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1

Brand Appearances on Prime-Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research provides a baseline study documenting the frequency, context and portrayal characteristics of brands appearing on prime-time television. One week of prime-time television on four major networks was used. A content analysis, using a coding scheme developed by Gupta and Lord (1998), was performed that captured the nature of brand portrayal in programs suitable for subtle persuasion. Results indicate

Rosellina Ferraro; Rosemary J. Avery

2000-01-01

2

Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18?years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

2014-01-01

3

Prime-Time Stereotyping on the New Television Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis examines portrayals of women in prime-time promotional announcements broadcast on five television networks (ABC, NBC, CBS, FOX, and UPN) during one week in 1995. Findings supported the hypotheses that (1) women are underrepresented in all television networks' promotional announcements, and that (2) stereotypical portrayals of women in these announcements varied due to the television network's target audience.

B. Carol Eaton

1997-01-01

4

Direct and Indirect Aggression on Prime-Time Network Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence of 3 types of aggression on prime-time television during the spring of 2005. Verbal aggression was found to be the most prevalent, followed by indirect and physical. Physical aggression appeared more frequently among Caucasians and males. Female characters were more involved in indirect aggression, while verbal aggression was sex neutral. In general, minority racial and

Jack Glascock

2008-01-01

5

Applying semiotics to the study of selected prime time television programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The montage structures of six prime time television series were analyzed using the methodology developed by film semiotician, Christian Metz. The research indicates that the use of semiotics is applicable to studies of television programs.

Michael J. Porter

1983-01-01

6

On learning science and pseudoscience from prime-time television programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present dissertation is to determine whether the viewing of two particular prime-time television programs, ER and The X-Files, increases viewer knowledge of science and to identify factors that may influence learning from entertainment television programming. Viewer knowledge of scientific dialogue from two science-based prime-time television programs, ER, a serial drama in a hospital emergency room and

Christopher Henry Whittle

2003-01-01

7

Use of Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Tobacco Among Characters on Prime-Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research of addictive substances suggests that use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and tobacco is overrepresented on prime-time television (TV). These studies, however, have relied on frequency counts of the substance, rather than the prevalence of use among characters. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of alcohol, illicit drug, and tobacco users among characters on

Judith A. Long; Patrick G. O'Connor; George Gerbner; John Concato

2002-01-01

8

Use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and tobacco among characters on prime?time television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research of addictive substances suggests that use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and tobacco is overrepresented on prime?time television (TV). These studies, however, have relied on frequency counts of the substance, rather than the prevalence of use among characters. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of alcohol, illicit drug, and tobacco users among characters on

Judith A. Long; Patrick G. OConnor; George Gerbner; John Concato

2002-01-01

9

immigration in prime time spanish television. Pathways towards inferring modern racism from content analysis  

E-print Network

immigration in prime time spanish television. Pathways towards inferring modern racism from content the representation of ethnic and immigrant minorities in television fiction (Greenberg, Mastro & Brand, 2002 and immigrant minorities are usually underrepresented and subject to a distorted and stereotypical portrait

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Health and Nutrient Content Claims in Food Advertisements on Hispanic and Mainstream Prime-time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveCharacterize frequency and type of health and nutrient content claims in prime-time weeknight Spanish- and English-language television advertisements from programs shown in 2003 with a high viewership by women aged 18 to 35 years.

Jodie Abbatangelo-Gray; Carol Byrd-Bredbenner; S. Bryn Austin

2008-01-01

11

On learning science and pseudoscience from prime-time television programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the present dissertation is to determine whether the viewing of two particular prime-time television programs, ER and The X-Files, increases viewer knowledge of science and to identify factors that may influence learning from entertainment television programming. Viewer knowledge of scientific dialogue from two science-based prime-time television programs, ER, a serial drama in a hospital emergency room and The X-Files, a drama about two Federal Bureau of Investigation agents who pursue alleged extraterrestrial life and paranormal activity, is studied. Level of viewing, education level, science education level, experiential factors, level of parasocial interaction, and demographic characteristics are assessed as independent variables affecting learning from entertainment television viewing. The present research involved a nine-month long content analysis of target television program dialogue and data collection from an Internet-based survey questionnaire posted to target program-specific on-line "chat" groups. The present study demonstrated that entertainment television program viewers incidentally learn science from entertainment television program dialogue. The more they watch, the more they learn. Viewing a pseudoscientific fictional television program does necessarily influence viewer beliefs in pseudoscience. Higher levels of formal science study are reflected in more science learning and less learning of pseudoscience from entertainment television program viewing. Pseudoscience learning from entertainment television programming is significantly related to experience with paranormal phenomena, higher levels of viewer parasocial interaction, and specifically, higher levels of cognitive parasocial interaction. In summary, the greater a viewer's understanding of science the more they learn when they watch their favorite science-based prime-time television programs. Viewers of pseudoscience-based prime-time television programming with higher levels of paranormal experiences and parasocial interaction demonstrate cognitive interest in and learning of their favorite television program characters ideas and beliefs. What television viewers learn from television is related to what they bring to the viewing experience. Television viewers are always learning, even when their intentions are to simply relax and watch the tube.

Whittle, Christopher Henry

12

Older Adults in Prime-Time Television Dramas in Taiwan: Prevalence, Portrayal, and Communication Interaction  

E-print Network

Lien, S-C, Zhang, Y.B., & Hummert, M. L. (2009). Older adults in prime-time television in Taiwan: Prevalence, portrayal, and communication interaction. Journal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, 24, 355-372. Publisher’s official version: http...-C, Zhang, Y.B., & Hummert, M. L. (2009). Older adults in prime-time television in Taiwan: Prevalence, portrayal, and communication interaction. Journal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, 24, 355- 372. Abstract: A content and thematic analysis of 109...

Lien, Shu-Chin; Zhang, Yan Bing; Hummert, Mary Lee

2009-09-01

13

A Content Analysis of Social Groups in Prime-Time Spanish-Language Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of Spanish-language television in the United States has been increasing rapidly, yet little is known about the images viewers are likely to encounter when exposed to this content. As such, the present study investigates the representation of men and women in the 2004 prime-time, Spanish-language television season. Social identity theory provides a framework for understanding the potential influence

Dana E. Mastro; Michelle Ortiz

2008-01-01

14

Sex-role stereotyping of nurses and physicians on prime-time television: A dichotomy of occupational portrayals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing the methodology of content analysis, this study investigates the sexrole variables in prime-time television portrayals of nurses and physicians from 1950 to 1980. A 20% sample of 28 relevant series yielded 320 individual episodes, 240 nurse characters, and 287 physicians characters. Results show extreme levels of both sexual and occupational stereotyping. Television nurses are 99% female, and television physicians

Philip A. Kalisch; Beatrice J. Kalisch

1984-01-01

15

Television's Action Arsenal: Weapon Use in Prime Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to fill a basic information gap in the television violence research literature, namely, or lack of information on the instruments of violence. Weapon use was chosen not only because it is a manageable component of the entire television violence issue, but because it is one that is clearly subject to modification by the…

Higgins, Patricia B.; Ray, Marla W.

16

Sex differences in reinforcement and punishment on prime-time television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prime-time television programs were analyzed for frequencies of positive reinforcement and punishment exchanged among performers varying in age and sex. Results indicated that most responses were given by and directed to adult males. Moreover, while adult males exhibited and received similar frequencies of reinforcement and punishment, adult females were likely to give and to be the recipients of more reinforcement

A. Chris Downs; Darryl C. Gowan

1980-01-01

17

Watch Your Mouth! An Analysis of Profanity Uttered by Children on Prime-Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the frequency and types of offensive language spoken on prime-time television in 2001, particularly on programs rated acceptable for chil- dren and teenagers, and the use of profane language by characters under the age of 21. The findings are compared to similar studies conducted in 1990, 1994, and 1997 to determine whether the use of profanity by

Barbara K. Kaye; Barry S. Sapolsky

18

Prosocial and Antisocial Interaction on Television: Conflict and Jealousy on Prime Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed prime time television programs for the presence of interpersonal predicaments, specifically family conflict and situations involving jealousy, envy, and rivalry. The portrayal of these situations was evaluated according to relevant pro- and antisocial criteria. A total of 17 one-hour episodes and 24 half-hour episodes were…

Comstock, Jamie; Strzyzewski, Krystyna

19

Health and Nutrient Content Claims in Food Advertisements on Hispanic and Mainstream Prime-Time Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Characterize frequency and type of health and nutrient content claims in prime-time weeknight Spanish- and English-language television advertisements from programs shown in 2003 with a high viewership by women aged 18 to 35 years. Design: Comparative content analysis design was used to analyze 95 hours of Spanish-language and 72 hours…

Abbatangelo-Gray, Jodie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Austin, S. Bryn

2008-01-01

20

Policing on prime-time: A comparison of television and real-world policing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an investigation of presentations of police and policing activities in two purposively selected contemporary\\u000a prime-time entertainment justice shows and one reality-based justice show. With the exception of being portrayed as overly\\u000a successful, television police were portrayed closely to real-life police in terms of their gender, racial composition, organization,\\u000a tasks, role, and response to crime. As such, prime-time

Danielle M. Soulliere

2004-01-01

21

Textual Analyses of Nutrition Messages on Prime Time Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using textual analysis of 805 incidents in 10 television programs and surrounding commercials, foods portrayed were compared with nutrition guidelines. Foods tended to be higher in fat and lower in fiber, and food portrayals had social and psychological meanings. Adverse health effects of foods low in nutrients were not depicted. (Contains 57…

Wadsworth, Laurie A.; Berenbaum, Shawna

2001-01-01

22

Sex Role Stereotyping in Prime Time Television. The United Methodist Women's Television Monitoring Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After training and a pilot test, 19 groups throughout the United States composed of a total of 187 monitors--predominantly women--were evaluated on the basis of sex role criteria programs telecast on the three commercial television networks during a 12-week period from November 1975 through February 1976. Results indicated that the 1975-76…

United Methodist Church, New York, NY.

23

Talking about sex: Common themes about sexuality in the prime-time television programs children and adolescents view most  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although concern is often raised about television's role as a “teacher” about sexuality, little is known about the specific content of sexual messages on the programs children and adolescents view most. To explore this issue, a content analysis was conducted of the twelve prime-time television programs most preferred by children and adolescents. For three episodes of each program, all interactions

L. Monique Ward

1995-01-01

24

Constructing Gender Stereotypes Through Social Roles in Prime-Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 124 prime-time television programs airing on the 6 broadcast networks during the 2005–06 season, this study examined the social roles enacted by female and male characters. The findings confirm that female characters continue to inhabit interpersonal roles involved with romance, family, and friends. In contrast, male characters are more likely to enact work-related roles. Moreover, programs

Martha M. Lauzen; David M. Dozier; Nora Horan

2008-01-01

25

A Content Analysis of Music Placement in Prime-Time Television Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music is very popular in advertising. You can hear as much music in commercials as you can on some commercial radio stations. This research analyzed 3,456 prime-time television commercials to not only quantify, but qualify the placement of music in advertising. Overall, 94 percent of the total advertisements (3,456) and 86 percent of the unique advertisements (715) contained some type

DAVID ALLAN

2008-01-01

26

Older Adults in Prime-Time Television Dramas in Taiwan: Prevalence, Portrayal, and Communication Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content and thematic analysis of 109 episodes (94.9 h) of prime-time dramas examined the portrayals of aging and the nature\\u000a of intergenerational interaction involving older adults on Taiwanese television. The content analysis revealed that older\\u000a characters, regardless of sex, appeared less frequently and in less prominent roles than other adult characters, but not in\\u000a comparison to adolescents and children. The

Shu-Chin Lien; Yan Bing Zhang; Mary Lee Hummert

2009-01-01

27

Occupational role portrayals of African-American women on prime-time television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined portrayals of African-American women shown in professional careers on prime-time network television during the May 2005 sweeps month. Specifically, the study compares these portrayals to actual U.S. Department of Labor workforce statistics to observe a possible similarity. Additionally, the study identifies any behavioral and conversational stereotyped attributes ascribed to African-American female characters shown in the workplace. A

Shani Tyhirah Jefferson

2005-01-01

28

Channeling Children: Sex Stereotyping in Prime-Time TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The portrayal of male and female roles on prime-time television programs was investigated. Sixteen programs were observed, and data on the number and occupation of female and male characters, on positive and negative behaviors, including competence and aggression, were recorded. Plot summaries were also written for typical episodes. Research on…

Miles, Betty

29

Alcohol Consumption Patterns and Consequences on Prime Time Network TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to establish a baseline of facts concerning the extent, nature, and social functions of the drinking of alcoholic beverages as depicted on prime time network television programing. A content analysis was undertaken of a random sample of programs drawn from the three major networks over a period of 14 evenings. The primary…

Lowry, Dennis T.

30

Changes in food advertisements during 'prime-time' television from 1991 to 2006 in the UK and Canada.  

PubMed

Food advertisements on mainstream television have received less research attention than those on children's television. Little is known about how television food advertisements vary internationally or if there have been changes over recent years. We describe food-related television advertisements and the nutrient content of foods advertised during prime-time television in Ontario, Canada and the UK in 1991 and 2006. Information on what advertisements were broadcast were obtained from video recordings and audience research bureaux. Data on nutrient content of foods advertised were obtained from manufacturers and standard food tables. The proportion of advertisements that were food related decreased between 1991 and 2006 in both countries. The frequency of food-related advertisements was relatively constant in Canada but decreased between 1991 and 2006 in the UK. In 1991, advertisements for beverages and meals predominated in both countries. By 2006, food-related advertisements in Canada were dominated by meals and restaurants. In the UK advertisements for food stores and beverages predominated. The 'TV diet' in Canada in 1991 was relatively high in fat, high in alcohol and low in fibre, compared to current recommendations. By 2006, this had changed to high in fat and sodium and low in fibre. The 'TV diet' in the UK in 1991 was high in fat, sodium, sugar and alcohol and low in fibre compared to current recommendations. By 2006, the UK 'TV diet' was high in sodium, sugar and alcohol and low in fibre. Foods advertised on 'prime-time' television do not reflect a healthful diet. PMID:19243640

Adams, Jean; Hennessy-Priest, Kathleen; Ingimarsdóttir, Sigrún; Sheeshka, Judy; Østbye, Truls; White, Martin

2009-08-01

31

Sexual acts and references on prime?time TV: A two?year look  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two?year content analysis of prime?time network television revealed a substantial increase in sex on television from 1978 to 1979. The largest increase occurred in sexual acts, which most frequently involved unmarried partners. Intercourse appeared minimally as an implied behavior. Sex on television continued predominantly as reference and not overt action. Although sex was most often treated humorously, the portrayal

Barry S. Sapolsky

1982-01-01

32

The Prime Time Diet: A Content Analysis of Eating Behavior and Food Messages in Television Program Content and Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies and analyzes messages related to food and eating behavior as presented on prime time television programing and commercials. Finds that food references occur an average of 4.8 times per 30 minutes and that over half of all food references were for low nutrient beverages and sweets, which is inconsistent with healthy dietary guidelines.…

Story, Mary; Faulkner, Patricia

1990-01-01

33

Media Stereotyping: A Comparison of the Way Elderly Women and Men Are Portrayed on Prime-Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis of 139 programs and 2,211 characters updates and extends previous research on the way elderly people, and especially elderly women, are presented on prime-time television. Findings indicate that females and the elderly continue to be significantly underrepresented. Comparisons of elderly men and women showed patterns of traditional stereotypes, with men more likely to be depicted positively on

JoEtta A. Vernon; Williams J. Allen Jr; Terri Phillips; Janet Wilson

1990-01-01

34

Media Stereotyping: A Comparison of the Way Elderly Women and Men Are Portrayed on Prime-Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis of 139 programs and 2,211 characters updates and extends previous research on the way elderly people, and especially elderly women, are presented on prime-time television. Findings indicate that females and the elderly continue to be significantly underrepresented. Comparisons of elderly men and women showed patterns of traditional stereotypes, with men more likely to be depicted positively on

JoEtta A. Vernon; J. Allen Williams Jr; Terri Phillips; Janet Wilson

1991-01-01

35

Analysis of Network TV Commercial Time Pricing for Top-Rated Prime Time Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purchasing of television advertising time is an annual event involving extensive negotiations, multi-show packages, and billions of dollars. Nevertheless, research in the area of television commercial time pricing is limited in the marketing literature. This study is an econometric analysis of pricing by the three major networks for commercial time within top-rated prime time programs from 1984–85 through 1987–88. Our

Hirokazu Takada; Walter A. Henry

1993-01-01

36

Older adults in prime-time television dramas in Taiwan: prevalence, portrayal, and communication interaction.  

PubMed

A content and thematic analysis of 109 episodes (94.9 h) of prime-time dramas examined the portrayals of aging and the nature of intergenerational interaction involving older adults on Taiwanese television. The content analysis revealed that older characters, regardless of sex, appeared less frequently and in less prominent roles than other adult characters, but not in comparison to adolescents and children. The older characters who did appear, however, were predominantly portrayed as cognitively sound and physically healthy. The thematic analysis provided a different picture, showing that older characters talked about age explicitly, strategically linking it to death and despondence, to influence younger characters. Communication behavior themes identified included supporting, superiority, and controlling for older characters, and reverence/respect for younger characters. Findings are compared to those from similar studies of U.S. media and discussed from a Cultivation Theory perspective in terms of their reinforcement of Chinese age stereotypes and the traditional values of filial piety and age hierarchy in the context of globalization and culture change. PMID:19757005

Lien, Shu-Chin; Zhang, Yan Bing; Hummert, Mary Lee

2009-12-01

37

Trends in US prime-time television food advertising across three decades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the content of food advertisements broadcast during prime-time network programs and determine what changes have occurred over the last 30 years. The sample comprised foods advertisements (N = 38, N = 31, N = 91, N = 105, N = 108) from 1971, 1977, 1988, 1992 and 1998, respectively. Of the commercials

Carol Byrd-Bredbenner; Darlene Grasso

2000-01-01

38

Mobile TV’s Time to Shine Has Arrived  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a MoFilm, the first mobile film festival, achieved some legitimacy when multiple Academy Award-winning actor Kevin Spacey hosted\\u000a the show in 2009. Spacey commented: “[I]n some countries, this might be the first time they [people] ever see a movie. … They\\u000a won’t see it on that big screen; they’ll see it on a small one.”1 According to a 2007 Gartner report,

Fred Kitson

2010-01-01

39

Prime-Time Health: An Analysis of Health Content In Television Commercials Broadcast During Programs Viewed Heavily by Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

For Americans of all ages, television is the primary source of health information. A major concern is the inadequate, inaccurate, and\\/or questionable content of messages embedded in television programs and commercials. To facilitate our work as health educators, an up-to-date description of the health-related content (HRC) shown on television is needed. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify,

Carol Byrd-Bredbenner; Darlene Grasso

40

Game Time, Soap Time and Prime Time TV Ads: Treatment of Women in Sunday Football and Rest-of-Week Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis of national television ads accompanying sporting events, soap operas and general prime time shows indicates that male characters are more common in ads accompanying sporting events and that males are more often given speaking roles. There was no support for a hypothesis that there would be more provocatively dressed women in sporting event ads than in advertising

Daniel Riffe; Charles M. Mayo

1993-01-01

41

SUNFLOWER BROADCASTING, INC. Sunflower Broadcasting, Inc. is currently accepting applications for a full-time Television  

E-print Network

for a full-time Television Account Executive for television sales. Must have a background in advertising/Spanish) Sunflower Broadcasting, Inc., consisting of KWCH-TV, KSCW-TV, and satellite stations KBSD-TV, KBSH-TV, KBSL-TV, is currently accepting applications for a full-time Television/Web Sales Account Executive for television

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

42

SUNFLOWER BROADCASTING, INC. Sunflower Broadcasting, Inc. is currently accepting applications for a full-time Television  

E-print Network

for a full-time Television Account Executive for television sales. Must have a background in advertising and KSCW ­ TV Wichita, KS Dodge City, KS Hays, KS Goodland, KS Salina, KS TELEVISION/WEB SALES ACCOUNT/Spanish) Sunflower Broadcasting, Inc., consisting of KWCH-TV, KSCW-TV, and satellite stations KBSD-TV, KBSH-TV, KBSL-TV

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

43

Reading? Does Television Viewing Time Affect It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hundred twenty-six 5th and 6th graders were the subjects of this study to correlate amount of television viewing and reading scores. It was found that the average viewing time per week for girls was 28 hours and for boys 30 hours. A slight relationship was reported between reading ability and amount of leisure time spent watching television.…

Starkey, John D.; Swinford, Helen Lee

44

"That's not a beer bong, it's a breast pump!" representations of breastfeeding in prime-time fictional television.  

PubMed

Breastfeeding has been recognized as one of the key determinant in one's future health. Yet although most people are aware of the benefits, many women do not breastfeed their babies past the first few months. These low rates can be partially explained by negative cultural attitudes toward breastfeeding, which have been reinforced by media messages. This research explored representations of breastfeeding in entertainment media-an area that has been overlooked. A textual analysis was conducted on 53 fictional television breastfeeding representations, ranging in genre and audience, from Beavis and Butthead to Criminal Minds. Findings indicate that breastfeeding depictions are generally positive, but limited in scope to educated, older, Caucasian women breastfeeding newborns, with little discussion about how to overcome problems. Extended breastfeeding and nursing in public were conveyed as socially unacceptable, making other characters uncomfortable, often within the same storylines that sexualized breasts. While the frequency of representations in recent years was encouraging, the narrow definition of the "normal" nursing experience excluded many types of women and breastfeeding experiences. And, by failing to address breastfeeding challenges and conveying that extended breastfeeding or nursing in public is abnormal or obscene, these depictions reinforce myths about the ease of breastfeeding and may discourage women from breastfeeding past the newborn phase, and outside the privacy of their homes. These portrayals may help explain why breastfeeding has not been "normalized," despite an international consensus that it is the best health choice for babies. PMID:22746199

Foss, Katherine A

2013-01-01

45

Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior  

PubMed Central

Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

2009-01-01

46

Television Violence and Children's Aggression: Testing the Priming, Social Script, and Disinhibition Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of television violence on boys' aggression was investigated with consideration of teacher-rated characteristic aggressiveness, timing of frustration, and violence-related cues as moderators. Boys in Grades 2 and 3 (N = 396) watched violent or nonviolent TV in groups of 6, and half the groups were later exposed to a cue associated with the violent TV program. They were

Wendy L. Josephson

1987-01-01

47

Removing the Bedroom Television Set: A Possible Method for Decreasing Television Viewing Time in Overweight and Obese Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

U.S. adults watch television (TV) for an average of 5 hours per day, an amount associated with increased obesity risk. Studies in children have found bedroom TV sets, which result in greater time spent by watching TV and shorter sleep durations, both of which increase a child's odds of becoming overweight. The authors examined associations between…

Jones, Katherine E.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Harvey-Berino, Jean R.

2010-01-01

48

Prime time sexual harrassment.  

PubMed

This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves. PMID:12294811

Grauerholz, E; King, A

1997-04-01

49

The effect of parental interaction on learning from television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the relationship between the amount of learning which occurs in children during normal home television viewing and the presence of parental interaction during viewing situations. It was found that when parents interacted with their child about the content of prime time TV programs, incidental learning from television was significantly enhanced. In addition, television was found to be

James I. Walling

1976-01-01

50

Real-time highlight detection in baseball video for TVs with time-shift function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-shift is a crucial function of interactive televisions as like DVR and Internet TV broadcasting services. Automatic important event detection allows users utilize time- shift function conveniently. In this paper, we propose a method to extract important events in baseball videos. In the proposed method, we first detect play scenes and audio events separately from video and audio tracks. For

Hyoung-Gook Kim; Jinguk Jeong; Jang-Heon Kim; Jin Young Kim

2008-01-01

51

Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior Jennifer L. Harris, John A. Bargh, and Kelly D. Brownell  

E-print Network

Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior Jennifer L. Harris, John A. Bargh. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewing may also contribute, children view, on average, 15 TV food advertisements (Federal Trade Commission, 2007), and an overwhelming

Bargh, John A.

52

Fall Colors, 2001-02: Prime Time Diversity Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television is an integral part of American culture, and has the ability to play a major role in shaping belief systems, particularly for the youngest and most impressionable viewers. This study is the third annual study of diversity of characters in prime time television programming. The study examined the first two episodes of each prime time

Parker, McCrae A.; Miller, Patti; Espejo, Eileen; Grossman-Swenson, Sarah

53

Prime Suspects: The Corrosive Influence of Local Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local television news is the public’s primary source of public affairs information. News stories about crime dominate local news programming because they maintain high audience demand. The prevalence of this type of reporting has led to a crime narrative or “script†that includes two core elements: crime is violent and perpetrators of crime are non-white males. We show that this

Franklin D. Gilliam Jr.; Shanto Lyengar

2000-01-01

54

Social Trust, Social Partner Time and Television Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social trust is an important phenomenon, but the influence of important time-based measures upon trust has not been examined. Such measures include social contact and anti-social activity, such as television watching, which allows for the co-presence of other people. This paper reports on associations between trust and weighted means of co-present…

Patulny, Roger

2011-01-01

55

Intertextuality and Television Discourse: The Max Headroom Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Max Headroom, the computer-generated media personality, presents a good opportunity for an investigation of the degree of intertextuality in television. Max combines narrative genres (science fiction and film noir), television program types (prime-time episodic narrative, made-for-TV movie, talkshows), advertising and programming, and electronic…

Braddlee

56

How Young Children Spend Their Time: Television and Other Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined television viewing over three years among two cohorts of 2- and 4-year olds. Found that viewing declined with age. With age, time in reading and educational activities increased on weekdays but declined on weekends, and sex differences in time-use patterns increased. Increased time in educational activities, social interaction, and video…

Huston, Aletha C.; Wright, John C.; Marquis, Janet; Green, Samuel B.

1999-01-01

57

The compatibility of LCD TVs with time-sequential stereoscopic 3D visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) are now a popular display technology for consumer television applications. Our previous research has shown that conventional LCD computer monitors are not well suited to time-sequential stereoscopic visualization due to the scanning image update method, the hold-type operation of LCDs, and in some cases slow pixel response rate. Recently some new technologies are being used in LCD TVs to improve 2D motion reproduction - such as black frame insertion and 100/120Hz capability. This paper reports on the testing of a selection of recent LCD TVs to investigate their compatibility with the time-sequential stereoscopic display method - particularly investigating new display technologies. Aspects considered in this investigation include image update method, pixel response rate, maximum input frame rate, backlight operation, frame rate up-conversion technique, synchronization, etc. A more advanced Matlab program was also developed as part of this study to simulate and characterize 3D compatibility and calculate the crosstalk present on each display. The results of the project show that black frame insertion does improve 3D compatibility of LCDs but not to a sufficient level to produce good 3D results. Unfortunately 100/120Hz operation of the tested LCD did not improve 3D compatibility compared to the LCD monitors tested previously.

Woods, Andrew J.; Sehic, Adin

2009-02-01

58

Interactive Television Pointers from Three First Time Presenters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three professors from the Harrison College of Business at Southeast Missouri State University were first-time presenters of a new ITV (interactive television) initiative at the college. This paper is an introduction to their experiences, including drawbacks and limitations of the experiences and tips for other first-time presenters. A common…

Buckenmyer, James A.; Kunz, David A.; Sterrett, Jack L.

59

Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

Frazer, Charles F.

60

The Social and Behavioral Effects of Broadcast Television on Previously Untouched Audiences. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, conducted prior to the installation of daily prime-time television programming in areas of rural Alaska previously without commercial television service, was designed to provide a foundation of pre-television baseline data against which to measure the social and behavioral effects of television on this multicultural population.…

Orvik, James M.; And Others

61

ACTION SAMPLING OF TELEVISION VIEWING: A FAVORITE WASTE OF TIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

TV watching is one of the most important ways of spending leisure time, the average daily watching time in the Swedish population is about 141 minutes - about 15 % of non-sleep time. Yet, there is little research on the psychological processes taking place while watching TV. In the present study using still-relevant data from a 1985-86 data base, the

Lennart Sjöberg; Rutger Magneberg; Datagram HB; Göteborg Sweden

2009-01-01

62

Television as a Source of Learning Sex Role Stereotypes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of heavy versus light television viewing on the degree to which children possess sex role stereotypes. Reference was made to content analyses of children's television programs, prime time dramatic programs, and commercials, to show that traditional sex role stereotypes are present in most aspects of television

McGhee, Paul E.

63

Television's "Soap" Controversy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The situation comedy, "Soap," television's first prime-time sex farce, stirred controversy months before its premiere, and subsequent pressure on advertisers forced the network to change the show's concept from an adult comedy to a "whodunit." This report summarizes the controversy, recounts reactions to the series, and lists the implications of…

Stutzman, Brent

64

Television and Growing Up: The Medium Gets Equal Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a review of research on television viewing and child behavior. The first section of the paper presents a brief historical review of television research. This review includes research on the effect of television on people's lives, the effects of violent content on aggressive behavior and the possible harmful effects of…

Huston-Stein, Aletha

65

Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ) television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June\\/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral

Rob McGee; Juanita Ketchel; Anthony I Reeder

2007-01-01

66

Relationships of individual, social, and physical environmental factors with older adults' television viewing time.  

PubMed

Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting) can be associated detrimentally with health outcomes. Older adults, the most sedentary age group, are especially at risk due to their high levels of television viewing time. This study examined individual, social, and physical environmental correlates of older adults' television viewing. Data on daily television viewing time, plus individual, social, and physical environmental factors were collected from 50,986 noninstitutionalized older adults (? 65 years) in Flanders (Belgium). The results showed significant relationships between television viewing time and individual, social, and physical environmental factors. Subgroups at risk for high levels of television viewing were those who were functionally limited, less educated, widowed, and (semi)urban-dwelling older adults. Our findings illustrate a cross-sectional link between older adults' television viewing time and social composition of their neighborhood, formal participation, access to alternative activities, and safety from crime. PMID:24231688

Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte

2014-10-01

67

Television and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.

68

Children and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet examines the influence of television on children and adolescents in developing and developed nations, reviewing research on television's relationship to child health and development. The first section reviews specific research on such variables as number of television sets in use, amount of time spent watching television, age, sex,…

Chevallier, Eric; Mansour, Sylvie

1993-01-01

69

Time Warp Sports for Internet Television DAN R. OLSEN, BRETT PARTRIDGE, and STEPHEN LYNN  

E-print Network

is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage16 Time Warp Sports for Internet Television DAN R. OLSEN, BRETT PARTRIDGE, and STEPHEN LYNN Brigham Young University Internet-based video delivery offers new opportunities for interactive television

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

70

Representation, Roles, and Occupational Status of Black Models in Television Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study updates information on the representation, roles, and occupational portrayal of African-Americans in television advertisements. A content analysis often prime time television shows revealed that black representation in television ads exceeded the percentage distribution of blacks in the population in 1991. The percentage of ads showing blacks in major roles has remained relatively stable over time. However, a black

Jane W. Licata; Abhijit Biswas

1993-01-01

71

Time spent watching television, sleep duration and obesity in adults living in Valencia, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association of time watching television (TV) and physical activity with obesity in the Mediterranean area of Spain with the highest prevalence of obesity.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SETTING: Valencia Region in Spain.PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 814 men and 958 women, aged 15 y and older, participating in a Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 1994.MEASUREMENTS: Height and weight

J Vioque; A Torres; J Quiles

2000-01-01

72

The Impact of the Newer Television Technologies on Television Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds that use of new television technologies (cable television, videocassette recorders, and remote control devices) had an impact on receiving, pass-the-time, and companionship gratifications from television viewing. Shows that instrumental viewing motives, television exposure, and receiving informational gratifications from television viewing…

Perse, Elizabeth M.; Ferguson, Douglas A.

1993-01-01

73

Violence and Sex in Music Videos: TV and Rock n' Roll.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study measuring the amount and kind of violence and sex presented in prime time music videos during a seven-week period. Compares sex and violence on music television to known data on conventional TV. (MS)

Sherman, Barry L.; Dominick, Joseph R.

1986-01-01

74

Health-related content in Australian television advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the proportions of health-related content in non-program time on Australian television, and how this relates to channel, product category, program genre and whether it is an advertisement or public service announcement (PSA). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Australian prime time television was recorded across three commercial television stations in Sydney. Non-program content (NPC)

Julia Alice Baker; Barbara Ann Mullan

2011-01-01

75

A Time to Reexamine the Role of Television in Our Lives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American children spend more time watching television than studying or communicating with their parents. Such a pervasive source of stimulation should be a matter of research significance for psychologists and educators. (Author/MJL)

Singer, Dorothy G.

1983-01-01

76

Perceived Vulnerability to Crime, Criminal Victimization Experience, and Television Viewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the relationship between undergraduate students' television viewing and their perceptions of personal vulnerability to crime reveals strength and direction of such associations are contingent upon viewer's source of criminal victimization experience, type of prime-time television viewed, and contextual nature of perception of personal…

Weaver, James; Wakshlag, Jacob

1986-01-01

77

Gender, Value, and Signification: Women and Television in Kerala  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a context where despite high levels of literacy and economic independence, women in Kerala are still expected to conform to conservative standards of docility, obedience and family-oriented (at the cost of their own happiness), the author surveys the impact of prime time television's impact on a sample of urban of rural women. Identifying television as an accessible media in

2006-01-01

78

An Analysis of Television Family Nutrition and Eating Habits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To describe the eating habits of the children and adults on several popular prime time television series, this study examined the latent content of television messages concerned with health care and nutrition. A sample of nine episodes of "The Cosby Show,""Growing Pains" and "Family Ties," during the 1986-87 season was studied. Each program was…

Larson, Mary S.

79

Drinking, Sex, and Violence on Television: The Cultural Indicators Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored portrayal of alcohol, alcoholics, and drinking in annual samples of prime-time network dramatic television programs. Reference to alcohol and drinking increased steadily since 1969 while number of alcoholics portrayed remained stable. Compared to respondents who watched less television, those who watched four or more hours per day were…

Signorielli, Nancy

1987-01-01

80

Gender Stereotypes in Spanish Television Commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was an analysis of gender stereotypes in television advertisements in Spain. For this purpose\\u000a the content analysis method was used to analyze 400 advertisements broadcast during prime time over the three national television\\u000a channels with the largest audience. A series of variables common to similar investigations were coded in order to allow comparisons\\u000a with

Federico Valls-Fernández; José Manuel Martínez-Vicente

2007-01-01

81

Next time somebody asks: "Is it good for young people to watch TV?" say YA TV, the Young Asia Television: the eyes and ears of young Asians.  

PubMed

This article presents a profile of the Young Asia Television (YATV) initiative by the WorldView International Foundation. The YATV channel brings news and analysis of Asia-focussed environmental concerns, current affairs, population and reproductive health issues, social problems including poverty and illiteracy, arts and culture, and other topics. In addition, it broadcasts programs produced by different countries on reproductive and sexual health, including AIDS and sexually transmitted disease prevention, and youth/adolescent awareness of sexual health. It was launched by the Foundation with a thrust stating that "television must encourage dialogue and debate; advance the creativity of people, especially the younger generation who will be the leaders of the future." In order to reach many more millions of viewers, YATV programs are networked with the Asian Broadcasting Union and 1000 other organizations through the Foundation's own NGOs network. This network provides the medium for value-based broadcasts in an entertaining fashion. The International Office of Worldview International Foundation in Colombo monitors the program activities on a continuing basis and uses the information gathered for impact assessment and long-term planning. PMID:12158252

1999-12-01

82

Political Implications of Prime-Time Drama and Sitcom Use: Genres of Representation and Opinions Concerning Women's Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars studying the content of televised entertainment programming have long argued for a relationship between exposure to sexist media representations of women and opinions concerning women's status in society, yet research has rarely exam- ined prime-time television audiences and their sociopolitical opinions concerning women's rights. To explore these relationships, we engaged in a secondary analysis of the 1997, 1998, and

R. Lance Holbert; Dhavan V. Shah; Nojin Kwak

2003-01-01

83

Color television and educational TV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Color television is so new that there is little concrete information on the subject. However, it seems logical to doubt that\\u000a color will provide any general increased effectiveness to educational TV. In some areas, such as art and medicine, the impact\\u000a may be great; but for the greater proportion of educational subjects, it will not contribute a great deal.\\u000a \\u000a In

1954-01-01

84

Time Well Spent? Relating Television Use to Children's Free-Time Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES. This study assessed the claim that children's television use interferes with time spent in more developmentally appropriate activities. METHODS. Data came from the first wave of the Child Development Supplement, a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 12 in 1997 (N 1712). Twenty-four-hour time-use diaries from 1 randomly chosen weekday and 1 randomly chosen weekend day were

Elizabeth A. Vandewater; David S. Bickham; June H. Lee

85

TV Links Film and Television Website Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TV Links Film and Television Website Archive is a site that points to almost anything you can think of relating to film and television. Categories include television shows, motion picture production companies, screen and video professional organizations, awards (Oscar, Emmy, and Tony), world TV schedules, 30 TV networks, Usenet newsgroups, and film festivals, among others. This is a definitive site for the definitive couch potato.

2005-11-29

86

TV Links Film and Television Website Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TV Links Film and Television Website Archive is a site that points to almost anything you can think of relating to film and television. Categories include television shows, motion picture production companies, screen and video professional organizations, awards (Oscar, Emmy, and Tony), world TV schedules, 30 TV networks, Usenet newsgroups, and film festivals, among others. This is a definitive site for the definitive couch potato.

87

Health discourse in Swedish television food advertising during children's peak viewing times.  

PubMed

Food marketing influences children's food preferences and consumption and is important to consider in the prevention of child obesity. In this paper, health messages in commercials during children's peak viewing times were analysed by examining how food is articulated in the health discourse. In total, 82 food commercials from 66h of television recordings of the most popular commercial channels with children in Sweden (TV3, TV4 and Channel 5) were analysed with discourse theoretical tools according to Laclau and Mouffe and with a focus on rhetoric. Physical, mental and social health aspects were present in 71% of the commercials. Three health discourse types; a medical (food as protection and treatment), a hedonic (food as feeling good) and a social discourse type (food as caring) were discerned. In relation to these, the heart symbol, lifestyle associations and nature/the natural were elements that could be interpreted in different ways. Moreover, foods carrying unhealthy associations were promoted in the health discourse and presented as especially healthy by offensive rhetoric. The analysis raises awareness of the prevailing health messages in food marketing. Children and parents should be encouraged to develop their critical thinking about television food advertising and how it may influence social norms and dietary practices. PMID:21295628

Prell, Hillevi; Palmblad, Eva; Lissner, Lauren; Berg, Christina M

2011-06-01

88

Television Viewing Time and Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: The AusDiab Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Television viewing time independent of physical activity is associated with a number of chronic diseases and related risk\\u000a factors; however, its relationship with chronic kidney disease is unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  The purpose of this study is to examine the cross-sectional and prospective relationships of television viewing time with\\u000a biomarkers of chronic kidney disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Participants of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study

Brigid M. Lynch; Sarah L. White; Neville Owen; Genevieve N. Healy; Steven J. Chadban; Robert C. Atkins; David W. Dunstan

2010-01-01

89

Naturally Occurring Changes in Time Spent Watching Television Are Inversely Related to Frequency of Physical Activity during Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with…

Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.

2006-01-01

90

Correlates of prolonged television viewing time in older Japanese men and women  

PubMed Central

Background In addition to insufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), prolonged sitting time is also a health risk for older adults. An understanding of population subgroups who have prolonged television viewing (TV) time, a predominant sedentary behavior, can aid in the development of relevant health promotion initiatives; however, few such studies have focused on older adults, the most sedentary segment of the population as a whole. The aim of this study is to examine the socio-demographic attributes associated with TV time among community-dwelling Japanese older men and women. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional mail survey was used to collect data on TV time, MVPA, and socio-demographic characteristics. The survey was conducted from February through March 2010. Participants were 2700 community-dwelling older adults (aged 65–74 years, 50% men) who were randomly selected from the registry of residential addresses of three cities in Japan. Data from 1665 participants (mean age: 69.5 years, 52% men) who completed all variables for the present study were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) of prolonged TV time (>2 hours/day) for each socio-demographic attribute, stratified by gender. Results Of the 1665 participants, 810 (48.6%) watched TV for more than 2 hours/day. The median television viewing time (25th, 75th percentile) was 2.00 (1.07, 3.50) hours/day. Prolonged TV time was associated with not in full-time employment, lower educational attainment, weight status, living in regional areas and low MVPA for the whole sample. For men, prolonged TV time was associated with lower educational attainment; (OR?=?1.53, 95% CI: 1.12-2.07), underweight (OR?=?1.63, 95% CI: 1.02-2.60), overweight (OR?=?1.57, 95% CI: 1.11-2.21), and low MVPA (OR?=?1.43, 95% CI: 1.02-2.02). For women, living in regional areas (OR?=?2.02, 95% CI: 1.33-3.08), living alone (OR?=?1.61, 95% CI: 1.03-2.49), not driving (OR?=?1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.65), overweight (OR?=?1.50, 95% CI: 1.00-2.24), and low MVPA (OR?=?1.51. 95% CI: 1.05-2.17) were associated with prolonged TV time. Conclusions These findings identify particular socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics related to TV time among Japanese older adults. It should be noted that correlates of prolonged TV time differed by gender. Women in living situations with limited transportation options tended to spend prolonged time watching TV. Health promotion initiatives for older adults, particularly for older women, may be more effective if they take these attributes into account. PMID:23496962

2013-01-01

91

Uses of Sex Appeals in Prime-Time Television Commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how sex appeals employed bymale and female models were utilized in Americantelevision commercials. It centers on the physicalcharacteristics and behavior of models appearing during primetime network programs, including bodilyshape, clothing revealment, physical contact, sexiness,attractiveness and physical as well as verbal innuendo.The study was based on 505 coding units sampled from 8 p.m. to 11 p.m. on the

Carolyn A. Lin

1998-01-01

92

Television and NationalismHistorical Change in the National Domestic TV Formation of Postwar Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts to throw some light on the linkage between television and nationalism in contemporary Japan, focusing on: 1) the historical development of TV as a symbolic object in everyday life; 2) TV as a technology of time–space articulation; and 3) the textual formation of TV programs. By the late 1950s, TV sets were placed not in homes, but

Shunya Yoshimi

2003-01-01

93

Health discourse in Swedish television food advertising during children's peak viewing times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food marketing influences children's food preferences and consumption and is important to consider in the prevention of child obesity. In this paper, health messages in commercials during children's peak viewing times were analysed by examining how food is articulated in the health discourse. In total, 82 food commercials from 66h of television recordings of the most popular commercial channels with

Hillevi Prell; Eva Palmblad; Lauren Lissner; Christina M. Berg

2011-01-01

94

Children's Television Exposure and Behavioral and Social Outcomes at 5.5 Years: Does Timing of Exposure Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends children 2 years of age limit daily media exposure to 1 to 2 hours and not have a television set in children's bedrooms. However, there are limited prospective studies to address how timing of media exposure influences children's health. OBJECTIVE. Our goal was to examine relations among children's early, concurrent, and sustained television

Kamila B. Mistry; Cynthia S. Minkovitz; Donna M. Strobino; Dina L. G. Borzekowski

2010-01-01

95

Black to Reality: Entertainment Television as a Priming Agent for Race-Based Evaluations of Candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the widespread tendency to avoid direct discourse about race in America (specifically among whites), we seek to better understand whether racial messages that heighten our awareness about race have an effect on voter decision-making. Rather than focusing on messages from news media or political advertising as priming agents, we explore the potential effect of popular culture. Specifically, we provide

Stephen Maynard Caliendo; Charlton D. McIlwain

96

Ideologies of Gender on Television in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content analyses of Indian television programmes on the national network Doordarshan in the 1980s have shown that prime-time shows cast women as docile homemakers and as objects of male desire. This paper uses a critical postcolonial theoretical framework and narrative analysis method to detect ideologies of gender from programmes randomly selected from a month's menu of the transnational, national and

Divya C. Mcmillin

2002-01-01

97

Mobile TV's Time to Shine Has Arrived  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MoFilm, the first mobile film festival, achieved some legitimacy when multiple Academy Award-winning actor Kevin Spacey hosted the show in 2009. Spacey commented: "[I]n some countries, this might be the first time they [people] ever see a movie. … They won't see it on that big screen; they'll see it on a small one."1 According to a 2007 Gartner report, sales of cell phones skyrocketed for the first time to more than 1 billion.2 In 2008, the number of worldwide subscribers topped 4 billion, covering 60% of the world population.3 There are more mobile phones than TVs (there are 1.4 billion TVs worldwide4). Spacey concluded: "The quality of work and the simple ability at storytelling, the thing that ignites someone and inspires them to tell a story, can really come from anywhere."5

Kitson, Fred

98

Television watching  

MedlinePLUS

... to embrace household responsibilities and to self-limit television viewing. ... Committee on Public Education. Children, adolescents, and television. Pediatrics . 2001;107:423-426. Thakkar RR, Garrison MM, and Christakis DA. A systematic review for the effects of ...

99

The Relationship between Active Viewing of Different Television Content Types and Individual Perception of a Mean World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study tested the validity of two active TV viewing constructs that predicted the effects of content and degree of active viewing on a television viewer's perception of a mean world. Random digit dialing produced interviews with 163 subjects who were asked separate questions about their prime time and daytime viewing to determine their level of…

Rouner, Donna

100

Is Television Viewing Associated With Social Isolation? Roles of Exposure Time, Viewing Context, and Violent Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Viewing violent programs (but not nonviolent programs) was negatively related to time children spent with friends (aged 6-8 years, unstandardized regression coefficient () =?0 .34, 95% confidence interval (CI), ?0 .59 to ?0 .08; aged 9-12 years, = ?0 .41, 95% CI,?0.65 to?0.18). More time viewing television with friends was associated with more time engaging in other activities with

David S. Bickham; Michael Rich

2006-01-01

101

Television and Attitudes toward Mental Health Issues: Cultivation Analysis and the Third-Person Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A television content analysis and survey of 419 community respondents supports the hypothesis that media stereotypes affect public attitudes toward mental health issues. A content analysis of network, prime-time television demonstrates that portrayals are violent, false, and negative. The mentally disordered are portrayed as 10 times more likely…

Diefenbach, Donald L.; West, Mark D.

2007-01-01

102

Time bomb or hidden treasure? Characteristics of junk TVs and of the US households who store them.  

PubMed

Within the growing stockpile of electronic waste (e-waste), TVs are especially of concern in the US because of their number (which is known imprecisely), their low recycling rate, and their material content: cathode ray tube televisions contain lead, and both rear projection and flat panel displays contain mercury, in addition to other potentially toxic materials. Based on a unique dataset from a 2010 survey, our count models show that pro-environmental behavior, age, education, household size, marital status, gender of the head of household, dwelling type, and geographic location are statistically significant variables for explaining the number of broken or obsolete (junk) TVs stored by US households. We also estimate that they are storing approximately 84.1 million junk TVs, which represents 40 pounds of scrap per household. Materials in each of these junk TVs are worth $21 on average at January 2012 materials prices, which sets an upper bound on collecting and recycling costs. This information should be helpful for developing more effective recycling strategies for TVs in the e-waste stream. PMID:22892479

Milovantseva, Natalia; Saphores, Jean-Daniel

2013-03-01

103

Exploring Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Exploring Television" is an inquiry/discovery textbook designed to help students to understand, analyze, criticize, evaluate, and judge the experiences they have had in front of the television set. The text consists of three main parts. "The Medium" inquires into the radio-movie origins of television and prompts research into the networks and…

Kuhns, William

104

The association between television watching time and all-cause mortality after breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Sedentary time is a rapidly emerging independent risk factor for mortality in the general population, but its prognostic effect among cancer survivors is unknown. In a multiethnic, prospective cohort of breast cancer survivors, we hypothesized that television watching time would be independently associated with an increased risk of death from any cause. Methods The Health, Eating, Activity and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study cohort included 687 women diagnosed with local or regional breast cancer. On average 30 (± 4) months postdiagnosis, , women completed self-report assessments on time spent sitting watching television/videos in a typical day in the previous year. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for death from any cause (n=89) during the 7 years of follow-up. Results Television time (top tertile vs. bottom tertile) was positively related to risk of death (HR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.66, ptrend=0.024) but the association was attenuated and not statistically significant after adjustment for aerobic moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity (HR: 1.70, 95% CI: 0.89, 3.22, ptrend=0.14) and all covariates (HR: 1.39, 95% CI: 0.69, 2.82, ptrend=0.48). Conclusion In this first published investigation on this topic, we did not observe a statistically significant multivariate-adjusted association between television watching time and risk of death among women diagnosed with breast cancer. Implications for Cancer Survivors These results begin an evidence base on this topic that can be built upon to inform lifestyle recommendations for this expanding, aging population. PMID:23378061

George, Stephanie M.; Smith, Ashley W.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Bowles, Heather R.; Irwin, Melinda L.; McTiernan, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

2013-01-01

105

The effect of television day part on gender portrayals in television commercials: A content analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender portrayals in 2,209 network television commercials were content analyzed. To compare differences between three day parts, the sample was chosen from three time periods: daytime, when the audience is mostly women; evening prime time, when the sex of the audience is more evenly distributed; and weekend afternoon sportscasts, when men are a large percentage of the audience. The results

R. Stephen Craig

1992-01-01

106

The Big Three's Prime-Time Decline: A Technological and Social Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an analysis of factors associated with the 25-year decline in the prime-time shares of the top 3 television networks. Time series analysis revealed a stronger serial correlation between network decline and social indicators than between network decline and technological factors. Network shares were negatively correlated with indicators of social differentiation, and were also negatively correlated with the

Douglas Blanks Hindman; Kenneth Wiegand

2008-01-01

107

What's Wrong with This Picture? A Look at Working Women on Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined 10 years of prime time programming--from 1972 to 1981--to discover how television has portrayed women who work outside of the home, together with the new technologies of cable and satellite television, their current programming for and about working women, and the possibilities for the future. The programs selected for each…

DeGooyer, Janice; Borah, Farfalla

108

Effect of electronic time monitors on children's television watching: Pilot trial of a home-based intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThis pilot study evaluated the feasibility (recruitment, retention, and acceptability) and preliminary efficacy of a six-week home-based electronic time monitor intervention on New Zealand children's television watching in 2008.

Cliona Ni Mhurchu; Vaughan Roberts; Ralph Maddison; Enid Dorey; Yannan Jiang; Andrew Jull; Sandar Tin Tin

2009-01-01

109

Television and the Humanist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mass media and especially television pose problems for teachers in humanities disciplines traditionally associated with leisure, time for reflection, and the quiet contemplation of the good, true, and beautiful. Although other media have been criticized for their deleterious effects, television most affects humanists in their mission because…

Zigerell, James

110

76 FR 44821 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...bringing the low power television transition to a timely...1, 2015 low power television digital transition...extent of our consumer education at this time. However...shall continue its education and efforts guided...finds that low power television stations have had...

2011-07-27

111

Television: The Preschooler's First Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes the potential educational and socializing role of television for children in light of the amount of viewing time, sensitivity to nonverbal communications, and their relative ease of influence. The effects of commercials and televised violence are cited, as is television's ability to influence behavior and cognitive functioning. (RAO)

Graves, Sherryl Browne

1978-01-01

112

Using Prime-Time Animation to Engage Students in Courses on Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prime-time animation is a television genre that frequently reflects on issues that are significant in contemporary society, including aging issues. Using such programs to present aging-related content can be a constructive pedagogical device, offering a means of actively engaging students. This article provides a brief overview of the use of media, popular culture, and prime-time animation in college teaching and

Lisa M. Curch

2010-01-01

113

ObesiTV: how television is influencing the obesity epidemic.  

PubMed

Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States. Over the last several decades, the prevalence of obesity among both adults and children has grown at an alarming rate and is now reaching epidemic proportions. The increase in obesity has been associated with rises in a host of other chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. While the causes of obesity are multifaceted, there is growing evidence that television viewing is a major contributor. Results of numerous studies indicate a direct association between time spent watching television and body weight. Possible explanations for this relationship include: 1) watching television acts as a sedentary replacement for physical activity; 2) food advertisements for nutrient-poor, high-calorie foods stimulate food intake; and 3) television viewing is associated with "mindless" eating. In addition to decreasing physical activity and increasing the consumption of highly palatable foods, television viewing can also promote weight gain in indirect ways, such as through the use of targeted product placements in television shows; by influencing social perceptions of body image; and airing programs that portray cooking, eating and losing weight as entertainment. This paper will provide an interdisciplinary review of the direct and indirect ways in which television influences the obesity epidemic, and conclude with ways in which the negative impact of television on obesity could be reduced. PMID:22677722

Boulos, Rebecca; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Chang, Hannah; Kanarek, Robin B

2012-08-20

114

Television Viewing, Walking Speed and Grip Strength in a Prospective Cohort Study  

E-print Network

, Bargh J a, Brownell KD. Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior. Health Psychol. 2009;28(4):404–13. 17. Hayat SA, Luben R, Keevil VL, et al. Cohort Profile: A prospective cohort study of objective physical and cognitive... 1 Television Viewing, Walking Speed and Grip Strength in a Prospective Cohort Study Keevil Victoria L1, Wijndaele Katrien2, Luben Robert1, Sayer Avan A3, Wareham Nicholas J2 & Khaw Kay-Tee1 Running Title: TV Viewing Time and Physical Function...

Keevil, Victoria L.; Wijndaele, Katrien; Luben, Robert; Sayer, Avan A.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

2014-07-18

115

Association of Maternal Obesity and Depressive Symptoms with Television-Viewing Time in Low-Income Preschool Children. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent & Medicine, vol. 157  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreasing the amount of time that children watch television may improve their health and well-being. Since viewing patterns are shaped during the preschool years, a better understanding is needed of maternal factors that influence children’s TV viewing. This article examines the relationship of depressive symptoms and obesity in low-income mothers with TV-viewing time in their preschool children. Researchers note that

Hilary L. Burdette; Robert C. Whitaker; Robert S. Kahn; Jean Harvey-Berino

2003-01-01

116

Subscription Television (STV--Pay TV)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subscription television (STV), established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1968, involves transmitting television programs over the air to viewers who pay for the service. The development, trial operation, and test results of subscription television are described in this report, along with four Commission reports, and FCC…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

117

Educational Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third in a series on the history of distance education, this article suggests that a historic look at educational television can provide lessons for a newer medium--the Internet. Discussion includes early attempts in higher education to use instructional television; early funding of educational programs; and an experiment that involved a DC-6…

Distance Education Report, 1999

1999-01-01

118

Pulsed illumination, closed circuit television system for real-time viewing of unsteady (> 1 micros) events.  

PubMed

A pulsed illumination closed circuit television system is described whereby fast (times <33 ms), unsteady events can be observed in real time. A low-power helium-neon laser beam is modulated to send a short duration light pulse through the unsteady test medium. The light is refracted according to the instantaneous optical properties of the medium. The refracted light travels to a solid state television camera, known as a charge injection device (CID), in which the sensor array is charged within microseconds. The scanning of the charged array then follows, requiring the standard 33 ms for information transfer to video tape and a TV monitor. The image is thus formed during the laser pulse duration (which presently is 10 to 100 micros, but shorter duration pulses are possible with more powerful lasers), but no more than one image every 33 ms can be observed and recorded. Thus this method is particularly suited for the investigation of high frequency periodic events in which one can observe both a single image, or an ensemble average of as many as 100 images, occurring at corresponding times in different cycles. The reported applications include the recording of steady and transient propane torch flames, of the transient fuel injection process in a motored internal combustion engine, and of the propagation of a flame under firing conditions in the engine. In the shadowgraph and Schlieren modes the method is particularly suited for application to periodic combustion events such as those occurring in internal combustion engines. The method then presents the following advantages over high-speed filming (> 3000 pictures/s); real-time observation and recording of chamber events at any crankangle; real-time observation and recording of the effects of changes in the engine variables (speed, load, spark timing, injection pressure and duration, chamber swirl, etc.) on the combustion events; real-time observation and recording of ensemble averages and cycle-to-cycle variations. The technique also eliminates the delays and unknowns of film processing. Finally, the cost of this system is similar to that of a high-speed camera. PMID:18698961

Marden, W W; Steinberger, R L; Bracco, F V

1978-10-01

119

Relation of adiposity, television and screen time in offspring to their parents  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have examined the relations of adiposity and lifestyle factors in young offspring with their parents as children (parentschild) or at their current age (parentsadult). Therefore, we compared measures of adiposity and lifestyle in parentschild and parentsadult with their offspring. Methods Two generations (one parent and his/her offspring) participated in this study: 234 parents from a previously established cohort and 382 offspring. Parentsadult and offspring underwent measurements for height, weight, waist circumference, % body fat, visceral fat, and lifestyle habits. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, obese based on age-specific BMI criteria. Mixed model linear regression analysis evaluated the associations of adiposity and lifestyle factors of parentschild and parentsadult with that of their offspring, adjusting for age, sex, race, and family membership. Results The prevalence of obesity was greater among offspring mean age 12.3 years compared to their parentschild mean age 12.6 years (18.4% vs 10.1%, p<0.001) even though hours of television (TV) watching were similar between the two generations as children (p=0.80). Sixty percent of parents (as children and adults) and offspring reported more than 2 hours of TV/day. Offspring of parents who were overweight and obese as children had greater BMI (all p<0.001) than offspring of parents who were normal weight as children. For both parentadult and offspring, adiposity was greater with greater total screen time. Conclusions Identifying high-risk families is important for early intervention of overweight, especially in children. PMID:24004899

2013-01-01

120

Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ) television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television. PMID:17270053

McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita; Reeder, Anthony I

2007-01-01

121

Stressful Life Events and Television Viewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mood management theory predicts that people experiencing stress use television to block anxious thoughts and to replace dysphoric moods. In a survey of 491 adults, Study 1 found that stress as measured by life events was unrelated to time spent TV viewing but for women, was positively related to scores on a scale of television addiction. In Study 2, viewing

DANIEL R. ANDERSON; PATRICIA A. COLLINS; KELLY L. SCHMITT; ROBIN SMITH JACOBVITZ

1996-01-01

122

Multiplex television transmission system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.

Reed, W. R.

1967-01-01

123

Only Two Hours? A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Parents Perceive in Restricting Child Television Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…

Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer

2011-01-01

124

Perceptions of the Sex Stereotyped Attributes of Television Characters as a Function of the Sex of the Perceiver.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown television characters to be overwhelmingly portrayed as sex-stereotyped. Recently, however, more unstereotyped characters have been introduced into television programming. It was hypothesized that college-age subjects, when presented with prime-time characters pre-rated as examples of stereotyped and unstereotyped portrayals,…

Popovich, Paula M.; Butter, Eliot J.

125

Making the Most of Television: Tips for Parents of Young Viewers = Aproveche al maximo la television: Ideas para padres de ninos jovenes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the help of parents, television can expand a child's world and be a springboard to reading. This brochure discusses things parents and caregivers can do to make television a partner in helping children grow and learn. It suggests: make a "TV plan"; getting involved while children watch television; using the VCR and videos; and turning TV time

Moss, Jeanette

126

Ready for Prime Time Patrol BY DALE STOCKTON  

E-print Network

inquiries and even change radio channels. Several more cars are added each week. Project54 gets its name from the forty year old TV show Car 54, Where Are You? and is a collaborative research and developmentProject54 Ready for Prime Time Patrol BY DALE STOCKTON One of the most promising developments

New Hampshire, University of

127

Children's Television in Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews developments in the television industry in Australia with specific reference to children's television. Advertising regulations and research and publications related to children's television are also noted. (RAO)

Murray, John P.

1978-01-01

128

CHILDREN AND TV, TELEVISION'S IMPACT ON THE CHILD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

VARIOUS POINTS OF VIEW ARE PRESENTED ON THE EFFECT OF TELEVISION UPON CHILDREN. CONTENTS--(1) TELEVISION, TIGER BY THE TAIL--ERNA CHRISTENSEN. (2) TELEVISION'S IMPACT ON THE CHILD--RALPH GARRY. (3) SOME RESEARCH ON TV--PAUL A. WITTY. (4) THE CURRICULUM CONTENT OF CHILDREN'S TELEVISION PROGRAMS AND COMMERCIALS--MARIE TOWNSEND MOORE AND JULIANA…

GRAY, NAN; SUNDERLIN, SYLVIA

129

Educational Television in Israel: spotlight on the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author was based at the Educational Television Centre in Tel?Aviv with a remit to study the development of educational television in Israel from its inception in 1966. The article briefly discusses the political and technological factors which led to the development of an educational television channel in Israel. At that time television in Israel consisted solely of educational television

K. Henning

1989-01-01

130

The situational and time-varying context of routines in television viewing : an event history analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on an action theoretical perspective, it is assumed that most television viewing is a routine response to frequently occurring situations, which together make up everyday life. This interplay between television viewing and everyday life was studied using data from a national survey among Dutch adults (n = 825) and their families. From this survey, data of 225 couples were

Henk Westerik; Karsten Renckstorf; F. P. J. F. Wester; J. G. M. Lammers

2005-01-01

131

The Association of Screen Time, Television in the Bedroom, and Obesity among School-Aged Youth: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Among school-aged youth, we sought to identify characteristics associated with (1) exceeding screen time recommendations (ie, television/videos/video games more than 2 hours/weekday), and (2) exceeding screen time recommendations, the presence of a television in the bedroom, and obesity. Methods: Using 2007 National Survey of…

Wethington, Holly; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou

2013-01-01

132

HOW MUCH CAN CHILDREN GAIN FROM TELEVISION P  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today every child in an Infant or Junior school will almost certainly watch schools’ television as part of their education. Nearly every child will watch TV at home, often for a considerable proportion of his free time. A survey of TV use in Plymouth by Plymouth Educational Television showed that in 1971 and 1972 every Infant and Junior school in

Ann Searle

1976-01-01

133

Patients' perceptions of physicians: a pilot study of the influence of prime-time fictional medical shows.  

PubMed

Much criticism has fallen onto prime-time crime shows for skewing the perception the public has on crime. Could the same criticism apply to prime-time medical dramas, which tend to be among the most watched television shows today, for skewing patients' expectations? In the past, physicians on prime-time fictional medical shows tended to be depicted in a positive manner. However, today's medical dramas often portray physicians in a less positive context. The results of this study showed that television exposure only negatively affect patients' perceptions of physicians in regards to physical attractiveness and character, but not to physician propriety, power, communication, sociability, extroversion, competence, and composure. In addition, this study showed that prime-time fictional shows affect patient-physician interactions. PMID:22416926

Stinson, Mary Elizabeth; Heischmidt, Kenneth

2012-01-01

134

A Content Analysis of the “Fine Print” in Television Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the nature of “fine print” footnotes appearing in prime-time television advertising. Using content-analysis procedures, the objective was to appraise the practice of footnoting by examining its prevalence, as well as the temporal qualities, types of footnotes, and network, product, and ad length differences related to footnoting. Results suggest that footnoting is quite extensively used and the variability

Richard H. Kolbe; Darrel D. Muehling

1992-01-01

135

Television News and the Cultivation of Fear of Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why has the public persisted in believing that violent crime is a widespread na- tional problem in the U.S. despite declining trends in crime and the fact that crime is concentrated in urban locations? Cultivation theory suggests that widespread fear of crime is fueled in part by heavy exposure to violent dramatic programming on prime-time television. Here we explore a

Daniel Romer; Kathleen Hall Jamieson; Sean Aday

2003-01-01

136

Tobacco imagery on New Zealand television 2002–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable emphasis has been placed on the importance of tobacco imagery in the movies as one of the “drivers” of smoking among young people. Findings are presented from a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time programming on New Zealand television 2004, identifying 152 scenes with tobacco imagery, and selected characteristics of those scenes. About one in four programmes contained

Rob McGee; Juanita Ketchel

2006-01-01

137

Traditional sex role development and amount of time spent watching television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested the hypothesis that the amount of time spent watching TV is significantly related to the strength of traditional sex-role development. Data from 80 kindergartners and 2nd, 4th, and 6th graders support the hypothesis and suggest that this relationship holds equally for both sexes and does not change with increasing age.

Terry Frueh; Paul E. McGhee

1975-01-01

138

Cultivation and counter cultivation: does religiosity shape the relationship between television viewing and estimates of crime prevalence and assessment of victimization likelihood?  

PubMed

Religiosity may change the direction of the effect of TV viewing on assessment of the likelihood of personal victimization and estimates concerning crime prevalence. A content analysis of a representative sample of TV programming (56 hours of prime-time shows) was done to identify the most common crimes on television, followed by a survey of a representative sample of the adult public in a large urban district (778 respondents) who were asked to estimate the prevalence of these crimes and to assess the likelihood of themselves being victimized. People who defined themselves as non-religious increased their estimates of prevalence for crimes often depicted on TV, as they reported more time watching TV (ordinary cultivation effect), whereas estimates regarding the prevalence of crime and assessment of victimization likelihood among religious respondents were lower with reports of more time devoted to television viewing (counter-cultivation effect). PMID:23654044

Hetsroni, Amir; Lowenstein, Hila

2013-02-01

139

Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information about cable television and the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating its operation. The initial jurisdiction and rules covered in this report pertain to the court test, public hearing, certificate of compliance, franchising, signal carriage, leapfrogging, access and origination…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

140

Television screen time, but not computer use and reading time, is associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers in a multiethnic Asian population: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence shows that sedentary behaviour may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and all-cause mortality. However, results are not consistent and different types of sedentary behaviour might have different effects on health. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between television screen time, computer/reading time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in a multiethnic urban Asian population. We also sought to understand the potential mediators of this association. Methods The Singapore Prospective Study Program (2004–2007), was a cross-sectional population-based study in a multiethnic population in Singapore. We studied 3305 Singaporean adults of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity who did not have pre-existing diseases and conditions that could affect their physical activity. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of television screen time and computer/reading time with cardio-metabolic biomarkers [blood pressure, lipids, glucose, adiponectin, C reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Path analysis was used to examine the role of mediators of the observed association. Results Longer television screen time was significantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C reactive protein, HOMA-IR, and lower adiponectin after adjustment for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Dietary factors and body mass index, but not physical activity, were potential mediators that explained most of these associations between television screen time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers. The associations of television screen time with triglycerides and HOMA-IR were only partly explained by dietary factors and body mass index. No association was observed between computer/ reading time and worse levels of cardio-metabolic biomarkers. Conclusions In this urban Asian population, television screen time was associated with worse levels of various cardio-metabolic risk factors. This may reflect detrimental effects of television screen time on dietary habits rather than replacement of physical activity. PMID:23718927

2013-01-01

141

DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION OF TELEVISION FOR STUDYING  

E-print Network

. Underwater television was successfully used for the first time in connection with the Bikini atom bomb tests of 1947 (Schultz 1948). Since the Bikini tests, television has been used for such purposes as searching

142

Sex, Kids and the Family Hour: A Three-Part Study of Sexual Content on Television. A Special Report from Children Now and the Kaiser Family Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of studies focused on the content of television programming about sexual activity and sexual relationships, examining what messages are communicated in the so-called "family hour," the first hour of prime time broadcast television (8-9 p.m. in most areas of the country). First, a content analysis documented the nature of sexual…

Kaiser Foundation, Oakland, CA.

143

Breastfeeding on prime-time in Brazil.  

PubMed

An example of the potential power of mass media in helping implement health programs, Brazil conducted a highly successful advertising campaign aimed at increasing the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding. The advertising campaign formed part of the 1981-84 breastfeeding program, which included -- among other things -- implementing maternity laws, establishing support groups for breastfeeding mothers, and disseminating information to policymakers. While several methods to inform parents had been tried, all had encountered resistance. An intensive mass media campaign changed all that. In 1982, 100 television channels began airing frequent, prime- time commercials -- an effort supplemented by radio sports, posters, and print advertisements. The airing of commercials followed extensive research and pretesting of the material, and were intended to help break down social barrier to breastfeeding, which included: women's fears that their breast size made then incapable of breastfeeding; employers' lack of support for working mothers; the lack of unity among doctors that breastfeeding is right for every child; and "machismo" -- men's attitude that the breast is only a sexual object. In order to establish a common goal, all spots ended with the slogan: "Breastfeeding -- 6 months that build up a life." And to establish credibility, the commercials featured well-known Brazilian celebrities. A spot aimed at facilitating the act for other women showed a popular actress breastfeeding her own child; another commercial showed a well- known singer and male role model asking fathers to support breastfeeding. An evaluation conducted in 1987 indicated significant positive changes due to the advertising campaign, demonstrating the potential of mass media in raising public awareness. PMID:12343009

Castello Branco, H

1990-01-01

144

Television and Teachers: Educating Each Other.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To eliminate misunderstandings between the worlds of education and broadcasting, it is necessary to recognize five myths: (1) The major force in educating the young is television itself; (2) the sheer amount of time children spend on television is more important than time spent in school; (3) television and education are the same thing; (4) more…

Jankowski, Gene F.

145

Helping Parents Reduce Children's Television Viewing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…

Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael

2004-01-01

146

Does Advertising on Black Entertainment Television Portray More Positive Gender Representations Compared to Broadcast Networks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a content analysis of television commercials (n?=?434) aired during prime-time on US general networks (ABC, NBC, CBS, and FOX) and an African American niche station (Black\\u000a Entertainment Television—BET) in 2002. Targeted group\\/nontargeted group representations are explored in relation to depictions\\u000a of domestic\\/romantic fulfillment and agency. The findings reveal that although the majority of characters on all

Melinda J. Messineo

2008-01-01

147

Closed Circuit Television Model Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resources of closed circuit television can improve teaching and learning in schools. Three junior high schools in Arlington Heights, Illinois have inaugurated a closed circuit television model program. The program's objectives are improvement of the quality of standard teacher-lesson presentations, redirection of teacher time and energy to…

Elms, Glen D.

148

A discrete-time hazard model of the adoption of legislative television: evidence from the US Congress, 1961-1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the probability of the adoption of legislative television over time (1961-1986) in the US Congress using a discrete-time hazard model. Against a theoretical construct where political services are modelled as search\\/experience goods, evidence is provided suggesting that constituent homogeneity, relative power struggles involving the legislative branches of Congress and the White House, and the potential prowess

Franklin G. Mixon Jr

2001-01-01

149

Television's Influence on Children's Encoding of Person Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested the idea that exposure to television people could affect children's judgments of a real person introduced after watching television. Found that television can prime traits and provide a frame of reference for use in encoding new information about people. (PD)

Reeves, Byron; Garramone, Gina M.

1983-01-01

150

HOW TELEVISION CAN TRAIN YOUR TEACHERS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION MAY SOLVE THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHER INSERVICE TRAINING. IN SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA, 21 SCHOOL DISTRICTS HAVE COOPERATED IN PRODUCING A TEACHER INSERVICE PROGRAM. THE TELEVISION CENTER OF THE STATE COLLEGE PRODUCES AND DIRECTS THE TELECASTS. A COMMERCIAL TELEVISION STATION DONATES ITS FACILITIES AND AIR TIME. A PERMANENT…

1961

151

Television and Schooling: Displacement and Distraction Hypotheses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on two hypotheses regarding television's possible negative effect on children's academic achievement is reviewed. A lack of support is found for the displacement hypothesis (time spent with television is taken away from more academically beneficial activities) and limited support for the distraction hypothesis (exposure to television

Roberts, Donald F.; And Others

1993-01-01

152

Televised Dance: Evaluation of Three Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine whether dance-trained, television-trained, and regular television viewing audiences would evaluate different approaches to televising dance differently. Three versions of a dance performance were videotaped: (1) version A, a one-camera, one-shot recording; (2) version B, a two-camera, real-time-edited approach,…

Oglesbee, Frank W.

153

Guidelines for Family Television Viewing. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

154

New techniques in television to provide research in three-dimensional real-time or near real-time imagery and reduced cost systems for teleconferencing and educational uses, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of a continuing research and development program the objective of which is to develop a reduced bandwidth television system and a technique for television transmission of holograms. The result of the former is a variable frame rate television system, the operation of which was demonstrated for both black-and-white and color signals. This system employs a novel combination of the inexpensive mass storage capacity of a magnetic disc with the reliability of a digital system for time expansion and compression. Also reported are the results of a theoretical analysis and preliminary feasibility experiment of an innovative system for television transmission of holograms using relatively conventional TV equipment along with a phase modulated reference wave for production of the original interference pattern.

Pao, Y. H.; Claspy, P.; Allen, J. E.; Merat, F.

1979-01-01

155

Maglev ready for prime time.  

SciTech Connect

Putting Maglev on Track' (Issues, Spring 1990) observed that growing airline traffic and associated delays were already significant and predicted that they would worsen. The article argued that a 300-mile-per-hour (mph) magnetic levitation (maglev) system integrated into airport and airline operations could be a part of the solution. Maglev was not ready for prime time in 1990, but it is now.

Rote, D. M.; Johnson, L. R.; Energy Systems

2003-01-01

156

The association between television viewing and overweight among Australian adults participating in varying levels of leisure-time physical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of physical activity on the association between television viewing and overweight (body mass index (BMI) ?25 kg\\/m2).DESIGN: Cross-sectional study administered by interview to adults randomly selected from the electronic white pages.SUBJECTS: 3392 adults (64% response rate) from a representative population sample in the State of New South Wales, Australia.MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported height and weight, two-week leisure-time

J Salmon; A Bauman; D Crawford; A Timperio; N Owen

2000-01-01

157

Adolescents and television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of an investigation of the frequency of television viewing among a sample of 2302 15-year-olds in 12 comprehensive schools. Subjects were divided into two groups, high and low frequency viewers, according to their own estimate of viewing time. The general picture which emerged (with some overlap of scores) was

Leo B. Hendry; Helen Patrick

1977-01-01

158

CollaboraTV: making television viewing social again  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of video-on-demand services and digital video recorders, the way in which we consume media is un- dergoing a fundamental change. People today are less likely to watch shows at the same time, let alone the same place. As a result, television viewing, which was once a social ac- tivity, has been reduced to a passive and isolated

Mukesh Nathan; Chris Harrison; Svetlana Yarosh; Loren G. Terveen; Larry Stead; Brian Amento

2008-01-01

159

Play-by-Play: Radio, Television, and Big-Time College Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores the broadcast media coverage of college athletics from the early days of radio through the development of television. It examines the culture of college athletics, the role of the National Collegiate Athletic Association in media coverage, and the political infighting in college sports. The chapters are: (1) "The Media and Early…

Smith, Ronald A.

160

Gender Sex-Role Portrayals in International Television Advertising over Time: The Australian Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using content analysis, the current study examines sex-role portrayals in Australian television advertisements and contrasts the results with previous studies. The findings indicate that portrayals of women are actually becoming more stereotypical in a way that favors traditional roles. Role portrayals appear to be increasingly distant from women's actual experience. In the global context, this finding is unusual given that

Laura M. Milner; Bronwyn Higgs

2004-01-01

161

75 FR 63766 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster...202) 418-0530 (voice), (202) 418-0432...at 202-418-0530 (voice), 202-418-0432...a Low Power TV, TV Translator or TV Booster Station...digital low power and TV translator stations will be...

2010-10-18

162

Hidden addiction: Television  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

2013-01-01

163

Longitudinal associations between television viewing patterns and adolescent body satisfaction.  

PubMed

This study addressed profiles of adolescent television use and associations between television viewing profiles and the development of body satisfaction. A sample of 841 adolescent boys and girls, ages 11-17, was recruited for participation in a longitudinal study of adolescent media use. Prior research established eight adolescent television profiles among this sample, reflecting unique patterns of consumption of certain genres, character types, and themes (e.g., romance). This study examined whether an adolescent's television profile predicted Time 2 body satisfaction, after controlling for Time 1 body satisfaction. Among boys, television viewing was unrelated to Time 2 body satisfaction. After controlling for initial body satisfaction, hours spent watching television marginally predicted lower Time 2 body satisfaction among girls. After including television profiles alongside television hours, however, television profile emerged as the stronger predictor. Specifically, a group of girls who watched television frequently and indiscriminately reported the most severe drop in body satisfaction. PMID:21050831

Schooler, Deborah; Trinh, Sarah

2011-01-01

164

Alcohol imagery on popularly viewed television in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Methods Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Results Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ?40% of all brand depictions. Conclusions Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. PMID:23929886

Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

2014-01-01

165

Beyond Entertainment: Television's Effects on Children and Youth. Television and Socialisation Research Report No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent worldwide studies on the viewing habits of children emphasize the large amount of time spent viewing television and the potential influence that television has to shape the behavior of children. Extensive research has investigated the short and long term effects of viewing television violence, and the results, though complex, suggest that…

1976

166

Guia Para Ver La Television En Familia (Guidelines for Family Television Viewing). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

167

Television and Political Participation Among Adolescents: The Impact of Television Viewing, Entertainment and Information Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sweeping statements about the effect of television viewing on political participation could still be found in the literature in the 1990s, it is now commonly held that the effect of television should be studied as a multidimensional phenomenon. Not only the time spent watching television but also the kinds of programs being watched and even the preference for particular

Ellen Quintelier; Marc Hooghe

2011-01-01

168

Television and Young Children: The Effects of Television on Dramatic Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool children view television on an average of 4.5 hours or more daily, more than any other age group with the exception of senior citizens. With television viewing occupying such a great proportion of the preschool child's waking hours, the influence of television on the remaining play time, and particularly that of dramatic play, is of…

Guddemi, Marcia Priess

169

Effects of TV time and other sedentary pursuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television (TV) viewing is the dominant recreational pastime at all ages, especially for children and adolescents. Many studies have shown that higher TV viewing hours are associated with higher body mass index (BMI), lower levels of fitness and higher blood cholesterol levels. Although the effect size estimated from observational studies is small (with TV viewing explaining very little of the

B Swinburn; A Shelly

2008-01-01

170

Towards Better Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Committee on Children's Television (CCT) supports Action for Children's Television (ACT) in its demands for no commercials on children's television and an improvement in programing for children. A survey of children's television in the San Francisco Bay Area determined that from 1961 to 1971, children's programing had declined in quality and…

Mundie, Paul J.

171

Teaching Television Watchers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities to help teachers address the needs and behaviors of students raised on television; includes resources to help teachers use television productively in the classroom, a send-home reproducible on children and television violence, and notes on an interview with Shari Lewis and television tips for primary students. (SM)

Dunn, Judy Lee

1994-01-01

172

PUBLIC TELEVISION IN THE DIGITAL AGE: TOWN HALL OR CYBER MALL?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1996 Telecommunications Act, passed overwhelmingly by both houses of Congress, provided one of the biggest giveaways in U.S. history. The Act provided every television licensee with an additional channel free of charge to develop digital television transmission (DTV). This technology permits high-density television (HDTV), which produces a picture at six times the resolution of today's standard definition TV (SDTV).

Jerold M. Starr

173

Social TV: Designing for Distributed, Sociable Television Viewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media research has shown that people enjoy watching television as a part of socializing in groups. However, many constraints in daily life limit the opportunities for doing so. The Social TV project builds on the increasing integration of television and computer technology to support sociable, computer-mediated group viewing experiences. In this paper, we describe the initial results from a series

Nicolas Ducheneaut; Robert J. Moore; Lora Oehlberg; James D. Thornton; Eric Nickell

2008-01-01

174

Television experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fixed and variable Martian features investigated by the TV experiment on Mariner 9 are described. Articles are presented concerning the dust storm of October to November over the Southern Hemisphere; global surface geodesy and cartography; geology; and the satellite astronomy.

Briggs, G. A.; Cutts, J. A.; Steinbacher, R. H.; Thorpe, T. E.; Whitehead, A. B.; Devaucouleurs, G.; Davies, M. E.; Masursky, H.; Pollack, J. B.

1973-01-01

175

Using prime-time animation to engage students in courses on aging.  

PubMed

Prime-time animation is a television genre that frequently reflects on issues that are significant in contemporary society, including aging issues. Using such programs to present aging-related content can be a constructive pedagogical device, offering a means of actively engaging students. This article provides a brief overview of the use of media, popular culture, and prime-time animation in college teaching and addresses specific issues in, as well as examples of, how such programs can be used in college courses, particularly aging courses. The article also reports on a small survey of students who were exposed to such a teaching technique in an undergraduate aging course. Results showed that, in general, students were positive about viewing prime-time animation videos in class and indicated that they found the viewings and associated assignments helpful for learning about concepts and issues in aging. PMID:21108101

Curch, Lisa M

2010-01-01

176

Stressful Life Events and Television Viewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds, studying 491 adults, stress (measured by life events) was unrelated to time spent viewing TV but, for women, was positively related to television "addiction." Finds, studying 329 families, confirmation of mood management theory--stress was associated with increased comedy and decreased news viewing. Finds, studying 140 adults, positive…

Anderson, Daniel R.; And Others

1996-01-01

177

Television Situation Comedies: Male Weight, Negative References, and Audience Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a content analysis of 27 different prime-time television situation comedies, we examined the body weights of 75 central male characters (97% White, 3% Black), the negative references these male characters received about their body shape\\/weight from female characters, the negative references male characters made about themselves, and the audience reactions (e.g., laughter) to the negative references. It was found

Gregory Fouts; Kimberley Vaughan

2002-01-01

178

Messages about Education in TV Programs Popular with Children and Teenagers. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Televised portrayals of variables that are related to educational and occupational aspirations and educational motivation have the potential to influence viewers' attitudes, expectations, and behaviors in these domains. In order to test this premise, a study assessed messages about these variables and about drug use in the prime-time television

Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others

179

Interracial Intimacy: Hegemonic Construction of Asian American and Black Relationships on TV Medical Dramas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the representations of Black and Asian interracial relationships on prime-time television dramas, ER and Grey's Anatomy. Interracial relationships are still a very small percentage of relationships depicted on television, and Black and Asian couplings represent an even smaller fraction, which makes examining the discourses surrounding these relationships valuable and illuminating. Using a close textual analysis of the

Myra Washington

2012-01-01

180

Filling the 24 × 7 News HoleTelevision News Coverage Following September 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the days following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, all the major television networks devoted their broadcasts to continuous news coverage without commercial interruption. This article analyzes the prime-time broadcasts from ABC, NBC, and CNN over the 3 days from September 12 to 14, 2001. First, the authors ask whether the networks used the additional time to develop longer

Ian R. Mcdonald; Regina G. Lawrence

2004-01-01

181

Breaking the Fourth Wall and Sex Role Stereotypes: An Examination of the 2006–2007 Prime-Time Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characters break the fourth wall on television when they speak directly to the camera. Using a stratified random sample of\\u000a one episode of every situation comedy, drama, and reality program airing on the five broadcast networks in the United States\\u000a (N?=?113) during the 2006–2007 prime-time season, we found that, overall, male characters broke the fourth wall more frequently\\u000a than females.

Martha M. Lauzen; Douglas M. Deiss Jr

2009-01-01

182

September 11 Television Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Making sense of the recent past can be difficult and, at times, quite painful. This moving and historically significant collection from the Internet Archive brings together hundreds of hours of television coverage from the events surrounding September 11, 2001. The materials were originally recorded live by the non-profit Television Archive and are organized in a fashion that is quite easy to use. The September 11: Program Guide has chronological coverage organized by the major networks, including the BBC and CNN. Visitors can dip into each segment here and also move on to the Chronology of Events. This area contains a brief overview of the events of that day, along with those of September 12th and 13th. Overall, the site is a fascinating way to think about these difficult events and for those with an interest in broadcast journalism, it is particularly useful.

183

The Television Generation, Television Literacy, and Television Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unlike the linear, serial process of reading books, learning to "read" television is a parallel process in which multiple pieces of information are simultaneously received. Perceiving images, only one aspect of understanding television, requires the concurrent processing of information that is compounded within a symbol system. The syntactical…

Cohen, Jodi R.

184

Handbook on Hospital Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for both hospital personnel interested in television and audiovisual personnel entering the medical field, this handbook is a verbal and pictorial survey of what is being done with TV within the medical profession. After an introduction which answers technical questions about medical TV posed during the American Hospital Association's…

Prynne, T. A.

185

The Impact of Market Segmentation on African American Frequency, Centrality, and Status in Television Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market segmentation made communication with the advertising audience dependent upon the audience segment. African Americans were the first racial minority group identified as having economic viability as a target market that could be reached through advertising content and placement. A content analysis of 358 prime-time television advertisements for African American and general audiences revealed that African Americans are still playing

Karie L. Hollerbach

2009-01-01

186

Televised Occupational Stereotypes and their Effects on Early Adolescents: Are they Changing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the mid 1980s, prime time television contained frequent portrayals of females in traditionally male occupations such as lawyer, police officer, and private detective. To determine whether young people's gender schemas about such occupations have been affected by these portrayals, fifth and sixth grade students were questioned about stereotypically feminine and masculine occupations they encounter frequently in real life, occupations

Roberta Wroblewski; Aletha C. Huston

1987-01-01

187

Uses and Gratifications of Television Home Shopping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to understand television shopping through examining media use motives. Based on the uses-and-gratifications (U&G) perspective, we examined how social\\/psychological antecedents (i.e., parasocial interaction and compulsive buying) and buying outcomes (i.e., buying frequency and impulse buying) relate to television-shopping viewing motives. Findings suggest that viewers watch television shopping because they want a convenient, time- and

Juliann Cortese; Alan M. Rubin

2010-01-01

188

Closed Captioning on Television  

MedlinePLUS

... cable operators, broadcasters, satellite distributors and other multi-channel video programming distributors) to close caption their television ... or TTY number or email address The television channel number, call sign and network The name of ...

189

Social TV : the future of television in the Internet Age  

E-print Network

Television's influence on culture and society has been widely acknowledged for many years. On the other hand, with the diffusion of the web and of social networks such as Facebook and Twitter, used in concert with television, ...

Summa, Giacomo

2011-01-01

190

Television 2.0 : reconceptualizing TV as an engagement medium  

E-print Network

Television is in a period of dramatic change. As the mass audience continues to fragment into ever-smaller niche audiences and communities of interest, and new technologies shift control over the television viewing experience ...

Askwith, Ivan D

2007-01-01

191

CLTV: Collaborative learning television  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that, contrary to popular assumption, television viewing and learning involve a high degree of social interaction.\\u000a If so, then performance-motivated programing in educational television militates against learning. Collaborative learning\\u000a television would promote learning by taking advantage of the social nature of watching television and the social nature of\\u000a learning. Viewers would be organized into semiautonomous learning groups

Kenneth A. Bruffee

1982-01-01

192

Television viewing and time spent sedentary in relation to cancer risk.  

PubMed

An increase in sedentary lifestyle has been identified as a potential risk factor for the development of chronic disease. This article identified the impact of prolonged TV watching along with other sedentary behaviors (e.g., computer use, less physically demanding occupations, video viewing, reading, sitting during long commutes, social inactivity) as possible cancer risk factors. This article quantitatively summarized the correlation between sedentary lives and cancer risk. TV watching has been the most commonly studied sedentary behavior associated with ingestion of unhealthy foods, leading to the potential to smoke and gain weight. Smoking and obesity are linked to an increased risk of cancer. PMID:25355027

Behrend, Susan Weiss

2014-11-01

193

Sexual messages during prime-time programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television provides a wide range of depictions that help to shape people's knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviors. In the realm of sexual socialization, television is thought to contribute to young people's knowledge about sexual relationships, their judgments about social norms regarding sexual activity, and their attitudes about sexual behaviors, among other influences. An increasing collection of evidence documents these

Kirstie Farrar; Dale Kunkel; Erica Biely; Keren Eyal; Rena Fandrich; Edward Donnerstein

2003-01-01

194

The Twilight of Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the evolution of television technology and the changes in its use brought about by cable television and the videocassette recorder. The increasing use of multimedia, made possible by the marriage of television and computer, are discussed. A reemergence of the importance of written language in this new medium is forecast. (KRN)

Morrisett, Lloyd N.

1994-01-01

195

Action for Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…

Ranly, Donald P.

196

film & television introduction.  

E-print Network

film & television introduction. Graduate programs in the Department of Film & Television aim to help each student find his or her calling. The Department's output represents the full scope of human interests. At any given moment, a student in our Film & Television Studies program might be writing about

Finzi, Adrien

197

Television and the Humanist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses problems that mass media, particularly television, pose for humanities teachers. Considers how television affects viewers, urges teachers to help students guard against manipulation by the media, acknowledges the educational potential of television, and points to the dangers to thought and informed decision making presented by…

Zigerell, James

1986-01-01

198

Television in American Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is television doing to our society and our culture? What has it done to education? Television has had a great impact on human behavior but rather than communicating, it dictates a philosophy of life, moral judgments and a lifestyle. Television presents a violent image of society where fantasy and reality are often confused. It is a system…

Hartman, Hermene D.

199

Coping with Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book could be a useful supplement in any course dealing with television, such as mass media, communication, film, and humanities. The book is divided into six sections. "The Impact of Television" discusses the impact of television on society, the broadcast media, the Federal Communications Commission, public broadcasting, educational…

Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.

200

INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION IN GERMANY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DISCUSSIONS HELD AT THE BERLIN CONGRESS ON INSTRUCTIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION (SEPTEMBER 27-29, 1966) ARE BRIEFLY SUMMARIZED. THIS DOCUMENT ALSO LISTS RESEARCH PROJECTS IN INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION IN GERMANY, DESCRIBES THE BAVARIAN RADIO INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION PROGRAM, SUMMARIZES THE OPINIONS OF THE GERMAN PRESS ON INSTRUCTIONAL…

International Central Inst. for Youth and Educational Television, Munich (West Germany).

201

HAS EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION ARRIVED?  

Microsoft Academic Search

After nearly 20 years of educational television, it can still be argued that ETV has not yet ‘arrived’ in the sense of being an accepted, taken?for?granted teaching tool. Although production standards are high, both technically and educationally, and although applications of television to learning are well established, television has certain limitations and deficiencies as a presentation medium. This paper discusses

D. K. Roach

1980-01-01

202

Vanderbilt Television News Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Television News Archive began at Vanderbilt University on August 5, 1968 because television news was not consistently recorded, preserved and made accessible for research anywhere. After a quarter century, the Archive remains unique in systematically recording, abstracting and indexing the most widely viewed national television newscasts so that they are readily available for study.

203

Television and the Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television is a large part of growing up in America, and a part that meshes in various ways with other influences. Teachers should understand it, and as the occasion requires, confront, correct, or take advantage of it. Research on television viewing yields five lessons. Television experience is an individual one, although there are definite…

Comstock, George

204

The Television Iceberg.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation is concerned with television as it relates to the planning and administration of facilities in which it is utilized. The role of television as a teaching aid, teaching medium, and teacher is discussed. Consideration is given to the following aspects concerned with implementing educational television: plant layout, amount of space…

Grant, P.L.

205

China's Television Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the structure and function of China's Central Radio and Television University (CRTVU) and reviews the educational system in China, the types of television classes offered through CRTVU, the student population served, and the issues that have to be faced before television university expansion can occur. Six references are listed. (MBR)

Hawkridge, David; McCormick, Bob

1983-01-01

206

Children's Television in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the structure, conduct, and performance of children's television in Indonesia during the last four decades, reflecting on its interaction with the government, the market, and civil society. A striking trend in Indonesia's children's television is undoubtedly its exponential growth during the last 40 years, and its permanent oscillation between commercialism and idealism. Content analysis of television schedule

Hendriyani; Ed Hollander; Leen dHaenens; Johannes Beentjes

2011-01-01

207

Television and Temporal Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children view large amounts of television from very early on, and television's effects permeate our culture and society. In areas of temporal development, proponents of Piaget would argue that children under the age of eight or nine lack the operations that permit logical structuring of temporal relationships and are thus more easily distracted by other information and cues. Television viewing

Bennett Z. Hirsch; Janet M. Kulberg

1987-01-01

208

Televisions, Video Privacy, and Powerline Electromagnetic Interference  

E-print Network

televisions (TVs) spanning multiple makes, models, and underlying technolo- gies. In addition to being without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantageTelevisions, Video Privacy, and Powerline Electromagnetic Interference Miro Enev University

Matsuoka, Yoky

209

Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of 8,885 adults to determine whether the amount of time spent watching television was associated with cardiovascular fitness, considering confounding effects like age, gender, smoking, work week, exercise time, and obesity. Results indicate the duration of daily television watching is strongly and inversely associated with…

Tucker, Larry A.

1990-01-01

210

Marketing fat and sugar to children on New Zealand television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We aimed to determine the frequency and content of television food advertisements during children's viewing times on various New Zealand television channels. Methods. A content analysis was conducted of two free-to-air channels covering a total of 155 h of television time during children's viewing times (n = 858 food advertisements in 2005). Comparisons were made with data from 1997

Nick Wilson; Louise Signal; Sarah Nicholls; George Thomson

2006-01-01

211

A relay selection algorithm for radio and television services based on time-delay and bandwidth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a relay routing method for Radio and TV services, this method through obtaining node's timedelay and power information, obtains the value of system interrupt decisions, and as a decision threshold to select relay node. While in consideration of link priorities and fairness, we design a relay routing protocol that can dynamically change the route when network is changed. Simulation results show that this protocol can expand coverage, reduce communication blind spots, increase system throughput and enhance the quality of service.

Zhang, Chaoyi; Wu, Muqing; Luan, Linlin; Xu, Chunxiu

2013-12-01

212

The Influence of Age, Sex, Social Class and Religion on Television Viewing Time and Programme Preferences among 11-15 Year Olds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that was conducted to investigate the influence of age, sex, social class, and religion on total television viewing time and program preferences among a large sample of Scottish secondary school students. Four main program types are examined, i.e., soap, sport, light entertainment, and current awareness. (50 references) (LRW)

Francis, Leslie J.; Gibson, Harry M.

1993-01-01

213

The Role of Women on Screen and behind the Scenes in the Television and Film Industries: Review of a Program of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes a stream of research examining the role of women behind the scenes in the film industry and on screen and behind the scenes in the television industry. Results are culled from a study of films released in 1987, 1992, and 1997 and studies of the 1995-1996 and 1997-1998 prime-time television seasons. Overall, the findings indicate that women

Martha M. Lauzen; David M. Dozier

1999-01-01

214

Faculty Perceptions of Interactive Television Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses from 21 business and 34 other faculty revealed the following: 78.2% preferred traditional teaching; 83% felt interactive television required significantly more planning time; 56.3% were comfortable with distance course management; and 43.6% believed students learned less through interactive television. More experienced, female, and…

Seay, Robert; Rudolph, Holly R.; Chamberlain, Don H.

2001-01-01

215

Sex in primetime television: 1979 versus 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

One week of primetime network television from 1989 was content analyzed with a coding scheme previously used to examine sex on television in 1979. At a time when AIDS and high rates of teenage pregnancy call for sexual responsibility, the study found that sexual behavior and language have not diminished over the 10?year period. Instances of suggestive sexual displays and

Barry S. Sapolsky; Joseph O. Tabarlet

1991-01-01

216

Television Viewing in a Health Institution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 128 hospital patients produced the following findings about hospital-home television viewing differences. Viewing motivations differed between home and hospital contexts. Patients indicated that television was used in the hospital more often to pass the time, but less frequently for information, entertainment, and relaxation, than in…

Rubin, Alan M.; Rubin, Rebecca B.

217

Digital terrestrial television for Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television is one of the most powerful components of information communication technology. It has the power to influence the public as well as educate and entertain them. As such, a lot of development in television engineering has taken place. Television has changed from black\\/white to colour. However, the international community could not accept a single colour TV standard and 3

V. Jeewa

2003-01-01

218

Trends in television time, non-gaming PC use and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among German adolescents 2002-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Studies in youth highlight that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen-time behaviours such as television viewing and PC use are associated with a range of health outcomes. However, little is known about recent trends in these behaviours in adolescents. This paper presents time trends in German adolescents’ television time, non-gaming PC use as well as MVPA from 2002 to 2010. Methods Data were derived from the cross-sectional German Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in 2002, 2006 and 2010. Analyses were based on 16,918 11-to 15-year olds boys (49.1%) and girls. Outcome variables were time spent in TV viewing and using a PC (weekday and weekend day) as well as the number of days achieving 60 minutes of MVPA. Changes in both screen-time behaviours and MVPA over time were analysed using sex-specific linear regression, controlling for age and family affluence. Results TV viewing on weekdays, but not at weekends, declined steadily over time with a difference between 2002 and 2010 of 12.4 min/day in girls and 18.3 min/day in boys (p for trend < .01). We found a strong increase in PC use for non-gaming purposes over time for girls only, with a difference between 2002 and 2010 of 54.1 min/weekday and 68.8 min/weekend day (p < .001). For MVPA we found a slight statistically significant increase in terms of meeting PA guidelines as well as days/week in MVPA for boys and girls (p < .001). In 2010 14.0% of girls and 19.9% of boys met PA guideline. Conclusion Although MVPA increased from 2002 to 2010 in German adolescents, the time spent in MVPA was still low. Despite the observed decrease in TV viewing, there was no overall decline in the observed screen-based behaviours, especially for girls. This is mainly due to a marked increase in use of a PC for chatting on-line, internet, emailing, homework etc. among girls during the last ten years which outweighs the corresponding decrease in TV viewing. The findings highlight a need for strategies and interventions aimed at reducing screen-time behaviours and promoting MVPA. PMID:24725269

2014-01-01

219

In search of a discourse on aging: the elderly on television.  

PubMed

This article analyzes the images of aging presented in five of the prime-time television programs of 1989 most watched by the elderly: Murder, She Wrote, The Golden Girls, Matlock, Jake and the Fatman, and In the Heat of the Night, all of which have central elderly characters. An examination of the title sequences reveals that earlier television stereotypes of the elderly "as more comical, stubborn, eccentric, and foolish than other characters" have been replaced by more positive stereotypes of them as powerful, affluent, healthy, active, admired, and sexy. PMID:1499994

Bell, J

1992-06-01

220

Television's New Sex Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author is concerned with sexual identity as it may be being learned by youngsters (including her youngster) from their TV screens. She is concerned that young people are viewing as natural and normal the presentation of sex on television as a routine, affectless experience in which women are the objects of men's lust. (Editor/RK)

Levinsohn, Florence Hamlish

1977-01-01

221

Effects of Advertising and Product Placement on Television Audiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital video recorder proliferation and new commercial audience metrics are making television networks' revenues more sensitive to audience losses from advertising. There is currently limited understanding of how traditional advertising and product placement affect television audiences. We estimate a random coefficients logit model of viewing demand for television programs, wherein time given to traditional advertising and product placement plays a

Kenneth C. Wilbur; Michelle S. Goeree; Geert Ridder

2008-01-01

222

Children's food consumption during television viewing1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Television viewing is associated with childhood obe- sity. Eating during viewing and eating highly advertised foods are 2 of the hypothesized mechanisms through which television is thought to affect children's weight. Objectives: Our objectives were to describe the amounts and types of foods that children consume while watching television, compare those types with the types consumed at other times

Donna M Matheson; Joel D Killen; Yun Wang; Ann Varady; Thomas N Robinson

223

Enhancing the Television‐Viewing Experience through Commercial Interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers prefer to watch television programs without commercials. Yet, in spite of most consumers’ extensive experience with watching television, we propose that commercial interruptions can actually improve the television‐viewing experience. Although consumers do not foresee it, their enjoyment diminishes over time. Commercial interruptions can disrupt this adaptation process and restore the intensity of consumers’ enjoyment. Six studies demonstrate that, although

Tom Meyvis; Jeff Galak

2009-01-01

224

Closed Captioned Television for Adult LEP Literacy Learners. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Closed captioning is the process by which audio portions of television programs are transcribed into words that appear on the television screen at the same time as the program. This digest focuses on using closed captioned television for teaching limited-English-speaking literacy learners, and looks at: (1) the educational uses of closed captioned…

Spanos, George; Smith, Jennifer J.

225

Teaching with Television: New Evidence Supports an Old Medium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television--public television, in particular--has come to be seen as a great educational resource for the home, but it hasn't been as widely embraced in the classroom. Thanks to a number of recent, large-scale research projects, it's time to put those concerns to rest. Not only does educational television have powerful effects on children's…

Linebarger, Deborah L.

2011-01-01

226

Television: A Communication Tool To Help Your Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television has a pervasive presence in our lives and connects us to a larger world. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity (except sleeping). According to Bernard Percy, television can have a positive effect on children: it can build vocabulary, stimulate interests and motivate actions. Parents should consider doing…

Markham, Reed

227

Diffusion of solar innovations through television news programming  

SciTech Connect

The rationale, methodology, finished product, and evaluation of a series of short, topical films of various solar applications are presented. They were produced for use on prime-television news programming.

Shoemaker, F.; Halacy, D.; O'Keefe, G.J.; Sendroy, C.G.

1981-04-01

228

Appraising Gender Role Portrayals in TV Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines gender role orientations of characters in prime time television advertisements through the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) completed by 426 college students (43.2% females). Results confirm the appropriateness of the scale for self- and person-perception ratings. Uses of the BSRI in gender role research are discussed. (SLD)

Kolbe, Richard H.; Langefeld, Carl D.

1993-01-01

229

Payload operation television system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Payload Operation Television System is a high performance closed-circuit TV system designed to determine the feasibility of using TV to augment purely visual monitoring of operations, and to establish optimum system design of an operating unit which can ultimately be used to assist the operator of a remotely manipulated space-borne cargo loading device. The TV system assembled on this program is intended for laboratory experimentation which would develop operational techniques and lead to the design of space-borne TV equipment whose purpose would be to assist the astronaut-operator aboard a space station to load payload components. The equipment consists principally of a good quality TV camera capable of high resolving power; a TV monitor; a sync generator for driving camera and monitor; and two pan/tilt units which are remotely controlled by the operator.

1976-01-01

230

Field-sequential stereo television  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System includes viewing devices that provide low interference to normal vision. It provides stereo display observable from broader area. Left and right video cameras are focused on object. Output signals from cameras are time provided by each camera. Multiplexed signal, fed to standard television monitor, displays left and right images of object.

Perry, W. E.

1974-01-01

231

Turn on the TV to turn off the TV: An Application of Adaptive Learning Television to Discuss the Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents an approach to the development of adaptive learning television programs to raise awareness of social matters.\\u000a Interacting with a simple adaptive television program people is led to discuss issues of social matters in order to learn\\u000a about these issues. The adaptive television program that has been created stimulate the spectator to discuss issues of social\\u000a relevance through

Ana de Campos; Fábio Akhras

232

Sex?role stereotyping of children on television: A content analysis of the roles and attributes of child characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content analysis of child characters on prime?time television revealed that while boys and girls are significantly different on only four out of 13 character traits (boys are considered more active, aggressive, rational and unhappy than are girls) they do differ significantly in the types of activities in which they participate. Girls talk on the telephone, read and help with

Kate Peirce

1989-01-01

233

Priming the Mental Time Line  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing experimental evidence suggests that temporal events are represented on a mental time line, spatially oriented from left to right. Support for the spatial representation of time comes mostly from studies that have used spatially organized responses. Moreover, many of these studies did not avoid possible confounds attributable to target…

Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Casarotti, Marco; Priftis, Konstantinos; Gava, Lucia; Umilta, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco

2012-01-01

234

76 FR 72849 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and...No. 03-185; FCC 11-110] Digital Low Power Television, Television...Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final...

2011-11-28

235

76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and...No. 03-185; FCC 04-220] Digital Low Power Television, Television...Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final...

2011-03-03

236

Television and the School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Excessive viewing of television, often late into the night, causes children to be tired when they come to school and therefore unable to do a good day's work. Furthermore, television fosters passive behavior, weakening students' ability and willingness to take active roles in their learning. Critics of education continue to attack the abilities of…

Elsing, John

237

Television's impact on society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of television has been a major phenomenon of American life in recent years. Judged by its rate of growth, the size of its audience, and the man-hours of attention devoted to it, television promises to become the nation's principal communication medium.\\

Thomas E. Coffin

1955-01-01

238

Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

2002

239

Caution! Children Watching Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the negative and positive aspects of television viewing. Some harmful effects include less reading and increased passivity. The correct use of television must first be taught to teachers and parents, which in turn is relayed to the student. (Author/JR)

Andreeva, E.

1975-01-01

240

Televising executions, primetime “live\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of a televised execution may seem bizarre, but it has many supporters who include advocates and opponents of capital punishment. This article examines the pathways to a televised execution, including 1st Amendment issues, principles of open government and victim's rights. The second section reviews the potential for additional publicity to create a deterrent effect, stimulate further violence and

Paul S. Leighton

1999-01-01

241

FUNDAMENTALS OF TELEVISION SYSTEMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESIGNED FOR A READER WITHOUT SPECIAL TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE, THIS ILLUSTRATED RESOURCE PAPER EXPLAINS THE COMPONENTS OF A TELEVISION SYSTEM AND RELATES THEM TO THE COMPLETE SYSTEM. SUBJECTS DISCUSSED ARE THE FOLLOWING--STUDIO ORGANIZATION AND COMPATIBLE COLOR TELEVISION PRINCIPLES, WIRED AND RADIO TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS, DIRECT VIEW AND PROJECTION…

KESSLER, WILLIAM J.

242

China: The Television Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is currently happening in China is similar to what happened in the United States in the 1950s and the Soviet Union in the 1970s--television is quickly becoming a mainstay of popular entertainment and news. The Chinese government has made substantial efforts to provide television service to all regions of the country, with importance attached…

Rivenburgh, Nancy K.

243

Television in Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces the educational services of the BBC as integrated media for learning. Television is considered as one of the component parts of a complex learning system. Reference is made to the role of television in the Open University, and to the problems of adult education in an open society. Instances are given of the difficulties of specifying objectives

Donald Grattan

1973-01-01

244

Television Advertising and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television is education. It may not be education one approves of, but children learn facts, adopt attitudes and values, and learn behaviours from television, just as they learn from the rest of their social and physical environment. Commercials are ‘educational’ too, in the same sense — that, is, there is much that can be learned from them (for good or

Peter G Ghristenson

1984-01-01

245

Science on Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television is frequently blamed for the problems adults face with some young people. Does television affect their understanding and behaviour? Of course it does. "Sesame Street", the most researched educational programme in the world, gave its pre-school viewers a head start in literacy that was still measurable ten years later. BBC Schools…

Stringer, John

2011-01-01

246

Television English in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes development of the Central Broadcasting Television University of China and, in particular, a course to teach English as a second language. Technical problems of producing television programs and how some of the pedagogical, idealogical, and cultural issues concerning this English course are gradually being resolved are discussed. (EAO)

Flower, Katherine

1983-01-01

247

Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

Baer, Walter S.; And Others

248

Pressures on TV Programs: Coalition for Better Television's Case.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1981, the conservative Coalition for Better Television (CBTV) threatened an economic boycott against advertisers who marketed their wares on programs that the coalition felt had excessive sex and violence. Because television networks are dependent on advertising, the coalition believed economic pressure on advertisers would force a…

Shipman, John M., Jr.

249

Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Discern Patterns in Children's Television Viewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the use of confirmatory factor analytic techniques to assess the reliability of television program checklists as indicators of television exposure, to estimate the stability of television exposure over time, and to detect patterns of television content preference. A causal model incorporating these three properties was…

Miller, M. Mark

250

The Effects of Television on Children. Foundation for Child and Youth Studies Selected Papers Number 47.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper begins with an introduction which covers viewing time; television as a significant developmental experience; Piagetian stages of cognitive development; and changing developmental tastes in television viewing. The paper then focuses on television in relation to learning; television and violence; advertising; and parents' ability to…

Tregoning, Julia

251

Television Viewing and Attentional Abilities in Fourth and Fifth Grade Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the common assumption that television viewing is related to attentional difficulties in school, 70 fourth and fifth grade students recorded a “television diary” for one week and reported their preferred television shows. Parents estimated their child's television viewing time and reported their child's preferred shows. Assessment of attentional difficulties included teacher ratings, parent ratings, standardized tests, and classroom

Laura E Levine; Bradley M Waite

2000-01-01

252

Revolutionizing Home Communications; New Techniques for Using Computers with Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The MITRE Corporation has been experimenting with a system called Time-Shared Interactive Computer-Controlled Information Television (TICCIT) to show that standard TV receivers, cable television (CATV), and computers can be used to provide low-cost in-the-home information services. In the experiments computer generated pictures were delivered to…

Mason, William F.; Polk, Sidney

253

Satellite Television Remote Control System Based on Brain-Computer Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the satellite television remote control system based on brain-computer interface. The Brain Controlled Satellite Television Remote System (BCSTRS) is a real time system that can help the patients suffering from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) to select TV channels or adjust volume using their brain waves. In this paper we propose an algorithm including data acquisition and process,

HongTao Wang; Ting Li; Yihong He; Peng Chen

2010-01-01

254

The Impact of the Newer Television Technologies on Television Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the gratifications of some of the newer television technologies. Specifically we expected that cable television, videocassette recorders, and remote control devices would increase the gratifications people receive from watching television and the satisfaction they derive from television use. Telephone interviews were completed with 615 respondents in a Midwestern town. There was only limited support for our

Elizabeth M. Perse; Douglas A. Ferguson

1993-01-01

255

Television multiplexing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System with single, standard, wideband line transmits ten or more real time TV video data displays over hard wire to recorders more than 22.5 km from source. Digital logic and integrated circuits ensure high reliability and low maintenance. System is adaptable for video sampling applications.

Simpkins, L. G.

1971-01-01

256

Television and Very Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has recommended that children younger than 24 months of age not be exposed to television. Nevertheless, television programs and home videos are increasingly produced for very young children. This article reviews the extant research concerning television and very young children with respect to the AAP recommendation. More very young children are currently watching television

Daniel R. Anderson; Tiffany A. Pempek

2005-01-01

257

Children's perceptions of television reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children from ages 4 to 9 watched segments from Sesame Street and answered questions about television reality. Factor analysis produced three reality dimensions: (a) Sesame Street really exists, (b) television characters can see and hear us, and (c) what you see is inside the television set. For preschoolers, age was the most important variable in regard to television reality. There

Peter Nikken; Allerd L. Peeters

1988-01-01

258

UTAH SURVEY ON EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A BRIEF HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IN UTAH WAS GIVEN AS WELL AS RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STATEWIDE ORGANIZATION FOR EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IN UTAH. A LISTING OF THE OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IN UTAH, AN ENGINEERING REPORT, AND GUIDELINES FOR FINANCING EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IN UTAH WERE INCLUDED. (LP)

ENGAR, KEITH M.

259

Television's impact on children.  

PubMed

Television has a major impact on children's knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Research has demonstrated the association between television viewing and four areas: (1) children's aggressive behavior; (2) racial and sex-role stereotypes; (3) decreased interest in reading and school activities; and (4) poorer health habits and attitudes. Methodological limitations make it difficult to draw firm conclusions about a causal relationship between television viewing and children's behavior. Representative studies in these four areas are reviewed, important methodological concerns are pointed out, and conclusions from the research findings are drawn. The implications of the data for pediatricians and other health professionals are discussed. PMID:3881727

Zuckerman, D M; Zuckerman, B S

1985-02-01

260

TOPS: television object promoting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this short paper, we propose the Television Object Promoting system (TOPS), a What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) user interface and user experience designed for users to interact with objects in TV programs. Using TOPS while watching TV, consumers can acquire informa-tion about objects appearing in TV programs, such as mer-chandise, people, and scenic spots. Moreover, consumers

Tun-Hao You; Yi-Jui Wu; Yi-Jen Yeh

2011-01-01

261

Description of Children's Television Advertising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a report of two studies which were conducted on children's television. The first, "Saturday Children's Television," is a content analysis of programming and advertising matter on four Boston commercial TV stations. The second, "Romper Room, An Analysis," focuses on that program's commercial practices. The first study involved the…

Barcus, F. Earle

262

Two Dimensions of Teaching Television Literacy: Analyzing Television Content and Analyzing Television Viewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to teach critical thinking about television and describes methods used in a college class on television analysis. Two approaches are examined: television content analysis, with an example of sports commentary; and analyzing television viewing, including a questionnaire developed by students. (five references) (LRW)

Morris, Barbara S.

1993-01-01

263

Television and Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a survey of 78 seventh-grade students, conducted to investigate the relationship between television viewing and reading achievement. Notes that good readers' viewing habits were not significantly different from those of poor readers. (JT)

Moldenhauer, Deborah L.; Miller, Wilma H.

1980-01-01

264

The Face of Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes some physiognomic speculations regarding three visual characteristics of television in its pre-digital-broadcasting form: (1) the importance of the head shot as a staple technique for representing the human figure and, hence, the primacy of the human face as a televisual image; (2) the mirrorlike reflective surface of the cathode-ray tube television screen, which makes the viewer’s reflected

Paul Frosh

2009-01-01

265

Television watching at Greek paediatric hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The study investigated the television watching habits of children in hospital compared with those at home and the factors which influence them.Methods  A random sample of 546 school aged children hospitalized in paediatric hospitals (2) in Athens (Greece) was studied.Results  Children’s television watching time in the hospital was found to be higher compared to that at home. The characteristics which influence this

Vasiliki Matziou; Ioannis Zachos; Heleni Kletsiou; Antigoni Triantafyllidou; Constantinos Tsoumakas

2006-01-01

266

AUSTRALIAN TELEVISION, GENDER AND THE OLYMPIC GAMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies investigating media coverage of sport in Australia during normal programming indicate that women's sport receives less than 10 percent of the air-time given to men's. This study of the Australian television coverage of the 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics found that female events received 32.9 percent and 27.7 percent, respectively, of the Games televised. While it is unfortunate

Kristine Toohey

1997-01-01

267

"Kids' Stuff": Television Cartoons as Mirrors of the American Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cartoons are generally regarded as "kids' stuff," unworthy of scholarly study. As an aspect of popular culture, television cartoons do not attract scholars who are interested in being part of the "critical elite." Some scholars believe, however, that less time should be spent discussing how TV might be used to teach children what society thinks…

Mitchell, Tracey L.

268

Food advertising on Australian television: the extent of children's exposure.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the extent and nature of food advertising during Australian children's television (TV) viewing hours and programs, and to determine whether confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements were more likely to be broadcast during children's programs than during adults' programs on Sydney television stations. One week (390 h) of Australian advertising data broadcast during children's TV viewing hours over 15 television stations were analysed to determine the proportion of food advertisements and, in turn, the proportion of those advertisements promoting foods high in fat and/or sugar. One week (346 h) of confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements broadcast over three Sydney television stations were analysed to determine whether these types of advertisements were more likely to be advertised during children's programs than adults' programs. Half of all food advertisements promoted foods high in fat and/or sugar. 'Confectionery' and 'fast food restaurants' were the most advertised food categories during children's TV viewing hours. Confectionery advertisements were three times as likely, and fast food restaurant advertisements twice as likely, to be broadcast during children's programs than adults' programs. It can be concluded that foods most advertised during children's viewing hours are not those foods that contribute to a healthy diet for children. Confectionery and fast food restaurant advertising appears to target children. Australian children need protection from the targeted promotion of unhealthy foods on television, but currently little exists. PMID:15722367

Neville, Leonie; Thomas, Margaret; Bauman, Adrian

2005-06-01

269

Channel One: Time for a TV Break.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ethnographic study of an urban comprehensive high school shows that teachers rarely used Channel One as a focus of instruction in their classrooms. Students watched Channel One primarily during an 18-minute homeroom period--a concession to parents, teachers, and administrators reluctant to sacrifice instructional time to show the program. Two…

Celano, Donna; Neuman, Susan B.

1995-01-01

270

Time-average TV holography for vibration fringe analysis  

SciTech Connect

Time-average TV holography is widely used method for vibration measurement. The method generates speckle correlation time-averaged J0 fringes that can be used for full-field qualitative visualization of mode shapes at resonant frequencies of an object under harmonic excitation. In order to map the amplitudes of vibration, quantitative evaluation of the time-averaged fringe pattern is desired. A quantitative evaluation procedure based on the phase-shifting technique used in two beam interferometry has also been adopted for this application with some modification. The existing procedure requires a large number of frames to be recorded for implementation. We propose a procedure that will reduce the number of frames required for the analysis. The TV holographic system used and the experimental results obtained with it on an edge-clamped, sinusoidally excited square aluminium plate sample are discussed.

Kumar, Upputuri Paul; Kalyani, Yanam; Mohan, Nandigana Krishna; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

2009-06-01

271

Why Who Shot J. R. Matters: Dallas as the Pinnacle of Human Evolutionary Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TV series Dallas remains one of the most popular shows to ever have been broadcast on American TV. It was a serialized prime-time soap opera with weekly 45 minute episodes that ran from 1978 until 1991. This long-running show is one of the few to have been entirely released in DVD format; all 14 seasons are available as of

Maryanne L. Fisher

2012-01-01

272

Addressable Advertising on Digital Television Vincent Dureau  

E-print Network

Addressable Advertising on Digital Television Vincent Dureau Chief Technology Officer, OpenTV 275 of digital technology is having a profound effect on television advertising. While television advertising costs are increasing, its efficiency is decreasing. The traditional models for advertising on television

Masthoff, Judith

273

Television as an employee communication tool at LLL  

SciTech Connect

Television's great strength as a news medium is its ability to bring a story to life. Like no other medium, TV can bridge the gap between a fact and its fuller significance. On the other hand, TV has a disturbing potential to dominate viewers. It communicates in split-second images narrated in rapidly spoken words that cannot be examined. The show rolls on, with or without the puzzled viewer, whose tendency, therefore, is to acquiesce in an assertion's plausibility. Thus, the trick in organizational television, which is communication with a purpose, is to insist that the goal be to convey information, not to maximize ratings with the techniques of electronic hypnotism. The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's televised news magazine for employees, Video Journal, has an especially demanding audience. It is heavily loaded with professionals and those with a professional-level interest in technology. The LLL audience also tends to be sour on the news media, the Laboratory having been the subject of much inaccurate news coverage in recent years. Research suggests that television may be the medium best received by an audience that is suspicious of the news media generally. Writing news for a television audience is like writing news for a newspaper - but more so. Because the viewer must catch all TV news the first time through, the cardinal rules of newswriting - tight construction and focused organization - are even more important in television than in print. Copy must be geared and timed to the visual material. Numbers, unfamiliar names and complex subjects should be avoided. Finally, the subject should be one that TV can serve - an alive, animate subject.

Saunders, J.

1980-03-13

274

Human-centered television: directions in interactive television research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research area of interactive digital TV is in the midst of a significant revival. Unlike the first generation of digital TV, which focused on producer concerns that effectively limited (re)distribution, the current generation of research is closely linked to the role of the user in selecting, producing, and distributing content. The research field of interactive digital television is being

D. C. A. Bulterman; L. F. G. Soares

2008-01-01

275

Developmental trends in television coviewing of parent-child dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, long-term trends in joint parent-child television viewing are taken as prototype for developmental changes of the parent-child relationship during adolescence. To describe and compare trends of television coviewing in different configurations of family members, trajectories of daily television viewing, tmeasured with Nielsen-type people meters over a time period of three years, were analyzed using time series methods.

Fritz Sang; Bernhard Schmitz; Karl Tasche

1993-01-01

276

Ad Quality On TV: Predicting Television Audience Yannet Interian, Sundar Dorai-Raj, Igor Naverniouk, P. J. Opalinski, Kaustuv  

E-print Network

Ad Quality On TV: Predicting Television Audience Retention Yannet Interian, Sundar Dorai-Raj, Igor of television advertisements on audience retention using data collected from television set-top boxes (STBs)1 of television set-top boxes, covering millions of US households, for several thousand TV ad air- ings every day2

Tomkins, Andrew

277

Mobile and interactive social television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Services that were traditionally designed for a static environment can now be implemented into mobile devices. At the same time, services with traditionally passive-consumption-oriented paradigms are moving toward participative and interactive services. One such service is mobile and interactive social TV (MIST), which allows geographically dispersed people to meet in a virtual shared space and watch TV while being able

Sujeet Mate; Igor D. D. Curcio

2009-01-01

278

Television news ethics: A survey of television news directors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the findings of a survey of television news directors drawn from a Radio?Television News Directors Association (RTNDA) sample. Rationale for the study centers around an apparent trend in television news to extend its ethical boundaries to include high proportions of sensationalism, privacy invasion, deception, unfair reporting, and the like. Five principles of journalism ethics— truth, justice, freedom,

Roger Hadley

1989-01-01

279

Television and adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored. PMID:2307597

Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S

1990-01-01

280

UCLA Film & Television Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1965, the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (ATAS) joined forces with the UCLA Theater Arts Department to create the ATAS/UCLA Television Library. 11 years later, the UCLA Film & Television Archive was formally established, and donations began arriving from Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and other major motion picture studios. On the ATAS website, visitors can learn about upcoming screenings and lectures, along with more about the prodigious collections. The Collections area is a great place to start investigating opportunities to borrow prints, donate materials, and license media. The online exhibitions are a pip, and visitors should not miss the UCLA Preserved Silent Animation area. Here they can watch eleven different remarkable (and very rare) films, including "The Enchanted Drawing" and "Bob's Electric Theatre." Finally, visitors can connect with the Archive via a range of social media, including Twitter and YouTube.

2012-05-11

281

What's on TV Tonight?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instruction for a game for the ESL classroom in which students work in pairs, playing a husband and wife who want to sort out their TV viewing schedule. The exercise gives students practice in telling time, asking about programs, making suggestions, asking about preferences, and learning about English television programs. (PJM)

Locke, Robert

1980-01-01

282

The Hidden Compulsion in Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how television viewing encourages nonrationality, alienation, idiocy, dependency, deindividuation, consumer lust, and hyperkinesis, and provides a framework for a critical response to the pervasive force of television. (JMF)

Berger, Arthur Asa

1978-01-01

283

Customized television: standards compliant advanced digital television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a European Union supported collaborative project called CustomTV based on the premise that future TV sets will provide all sorts of multimedia information and interactivity, as well as manage all such services according to each user's or group of user's preferences\\/profiles. We have demonstrated the potential of recent standards (MPEG-4 and MPEG-7) to implement such a scenario

M. Bais; J. Cosmas; C. Dosch; A. Engelsberg; A. Erk; P. S. Hansen; P. Healey; G. K. Klungsoeyr; R. Mies; J.-R. Ohm; Y. Paker; A. Pearmain; L. Pedersen; A. Sandvand; R. Schafer; P. Schoonjans; P. Stammnitz

2002-01-01

284

An Evaluation of Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of television on the development of preschool children is considered, and some popular programs are reviewed. After a review of the literature on the effects of television, a rating scale was prepared and applied to a number of broadcast (noncable) television shows aimed at children. Ratings were compared with those of 60 parents of…

Beron, Barbara

285

TELEVISION VIOLENCE AND KIDS' BEHAVIOUR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the televised violence on children and their exposure to television violence. Since children are very visual learners, they model both the positive and negative the behaviors they see. This paper also reviews the television violence effect on the child's youth, which can also affect his or her adulthood. Some psychologists and psychiatrists feel that continued exposure to

MIRZA JAN

286

A Study in Instructional Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes television research findings and theories, discusses research problems, categorizes instructional television variables, defines and describes "task relatedness," and presents the results of a survey of instructional media professionals concerning their opinions on instructional television use and their reactions to the concept of task…

Dube, Catherine

1980-01-01

287

Vocabulary Demands of Television Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…

Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

2009-01-01

288

Teaching Television to Empower Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that educators should train themselves and students to understand and cope with television's power. Describes an inventory of viewing and reading habits, then discusses how three principles of teaching television are expressed in class activities. Outlines a unit that takes students from television as "just entertainment" to active,…

Owen, David B.; Silet, Charles L. P.; Brown, Sarah E.

1998-01-01

289

The relationship between TV/computer time and adolescents' health-promoting behavior: a secondary data analysis.  

PubMed

Television and computers provide significant benefits for learning about the world. Some studies have linked excessive television (TV) watching or computer game playing to disadvantage of health status or some unhealthy behavior among adolescents. However, the relationships between watching TV/playing computer games and adolescents adopting health promoting behavior were limited. This study aimed to discover the relationship between time spent on watching TV and on leisure use of computers and adolescents' health promoting behavior, and associated factors. This paper used secondary data analysis from part of a health promotion project in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used and purposive sampling was conducted among adolescents in the original project. A total of 660 participants answered the questions appropriately for this work between January and June 2004. Findings showed the mean age of the respondents was 15.0 +/- 1.7 years. The mean numbers of TV watching hours were 2.28 and 4.07 on weekdays and weekends respectively. The mean hours of leisure (non-academic) computer use were 1.64 and 3.38 on weekdays and weekends respectively. Results indicated that adolescents spent significant time watching TV and using the computer, which was negatively associated with adopting health-promoting behaviors such as life appreciation, health responsibility, social support and exercise behavior. Moreover, being boys, being overweight, living in a rural area, and being middle-school students were significantly associated with spending long periods watching TV and using the computer. Therefore, primary health care providers should record the TV and non-academic computer time of youths when conducting health promotion programs, and educate parents on how to become good and healthy electronic media users. PMID:18348110

Chen, Mei-Yen; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Wu, Jen-Yee

2008-03-01

290

Teaching by Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because good teachers are in short supply, it is necessary to find ways of increasing their effectiveness. Students learn as much from television as from conventional instruction when the programs are viewed for academic credit. Experiments at Pennsylvania State University (1954; 1956-57) showed that it is difficult to assess the value of such…

Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

291

Play, Toys and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Western societies, television has transformed the life, culture, and points of reference of the child. Its particular sphere of influence is the child's play culture. This play culture is not hermetic: it is very oriented toward manipulation; has a symbolic role as a representational medium; evolves along with the child; has a certain amount of…

Brougere, Gilles

292

Film, Radio, and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal issue covers the history of film, radio, and television in Iowa. The first article, "When Pictures and Sound Came to Iowa," summarizes the origin of movies and radio and their early beginnings in Iowa. Using old photographs and measurement charts, the viewing, reading, and listening habits of young people in 1950 and 1958 are…

Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

1990-01-01

293

Tourism on Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen half-hour television programs entitled "The Geography of Tourism" developed for use in Wilfrid Laurier University's (Canada) distance education program are discussed. Distance education embraces teaching, or communicating with, students who are not physically in the classroom with the instructor. The central theme of the series is the…

Young, Bruce

294

Cable Television Interconnection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State and local governments have not been involved in the complexities of cable television interconnection issues in the past despite opportunities. Without their intervention, the result may well be a lack of concern for local public services. However, the entertainment and communications industries will interconnect cable systems without the…

Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

295

Children's Play and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses adverse effects of FCC deregulation of children's television programming on children's play behavior. Discusses the difference between play and imitation, the role of high quality dramatic play in healthy child development, the popularity of war play, and use of toys to increase dramatic play. Considers ways to help children gain control…

Powell, Mark

2001-01-01

296

Technology of Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The technology of cable television (CATV) is one area in which local community officials need to develop knowledge so that their decisions about the structure of CATV within the community will be informed. Thus, this paper is designed to familiarize local decision makers with the technological aspects of cable communications, to isolate specific…

Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

297

Cable Television for Librarians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September 1972, a federally-funded 3-day institute was held, under the auspices of the Drexel University Graduate School of Library Science, to acquaint librarians from local State and Regional public libraries with current developments in the cable television field as they affect library planning and activities. The program utilized several…

Kenney, Brigitte L., Ed.

1973-01-01

298

Schools and Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers gathered here are designed to provide a foundation of background information for those charged with the responsibility of formulating school district goals regarding cable television (CATV) and of obtaining the necessary cooperation from the local CATV franchise operators to reach these goals. The position of the National Education…

National Education Association, Washington, DC. Educational Technology Div.

299

Television, teenagers, and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which multiple health and lifestyle variables differ among 406 adolescent males classified according to average duration of daily television viewing. Cattell's 16PF Questionnaire, Form C, and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale were employed to assess psychological health, and the Physical Performance Test for California was used to measure six dimensions of

Larry A. Tucker

1987-01-01

300

Perceived usefulness and performance of human-to-human communications on television  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key assumption of future television (TV) environments is that the future TV viewing experi- ences will be more active and interactive. Currently several TV technologies based on networked computing, e.g., IPTV (Internet Protocol TV) or Mobile TV, have made it possible for people to interact with their TVs, or even with other viewers through their TVs, by allowing them

Hokyoung Ryu; Aaron Wong

2008-01-01

301

Television Commercials: How to Create Successful TV Advertising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All the steps in making a television commercial, from conception to writing through production, are laid out, and many examples of real commercials illustrate the process. The book is directed toward those who want to write successful commercials. Subjects include the use of research in constructing and evaluating commercials, budgeting, choosing…

Wainwright, Charles Anthony

302

The portrayal of older people in television advertisements: a cross-cultural content analysis of the United States and South Korea.  

PubMed

A cross-cultural content analysis of 2295 prime-time television ads--859 ads from the United States and 1436 ads from South Korea-was conducted to examine the differences in the portrayal of older people between U.S. and Korean ads. In two countries, the underrepresentation of older people in ads was found in terms of proportions of the actual population. The findings also showed that older people are more likely to play major roles in Korean television ads than in U.S. ads. In terms of the attributes of older people depicted in ads, differences between U.S. and Korean ads were also found. The results showed that Korean television ads are likely to more positively depict older people than American television ads are. These findings supported the basic assumption of cross-cultural advertising, in which the differences in cultural values between the two cultures are related to the differences in the contents of their advertisements. However, the problems of underrepresentation and stereotypes in the portrayal of older people were still identified both in Korean and U.S. prime-time television ads. PMID:17191435

Lee, Oungkwan; Kim, Bong-Chul; Han, Sangpil

2006-01-01

303

Television viewing and the learning of sex-role stereotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the relationship between the amount of time children spend watching television and their knowledge of adult sex-role stereotypes. Males and females in grades 1, 3, 5, and 7 who were classified as heavy television viewers (25 or more hours per week) or light viewers (10 or less hours per week) both at the time

Paul E. McGhee; Terry Frueh

1980-01-01

304

Parent-Child Interaction, Television Violence, and Aggression of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews findings of two longitudinal studies on development of aggression. Observes that the process by which children learn violence from television is circular: i.e., aggressive children are unpopular and consequently spend less time with peers and more time watching television, which in turn, assures them that aggressive behavior is…

Eron, Leonard D.

1982-01-01

305

Lights, Television, Action!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A veteran English-as-a-Second-Language teacher recently discovered the effectiveness of using videos and TV together with a diverse student population that speaks 22 languages. Video segments linked to tasks, close-captioned instructional TV programs, and interactive TV and video helped students with language acquisition skills. The idea was to…

Clovis, Donna L.

1997-01-01

306

Expanding Pedagogical Boundaries in Political Science: Teaching the Practical Art of Television Electioneering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project preparing students to make political advertisements for television, including details for necessary hardware, script preparation, formatting, time management, and coordination with the television studio. Includes description of each role and broadcasting jargon. (Author/CK)

Owens, Walton H.

1979-01-01

307

High time: Cuban TV serials spur debate on sensitive social issues.  

PubMed

A young doctor with an HIV-positive lover; a teen victim of sexual violence; a battered wife; a man who has recently discovered his homosexuality and is suffering the stigma of a machista society...these are just some of the characters who have populated prime-time Cuban TV serials over the last few years. These shows are seen by millions across the country, a cultural phenomenon unrivalled in audience share only during baseball season. While these newer telenovelas are just as fictional as their predecessors, they have outgrown the term "soap operas" and merit greater attention: the lives in their storylines hit close to home and have given their audience cause for reflection. PMID:22580555

Trinquete, Dixie E

2012-04-01

308

Wake in faint television meteors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two component dustball model was used in numerical lag computation. Detached grain lag is typically less than 2 km, with expected wakes of a few hundred meters. True wake in television meteors is masked by apparent wake due to the combined effects of image persistence and blooming. To partially circumvent this problem, we modified a dual MCP intensified CID video system by addition of a rotating shutter to reduce the effective exposure time to about 2.0 ms. Preliminary observations showed that only 2 of 27 analyzed meteors displayed statistically significant wake.

Robertson, M. C.; Hawkes, Robert L.

1992-01-01

309

Appraising gender role portrayals in TV commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to appraise the gender role orientations of characters appearing in prime-time television advertisements. Four hundred twenty-six college students (primarily Caucasian) rated major ad characters on the BSRI and provided perceptual judgments about the character and ad presentation. The confirmatory analysis of the psychometric properties of the BSRI indicated the appropriateness of the scale

Richard H. Kolbe; Carl D. Langefeld

1993-01-01

310

Relationship between parental estimate and an objective measure of child television watching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many young children have televisions in their bedrooms, which may influence the relationship between parental estimate and objective measures of child television usage\\/week. Parental estimates of child television time of eighty 4–7 year old children (6.0 ± 1.2 years) at the 75th BMI percentile or greater (90.8 ± 6.8 BMI percentile) were compared to an objective measure of television time

Jodie L Robinson; Dana D Winiewicz; Janene H Fuerch; James N Roemmich; Leonard H Epstein

2006-01-01

311

Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a) study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age < 2 years), (b) investigate the association between time spent on television (as recommended by the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP), < 2 hours per day)

Nichara Ruangdaraganon; Jariya Chuthapisith; Ladda Mo-suwan; Suntree Kriweradechachai; Umaporn Udomsubpayakul; Chanpen Choprapawon

2009-01-01

312

Educational and Prosocial Programming on Saturday Morning Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the educational and informational television programming provided by four major networks, ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox. Assessed were 29 children's television programs during the 1995-1996 season. Programs were videotaped from 7:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m., a time frame when children are most likely to be in the viewing audience. A content…

Calvert, Sandra L.; And Others

313

Regulatory axes on food advertising to children on television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes and evaluates some of the criteria on the basis of which food advertising to children on television could be regulated, including controls that revolve around the type of television programme, the type of product, the target audience and the time of day. Each of these criteria potentially functions as a conceptual device or \\

Elizabeth Handsley; Kaye Mehta; John Coveney; Chris Nehmy

2009-01-01

314

Partners' influence on each other's television exposure : dominance or symmetry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this study we analyzed to what extent partners who share the same household affect each other's exposure to television. With the use of linear structural equation modeling,we analyzed data from a large scale representative survey in The Netherlands (n 697 couples). Results indicate that both men and women,influence their partner's exposure to television. When people spend much time

Ruben P. Konig; Gerbert Kraaykamp; Henk Westerik

2008-01-01

315

Television Studies in India: The State of the Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the history of television research in India and reviews related studies conducted during three different time-spans. Part one discusses research done prior to 1975, which concentrated primarily on the evaluation of the effectiveness of television as a medium of instruction both in elementary and secondary schools and for…

Agrawal, Binod C.

316

The Public Television Library Policies and Procedures Manual 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Public Television Library (PTL), an integral part of the services provided by the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), provides a national centralized storage and retrieval system for Public Television (PTV) programing distinct from the real time program offerings of the PBS interconnected network, and offers an opportunity for varied sources to…

Public Television Library, Washington, DC.

317

The Relationship between Television Viewing and Reading Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relatively few empirical studies that have concentrated on the relationship between television and children's interest and achievement in reading reflect two schools of thought. One group assumes a negative relationship, hypothesizing that time previously devoted to reading has been replaced by increased television viewing. Research in this…

Neuman, Susan B.

318

Social class differences in how children talk about television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much time and space has been devoted to such questions as “What does television do to the child?”; and “How do children use television?”; The findings of research into these questions often are unsatisfactorily vague and ambiguous. Laymen (and our own common sense) tell us that there must be more effect from the spending of many hours a day before

Frederick Williams

1969-01-01

319

“I'm addicted to television”: The personality, imagination, and TV watching patterns of self?identified TV addicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty four of 237 adults surveyed agreed with the statement “I'm addicted to television.” They ranged from 18 to 72 years old. Respondents completed the TV Addiction Scale (Smith, 1986), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975), Short Imaginal Processes Inventory (Huba, Singer, Aneshensel, & Antrobus, 1982), and Television Use Styles Inventory (Schallow & Mcllwraith, 1986–87). Compared with the rest

Robert D. McIlwraith

1998-01-01

320

"deinewahl02" A Demonstrator for Interactive Television  

E-print Network

gradually opened way to give the possibilities for watching television programmes on the Internet. Moreover into television, based on our extensive experience on web technologies. "deinwahl02" which is pretend political TV"deinewahl02" A Demonstrator for Interactive Television Dr. Sepideh Chakaveh Olaf Geuer Fraunhofer

Masthoff, Judith

321

Toward a Rhetorical Vision for Public Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critics contend American public television has failed to realize the potential envisioned by the Carnegie Commission on Educational Television. Using Ernest Bormann's theory of fantasy theme analysis as a framework to examine public TV reveals that American public television has been unable to develop a coherent rhetorical vision or a clear…

Stavitsky, Alan G.

322

What's on Malaysian television? - A survey on food advertising targeting children.  

PubMed

The Malaysian government recently introduced a ban on fast food advertisements targeting children on television. This study reports on data covering 6 months of television food advertising targeting children. Six out of seven of the Nation's commercial television networks participated (response rate = 85.7%). Based on reported timings of children's programmes, prime time significantly differed ( p <0.05) between weekdays (mean = 1.89 +/- 0.18 hr) and weekends (mean = 4.61 +/- 0.33 hr). The increased trend during weekends, school vacation and Ramadhan was evident. Over the six-month period, the mean number of food advertisements appearing per month varied greatly between television stations (C = 1104; D = 643; F = 407; B = 327; A = 59; E = 47). Food advertising also increased the most in September (n = 3158), followed by July (n = 2770), August (n = 2431), October (n = 2291), November (n = 2245) and June (n = 2211). Content analysis of advertisements indicated snacks were the highest (34.5%), followed by dairy products (20.3%), sugars and candies (13.4%), biscuits (11.2%), fast food (6.7%), breakfast cereal (6.4%), beverages (4.1%), supplements (0.9%), rice (0.6%), noodles (0.5%), bread (0.3%), miscellaneous and processed foods (0.2%). Paradoxically, we found that the frequency of snack food advertised during children's prime time was 5 times more than fast foods. The sodium content (mean = 620 mg per 100g) of these snack foods was found to be highest. PMID:18818170

Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Chinna, Karuthan; Mee, Loi Huei; Mei, Lim Siau; Noor, Mohd Ismail

2008-01-01

323

Television dramas and homicide causation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television crime dramas are part of the media presentation of crime and criminals, and they represent an element in the construction of reality about crime by the viewing public. A review of the portrayal of homicide in TV crime dramas is not completely consistent with the official data. An adequate explanation of cause, beyond the plot motive, is lacking in

David Fabianic

1997-01-01

324

Interactive Cable Television. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes an interactive video system developed by Active Learning Systems which utilizes a cable television (TV) network as its delivery system to transmit computer literacy lessons to high school and college students. The system consists of an IBM PC, Pioneer LDV 4000 videodisc player, and Whitney Supercircuit set up at the head end…

Active Learning Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

325

Television's Four Highly Attracted Audiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women, blacks, the poor, and the elderly view more television than the population as a whole. Does TV serve the needs and interests of these primary viewers? Professor Comstock doubts it and finds these viewers largely disenfranchised by shallow news programs and entertainment that reinforces accepted norms. (Editor/RK)

Comstock, George

1978-01-01

326

Does Mobile Television Enhance a New Television Experience?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Television has become a common – and often a dominant – practice in the everyday life of people. A transition to a mobile\\u000a environment seems natural – as industries like to believe. But is this really so? To what extent will mobile television have\\u000a the same position as well as the same practices as the traditional television set? Our research

Bram Lievens; Eva Vanhengel; Jo Pierson; An Jacobs

2010-01-01

327

Supporting the social uses of television: sociability heuristics for social tv  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various social television systems and applications, enabling remote communication and interaction between viewers, are currently in development. Although usability guidelines exist for interactive television to ensure a usable system, there are no sociability guidelines for designing or evaluating the social interaction these systems enable. In this paper we present twelve sociability heuristics for evaluating social TV, based on several user

David Geerts; Dirk De Grooff

2009-01-01

328

Passive TV technique for time transfer via Indian satellite Insat-1B  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a satellite network for time transfer in the passive mode is evaluated using Insat-1B. The basic principles of the passive TV technique for time transfer, and time transfer via the Insat-1B TV network are described. The effect of the wobble of geosynchronous satellites on the time transfer precision is examined. It is concluded that in the Indian

P. Banerjee; Mithlesh Saxena; B. S. Mathur

1987-01-01

329

Investigating Personality and Viewing-Motivation Correlates of Reality Television Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the personality and viewing-motivation correlates of reality television exposure. Results from a survey of 592 undergraduates showed that extroversion negatively predicted reality television exposure, whereas neuroticism was not associated with it. Both instrumental (social interaction, information, and arousal) and ritualized (relaxation, pass time, entertainment, and companionship) viewing motivations positively predicted exposure to reality television. A two-stage model

Jennifer Stevens Aubrey; Loreen Olson; Mark Fine; Todd Hauser; David Rhea; Brian Kaylor; Annie Yang

2012-01-01

330

Digital Television: Sharpening the Focus on Children. Media Now, Spring 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As television transitions from analog to digital, questions arise as to how to best meet the needs of children. What are the potential benefits of digital television? How can the technology be used to serve children and families, while at the same time protect them from possible harm? The transition to digital television offers a unique…

Espejo, Eileen; Miller, Patti

2004-01-01

331

Television programming and advertisements: help or hindrance to effective science education?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to find the amount of science portrayed by terrestrial television in the UK and the public comprehension of that science as shown on television. UK terrestrial programming was derived from the Radio Times. Advertisement information was derived from UK terrestrial commercial television commercials. Public opinions were solicited by a survey of 200 members of the public

Gabrielle McSharry

2002-01-01

332

A Survey of Certain Attitudes Toward Reading and Television in Fifth-Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attitude profile of fifth-grade school children on reading versus television watching was prepared, which also collected data on the physical access to books and television sets. Using a questionnaire, the data from 124 responses were compared with the body of existing research findings. It was found that most of the television watching time is…

Phelan, George, Jr.; Starkey, John D.

333

Preschool Television Viewing and Adolescent Test Scores: Historical Evidence from the Coleman Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use heterogeneity in the timing of television's introduction to different local markets to identify the effect of preschool television exposure on standardized test scores during adolescence. Our preferred point estimate indicates that an additional year of preschool television exposure raises average adolescent test scores by about 0.02 standard deviations. We are able to reject negative effects larger than about

Matthew Gentzkow; Jesse M. Shapiro

2008-01-01

334

Does Television Rot Your Brain? New Evidence from the Coleman Study. NBER Working Paper No. 12021  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use heterogeneity in the timing of television's introduction to different local markets to identify the effect of preschool television exposure on standardized test scores later in life. Our preferred point estimate indicates that an additional year of preschool television exposure raises average test scores by about .02 standard deviations. We…

Gentzkow, Matthew; Shapiro, Jesse M.

2006-01-01

335

Television watching during lunch increases afternoon snack intake of young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating while watching television has been shown to increase food intake in part due to the distracting effects of television viewing. It is also known that enhancing memory for the specific attributes of foods eaten in the recent past decreases subsequent food intake. Because distraction at the time of encoding interferes with memory formation, we predicted that television watching during

Suzanne Higgs; Morgan Woodward

2009-01-01

336

Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. METHODS: Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school

Daheia J Barr-Anderson; Nicole I Larson; Melissa C Nelson; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Mary Story

2009-01-01

337

The Relationship between Television Viewing and Obesity in Young Children: A Review of Existing Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has often been proposed that young (three to six years old) children's television viewing habits contribute to early-onset obesity. Three explanations that link television viewing patterns of young children with the development of obesity are considered. First, television viewing displaces time available for physical activity, reduces energy…

Jenvey, Vickii B.

2007-01-01

338

Scheduling Commercial Videotapes in Broadcast Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, motivated by the experiences of major US-based broadcast television network, presents algorithms and heuristics to schedule commercial videotapes. Major advertisers purchase several slots to air commercials during a given time period on a broadcast network. We study the problem of scheduling advertiser's commercials in the slots it purchased when the same commercial is to be aired multiple times.

Srinivas Bollapragada; Michael R. Bussieck; Suman Mallik

2004-01-01

339

Cultural values depicted in Indian television advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, television has diffused rapidly through Indian society. While this television boom has provided ample opportunities for the Indian government to propagate development communication messages, there has also been some concern regarding the impact of television, especially television advertising, on traditional cultural values. The purpose of the present paper is to examine Indian television advertising, focusing on

Sivaram Srikandath

1991-01-01

340

TV Bullies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Childhood bullying is an age-old problem that's drawing more and more concern from parents. A recent study identified several factors that influence a child's chance of becoming a bully. Four-year-old children who watch a lot of television are more likely to become bullies later in life. That's according to University of Washington public health professor Fred Zimmerman. The research looks at how much television influence a child's behavior. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to the findings presented and offers links to other sources for further inquiry and a Science New York Times lesson plan geared towards grades 6-12.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-05-09

341

Agent + Image : how the television image estabilizes identity in TV spy series  

E-print Network

This thesis explores the intersection of the television image with the presentation of self-identity. I examine two TV series in the spy genre -- Alias (2001 - 2006) and The Prisoner (1967 - 1968) -- discussing how each ...

Bidlingmeyer, Lisa Marie

2007-01-01

342

Form and Content: Looking at Visual Features of Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television viewing at home by 50 individuals in 5 age groups (2-, 5-, 8-, 12-year-olds, and adults) was recorded on 1-s time-lapse videotapes over 10-day periods. Coding was based on 5-min point samples. Analysis examined looking at the TV screen in relation to the visual presence of the features cuts, movement, animation, man, woman, child, and nonhuman; content features were

Kelly L. Schmitt; Daniel R. Anderson; Patricia A. Collins

1999-01-01

343

Regional satellites: The European experience with Eutelsat for TV, voice, data and mobile transmissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ten year old Eutelsat satellite network is described. The current generation and the initial satellites are compared. The capability to adjust to market demand is emphasized. Some teachings from the Eutelsat experience that can be used by designers and business planners of emerging satellite networks in Latin America are: keep flexibility in the payload, use transparent transponders, switchable coverages, and steerable beams; television (TV) is the backbone revenue making service; countries with liberal TV provision policies should be marketed heavily; worldwide TV networks should be a prime marketing target; do not expect telephony to take up much loading; and VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminals) network using time division multiple access are not large bandwidth consumer--many private networks are needed to fill up a transponder.

Bloch, J. J.

344

Faculty of Arts Film & Television  

E-print Network

); representation and identity, and issues of gender; British television history; experimental film; documentary education, journalism, exhibition and marketing, and public relations. We also have an outstanding record

Davies, Christopher

345

Television viewing and childhood obesity.  

PubMed

Children spend a substantial portion of their lives watching television. Investigators have hypothesized that television viewing causes obesity by one or more of three mechanisms: (1) displacement of physical activity, (2) increased calorie consumption while watching or caused by the effects of advertising, and (3) reduced resting metabolism. The relationship between television viewing and obesity has been examined in a relatively large number of cross-sectional epidemiologic studies but few longitudinal studies. Many of these studies have found relatively weak, positive associations, but others have found no associations or mixed results; however, the weak and variable associations found in these studies may be the result of limitations in measurement. Several experimental studies of reducing television viewing recently have been completed. Most of these studies have not tested directly the effects of reducing television viewing behaviors alone, but their results support the suggestion that reducing television viewing may help to reduce the risk for obesity or help promote weight loss in obese children. Finally, one school-based, experimental study was designed specifically to test directly the causal relationship between television viewing behaviors and body fatness. The results of this randomized, controlled trial provide evidence that television viewing is a cause of increased body fatness and that reducing television viewing is a promising strategy for preventing childhood obesity. PMID:11494635

Robinson, T N

2001-08-01

346

Payload operation television system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TV system assembled is intended for laboratory experimentation which would develop operational techniques and lead to the design of space-borne TV equipment whose purpose would be to assist the astronaut-operator aboard a space station to load payload components. The TV system assembled for this program is a black and white, monocular, high performance system. The equipment consists principally of a good quality TV camera capable of high resolving power; a TV monitor; a sync generator for driving camera and monitor; and two pan/tilt units which are remotely controlled by the operator. One pan/tilt unit provides control of the pointing of the camera, the other similarly controls the position of a simulated payload.

1976-01-01

347

47 CFR 73.624 - Digital television broadcast stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Digital television broadcast stations. ...permittees, and low power television, TV translator and Class A television stations DTV licensees...and from any commercial advertisements transmitted on the...

2012-10-01

348

47 CFR 73.624 - Digital television broadcast stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Digital television broadcast stations. ...permittees, and low power television, TV translator and Class A television stations DTV licensees...and from any commercial advertisements transmitted on the...

2013-10-01

349

47 CFR 73.624 - Digital television broadcast stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Digital television broadcast stations. ...permittees, and low power television, TV translator and Class A television stations DTV licensees...and from any commercial advertisements transmitted on the...

2011-10-01

350

TV nation or TV city?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For much of its history in the twentieth century, television was conceived mostly in national terms. American television, British television, Australian television and so on were thought of as distinct systems, even if they frequently displayed significant degrees of overlap. Such a notion has always been a convenient simplification. Television exists at a series of different spatial levels and the

Albert Moran

2010-01-01

351

Development and Current Issues of Interactive Television in the UK  

E-print Network

gives a brief history of television and the development of interactivity on TV. It also describes how of interactive television, development of the TV platforms, digital and interactive technologies, interactive applications, take-up and usage of digital and interactive TV Introduction History of Interactive Television (iTV

Masthoff, Judith

352

Public Policy and Children’s Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television occupies a large part of children’s time from an early age. Among its many functions, education, social learning (prosocial as well as antisocial), and selling products are well documented by research evidence. Commercial programming for children in the United States consists primarily of cartoons and entertainment shows; educational and informative programs are supplied by public broadcasting and, to some

Aletha C. Huston; Bruce A. Watkins; Dale Kunkel

1989-01-01

353

The Reliability and Stability of Television Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to assess the reliability and stability of television exposure, and the relationship of various demographic variables to this, presumed hypothetical construct, when measurement error is removed. A secondary analysis of survey data collected from a sample of black adults over two points in time served as the basis for this investigation. Using a LISREL model. the

Richard L. Allen

1981-01-01

354

Cultural schemas for racial identity in Canadian television advertising.  

PubMed

What meanings are attached to race in advertising? We analyze a sample of prime-time Canadian television advertising to identify cultural schemas for what it means to be White, Black, and East/Southeast Asian. Our empirical focus is on food and dining advertising. Through quantitative content analysis of associations between race and food subtypes, we show that there are systematic differences in the types of foods that groups are associated with. Through a qualitative content analysis of the commercials, we illuminate these quantitative patterns and discuss six cultural schemas for racial identity. The schemas allow for both diversity and privilege in the representation of Whites, and poignant contrasts regarding status and emotionality in the narrow representations of the other two groups. PMID:24964520

Baumann, Shyon; Ho, Loretta

2014-05-01

355

Tobacco imagery on New Zealand television 2002-2004  

PubMed Central

Considerable emphasis has been placed on the importance of tobacco imagery in the movies as one of the “drivers” of smoking among young people. Findings are presented from a content analysis of 98?hours of prime?time programming on New Zealand television 2004, identifying 152 scenes with tobacco imagery, and selected characteristics of those scenes. About one in four programmes contained tobacco imagery, most of which might be regarded as “neutral or positive”. This amounted to about two scenes containing such imagery for every hour of programming. A comparison with our earlier content analysis of programming in 2002 indicated little change in the level of tobacco imagery. The effect of this imagery in contributing to young viewers taking up smoking, and sustaining the addiction among those already smoking, deserves more research attention. PMID:16998178

McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita

2006-01-01

356

Children's Responses to Television Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A paper-and-pencil measure of aggressive resonse was developed to study the effects on children of exposure to television-mediated violence. Using this measure, a series of experiments was conducted using actural television programs as stimulus material. The results of these studies suggest: 1) Although the majority of children understand the…

Leifer, Aimee Dorr; Roberts, Donald F.

357

Teaching Irish History through Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and evaluates a course dealing with Irish history presented through closed-circuit television at the University of Connecticut (Storrs). Explores the use of televised instruction as a means of teaching history to undergraduates. Reports that this approach, supplemented by a live interactive component, was deemed successful by students…

Raymond, Raymond J.

1988-01-01

358

Studies in Violence and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complete reports of the research efforts on the effects of televised violence on children sponsored by the American Broadcasting Company in the past five years are presented. Ten research projects on aggression and violence are described which examined primarily the effect of television on children who were emotionally disturbed, came from…

Heller, Melvin S.; Polsky, Samuel

359

Empirical Studies on Television Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of research on television's major compositional factors was undertaken to determine the status of such research and to note the major variables involved in the structure of television pictures. It was found that such research could be grouped in four categories--lighting and color, staging, editing, and sound--and that these areas covered…

Metallinos, Nikos

360

Television and the gifted child  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited research that has focused on the impact of television on the gifted child. Research literature does, however, substantiate a direct relationship between the extent of television exposure and the potential to influence the viewer. The amount of communication between family members may serve to supplement or replace the consumption of mass communication. The greatest disparity in consumption

Robert Abelman

1984-01-01

361

Television exposure and language development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A language sample and a television log were collected from 93 preschool children. Correlations between the language sophistication levels of the subjects and television exposure showed a significant negative inverse relationship. Differential results between types of programs viewed and language development suggest support for an environmentalist theory of language development.

Gary W. Selnow; Erwin P. Bettinghaus

1982-01-01

362

Television Exposure and Language Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A language sample and television viewing log were collected from 93 preschool children to explore the relationship between viewing habits and spoken language. Findings showed a negative inverse relationship between language sophistication levels and television exposure, and suggested support for an environmentalist theory of language development.…

Selnow, Gary W.; Bettinghaus, Erwin P.

1982-01-01

363

Television Literacy for Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of curricula to make children more critical evaluators of television content. Evaluates the extent to which children learned the content of the curricula, applied it to their reasoning about television programs, and used it to mediate between exposure to selected content and the effects of that content. (JMF)

Dorr, Aimee; And Others

1980-01-01

364

State Television and Voter Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does the presence of government-controlled media affect po- litical outcomes? What happens when the state monopoly is broken by the introduction of commercial television? To analyze these ques- tions we develop a retrospective voting model where, the government selects the intensity of television coverage for different socio-economic groups, and, after this, sets public policy and political rents. The incumbent

Andrea Prat

365

About Television Reality and Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents the argument that television reality is a new kind of performance in our environment: we don't respond to it and it doesn't acknowledge our presence. The images and sounds of television reality are "its", and our human organisms must be disconcerted by these "its" occuring in the privacy of our homes. We are being taught to…

Howard, Brice

366

How can Industry Use Television?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applications that have been discussed above are representative of the more important industrial uses which have been found for industrial television equipment in the first few years since its inception. Undoubtedly many other applications are presently hidden by security requirements and by temporary competitive advantages which the user will not reveal. The broad industrial base gained by television since

H. F. Schneider

1956-01-01

367

Television systems on railway transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of television engineering, wide use of computers and the successes in signalling allow to consider possibility of use of complex federated systems on a railway transport and in manufactures ensuring operation of this branch of activity of the man. Some television systems representing defined engineering interest are considered below.

Vilentchik, Leonid S.; Buraev, Alexander A.; Rosval, Iakov B.

1999-10-01

368

Chronic loneliness and television use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined how chronic loneliness influenced local news and soap opera viewing. We hypothesized that chronic loneliness relates to reduced interpersonal interaction, increased electronic media use, and passive television use. The discriminant analysis distinguished chronic loneliness from nonloneli?ness by: (a) lesser use of interpersonal channels and greater use of electronic media channels, especially television and movies; and (b) pass

Elizabeth M. Perse; Alan M. Rubin

1990-01-01

369

Educational Television: "Let's Explore Science".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an historical overview of the development of instructional television as a tool within the context of science education. Traces the technology from its beginning as experiments in public service broadcasting by universities and television networks. Examines the use of the technology as a teaching tool in terms of scientific literacy.…

King, Kenneth P.

2000-01-01

370

Easy Citizenship: Television's Curious Legacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that television has reduced the burdens of citizenship for the average American and that that reduc tion is dangerous. Television does all of this by overwhelming viewers with the sights and sounds of governmental life and by supersaturat ing them with political information. All too often, however, this tumult creates in viewers a sense of activity rather

Roderick P. Hart

1996-01-01

371

Gender Constancy and Television Viewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored gender constancy's interaction with television viewing, using videotapes of television viewing and viewing diaries for 5-year olds. Gender-constant boys focused on more male characters and watched more action and sports programs than preconstant boys. Gender-constant girls viewed more action programming than preconstant girls. Acquisition…

Luecke-Aleksa, Diane; And Others

1995-01-01

372

Children's Perceptions of Television Characters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the cognitive dimensions used by children in differentiating among television characters. Similarity judgments between all possible pairs of 14 television characters were analyzed using INDSCAL, a multidimensional scaling method which allows for individual or subgroup differences in scaling solutions. By linking the results of…

Reeves, Byron; Greenberg, Bradley S.

373

Children's Television Workshop. Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the third quarter of 1973 (July through September) the Children's Television Workshop (CTW) evaluated old material and planned new programing. The fourth season of Sesame Street and the second season of The Electric Company were rerun through the summer by most of the public and commercial television stations that carried the shows…

Cooney, Joan Ganz

374

Television production techniques as communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, mass communication scholars have exhibited an increasing willingness to regard television programming as a visual text or message system. One approach to television as text is the encoding\\/decoding model of Stuart Hall. While a substantial body of research has grown from this model, it has tended to focus almost exclusively on the process of decoding. By comparison,

David Barker

1985-01-01

375

The diffusion of television advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an empirical examination of the diffusion of the use of network television advertising by manufacturing firms. The results indicate that manufacturers of consumer goods were likely to make use of television advertising sooner than manufacturers of producer goods and that, among producers of consumer goods, those producing more easily differentiable products were likely to adopt sooner than

Michael R. Butler

1991-01-01

376

Network television news coverage of environmental risks  

SciTech Connect

Despite the criticisms that surround television coverage of environmental risk, there have been relatively few attempts to measure what and whom television shows. Most research has focused analysis on a few weeks of coverage of major stories like the gas leak at Bhopal, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, or the Mount St. Helen's eruption. To advance the research into television coverage of environmental risk, an analysis has been made of all environmental risk coverage by the network nightly news broadcasts for a period of more than two years. Researchers have analyzed all environmental risk coverage-564 stories in 26 months-presented on ABC, CBS, and NBC's evening news broadcasts from January 1984 through February 1986. The quantitative information from the 564 stories was balanced by a more qualitative analysis of the television coverage of two case studies-the dioxin contamination in Times Beach, Missouri, and the suspected methyl isocyanate emissions from the Union Carbide plant in Institute, West Virginia. Both qualitative and quantitative data contributed to the analysis of the role played by experts and environmental advocacy sources in coverage of environmental risk and to the suggestions for increasing that role.

Greenberg, M.R.; Sandman, P.M.; Sachsman, D.V.; Salomone, K.L.

1989-03-01

377

Traits of Perpetrators and Receivers of Antisocial and Prosocial Acts on TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasts the demographic properties--gender, race, and age--of the perpetrators and receivers of antisocial and prosocial acts on prime-time network television. Concludes that antisocial activity has declined and that a White, middle-class male is now most likely to be the perpetrator or recipient. (MM)

Potter, W. James; Ware, William

1987-01-01

378

Brand placement in scripted and non-scripted Belgian and US programs on Belgian prime time television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an extensive literature review into the characteristics of brand placements and their possible link to placement effectiveness, a brand placement coding framework is developed which, besides program genre and origin, registers the frequency and presence of three essential brand placement characteristics: (1) modality type; (2) prominence level; and (3) plot connection level. As such, this coding instrument can

Marijke Wouters; Patrick de Pelsmacker

2010-01-01

379

“That's Not a Beer Bong, It's a Breast Pump!” Representations of Breastfeeding in Prime-Time Fictional Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breastfeeding has been recognized as one of the key determinant in one's future health. Yet although most people are aware of the benefits, many women do not breastfeed their babies past the first few months. These low rates can be partially explained by negative cultural attitudes toward breastfeeding, which have been reinforced by media messages. This research explored representations of

Katherine A. Foss

2012-01-01

380

Where has the doctor gone? The mediazation of medicine on Dutch television, 1961-2000.  

PubMed

Health issues and medical science receive a lot of attention on television. Of all the sciences, the European public is most interested in medicine, and the public uses television as their main source of information on science. There has been hardly any empirical research, however, into the historical development of the representation of medical science on television. The development of medical television was explored by carrying out a content analysis of Dutch non-fiction medical television programs spanning a period of 40 years. The speaking time allotted to experts has decreased over the years, while that allotted to laypeople has increased. We are seeing fewer references to sources and science and more expression of emotion and tension. The results suggest three periods of medical television: a scientific, a journalistic and a lay period. Medical television in 2000 shows a personified picture of patients against an instrumentalized and symbolized medical backdrop. PMID:19244867

Verhoeven, Piet

2008-10-01

381

Active and Passive Processes in Children's Television Viewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The TV viewing situation involves an active transaction between the child, the TV, and the TV viewing environment. The TV viewing transaction is a blend of passive and active cognitive activities. Children begin to watch TV systematically at around 2 1/2 years of age because at that time they have the cognitive ability to aappreciate the meaning…

Anderson, Daniel R.

382

Facing an Illusive Frontier; Defining and Producing Interactive Television  

E-print Network

at the thoughts and activities of American interactive television (iTV) executives and producers circa 2002. Based television (iTV) may very well be one of the longest lasting buzzwords in the American television industry the American iTV landscape is based on a series of thirty two in- depth interviews, held between June

Masthoff, Judith

383

Preventive Consumer Education in Children's Judgments of Televised Advertisements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving eight elementary students suggested that active discrimination training can alter children's consumer responses to televised advertisements, and such training can take place with minimal teacher effort and classroom time. (Author/CL)

Peterson, Lizette

1985-01-01

384

Solid state television camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and tests of a solid state television camera using a new charge-coupled imaging device are reported. An RCA charge-coupled device arranged in a 512 by 320 format and directly compatible with EIA format standards was the sensor selected. This is a three-phase, sealed surface-channel array that has 163,840 sensor elements, which employs a vertical frame transfer system for image readout. Included are test results of the complete camera system, circuit description and changes to such circuits as a result of integration and test, maintenance and operation section, recommendations to improve the camera system, and a complete set of electrical and mechanical drawing sketches.

1976-01-01

385

Dialogue Radio and Television  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1988, "Dialogue" was originally a weekly radio program that featured conversations with important public figures, journalists, authors and other prominent persons. The program has grown since then to include a television series and it remains based at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. The program is hosted by George Liston Seay, and visitors can click on "About the Host" to learn more about his background. Additionally, the site contains a "Recent Programs" area where visitors can browse through a subject index of past shows, and also listen (and look) at past programs dating back to 1998. Some recent programs of note include "Communicating Across Cultures" with Professor Lawrence Rosen of Princeton University and policy scholar William Krist on "Planting Policy: American Agriculture and World Trade".

386

Broadcasting presence: immersive television  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being present at a live event is undeniably the most exciting way to experience any entertainment. This is true whether we are talking about a musical concert, a theatrical performance, a cricket match, or even a firework display. The ability to direct your gaze where you wish, to hear sounds from all around you, to experience the immediacy and expectation of an unscripted happening, to feel the buzz of the crowd and to smell the grass or smoke, are all sensory cues which contribute to the powerful experience of being there. This paper examines the ways in which entertainment media have attempted to recreate experiences which encourage the viewer to suspend disbelief and become part of a remote or recorded event. We introduce the concept of immersive television and look at some of the research, spanning many disciplines of science and art, which the ITC is conducting to explore the potential of this new medium.

Harrison, David; Lodge, Nicholas

2000-06-01

387

Socializing children about television: An intergenerational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a study on mothers’ views of television and children’s perceptions of their mothers’ socialization\\u000a efforts regarding television. Results from the investigation involving 174 mother and child (in Grades 3–6) dyads suggest\\u000a that mothers’ perceptions of their responsibilities regarding children’s television viewing vary by parental style. In addition,\\u000a children’s perceptions of mothers’ verbal interactions about TV and coviewing

Les Carlson; Russell N. Laczniak; Ann Walsh

2001-01-01

388

Television-Mediated Conversation: Coherence in Italian iTV SMS Chat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text messaging on interactive television in Italy is a media convergence phenomenon involving short message service, traditional television, and the World Wide Web. This study investigates the frequency and coherence of viewer-to-viewer textual exchanges on an Italian iTV SMS program, employing methods of interaction analysis and the visualization tool VisualDTA to represent interactional coherence. The findings show that despite numerous

Asta Zelenkauskaite; Susan C. Herring

2008-01-01

389

Television Transmission Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The VKP-7990 Multistage Depressed Collector (MDC) Klystron is a result of cooperative development by Varian Associates, Inc., the National Association of Broadcasters, Lewis Research Center, the Public Broadcasting System and TV transmitter manufacturers. The effort was initiated to make power amplifying devices with efficiencies comparable to VHF available to UHF operators. The klystron is a vacuum tube used to generate and amplify ultrahigh frequencies but at low efficiencies because most of the energy is dissipated as waste heat. Lewis had earlier developed the MDC to enhance the efficiency of communications satellite transmissions. Varian Microwave Power Tube Products, which has since become Communications and Power Industries, and Lewis combined the MDC and the klystron, resulting in a product which increases efficiency by recovering some of the residual energy that normally would be lost as heat. The MDC klystron cuts the electric power consumption of UHF-TV transmitters in half; there are 90 units in operation in 36 UHF-TV stations.

1996-01-01

390

African American Stereotypes in Reality Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1990s, reality television was a fledging type of voyeuristic television programming that was catching the attention of American viewers. Twenty years later, reality television is the format of choice for many traditional and cable networks. This study analyzes ten reality television shows airing in 2005 and 2008 to investigate whether producers cast participants who fit into traditional

Tia Tyree

2011-01-01

391

Impact of television on sleep habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television is the most widespread communication system of modern society, however, excessive television viewing have long-lasting adverse effects on health. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of television on sleep behavior of human population of Chhattisgarh, India. The study have been conducted on 2105 individuals from remote (without electricity and television), rural, and urban areas. The

Chaynika Nag; Rohit Kumar Pradhan

2012-01-01

392

Impact of television on sleep habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television is the most widespread communication system of modern society, however, excessive television viewing have long-lasting adverse effects on health. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of television on sleep behavior of human population of Chhattisgarh, India. The study have been conducted on 2105 individuals from remote (without electricity and television), rural, and urban areas. The

Chaynika Nag; Rohit Kumar Pradhan

2011-01-01

393

Television and the American Family. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting drastic changes in both television and the family since the 1990 edition, this revised volume provides an extensive consideration of television's role in the American family, from the uses families make of television and how extensions such as remote controls and VCRs affect usage, to the meanings families have for television, families'…

Bryant, Jennings, Ed.; Bryant, J. Alison, Ed.

394

National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

395

Reading and Television: Some Concerns; Some Answers!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the relationship of reading and television and describes a "critical viewing skills" program ("Spudbuster") for combatting the effects of prolonged TV watching. The paper enumerates helpful suggestions for both parents and teachers to ensure that children's television watching is not excessive and that what children do watch…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.; And Others

396

Degaussing Circuits for Color Television Receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1967 the PTC resistor was introduced to the American TV industry for color television degaussing. This new component caused comparisons of performance and economics to be made with existing techniques. The PTC degausser offered sufficient advantages so that by 1971 it was used in 50% of color televisions made in this country. After a general review of degaussing this

Robert Blaha

1972-01-01

397

Teaching Introductory College Geology by Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document supports the use of instructional television particularly as an alternative to the large lecture hall classes. The geology program at the University of Arizona consisting of television presentations from 1962 to 1970 is reviewed, including the history of the program, course description, attendance, course organization, TV facilities,…

Bowen, John E.; And Others

398

Television Autobiographies: The Audience Speaks for Itself.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in a children and television course wrote their "television autobiographies" (that is, their relationship with TV). Forty-three students at a mid-size upstate New York college participated. The autobiographies corroborated the results of previous quantitative and qualitative research, but added a personal, more in-depth look at the…

Spangler, Lynn C.

399

Chapter I In Search of Social Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of social television, in an attempt to find the real meaning of the term. It explores the history and current state of social television, looks at a number of examples of Social TV systems and their features, compares different definitions of the term, and outlines dimensions of design that have been used

Gunnar Harboe

400

Assimilation and Contrast Effects in the Priming of Asian American and African American Stereotypes through TV Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied theoretical propositions of the assimilation and contrast perspectives of social psychology to investigate the effects of exposure to TV portrayals of Asian Americans on judgments regarding Asian and African Americans. Experimental participants exposed to TV-mediated messages reinforcing the Asian American “model minority”‘ stereotype were more likely to positively evaluate Asian Americans and to negatively evaluate African Americans

Francis Dalisay; Alexis Tan

2009-01-01

401

Television and Social Stereotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple content analytic studies of TV portrayals of four social roles are presented, identifying consistent and persistent stereotypical attributes. Sex roles, ethnic roles, occupational roles, and age roles are discussed. Research on the impact of those portrayals is reviewed, and research on programming, critical viewing skills and parental mediation strategies which may serve to counteract stereotypic portrayals is presented.

Bradley S. Greenberg; Carrie Heeter

1983-01-01

402

Stereoscopic television system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this system, both left and right optical images pass through same set of optical lenses and same TV transmission and receiving systems. Transmitted stereo images are of high quality because differences in image tone and gray scales, disparities in relative focusing and magnification, and nonsimilar distortions produced by electrical and optical imperfections are minimized.

Jones, J. L.

1973-01-01

403

Internet Protocol Television (IPTV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is intended to be an introduction into the issues involved with delivering IPTV over DSL. IPTV technology and available broadband bandwidths are evolving to the point where DSL providers can effectively enter the market of TV delivery to their customers. However, there are still issues concerning bandwidth, codec selection, QoS, and ROI. This paper will address each of

A. Yarali; A. Cherry

2005-01-01

404

A Novel Impulsive Transient Suppression Device Based on TVS Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impulsive transient badly influences power system and electrical equipments at aspects. A novel TVS array based impulsive transient suppression device with straightforward structure and easy control strategy that works on 220 V (phase voltage) power line to protect low voltage apparatus is proposed in this paper. Through analyzing characteristics of transient voltage suppressor (TVS), the idea of this TVS array

Lu Jue; Zhou Hong; Yu Li; Yang Jianhui; Liu Zili; Min Lishu

2009-01-01

405

Dual Audio TV Instruction: A Broadcast Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment assessed the potential effectiveness of "dual audio television instruction" (DATI) as a mass education medium. The DATI consisted of a radio program heard by children while they watched television shows. The audio instructor did not talk when the television characters spoke, but used the "quiet" times to help with reading, define…

Borton, Terry; And Others

406

It takes time to prime: Semantic priming in the ocular lexical decision task.  

PubMed

Two eye-tracking experiments were conducted in which the manual response mode typically used in lexical decision tasks (LDTs) was replaced with an eye-movement response through a sequence of 3 words. This ocular LDT combines the explicit control of task goals found in LDTs with the highly practiced ocular response used in reading text. In Experiment 1, forward saccades indicated an affirmative lexical decision (LD) on each word in the triplet. In Experiment 2, LD responses were delayed until all 3 letter strings had been read. The goal of the study was to evaluate the contribution of task goals and response mode to semantic priming. Semantic priming is very robust in tasks that involve recognition of words in isolation, such as LDT, but limited during text reading, as measured using eye movements. Gaze durations in both experiments showed robust semantic priming even though ocular response times were much shorter than manual LDs for the same words in the English Lexicon Project. Ex-Gaussian distribution fits revealed that the priming effect was concentrated in estimates of tau (?), meaning that priming was most pronounced in the slow tail of the distribution. This pattern shows differential use of the prime information, which may be more heavily recruited in cases in which the LD is difficult, as indicated by longer response times. Compared with the manual LD responses, ocular LDs provide a more sensitive measure of this task-related influence on word recognition as measured by the LDT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25181368

Hoedemaker, Renske S; Gordon, Peter C

2014-12-01

407

The Children's Television Workshop goes to school  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repackaging existing educational television series to fit the needs of more narrowly defined audiences is a cost-effective way of delivering high-quality educational television into the schools. This article discusses both the technological and program-design barriers to wider use of television in classroom instruction and details the steps that the Children's Television Workshop took to make3-2-1 Contact, its educational television science

Cheryl Gotthelf; Tina Peel

1990-01-01

408

Television Viewing Does Not Have to Be Sedentary: Motivation to Participate in a TV Exercise Program.  

PubMed

The present study explored which underlying motivations induced people to participate in a television exercise program called "The Netherlands on the Move!-television" (NOM-tv). A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,349 viewers of NOM-tv. The respondents completed the intrinsic motivation inventory (IMI), assessing their levels of intrinsic motivation towards participating in the NOM-tv exercises. The results showed that higher levels of intrinsic motivation (i.e. enjoying the NOM-tv exercises, feeling competent to perform this activity, and willingness to put effort into the exercises) were the most important predictive factors of more frequent participation in the NOM-tv exercises. Future screen-based interventions to reduce sedentary behavior should aim especially at encouraging people's intrinsic orientations towards physical activity in an autonomy-supportive way. PMID:22187637

Meis, Jessie J M; Kremers, Stef P J; Bouman, Martine P A

2012-01-01

409

Children and Television in Malaysia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television programing governed by national policy is described. The Advertising Code is noted, as are sources of foreign programs, media research agencies, and references to Malaysian media studies. (RAO)

Van Niel, Eloise

1978-01-01

410

Vallecito Middle School's Educational Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vallecito Middle School in San Rafael (California) has been using video production techniques since 1981, and the staff has observed many positive changes in learning, attitudes, and behavior resulting from the use of television. Videotaping has facilitat...

1984-01-01

411

Improved television signal processing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital system processes spacecraft television pictures by converting images sensed on a photostorage vidicon to pulses which can be transmitted by telemetry. This system can be applied in the processing of medical X ray photographs and in electron microscopy.

Wong, R. Y.

1967-01-01

412

Impact of television on children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television viewing has a great impact on various aspects of child’s life. This study was carried out at Sir Padampat Mother\\u000a & Child Health Institute, Jaipur (Rajasthan). The aim was to study the effects of television viewing on a child’s eating habits,\\u000a general physical health, physical activities, interest in study and school performance. Only 250 children of 3–10 years age

R. K. Gupta; D. P. Saini; U. Acharya; N. Miglani

1994-01-01

413

Correlates of Television Viewing Among African American and Caucasian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the associations between time spent watching television and physical activity, selected eating behaviors, and quality of life variables among 189 African American and Caucasian women aged 18–60 years. Data were collected via a cross-sectional, random-digit-dialed telephone survey. Seventy-two percent and 46% of women reported to “always, often, or sometimes” eating or overeating while watching television, respectively. Significant

Michelle L. Granner; Adel Mburia-Mwalili

2010-01-01

414

Television, Sex-Role Attitudes, and Sex-Role Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amount of television viewing, sex-role attitudes, and sex-role behavior were measured at two points in time in a sample of 287 adolescents. The sex-role measures concern respondents' attitudes about the sex-specific appropriateness of various household chores and their own self-reported tendency to perform those chores. The data show that television viewing makes an independent contribution to adolescents' sex-role attitudes over

Michael Morgan

1987-01-01

415

Are Television News Programs Becoming Nothing More Than Infotainment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The money driven, have-it-done-by-yesterday world Americans live in takes no prisoners, and television news is certainly no exception. Driven by profits and struggling to keep up with the busy American with a short attention span and even shorter amount of free time, it seems broadcast television news programs have resorted to a man bites dog, blood and guts, celebrity format.

Nicole Morell

2007-01-01

416

Teaching an Interactive Television Course on Adulthood and Aging: Making It Happen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the design, development, and successful implementation of a hybrid distance education course on adulthood and aging. The focus is on the pedagogical and technological transitions made in converting a traditional course into an interactive television course (iTV). The course was taught a total of three times, first as a…

Donorfio, Laura K. M.; Healy, Catherine

2008-01-01

417

TELEVISION AND MUSIC VIDEO EXPOSURE AND ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL USE WHILE GOING OUT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To examine whether television viewing and music video exposure predict alcohol consumption while going out. Methods: Data were collected in two waves (February 2003 and February 2004). Respondents were a random sample of 1648 first and fourth year secondary school children of Flanders, Belgium. Self-reported general TV viewing and music video exposure at time 1 and the quantity of

JAN VAN DEN BULCK; KATHLEEN BEULLENS

2005-01-01

418

Physiological, Behavioral, and Psychological Effects Associated with Television Viewing in Schoolboys: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of 50 eleven-year-old boys demonstrates a new procedure for gathering physiological, psychological, and behavioral data on television viewing in the home environment on a normal school day, using a special ambulatory monitoring device capable of storing 23-hour records. The mean time spent watching TV was 123 minutes per day, during which the boys watched mostly entertainment and action

Michael Myrtek; Christian Scharff; Georg Brügner; Wolfgang Muller

1996-01-01

419

Viewing the Viewers: Viewing Behaviors by Children and Adults during Television Programs and Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reveals that 46% of the time with television was spent in some activity instead of or in addition to looking at the TV. Notes that social interaction was the most common nonviewing activity for all viewers, followed by playing and eating for children and reading for adults. Considers how nonviewing behaviors occurred most often during programming…

Schmitt, Kelly L.; Woolf, Kimberly Duyck; Anderson, Daniel R.

2003-01-01

420

The Portrayal of Older People in Television Advertisements: A Cross-Cultural Content Analysis of the United States and South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cross-cultural content analysis of 2,295 prime-time television ads--859 ads from the United States and 1,436 ads from South Korea--was conducted to examine the differences in the portrayal of older people between U.S. and Korean ads. In two countries, the underrepresentation of older people in ads was found in terms of proportions of the actual…

Lee, Byoungkwan; Kim, Bong-Chul; Han, Sangpil

2006-01-01

421

Analysis of logistics delivery time's influence on the gross profit of TV-shopping enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following shopping-mall and supermarket, TV-shopping has become a newly developed retailing mode, which is characterized by broad coverage, direct information transmittal and convenient buying behavior. This paper studies the logistics delivery support capability for TV-shopping business, and finds out that this new business has significant sensitivity to logistics delivery time. The influence of logistics delivery time on enterprise gross profit

Shen Yan; Nie Qing; Yuan Qing-da; Yang Xiao-yan

2010-01-01

422

78 FR 75306 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM-11707; DA 13-2129] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham...rulemaking filed by Alabama Educational Television Commission (``AETC...petitions for rulemaking by television stations seeking channel...

2013-12-11

423

The effects of television viewing in Greece, and the role of the paediatrician: a familiar triangle revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract  To investigate the effects of television (TV) viewing on children, 4876 questionnaires on viewing habits completed by Greek\\u000a children with the assistance of their parents were analysed. The most important results are summarized below. The mean time\\u000a spent watching TV ranged from 21–32 h per week. The age when children started watching TV correlated with their later educational\\u000a achievement: good

K. Anastassea-Vlachou; H. Fryssira-Kanioura; D. Papathanasiou-Klontza; A. Xipolita-Zachariadi; N. Matsaniotis

1996-01-01

424

Didactical Holographic Exhibit Including Holo TV (holographic Television)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our Institute of Physics exposes since 1980 didactical exhibitions of holography in Brazil where nice holograms are shown altogether with basic experiments of geometric and wave optics. This experiments lead to the understanding of the phenomenon of images of an ample way. Thousands of people have been present at them, in their majority of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, where since 2002 they have taken the format of a course without formal evaluation. This way the exhibition has been divided in four modules, in each one of them are shown different holograms, experiments of optics and applications of diffractive images with white light developed in the Institute of Physics. The sequence of the learning through the modules begins with the geometric optics, later we explain the wave optics and finally holography. The phenomenon of the diffraction in daily elements is shown experimentally from the beginning. As well as the application of the holographic screens in white light: the television images that appear in front of the screen and the spectator can try to experience the reality illusion. Put something so exclusive (that only exists in the laboratory) to the public is a way to approximate the persons to an investigation in course. The vision of images that seem to be of holograms, but in movement, and size of until a square meter completes this exhibition of an exclusive way in the world.

Lunazzi, José J.; Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Rivera, Noemí I. R.

2008-04-01

425

Ground-Commanded Television Assembly (GCTA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground-commanded color television assembly (GCTA) was designed for use on lunar explorations associated with NASA manned Apollo missions. The camera system as seen on Apollo 15 provided television coverage in the vicinity of the lunar module (LM) landing site, and was mounted on the lunar roving vehicle (LRV) to provide color coverage of astronaut activity and lunar topography during traverses on the surface. Remote control of the camera from earth was accomplished through the existing real-time Apollo command links. The assembly is illustrated. The configuration satisfied all anticipated requirements of the Apollo 15 mission and was fully responsive to specifications. The technical approach was based on proven designs and offered maximum mission flexibility, potential growth, and capability to withstand environmental extremes encountered on the lunar surface.

1972-01-01

426

Television viewing and depression: No news is good news  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines television viewing motives and psychological outcomes of television news viewing by persons in depressive moods. Subjects were measured for depression, motives for television use, and psychological outcomes of viewing TV newscasts. Results suggest that, in general, television viewing can serve as a means of escape from depressive moods, although viewing of news programming may exacerbate such moods.

Richard Potts; Dawn Sanchez

1994-01-01

427

TakeoverTV: facilitating the social negotiation of television content in public spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social television, in essence, is a way to share and experience media with others. Rather than attempt to bridge physical distance by creating new social experiences, we have built a system called TakeoverTV that augments canonical social interactions by addressing three key questions: How can we better support social gatherings around media in public and private places?; How can we

Greg T. Elliott; David Carr; Henry Holtzman

2011-01-01

428

TakeoverTV: Facilitating the social negotiation of television content in public spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social television, in essence, is a way to share and experience media with others. Rather than attempt to bridge physical distance by creating new social experiences, we have built a system called TakeoverTV that augments canonical social interactions by addressing three key questions: 1. How can we better support social gatherings around media in public and private places? 2. How

Greg T. Elliott; David Carr; Henry Holtzman

2011-01-01

429

Associations of Television Content Type and Obesity in Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We tested the associations of content types of children's television viewing with subsequent body mass index (BMI) to assess the plausibility of different causal pathways. Methods. We used time-use diary data from the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics to measure television viewing categorized by format and educational and commercial content. Analyses were stratified by age because children younger than 7 years are less able to understand the persuasive intent of advertising. BMI z scores in 2002 were regressed on television viewing, sociodemographic variables, mother's BMI, and BMI in 1997 (for older children only). Results. Among children aged 0 to 6 years in 1997, commercial viewing in 1997 was significantly associated with BMI z scores in 2002 in fully adjusted regressions. Among children older than 6 years, commercial viewing in 2002 was associated with 2002 BMI. These results were robust after adjustment for exercise and eating while watching television. Conclusions. The evidence does not support the contention that television viewing contributes to obesity because it is a sedentary activity. Television advertising, rather than viewing per se, is associated with obesity. PMID:20019313

Bell, Janice F.

2010-01-01

430

Faculty perceptions of teaching on television: one school's experience.  

PubMed

Videoteleconferencing (or teaching on television) represents a means of growing importance for distant learners to gain greater access to nursing education. Research has identified a number of key issues for nurse educators to consider related to videoteleconferencing: teaching/evaluation strategies, faculty workload, rewards and incentives, and support structures. The authors conducted an evaluation survey using a case study approach aimed at describing the perceptions of a convenience sample of faculty members (n = 17) regarding their recent television experiences. The survey, conducted by means of a mailed questionnaire, examined perceptions centering on sources of support, reception site logistics, rewards teaching strategies, and future directions. Key findings included: overall, respondents perceived television teaching positively; reception site, administrative support, and peer support were important to faculty; additional preparation time was required for television teaching; teaching on television required changes in style and pedagogical strategies; and student-teacher interactions were affected by the medium. Findings have implications for the implementation of videoteleconferencing operations, recruitment of faculty for television teaching, and evaluation of videoteleconferencing operations. PMID:7995887

Billings, D; Durham, J; Finke, L; Boland, D; Smith, S; Manz, B

1994-01-01

431

The Impact of Internet and Television Use on the Reading Habits and Practices of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How much time do college students spend reading for recreational and academic purposes? Do Internet and television use displace or interfere with reading time? In this study, we used an innovative time-diary survey method to explore whether the time students spend on the Internet or watching television displaces time that would be spent reading…

Mokhtari, Kouider; Reichard, Carla A.; Gardner, Anne

2009-01-01

432

Digital TV and Broadband Communication: Containing the Energy \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union is moving fast toward the switch to digital TV and the phase-out of analog broadcasting. This means that the current stock of analog TVs will need converter boxes to be able to function. In early 2004, millions of these boxes will be sold in Italy, the UK and other European countries. At the same time, pay-TV is

Bob Harrison; Paolo Bertoldi; Ken Dale; Michael Jaekel; Hans Paul; NOVEM Siderius

433

Engineered Reality: Prototyping Inventions for Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invention has always made popular television, and the advent of reality TV, along with advances in rapid prototyping technology, has made it possible to design and create inventions in front of the camera. There is also growing interest in producing TV that attracts home viewers who are, or aspire to be, hackers. The authors describe their experiences making a cable

Joe Grand

2008-01-01

434

Mitigating the harmful effects of violent television  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's viewing of violent TV as well

Lawrence I. Rosenkoetter; Sharon E. Rosenkoetter; Rachel A. Ozretich; Alan C. Acock

2004-01-01

435

Concerned Parents Speak Out On Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research investigated parents' opinions about children's television (TV). Questionnaire respondents were mainly parents of children ages 2-6; mothers outnumbered fathers 9:1. Results included the findings that children watched TV an average of three hours a day; this varied little throughout the country and between those viewing Public…

Barcus, F. Earle

436

Preferred color correction for digital LCD TVs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instead of colorimetirc color reproduction, preferred color correction is applied for digital TVs to improve subjective image quality. First step of the preferred color correction is to survey the preferred color coordinates of memory colors. This can be achieved by the off-line human visual tests. Next step is to extract pixels of memory colors representing skin, grass and sky. For the detected pixels, colors are shifted towards the desired coordinates identified in advance. This correction process may result in undesirable contours on the boundaries between the corrected and un-corrected areas. For digital TV applications, the process of extraction and correction should be applied in every frame of the moving images. This paper presents a preferred color correction method in LCH color space. Values of chroma and hue are corrected independently. Undesirable contours on the boundaries of correction are minimized. The proposed method change the coordinates of memory color pixels towards the target color coordinates. Amount of correction is determined based on the averaged coordinate of the extracted pixels. The proposed method maintains the relative color difference within memory color areas. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated using the paired comparison. Results of experiments indicate that the proposed method can reproduce perceptually pleasing images to viewers.

Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Choon-Woo; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kang, Dong-Woo; Shin, Hyun-Ho

2009-01-01

437

Television Tipovers as a Significant Source of Pediatric Head Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To highlight the rising number and nature of pediatric head injuries secondary to falling television sets and correlate this with the increasing number of home TVs sold per year. Methods: National statistics for the past 10 years for the number of head traumas from falling television sets in children less than the age of 18 were obtained from the

Andrew Jea; John Ragheb; Glenn Morrison

2003-01-01

438

The direct effect of thin ideal focused adult television on young girls' ideal body figure.  

PubMed

The present study tested the direct effect of watching thin-ideal focused television aimed at (young) adults on body dissatisfaction in preadolescent girls (9-12 years old). A within-subject design was used in which the girls (N=60) were tested three times. They watched three movie clips in random order that were either focused explicitly (thin-ideal program) or indirectly (soap opera) on the thin ideal or were neutral in content. Afterwards, they filled out questionnaires concerning their body dissatisfaction. Only older preadolescent girls (11-12 years old) showed greater body dissatisfaction after watching the thin-ideal focused television clip than after watching the neutral television clip. After watching thin-ideal focused television, they desired a thinner body figure than after watching neutral television. The findings imply that watching (adult) thin-ideal television directly affects the ideal body figure in older preadolescent girls. PMID:21146480

Anschutz, Doeschka J; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Van Strien, Tatjana; Engels, Rutger C M E

2011-01-01

439

Apollo experience report: Television system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress of the Apollo television systems from the early definition of requirements through the development and inflight use of color television hardware is presented. Television systems that have been used during the Apollo Program are discussed, beginning with a description of the specifications for each system. The document describes the technical approach taken for the development of each system and discusses the prototype and engineering hardware built to test the system itself and to perform the testing to verify compatibility with the spacecraft systems. Problems that occurred during the design and development phase are described. Finally, the flight hardware, operational characteristics, and performance during several Apollo missions are described, and specific recommendations for the remaining Apollo flights and future space missions are made.

Coan, P. P.

1973-01-01

440

49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle...

2010-10-01

441

ARNAUD RICHARD TELEVISED FOOTBALL COMMENTARIES: DESCRIPTIONS,  

E-print Network

193 ARNAUD RICHARD TELEVISED FOOTBALL COMMENTARIES: DESCRIPTIONS, NARRATIONS & REPRESENTATIONS qualitative discourse examples from the transcription of the French television broadcast. Past and present. Attention is paid to whether national stereotyping, I/we images, established/outsider identities

Boyer, Edmond

442

Personalcasting : interactive local augmentation of television programming  

E-print Network

While a videocassette recorder allows a television viewer to decouple the viewing of a television program from its broadcast, its use would be much more rewarding were it able to "understand" what it had recorded and to ...

Bove, V. Michael

1985-01-01

443

21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...means an electronic product designed to receive and display a television picture through broadcast, cable, or closed circuit television. (5) Usable picture means a picture in synchronization and transmitting viewable intelligence....

2011-04-01

444

21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...means an electronic product designed to receive and display a television picture through broadcast, cable, or closed circuit television. (5) Usable picture means a picture in synchronization and transmitting viewable intelligence....

2010-04-01

445

21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...means an electronic product designed to receive and display a television picture through broadcast, cable, or closed circuit television. (5) Usable picture means a picture in synchronization and transmitting viewable intelligence....

2012-04-01

446

21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.  

...means an electronic product designed to receive and display a television picture through broadcast, cable, or closed circuit television. (5) Usable picture means a picture in synchronization and transmitting viewable intelligence....

2014-04-01

447

21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...means an electronic product designed to receive and display a television picture through broadcast, cable, or closed circuit television. (5) Usable picture means a picture in synchronization and transmitting viewable intelligence....

2013-04-01

448

Schools and the Power of Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interview with National Education Association (NEA) Executive Director Terry Herndon probes the NEA's involvement and concern with television programing. The NEA has looked for ways to become a constructive influence on television programing. (CJ)

Robbins, Maria

1980-01-01

449

Television in the Schools: Instructional Television and Educational Media Resources at the National Public Broadcasting Archives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1964, in "A Guide to Instructional Television," editor Robert M. Diamond defined "educational television" as a "broad term usually applied to cultural and community broadcasting which may include some programs for in-school use" (p. 278). His definition for instructional television was "television used within the formal classroom context on any…

King, Karen

2008-01-01

450

Color Television; Selections from the Journal of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of 27 articles from the Journal of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) covers the fundamental aspects of color television technology. Introductory articles explain the basic workings of color television within the set and as perceived by the viewer. Other sections deal with: color television systems, color…

O'Brien, Richard S., Ed.

451

The Impact of Television on Children's Antisocial Behavior in a Novice Television Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the impact of new television services on children's social behavior in a broadcast television-naive community. Surveyed children at age 3-4 and again at age 7-8 after the introduction of television. Found that children's responses on the Preschool Behavior Checklist and Rutter Behavior Questionnaire indicated that after television,…

Gunter, Barrie; Charlton, Tony; Coles, David; Panting, Charlie

2000-01-01

452

Digital television system design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of digital techniques for transmission of pictorial data is discussed for multi-frame images (television). Video signals are processed in a manner which includes quantization and coding such that they are separable from the noise introduced into the channel. The performance of digital television systems is determined by the nature of the processing techniques (i.e., whether the video signal itself or, instead, something related to the video signal is quantized and coded) and to the quantization and coding schemes employed.

Huth, G. K.

1976-01-01

453

Television Apparel Shopping: Impulse Buying and Parasocial Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore impulsivity as a motivation for television apparel shopping and to investigate impulse buying, parasocial interaction, television exposure, and television shopping program exposure among television apparel shoppers. One hundred fifty-four questionnaires were returned from television apparel shoppers. A content analysis revealed four broad categories of motivations for television shopping for apparel. Using simple

Ji Hye Park; Sharron J. Lennon

2004-01-01

454

ILLINOIS JOURNAL OF EDUCATION--ILLINOIS SCHOOLS AND EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PUBLICATION CONTAINS THIRTEEN ARTICLES ON THE USE OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IN ILLINOIS. AMONG THE TOPICS COVERED ARE MULTICHANNEL MICROWAVE EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION, INNOVATIVE TELEVISION, OPEN- AND CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISON, TELEVISION IN PSYCHOLOGY, AND STATE EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION LEGISLATION. THE USE OF THE TELEVISION MEDIUM IN VARIOUS…

PAGE, RAY

455

Television the Medium, the Message and Nutritional Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of research linking nutritional health and body image attitudes with television viewing. Highlights include content analyses of advertisements and programming; audience uses of television; television as reality; socialization of attitudes and television; television, body image and self-esteem; television and health behaviors; and…

Wadsworth, Laurie A.

1996-01-01

456

Exploring the margins of television viewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The universality of television has “centered” it in both popular and academic discourse. In this study, we examine those at the margins of television viewing—self?defined heavy viewers and nonviewers who neither own nor watch television—in order to understand how these groups situate television in their lives. Both populations address themes of motivation, consequences, and importance but choose different actions based

Karen A. Foss; Alison F. Alexander

1996-01-01

457

Rhythms and plasticity: television temporality at home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital technologies have enabled new temporalities of media consumption in the home. Through a field study of home television\\u000a viewing practices, we investigated temporal orderings of television watching. In contrast to traditional pictures of television\\u000a use, our evidence suggests that rhythms across households play an important role in shaping television watching. Further,\\u000a we found a flexibility and openness within the

Lilly Irani; Robin Jeffries; Andrea Knight

2010-01-01

458

Early childhood television viewing and adolescent behavior: the recontact study.  

PubMed

In this Monograph, we report the follow-up of 570 adolescents who had been studied as preschoolers in one of two separate investigations of television use. The primary goal of the study was to determine the long-term relations between preschool television viewing and adolescent achievement, behavior, and attitudes. Using a telephone interview and high school transcripts, we assessed adolescent media use; grades in English, science, and math; leisure reading; creativity; aggression; participation in extracurricular activities; use of alcohol and cigarettes; and self-image. In each domain, we tested theories emphasizing the causal role of television content (e.g., social learning, information processing) as contrasted with those theories positing effects of television as a medium, irrespective of content (e.g., time displacement, pacing, interference with language). The results provided much stronger support for content-based hypotheses than for theories emphasizing television as a medium; moreover, the patterns differed for boys and girls. Viewing educational programs as preschoolers was associated with higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, greater creativity, and less aggression. These associations were more consistent for boys than for girls. By contrast, the girls who were more frequent preschool viewers of violent programs had lower grades than those who were infrequent viewers. These associations held true after taking into account family background, other categories of preschool viewing, and adolescent media use. One hypothesis accounting for the sex differences is that early experiences, such as television viewing, have greater effects when they counteract normative developmental trends and predominant sex-typed socialization influences than when they reinforce them. Adolescents in the study used both television and print media to support ongoing interests. Television content (e.g., entertainment, sports, or world events) predicted extracurricular activities, role models, and body image. The only evidence for possible effects of television as a medium was the positive relation of total viewing to obesity for girls. The medium of television is not homogeneous or monolithic, and content viewed is more important than raw amount. The medium is not the message: The message is. PMID:11326591

Anderson, D R; Huston, A C; Schmitt, K L; Linebarger, D L; Wright, J C

2001-01-01

459

TV Violence: Myth and Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that, with an average national television viewing time of more than seven hours daily, the prevalence of violence in broadcasts is a serious concern. Summarizes research on the effects of television violence on children. Includes eight suggested student activities to develop critical media skills. (CFR)

Hepburn, Mary A.

1995-01-01

460

Emotionally Reactive Television Chia-Hsun Jackie Lee, Chaochi Chang, Hyemin Chung, Connor Dickie, Ted Selker  

E-print Network

at least one television. TV is a machine actively participating our daily life and pro- viding information. [Bottom] HiTV provides the emotional interactivity when watching TV programs. Interactive Television television set. Kovsky illustrated ways of gain more control over TV (i.e. TiVo, Xbox, ReplayTV, UltimateTV

461

LEARNING FROM TELEVISION, WHAT THE RESEARCH SAYS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

60 PROPOSITIONS IN 6 AREAS CONCERNING THE CONDITIONS OF EFFECTIVE LEARNING FROM TELEVISION ARE DEVELOPED FROM A SURVEY OF THE RESEARCH LITERATURE--(1) HOW MUCH PUPILS LEARN FROM INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION, (2) EFFICIENT USE OF THE MEDIUM IN A SCHOOL SYSTEM, (3) TREATMENT, SITUATION, AND PUPIL VARIABLES, (4) ATTITUDES TOWARD INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION,…

CHU, GODWIN C.; SCHRAMM, WILBUR

462

Influence of Television Commercials on Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influence of television commercials for toys and cereals on young children. Forty-four children, ranging in age from 4 to 7 years, were interviewed regarding their television viewing habits, their attitudes toward television commercials, their demands for their mothers to buy cereals and toys, and their interpretation…

Lam, Pamela Y. Y.

463

VHF and UHF Television Receiving Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers a study of various types of VHF and UHF television receiving equipment made by TASO Panel 2 and reported October 3, 1958. Information and performance data are given for antennas, transmission lines and television receivers. RF amplifier and oscillator electron devices (tubes and semiconductors) used in television tuners for both VHF and UHF are discussed and tables

William Swinyard

1960-01-01

464

Rescuing Reality: Viewer interpretation of Television Recreations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While contemporary communication perspectives often make a distinction between reality and the televised presentation of reality, viewers may find this distinction difficult to maintain. Television is imbued with perceived objectivity. The use of recreations in popular television programming requires a reconceptualization of how viewers perceive…

Sullivan, David B.; Dobkin, Bethami A.

465

Culture, Ideology and Black Television Images.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chronicles the representation of Blacks on television since the 1950s, focusing on their stereotyping as entertainers, athletes and criminals. Discusses the positive effect of the Bill Cosby Show, the negative effect of Mr. T, and television's role in reinforcing White supremacy. Also considers the impact of television on Blacks. (RDN)

Staples, Robert; Jones, Terry

1985-01-01

466

Educational Television in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major developments in the history of education and television centered around broadcasting in the 1950's, then closed circuit applications, the growth of video recording, and more recently the use of satellites. During its 25 year history, educational television in the U.S. has seen the growth of a television college in Chicago, a video university…

Hitchens, Howard

467

Modern Digital Satellite Television: How It Works  

E-print Network

Modern Digital Satellite Television: How It Works Matthew C. Valenti Lane Department of Computer #12;Outline 1 Satellite Television Standards 2 DVB-S2 Modulation 3 LDPC Coding 4 Tricks for Improving Virginia UniverLDPC Codes Nov. 7, 2011 2 / 33 #12;Satellite Television Standards Outline 1 Satellite

Valenti, Matthew C.

468

Modern Digital Satellite Television: How It Works  

E-print Network

Modern Digital Satellite Television: How It Works Matthew C. Valenti Lane Department of Computer #12;Outline 1 Satellite Television Standards 2 DVB-S2 Modulation 3 LDPC Coding 4 Constellation Shaping Virginia UniverLDPC Codes Nov, 1, 2011 2 / 58 #12;Satellite Television Standards Outline 1 Satellite

Valenti, Matthew C.

469

Television exposure measures and the cultivation hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests five different operationalizations of television exposure in terms of their relative abilities to predict cultivation among adolescents. The creators of the cultivation hypothesis argue that cultivation is an effect resulting from a person's total exposure to television. In this study, total exposure is compared with four alternative operationalizations of television viewing: exposure to types of programs, program?type

W. James Potter; Ik Chin Chang

1990-01-01

470

Imitation of Televised Models by Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children aged 14 and 24 months were shown television depictions of adults manipulating toys in novel ways. Infants at both ages showed imitation of television models, even after 24-hour delays. This deferred imitation has social and policy implications as it suggests that television viewing can potentially affect infant behavior and development…

Meltzoff, Andrew N.

1988-01-01

471

Public Television: Helping Bring Technology to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of new digital technologies on traditional broadcasting and television offer a valuable opportunity to revisit educational and public broadcasting partnerships. Examples of areas in which public television can help education include: pedagogy, standards, assessment, teacher training and support; digital television; intellectual property…

Fellows, James; Connet, Michael

2001-01-01

472

Copyright Quick Guide Television and Radio Broadcasts  

E-print Network

to copy and communicate television and radio broadcasts for educational purposes. This includes makingCopyright Quick Guide Television and Radio Broadcasts Overview The University has extensive rights ­ this includes free-to-air, satellite and cable television broadcasts, along with radio broadcasts. As a result

Blows, Mark

473

Students' Rating of Speak Out Television Programme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 300 secondary students in Lagos State (Nigeria) evaluated Speak Out television. Found that an instructional television enhances the teaching-learning process, that students viewing educational television demonstrated greater participation and interest, and that the location of the community (urban versus rural) in which children attend…

Moses, Stephen Ogu

1998-01-01

474

Impact of Cable Television on Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the impact of an evolving cable television technology on educational practice. The possible performance levels of a broad-band cable system, the quality of televised instruction, and the demands televised instruction would place on cable capacity are outlined. Social factors affecting individual preference and institutional resistance to cable education are considered.

K. Rose; R. Gutmann

1975-01-01

475

Techniques from Television to Stimulate Classroom Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that television is a medium ripe for exploitation by teachers because children are already motivated to watch, this handbook presents over 20 activities and teaching techniques centering around teaching students at all levels to write for television. An introduction presents background information on benefits of using television writing in…

Raper, Linden Fisher

476

Predictors for the Effects of Televised Executions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the controversy that has traditionally surrounded the issue of capital punishment. When a Texas television reporter sought permission to televise the execution of a convicted murderer by lethal injection in 1983, arguments were advanced both for and against televising executions. A recent poll shows that 84% of Americans…

McEnteer, James B.

477

THE TWENTY ELEMENTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PAPER WAS PRESENTED AT THE ELEVEN NATION UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC SEMINAR ON EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION SPONSORED BY THE CENTRE FOR EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION OVERSEAS (CAIRO, EGYPT, FEBRUARY 6-12, 1966). IT PURPOSES ARE TO DISCUSS THE POTENTIALS OF TELEVISION TO SOLVE SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS, AND TO PRESENT 20 ELEMENTS WHICH THE AUTHOR BELIEVES ARE…

MCBRIDE, JACK

478

AN INVENTORY OF INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION RESEARCH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

RESEARCH FINDINGS DERIVED FROM CLASSROOM COURSES OFFERED BY EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS WERE REVIEWED. THE COURSES CONSTITUTED ONLY A SMALL PART OF THE FIELD RECOGNIZED AS EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION. PUBLIC RELATIONS PROGRAMS OR COMMERCIALLY SPONSORED PROGRAMS WERE NOT CONSIDERED. STUDIES REVEALED THAT TELEVISION STUDENTS HAVE DONE WITH TELEVISION, IT…

KUMATA, HIDEYA

479

“It's been real”: Forms of television representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Realism” as a notion applied to visual media comes to television studies encrusted with ideas from centuries of debate. This essay suggests that “verisimilitude” is a more fruitful term not only because it is less value laden but because, by definition (“real?seeming”), it implies the notion of “work.” Television verisimilitude, like all forms of television representation, is a product of

David Barker

1988-01-01

480

Using Television to Construct Social Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a review of television's influence on social reality beliefs, a model is proposed to examine how individuals use television to construct such beliefs. Evidence suggests that television has some influence on attitudes related to violence, sex, old age, and family values and structure. Twenty-two references are cited. (Author/MER)

Hawkins, Robert P.; Pingree, Suzanne

1981-01-01

481

Public Television: Commitment to Children's Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates public television's early commitment to children's programming, discussing the popularity of "Sesame Street" and noting other shows launched under Joan Ganz Cooney, president of CTW from 1970 until 1988. Discusses the erosion of television network ratings by cable television in the mid '80s, and concludes by posing questions (to be…

Distance Education Report, 2000

2000-01-01

482

Archiving Television: The State of the Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television archiving is a new field involving the tasks of sorting, preserving, and filing in order to make records available to future historians. Only 5% of all television programing since 1948 exists today on tape or kinescope. Prior to 1968, not even the networks kept a comprehensive file of news shows. Although the DuMont Television Network…

Zimmerman, Donald

483

Sex role stereotyping in Australian television advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of alleged bias in its sex-role content. Studies of television in Great Britain and the United States have generally fuelled concerns that the medium presents male and female characters in traditionally stereotyped ways. Comparatively little research has focused on the way men and women are depicted in other nations' television. Such

Carmela Mazzella; Kevin Durkin; Emma Cerini; Paul Buralli

1992-01-01

484

Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

1996-01-01

485

Seeking Solutions to Violence on Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the transcripts from a workshop to investigate strategies to use in dealing with violence on children's television. The papers given by outside experts include: (1) "Effect of Television Violence on Children and Youth" by Michael Rothenberg, (2) "Implications of the Psychological Effects of Television Programming on Black…

Committee on Children's Television, San Francisco, CA.

486

Reducing Children's Television Viewing with an Inexpensive Lock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two families were recruited for a study assessing the effectiveness of an inexpensive television lock for monitoring children's television viewing. The lock unit sits on top of the TV set and attaches to the electrical cord of the TV. Parents control the flow of electricity to the TV by inserting a key in the top of the unit and turning

Leonard A. Jason; Sharon Z. Johnson; Addie Jurs

1993-01-01

487

The television will be revolutionized: effects of PVRs and filesharing on television watching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates television-watching practices amongst early adopters of personal hard-disk video recorders (PVRs such as TiVo tm ) and Internet downloading of shows. Through in-depth interviews with early adopters, we describe how the rhythms of television watching change when decoupled from broadcast TV. For both the PVR users and downloaders TV watching has become less of a passive process,

Barry Brown; Louise Barkhuus

2006-01-01

488

Reaction time and musical expectancy: priming of chords.  

PubMed

The cognitive processes underlying musical expectation were explored by measuring reaction time in a priming paradigm. Subjects made a speeded true/false decision about a target chord following a prime chord to which it was either closely or distantly related harmonically. Using a major/minor decision task in Experiment 1, we found that major targets were identified faster, and with fewer errors, when they were related than when unrelated. An apparent absence (and possible reversal) of this effect for minor targets can be attributed to the prime's biasing effect on the target's stability. In Experiments 2 and 3 we tested this hypothesis by employing an in-tune/out-of-tune decision for major and minor targets separately. Both major and minor in-tune targets were identified faster when related than when unrelated. We outline a spreading activation model which consists of a network of harmonic relations. Priming results from the indirect activation of chord nodes linked through the network. PMID:2946797

Bharucha, J J; Stoeckig, K

1986-11-01

489

Future Development of Instructional Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional television (ITV) has been little used in the nation's schools because ITV hardware and software has been unreliable and expensive and teachers have yet to learn to use ITV. The perfection of inexpensive videotape recorders/players (VTR) and inexpensive tapes and cameras could remedy the problem. A package consisting of 10 mobile…

Barnett, H. J.; Denzau, A. T.

490

Color-televised medical microscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Color television microscopy used at laboratory range magnifications, reproduces a slide image with sufficient fidelity for medical laboratory and instructional use. The system is used for instant pathological reporting between operating room and remotely located pathologist viewing a biopsy through this medium.

Heath, M. A.; Peck, J. C.

1968-01-01

491

New Technology and Educational Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of the article provides a historical account of the broad phases of development that educational television has passed through as a result of social and technological influences: its beginnings in broadcasting in the fifties and sixties;its development through the video age in the seventies and eighties, with widening scope and opportunity as a result of developments in

J. F. Murray

1988-01-01

492

Cable Television: Uses in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first volume of a two-part study of the role of cable television in education; its purposes are to discuss the implications of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) ruling that all cable systems in the top 100 markets must reserve one channel for educational purposes and to stimulate the interests of educators by making them…

Carpenter, Polly

493

Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preschool television in the United States has received acclaim from parents and communication researchers for its high quality. Some of the most popular programs in this genre are those that feature Latino themes, such as Dora the Explorer, prompting inquiry into whether there are differences between Spanish- and English-speaking families in the frequency of viewing these shows. An analysis was

Kristin C. Moran

2010-01-01

494

Pragmatic aspects of televised texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A documentary program broadcast on Dutch television on April 8, 1994, reported that a rather unknown financial company was suspected of tax fraud. Elco Brinkman, leader of the then largest Dutch political party the Christian Democrats (CDA), was a member of the board of this company. Although it was explicitly stated that Brinkman was not suspected of having played any

Titus Ensink

2006-01-01

495

Television Data Display System (TDDS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A television data display system at KSC is described which displays computer processed data derived from space vehicle launch and prelaunch tests. The general system capabilities and technical features are discussed in separate sections under the headings of: (1) operational use, (2) system description, (3) computer programs, (4) computer hardware, and (5) adaptability.

Sendler, K.

1972-01-01

496

Television noise-reduction device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System greatly improves signal-to-noise ratio with little or no loss in picture resolution. By storage of luminance component, which is summed with chrominance component, system performs mathematical integration of basically-repetitive television signals. Integration of signals over interval of their repetition causes little change in original signals and eliminates random noise.

Stamps, J. C.; Gordon, B. L.

1973-01-01

497

Regulatory Developments in Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes major rule making actions since 1972, current rules and regulations, and guidelines for citizen participation in FCC (Federal Communications Commission) processes related to cable television regulation. A large portion of the report pertains to current rules and regulations in the areas of certificate of compliance,…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

498

Humor in children's educational television  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of entertainment features in children's educational television was examined through a systematic content analysis of sample programs from popular series. In addition to assessments of the quantity of use of humorous and attention?getting material, several subsequent analyses examined distinguishing characteristics of the entertainmentoriented messages. It was determined that a substantial proportion of the programs examined contained humorous incidents

Jennings Bryant; Richard Hezel; Dolf Zillmann

1979-01-01

499

Television Equipment Specialist (AFSC 30455).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the six volumes of an Air Force correspondence course in television equipment repair. Each volume consists of student learning objectives, information, exercises, answers to exercises, and in some volumes, review modules on related topics. A volume review exercise is included for each volume. The first volume provides…

Green, James S.; And Others

500

Cultural Influences in Television Commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advertising is said to be a “distorted mirror” that reflects certain cultural values of the host country in which it exists (Pollay, 1986, 1987). In this study, 22 dominant cultural values are identified from an analysis of a sample of 80 television advertisements taken from Singapore and Malaysia in 1998. A comparison of cultural values identified in the two countries

Lee Chun Wah

2006-01-01