majority of participants\\u000a (74.0%) spent less than 2 h\\/day watching TV. Children spending ?2 h\\/day watching TV seem to have higher energy intake compared\\u000a to children watching

Yannis Manios; Katerina Kondaki; Georgia Kourlaba; Evangelia Grammatikaki; Manolis Birbilis; Elina Ioannou

2009-01-01

252

Infant and Mother-Infant Play and the Presence of the Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-eight middle-class mothers answered questionnaires about their 11-through 18-month-old infants' typical television watching and interest, the frequency and duration of their independent play with toys and dyadic play with and without toys, and whether the television was typically on or not on in the room at the time. Mothers reported that…

Masur, Elise Frank; Flynn, Valerie

2008-01-01

253

Infants' Attention and Responsiveness to Television Increases with Prior Exposure and Parental Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relation between early television exposure and parental interaction style during infant-directed television programs on 2 outcomes: infant looking time and infant responsiveness. By quasi-experimental design half of the 12- to 18-month-old infants had prior exposure to the program content and the other half did not. Cluster…

Barr, Rachel; Zack, Elizabeth; Garcia, Amaya; Muentener, Paul

2008-01-01

254

Sexual Socialization Messages on Entertainment Television: Comparing Content Trends 1997–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous content analyses of sex on television have relied on differing measures and sampling strategies, which makes it difficult to compare patterns of sexual portrayals over time. This large-scale study (N = 2,817 programs) examines the sexual messages presented on television across both broadcast and cable channels over a 5-year period, applying identical measures to three biennial samples of program

Dale Kunkel; Kirstie M. Farrar; Keren Eyal; Erica Biely; Edward Donnerstein; Victoria Rideout

2007-01-01

255

Managerial Roles and Functions at the Corporate Level of Television Group Ownerships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken to provide a base of knowledge concerning managerial roles at the corporate level in the television industry. Specifically, the study sought to determine (1) the amount of time consumed by corporate television executives in different managerial roles, (2) the importance of different managerial roles as perceived by the…

Phillips, Dennis D.

256

A Comparison of Two Viewing Measures in Studies of Television-Influenced Perceptions of Criminal Victimization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparing two measures of television exposure (time spent viewing, and the number of violent acts viewed per hour) as predictors of television-influenced fear of criminal victimization, a study conducted probability surveys in two midwestern cities with dissimilar crime rates. A preliminary study of 142 undergraduates in a mass communication class…

Ogles, Robert M.; Sparks, Glenn G.

257

Regulatory axes on food advertising to children on television  

PubMed Central

This article describes and evaluates some of the criteria on the basis of which food advertising to children on television could be regulated, including controls that revolve around the type of television programme, the type of product, the target audience and the time of day. Each of these criteria potentially functions as a conceptual device or "axis" around which regulation rotates. The article considers examples from a variety of jurisdictions around the world, including Sweden and Quebec. The article argues that restrictions centring on the time of day when a substantial proportion of children are expected to be watching television are likely to be the easiest for consumers to understand, and the most effective in limiting children's exposure to advertising.

Handsley, Elizabeth; Mehta, Kaye; Coveney, John; Nehmy, Chris

2009-01-01

258

Television habits in relation to overweight, diet and taste preferences in European children: the IDEFICS study.  

PubMed

Early television exposure has been associated with various health outcomes including childhood obesity. This paper describes associations between patterns of television viewing, on one hand, and diet, taste preference and weight status, on the other, in European preschoolers and schoolchildren. The IDEFICS baseline survey was conducted at examination centers in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Germany, Hungary, and Spain. 15,144 children aged 2-9 completed the basic protocol, including anthropometry and parental questionnaires on their diets and television habits. A subsample of 1,696 schoolchildren underwent further sensory testing for fat and sweet taste preferences. Three dichotomous indicators described: children's habitual television exposure time; television viewing during meals; and having televisions in their bedrooms. Based on these variables we investigated television habits in relation to overweight (IOTF) and usual consumption of foods high in fat and sugar. A possible role of taste preference in the latter association was tested in the sensory subgroup. All television indicators were significantly associated with increased risk of overweight, with odds ratios ranging from 1.21 to 1.30, in fully adjusted models. Children's propensities to consume high-fat and high-sugar foods were positively and, in most analyses, monotonically associated with high-risk television behaviors. The associations between television and diet propensities were not explained by preference for added fat or sugar in test foods. To summarize, in addition to being more overweight, children with high-risk television behaviors may, independent of objectively measured taste preferences for fat and sugar, passively overconsume higher-fat and particularly higher-sugar diets. PMID:22911022

Lissner, Lauren; Lanfer, Anne; Gwozdz, Wencke; Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Eiben, Gabriele; Moreno, Luis A; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Kovács, Eva; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Loit, Helle-Mai; Kourides, Yiannis; Pala, Valeria; Pohlabeln, Hermann; De Henauw, Stefaan; Buchecker, Kirsten; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Reisch, Lucia

2012-09-01

259

TV fatigue crack monitoring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is disclosed for monitoring the development and growth of fatigue cracks in a test specimen subjected to a pulsating tensile load. A plurality of television cameras photograph a test specimen which is illuminated at the point of maximum tensile stress. The television cameras have a modified vidicon tube which has an increased persistence time thereby eliminating flicker in the displayed images.

Exton, R. J. (inventor)

1977-01-01

260

TV Violence: Myth and Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that, with an average national television viewing time of more than seven hours daily, the prevalence of violence in broadcasts is a serious concern. Summarizes research on the effects of television violence on children. Includes eight suggested student activities to develop critical media skills. (CFR)

Hepburn, Mary A.

1995-01-01

261

Televisions, Physicians, and Life Expectancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Allan Rossman of Dickinson College, describes a dataset on life expectancies, densities of people per television set, and densities of people per physician in various countries of the world. The example addresses correlation versus causation and data transformations. The author states that "the example has proven very useful for helping students to discover the fundamental principle that correlation does not imply causation."

Rossman, Allan

2009-06-22

262

Future development of instructional television  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of television in schools as an aid to instruction is proposed for individualized instruction, repetition for slow learners, acceleration for fast learners, and lectures from the best teachers for all students. A dedicated school district cable system, a 40 channel cable to each school and classroom, is considered. This innovation offers an opportunity for improving the quality and content of the school's instruction and for reducing the cost.

Barnett, H. J.; Denzau, A. T.; Dumolin, J. R.; Singh, J. P.

1971-01-01

263

Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school  

PubMed Central

Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n?=?3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n?=?1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR?=?2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR?=?3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics.

2014-01-01

264

Children's Television in Canada/La Television pour L'Enfant au Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews existing Canadian television networks, their hours of programing and amount of Canadian content, then focuses on programing for children including advertising regulations. Growing interest in television research on cognitive and achievement patterns is cited. (RAO)

Caron, Andre

1978-01-01

265

Space Television: Questions of Theory and Practice of Space Television System Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is given on television for space research, including definitions, fields of use and classification of space television systems, structural diagrams, video signal formation, amplitude-frequency characteristics, system feasibility conditions, te...

P. F. Bratslavets I. A. Rosselevich L. I. Khromov

1974-01-01

266

Television Viewing and Reading Achievement of Seventh and Eighth Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data were collected from 123 seventh and eighth grade students to examine the relationship between the quality of television viewing time and reading achievement, age, grade, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and intelligence quotient (IQ). Highlights of the data analyses include the following: (1) The mean weekly viewing time for the subjects was…

Degrosky, Deborah S.

267

NATIONAL COMPENDIUM OF TELEVISED EDUCATION. VOLUME 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE COMPENDIUM CONTAINS REPORTS ON TELEVISED EDUCATION IN ALL THE STATES OF THE UNION PLUS AMERICAN SAMOA, THE CANAL ZONE, GUAM, THE MARIANA ISLANDS, PUERTO RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. INFORMATION IS TABULATED IN THE FIRST SECTION, "HIGHER EDUCATION," BY STATE, UNDER THE HEADINGS--NAME OF INSTITUTION AND TV STATION, COURSE TITLE AND DESIGNATION,…

MCKUNE, LAWRENCE E., COMP., ED.

268

Memory integrated noise reduction IC for television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because television sets are often used in areas where the reception conditions are less than optimal, the inclusion of a noise reduction filter in the receiver adds an attractive feature. A new IC for economy TV 2-D spatial noise filtering has been designed and is described in this paper. It includes a novel circuit for noise-level estimation for optimal filtering

G. de Haan; T. G. Kwaaitaal-Spassova; M. Larragy; O. A. Ojo

1996-01-01

269

Encoding Television Signals For Better Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coding scheme for transmission of color-television pictures reduces crosstalk between chrominance and luminance. Picture elements arranged in zigzag pattern to accommodate scanning. Resulting chrominance signal combined with horizontally and vertically interlaced output of luminance scan converter to form composite color signal. Applicable to color-video cameras with solid-state image-sensing devices using National Television System Committee (NTSC) standard color-television system, or other systems.

Marchman, R. H.

1992-01-01

270

The influence of television on cultural values -- with special reference to Third World countries.  

PubMed

In focusing on the influence of television on cultural values, particularly in third world countries, the discussion covers the impact of the technology of communication on cultural values, the impact of existing, that is traditional, cultural values on television, and the impact of television programs on cultural values. It is not a problem to set up a television transmitting station in any third world country; the hardware is manufactured in developed countries and assembled in a third world country by technicians of the television manufacturing company. The key question is whether the third world country that has acquired this modern piece of technology can put it into operation run it. The operation of a modern television station calls for 3 types of professionals: engineers and technicians, television journalists and producers, and managers and administrators. Consequently, if the host country is to benefit from this transfer of technology it needs to have a community of modern professionals. Also, for a culture to successfully utilize television, it is helpful if the other media of communication are developed. In sum, at the time of the introduction of television in third world countries, such countries should possess an advanced sector of education and mass media which could form the basis for initiating the multiplier effect for which television has the potential. When introducing television to a third world country, one further needs to be aware of the impact that traditional values may have on the utilization of this medium. It can work to entrench traditional inequities in social relationships in the name of cultural uniqueness, and from the perspective of disadvantaged minority groups it could be a form of "cultural imperialism." Thus, when introducing television, the governments of these countries need to consider fostering a set of values and norms that could assist in the modernization of these countries. These should be values that promote human social development, rather than paternalistic traditional values which work to keep the uniqueness of cultural groups. The import and dissemination of television programs from foreign countries emerges as the most visible form of cultural domination. The reason for the overdependence on imported programs are the high cost of local productions, the lack of trained staff, and the lack of will and determination on the part of the management of governments of third world countries. Successful cultural assimilation of television in third world countries depends on the cultural values that it helps to develop and foster in society. PMID:12281002

Goonasekera, A

1987-01-01

271

Variations in propagation delay times for line ten (TV) based time transfers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variation in the propagation delay for a 30 km TV (Line Ten) radio link was evaluated for a series of 30 independent measurements. Time marks from TV Channel 5 WTTG in Washington, D.C. were simultaneously measured at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and at the United States Naval Observatory against each stations' local cesium standard clocks. Differences in the stations' cesium clocks were determined by portable cesium clock transfers. Thirty independent timing determinations were made. The root mean square deviation in the propagation delay calculated from the timing determinations was 11 ns. The variations seen in the propagation delays are believed to be caused by environmental factors and by errors in the portable clock timing measurements. In correlating the propagation delay variations with local weather conditions, only a moderate dependence on air temperature and absolute humidity was found.

Chiu, M. C.; Shaw, B. W.

1982-01-01

272

Television's Child; The Impact of Television on Today's Children; What Parents Can Do About It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on an extensive series of interviews with clinical psychiatrists and psychologists, educators, television executives, producers, performers, advertisers, parents, and children themselves, this book explores the effect of television on a child's values. It delves into the question of a relationship between violence on television and violent…

Morris, Norman S.

273

Books against Television? Making an Issue of Television in Early Childhood Education. Book Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a critical, comparative review of three popular books about children and television. Raises questions and concerns about the multiple roles that television can assume in children's lives and the roles that adults can play in mediating children's experiences. Focuses on three key themes/concerns: changing functions of television, the…

Weber, Sandra; Brody, Marie-Helene

2002-01-01

274

Analysis of Consumer Demand for Pay Television. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Demand for pay cable television and broadcast pay (subscription) television is analyzed. Data from current pay cable operations are studied, as are data from live attendance at spectator events, television viewing, consumer surveys and early pay televisio...

R. R. Panko G. C. Edwards K. Penchos S. P. Russell

1975-01-01

275

47 CFR 76.1506 - Carriage of television broadcast signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Carriage of television broadcast signals. 76.1506 Section...SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1506 Carriage of television broadcast signals. (a)...

2009-10-01

276

47 CFR 27.20 - Digital television transition education reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital television transition education reports. 27...Applications and Licenses § 27.20 Digital television transition education reports...the transition from analog broadcast television service to digital broadcast...

2013-10-01

277

47 CFR 76.614 - Cable television system regular monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cable television system regular monitoring. 76.614...SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.614 Cable television system regular...

2013-10-01

278

75 FR 19907 - Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10-606; MB Docket No. 10-49; RM-11593] Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX AGENCY: Federal...1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in...

2010-04-16

279

76 FR 14855 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 11-29, RM-11622; DA 11-335] Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY...and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications...

2011-03-18

280

75 FR 1546 - Television Broadcasting Services; Bangor, ME  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...09-2647; MB Docket No. 09-122; RM-11544] Television Broadcasting Services; Bangor, ME AGENCY: Federal...1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in...

2010-01-12

281

47 CFR 76.403 - Cable television system reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cable television system reports. 76.403 Section...SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Forms and Reports § 76.403 Cable television system reports. The operator of...

2013-10-01

282

Intelligent Television: A Testbed for Multimedia Information Filtering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We set up an environment in which a database is filled with television data from several information channels Philips Sound and Vision provides a prototype television that is very suited for this application. The combination of television and personal com...

A. P. de Vries

1999-01-01

283

75 FR 9859 - Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10-49; RM-11593] Television Broadcasting Services...denysyk@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. [FR...

2010-03-04

284

76 FR 5290 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...08-194; RM-11488] Television Broadcasting Services...brown@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. [FR...

2011-01-31

285

76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM-11646; DA 11-1924] Television Broadcasting Services...bernstein@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1647...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. Proposed...

2011-12-07

286

76 FR 66250 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cleveland, OH  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...because this was Community Television's pre-transition...bernstein@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1647...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. Proposed...

2011-10-26

287

76 FR 13966 - Television Broadcasting Services; Topeka, KS  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM-11623; DA 11-406] Television Broadcasting Services...denysyk@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. Proposed...

2011-03-15

288

78 FR 75306 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alabama Educational Television Commission (``AETC...petitions for rulemaking by television stations seeking channel...Denysyk@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. Proposed...

2013-12-11

289

76 FR 5119 - Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, MS  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11-8; RM-11618] Television Broadcasting Services...bernstein@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. [FR...

2011-01-28

290

75 FR 67077 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...08-194; RM-11488] Television Broadcasting Services...brown@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. [FR...

2010-11-01

291

75 FR 3641 - Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...09-210; RM-11583] Television Broadcasting Services...Adrienne Y. Denysyk, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau, Federal...

2010-01-22

292

75 FR 13236 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10-19; RM-11589] Television Broadcasting Services...Adrienne Y. Denysyk, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. [FR...

2010-03-19

293

76 FR 3875 - Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10-264; RM-11615] Television Broadcasting Services...denysyk@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. [FR...

2011-01-21

294

75 FR 5015 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10-19; RM-11589] Television Broadcasting Services...denysyk@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. [FR...

2010-02-01

295

76 FR 9991 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11-20; RM-11619] Television Broadcasting Services...denysyk@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. [FR...

2011-02-23

296

47 CFR 74.798 - Digital television transition notices by broadcasters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Digital television transition notices by broadcasters...Booster Stations § 74.798 Digital television transition notices by broadcasters. (a) Each low power television, TV translator and Class A...

2013-10-01

297

Analysis of Consumer Demand for Pay Television. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains background material on pay television in general and on the data used in our analysis. It gives analysis of demand for the current all-movie offering and for demand growth over time. It also presents the identification and estimation o...

R. R. Panko G. C. Edwards K. Penchos S. P. Russell

1975-01-01

298

Supreme Court Strikes Down NCAA Control of Football on Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Supreme Court ruling that the National Collegiate Athletic Association's control of televised intercollegiate football violated antitrust law is discussed. At the heart of the restraint of trade are the limitations placed on the money an institution can receive, the times a team can appear, and the number of games telecast. (MLW)

Farrell, Charles S.

1984-01-01

299

Sexual Socialization Messages on Television Programs Most Popular Among Teens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the portrayal of sexual messages in the top 20 most popular television programs among teenagers in the United States. It compares findings from the 2001–2002 and 2004–2005 seasons. Results show that these programs contained a large number of sexual messages, though their frequency decreased over time. Most messages about sex were in the form of conversations. About

Keren Eyal; Dale Kunkel; Erica N. Biely; Keli L. Finnerty

2007-01-01

300

Study of television interference by small wind turbines. Final subcontract report  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic interference to television reception caused by small wind turbines (generating about 5 kW of power) has been studied by carrying out measurements using 1/8th-scale models of small windmills in conjunction with a microwave TV system inside an anechoic chamber. Two- and three-bladed windmills with metallized and wooden blades rectangular and trapezoidal in shape were investigated. The locally available TV Channel 9 signal was received and, after up-converting its center frequency to 4.0 GHz, was used as the rf source of the microwave TV system. The television interference (TVI) results were extrapolated to give the TVI effects of the corresponding full-scale windmills at the commercial TV Channel frequencies. Generally, it was found that the two- and three-bladed machines produced similar TVI effects, the metallized blades producing stronger interference than the wooden blades. Extrapolation of the results obtained indicate that, even at the highest TV frequency, the significant TVI effects (video distortion) produced by small wind turbines will not extend out to a distance larger than about 2.5 times the rotor diameter. At lower TV frequenies (or Channel numbers) the distance will be correspondingly smaller. Within this distance, the observed effects will generally be small to negligible over most of the region except possibly in the forward interference direction.

Sengupta, D.L.; Senior, T.B.A.; Ferris, J.E.

1983-01-01

301

Television Viewing and Reading. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for administrators and policymakers as well as teachers, this digest explores the relationship between television viewing habits and reading achievement. The digest first examines recent research indicating a negative relationship between television viewing in excess of ten hours and reading performance. The digest next focuses on the…

Lehr, Fran

302

BIBLIOGRAPHIE--SCHULFERNSEHEN (BIBLIOGRAPHY--SCHOOL TELEVISION)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ENTRIES IN ENGLISH, GERMAN, AND FRENCH ARE LISTED BY AUTHOR UNDER THE MAIN CATEGORIES OF TELEVISION FOR YOUTH AND SCHOOL TELEVISION. ABSTRACTS, IN GERMAN, OF 29 RELATED DOCUMENTS ARE INCLUDED. A LIST OF PERIODICALS AND INFORMATION SERVICES CONCLUDES THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY. FOR AVAILABILITY OF THIS DOCUMENT, WRITE INTERNATIONAL CENTRAL INSTITUTE FOR…

International Central Inst. for Youth and Educational Television, Munich (West Germany).

303

Theorizing without Totalizing: Specularity and Televised Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines specularity (the pleasure derived from looking at television) in the context of sports. Argues that televised sports' popularity reflects: (1) fetishism (motivation by fascinated desire); (2) voyeurism (uninvited viewing); and (3) narcissism (identification with athletes). Describes a study of sports telecast viewing. Argues against…

Brummett, Barry; Duncan, Margaret Carlisle

1990-01-01

304

Interactive Televised Instruction: Factors To Consider.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the first 2 years of operation, the Instructional Television Services (ITS) at Mohave Community College, in Arizona, operated in a very traditional manner, utilizing two cameras and an operator at each site. To increase the efficiency of the television services, surveillance cameras were installed at sites and were operated from the district…

Hall, Charles W.

305

User Centered Research for Interactive Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from a qualitative user study. The aim of research was to include the future users of a new technology in the product design of interactive television programs. During the study, the study participants were interviewed. They were asked to answer questions about their television use and to comment on artist's drawings presenting the possible future setup

Leena Eronen

2003-01-01

306

Cultivation Effects: Television and Foreign Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This test of Marshall McLuhan's claim that increased exposure to television will develop a perception of the world as a "global village" used estimation of cognitive distance as an operational definition of the global village concept. The first phase of the study tested the hypothesis that "heavy" television viewers' estimates of cognitive…

Winterhoff-Spurk, Peter

307

Freedom and Censorship in Dramatic Television Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The television writer's creative expression is limited by executive forces, conflicting philosophies, and restrictive regulations. In a 1972 poll by the Writer's Guild Committee on Censorship, it was revealed that an overwhelming majority of television writers felt personally censored by the industry. Although the success of character comedies…

Blum, Richard A.

308

Community Cable Television--Hungarian Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that, although community cable television is one of the most dynamic (although experimental) elements of the Hungarian media structure, it is well on its way toward institutionalization. It is suggested that whether community cable television is able to retain the spontaneity, innovativeness, and elasticity of its early days may…

Szekfu, Andras

309

Public Television Programming by Category: 1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, part of a series of statistical surveys of public broadcasting based on data provided by licensees of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, provides details of public-television program content for the 1976 calendar year. Chapters include discussion of definitions and categories of program content, the public television system in…

Katzman, Nathan; Wirt, Kenneth

310

Students as Active Viewers of Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a ten-category evaluation list designed to allow students to make an educated guess on whether a new television program or series will be successful or why a program has become popular. Student predictions are compared with what actually happens at the three television networks. (JMF)

Wimmer, Roger D.

1979-01-01

311

Televising Undergraduate Engineering Courses: A Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of survey that found out how many of 269 engineering schools deliver accredited programs via television are discussed. Information about the technologies employed, the use of tutors in conjunction with videotaped courses, and logistics of exam monitoring and exam security is provided. A list of colleges offering televised engineering…

Seigel, Arnold E.; Davis, Cynthia

1991-01-01

312

Concerns about crime and local television news  

Microsoft Academic Search

“If it bleeds it leads.”; The crime story is the most popular topic for the typical local television news broadcast, comprising at least 28% of the stories covered. The present hypothesis predicts that greater amounts of local television news viewing will be associated with greater support for policies that punish criminals as opposed to support for policies that address social

Todd C. Trautman

2004-01-01

313

Television Exposure Measures and the Cultivation Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes study of students in grades 8 through 12 that was conducted to determine the degree to which television messages influence a person's construction of reality (the cultivation hypothesis). Research methodology that tests the effects of television exposure is examined with emphasis on the importance of demographic control variables. (38…

Potter, W. James; Chang, Ik Chin

1990-01-01

314

Policies and Procedures Manual: WSRE Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The policies and procedures of television station WSRE which operates through Pensacola Junior College are outlined in this manual. The specific philosophy of the three programming approaches--instructional television, news, and community affairs--are defined. Programming policies are also enumerated for: commercial messages, fund raising,…

Pensacola Junior Coll., FL.

315

Television: Mass Communication and Elite Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses four issues: (1) whether televised messages exist in sufficient quantity, are produced by certain structures and are broadcast widely enough to cause concern to governments; (2) whether there are people who are exposed to these messages over a long enough period to have an impact; (3) the nature of television's influence; and, (4) the…

Society, 1975

1975-01-01

316

Television News and the Miners' Strike.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A content analysis was performed on all of the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) Nine O'Clock News and ITV (Independent Television) News at Ten programs that were broadcast during Britain's year-long miners' strike--March 1984-March 1985--and a four-month sample of Channel 4 news to examine how television news covered a protracted story of…

Cumberbatch, Guy; And Others

317

Asian television: Global trends and local processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study portrays the rapid changing Asian television scene, in broad social processes, of which some are global, some are uniquely Asian. These interlocking trends and processes include the policy oscillation between state control and liberalisation, the contradic tions between media internationalisation, regionalisation and indigenisation, and the discursive struggle between Western and Asian television culture. This mid-rang and context-sensitive analysis

Joseph Man Chan; Eric K. W. Ma

1996-01-01

318

Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

319

Compressed television transmission: A market survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's compressed television transmission technology is described, and its potential market is considered; a market that encompasses teleconferencing, remote medical diagnosis, patient monitoring, transit station surveillance, as well as traffic management and control. In addition, current and potential television transmission systems and their costs and potential manufacturers are considered.

Lizak, R. M.; Cagan, L. Q.

1981-01-01

320

Understanding the Properties of Interactive Televised Characters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's television programming frequently uses interactive characters that appear to directly engage the viewers. These characters encourage children to answer questions and perform actions to help the characters solve problems in the televised world. Children readily engage in these interactions; however, it is unclear why they do so. To…

Claxton, Laura J.; Ponto, Katelyn C.

2013-01-01

321

Television and Its Social Effects in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes and development in Chinese television (CCTV) over the past 28 years have had profound effects on Chinese society. National News, which has the biggest television audience, has enabled the populace to know what is happening in China. Educational programming is given high priority through special telecourses presented for society in general,…

Chaozeng, Ma

322

Soft-Core in TV Time: The Political Economy of a “Cultural Trend”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay deconstructs popular notions that “sex sells” in an increasingly sexualized U.S. popular culture by examining the specific political, social, and economic forces behind the creation and expansion of Girls Gone Wild, a home video series marketed through television infomercials. The crackdown on hard-core pornography, followed by the opening of television infomercial markets, paved the way for the series’

Vicki Mayer

2005-01-01

323

Youth and violence on local television news in California.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study explores how local television news structures the public and policy debate on youth violence. METHODS: A content analysis was performed on 214 hours of local television news from California. Each of the 1791 stories concerning youth, violence, or both was coded and analyzed for whether it included a public health perspective. RESULTS: There were five key findings. First, violence dominated local television news coverage. Second, the specifics of particular crimes dominated coverage of violence. Third, over half of the stories on youth involved violence, while more than two thirds of the violence stories concerned youth. Fourth, episodic coverage of violence was more than five times more frequent than thematic coverage, which included links to broader social factors. Finally, only one story had an explicit public health frame. CONCLUSIONS: Local television news provides extremely limited coverage of contributing etiological factors in stories on violence. If our nation's most popular source of news continues to report on violence primarily through crime stories isolated from their social context, the chance for widespread support for public health solutions to violence will be diminished.

Dorfman, L; Woodruff, K; Chavez, V; Wallack, L

1997-01-01

324

Digital TV and Broadband Communication: Containing the Energy \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union is moving fast toward the switch to digital TV and the phase-out of analog broadcasting. This means that the current stock of analog TVs will need converter boxes to be able to function. In early 2004, millions of these boxes will be sold in Italy, the UK and other European countries. At the same time, pay-TV is

Bob Harrison; Paolo Bertoldi; Ken Dale; Michael Jaekel; Hans Paul; NOVEM Siderius

325

Childhood and Adolescent Television Viewing and Antisocial Behavior in Early Adulthood  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive television viewing throughout childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. METHODS: We assessed a birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, at regular intervals from birth to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between television viewing hours from ages 5 to 15 years and criminal convictions, violent convictions, diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and aggressive personality traits in early adulthood. RESULTS: Young adults who had spent more time watching television during childhood and adolescence were significantly more likely to have a criminal conviction, a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and more aggressive personality traits compared with those who viewed less television. The associations were statistically significant after controlling for sex IQ, socioeconomic status, previous antisocial behavior, and parental control. The associations were similar for both sexes, indicating that the relationship between television viewing and antisocial behavior is similar for male and female viewers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The findings are consistent with a causal association and support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that children should watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of television each day.

Robertson, Lindsay A.; McAnally, Helena M.

2013-01-01

326

Ready for Prime Time: Implementing a Formal Afterschool Quality Improvement System by Prime Time Palm Beach County, Inc.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the fourth report of a process evaluation of Palm Beach County Prime Time, Inc., an intermediary organization dedicated to improving the quality of afterschool programs, by Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. It covers the 2007-2008 program year, which was the inaugural year of Prime Time's formal Quality Improvement System (QIS)…

Spielberger, Julie; Lockaby, Tracey; Mayers, Leifa; Guterman, Kai

2009-01-01

327

Frequency modulation television analysis: Distortion analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer simulation is used to calculate the time-domain waveform of standard T-pulse-and-bar test signal distorted in passing through an FM television system. The simulator includes flat or preemphasized systems and requires specification of the RF predetection filter characteristics. The predetection filters are modeled with frequency-symmetric Chebyshev (0.1-db ripple) and Butterworth filters. The computer was used to calculate distorted output signals for sixty-four different specified systems, and the output waveforms are plotted for all sixty-four. Comparison of the plotted graphs indicates that a Chebyshev predetection filter of four poles causes slightly more signal distortion than a corresponding Butterworth filter and the signal distortion increases as the number of poles increases. An increase in the peak deviation also increases signal distortion. Distortion also increases with the addition of preemphasis.

Hodge, W. H.; Wong, W. H.

1973-01-01

328

Desert Survivors: The Design and Implementation of a Television Program to Enhance Local Scientific Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Description of a program to enhance science literacy in elementary school children that allows experts to reach a tremendous audience while minimizing their time commitment. The foundation of the program is a television series entitled "Desert Survivors."

Jenifer C. Utz (University of Nevada School of Life Sciences); Candice M. Rausch (University of Nevada School of Life Sciences); Laurie Fruth (University of Nevada Hank Greenspun School of Journalism and Media Studies); Megan E. Thomas (University of Nevada School of Life Sciences); PhD Frank van van Breukelen (University of Nevada School of Life Sciences)

2007-03-01

329

Implementing Televised Coverage of Sessions of the U. S. Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines factors related to implementing congressional television, relevant studies and reports, events of 1975-1977 related to legislative implementation of congressional television, the 1977 90-day television test and evaluations of it, and recent events that may lead toward congressional television. (GW)

Garay, Ronald

1978-01-01

330

47 CFR 76.59 - Modification of television markets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of...of television markets. (a...include additional communities within its television...mileage between the community and the television...scope of the market. (2) Grade...station's technical service area and showing...headends and communities in relation...

2013-10-01

331

47 CFR 76.59 - Modification of television markets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of...of television markets. (a...include additional communities within its television...mileage between the community and the television...scope of the market. (2) Grade...station's technical service area and showing...headends and communities in relation...

2010-10-01

332

47 CFR 76.59 - Modification of television markets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of...of television markets. (a...include additional communities within its television...mileage between the community and the television...scope of the market. (2) Grade...station's technical service area and showing...headends and communities in relation...

2009-10-01

333

What You Need to Know about Children and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines television's impact on children, discussing how much television children watch, what children watch and how it influences their world view, how parents dispel mass media misconceptions and fears, and whether children would get better grades if they watched less television. Suggestions for making television an educational resource are…

Broome, Jeanette; Fuller, Laurie

1993-01-01

334

Adolescents' Perceptions of the Primary Values of Television Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the cultivation theory of media effects by studying whether adolescent viewers "see" certain lessons for human behavior in television portrayals and whether amount of exposure to television affects this. Finds that some values associated with television are more valued by higher versus lower exposed-to-television watchers. (SR)

Potter, W. James

1990-01-01

335

Are Catholic Educators Responding to the Powerful Presence of Television?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the obligations placed upon Catholic educators by the pervasiveness of television. Describes "The Media Mirror," a Christian-value-oriented student guide to television viewing, that seeks to develop an understanding of television's role and influence, foster constructive use of television, and clarify Christian values as portrayed in…

Hawker, James F.

1986-01-01

336

The Television Generation: Couch Potatoes or Informed Critics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that educators must acknowledge that television has the power to elicit student empathy and that students want to understand television's power to move them. Describes three kinds of television analysis: individual detailed logs of text; group dialogue about television programing; and researched essays documenting and interpreting details…

Morris, Barbra S.

1989-01-01

337

The Influence of Television on Children's Gender Role Socialization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines young children's gender role development, focusing on the impact of television viewing. Maintains that role models and imitation are extremely influential factors shaping gender-typed behavior. Identifies gender bias in television programming, including music television and commercials, and discusses gender bias in children's television

Witt, Susan D.

2000-01-01

338

Adolescent Sedentary Behaviors: Correlates Differ for Television Viewing and Computer Use  

PubMed Central

Purpose Sedentary behavior is associated with obesity in youth. Understanding correlates of specific sedentary behaviors can inform the development of interventions to reduce sedentary time. The current research examines correlates of leisure computer use and television viewing among California adolescents. Methods Using data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), we examined individual, family and environmental correlates of two sedentary behaviors among 4,029 adolescents: leisure computer use and television watching. Results Linear regression analyses adjusting for a range of factors indicated several differences in the correlates of television watching and computer use. Correlates of additional time spent watching television included male sex, American Indian and African American race, lower household income, lower levels of physical activity, lower parent educational attainment, and additional hours worked by parents. Correlates of a greater amount of time spent using the computer for fun included older age, Asian race, higher household income, lower levels of physical activity, less parental knowledge of free time activities, and living in neighborhoods with higher proportions of non-white residents and higher proportions of low-income residents. Only physical activity was associated similarly with both watching television and computer use. Conclusions These results suggest that correlates of time spent on television watching and leisure computer use are different. Reducing screen time is a potentially successful strategy in combating childhood obesity, and understanding differences in the correlates of different screen time behaviors can inform the development of more effective interventions to reduce sedentary time.

Babey, Susan H.; Hastert, Theresa A.; Wolstein, Joelle

2013-01-01

339

Instructional television utilization in the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various aspects of utilizing instructional television (ITV) are summarized and evaluated and basic guidelines for future utilization of television as an instructional medium in education are considered. The role of technology in education, capabilities and limitations of television as an instructional media system and the state of ITV research efforts are discussed. Examples of various ongoing ITV programs are given and summarized. The problems involved in the three stages of the ITV process (production, distribution, and classroom utilization) are presented. A summary analysis outlines probable trends in future utilization.

Dumolin, J. R.

1971-01-01

340

Television Commercials as a Lagging Social Indicator: Gender Role Stereotypes in Korean Television Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of mass media in many countries have confirmed that images of women are stereotypical and unrealistic, particularly\\u000a in television advertising. This study was designed to analyze the representation of gender roles in Korean television advertising\\u000a and to compare the results with previous studies conducted in other countries. A sample of 878 Korean television advertisements\\u000a from the MBC network

Kwangok Kim; Dennis T. Lowry

2005-01-01

341

Strategy, Positioning and Projection in Digital Television: Channel Four and the Commercialization of Public Service Broadcasting in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In memory of Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002) Recent years have seen a frenetic public debate in Britain concerning the desirability, feasibility and timing of the introduction of digital television (DTV). The debate has occurred in the context of impending convergence between television, computer and telecommunications technologies, augur- ing radical changes in the media ecology, and the numerous uncertainties - economic, technological,

Georgina Born

2003-01-01

342

Digital visibility: menu prominence and its impact on use. Case study: the NHS Direct Digital channel on Kingston Interactive Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an evaluation of a digital interactive consumer health television channel (NHS Direct) on Kingston Interactive Television the prominence of the channel’s menus regarding the interactive element of its service diminished considerably over a period of four months. During this time the use of the channel declined significantly, a development that can be attributed, at least in part, to the

David Nicholas; Paul Huntington; Peter Williams; Barrie Gunter

2002-01-01

343

Multi-level Analyses of Television Viewing among High School Students: A Contrast between Nonmetropolitan Rural and Other Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of students in 179 Missouri high schools found that rural, male, and minority students watched more television than their counterparts; that rural students' perceptions of environmental safety impacted the length of television watching; and that the difference in viewing time between white and minority students was smaller in rural areas…

Sun, Yongmin; And Others

1994-01-01

344

Rating Offensive Words in Three Television Program Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewed attention to the use of expletives on television has been spurred by several recent high-profile on-air incidents. This study investigates which words television viewers find most offensive in varying contexts: broadcast TV, cable, and premium channels. Results show significant differences in perceived offensiveness of words depending on the context in which words are heard. Male and female respondents, liberals

Barry S. Sapolsky; Daniel M. Shafer; Barbara K. Kaye

2010-01-01

345

A Comparison of Product Placements in Movies and Television Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product placement has expanded as a promotional tactic, aided by technological innovations which present new openings for, and challenges to, branded messages via television. Product placements in television shows differ from placements in movies in terms of (1) federal regulations, (2) greater vehicle choices, and (3) ability to embed brands into TV shows that have proven to be successful. In

Beng Soo Ong

2004-01-01

346

The Impact of Television on American Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the influence of 25 years of television on family life and the socialization of children, church and religion, enforcement of laws and norms, mass media and leisure, public security, and politics and public affairs. (JMF)

Comstock, George

1978-01-01

347

Videogames, Television Violence, and Aggression in Teenagers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated relationships relative to teenagers' videogame playing, watching violent television programs, antisocial behavior, and self-esteem. Concluded that videogame playing is neither the menace critics portray it nor without possible negative consequences. (PD)

Dominick, Joseph R.

1984-01-01

348

Television as a Medium of Verbal Communication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a study on the nature of the linguistic information presented in children's television programs which was conducted to compare the verbal communication features of different types of programs, determine whether there were adjustments ...

M. Rice

1979-01-01

349

Television--Business Tool of the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television is beginning to realize its potential in business as a medium for two-way communication via private corporate networks, video conferencing facilities, and interactive training products. (SK)

Crofts, Andrew

1991-01-01

350

Public Television as a Public Good  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the Station Program Cooperative (SPC) of the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) instituted in 1974 to reduce network executive's power in public television programming by using local station program managers as consumer representatives. (MH)

Campbell, David C.; Campbell, Joyce B.

1978-01-01

351

Liquid crystal television spatial light modulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spatial light modulation characteristics and capabilities of the liquid crystal television (LCTV) spatial light modulators (SLMs) are discussed. A comparison of Radio Shack, Epson, and Citizen LCTV SLMs is made.

Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

1989-01-01

352

Cable Television: From Here to Where?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief description is presented of the present uses, regulatory structure, and future potentials of cable television for Canada. Some 30% of Canada is already wired for cable, as opposed to 9% in the United States. (RH)

Canadian Cable Television Association, Ottawa (Ontario).

353

Closed Circuit Television Welding Alignment System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Closed circuit television (CCTV) weld targeting systems were developed to provide accurate and repeatable positioning of the electrode of an electronic arc welder with respect to the parts being joined. A sliding mirror electrode holder was developed for ...

G. S. Darner

1976-01-01

354

Impact of Future Cable Television Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors present a study of technological alternatives in the evolution of present cable television systems into broadband communication networks (BCN). The principle focus is to define technological alternatives, estimate their costs, and determine th...

S. K. Ghandhi R. J. Gutmann K. Rose G. W. Ulseth L. A. Cogansparger

1976-01-01

355

Working Women Portrayed on Evening Television Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even television programs are thought to distort the real-life occupational distribution of women workers by favoring sex stereotypes and representing a narrow range of portrayed occupations for women. (Author)

Kaniuga, Nancy; And Others

1974-01-01

356

Parental Mediation of Television Advertising Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the current research on the effects of television advertising on children and the interaction between parent and child regarding the child's consumer behavior. Suggests areas for future research. (JMF)

Robertson, Thomas S.

1979-01-01

357

Television and Its Influence on Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies in Minnesota and Maryland indicate an interaction between television and reading. Previous research cited suggests that the relationship is not exclusive. Educators should make use of such findings to support the use of technology. (Author)

Splaine, John E.

1978-01-01

358

Compressed Television Transmission: A Market Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's compressed television transmission technology is described, and its potential market is considered; a market that encompasses teleconferencing, remote medical diagnosis, patient monitoring, transit station surveillance, as well as traffic managemen...

L. Q. Cagan R. M. Lizak

1981-01-01

359

Television Use, Sexual Behavior, and Relationship Status at Last Oral Sex and Vaginal Intercourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current longitudinal study explores the relationship between adolescent television use at time 1 and sexual experience\\u000a and relationship status (i.e., committed\\/romantic versus casual) 1 year later. The sample (N = 824) comprised youth aged 14–18. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting group membership from television exposure\\u000a variables were conducted controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and prior sexual behavior. Results indicate that\\u000a sexually inexperienced youth watched

Melina M. BersaminBeth Bourdeau; Beth Bourdeau; Deborah A. Fisher; Joel W. Grube

2010-01-01

360

47 CFR 73.641 - Subscription TV definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.641 Subscription TV definitions. (a) Subscription television. A system whereby subscription television programs are transmitted and...

2013-10-01

361

LCA study of a plasma television device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Nowadays, there is one television device for every four human beings, making television one of the most popular pieces of\\u000a electrical and electronic equipment in our society, with the so-called flat-screen technologies gaining more and more market\\u000a share. For one such technology, the plasma display panel (PDP), no complete life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have existed\\u000a thus far, and therefore,

Roland Hischier; Isabelle Baudin

2010-01-01

362

The Surveyor lunar landing television system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slow-scan television camera used in Surveyor I operates in a slow-scan mode that reduces the RF power requirements for the lunar distances involved. One 600-television-line frame is provided every 3.6 seconds in normal operation; one 200-line frame every 60.8 seconds in a second mode of operation. Upon command from earth, the camera's shutter opens, allowing light energy to reach

Donald R. Montgomery; Frank J. Wolf

1966-01-01

363

The academic practice of television criticism  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMUSING OURSELVES TO DEATH: PUBLIC DISCOURSE IN THE AGE OF SHOW BUSINESS. By Neil Postman. New York: Viking Penguin, 1986; pp. 184. $15.95; paper $6.95.REGARDING TELEVISION: CRITICAL APPROACHES—AN ANTHOLOGY. Edited by E. Ann Kaplan. American Film Institute Monograph Series, Vol. 2. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1983; pp. 147. $25.00; paper $10.00.INTERPRETING TELEVISION: CURRENT RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES. Edited by Willard

Bruce E. Gronbeck

1988-01-01

364

The Application of Satellite Television Broadcasting for Continuing Professional Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to explain what satellite television can and cannot do, using the experience of the American Dietetic Association as an illustration. Clears up some common misconceptions about satellite TV and discusses the outlook for the future. (JOW)

Nanberg, David W.

1983-01-01

365

Bandwidth Compression Technique on HDTV (High Definition Television) Signals,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

HDTV (High Definition Television) signals have a much wider bandwidth than conventional TV signals. Therefore, an efficient bandwidth compression technique is required for transmission of recording. In the paper, a multi mode adaptive subsampling method f...

M. Ashibe K. Mitsuhashi S. Tsuruta

1988-01-01

366

32 CFR 705.7 - Radio and television.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.7 Radio and television. (a) Navy relationships with radio and TV representatives...

2013-07-01

367

Imitation of televised models by infants.  

PubMed

Studies indicate that infants in our culture are exposed to significant amounts of TV, often as a baby-sitting strategy by busy caretakers. The question arises whether TV viewing merely presents infants with a salient collection of moving patterns or whether they will readily pick up information depicted in this 2-D representation and incorporate it into their own behavior. Can infants "understand" the content of television enough to govern their real-world behavior accordingly? One way to explore this question is to present a model via television for infants to imitate. Infants' ability to imitate TV models was explored at 2 ages, 14 and 24 months, under conditions of immediate and deferred imitation. In deferred imitation, infants were exposed to a TV depiction of an adult manipulating a novel toy in a particular way but were not presented with the real toy until the next day. The results showed significant imitation at both ages, and furthermore showed that even the youngest group imitated after the 24-hour delay. The finding of deferred imitation of TV models has social and policy implications, because it suggests that TV viewing in the home could potentially affect infant behavior and development more than heretofore contemplated. The results also add to a growing body of literature on prelinguistic representational capacities. They do so in the dual sense of showing that infants can relate 2-D representations to their own actions on real objects in 3-D space, and moreover that the information picked up through TV can be internally represented over lengthy delays before it is used to guide the real-world action. PMID:3168638

Meltzoff, A N

1988-10-01

368

Television Watching, Diet Quality, and Physical Activity and Diabetes among Three Ethnicities in the United States  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is a world-wide epidemic associated with multiple environmental factors. Prolonged television viewing (TV) time has been related to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in several studies. TV viewing has been positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, lower energy expenditure, over-eating high-calorie and high-fat foods. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of hours of TV viewing with dietary quality, obesity and physical activity for three ethnic minorities with and without type 2 diabetes. Diet quality and physical activity were inversely related to prolonged TV viewing. African Americans and participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to watch more than 4 hours of TV per day as compared to their counterparts. Diet quality was inversely associated with physical activity level. Future studies are needed to establish the risk factors of prolonged TV watching in adult populations for the development of diabetes or diabetes-related complications. Although strategies to reduce TV watching have been proven effective among children, few trials have been conducted in adults. Intervention trials aimed at reducing TV viewing targeting people with type 2 diabetes may be beneficial to improve dietary quality and physical activity, which may reduce diabetes complications.

Huffman, Fatma G.; Vaccaro, Joan A.; Exebio, Joel C.; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Katz, Timothy; Dixon, Zisca

2012-01-01

369

Television watching, diet quality, and physical activity and diabetes among three ethnicities in the United States.  

PubMed

Diabetes is a world-wide epidemic associated with multiple environmental factors. Prolonged television viewing (TV) time has been related to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in several studies. TV viewing has been positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, lower energy expenditure, over-eating high-calorie and high-fat foods. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of hours of TV viewing with dietary quality, obesity and physical activity for three ethnic minorities with and without type 2 diabetes. Diet quality and physical activity were inversely related to prolonged TV viewing. African Americans and participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to watch more than 4 hours of TV per day as compared to their counterparts. Diet quality was inversely associated with physical activity level. Future studies are needed to establish the risk factors of prolonged TV watching in adult populations for the development of diabetes or diabetes-related complications. Although strategies to reduce TV watching have been proven effective among children, few trials have been conducted in adults. Intervention trials aimed at reducing TV viewing targeting people with type 2 diabetes may be beneficial to improve dietary quality and physical activity, which may reduce diabetes complications. PMID:22851980

Huffman, Fatma G; Vaccaro, Joan A; Exebio, Joel C; Zarini, Gustavo G; Katz, Timothy; Dixon, Zisca

2012-01-01

370

Digital television: making it work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now that the US standard for digital TV has set technical parameters, equipment has to be built for production, editing and broadcast. The full-production HDTV facility must support existing NTSC equipment. When possible, it also must allow compressed operations (like storage and splicing) to avoid encoding and decoding penalties. The configuration resembles that being created as part of the NIST

B. Bhatt; D. Birks; D. Hermreck

1997-01-01

371

Class in daytime talk television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether you are openly addicted to them, despise them, or secretly watch them, daytime TV talk shows are an integral part of American popular culture. Many people deny watching such “trash” or insist that they watch it simply for entertainment. The “trash” label accompanying these shows is revealing considering the claim made by an Oprah Winfrey Show publicist, as reported

Beate Cersch

1999-01-01

372

Human Factors Experiments with Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This experiment was conducted in the laboratory to furnish preliminary data on the detection of small, square targets presented on a TV monitor. The data are preliminary in that (1) only target size was varied systematically, and (2) data applicability is...

R. A. Erickson P. M. Linton J. C. Hemingway

1968-01-01

373

An Analysis of Controversial Role Fulfillment of TV News Commentators during Times of Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the roles of TV news commentators during times of crisis, a study examined network news commentary during the 10 days following each of three crises--Spiro Agnew's resignation (October 10, 1973), the Saturday Night Massacre (October 22, 1973), and the seizure of the American merchant ship "Mayaguez" by Cambodians (May 11, 1975). The…

Breiner, Rich M.

374

Must See TV: The Timelessness of Television as a Teaching Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examples of ways to use themes and characters from television shows in classroom activities for organizational behavior courses are provided, related to need theories of motivation, perceptual biases and errors, and equity theory. Six appendices provide sample activities and test questions. (SK)

Hunt, Courtney Shelton

2001-01-01

375

Congressional Television: Attempts to Implement Televised Coverage of the U.S. Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1970, the Legislative Reorganization Act authorized the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives to open their committee meetings to both radio and television. Three factors increased interest in implementing media coverage of such meetings: feasibility of televised coverage, public cynicism and hostility generated by misinformation and…

Garay, Ronald

376

Foreign Television Programmes on New Zealand Television: Windows on the World or Wicked Imperialism?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the experience of New Zealand, this paper is a response to a 1978 essay which suggested that a study be done to compare the programming patterns of television in the developed countries of Australia and New Zealand. Significant differences between the two nations are presented, including conspicuous discrepancies in television

Lealand, Geoff

377

Television News and Sexist Language: A Study of Television News Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the hypothesis that use of sexist language in television newscasts cultivates images of women as immature, frivolous, or incompetent, two television news anchors (one male, one female) were asked to tape versions of a news story involving a 28-year-old female lottery winner. In one version, each anchor referred to this female as "woman,"…

Gebhardt, Randall E.; Harless, James D.

378

The Economics of Delivering Education by Television: Some Lessons for Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four attempts to use telecommunications in education are reviewed: educational television in Columbia, the Bavarian Telekolleg, ALPS (Adult Learning Program Service), and the proposed Edu-Cable. The lessons that have been learned from them bear on the application of cable television to education and higher education in particular. The analyses are…

Dordick, Herbert S.

379

Dual Device User Interface Design for Ubiquitous Language Learning: Mobile Phone and Interactive Television (iTV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the design and development of a system that facilitates language learning from a combination of two devices, interactive television (iTV) and mobile phone. We present a number of requirements for technologies to support informal language learning based on theories of language learning, theories of formal and informal learning, our own studies of adult language learners

Sanaz Fallahkhair; Lyn Pemberton; Richard N. Griffiths

2005-01-01

380

Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.  

PubMed

Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. PMID:24836970

Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

2014-07-01

381

The relation between television exposure and executive function among preschoolers.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which children began watching television. Preschoolers' EF was assessed via one-on-one interviews. We found that several indicators of television exposure were significantly related to EF. These findings suggest that EF may be an important construct for continued research on the effects of media on young children. PMID:24447117

Nathanson, Amy I; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L; Rasmussen, Eric E; Christy, Katheryn

2014-05-01

382

A solid-state television pupillometer.  

PubMed

An application of an MOS-type solid-state imaging sensor to a television pupillometer is described. Its advantages over the conventional image-tube pupillometers using silicon vidicons are demonstrated with special emphasis on its excellent dynamics performance. Design considerations for an MOS-type solid-state TV camera and the schematic diagram of a pupillometer which detects the horizontal pupillary diameter are presented. Two methods of infrared illumination giving no heat sensation to subjects are also proposed: the effective use of an aquatic filter and solid-state illumination utilizing i.r.-LEDs. PMID:7112950

Watanabe, T; Oono, S

1982-01-01

383

Watching sport on television, physical activity, and risk of obesity in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Television (TV) viewing has been associated with obesity although the effects of specific TV content on health and other behaviours remains unknown. We examined the association between watching sport on TV, physical activity levels, and risk of obesity. Methods We studied 6,733 (aged 64.9?±?9.2 yrs) men and women from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Data were collected on self reported TV time and content, and physical activity. Nurses measured height and weight for the calculation of body mass index. Results On average, participants reported viewing TV for 5.3?±?4.1 hours per day and 30.3% of the sample watched sport on TV at least twice a week. There was no association between watching sport and physical activity levels. Participants that watched sports every day were at higher risk of obesity [odds ratio?=?1.39, 95% CI, 1.15, 1.68) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, total TV time, disability, and self-rated health. Conclusions Watching elite athletes may have no role in the promotion of physical activity in older adults, which has implications for staging large sporting events with physical activity legacy promises.

2014-01-01

384

Birth of TV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Depending on one's viewpoint, the "birth of TV" could be the best thing in human history, or merely the beginning of the cultural apocalypse. Regardless, this fascinating website takes on this momentous series of events as its starting point, and it does so through numerous clips of early television programs, insightful commentaries, and even early television guides. The BIRTH Television Archive was created from materials offered by five major European television archives, including the BBC and Osterreichischer Rundfunk. The "Library" contains links to the previously mentioned articles, which deal with the early era of television plays, the production of early television, and taboos in early television. Of course, visitors can also view several hundred clips of early television programs, read about the project's creation, and look over a multilingual thesaurus. Given the wide variety of partners working on the archive, one will not be surprised to learn that many of the materials here are available in Dutch, German, and French.

385

Stereo images data compression and digital stereo-compatible TV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to the Grand Alliance's HDTV Standard, which is incompatible with the existing TV standards, the author submits the digital stereo compatible TV standard (NTSC-DSC) which is completely compatible with the existing TV standards and advances a new image quality of TV -- its 3D stereo visualization making the stereo TV like real television when remote viewers can see from new stereo TV sets pictures in the same manner as they can see these pictures directly by their two eyes without TV. The main issues of the compatible stereo TV are multiplexing of the coupled stereo TV signals into one TV stereo signal compatible with the existing TV standard NTSC (PAL, SECAM), and digital video data compression as the tool to achieve such multiplexing. This paper is concentrated on the specific description of the method and technique of the digital video data compression of the one stereo ('left') TV signal and then time-division multiplexing of such highly compressed digital 'left' TV signal-file inside the other original analog NTSC 'right' TV signal. The essential stereo visual redundancy of the coupled TV signals reflects the fact that these stereo TV signals look like mainly the same, like 'twins.' If the stereo base of stereo binocular TV camera is along the TV line scanning, then there is a lot of identical, corresponding runs of pixels in both 'left' and 'right' TV signals for any TV scanning line. Such identical twins-runs are set apart by the shift along TV line depending on the distance to according image objects from the TV camera. The possibility of the time-division multiplexing based on the information emptiness for time intervals of the standard TV signal occupied by playbacks of TV scanning.

Novik, Dmitry A.

1996-06-01

386

The Official Radio and Television Institute in Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of the Official School of Radio and Television which is designed to train university graduates in the fields of journalism, the sciences of cinema, radio and television, and advertising. (JY)

Ruiz, Anibal Arias

1976-01-01

387

RANN Utilization Experience. Case Study No. 7. Cable Television Franchising.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research was to assemble and synthesize information on cable television, primarily to enable informed decision-making by local governments on questions concerning the franchising of cable television services. The research was expected ...

1975-01-01

388

78 FR 68384 - National Television Multiple Ownership Rule  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...grandfather existing television station combinations that would exceed the 39 percent national...grandfather existing television station combinations that would exceed the 39 percent...discount? C. Existing Broadcast Station Combinations 20. We recognize that the...

2013-11-14

389

An Evaluation of the Television Reading Project: Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the executive report of a study which evaluated the Television Reading Project, an instructional program based upon current television programs designed to increase reading skills of students. The major goals of the evaluation were to assess the e...

A. Lamiell-Landy

1978-01-01

390

Jobs 26: Community Television Programming as a Responsible Social Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A project (1968-1969) to demonstrate that television is an effective medium to transmit vital information to the disadvantaged about employment prospects, problems, and job training opportunities, found that television was effective in the stimulating the...

M. S. Tinker

1970-01-01

391

Television on the Bering Strait -- The Far North.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment using videotaped programing as an alternative to satellite communication for television broadcasting in an isolated Alaskan village. Discusses the impact of television generally and local control in particular on the community. (JMF)

Madigan, R. J.; Peterson, W. Jack

1977-01-01

392

Television Viewing, Children's Reading, and Related Classroom Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between children's television viewing and their reading ability, reading habits, and school behavior (attentiveness, enthusiasm, and imagination). The influence of children's IQ, parents' educational levels, and parents' television viewing habits are controlled. (JMF)

Zuckerman, Diana M.; And Others

1980-01-01

393

Planning for Satellite Broadcasting: The Indian Instructional Television Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document reports on the technical and programmatic planning stages of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), which was undertaken by India in 1975-76 utilizing the first satellite capable of transmitting television programs directl...

R. Chander K. Karnik

1976-01-01

394

Notes and Sources for the Content Analysis of Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The content analysis of television has always been associated with unique procedural problems because television programming must be successfully captured and sampled before analysis can begin; some of the problems and recent advances in this area are rev...

J. B. Kiefl

1978-01-01

395

78 FR 58470 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM-11701; DA 13-1882] Television Broadcasting Services...Bernstein@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1647...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. Final Rule...

2013-09-24

396

Audience Diversion Due to Cable Television: Supporting Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains data used in a study which sought to determine how much audience is diverted from local television stations by cable systems carrying distant signals. A companion report to 'Audience Diversion Due to Cable Television: A Statistical ...

R. E. Park

1979-01-01

397

76 FR 20248 - Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM-11615, DA 11-572] Television Broadcasting Services...denysyk@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. Final Rule...

2011-04-12

398

76 FR 19276 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM-11616, DA 11-530] Television Broadcasting Services...denysyk@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. Final Rule...

2011-04-07

399

76 FR 27914 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM-11619, DA 11-750] Television Broadcasting Services...denysyk@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. Final Rule...

2011-05-13

400

76 FR 28946 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM-11630; DA 11-746] Television Broadcasting Services...denysyk@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television Federal Communications...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. Proposed...

2011-05-19

401

76 FR 44280 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM-11630, DA 11-1185] Television Broadcasting Services...denysyk@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. Final Rule...

2011-07-25

402

76 FR 18415 - Television Broadcasting Services; New Haven, CT  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM-11546, DA 11-501] Television Broadcasting Services...bernstein@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. Final Rule...

2011-04-04

403

76 FR 33656 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM-11622, DA 11-949] Television Broadcasting Services...bernstein@fcc.gov, Media Bureau, (202) 418-1600...Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications...Chief, Video Division, Media Bureau. Final Rule...

2011-06-09

404

Television Use and Self-Esteem of Blacks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study testing the correlational relationship between television entertainment viewing and self-esteem among Blacks and Whites. Results indicate a relation between high television exposure and low self-esteem among Blacks, but not among Whites. (JMF)

Tan, Alexis S.; Tan, Gerdean

1979-01-01

405

Young children in urban areas: Links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching  

PubMed Central

Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children’s physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children’s body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home -were associated with children’s activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (?95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities.

Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

2011-01-01

406

Young children in urban areas: links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching.  

PubMed

Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children's physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children's body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home - were associated with children's activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (? 95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities. PMID:21324574

Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

2011-03-01

407

Inside the Agenda-Setting Process: How Political Advertising and TV News Prime Viewers Think about Issues and Candidates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the agenda-setting influence of the mass media on adult viewers explored (in a series of five experiments) how political knowledge stored in long term memory can be activated by the media, leading to decisions about issue salience. Spreading activation theory formed the basis for the study, and priming--the concept that the activation…

Schleuder, Joan; And Others

408

Remote health monitoring for elderly through interactive television  

PubMed Central

Background Providing remote health monitoring to specific groups of patients represents an issue of great relevance for the national health systems, because of the costs related to moving health operators, the time spent to reach remote sites, and the high number of people needing health assistance. At the same time, some assistance activities, like those related to chronical diseases, may be satisfied through a remote interaction with the patient, without a direct medical examination. Methods Moving from this considerations, our paper proposes a system architecture for the provisioning of remote health assistance to older adults, based on a blind management of a network of wireless medical devices, and an interactive TV Set Top Box for accessing health related data. The selection of TV as the interface between the user and the system is specifically targeted to older adults. Due to the private nature of the information exchanged, a certified procedure is implemented for data delivery, through the use of non conditional smart cards. All these functions may be accomplished through a proper design of the system management, and a suitable interactive application. Results The interactive application acting as the interface between the user and the system on the TV monitor has been evaluated able to help readability and clear understanding of the contents and functions proposed. Thanks to the limited amount of data to transfer, even a Set Top Box equipped with a traditional PSTN modem may be used to support the proposed service at a basic level; more advanced features, like audio/video connection, may be activated if the Set Top Box enables a broadband connection (e.g. ADSL). Conclusions The proposed layered architecture for a remote health monitoring system can be tailored to address a wide range of needs, according with each patient’s conditions and capabilities. The system exploits the potentialities offered by Digital Television receivers, a friendly MHP interface, and the familiar remote control, to make the service effective and easy to use also for elderly people.

2012-01-01

409

Hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children: a multicenter birth cohort study.  

PubMed

IMPORTANCE This study used longitudinal data to examine potential associations between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in preschool and school-aged children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal, multicenter study among birth cohorts in Menorca, Sabadell, and Valencia from the Spanish Infancia y Medio Ambiente (environment and childhood) project. The study sample included 1713 children (468 from Menorca, 560 from Sabadell, and 685 from Valencia). EXPOSURE Parent-reported child television viewing duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Parent-reported child sleep duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. RESULTS In cross-sectional analysis, children with longer periods of television viewing reported at baseline (?1.5 hours per day) had shorter sleep duration. Longitudinally, children with reported increases in television viewing duration over time (from <1.5 to ?1.5 hours per day) had a reduction in sleep duration at follow-up visits. Results were similar when examining television viewing duration as a continuous variable, with each 1 hour per day of increased viewing decreasing sleep duration at follow-up visits (??=?-0.11; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.05). Associations were similar when television viewing duration was assessed during weekends and after adjusting for potential intermediate factors (child executive function and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms) and confounders (child physical activity level, parental mental health status, maternal IQ, and maternal marital status). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Children spending longer periods watching television had shorter sleep duration. Changes in television viewing duration were inversely associated with changes in sleep duration in longitudinal analysis. Parents should consider avoiding long periods of daily television exposure among preschool and school-aged children. PMID:24615283

Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Iñiguez, Carmen; Torrent, Maties; Vioque, Jesús; Turner, Michelle C; Julvez, Jordi

2014-05-01

410

Mariner 9 television calibration - Revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mariner 9 TV data from the 1971-1972 encounter with Mars, which contain good synoptic coverage of of the planet as well as the highest-resolution images thus far obtained for the south polar region, can lead to more accurate photometric analysis if subjected to improved processing methods. While calibration errors are rather greater than those of the Viking Orbiter cameras, both calibration data and processing software applicable to an improvement program have become available through the USGS's Planetary Image Cartography System.

Herkenhoff, Ken E.; Soderblom, Laurence A.; Murray, Bruce C.; Danielson, G. Edward

1988-01-01

411

EMERGING PATTERNS OF INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR CALIFORNIA PUBLIC SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS BULLETIN OFFERS GUIDELINES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL TV AND SUMMARIZES THE HISTORY AND PRESENT STATUS OF INSTRUCTIONAL TV IN CALIFORNIA. AMONG POINTS MENTIONED ARE THE FOLLOWING--THERE IS NEED FOR FURTHER LEGISLATION, PERSONNEL, FACILITIES, AND EDUCATION IN CALIFORNIA TO REALIZE THE BEST USES OF TELEVISION. IN 1966 OVER ONE…

HELMKE, GUY M.

412

What Does TV Viewing Have to Do with Internet Reading?: Readers, Television "Texts", and Intertextual Links to Companion Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of television programs direct their viewers to access an Internet website for further information on a presented topic. The explicit link between television programs and companion Internet websites, both of which communicate information through multiple modes, can be considered a form of intertextuality. Do college students…

Brown, Rachel

2009-01-01

413

Atlas of Surveyor 5 television data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This atlas is a compendium of the Surveyor 5 television mosaics. It it divided into two main sections. The first consists of improved mosaics of panoramas and basic cartographic data used in investigating surface detail, and the second contains individual frame data, including photoindex mosaics and tabulations in which individual frames are identified. A short section containing a set of special-purpose mosaics assembled by the staff of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is also included. For more details about the Surveyor 5 mission, television data, or science results, a brief bibliography is included.

Batson, R. M.; Jordan, R.; Larson, K. B.

1974-01-01

414

ATS-6 - Satellite Instructional Television Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) is scheduled for the second year of satellite operation. Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-6) will receive C-band video signals from Ahmedabad and Delhi, India, and will retransmitt the video and two audio subcarriers at 860 MHz to 6 clusters of 400 direct-receive stations for a total of 2400 direct-receive stations. Morning programs of 1.5 hours per day are designed for classroom use, and evening programs of 2.5 hours duration are designed for village adult education. Indian production antennas and television sets have been tested and found to meet specifications, and a successful experiment is anticipated.

Miller, J. E.

1975-01-01

415

47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...digital low power television and television translator stations: § 73.1030Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. § 74.600Eligibility for license. § 74.703Interference. §...

2013-10-01

416

47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...digital low power television and television translator stations: § 73.1030Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. § 74.600Eligibility for license. § 74.703Interference. §...

2010-10-01

417

47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...digital low power television and television translator stations: § 73.1030Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. § 74.600Eligibility for license. § 74.703Interference. §...

2011-10-01

418

Teaching Job Interviewing Skills with the Help of Television Shows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of its potential for humor and drama, job interviewing is frequently portrayed on television. This article discusses how scenes from popular television series such as "Everybody Loves Raymond," "Friends," and "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" can be used to teach effective job interview skills in business communication courses. Television

Bloch, Janel

2011-01-01

419

Symposium: Perspectives on Formative Evaluation of Children's Television Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluators of television programing and representatives of funding agencies discussed the impact of the perceptions of funding agencies on the evaluation of children's television. Participants also examined the interplay between the objectives of the television series and the evaluation, the relationship between production and evaluation, and the…

1977

420

Boys' Talk: Television, Masculinity and Media Education. Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawn from a much more extensive research project about children and television, this study examined the social processes through which the meanings of television are established and negotiated. A series of small group interviews with boys aged between 8 and 12 years were conducted. Two series of interviews focused on the cartoon television series…

Buckingham, David

421

The Teaching and Learning of Values through Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is based on the hypothesis that television contents themselves constitute a source of learning through television narratives. In specific terms, we defend the idea that it is possible to teach and learn values through said narratives. Some of the research dealing with the relationship between television and values is categorized from a…

Samaniego, Concepcion Medrano; Pascual, Alejandra Cortes

2007-01-01

422

76 FR 5120 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DA 11-74; MB Docket No. 11-4; RM-11616] Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal...and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in...

2011-01-28

423

Early Television Exposure and Subsequent Attentional Problems in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Cross-sectional research has suggested that television viewing may be associated with decreased attention spans in children. However, longitu- dinal data of early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems have been lacking. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that early television exposure (at ages 1 and 3) is associated with attentional problems at age 7. Methods.

Dimitri A. Christakis; Frederick J. Zimmerman; David L. DiGiuseppe; Carolyn A. McCarty

2004-01-01

424

Radical Software. Number One. The Alternate Television Movement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some innovative ideas and applications for new television technology are described in this tabloid format periodical. Most of these ideas support the periodical's contention that broadcast television is the most limited use of a developing television technology which has the capability of being a responsive medium and a valuable social tool and,…

Korot, Beryl, Ed.; Gershuny, Phyllis, Ed.

1970-01-01

425

Tuning in to Young Viewers: Social Science Perspectives on Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that children are especially vulnerable to the effects of television viewing. Taking a psychological, social-science perspective, this book explores how television viewing affects children. Chapter 1, "Introduction," (MacBeth) discusses the issues involved, how researchers go about studying media effects, whether television

MacBeth, Tannis M., Ed.

426

75 FR 16763 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFDA Number 84.295A] Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation...awards for FY 2010 for the Ready-to-Learn Television Program. There is an error...INFORMATION CONTACT: The Ready-to-Learn Television Program, U.S....

2010-04-02

427

75 FR 28594 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFDA Number 84.295A] Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation...awards for FY 2010 for the Ready-to-Learn Television Program. We have extended the...INFORMATION CONTACT: The Ready-to-Learn Television Program, U.S....

2010-05-21

428

75 FR 18170 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFDA Number 84.295A] Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation...awards for FY 2010 for the Ready-to-Learn Television Program. There is an error...INFORMATION CONTACT: The Ready-to-Learn Television Program, U.S....

2010-04-09

429

Music, Television, and Video: Historical and Aesthetic Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rock videos have their antecedents in film and television images, although music in films is usually background music. Television made possible the live transmission of musical numbers with visuals. The musical television commercial is an amalgam of conventions, with background music suddenly erupting into text, unheard by the characters but…

Burns, Gary; Thompson, Robert

430

The Influence of Television on Children's Sex Typing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper places research findings within a social learning framework to demonstrate that television influences the development of sex typing in children. First, the presence of sex-typed content in television programming and advertising is documented. Then, the nature of children's attention to and comprehension of televised messages is…

Lipinski, Judith M.; Calvert, Sandra L.

431

Television Viewing and Initiation of Smoking Among Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Smoking is the leading pre- ventable cause of death in the United States, and the risk of disease increases the earlier in life smoking begins. The prevalence of smoking among US adolescents has increased since 1991. Despite bans on television tobacco advertising, smoking on television remains widespread. Objective. To determine whether youth with greater exposure to television viewing exhibit

Pradeep P. Gidwani; Arthur Sobol; William DeJong; James M. Perrin; Steven L. Gortmaker

2002-01-01

432

Children, Television, and Conceptions about Chores: Attitudes and Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines relationships between television viewing and sex-role attitudes and behaviors for 530 fourth and fifth graders from the perspective of cultivation theory. Correlation and regression analyses reveal that television viewing is positively related to children's attitudes toward sex-stereotyped chores. Those who watched more television

Signorielli, Nancy; Lears, Margaret

1992-01-01

433

Visual Literacy: Some Lessons from Children's Television Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the pervasiveness of television, especially for children, visual literacy is a growing concern. Television should be regarded as part of a potential solution to the country's need for improved education. "Sesame Street" has proved that children do learn from television, that active interaction is not always necessary for learning, and that…

Fowles, Barbara R.; Horner, Vivian M.

434

Digital Two-Channel Sound for Terrestrial Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

A joint BBC\\/IBA technical specification of a transmission standard for digital two-channel sound with terrestrial television, for use with System I television [1], was approved by the United Kingdom Government in September 1986. Since then, broadcasters in the Nordic countries have adapted this digital system, now known as NICAM 728, for use with television Systems B and G which are

A. J. Bower

1987-01-01

435

WTTW-ESAA Television Pilot, "TCR '77,": Formative Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formative evaluation of the WTTW-ESAA pilot television program, ECR '77, was conducted by Educational Testing Service. The pilot program, first of a planned television series intended to facilitate the desegregation process in our nation's high schools, was produced by television station WTTW in Chicago in cooperation with student co-producer…

Hsia, Jayjia; Strand, Theresa

436

Television ShoppingA Media System Dependency Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The television shopping phenomenon is analyzed in terms of media system dependency theory. The analysis begins with a discussion of potential changes in structural relationships within the media system introduced by television shopping. We discuss how these structural changes imply changes in microlevel dependency relations. A hierarchy of dependency relations is proposed, with television dependency leading to dependency upon a

K. KENDALL GUTHRIE; SANDRA J. BALL-ROKEACH

1991-01-01

437

THE USE OF CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION TO IMPROVE TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN INSERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION PROJECT UTILIZED CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION AS A MEDIUM OF CLASSROOM OBSERVATION. IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION COULD MAKE STAFF INTERVISITATION MORE EFFECTIVE. CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION WAS USED IN 46 INSERVICE EDUCATION SESSIONS AND 51 SESSIONS WITH OTHER RELATED SCHOOL PURPOSES DURING THE…

FOLLIS, LEE; KING, ARTHUR R.

438

Children's Rights: Television Programmes Aired in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…

Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory

2014-01-01

439

Television Violence and Children. ERIC/EECE Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes 12 recent documents and journal articles from the ERIC database that discuss topics related to television violence and children. Articles cited address the effects of television violence on child behavior and attitudes at school and home, and methods of reducing the impact of television on children. (JPB)

Cesarone, Bernard

1998-01-01

440

Curing Television's Ills: The Portrayal of Health Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed television programing to determine how recent medical research trends are covered on network television. Found, for example, that the portrayal of illnesses did not reflect today's medical problems. Comments on implications for the general public who receive the bulk of their knowledge about medical trends from television. (PD)

Turow, Joseph; Coe, Lisa

1985-01-01

441

Progress of Television in the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The progress of tv broadcasting and tv technology in the Soviet Union are briefly reviewed. Soviet claims for early inventions related to tv techniques are laid. The central tv black-and-white broadcast program is transmitted from Moscow to 114 cities and...

P. V. Shmakov

1968-01-01

442

Security with the 360-deg television-intrusion detection surveillance system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique, versatile, non-mechanical, non-rotating 360 degrees imaging system has been developed and field-tested successively with conventional black and white, color television, 35-mm, motion picture cameras to prove that intruders, vehicles, radiation can be detected and recognized from any direction using one camera. The system consists of a low-cost, unique first surface reflective conical mirror with special computer programmed aspheric surfaces in operation with conventional narrow field of view (FOV) cameras and objective lenses. The cameras are converted to the 360 degree horizontal FOV and flexibility in conical mirror design provides variable elevation FOV to fit the security application. The wide, efficient spectral reflectance of the conical mirror means that UV, LLLTV, far IR thermal TV cameras can be converted, as well, to 360 degree imaging. The TV real-time 360 degree circular image can be processed electronically and presented on the TV monitor as a typical linear undistorted 360 degree rectangular scene or stacked rectangular scenes and also processed to provide analog to digital real-time motion detection and audible alarm to alert security personnel. For the 360 degree imaging systems or any television systems, the motion detection electronics has been designed to function effectively with image digital memory requirements reduced by magnitudes, thereby, increasing computer speed, but reducing computer costs. The 360 degree TV real-time intruder detection systems can operate in internal and external locations. For external locations, optical filtering and electronic processing has been designed to minimize motion detection false alarms caused by the changing illumination, cloud motion, sun glitter, etc. of the outdoor land or marine environment. The versatile 360 degree TV imaging systems objectives are to replace several narrow FOV cameras for an instantaneous 360 degree sweep, accordingly to reduce number of motion detection accessories, to operate with off-the-shelf camera equipment, and, thus to provide a highly cost effective technique for intruder detection in governmental, industrial, commercial, residential, security applications.

Feldman, Sidney; Barton, George G.

1997-01-01

443

Watermarking Tests for Free-View Point Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent advances in image based rendering (IBR) has pioneered a new technology, free view point television, in which TV-viewers select freely the viewing position and angle by the application of IBR on the transmitted multi-view video. In this paper, exhaustive tests were carried out to conclude to the best possible watermarking for free-view television. The watermark should not only

Evlambios E. Apostolidis; Alper Koz; Georgios Triantafyllidis

2007-01-01

444

Best Watermarking Selection for Free-View Point Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent advances in Image Based Rendering (IBR) has pioneered a new technology, free view point television, in which TV-viewers select freely the viewing position and angle by the application of IBR on the transmitted multi-view video. In this paper, exhaustive tests were carried out to conclude to the best possible watermarking for free-view television. The watermark should not only

Evlambios E. Apostolidis; Alper Koz; G. Triantqfyllidis

2007-01-01

445

Television Programming for Children: A Report of the Children's Television Task Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These two volumes of a 5-volume report on commercial broadcaster compliance with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) 1974 policies on programming and advertising to children provide an overall analysis of children's television, as well as a detail...

S. C. Greene

1979-01-01

446

CDC TV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention TV site (CDC TV) offers up a range of videos created to provide expert commentary and news updates on a variety of health, safety, and preparedness topics. First-time visitors may wish to browse around through the Most Recent videos which include short meditations on "Healthy Snacking in Philadelphia" and "Smoke-free Multiunit Housing." The site also has topical collections that include Parents & Children and Flu. Videos range in length, but most are around 3 minutes long and a number are available in Spanish. For interested parties, the site also has some special multi-part features, including "The Story of Folic Acid Fortification."

447

Does television terrify tourists? Effects of US television news on demand for tourism in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the impact on US tourist flows to Israel of variations in both the actual intensity of the Israeli-Palestinian\\u000a conflict and the intensity implicit in US television news coverage. Conditional on actual events, changes in reported conflict\\u000a intensity could influence tourists because alternative sources of information are costly; this explanation is consistent with\\u000a a rational choice model. However, television

David Fielding; Anja Shortland

2009-01-01

448

Transnational circulation of Chinese language television dramas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1990s, a wave of dynasty drama serials began to dominate primetime dramatic programming in People's Republic of China (PRC) television, which soon created a viewing frenzy among Chinese audiences around the world. Together with Taiwan's idol drama and Hong Kong's martial arts sagas and contemporary social mobility dramas, by the early 2000s, PRC's dynasty drama had saturated

Ying Zhu

2008-01-01

449

Television Spectacle and the Internationalization of Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the dominant cultural values of sport and their global diffusion and raises questions as to the degree the process is, or can be, resisted. Argues that the growth of television and the consequent growth of sponsorship has led to a challenge to the traditional amateur paternalist sport authorities from commercial entrepreneurship. (SRT)

Whannel, Garry

1985-01-01

450

Alternative Television: Status, Trends and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken to develop a body of knowledge which might bridge the communications gap between the more formal communications establishment and the eclectic alternative television movement. Information was gathered mainly through personal experience, and by survey and interviews. The analysis was carried out during the period from late…

Goldstein, Neil W.

451

Energy-efficient lighting system for television  

DOEpatents

A light control system for a television camera comprises an artificial light control system which is cooperative with an iris control system. This artificial light control system adjusts the power to lamps illuminating the camera viewing area to provide only sufficient artificial illumination necessary to provide a sufficient video signal when the camera iris is substantially open.

Cawthorne, Duane C. (Amarillo, TX)

1987-07-21

452

High-Efficiency Klystron For Television Transmitters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved klystron designed for use as final amplifier in ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) television transmitter. New device incorporates multistage depressed collector (MSDC) of advanced design to increase efficiency by recovering, from spent electron beam, some of residual kinetic energy otherwise dissipated as heat. Concept applied to increase efficiencies of microwave communication, equipment, radar systems, and particle-beam accelerators.

Ramins, Peter; Dayton, James; Mccune, Earl, Sr.; Kosmahl, Henry

1990-01-01

453

In Search of Television Viewing Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a 1979 study of fifth-, eighth-, and eleventh-grade students that was conducted to investigate television viewing behaviors. The study focused on overall viewing activity, content decisions (i.e., loyalty to individual series or to a genre), and program stability (i.e., how often viewers change channels during a program). (14 references)…

Hawkins, Robert P.; And Others

1991-01-01

454

Digital Television: Has the Revolution Stalled?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When digital television technology first hit the scene it garnered great excitement, with its promise of movie theater picture and sound on a fraction of the bandwidth of analog. A plan was implemented to transition from the current analog broadcasting system to a digital system effective December 23, 2006. As we reach the half point of this plan, the furor

Aaron Futch; Yemi Giwa; Kisa Mlela; Amy Richardson; Yelena Simonyuk

2001-01-01

455

Educational Television and Educational Development in Tunisia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Association of Educational Broadcasters attempted to determine how educational television and related technologies could strengthen the educational system of Tunisia. An overview of the Tunisian society is presented, followed by a brief history of the development of its educational system. The tremendous educational needs of the…

National Association of Educational Broadcasters, Washington, DC.

456

Exploring the Motives for Viewing Televised Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 286 subjects was presented with a series of motivations and asked to evaluate the relative importance of each in their exposure/avoidance decisions about watching sports programs on television. The 188 sports viewers assessed the importance of each motivation for their viewing of baseball, hockey, football, and tennis. The 98…

Gantz, Walter

457

Public Television Program Content: 1974. Advance Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a program of statistical reports on public broadcasting, a survey requested 147 public broadcasting stations to supply information about their operations during one week in 1974. Data were collected about instructional television services, "Sesame Street,""The Electric Company," general and news programing, any programs produced for a…

Katzman, Natan

458

The Long-Range Impact of Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long range effects may be of three varieties: those which are observable in the immediate period subsequent to exposure but are long range because of their continuing repetitive accumulation with each exposure; those which represent the cumulative or delayed impact on individuals of exposure to television; or those which represent the immediate…

Comstock, George

459

Faculty Development Programs in Interactive Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional classroom teaching preparation does not fully prepare faculty for the special requirements of teaching interactive television courses. Faculty who teach these courses often have to update their skills in current technology, plan courses differently, and work with distance education staff to prepare and deliver courses. This paper…

Cuffman, Darcey M.; MacRae, Norma

460

Interactive Television (ITV) Courses and Students' Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this literature review is to identify and address major themes in the distance education literature, particularly as they relate to interactive television (ITV) and student satisfaction. Major themes include satisfaction based on site-type, previous research biases, faculty-student interaction, characteristics of satisfied learners, qualitative differences in satisfaction, satisfaction with regards to traditional versus ITV courses, attitudinal changes and

Kenneth D. Royal; Kelly D. Bradley

461

Science on Television: Storytelling, Learning and Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three major educational sectors in which learning occurs are often taken to be the formal education sector (schools, colleges, universities and so on), the workplace, and the free-choice learning sector (Falk, 2002). This review is concerned with science on television, understood as a significant component of the free-choice learning sector.…

Dhingra, Koshi

2006-01-01

462

Young Viewers' Responses to Television Program Ratings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implementation of the first U.S. television program rating system based on identifying content that could be viewed by specific age groups began in January, 1997. This exploratory survey examined the context of how young people responded to the ratings system. Participating in the May 1997 survey were 462 students in fourth, eighth, and tenth…

Greenberg, Bradley S.; Hnilo, Lynn Rampoldi; Ver Steeg, Linda

463

Educational Needs in the Cable Television Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A preliminary survey was conducted analyzing the perceived educational needs of 67 top managers, 131 systems managers, and 194 technicians employed by 89 member companies of the National Cable Television Association. Results for all respondents included: educational background; current or contemplated educational activities; their perception of…

Marlow, H. LeRoy; Alderman, Everett

464

Television Viewing and Public Perceptions of Attorneys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines theoretical and methodological controversies identified with the cultivation explanation of the way television shapes perceptions of social reality. Finds that content-specific viewing is a more reliable predictor than total viewing or select viewer sociodemographic variables of the public's tendency to perceive attorneys in the same way…

Pfau, Michael; And Others

1995-01-01

465

Children's Television: The Economics of Exploitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study deals with the economics of children's television within the institutional structure of the broadcasting industry, the framework for developing public policy in commercial broadcasting, and the fundamental economic forces affecting the direction of the development of the industry. Chapters (1) delineate the basic economic model of…

Melody, William

466

Television news coverage of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of environmental problems. Global warming in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and environmental groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of environmental issues, specifically global warming. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage; (2) biases in coverage; (3) visual images used to cover global warming; and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global warming coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global warming issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global warming and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.

Nitz, M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). School of Communication; Jarvis, S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Speech Communication; Kenski, H. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Communication

1996-06-01

467

End of Television and Foreign Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation of television has altered the capacity of the state to control the agenda for making war, convening peace, and otherwise exercising its foreign policy options. In the age of the state gatekeeper, there was at least the illusion (and often the reality) that the government could substantially control the flow of images within its borders. With transformations in

Monroe E. Price

2009-01-01

468

Public Television Survey; Report 4: Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, the last in a series of four, describes part of a national study commissioned by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting to investigate audience awareness of public television, level of viewing, and reaction to programming and on-air fund raising. Discussion centers on the methodological procedures used in collecting and evaluating…

Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

469

World Service Television: ELT Resource for Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper shows how satellite television programs can be used to advance Asian students' listening ability in English. Particular focus is on news broadcasts. The paper is divided into three sections, an introduction, some concluding remarks, and the substantive discussion headed "Using News Broadcasts in the EFL (English as a Foreign Language)…

Katchen, Johanna E.

470

Television, black Americans, and the American dream  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay examines fictional television representations of black middle class success and nonfictional representations of black urban poverty. It suggests that these representations operate intertextually to produce an ideology which explains black middle class success and urban poverty by privileging individual attributes and middle class values and by displacing social and structural factors. Jameson's notions of reification and utopia in

Herman Gray

1989-01-01

471

Should I Let My Child Watch Television?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the prevalence of autism has been increasing globally, there is a search for the causative factors behind the rise. The point of view presented here examines the possibility of children brought up in social deprivation and watching television being at higher risk for developing autistic symptoms. The association is evident in the clinical…

Bharadwaj, Balaji

2013-01-01

472

The Effect of Television on Dyadic Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effects of television on dyadic interaction. Subjects, 41 dyads (mostly same sex dyads) consisting of a student in an introductory communication course (students were given extra credit for participation in the research) and a friend, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions and were videotaped by a hidden…

Krcmar, Marina B.; Brentar, James E.

473

Television use and food choices of children: Qualitative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the results of 12 focus group interviews with primary school students (7–10 years old, n=57) in Florianópolis, Brazil, regarding their food choices, television (TV) viewing, and physical activity habits. In 2005, an average Brazilian child aged 4–11 years watched TV almost 5h per day. Intensive TV use in childhood and adolescence may contribute to sedentarism and unhealthy

Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck Fiates; Renata D. M. C. Amboni; Evanilda Teixeira

2008-01-01

474

More Time for Play: 1999 Rambusch Lecturers Urge More Fun, Less Work, and Less TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes presentations by Arlie Hochschild and Henry Labalme at the 1999 Rambusch Lecture Series. Hochschild's lecture focused on concerns regarding dual-career families struggling to meet work and home demands and their impact on children, proposing a national movement for reduced work hours. Labalme discussed television viewing as a public and…

Dugan, Marie M.

1999-01-01

475

High-definition television evaluation for remote handling task performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Described are experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV (High-Definition Television) on the performance of typical remote tasks. The experiments described in this paper compared the performance of four operators using HDTV with their performance while using other television systems. The experiments included four television systems: (1) high-definition color television, (2) high-definition monochromatic television, (3) standard-resolution monochromatic television, and (4) standard-resolution stereoscopic monochromatic television. The stereo system accomplished stereoscopy by displaying two cross-polarized images, one reflected by a half-silvered mirror and one seen through the mirror. Observers wore spectacles with cross-polarized lenses so that the left eye received only the view from the left camera and the right eye received only the view from the right camera.

Fujita, Y.; Omori, E.; Hayashi, S.; Draper, J. V.; Herndon, J. N.

476

Prime-Time Science: The Beginning of a Beautiful Friendship?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The portrayal of science has often posed a challenge to Hollywood. Though it has provided some of the compelling storylines, the many complexities of science (and scientists) have confounded even the most talented writer or director, pitting creative license against scientific accuracy again and again. Likewise, the scientific community has struggled to find a conduit through which it can communicate its story to the general public on a mass scale. To bridge this gap, the National Academy of Sciences has partnered with leading Hollywood professionals to launch The Science and Entertainment Exchange; its mission is to connect entertainment industry professionals with top scientists from across the country to foster creative collaborations. The timing has never been better: there is a plethora of network TV shows currently on the air with science-based themes and plot lines, and a renewed interest -- even with science fiction films and TV -- in coming up with more plausible futuristic scenarios. Working together, the two communities can create a ``win-win'' synergy between accurate science and engaging entertainment.

Ouellette, Jennifer

2009-03-01

477

The portrayal of men and women in U.S. television commercials: A recent content analysis and trends over 15 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the content analyses of male and female portrayals in U.S. television commercials that have been published since 1971. The paper also includes the results of a content analysis of television commercials conducted on a 1985 sample. Where possible, the data from the present study are compared to the findings of previous research to illustrate trends over time.

Daniel J. Bretl; Joanne Cantor

1988-01-01

478

A Deeper Look at the Economics of Advertiser Support for Television: The Implications of Consumption-Differentiated Viewers and Ad Addressability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial addressing technologies are currently being trialed that will make it possible to simultaneously deliver different ads to different viewers. Because the members of the audience for a given program often consume different products, addressable ads promise to substantially increase the revenue generated by television ad time. This article presents models of competitive television markets with addressable and nonaddressable ads

Eun-mee Kim; Steven Wildman

2006-01-01

479

A PILOT STUDY TO DETERMINE THE INFLUENCE UPON TEACHERS AND UPON STUDENTS OF A TELEVISION PROGRAM DESIGNED TO PROVIDE IN-SERVICE TRAINING AND CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION IN SPANISH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THREE SMALL SCHOOLS IN UTAH, INCLUDING THREE TEACHERS AND THEIR SPANISH I STUDENTS, PARTICIPATED IN THIS STUDY. ONE TEACHER RECEIVED CONVENTIONAL IN-SERVICE TRAINING, THE OTHER TWO WERE GIVEN IN IN-SERVICE TRAINING IN TEACHING SPANISH AS THEY OBSERVED THE TELEVISION CLASS. ONE GROUP OF STUDENTS OBSERVED THE TELEVISION CLASS THREE TIMES PER WEEK…

HOWE, ELLIOT C.

480

TV watching (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Television can be a useful tool for parents; it can be used for distraction, substitution, and recreation. Unfortunately, the TV has become a substitute for parent-child interaction and is used in some families as a "baby sitter".

481

Sleep and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time reported a significantly lower degree of enjoyment of school. Short sleep was found to be associated with having a bedroom TV, spending more than 2 hr a day at the TV or the computer, being tired in school, and having difficulties both in waking up and in sleeping. Discussing sleep and media habits with schoolchildren and their parents regarding matters of optimal sleep and of how media habits affect sleep and learning is seen to be an important task of the school health service.

Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

2012-01-01

482

Sleep and television and computer habits of Swedish school-age children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time reported a significantly lower degree of enjoyment of school. Short sleep was found to be associated with having a bedroom TV, spending more than 2 hr a day at the TV or the computer, being tired in school, and having difficulties both in waking up and in sleeping. Discussing sleep and media habits with schoolchildren and their parents regarding matters of optimal sleep and of how media habits affect sleep and learning is seen to be an important task of the school health service. PMID:22472633

Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

2012-12-01

483

Association of obesity with physical activity, television programs and other forms of video viewing among children in Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of physical activity, television program viewing and other forms of video viewing with the prevalence of obesity among school children.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SUBJECTS: 712 children, 9–16 y old, from a low- and a middle-income town in the Mexico City area.MEASUREMENTS: Children completed a self administered questionnaire to assess time spent in physical activity and television viewing,

B. Hernandez; S. L. Gortmaker; G. A. Colditz; K. E. Peterson; N. M. Laird; S Parra-Cabrera

1999-01-01

484

The Teaching and Learning of Values Through Television  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is based on the hypothesis that television contents themselves constitute a source of learning through television narratives. In specific terms, we defend the idea that it is possible to teach and learn values through said narratives. Some of the research dealing with the relationship between television and values is categorized from a three-fold standpoint: the contents themselves, the medium itself and the language. As a result of this review, we maintain that reiterated attacks on television, blaming it for the majority of problems suffered by young people today, are not supported by the studies carried out by psychologists over recent decades. We believe that viewers incorporate the information provided by television from different contexts and that the enculturation is not unidirectional. There is an interrelation between development contexts and messages. We are specifically interested in analyzing the implicit and explicit values underlying television contents. Thus, based on the model developed by Schwartz and Bilsky, we have compiled a questionnaire (Val-TV 0.1) with the aim of classifying values and interpreting the behaviours visualized in television texts, and relating them to adolescents' own values.

Samaniego, Concepción Medrano; Pascual, Alejandra Cortés

2007-01-01

485

Television campaigns and adolescent marijuana use: tests of sensation seeking targeting.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effectiveness of targeted televised public service announcement campaigns in reducing marijuana use among high-sensation-seeking adolescents. METHODS: The study used a controlled interrupted time-series design in 2 matched communities. Two televised antimarijuana campaigns were conducted in 1 county and 1 campaign in the comparison community. Personal interviews were conducted with 100 randomly selected teenagers monthly in each county for 32 months. RESULTS: All 3 campaigns reversed upward developmental trends in 30-day marijuana use among high-sensation seekers (P < .002). As expected, low-sensation seekers had low use levels, and no campaign effects were evident. CONCLUSIONS: Televised campaigns with high reach and frequency that use public service announcements designed for and targeted at high-sensation-seeking adolescents can significantly reduce substance use in this high-risk population.

Palmgreen, P; Donohew, L; Lorch, E P; Hoyle, R H; Stephenson, M T

2001-01-01

486

Effect of television viewing on social-emotional competence of young Thai children.  

PubMed

Exposure time, program content and cultural context may affect the impact of television (TV) on the social-emotional competence (SEC) of children. This study examined the effects of TV viewing on the SEC of Thai infants. The study was based on a Thai birth cohort study from which duration and content of TV viewing and data from the Modified Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment instrument at 1 and 3 years of age were available. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine whether scores below the 10th national percentile were associated with TV viewing duration. The relationship between viewing duration and SEC risk was quadratic rather than linear. Viewing duration of 30-120 min/day was associated with a decreased risk of low overall SEC compared to non-viewers after adjustments for confounding factors. However, the beneficial effect diminished when the duration exceeded 120 min/day. Viewing educational programs was associated with a risk reduction of having low overall SEC compared to non-educational programs. These results suggest that a short period of TV viewing may be beneficial for the SEC of Thai infants, especially if the programs are educational. PMID:23948636

Intusoma, Utcharee; Mo-Suwan, Ladda; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Panyayong, Benjaporn; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

2013-12-01

487

Generating Stereoscopic Television Images With One Camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Straightforward technique for generating stereoscopic television images involves use of single television camera translated laterally between left- and right-eye positions. Camera acquires one of images (left- or right-eye image), and video signal from image delayed while camera translated to position where it acquires other image. Length of delay chosen so both images displayed simultaneously or as nearly simultaneously as necessary to obtain stereoscopic effect. Technique amenable to zooming in on small areas within broad scenes. Potential applications include three-dimensional viewing of geological features and meteorological events from spacecraft and aircraft, inspection of workpieces moving along conveyor belts, and aiding ground and water search-and-rescue operations. Also used to generate and display imagery for public education and general information, and possible for medical purposes.

Coan, Paul P.

1996-01-01

488

UHF viewing and television channel selector type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical analysis of the relationship between UHF viewing and television channel selector type is presented. It is based on a data set that contains information on UHF, VHF, and total viewing on over 3,800 individual television receivers, information on the channel selector on each set, and information on receiver, antenna and household demographic characteristics. The data, were assembled from diaries and follow up telephone interviews. An exhaustive examination of this data set revealed no evidence of a systematic relationship between UHF viewing and channel selector type. In particular, no evidence was found that electronic channel selectors are associated with higher levels of UHF viewing. The report concludes that assertions that channel selectors have a substantial effects on UHF viewing should not be accepted in the absence of empirical evidence demonstrating the existence of a relationship.

Brenner, S. R.; Levy, J. D.; Ruppel, F. J.

1981-02-01

489

New method for face gaze detection in smart television  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, gaze detection-based interfaces have been regarded as the most natural user interface for use with smart televisions (TVs). Past research conducted on gaze detection primarily used near-infrared (NIR) cameras with NIR illuminators. However, these devices are difficult to use with smart TVs; therefore, there is an increasing need for gaze-detection technology that utilizes conventional (visible light) web cameras. Consequently, we propose a new gaze-detection method using a conventional (visible light) web camera. The proposed approach is innovative in the following three ways. First, using user-dependent facial information obtained in an initial calibration stage, an accurate head pose is calculated. Second, using theoretical and generalized models of changes in facial feature positions, horizontal and vertical head poses are calculated. Third, accurate gaze positions on a smart TV can be obtained based on the user-dependent calibration information and the calculated head poses by using a low-cost conventional web camera without an additional device for measuring the distance from the camera to the user. Experimental results indicate that the gaze-detection accuracy of our method on a 60-in. smart TV is 90.5%.

Lee, Won Oh; Kim, Yeong Gon; Shin, Kwang Yong; Nguyen, Dat Tien; Kim, Ki Wan; Park, Kang Ryoung; Oh, Cheon In

2014-05-01

490

Reuse of secondhand TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines.  

PubMed

The trade of secondhand electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) from developed to developing countries has become a growing environmental issue owing to concerns about improper recycling of these goods in developing countries. We followed a 12-m cargo container of cathode-ray-tube color TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines in February 2008. We surveyed the number of TVs damaged in transport, as well as the number of malfunctioning TVs from this shipment. In addition, we present the results of interviews with 113 Filipino consumers who intended to buy secondhand EEE at nine secondhand shops in Metro Manila. Approximately 3% of the imported TVs were damaged upon arrival. The importer sold some of the units directly to local dealers, and kept the rest to repair, refurbish and resell. Approximately 40% of the imported TVs malfunctioned and needed repair in addition to basic reconditioning. Most interviewees indicated that they prefer to buy secondhand EEE because the prices are lower than those of brand-new products. Consumers indicated that they planned on using the product for an average of about 5years, but the actual period of use may be lower. Most end-of-life EEE in the Philippines is dismantled and recycled by unregulated companies and untrained individuals in markets or near landfill sites, and it is clear that a proper collection system and treatment methods are needed for e-waste. In addition to the material flow of secondhand TVs, we also discuss several economic aspects and appropriate control measures of the international reuse of secondhand TVs. PMID:20219340

Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi

2010-06-01

491

An experimental simple digital field-store synchroniser for system 1 television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronization of television picture sources is a necessary prerequisite for modern program production methods. Two methods are available which can synchronize sources, at least to within an acceptable error range. The first, relies on a comparison of the timings of the remote source and the reference to generate an error signal which can be used to alter the timing of

R. Walker

1978-01-01

492

Free-View Watermarking for Free-View Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent advances in Image Based Rendering (IBR) has pioneered a new technology, free-view television, in which TV- viewers select freely the viewing position and angle by the application of IBR on the transmitted multi-view video. Noting that the TV-viewer might also record a personal video for this arbitrarily selected view and misuse this content, it is apparent that copyright

Alper Koz; Cevahir Cigla; A. Aydin Alatan

2006-01-01

493

Electromagnetic interference to television reception caused by horizontal axis windmills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic interference to television (TV) reception produced by horizontal axis wind turbine generators or windmills has been identified and quantified by comprehensive theoretical and experimental studies. It is found that the rotating blades of a windmill can produce pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) of the total signal received, and that for an antenna so located as to pick up the specular

D. L. Sengupta; T. B. A. Senior

1979-01-01

494

2BeOn - Interactive television supporting interpersonal communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpersonal communication mediated by computer services sup- ports the reinforcement and emergence of new communities brought together by leisure or work interests. This paper presents a workbench system that aims to study how the same principle can be applied in interactive television. The main objective is to allow TV users to be online (2BeOn) through the integra- tion of basic

Jorge Abreu; Pedro Almeida; Vasco Branco

495

Digital television: hierarchical channel coding using turbo-codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital television terrestrial transmission has to deal with various reception conditions: a plug-free TV set receives a much lower a signal thanone with a roof-top antenna. It is hence interesting to provide a signal that conveys two types of information: a “basic” picture for portable receivers, this information must be transmitted most reliably; and additional information to be added to

C. Berrou; P. Combelles

1994-01-01

496

Screen of cylindrical lenses produces stereoscopic television pictures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stereoscopic television pictures are produced by placing a colorless, transparent screen of adjacent parallel cylindrical lenses before a raster from two synchronized TV cameras. Alternate frames from alternate cameras are displayed. The viewers sensory perception fuses the two images into one three-dimensional picture.

Nork, C. L.

1966-01-01

497

Source confusion as an explanation of cultivation: a test of the mechanisms underlying confusion of fiction with reality on television.  

PubMed

Cultivation studies have found evidence that heavy television viewers adopt a world view congruent with how the world is portrayed in fictional television programs. An explanation is that viewers may remember fictional TV stories as realistic stories or news (fiction-to-news confusion). Until now, fiction-to-news confusion was found only if at least a week evolved between watching TV and asking viewers what was remembered. The present study conducted with a purposive sample of students and employees of a college in The Netherlands (N=96; M age = 28.6 yr., SD = 10.9) indicates that fiction-to-news confusions can also occur almost immediately after watching. In addition, whereas earlier research suggests that fiction-to-news confusions are associated with heavy viewing, i.e., more confusion when more hours per day are spent on TV viewing in leisure time, and faulty memory, the present study more specifically suggests that participants make many fiction-to-news confusions when they are exposed to relatively many fictional TV fragments that contain threatening, violent events. PMID:17450970

Koolstra, Cees M

2007-02-01

498

Television Food Advertising to Children: A Global Perspective  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We compared television food advertising to children in several countries. Methods. We undertook a collaboration among 13 research groups in Australia, Asia, Western Europe, and North and South America. Each group recorded programming for 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days between 6:00 and 22:00, for the 3 channels most watched by children, between October 2007 and March 2008. We classified food advertisements as core (nutrient dense, low in energy), noncore (high in undesirable nutrients or energy, as defined by dietary standards), or miscellaneous. We also categorized thematic content (promotional characters and premiums). Results. Food advertisements composed 11% to 29% of advertisements. Noncore foods were featured in 53% to 87% of food advertisements, and the rate of noncore food advertising was higher during children's peak viewing times. Most food advertisements containing persuasive marketing were for noncore products. Conclusions. Across all sampled countries, children were exposed to high volumes of television advertising for unhealthy foods, featuring child-oriented persuasive techniques. Because of the proven connections between food advertising, preferences, and consumption, our findings lend support to calls for regulation of food advertising during children's peak viewing times.

Halford, Jason C.G.; Boyland, Emma J.; Chapman, Kathy; Bautista-Castano, Inmaculada; Berg, Christina; Caroli, Margherita; Cook, Brian; Coutinho, Janine G.; Effertz, Tobias; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Keller, Kathleen; Leung, Raymond; Manios, Yannis; Monteiro, Renata; Pedley, Claire; Prell, Hillevi; Raine, Kim; Recine, Elisabetta; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Singh, Sonia; Summerbell, Carolyn

2010-01-01

499

Radiation safety in the use of color television sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of color television sets was investigated using F2Cd thermoluminescent dosimeters. Measured results at 5 cm from the color television set show less than 1\\/30 of the maximum limit as set by Italian law, that is 0.5 mR\\/h. Problems specific to personnel who work daily in close contact with color television sets were not considered.

A. Calicchia; A. Panigutti; A. Rosati

1977-01-01

500

Duration of television viewing and bone mineral density in Chinese women.  

PubMed

Studies on the relationship between television (TV) viewing and bone mineral density (BMD) in adults are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether longer duration of TV viewing increased the risk of lower BMD in Chinese women. A total of 626 female adults were voluntarily recruited into the study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures. Body composition including total body and regional BMD was estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The duration of TV viewing was categorized into 4 groups: <1 h, 1 to <2 h, 2 to <3 h, and ?3 h. Multiple linear regression models were applied to analyze the associations between duration of TV viewing and total and regional BMD in all subjects and in subjects stratified by age of 45 years, respectively. After adjusting for age, BMI, alcohol use, smoking, education, income, urbanicity, leisure time physical activity, occupational physical activity, and menopause, the significant trend of pelvic BMD across categories of TV viewing was observed in all subjects (p < 0.05). Further analysis revealed that women aged <45 years, the 1 to <2 h group, the 2 to <3 h group, and the ?3 h group were significantly associated with lower total body and regional BMD compared to women aged <45 years in the <1 h group. We concluded that the duration of TV viewing was negatively associated with BMD in Chinese women, especially in those aged 18-44 years. It might be sensible to reduce TV viewing time to prevent bone loss in young women. PMID:24052205

Ye, Sunyue; Song, Aihua; Yang, Min; Ma, Xiaoguang; Fu, Xiaohua; Zhu, Shankuan

2014-05-01