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1

Prime Time School Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The complete text and pictures of a slide/tape and videotape presentation explain Prime Time School Television (PTST), a non-profit organization, with emphasis on the active role of participants in utilizing prime time programs in everday teaching-learnin...

J. C. Ittelson

1977-01-01

2

Portrayal of Journalists on Prime Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Journalists appear frequently in prime time, with television journalists more often playing an ethical role than do newspaper journalists. This content analysis of 1987 programs from three networks finds that 19 of 20 journalists portrayed are white and that they are mostly between the ages of 30 and 50. There are more male than female newspaper journalists portrayed; as television

Gerald Stone; John Lee

1990-01-01

3

Race, Advertising, and Prime-Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critics have frequently noted the lack of diversity in TV programs, but few have analyzed diversity in TV commercials. This article focuses on prime-time TV commercials, noting the amount and type of representation of people of color. Although people of color appear regularly in ads, they usually appear as secondary (not primary) characters. A distinct racial segregation exists in prime-time

Jennifer Jacobs Henderson; Gerald J. Baldasty

2003-01-01

4

Parenting Behaviors in Prime-Time Television: A Content Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forty-four family-oriented, prime time television program episodes (30 hours) aired in November and December 1982 were selected for content analysis from 12 commercial television series which met selection criteria for Neilsen Television rating, airing ti...

P. W. Dail W. L. Way

1983-01-01

5

Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. METHODS: The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. FINDINGS: Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. CONCLUSIONS: Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

2013-03-11

6

TV Fights: Women and Men in Interpersonal Arguments on Prime-Time Television Dramas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies the behaviors of women and men represented in interpersonal arguments in prime-time television dramas. Finds a weak link between actual argument behaviors and those on television, thereby socializing viewers in a manner inconsistent with reality. Suggests that television arguments are guided more by the needs of the medium that a need to…

Brinson, Susan L.

1992-01-01

7

Prime-Time Stereotyping on the New Television Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis examines portrayals of women in prime-time promotional announcements broadcast on five television networks (ABC, NBC, CBS, FOX, and UPN) during one week in 1995. Findings supported the hypotheses that (1) women are underrepresented in all television networks' promotional announcements, and that (2) stereotypical portrayals of women in these announcements varied due to the television network's target audience.

B. Carol Eaton

1997-01-01

8

Food and nutrition in Canadian "prime time" television commercials.  

PubMed

Television is, arguably, the most influential mass medium and "prime time" viewing attracts the largest audiences. To assess the type, number and nutritional content of foods advertised on TV, commercial breaks during "prime time" (7:00 to 11:00 p.m.) on five Canadian channels (CBC-English, CBC-French, CTV, CFPL, Much Music) were recorded and analyzed. A similar analysis of Saturday morning children's TV commercials was also performed. Commercials for foods and food products constituted between 24-35% of all commercials, the largest advertising output for any group of products. The combination of food presented in commercials reflected average current consumption patterns. Of special concern was the emphasis on low nutrition beverages, especially beer, as well as snacks and candy on Much Music. While further government intervention to restrict advertising practices may be an impractical option, there is scope for increasing the alternative promotion of healthy dietary choices. PMID:8131138

Ostbye, T; Pomerleau, J; White, M; Coolich, M; McWhinney, J

9

Direct and Indirect Aggression on Prime-Time Network Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence of 3 types of aggression on prime-time television during the spring of 2005. Verbal aggression was found to be the most prevalent, followed by indirect and physical. Physical aggression appeared more frequently among Caucasians and males. Female characters were more involved in indirect aggression, while verbal aggression was sex neutral. In general, minority racial and

Jack Glascock

2008-01-01

10

On learning science and pseudoscience from prime-time television programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present dissertation is to determine whether the viewing of two particular prime-time television programs, ER and The X-Files, increases viewer knowledge of science and to identify factors that may influence learning from entertainment television programming. Viewer knowledge of scientific dialogue from two science-based prime-time television programs, ER, a serial drama in a hospital emergency room and

Christopher Henry Whittle

2003-01-01

11

Use of Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Tobacco Among Characters on Prime-Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research of addictive substances suggests that use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and tobacco is overrepresented on prime-time television (TV). These studies, however, have relied on frequency counts of the substance, rather than the prevalence of use among characters. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of alcohol, illicit drug, and tobacco users among characters on

Judith A. Long; Patrick G. O'Connor; George Gerbner; John Concato

2002-01-01

12

Twenty years after kernen: The portrayal of African Americans on prime?time television  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to document the present?day portrayal of African Americans on television, a content analysis was conducted on a sample week of all national network commercial television series regularly containing an African American character and aired during prime time in the 1987 fall season. An analysis of both character and program attributes reveals an improvement in the participation and portrayal

Carolyn A. Stroman; Bishetta D. Merritt; Paula W. Matabane

1989-01-01

13

Health and Nutrient Content Claims in Food Advertisements on Hispanic and Mainstream Prime-time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveCharacterize frequency and type of health and nutrient content claims in prime-time weeknight Spanish- and English-language television advertisements from programs shown in 2003 with a high viewership by women aged 18 to 35 years.

Jodie Abbatangelo-Gray; Carol Byrd-Bredbenner; S. Bryn Austin

2008-01-01

14

Prime-time criminal justice: If all we know is what we saw on television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image and dialogue content of three purposively selected entertainment-based television justice programs (Law and Order, The Practice , and NYPD Blue) and one reality-based ( COPS) justice program were descriptively analyzed using quantitative and qualitative content analyses in order to determine the way in which crime and criminal justice are portrayed by contemporary prime-time television. Previous content analyses of prime-time

Danielle Marie Soulliere

2001-01-01

15

The Portrayal of Driving on Prime-Time Commercial Television 1975-1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examined how driving is shown on commercial television programs during prime time (8-11 p.m. EST). A sample week of all prime-time weekly fictional series was videotaped during the fall of 1975, 1976, 1977 and 1979. In all, 223 shows encompassin...

C. K. Atkin B. S. Greenberg

1980-01-01

16

Prime Time Power: Women Producers, Writers and Directors on TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report analyzes the number of women working in the following six decision making jobs in prime time television: (1) executive producer; (2) supervising producer; (3) producer; (4) co-producer; (5) writer; and (6) director. The women who hold these positions are able to influence the portrayal of women on television as well as to improve the…

Steenland, Sally

17

A Content Analysis of Social Groups in Prime-Time Spanish-Language Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of Spanish-language television in the United States has been increasing rapidly, yet little is known about the images viewers are likely to encounter when exposed to this content. As such, the present study investigates the representation of men and women in the 2004 prime-time, Spanish-language television season. Social identity theory provides a framework for understanding the potential influence

Dana E. Mastro; Michelle Ortiz

2008-01-01

18

Sex-role stereotyping of nurses and physicians on prime-time television: A dichotomy of occupational portrayals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing the methodology of content analysis, this study investigates the sexrole variables in prime-time television portrayals of nurses and physicians from 1950 to 1980. A 20% sample of 28 relevant series yielded 320 individual episodes, 240 nurse characters, and 287 physicians characters. Results show extreme levels of both sexual and occupational stereotyping. Television nurses are 99% female, and television physicians

Philip A. Kalisch; Beatrice J. Kalisch

1984-01-01

19

Episodes of Anger on Prime Time Television: A Content Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although anger is associated with risk of coronary heart disease, failed marriages, and suicide, angry exchanges are not always negative experiences but can be beneficial. Recently experts on anger concluded that television could portray anger constructively by using television characters who listened to the angry person, integrated anger and…

Baruch, Rhoda; Stutman, Suzanne

20

Prime-Time Stereotyping on the New Television Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Finds that women are underrepresented in all five television networks' promotional announcements (ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox, and UPN), and that stereotypical portrayals of women in these announcements varied due to the television network's target audience: announcements on networks seeking a younger male audience contained more stereotypical female…

Eaton, B. Carol

1997-01-01

21

Television's Action Arsenal: Weapon Use in Prime Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was conducted to fill a basic information gap in the television violence research literature, namely, or lack of information on the instruments of violence. Weapon use was chosen not only because it is a manageable component of the entire television violence issue, but because it is one that is clearly subject to modification by the…

Higgins, Patricia B.; Ray, Marla W.

22

Prime-Time Television: Assessing Violence during the Most Popular Viewing Hours.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assesses the prevalence and context of violence in prime-time television programming using a random, representative sample. Shows that, regardless of the time of day, viewers are likely to encounter violence in roughly 2 out of 3 programs. Identifies specific channel types and genres that feature potentially harmful depictions of violence during…

Smith, Stacy L.; Nathanson, Amy I.; Wilson, Barbara J.

2002-01-01

23

Prosocial and Antisocial Interaction on Television: Conflict and Jealousy on Prime Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study analyzed prime time television programs for the presence of interpersonal predicaments, specifically family conflict and situations involving jealousy, envy, and rivalry. The portrayal of these situations was evaluated according to relevant pro- and antisocial criteria. A total of 17 one-hour episodes and 24 half-hour episodes were…

Comstock, Jamie; Strzyzewski, Krystyna

24

Watch Your Mouth! An Analysis of Profanity Uttered by Children on Prime-Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the frequency and types of offensive language spoken on prime-time television in 2001, particularly on programs rated acceptable for chil- dren and teenagers, and the use of profane language by characters under the age of 21. The findings are compared to similar studies conducted in 1990, 1994, and 1997 to determine whether the use of profanity by

Barbara K. Kaye; Barry S. Sapolsky

25

The portrayal of women in U.S. prime time television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study summarizes a content analysis of woman portrayals on prime time network television programs shown during the 1992–93 season. This study found that women were more likely to be shown playing minor roles, less likely to married, less likely to be houswives, less likely to be caring for children, more likely to have dark hair, less likely to commit

Michael Elasmar; Kazumi Hasegawa; Mary Brain

1999-01-01

26

Portrayals of women in prime-time network television: Some demographic characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines demographic variables to create a partial picture of current portrayals of women on network television. All prime-time programs for all networks served as the information base. The findings were that few changes had been made in the portrayals of women from the 1970s to the 1980s in terms of observable demographic characteristics.

Donald M. Davis

1990-01-01

27

Image Vs. Reality: An Analysis of Prime-Time Television Crime and Police Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are nineteen prime-time television crime and police shows. It is generally believed by social scientists that these programs distort the reality of American crime and policing. It has been many years, however, since there has been a scientific analysis of crime and police programs. The present project uses content analysis of 46 hours of videotape to document the content

Brendan Maguire

1988-01-01

28

Health and Nutrient Content Claims in Food Advertisements on Hispanic and Mainstream Prime-Time Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Characterize frequency and type of health and nutrient content claims in prime-time weeknight Spanish- and English-language television advertisements from programs shown in 2003 with a high viewership by women aged 18 to 35 years. Design: Comparative content analysis design was used to analyze 95 hours of Spanish-language and 72 hours…

Abbatangelo-Gray, Jodie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Austin, S. Bryn

2008-01-01

29

The family as portrayed on prime-time television, 1947–1990: Structure and characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Successful family series” across four decades of American prime-time television were examined. Family portrayals were defined as either conventional or nonconventional. Conventional families were categorized as “couples without children” and “couples with children.” Nonconventional families were categorized as “single parent” or “contrived.” Additional family characteristics were also recorded including sex of single parent, reason for singleness, social class status, females

Marvin L. Moore

1992-01-01

30

Policing on prime-time: A comparison of television and real-world policing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an investigation of presentations of police and policing activities in two purposively selected contemporary\\u000a prime-time entertainment justice shows and one reality-based justice show. With the exception of being portrayed as overly\\u000a successful, television police were portrayed closely to real-life police in terms of their gender, racial composition, organization,\\u000a tasks, role, and response to crime. As such, prime-time

Danielle M. Soulliere

2004-01-01

31

Portrayal of Religion in Prime-Time Television Drama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to stimulate scholars to investigate systematically and fully the religious dimension of dramatic television content, the first part of this paper develops a basic framework for such study. After establishing the importance of this kind of research, it defines and explains the four basic variables that would have to be examined: general…

Virts, Paul H.; Keeler, John D.

32

Textual Analyses of Nutrition Messages on Prime Time Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using textual analysis of 805 incidents in 10 television programs and surrounding commercials, foods portrayed were compared with nutrition guidelines. Foods tended to be higher in fat and lower in fiber, and food portrayals had social and psychological meanings. Adverse health effects of foods low in nutrients were not depicted. (Contains 57…

Wadsworth, Laurie A.; Berenbaum, Shawna

2001-01-01

33

Sex Role Stereotyping in Prime Time Television. The United Methodist Women's Television Monitoring Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After training and a pilot test, 19 groups throughout the United States composed of a total of 187 monitors--predominantly women--were evaluated on the basis of sex role criteria programs telecast on the three commercial television networks during a 12-week period from November 1975 through February 1976. Results indicated that the 1975-76…

United Methodist Church, New York, NY.

34

Sex Role Stereotyping in Prime Time Television. The United Methodist Women's Television Monitoring Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After training and a pilot test, 19 groups throughout the United States composed of a total of 187 monitors--predominantly women--were evaluated on the basis of sex role criteria programs telecast on the three commercial television networks during a 12-we...

1976-01-01

35

Talking about sex: Common themes about sexuality in the prime-time television programs children and adolescents view most  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although concern is often raised about television's role as a “teacher” about sexuality, little is known about the specific content of sexual messages on the programs children and adolescents view most. To explore this issue, a content analysis was conducted of the twelve prime-time television programs most preferred by children and adolescents. For three episodes of each program, all interactions

L. Monique Ward

1995-01-01

36

Disruptive and Cooperative Interruptions in Prime-Time Television Fiction: The Role of Gender, Status, and Topic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech characteristics of male and female characters in fictional television have received only scant attention in media content research. A content analysis of prime-time television revealed that male characters were more likely to initiate disruptive interruptions than female characters whereas female characters were more likely to use cooperative interruptions than male characters. Such differences, however, were moderated by status differential

Xiaoquan Zhao; Walter Gantz

2003-01-01

37

Occupational role portrayals of African-American women on prime-time television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined portrayals of African-American women shown in professional careers on prime-time network television during the May 2005 sweeps month. Specifically, the study compares these portrayals to actual U.S. Department of Labor workforce statistics to observe a possible similarity. Additionally, the study identifies any behavioral and conversational stereotyped attributes ascribed to African-American female characters shown in the workplace. A

Shani Tyhirah Jefferson

2005-01-01

38

A Content Analysis of Music Placement in Prime-Time Television Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music is very popular in advertising. You can hear as much music in commercials as you can on some commercial radio stations. This research analyzed 3,456 prime-time television commercials to not only quantify, but qualify the placement of music in advertising. Overall, 94 percent of the total advertisements (3,456) and 86 percent of the unique advertisements (715) contained some type

DAVID ALLAN

2008-01-01

39

Constructing Gender Stereotypes Through Social Roles in Prime-Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 124 prime-time television programs airing on the 6 broadcast networks during the 2005–06 season, this study examined the social roles enacted by female and male characters. The findings confirm that female characters continue to inhabit interpersonal roles involved with romance, family, and friends. In contrast, male characters are more likely to enact work-related roles. Moreover, programs

Martha M. Lauzen; David M. Dozier; Nora Horan

2008-01-01

40

Older Adults in Prime-Time Television Dramas in Taiwan: Prevalence, Portrayal, and Communication Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content and thematic analysis of 109 episodes (94.9 h) of prime-time dramas examined the portrayals of aging and the nature\\u000a of intergenerational interaction involving older adults on Taiwanese television. The content analysis revealed that older\\u000a characters, regardless of sex, appeared less frequently and in less prominent roles than other adult characters, but not in\\u000a comparison to adolescents and children. The

Shu-Chin Lien; Yan Bing Zhang; Mary Lee Hummert

2009-01-01

41

Changes in food advertisements during 'prime-time' television from 1991 to 2006 in the UK and Canada.  

PubMed

Food advertisements on mainstream television have received less research attention than those on children's television. Little is known about how television food advertisements vary internationally or if there have been changes over recent years. We describe food-related television advertisements and the nutrient content of foods advertised during prime-time television in Ontario, Canada and the UK in 1991 and 2006. Information on what advertisements were broadcast were obtained from video recordings and audience research bureaux. Data on nutrient content of foods advertised were obtained from manufacturers and standard food tables. The proportion of advertisements that were food related decreased between 1991 and 2006 in both countries. The frequency of food-related advertisements was relatively constant in Canada but decreased between 1991 and 2006 in the UK. In 1991, advertisements for beverages and meals predominated in both countries. By 2006, food-related advertisements in Canada were dominated by meals and restaurants. In the UK advertisements for food stores and beverages predominated. The 'TV diet' in Canada in 1991 was relatively high in fat, high in alcohol and low in fibre, compared to current recommendations. By 2006, this had changed to high in fat and sodium and low in fibre. The 'TV diet' in the UK in 1991 was high in fat, sodium, sugar and alcohol and low in fibre compared to current recommendations. By 2006, the UK 'TV diet' was high in sodium, sugar and alcohol and low in fibre. Foods advertised on 'prime-time' television do not reflect a healthful diet. PMID:19243640

Adams, Jean; Hennessy-Priest, Kathleen; Ingimarsdóttir, Sigrún; Sheeshka, Judy; Řstbye, Truls; White, Martin

2009-02-25

42

PRIME-TIME CRIME: PRESENTATIONS OF CRIME AND ITS PARTICIPANTS ON POPULAR TELEVISION JUSTICE PROGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television's longfascination with crime makes a study of contemporary justice shows imperative. An analysis ofthree contemporary prime-timejustice shows (Law and Order, The Practice and NYPD Blue) was undertaken to discover the way in which crime and its participants are presented by entertainment television. The findings revealed an overrepresentation of violent crime and distorted images of offenders and victims. These findings

Danielle M. Soulliere

2003-01-01

43

Health education goes Hollywood: working with prime-time and daytime entertainment television for immunization promotion.  

PubMed

This article presents an entertainment education strategy used to influence Hollywood prime-time and daytime television programs to add storylines on the importance of immunizations to their shows. Rather than giving information about immunizations to show producers, directors, actors, and writers, we furnished "log lines" and true stories about immunizations that could be used to inspire scripts that included immunization themes. By working through personal contacts within the entertainment television industry's closed system of networks, we were able to gain entree and some airtime for our campaign agenda. Embedded messages aired on eight popular shows in the 1996-1997 broadcast season, with five scheduled to air in the 1997-1998 season. These efforts were evaluated qualitatively, focusing on issues of personal networks, content of aired messages, and comparative costs for paid airtime. The strategy developed can be adapted for a range of entertainment education interventions. PMID:10977258

Glik, D; Berkanovic, E; Stone, K; Ibarra, L; Jones, M C; Rosen, B; Schreibman, M; Gordon, L; Minassian, L; Richardes, D

44

Stereotype or success? Prime-time television's portrayals of gay male, lesbian, and bisexual characters.  

PubMed

The current content analysis of prime-time network television during the fall of 2001 seeks to identify the representation of Gay male, Lesbian, and Bisexual characters in shows known to have one reoccurring homosexual character based on the theories of Clark and Berry. Clark (1969) established four stages of media representation for minority groups: non-representation, ridicule, regulation, and respect. The findings of the study support the premise that Gay males and Lesbians have passed Clark's stage of non-representation and have progressed into the stage of ridicule and some are moving into the stages of regulation and respect. Berry (1980) devised three periods based on the television portrayal of Blacks: The Stereotypic Age, The New Awareness, and Stabilization. Results were mixed, with only a partial support of the hypothesis that Gay males and Lesbians had advanced beyond The Stereotypic Age. PMID:16901865

Raley, Amber B; Lucas, Jennifer L

2006-01-01

45

The world of nursing on prime time television, 1950 to 1980.  

PubMed

This study reported the results of a content analysis of prime-time television portrayals of nurses and nursing over the past three decades with attention to scope of nursing practice, career orientation of nurses, nursing actions, and nurses' impact on patient welfare. The sample was 320 episodes from 28 series. The findings showed that nurses were depicted as working in acute care settings, entering nursing for altruistic reasons, predominantly acting as a resource to other health professionals, not using problem-solving and evaluation skills, deficient in administrative abilities, and remiss in providing physical comforting, engaging in expanded role activities, patient education and scholarly endeavors. Since the 1960s the trend in the quality of nurse portrayals has been downward. This has created a current crisis in communicating the world of nursing to the public via the most powerful form of mass communication, television. PMID:6924221

Kalisch, P A; Kalisch, B J; Clinton, J

46

Groups in Action on Prime-Time TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study analyzed six prime-time television shows--"The Cosby Show,""Cheers,""Dear John,""Designing Women,""Golden Girls," and "Roseanne"--to examine group communication as it is portrayed on a daily basis in these shows, or how groups interact in the sitcom genre. One episode of each of the six 30-minute shows was selected for analysis, in each…

Keyton, Joann

47

The prime time diet: a content analysis of eating behavior and food messages in television program content and commercials.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze messages related to food and eating behavior as presented on prime time television (8:00-11:00 pm) both in programming and commercials. Food references occurred an average of 4.8 times per 30 minutes of programming time. Over half (60 percent) of all food references in programs were for low nutrient beverages and sweets. The prime time diet is inconsistent with dietary guidelines for healthy Americans.

Story, M; Faulkner, P

1990-01-01

48

Talking about Sex: Common Themes about Sexuality in the Prime-Time Television Programs Children and Adolescents View Most.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A content analysis was conducted of the 12 prime-time television programs most preferred by children and adolescents to determine verbal statements about sexual issues. On average, 29% of interactions on an individual episode referred to sexual issues. Results are discussed concerning adolescents' uses of this input. (SLD)|

Ward, L. Monique

1995-01-01

49

Media Stereotyping: A Comparison of the Way Elderly Women and Men Are Portrayed on Prime-Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis of 139 programs and 2,211 characters updates and extends previous research on the way elderly people, and especially elderly women, are presented on prime-time television. Findings indicate that females and the elderly continue to be significantly underrepresented. Comparisons of elderly men and women showed patterns of traditional stereotypes, with men more likely to be depicted positively on

JoEtta A. Vernon; Williams J. Allen Jr; Terri Phillips; Janet Wilson

1990-01-01

50

Media Stereotyping: A Comparison of the Way Elderly Women and Men Are Portrayed on Prime-Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis of 139 programs and 2,211 characters updates and extends previous research on the way elderly people, and especially elderly women, are presented on prime-time television. Findings indicate that females and the elderly continue to be significantly underrepresented. Comparisons of elderly men and women showed patterns of traditional stereotypes, with men more likely to be depicted positively on

JoEtta A. Vernon; J. Allen Williams Jr; Terri Phillips; Janet Wilson

1991-01-01

51

Prime Time TV Portrayals of Sex, "Safe Sex," and AIDS: A Longitudinal Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tracks changes in the numbers and types of sexual behaviors in prime time network television programs. Finds a substantial decrease in the hourly rates of sexual behaviors in the programs from fall 1987 to fall 1991. (RS)|

Lowry, Dennis T.; Shidler, Jon A.

1993-01-01

52

Viewing and Enjoyment of Prime Time Commercial Television among Deaf and Hearing Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Questionnaires on television viewing were administered to 128 hearing students and 178 hearing impaired students in a technical college. In addition to the questionnaire which examined demographic information as well as viewing preferences and attitudes, all Ss were asked to report their average daily viewing time. Programs were categorized into…

Austin, Bruce A.; Myers, John W,

53

Agenda-Setting and Priming in Prime Time Television: Crime Dramas as Political Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of agenda-setting and priming are well established in regard to the news media. Considerably less attention has been paid to these phenomena in entertainment media, in spite of the fact that entertainment media enjoy larger audiences than do news media and often address political topics. This article argues that the psychological mechanism hypothesized to lead to agenda-setting and

R. Andrew Holbrook; Timothy G. Hill

2005-01-01

54

Recognition and Respect: A Content Analysis of Prime-Time Television Characters Across Three Decades  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis of week-long samples ofprime-time network dramatic programs broadcast betweenthe fall of 1967 and the spring of 1998 found thatwomenconsistently receive less recognition than men on television. While programs broadcast in the1990's had more women than those broadcast in the 1960'sand early 1970's, the women were still under representedin relation to their numbers in the U.S. population. There

Nancy Signorielli; Aaron Bacue

1999-01-01

55

Stereotyping of women's images portrayed in prime time Chinese TV series from 1979 to 2008: Has the picture changed over time?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how women were portrayed in prime time Chinese television series from 1979 to 2008. It investigates whether female characters' occupations and occupational status changed over time. It then compares the occupational distributions of the female characters on TV with female occupations in real life.\\u000aA content analysis of 63 prime time TV series depicting 298 women in

Zhuyi Zheng

2011-01-01

56

Prime-Time TV Portrayals of Sex, Contraception and Venereal Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides recent data on what prime time television is teaching about sex. Compares the frequency of various sexual behaviors with the frequencies measured by earlier studies. Finds an increase in rate of sexual behavior and no portrayal of possible consequences. (RS)|

Lowry, Dennis T.; Towles, David E.

1989-01-01

57

The Depiction of Women in Leading Roles in Prime Time Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the image of the contemporary American woman as currently presented on television through viewing approximately 34 hours of programing and recording the following characteristics: regularity of character, occupations of characters, general demographics, and themes and topics discussed. (CWM)|

Haskell, Deborah

1979-01-01

58

Preschoolers and TV: Prime Time for Parent Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parental guidelines are listed for selecting, directing, and evaluating television viewing by children. The New Jersey Coalition for Better TV Viewing developed the suggestions, which include watching TV with the child, discussing the programs, and providing other activities as well to stimulate children. (CM)|

NJEA Review, 1982

1982-01-01

59

Profile: Prime?time television's portrayal of women and the world of work: A demographic profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content analyses of the attributes and actions of foreground characters in organizational settings were performed. The analyses indicate that although there has been some increase in the representation of women and some slight increase in the heterogeneity of their occupational portrayals, women generally remain underrepresented and limited in their depictions in prime?time organizational settings. Women were portrayed as performing more

Leah R. Vande Berg; Diane Streckfuss

1992-01-01

60

Fall Colors II: Exploring the Quality of Diverse Portrayals on Prime Time Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children understand that media grant recognition and respect to racial groups that are positively portrayed. Approximately half of the programs in the 1999-2000 broadcast prime time entertainment programming exhibited some diversity in their opening credits casts. This study examined the nature of the portrayals of diversity. The study examined…

Heintz-Knowles, Katharine E.; Chen, Perry; Miller, Patti; Haufler, Adrienne

61

Trends in US prime-time television food advertising across three decades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the content of food advertisements broadcast during prime-time network programs and determine what changes have occurred over the last 30 years. The sample comprised foods advertisements (N = 38, N = 31, N = 91, N = 105, N = 108) from 1971, 1977, 1988, 1992 and 1998, respectively. Of the commercials

Carol Byrd-Bredbenner; Darlene Grasso

2000-01-01

62

Talking a “Blue” Streak: Context and Offensive Language in Prime Time Network Television Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the context of offensive language heard in prime-time programs aired on seven broadcast networks in 2001. Offensive words occurred more in the 9–10 p.m. hour. Situation comedies contained more instances of objectionable words than other program genres, but offensive language was more likely to be heard in a non-humorous setting. Most objectionable words were directed at another

Barbara K. Kaye; Barry S. Sapolsky

2004-01-01

63

`A mess' and `rows': evaluation in prime-time TV news discourse and the shaping of public opinion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines a recent shift in the organization of prime-time news on Greek private television, from the `one-way' dissemination of information to an interactive format, where the news genre meets the talk show. By drawing on Hunston's model of evaluation in written academic discourse, it is argued that this conversational news format serves as a vehicle for evaluation, allowing

Marianna Patrona

2009-01-01

64

Prime-Time Health: An Analysis of Health Content In Television Commercials Broadcast During Programs Viewed Heavily by Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

For Americans of all ages, television is the primary source of health information. A major concern is the inadequate, inaccurate, and\\/or questionable content of messages embedded in television programs and commercials. To facilitate our work as health educators, an up-to-date description of the health-related content (HRC) shown on television is needed. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify,

Carol Byrd-Bredbenner; Darlene Grasso

65

Reading? Does Television Viewing Time Affect It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two hundred twenty-six 5th and 6th graders were the subjects of this study to correlate amount of television viewing and reading scores. It was found that the average viewing time per week for girls was 28 hours and for boys 30 hours. A slight relationship was reported between reading ability and amount of leisure time spent watching television.…

Starkey, John D.; Swinford, Helen Lee

66

"That's not a beer bong, it's a breast pump!" representations of breastfeeding in prime-time fictional television.  

PubMed

Breastfeeding has been recognized as one of the key determinant in one's future health. Yet although most people are aware of the benefits, many women do not breastfeed their babies past the first few months. These low rates can be partially explained by negative cultural attitudes toward breastfeeding, which have been reinforced by media messages. This research explored representations of breastfeeding in entertainment media-an area that has been overlooked. A textual analysis was conducted on 53 fictional television breastfeeding representations, ranging in genre and audience, from Beavis and Butthead to Criminal Minds. Findings indicate that breastfeeding depictions are generally positive, but limited in scope to educated, older, Caucasian women breastfeeding newborns, with little discussion about how to overcome problems. Extended breastfeeding and nursing in public were conveyed as socially unacceptable, making other characters uncomfortable, often within the same storylines that sexualized breasts. While the frequency of representations in recent years was encouraging, the narrow definition of the "normal" nursing experience excluded many types of women and breastfeeding experiences. And, by failing to address breastfeeding challenges and conveying that extended breastfeeding or nursing in public is abnormal or obscene, these depictions reinforce myths about the ease of breastfeeding and may discourage women from breastfeeding past the newborn phase, and outside the privacy of their homes. These portrayals may help explain why breastfeeding has not been "normalized," despite an international consensus that it is the best health choice for babies. PMID:22746199

Foss, Katherine A

2012-07-02

67

Timing crisis information release via television.  

PubMed

When and how often to release information on television are important issues in crisis and emergency risk communication. There is a lot of crisis information, including warnings and news, to which people should have access, but most of it is not significantly urgent to interrupt the broadcasting of television programmes. Hence, the right timing for the release of crisis information should be selected based on the importance of the crisis and any associated communication requirements. Using recursive methods, this paper builds an audience coverage model of crisis information release. Based on 2007 Household Using TV (HUT) data for Hefei City, China, the optimal combination of broadcasting sequence (with frequencies between one and eight times) is obtained using the implicit enumeration method. The developed model is applicable to effective transmission of crisis information, with the aim of reducing interference with the normal television transmission process and decreasing the psychological effect on audiences. The same model can be employed for other purposes, such as news coverage and weather and road information. PMID:20572851

Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao; Yang, Feng; Du, Shaofu; Marinova, Dora

2010-10-01

68

Prime Time TV Creators Go to School: The NCFT Listeners' Bureau.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the formation, goals, and efforts of the National Council for Families and Television's Listeners' Bureau. The bureau provides opportunities for television production teams to meet with children in their classrooms and hear their feedback and ideas on commercial television programs in an effort to improve programing. (MBR)|

Longstreet, Renee

1985-01-01

69

Fall Colors: How Diverse Is the 1999-2000 TV Season's Prime Time Lineup?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because children today are growing up in an era of increasing racial and ethnic diversity and because television provides a steady educational influence on children's attitudes and perceptions, it is important to examine the extent to which television programming reflects diversity in all its forms. This study was commissioned by Children Now to…

Heintz-Knowles, Katharine E.; Chen, Perry

70

Removing the Bedroom Television Set: A Possible Method for Decreasing Television Viewing Time in Overweight and Obese Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

U.S. adults watch television (TV) for an average of 5 hours per day, an amount associated with increased obesity risk. Studies in children have found bedroom TV sets, which result in greater time spent by watching TV and shorter sleep durations, both of which increase a child's odds of becoming overweight. The authors examined associations between…

Jones, Katherine E.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Harvey-Berino, Jean R.

2010-01-01

71

Removing the Bedroom Television Set: A Possible Method for Decreasing Television Viewing Time in Overweight and Obese Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|U.S. adults watch television (TV) for an average of 5 hours per day, an amount associated with increased obesity risk. Studies in children have found bedroom TV sets, which result in greater time spent by watching TV and shorter sleep durations, both of which increase a child's odds of becoming overweight. The authors examined associations…

Jones, Katherine E.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Harvey-Berino, Jean R.

2010-01-01

72

Television Violence and Children's Aggression: Testing the Priming, Social Script, and Disinhibition Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of television violence on boys' aggression was investigated with consideration of teacher-rated characteristic aggressiveness, timing of frustration, and violence-related cues as moderators. Boys in Grades 2 and 3 (N = 396) watched violent or nonviolent TV in groups of 6, and half the groups were later exposed to a cue associated with the violent TV program. They were

Wendy L. Josephson

1987-01-01

73

Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television claims to report reality but largely creates its own reality. There is very little autonomy, largely because the competition for market share is so intense. The pressure to fill the space is strong; hence, it must be something for everyone. Everyone is looking over their shoulder to see what their rivals are saying; to know what to say, you

PIERRE BOURDIEU

2001-01-01

74

Consonance in Network Prime-Time Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television research suggests that three major television networks are following a policy of standardization and that a high degree of consonance in prime-time network programing results from constraints within the networks' organizational, economic, and ideological frameworks. A study further explored these results by examining a list of all…

Gerhard, Michael E.

75

The Social and Behavioral Effects of Broadcast Television on Previously Untouched Audiences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study, conducted prior to the installation of daily prime-time television programming in areas of rural Alaska previously without commercial television service, was designed to provide a foundation of pre-television baseline data against which to mea...

J. M. Orvik

1978-01-01

76

Reading on Television?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The portrayal of reading, writing, and other selected behaviors on prime-time network television was examined in this two-part study. First, an interest inventory was administered to a sample of 301 elementary students (i.e., grades 1-5) in South Carolina, Virginia, and Pennsylvania to determine their favorite television shows, books, and school…

Dewalt, Mark W.; And Others

77

Fall Colors, 2001-02: Prime Time Diversity Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television is an integral part of American culture, and has the ability to play a major role in shaping belief systems, particularly for the youngest and most impressionable viewers. This study is the third annual study of diversity of characters in prime time television programming. The study examined the first two episodes of each prime time

Parker, McCrae A.; Miller, Patti; Espejo, Eileen; Grossman-Swenson, Sarah

78

Fall Colors, 2001-02: Prime Time Diversity Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Television is an integral part of American culture, and has the ability to play a major role in shaping belief systems, particularly for the youngest and most impressionable viewers. This study is the third annual study of diversity of characters in prime time television programming. The study examined the first two episodes of each prime time

Parker, McCrae A.; Miller, Patti; Espejo, Eileen; Grossman-Swenson, Sarah

79

Intertextuality and Television Discourse: The Max Headroom Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Max Headroom, the computer-generated media personality, presents a good opportunity for an investigation of the degree of intertextuality in television. Max combines narrative genres (science fiction and film noir), television program types (prime-time episodic narrative, made-for-TV movie, talkshows), advertising and programming, and electronic…

Braddlee

80

Kids’ Time: childhood, television and the regulation of time  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the relationships between children's understanding of the organisation of television time and their sense of what it means to be a child. It is based on qualitative data gathered in one inner city primary school, as part of a broader research project investigating the changing nature of children's media cultures. The article suggests that the

Hannah Davies; David Buckingham; Peter Kelley

1999-01-01

81

Social Trust, Social Partner Time and Television Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social trust is an important phenomenon, but the influence of important time-based measures upon trust has not been examined. Such measures include social contact and anti-social activity, such as television watching, which allows for the co-presence of other people. This paper reports on associations between trust and weighted means of…

Patulny, Roger

2011-01-01

82

Priming effects of television news bumpers and teasers on attention and memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses the spreading activation model of information processing to examine the effects of television news previews called bumpers and teasers. Bumpers occur at the beginning of a newscast and teasers occur before commercial breaks. News stories that were preceded by teasers or by both bumpers and teasers elicited more attention than stories that were not primed by a

Joan D. Schleuder; Alice V. White; Glen T. Cameron

1993-01-01

83

Prime Suspects: The Corrosive Influence of Local Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local television news is the public’s primary source of public affairs information. News stories about crime dominate local news programming because they maintain high audience demand. The prevalence of this type of reporting has led to a crime narrative or “script†that includes two core elements: crime is violent and perpetrators of crime are non-white males. We show that this

Franklin D. Gilliam Jr.; Shanto Lyengar

2000-01-01

84

Barriers to Creativity in Television Entertainment Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interviews with people who write, direct, act, or otherwise work in television indicate that as television has reached toward larger and larger audiences its tendency to suppress creativity, diversity, and self-expression has also increased. Acquisition or network control over the creative process has caused prime time television to exhibit at…

Westen, Tracy A.

85

Television and Adolescents' Perceptions about Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Updates knowledge about the representation of occupations on prime-time network dramatic television using data on 14,902 television characters, and explores how these representations may be related to perceptions of over 3,000 high school students about their future work. Television may be doing young people a disservice in its portrayals. (SLD)|

Signorielli, Nancy

1993-01-01

86

The Role of Television Access in the Viewing Time of US Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identify the adolescent and family factors that shape the time adolescents spend viewing television. Adolescent traits, family\\/household characteristics, television access, and TV viewing time were assessed by self-report using a web-based survey conducted with a sample of 457 14- to 16-year-old adolescents in a Northeastern US city. Bivariate analyses indicated that the number of televisions in the home, having

Amy Jordan; Amy Bleakley; Jennifer Manganello; Michael Hennessy; Robin Steven; Martin Fishbein

2010-01-01

87

Removing the bedroom television set: a possible method for decreasing television viewing time in overweight and obese adults.  

PubMed

U.S. adults watch television (TV) for an average of 5 hours per day, an amount associated with increased obesity risk. Studies in children have found bedroom TV sets, which result in greater time spent by watching TV and shorter sleep durations, both of which increase a child's odds of becoming overweight. The authors examined associations between bedroom TV viewing time (BTVT), Body Mass Index (BMI), sleep time, non-BTVT, and total TV viewing time in 39 overweight and obese adults with and without a bedroom TV set. No significant correlations are found between BTVT and BMI or sleep time. BTVT is positively associated with non-BTVT (Spearman's rho = 0.37, p = .076; n = 24). Participants with a bedroom TV tend to watch significantly more TV (5.4 hours per day +/- 2.7; p = .057; n = 28) than do participants without a bedroom TV (3.6 +/- 1.9 hours per day, p = .057; n = 11). This article suggested that taking the TV out of the bedroom may help to reduce overweight and obese adults can decrease their TV viewing time. PMID:20562322

Jones, Katherine E; Otten, Jennifer J; Johnson, Rachel K; Harvey-Berino, Jean R

2010-07-01

88

Social Trust, Social Partner Time and Television Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social trust is an important phenomenon, but the influence of important time-based measures upon trust has not been examined.\\u000a Such measures include social contact and anti-social activity, such as television watching, which allows for the co-presence\\u000a of other people. This paper reports on associations between trust and weighted means of co-present ‘social’ time (defined\\u000a as time spent in various ‘social’

Roger Patulny

2011-01-01

89

The Effects of Television Consumption on Social Percrptions: The Use of Priming Procedures to Investigate Psychological Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated the extent to which heavy television viewing affects consumers perceptions of social reality and the cognitive processes that underlie these effects. Both studies found evidence heavy viewers beliefs about social reality are more consistent with the content of television programming than are those of light viewers. The use of a priming methodology provided support for the notion

Thomas C OGuinn

1998-01-01

90

Background television and reading performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted testing Armstrong and Greenberg's (1990) model of the effect of background television on cognitive performance, as it applies to reading comprehension and memory. Subjects completed a cued?recall test of the content of an expository prose passage read under quiet conditions or concurrently with the presence of one of two types of television content (prime?time drama versus

G. Blake Armstrong; Greg A. Boiarsky

1991-01-01

91

Time: The “Silent” Cultural Value in American Television Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depiction of time as a cultural value has received rather limited attention in the advertising literature, despite its presence in ads either explicitly or implicitly. This study attempts to fill that void by offering a framework for analyzing the many ways that time is depicted in television advertising. The key time elements noted are Limited Time, Marking Time, More

Joyce M. Wolburg

1999-01-01

92

Does Mobile Television Challenge the Dimension of Viewing Television? An Explorative Research on Time, Place and Social Context of the Use of Mobile Television Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television is one of the last media technologies to become disconnected from a fixed place like home. Media like newspaper,\\u000a radio, audio recordings and computing have already been introduced in a mobile setting since some time. However with the wide\\u000a spread and strong domestication of mobile devices, and the dominant character of television in households, it seems that the\\u000a transition

Marinka Vangenck; An Jacobs; Bram Lievens; Eva Vanhengel; Jo Pierson

2008-01-01

93

Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design: In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-age children watched a cartoon that contained

Jennifer L. Harris; John A. Bargh; Kelly D. Brownell

2009-01-01

94

Presidential Use of Television and the Reply Time Controversy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presidential use of television has significantly increased over the last 20 years, with most requests for air time being accepted. This has put out-of-power political parties at a disadvantage when attempting to gain support for their platform. Although Section 315 of the Communications Act of 1934 provides for some response time to uninterrupted…

Schiller, Scott S.

95

The Social and Behavioral Effects of Broadcast Television on Previously Untouched Audiences. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study, conducted prior to the installation of daily prime-time television programming in areas of rural Alaska previously without commercial television service, was designed to provide a foundation of pre-television baseline data against which to measure the social and behavioral effects of television on this multicultural population.…

Orvik, James M.; And Others

96

Inclusion, Education, and Avoidance: The Prime Time Response to September 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an initial examination of prime time television's response to the events of September 11. Based on a review of the 2001-2002 television season's prime time programs, we identify 15 programs that incorporated 9\\/11 elements. Themes of these programs are discussed as are the strategies for inclusion adopted by show producers and writers.

Tracey Gladstone-Sovell; William R. Wilkerson

97

Family Communication on Prime-Time Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The communication patterns of two family sitcoms were examined as models for viewers. "The Cosby Show" portrays a child-centered family with parents not active in giving direction or modeling supportive communication; whereas "The Simpsons" model an adult-centered family, actively supporting each other and children and giving direction. (Contains…

Larson, Mary Strom

1993-01-01

98

Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

Frazer, Charles F.

99

Compliance Gaining on Prime Time Family Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies compliance gaining behaviors among characters in 18 prime time television programs. Finds that situation comedies were more likely than dramas to contain family characters who attempted to gain compliance. Finds that parental characters were more likely than children to seek and achieve compliance. Compares results to "real life" parental…

Haefner, Margaret J.; Comstock, Jamie

1990-01-01

100

Television and Secondary School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way in which children judge the general output of television, and the way in which it affects them, should be prime factors in considering programming for educational television, particularly in areas where educational television is still in its infancy, asin the Third World.Dr Collin's article looks at the effects TV can have on young people, and considers the general

Jude Collins

1990-01-01

101

Longitudinal Effects of Television on Children's Leisure-Time Reading: A Test of Three Explanatory Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study that investigated the longitudinal effects of television viewing on the frequency with which children read books and comic books at home; and the causal mechanisms that underlie television's effects on leisure-time reading. Suggests that television viewing reduced attitudes toward reading and toward ability to concentrate. (TB)

Koolstra, Cees M.; Van Der Voort, Tom H. A.

1996-01-01

102

Longitudinal Effects of Television on Children's Leisure-Time Reading: A Test of Three Explanatory Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a study that investigated the longitudinal effects of television viewing on the frequency with which children read books and comic books at home; and the causal mechanisms that underlie television's effects on leisure-time reading. Suggests that television viewing reduced attitudes toward reading and toward ability to concentrate. (TB)|

Koolstra, Cees M.; Van Der Voort, Tom H. A.

1996-01-01

103

Television as a Source of Learning Sex Role Stereotypes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effects of heavy versus light television viewing on the degree to which children possess sex role stereotypes. Reference was made to content analyses of children's television programs, prime time dramatic programs, and commercials, to show that traditional sex role stereotypes are present in most aspects of television

McGhee, Paul E.

104

What Kids Say about What They Watch and How Prime Time Programming Can Help Them in School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews sixth to eighth grade students' attitudes about what they watch on television, and discusses how prime time programming can help students in school by encouraging reading of books connected with television shows, providing scripts for students, and use of television as a source of classroom discussion and to encourage family…

Potter, Rosemary Lee

1986-01-01

105

An Analysis of Japanese Television Commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content analysis of 410 prime time television commercials sampled from four Japanese television stations finds that, at all product involvement levels, Japanese commercials use the emotional appeal more than the informational appeal, sometimes with very indirect product selling approaches. At the same time, only a small percentage of these commercials do not use information cues at all. In the sample,

Jyotika Ramaprasad; Kazumi Hasegawa

1990-01-01

106

Television Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers television interfaces, the screens of menus and metadata that must be engaged, as part of emergent television viewing practices. Found on devices and services such as TiVo, Hulu, YouTube, and Apple's iTunes suite, television interfaces are productive spaces that reframe the programming we watch, introduce new metadata-based aesthetics, alter the rhythms of the time we spend with

Daniel Chamberlain

2010-01-01

107

Television and Growing Up: The Medium Gets Equal Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a review of research on television viewing and child behavior. The first section of the paper presents a brief historical review of television research. This review includes research on the effect of television on people's lives, the effects of violent content on aggressive behavior and the possible harmful effects of…

Huston-Stein, Aletha

108

Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ) television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June\\/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral

Rob McGee; Juanita Ketchel; Anthony I Reeder

2007-01-01

109

The portrayal of alcohol on television  

Microsoft Academic Search

THIS paper presents the results of a systematic con tent analysis of the portrayal of alcohol in two weeks of prime time television programmes. The analysis takes its point of departure in the argument that, in order to begin to understand the possible contri bution of television to alcohol-related beliefs and practices, it is necessary to look beyond the tra

Anders Hansen

1986-01-01

110

Correlates of Television Viewing: Perceptions of Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A questionnaire designed to measure respondents' weekly television viewing habits and their estimates of crime victimization was administered to 142 undergraduate students. Two measures of exposure to 94 prime-time television programs were compared on a program-by-program basis: (1) violent acts per hour in programs viewed weekly, and (2) amount…

Ogles, Robert M.; And Others

111

The Effects of Time Context on Children's Perceptions of Aggressive Television Content.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The major question of this study is: Does the time context of a TV program affect children's conclusions about the action? If violent or aggressive behavior is viewed on television by children, how will they respond to the action when they know the action takes place in either the past, the present, or the future? Fifth and sixth grade boys…

Gordon, Thomas F.

112

The Effects of Time Context on Children's Perceptions of Aggressive Television Content.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major question of this study is: Does the time context of a TV program affect children's conclusions about the action? If violent or aggressive behavior is viewed on television by children, how will they respond to the action when they know the action takes place in either the past, the present, or the future? Fifth and sixth grade boys viewed…

Gordon, Thomas F.

113

The portrayal of women in prime time, 1953–1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content analysis of 1314 television programs and 2444 starring characters appearing on prime-time television from 1953–1977 revealed that the number of females in starring roles has remained relatively constant over the last 25 years and that most women are still found in situation comedies. While the number of women shown as housewives or housekeepers has declined from the 1950s

Joseph R. Dominick

1979-01-01

114

Criminal Justice “Hollywood Style”: How Women in Criminal Justice Professions Are Depicted in Prime-Time Crime Dramas  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the abundance of prime-time crime dramas on television, it is imperative that researchers examine how female criminal justice professionals are depicted in the world of fiction versus in reality. In this study, a content analysis of 10 prime-time television crime dramas was conducted. Of the 69 characters observed, female criminal justice professionals were portrayed as young, White, and single.

Kimberly A. DeTardo-Bora

2009-01-01

115

Too Much Tube Time? Television Viewing and Childhood Obesity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The rates of overweight in infancy and childhood are rapidly growing. One contributor to the rising tide of childhood obesity, and a target included in many obesity prevention and intervention programs, is television (TV) use. This article examines the amount of media to which young children are exposed, and considers the evidence for the…

Cardinal, Tiffany M.; Lumeng, Julie C.

2007-01-01

116

Is Television Viewing Time a Marker of a Broader Pattern of Sedentary Behavior?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Television (TV) viewing time is associated with abnormal glucose metabolism, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of type 2 diabetes;\\u000a associations are stronger and more consistent in women. One explanation of this difference may be that TV viewing is a marker\\u000a of an overall pattern of sedentary behavior in women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  We sought to examine associations of TV viewing time with other

Takemi Sugiyama; Genevieve N. Healy; David W. Dunstan; Jo Salmon; Neville Owen

2008-01-01

117

Real-Time Closed-Captioned Television as an Educational Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Procedures used in real-time (live) television captioning are reviewed, and aspects of the captioning process, such as time delay, use of verbatim captions, targeted reading rates, ways to indicate changes in speakers, and accuracy are considered. Use of real-time captioning in closed-caption television in the classroom is noted. (CL)|

Block, Martin H.; Okrand, Marc

1983-01-01

118

Children and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet examines the influence of television on children and adolescents in developing and developed nations, reviewing research on television's relationship to child health and development. The first section reviews specific research on such variables as number of television sets in use, amount of time spent watching television, age, sex,…

Chevallier, Eric; Mansour, Sylvie

1993-01-01

119

Television and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.

120

Television and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.

121

Influence of leisure time physical activity and television watching on atherosclerosis risk factors in the NHLBI Family Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity favorably influences atherosclerosis risk factors but only a few studies in adults considered the time watching television (TV) as a measure of physical inactivity. We therefore determined in a population-based sample of 1778 subjects from the NHLBI Family Heart Study (FHS) whether leisure time physical activity and TV watching have independent or interactive associations with cardiovascular disease risk

Florian Kronenberg; Mark A. Pereira; M. Kathryn H. Schmitz; Donna K. Arnett; Kelly R. Evenson; Robert O. Crapo; Robert L. Jensen; Gregory L. Burke; Phyliss Sholinsky; R. Curtis Ellison; Steven C. Hunt

2000-01-01

122

Televised Television Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ninety-four children, aged 5 to 12 years, were subjects of a study of recall of television literacy messages (drop-ins). The 30-second "How To Watch TV" (HTWTV) segments were designed for broadcast on Saturday mornings by the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) to convey to children some information and values about television (e.g., animals do…

Dorr, Aimee; And Others

123

Children, Television, and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author summarizes a research review conducted at William Paterson College. Information is presented on the amount of time spent watching television, types of programs preferred by different age groups, and the impact of television on reading habits and achievement. No consistent relationship between TV viewing and achievement was found. (SJL)|

Feeley, Joan T.

1980-01-01

124

Reconsidering the Displacement Hypothesis: Television's Influence on Children's Time Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reexamines assumptions about the displacement mechanism, which states that television displaces other activities. Considers strengths and weaknesses of various methodologies used to test the displacement hypothesis. Examines data from an eight-year panel study of the introduction of television to South Africa. Uses a variety of methodologies to…

Mutz, Diana C.; And Others

1993-01-01

125

Social and Interactive-Television Applications Based on Real-Time Ambient-Audio Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes mass personalization , a framework for combining mass media with a highly personalized Web-based experience. We introduce four applications for mass personalization: personalized content layers, ad hoc social communities, real-time popularity ratings and virtual media library services. Using the ambient audio originating from the television, the four applications are available with no more effort than simple television

Michael Fink; Michele Covell; Shumeet Baluja

126

Violence and Sex in Music Videos: TV and Rock n' Roll.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study measuring the amount and kind of violence and sex presented in prime time music videos during a seven-week period. Compares sex and violence on music television to known data on conventional TV. (MS)|

Sherman, Barry L.; Dominick, Joseph R.

1986-01-01

127

Time spent watching television, sleep duration and obesity in adults living in Valencia, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association of time watching television (TV) and physical activity with obesity in the Mediterranean area of Spain with the highest prevalence of obesity.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SETTING: Valencia Region in Spain.PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 814 men and 958 women, aged 15 y and older, participating in a Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 1994.MEASUREMENTS: Height and weight

J Vioque; A Torres; J Quiles

2000-01-01

128

Health-related content in Australian television advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the proportions of health-related content in non-program time on Australian television, and how this relates to channel, product category, program genre and whether it is an advertisement or public service announcement (PSA). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Australian prime time television was recorded across three commercial television stations in Sydney. Non-program content (NPC)

Julia Alice Baker; Barbara Ann Mullan

2011-01-01

129

How Young Children Spend Their Time: Television and Other Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-use diaries were collected over a 3-year period for 2 cohorts of 2- and 4-year-old children. TV viewing declined with age. Time spent in reading and educational activities increased with age on weekdays but declined on weekends. Time-use patterns were sex-stereotyped, and sex differences increased with age. As individuals’ time in educational activities, social interaction, and video games increased, their

Aletha C. Huston; John C. Wright; Janet Marquis; Samuel B. Green

1999-01-01

130

Parents, Television and Cultural Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a model of cultural transmission where television plays a central role for socialization. Parents split their free time between educating their children, which is costly, and watching TV which though entertaining might socialize the children to the wrong trait. The free to air television industry maximizes advertisement revenue. We show that TV watching is increasing in cultural

Esther Hauk; Giovanni Immordino

2011-01-01

131

Parents, Television and Cultural Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a model of cultural transmission where television plays a central role for socialization. Parents split their free time between educating their children which is costly and watching TV which though entertaining might socialize the children to the wrong trait. The free to air television industry maximizes advertisement revenue. We show that TV watching is increasing in cultural

Esther Hauk; Giovanni Immordino

2011-01-01

132

Television viewing time and weight gain in colorectal cancer survivors: a prospective population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate the prospective relationships between television viewing time and weight gain in the 3 years following colorectal\\u000a cancer diagnosis for 1,867 colorectal cancer survivors (body mass index (BMI) ? 18.5 kg\\/m2).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  BMI, television viewing time, physical activity, and socio-demographic and clinical covariates were assessed at baseline (5 months),\\u000a 24 months and 36 months post-diagnosis. Multiple linear regression was used to study independent associations between baseline\\u000a television

Katrien Wijndaele; Brigid M. Lynch; Neville Owen; David W. Dunstan; Stephen Sharp; Joanne F. Aitken

2009-01-01

133

Traditional Sex Role Development and Amount of Time Spent Watching Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tested the hypothesis that the amount of time spent watching television would be significantly related to the strength of traditional sex role development. Subjects were 80 kindergarten and elementary school children. (SDH)|

Frueh, Terry; McGhee, Paul E.

1975-01-01

134

Nielsen Television '73; A Look at the Medium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The latest (1973) edition of Nielsen Television presents data on the television audience. Major findings are graphically summarized and data are presented for: number of stations receivable by household; households equipped with TV sets; United States TV households with color television; total United States households using television by time of…

Nielsen (A.C.) Co., Chicago, IL.

135

Feminism, femininity, and the television series: A content analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following 40 pages offer a debate on the question of whether women are fairly represented and depicted in prime time television dramatic programs. Taking up the opening position is Ms. McNeil, a master's candidate in radio and television at the University of Illinois. This article is based on research undertaken for her thesis, and the author wishes to acknowledge

Jean C. McNeil

1975-01-01

136

Gender, Value, and Signification: Women and Television in Kerala  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a context where despite high levels of literacy and economic independence, women in Kerala are still expected to conform to conservative standards of docility, obedience and family-oriented (at the cost of their own happiness), the author surveys the impact of prime time television's impact on a sample of urban of rural women. Identifying television as an accessible media in

2006-01-01

137

Audience perceptions of strong female characters on television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars have criticized television networks for the weak roles assigned to actresses. Women's roles are evolving. This study examined audience reactions to strong female characters on five prime time television shows. The study measured whether the sex or race of the viewers influenced their perceptions of the masculinity or femininity of the characters. The participants saw the characters as slightly

Bonnie Oppenheimer; Mark Goodman; Jim Codling; Jill Davis Coker

2003-01-01

138

Comparative Analysis of Korean Television Dramas between 1977 and 1987: Changes of Themes and Lifestyles of Characters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine how the contents of Korean television serial dramas have changed and to determine trends of their portrayals of male and female characters' lifestyles, a study analyzed Korean television dramas of 1977 and 1987. A sample of three channels' video--22 daily and 14 weekly episodes of 18 different television dramas during weekday prime time

Min, Eung-Jun

139

Political Implications of Prime-Time Drama and Sitcom Use: Genres of Representation and Opinions Concerning Women's Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars studying the content of televised entertainment programming have long argued for a relationship between exposure to sexist media representations of women and opinions concerning women's status in society, yet research has rarely exam- ined prime-time television audiences and their sociopolitical opinions concerning women's rights. To explore these relationships, we engaged in a secondary analysis of the 1997, 1998, and

R. Lance Holbert; Dhavan V. Shah; Nojin Kwak

2003-01-01

140

Gender Stereotypes in Spanish Television Commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was an analysis of gender stereotypes in television advertisements in Spain. For this purpose\\u000a the content analysis method was used to analyze 400 advertisements broadcast during prime time over the three national television\\u000a channels with the largest audience. A series of variables common to similar investigations were coded in order to allow comparisons\\u000a with

Federico Valls-Fernández; José Manuel Martínez-Vicente

2007-01-01

141

Scheduling of television commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advertising income is a vital source of revenue for television stations. The arrangements made when customers purchase television advertising time should consider customer requirements, relevant laws and regulations, and the need to fill all available advertising time. This study presents an ant colony optimization (ACO) heuristic for establishing an effective and simple mechanism for solving the problem of scheduling television

M. S. Wuang; C. L. Yang; R. H. Huang; S. P. Chuang

2010-01-01

142

Nurses and doctors in prime time series: the dynamics of depicting professional power.  

PubMed

This essay sketches a comparison of 1960s' television portrayals with those of the present to show that a limited and incomplete portrayal of nurses has been an enduring feature of prime-time medical television programs. They have depicted physicians then and now as captains of the medical ship and nurses then and now their ancillary and ill-defined helpers. As the comparison makes clear, part of nurses' lack of clear power in TV medical scenarios has to do with the explicit and implicit clout exercised by physicians' organizations to present doctor images effectively. That clout contrasts with nursing organizations' lack of attempts or ability (it's hard to gauge which) to influence network television's most prominent representations of their roles and the environments in which they work. PMID:23036794

Turow, Joseph

143

Substance Use and Sexual Intimacy on Commercial Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study reports a content analysis of 1976-1977 commercial television programming for incidents of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use and sexual behavior. The analysis included one episode of each prime time and Saturday morning dramatic series, comprising...

C. Fernandez-Collado

1977-01-01

144

Drama is the Cure for Gossip: Television’s Turn to Theatricality in a Time of Media Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

: This article examines a number of currently airing television dramas and comedies (Gossip Girl, Mad Men, In Treatment, and Glee) that depict theatricality – live performance – as a means by which characters achieve self-realization and authenticity. Television today may be interested in presenting theatricality as what Michel Foucault calls a “technology of the self” as a way to

Abigail De Kosnik

2010-01-01

145

The Relationship of the Amount of Time Children Spend Viewing Television to Achievement at the Intermediate Grade Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports a study of 341 fourth, fifth, and sixth graders in which amount of television viewing time, gathered from one-month diaries, was examined in relationship to achievement as measured by standardized test scores. Findings were inconclusive. Data on TV viewing amounts and patterns are included. (SJL)|

Quisenberry, Nancy L.; Klasek, Charles B.

1981-01-01

146

Time Teachers Spend Reading Versus Time They Spend Watching TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Predicated on the assumption that if teachers are to have a positive influence on the reading and television viewing habits of their students it is important for them to be aware of their own reading and viewing habits, a study was conducted to determine whether teachers spent more time reading or watching television. Fifty-six teachers in an…

Vieth, Mary

147

Television and video viewing time among children aged 2 years - Oregon, 2006-2007.  

PubMed

Excessive exposure of children to television and videos (viewing time) is associated with impaired childhood development and childhood obesity. In 2001, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended that children watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of "quality programming" per day, and that televisions be removed from children's bedrooms. To determine the risk for excessive viewing time among children aged 2 years, CDC and the Oregon Public Health Division analyzed 2006 and 2007 data from the Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring Survey follow-back survey (Oregon PRAMS-2), which was used to re-interview mothers who had participated in PRAMS. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, on a typical day, 19.6% of children aged 2 years spent >or=2 hours watching television or videos. A total of 18.2% of children had a television in their bedroom; these children were more likely to have >or=2 hours viewing time compared with children without a television in the bedroom (34.1% versus 16.3%). In multivariable analysis, >or=2 hours of viewing time was positively associated with the presence of a television in the child's bedroom, non-Hispanic black maternal race/ethnicity, fewer than four outings with the child during the preceding week, and was negatively associated with obtaining child care in a child care center. In Oregon, these findings support the AAP recommendations that health professionals, parents, and caregivers recognize the extent of children's media consumption, and that televisions be removed from children's bedrooms. Other states should consider conducting similar surveys. PMID:20631672

2010-07-16

148

Network Prime-Time Violence Tabulations for 1975-76 Season.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is an annual report on violence in prime-time television. The tabulations, based on 13 weeks of monitoring prime-time programs on three networks, indicate a decline in violence by 24% and a decline in the rate per hour of dramatic violence to 1.9 inc...

J. T. Klapper

1976-01-01

149

About Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The entire broadcast television industry is the subject of this book. An attempt is made to present history, theory, and anecdotes about television programing, television advertising, television and politics, and network news, focusing all the while on American television, but with consideration given to alternative structures and methods.…

Mayer, Martin

150

About Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The entire broadcast television industry is the subject of this book. An attempt is made to present history, theory, and anecdotes about television programing, television advertising, television and politics, and network news, focusing all the while on American television, but with consideration given to alternative structures and methods.…

Mayer, Martin

151

Time Well Spent? Relating Television Use to Children's Free-Time Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES. This study assessed the claim that children's television use interferes with time spent in more developmentally appropriate activities. METHODS. Data came from the first wave of the Child Development Supplement, a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 12 in 1997 (N 1712). Twenty-four-hour time-use diaries from 1 randomly chosen weekday and 1 randomly chosen weekend day were

Elizabeth A. Vandewater; David S. Bickham; June H. Lee

152

Optimal Timing of TV Commercials: Symmetrical Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I study the behavior of free-good producers (TV broadcasters) on a market where every consumer (TV viewer) perpetually makes a decision whether to consume and which product (TV channel) to consume contingent on the attractiveness of the currently consumed product. Every producer optimally allocates a time period where a product with higher attractiveness (TV program) is replaced

Tomas Kadlec

2002-01-01

153

Television Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The compilation 'Television Technology' presents the results of new research and constructional developments in various areas of television. There are articles on equipment of the All-Union Radio and Television Transmitting Station (ORPS) and of the All-U...

A. V. Gorokhovskii M. I. Krivosheev

1973-01-01

154

Color television and educational TV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Color television is so new that there is little concrete information on the subject. However, it seems logical to doubt that\\u000a color will provide any general increased effectiveness to educational TV. In some areas, such as art and medicine, the impact\\u000a may be great; but for the greater proportion of educational subjects, it will not contribute a great deal.\\u000a \\u000a In

1954-01-01

155

Naturally Occurring Changes in Time Spent Watching Television Are Inversely Related to Frequency of Physical Activity during Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with…

Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.

2006-01-01

156

Television viewing time of colorectal cancer survivors is associated prospectively with quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine prospective associations of television viewing time with quality of life, following a colorectal cancer diagnosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One thousand, nine hundred and sixty-six colorectal cancer survivors were recruited through the Queensland Cancer Registry.\\u000a Interviews were conducted at 5, 12, 24, and 36 months post-diagnosis. Generalized linear mixed models estimated the effects\\u000a of television viewing time on quality of life.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Participants who

Brigid M. LynchEster; Ester Cerin; Neville Owen; Anna L. Hawkes; Joanne F. Aitken

2011-01-01

157

TV Links Film and Television Website Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TV Links Film and Television Website Archive is a site that points to almost anything you can think of relating to film and television. Categories include television shows, motion picture production companies, screen and video professional organizations, awards (Oscar, Emmy, and Tony), world TV schedules, 30 TV networks, Usenet newsgroups, and film festivals, among others. This is a definitive site for the definitive couch potato.

158

Children's Television Exposure and Behavioral and Social Outcomes at 5.5 Years: Does Timing of Exposure Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends children 2 years of age limit daily media exposure to 1 to 2 hours and not have a television set in children's bedrooms. However, there are limited prospective studies to address how timing of media exposure influences children's health. OBJECTIVE. Our goal was to examine relations among children's early, concurrent, and sustained television

Kamila B. Mistry; Cynthia S. Minkovitz; Donna M. Strobino; Dina L. G. Borzekowski

2010-01-01

159

Educational Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aspects of educational television (ETV) covered in this report include its history, growth and development, noncommerical television broadcast stations, instructional television fixed service (ITFS), microwave relay system, television signal translators, cable systems, and the use of satellites. The report also outlines the Federal Communications…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

160

Holographic television by liquid-crystal device  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, the transmission of holograms via television was executed but no holographic TV was realized because there was no suitable recording material. Now a 3-D TV is expected, and recent research on real time holography using a high-resolution liquid crystal device (LCD) is active. In this research we consider the possibility of holographic television and construct the best

Koki Sato; Kazuhito Higuchi; Hidetoshi Katsuma

1992-01-01

161

The Impact of Leisure-Time Television on School Learning: A Research Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To integrate empirical findings concerning the impact of leisure time television viewing on student achievement in grades K-12, 274 correlations were assembled or calculated from 23 educational and psychological review articles, doctoral dissertations, statewide assessments, national surveys, articles from refereed journals, technical reports, books, and unpublished papers. For each study, characteristics of the sample, type of outcome, quality of the

Patricia A Williams; Edward H Haertel; Geneva D Haertel; Herbert J Walberg

1982-01-01

162

Health discourse in Swedish television food advertising during children's peak viewing times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food marketing influences children's food preferences and consumption and is important to consider in the prevention of child obesity. In this paper, health messages in commercials during children's peak viewing times were analysed by examining how food is articulated in the health discourse. In total, 82 food commercials from 66h of television recordings of the most popular commercial channels with

Hillevi Prell; Eva Palmblad; Lauren Lissner; Christina M. Berg

2011-01-01

163

The Choice of Commercial Breaks in Television Programs: The Number, Length and Timing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the choice of commercial breaks by a television network in a monopoly setup. It is assumed that viewers dislike commercials, while the network seeks to maximize the total audience for these commercials through its choice of the number, length, and timing of commercial breaks. The model predicts that commercial breaks become more frequent toward the end of

Wen Zhou

2004-01-01

164

The Relationship between Active Viewing of Different Television Content Types and Individual Perception of a Mean World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study tested the validity of two active TV viewing constructs that predicted the effects of content and degree of active viewing on a television viewer's perception of a mean world. Random digit dialing produced interviews with 163 subjects who were asked separate questions about their prime time and daytime viewing to determine their level of…

Rouner, Donna

165

Portrayal of Men and Women in U.S. Spanish-Language Television Commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

While numerous studies have analyzed women's portrayals in U.S. general market television as well as depiction of both sexes in several foreign countries, no data have been published regarding gender depictions targeted to the growing U.S. Hispanic market via Spanish-language television. A content analysis of 162 prime-time commercials from a Spanish-language television affiliate in a major U.S. market revealed depiction

Jami A. Fullerton; Alice Kendrick

2000-01-01

166

Television and Attitudes toward Mental Health Issues: Cultivation Analysis and the Third-Person Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A television content analysis and survey of 419 community respondents supports the hypothesis that media stereotypes affect public attitudes toward mental health issues. A content analysis of network, prime-time television demonstrates that portrayals are violent, false, and negative. The mentally disordered are portrayed as 10 times more likely…

Diefenbach, Donald L.; West, Mark D.

2007-01-01

167

Television and Attitudes toward Mental Health Issues: Cultivation Analysis and the Third-Person Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A television content analysis and survey of 419 community respondents supports the hypothesis that media stereotypes affect public attitudes toward mental health issues. A content analysis of network, prime-time television demonstrates that portrayals are violent, false, and negative. The mentally disordered are portrayed as 10 times more likely…

Diefenbach, Donald L.; West, Mark D.

2007-01-01

168

What's on Malaysian television? - A survey on food advertising targeting children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Malaysian government recently introduced a ban on fast food advertisements targeting children on televi- sion. This study reports on data covering 6 months of television food advertising targeting children. Six out of seven of the Nation's commercial television networks participated (response rate = 85.7%). Based on reported timings of children's programmes, prime time significantly differed (p<0.05) between weekdays (mean

Tilakavati Karupaiah; Karuthan Chinna; Loi Huei Mee; Lim Siau Mei; Mohd Ismail Noor

169

Television Broadcasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The story of television broadcasting may be divided into three periods of time, i.e., the historical periodżto about 1930, the developmental periodżto the end of the Second World War, and the commercial period. One of the first public demonstrations was given by C. Francis Jenkins in Washington, D.C. in 1925. During the 1930's the mechanical scanning equipment was replaced with

CLURE H. OWENt

1962-01-01

170

Television 2020  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses the possible changes in the medium of television by the year 2020. He predicts that the viewers of the future will each have a simple gadget that will enable them to select exactly what they want to view--at their own choice of time. Nobody will sit through the end of a programme they do not want to watch in…

Lapping, Brian

2005-01-01

171

Ideologies of Gender on Television in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content analyses of Indian television programmes on the national network Doordarshan in the 1980s have shown that prime-time shows cast women as docile homemakers and as objects of male desire. This paper uses a critical postcolonial theoretical framework and narrative analysis method to detect ideologies of gender from programmes randomly selected from a month's menu of the transnational, national and

Divya C. Mcmillin

2002-01-01

172

Analyzing Value Content in Television Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four prime time television programs--"Charlie's Angels,""Little House on the Prairie,""Grizzly Adams," and "Lou Grant" --were rated by university students for their portrayal of moral reasoning and values. Data were obtained from three episodes of each program by randomly assigning raters to one of two viewing groups, both of which used an…

Jensen, Larry; Zelig, Mark

173

Analyzing Value Content in Television Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four prime time television programs--'Charlie's Angels', 'Little House on the Prairie', 'Grizzly Adams', and 'Lou Grant'--were rated by university students for their portrayal of moral reasoning and values. Data were obtained from three episodes of each p...

L. Jensen M. Zelig

1979-01-01

174

Analyzing Value Content in Television Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four prime time television programs--"Charlie's Angels,""Little House on the Prairie,""Grizzly Adams," and "Lou Grant" --were rated by university students for their portrayal of moral reasoning and values. Data were obtained from three episodes of each program by randomly assigning raters to one of two viewing groups, both of which used an…

Jensen, Larry; Zelig, Mark

175

Uses of Sex Appeals in Prime-Time Television Commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how sex appeals employed bymale and female models were utilized in Americantelevision commercials. It centers on the physicalcharacteristics and behavior of models appearing during primetime network programs, including bodilyshape, clothing revealment, physical contact, sexiness,attractiveness and physical as well as verbal innuendo.The study was based on 505 coding units sampled from 8 p.m. to 11 p.m. on the

Carolyn A. Lin

1998-01-01

176

Work and Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, people in OECD countries spend about as much time watching television as earning a living. In this Paper I report a puzzling fact about those time uses: television viewing and work hours are positively correlated across countries. A simple model based on complementarities in the organization of free time is then developed that explains such a pattern as resulting

Giacomo Corneo

2002-01-01

177

What's Wrong with This Picture? A Look at Working Women on Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined 10 years of prime time programming--from 1972 to 1981--to discover how television has portrayed women who work outside of the home, together with the new technologies of cable and satellite television, their current programming for and about working women, and the possibilities for the future. The programs selected for each…

DeGooyer, Janice; Borah, Farfalla

178

Business as Unusual: Conglomerate-Sized Challenges for Film and Television in the Digital Arena  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the diverse strategies that the film and television divisions of media conglomerates have employed in circulating their properties online. The author shows how historical relationships as well as long-standing business practices tied to both theatrical motion pictures and prime-time television series have affected decisions about what, where, when, and how content is offered on the Internet. Comparing

Alisa Perren

2010-01-01

179

Substance Use and Sexual Intimacy on Commercial Television. Report No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study reports a content analysis of 1976-1977 commercial television programing for incidents of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use and sexual behavior. The analysis included one episode of each prime time and Saturday morning dramatic series, comprising 77 programs and 58 hours of television viewing. A concurrent survey among 300 fourth, sixth,…

Fernandez-Collado, Carlos; And Others

180

‘But this Time You Choose!’Approaching the ‘Interactive’ Audience in Reality TV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of ‘interactivity’ has gained increasing currency in relation to television. At the level of programming, at least, this has been made visible with the phenomenal rise of reality TV. Phrases such as ‘You decide!’ (Big Brother), ‘But this time you choose!’ (Pop Idol) and ‘If you want to have your say’ (The Salon) proliferate in contemporary television, articulating

Su Holmes

2004-01-01

181

Student Anthropologists Examine TV Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how a class of fifth graders, acting as anthropologists, examined two different collections of prime-time television commercials in order to make inferences about the cultures they represented. (JDH)|

Van Cleaf, David W.

1986-01-01

182

Scene Composition and Justice for WomenAn Analysis of the Portrayal of Detective Tennison in the British Television Program Prime Suspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the ways in which the visuals of the British made-for-television series Prime Suspect portray the main character, Detective Chief Superintendent (DCS) Jane Tennison, and her struggles to produce justice in the male-dominated field of policing. The authors demonstrate how the film's visuals convey sensitivity to the socially marginalized by placing Tennison's body in the locations of the

Gray Cavender; Nancy Jurik

2007-01-01

183

Examining Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Designed for media specialists and educators, this issue contains four articles focusing on children and television. The lead article outlines major Australian views on television, analyzing how these concepts determine that country's use of the medium. T...

M. Gaffney

1980-01-01

184

Television watching  

MedlinePLUS

... fewer than 2 hours per day for older children. Excessive television viewing may cause some of the following problems: ... Committee on Public Education. Children, adolescents, and ... Christakis DA. A systematic review for the effects of television ...

185

Reducing Excessive Television Viewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A youngster who excessively watched television was placed on a modified token economy: earned tokens were used to activate the television for set periods of time. Positive effects resulted in the child's school work, in the amount of time his family spent together, and in his mother's perception of family social support. (KH)|

Jason, Leonard A.; Rooney-Rebeck, Patty

1984-01-01

186

Work and Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from a sample of countries show that people roughly spend as much time watching television as earning their living. Moreover, television viewing and work hours are positively correlated across countries. A simple model based on complementarities in the organization of free time is developed that explains such a pattern as resulting from multiple equilibria. In this model the equilibria

Giacomo Corneo

2001-01-01

187

Can Television Teach?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's view on the Thames television conference discusses seminars and workshops on such themes as improving educational television, whether television is peripheral, the future of television, Sesame Street, semiotics, and television teaching vs teaching about television. (JEG)|

Evans, Michael

1978-01-01

188

The effect of television day part on gender portrayals in television commercials: A content analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender portrayals in 2,209 network television commercials were content analyzed. To compare differences between three day parts, the sample was chosen from three time periods: daytime, when the audience is mostly women; evening prime time, when the sex of the audience is more evenly distributed; and weekend afternoon sportscasts, when men are a large percentage of the audience. The results

R. Stephen Craig

1992-01-01

189

Mobile TV's Time to Shine Has Arrived  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MoFilm, the first mobile film festival, achieved some legitimacy when multiple Academy Award-winning actor Kevin Spacey hosted the show in 2009. Spacey commented: "[I]n some countries, this might be the first time they [people] ever see a movie. … They won't see it on that big screen; they'll see it on a small one."1 According to a 2007 Gartner report, sales of cell phones skyrocketed for the first time to more than 1 billion.2 In 2008, the number of worldwide subscribers topped 4 billion, covering 60% of the world population.3 There are more mobile phones than TVs (there are 1.4 billion TVs worldwide4). Spacey concluded: "The quality of work and the simple ability at storytelling, the thing that ignites someone and inspires them to tell a story, can really come from anywhere."5

Kitson, Fred

190

Television Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as an introduction to the economics of commercial television for the general reader, this volume considers the theory and analytical basis of television and the policy implications of those economics. Part I considers the economics of television markets with particular attention of the determinants of viewer markets; the supply of…

Owen, Bruce M.; And Others

191

Television Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended as an introduction to the economics of commercial television for the general reader, this volume considers the theory and analytical basis of television and the policy implications of those economics. Part I considers the economics of television markets with particular attention of the determinants of viewer markets; the supply of…

Owen, Bruce M.; And Others

192

The Big Three's Prime-Time Decline: A Technological and Social Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an analysis of factors associated with the 25-year decline in the prime-time shares of the top 3 television networks. Time series analysis revealed a stronger serial correlation between network decline and social indicators than between network decline and technological factors. Network shares were negatively correlated with indicators of social differentiation, and were also negatively correlated with the

Douglas Blanks Hindman; Kenneth Wiegand

2008-01-01

193

Television and the Humanist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The mass media and especially television pose problems for teachers in humanities disciplines traditionally associated with leisure, time for reflection, and the quiet contemplation of the good, true, and beautiful. Although other media have been criticized for their deleterious effects, television most affects humanists in their mission because…

Zigerell, James

194

Effects of Priming Social Goals on Personal Interest in Television News  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that personal interests drive news consumption, such that individuals neglect news items that are not of obvious personal relevance. This study tested whether an extrinsic social goal might increase personal interest in news through increased acquisition of, and perceived attention to news information, irrespective of pre-existing interest in the given topic. Results showed the prime increased information acquisition,

Francesca R. Dillman Carpentier

2009-01-01

195

Black to Reality: Entertainment Television as a Priming Agent for Race-Based Evaluations of Candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the widespread tendency to avoid direct discourse about race in America (specifically among whites), we seek to better understand whether racial messages that heighten our awareness about race have an effect on voter decision-making. Rather than focusing on messages from news media or political advertising as priming agents, we explore the potential effect of popular culture. Specifically, we provide

Stephen Maynard Caliendo; Charlton D. McIlwain

196

Percent Body Fat, Kilocalorie Intake, Exercise and Television Viewing Time in Mexican American Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To identify the association between % body fat, kcal consumption, and TV viewing time in Mexican American children.This study examined the relationship between % body fat, total kcal intake, exercise, and total amount of TV viewing time in 4th grade Mexican American children participating in a pilot overweight prevention program (Bienestar Program). Twenty-eight children and their parents were

M. Mendoza; B. Senne-Duff; R. R. Ramirez; R. P. Trevino

1996-01-01

197

Using Prime-Time Animation to Engage Students in Courses on Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prime-time animation is a television genre that frequently reflects on issues that are significant in contemporary society, including aging issues. Using such programs to present aging-related content can be a constructive pedagogical device, offering a means of actively engaging students. This article provides a brief overview of the use of…

Curch, Lisa M.

2010-01-01

198

Television viewing, internet use and self reported bed time and rise time in adults: Implications for sleep hygiene recommendations from an exploratory cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the availability of the Internet and Television in the bedroom and overall internet use and Television viewing were related to sleep variables in a sample of 711 residents of Flanders. Even though the relationships were small, there was some evidence of time shifting: internet access in the bedroom predicted later bed time (? = .12, p

Kathleen Custers; Jan Van den Bulck

2011-01-01

199

Using Prime-Time Animation to Engage Students in Courses on Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prime-time animation is a television genre that frequently reflects on issues that are significant in contemporary society, including aging issues. Using such programs to present aging-related content can be a constructive pedagogical device, offering a means of actively engaging students. This article provides a brief overview of the use of media, popular culture, and prime-time animation in college teaching and

Lisa M. Curch

2010-01-01

200

ObesiTV: how television is influencing the obesity epidemic.  

PubMed

Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States. Over the last several decades, the prevalence of obesity among both adults and children has grown at an alarming rate and is now reaching epidemic proportions. The increase in obesity has been associated with rises in a host of other chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. While the causes of obesity are multifaceted, there is growing evidence that television viewing is a major contributor. Results of numerous studies indicate a direct association between time spent watching television and body weight. Possible explanations for this relationship include: 1) watching television acts as a sedentary replacement for physical activity; 2) food advertisements for nutrient-poor, high-calorie foods stimulate food intake; and 3) television viewing is associated with "mindless" eating. In addition to decreasing physical activity and increasing the consumption of highly palatable foods, television viewing can also promote weight gain in indirect ways, such as through the use of targeted product placements in television shows; by influencing social perceptions of body image; and airing programs that portray cooking, eating and losing weight as entertainment. This paper will provide an interdisciplinary review of the direct and indirect ways in which television influences the obesity epidemic, and conclude with ways in which the negative impact of television on obesity could be reduced. PMID:22677722

Boulos, Rebecca; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Chang, Hannah; Kanarek, Robin B

2012-06-04

201

"Television" Artists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an art class, children browse through space-age knobs, robot antennas and gyroscopic signal searchers. They extend space needle antennas before turning on an old TV. They discover the sights and sounds of televisions past, hearing the hiss, the gathering power, and seeing the blinking eye, the black-and-white light and blurry images projected…

Szekely, George

2010-01-01

202

Patients' Perceptions of Physicians: A Pilot Study of the Influence of Prime-Time Fictional Medical Shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much criticism has fallen onto prime-time crime shows for skewing the perception the public has on crime. Could the same criticism apply to prime-time medical dramas, which tend to be among the most watched television shows today, for skewing patients' expectations? In the past, physicians on prime-time fictional medical shows tended to be depicted in a positive manner. However, today's

Mary Elizabeth Stinson; Kenneth Heischmidt

2012-01-01

203

Reconsidering the Displacement HypothesisTelevision's Influence on Children's Time Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses continuing concern over television's displacement of other leisure activities form both substantive and methodological perspectives. It examines past conceptualizations of the mechanism by which television is assumed to displace other activities. Following a critical review of the displacement literature, the authors examine data from an 8-year panel study of the introduction of television to South Africa and

DIANA C. MUTZ; DONALD F. ROBERTS; D. P. van VUUREN

1993-01-01

204

Children's programming trends on network television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children, alone among the various segments of the television audience, are unlikely to form an organized pressure group. Yet, few other segments spend so much time glued to the television set. What have the national TV networks presented in the way of children's programming over the past 16 years? The following article is based on the author's dissertation, completed at

Maurice E. Shelby Jr

1964-01-01

205

Stressful Life Events and Television Viewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mood management theory predicts that people experiencing stress use television to block anxious thoughts and to replace dysphoric moods. In a survey of 491 adults, Study 1 found that stress as measured by life events was unrelated to time spent TV viewing but for women, was positively related to scores on a scale of television addiction. In Study 2, viewing

DANIEL R. ANDERSON; PATRICIA A. COLLINS; KELLY L. SCHMITT; ROBIN SMITH JACOBVITZ

1996-01-01

206

Reducing Excessive Television Viewing While Increasing Physical Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

One family participated in a study evaluating the effectiveness of a product aimed at reducing television viewing by providing television viewing time in exchange for bicycle riding. The device, called Control-the-TV, is comprised of a control box which attaches to the electrical cord of a television set, and two sensors which attach to the wheel and corresponding wheel rim of

Leonard A Jason; Sharon Z. Johnson

1995-01-01

207

Relation of adiposity, television and screen time in offspring to their parents  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have examined the relations of adiposity and lifestyle factors in young offspring with their parents as children (parentschild) or at their current age (parentsadult). Therefore, we compared measures of adiposity and lifestyle in parentschild and parentsadult with their offspring. Methods Two generations (one parent and his/her offspring) participated in this study: 234 parents from a previously established cohort and 382 offspring. Parentsadult and offspring underwent measurements for height, weight, waist circumference, % body fat, visceral fat, and lifestyle habits. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, obese based on age-specific BMI criteria. Mixed model linear regression analysis evaluated the associations of adiposity and lifestyle factors of parentschild and parentsadult with that of their offspring, adjusting for age, sex, race, and family membership. Results The prevalence of obesity was greater among offspring mean age 12.3 years compared to their parentschild mean age 12.6 years (18.4% vs 10.1%, p<0.001) even though hours of television (TV) watching were similar between the two generations as children (p=0.80). Sixty percent of parents (as children and adults) and offspring reported more than 2 hours of TV/day. Offspring of parents who were overweight and obese as children had greater BMI (all p<0.001) than offspring of parents who were normal weight as children. For both parentadult and offspring, adiposity was greater with greater total screen time. Conclusions Identifying high-risk families is important for early intervention of overweight, especially in children.

2013-01-01

208

Subscription Television (STV--Pay TV)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Subscription television (STV), established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1968, involves transmitting television programs over the air to viewers who pay for the service. The development, trial operation, and test results of subscription television are described in this report, along with four Commission reports, and FCC…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

209

Subscription Television (STV--Pay TV)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subscription television (STV), established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1968, involves transmitting television programs over the air to viewers who pay for the service. The development, trial operation, and test results of subscription television are described in this report, along with four Commission reports, and FCC…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

210

A Survey of Public Television Viewing in the WBRA-TV and WSVN-TV Signal Areas of Southwestern Virginia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A telephone survey was conducted in November 1973 to determine television viewing patterns in southwestern Virginia. Data were collected concerning family characteristics and time spent watching the various programs offered by WBRA-TV and WSVN-TV, the local public broadcasting stations. Income and occupational status proved to be significant…

Valenzuela, Nicholas A.; Spain, Peter

211

TV and the 1956 Presidential Campaign: Insights into the Evolution of Political Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrary to the prevailing view that 1952 was the year of the first nationally televised political conventions, only 32 states had TV stations at that time; nor did the term "TV candidate" originate in the Kennedy (1960) or Nixon (1968) campaigns. In fact, it is Dwight Eisenhower and the campaign of 1956 that deserve this recognition. Contemporary…

Allen, Craig M.

212

Emotionally reactive television  

Microsoft Academic Search

When is an interface simple? Is it when it is invisible or very obvious, even intrusive? From the time TV was created, watching TV is considered as a static activity. TV audiences have very limited choices to interact with TV, such as turning on\\/off, increasing\\/decreasing volume, and traversing among different channels. This paper suggests that TV program should have social

Chia-hsun Jackie Lee; Chaochi Chang; Hyemin Chung; Connor Dickie; Ted Selker

2007-01-01

213

Only Two Hours? A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Parents Perceive in Restricting Child Television Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…

Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer

2011-01-01

214

Only Two Hours? A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Parents Perceive in Restricting Child Television Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…

Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer

2011-01-01

215

TV Producer Juggles Daily News.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Brennan discusses the daily activities required in the production of a television news show. In "The Not-So-Glamorous Life of a TV Reporter," Linda Yu describes the time and effort required to become a television reporter. (LS)|

Brennan, Bill

1989-01-01

216

Reducing Excessive Television Viewing while Increasing Physical Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One family participated in a study evaluating the effectiveness of a device called Control-the-TV, aimed at reducing television viewing. The child in the study was required to ride a stationary bicycle for 15 minutes to view 30 minutes of television. Results suggest that Control-the-TV can be effective in reducing time spent viewing the…

Jason, Leonard A.; Johnson, Sharon Z.

1995-01-01

217

HOW MUCH CAN CHILDREN GAIN FROM TELEVISION P  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today every child in an Infant or Junior school will almost certainly watch schools’ television as part of their education. Nearly every child will watch TV at home, often for a considerable proportion of his free time. A survey of TV use in Plymouth by Plymouth Educational Television showed that in 1971 and 1972 every Infant and Junior school in

Ann Searle

1976-01-01

218

Viewing television talk shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined how motivation, audience activity, and attitudes influenced the likelihood of watching societal?issue and relational topics on television talk programs. Path analysis supported differences in ritualized and instrumental motives for watching talk shows. Information and exciting?entertainment motivation predicted greater’ realism of, affinity with, involvement with, and intent to watch talk television. Pass?time motivation predicted reduced affinity with and intent

Alan M. Rubin; Mary M. Step

1997-01-01

219

Popularising science through television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  Currently the 26 films in the Science Territory series have been shown to audiences who watch Channel 8 commercial television\\u000a in the vicinity of Darwin. They are still being shown to audienc who watch Imparja Television. There are no plans at the moment\\u000a to shown Science Territory for any extra time on either Channel 8 or Imparja, once the Imparja

B. K. Robertson; W. P. Palmer

1991-01-01

220

Does Television Exposure Influence College-Aged Women's Sexual Self-Concept?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined whether television exposure shapes female emerging adults' sexual self-concept, defined as self-perceptions of one's qualities in the sexual domain. Results from two-year panel data collected from undergraduate women suggested that Time-1 exposure to soap operas, prime-time dramas, and amount of television viewing predicted a deflation in college women's Time-2 sexual self-concept. In addition, Time-1 sexual self-concept

Jennifer Stevens Aubrey

2007-01-01

221

Children's Television in Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews developments in the television industry in Australia with specific reference to children's television. Advertising regulations and research and publications related to children's television are also noted. (RAO)|

Murray, John P.

1978-01-01

222

Effects of TV time and other sedentary pursuits.  

PubMed

Television (TV) viewing is the dominant recreational pastime at all ages, especially for children and adolescents. Many studies have shown that higher TV viewing hours are associated with higher body mass index (BMI), lower levels of fitness and higher blood cholesterol levels. Although the effect size estimated from observational studies is small (with TV viewing explaining very little of the variance in BMI), the results of intervention studies show large effect sizes. The potential mediators of the effect of higher TV viewing on higher BMI include less time for physical activity, reduced resting metabolic rate (for which there is little supporting evidence) and increased energy intake (from more eating while watching TV and a greater exposure to marketing of energy dense foods). Electronic games may have an effect on unhealthy weight gain, but are less related to increased energy intake and their usage is relatively new, making effect size difficult to determine. Thus, TV viewing does not explain much of the differences in body size between individuals or the rise in obesity over time, perhaps because of the uniformly high, but relatively stable, TV viewing hours. Reducing TV viewing hours is a difficult prospect because potential actions, such as social marketing and education, are likely to be relatively weak interventions, although the evidence would suggest that, if viewing could be reduced, it could have a significant impact on reducing obesity prevalence. Regulations to reduce the heavy marketing of energy dense foods and beverages on TV may be the most effective public health measure available to minimize the impact of TV viewing on unhealthy weight gain. PMID:19136983

Swinburn, B; Shelly, A

2008-12-01

223

Reactive Effects of a Survey On the Television Viewing Behavior of a Telemetric Television Audience PanelA Combined Time-Series and Control-Group Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from telemetric television audience panels are invaluable for commercial and scientific television reseanch. For the study of most research questions, however, it is necessary to request additional information from the panel participants. Such interventions can only be permitted if they do not threaten the validity of the telemetric data. This study investigates whether a questionnaire intervention disrupts the viewing

Bernhard Schmitz; Petra Stanat; Fritz Sang; Karl Tasche

1996-01-01

224

The prime?time rule: A misadventure in broadcast regulation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As this issue went to press, the FCC was receiving advice from all quarters on how best to change (or, as some hope, rescind) the so?called “Prime?Time Rule” restricting local TV station use of network programming in key evening hours. In the following article, the authors suggest that the desired increase in program variety is unlikely to result from the

W. Clayton Hall Jr; Robert Bomi D. Batlivala

1973-01-01

225

CHILDREN AND TV, TELEVISION'S IMPACT ON THE CHILD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|VARIOUS POINTS OF VIEW ARE PRESENTED ON THE EFFECT OF TELEVISION UPON CHILDREN. CONTENTS--(1) TELEVISION, TIGER BY THE TAIL--ERNA CHRISTENSEN. (2) TELEVISION'S IMPACT ON THE CHILD--RALPH GARRY. (3) SOME RESEARCH ON TV--PAUL A. WITTY. (4) THE CURRICULUM CONTENT OF CHILDREN'S TELEVISION PROGRAMS AND COMMERCIALS--MARIE TOWNSEND MOORE AND JULIANA…

GRAY, NAN; SUNDERLIN, SYLVIA

226

Television's Professional Women: Working with Men in the 1980s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides in-depth content analysis of six 1985-86 prime-time television shows which featured single professional women sharing the lead with a male partner in a working relationship. Concludes that these programs show a less stereotypical portrayal of working women than in the past and demonstrate a serious attempt to present the problems of…

Reep, Diana C.; Dambrot, Faye H.

1987-01-01

227

The situational and time-varying context of routines in television viewing : an event history analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on an action theoretical perspective, it is assumed that most television viewing is a routine response to frequently occurring situations, which together make up everyday life. This interplay between television viewing and everyday life was studied using data from a national survey among Dutch adults (n = 825) and their families. From this survey, data of 225 couples were

Henk Westerik; Karsten Renckstorf; F. P. J. F. Wester; J. G. M. Lammers

2005-01-01

228

Speckle correlation method for the real time measurement of motion paths using liquid crystal television  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A speckle correlation methods is described in which a liquid crystal television (LCTV) is used as a spatial filter to measure the paths of the lateral motion of rough objects. Two kinds of speckle patterns are generated simultaneously, consisting of speckles elongated in orthogonal directions to each other. The two-dimensional motion vector of the object can be measured in real time by correlating these patterns with static speckle patterns that are displayed on the LCTV as the references. Because these reference patterns can be renewed in real time, there is no limit for a measurable range of the present method. However, the spatial resolution and contrast of the LCTV limit the sensitivity and accuracy of the method.

Okamoto, Takashi; Egawa, Yuuki; Asakura, Toshimitsu

1993-01-01

229

76 FR 72849 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and...for Digital Class A Television Stations, MB Docket...to obtain or retain benefits. The statutory authority...namely, ``low power television, TV translator,...

2011-11-28

230

Using A Time-Sharing Computer System in the Classroom: Large-Screen Projection Television as an Interactive Teaching Aid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For less than $3,000 per classroom, Dyersburg State Community College (Texas) has integrated its campus time-sharing computer system into projection television sets under interactive, teacher control. Six uses of the Teacher's Interactive Video Instructional System identified so far are described. (JN)|

Rorie, Charles D.

1983-01-01

231

The Function of Television for Children and Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was devised to investigate the function of television (TV) in children's leisure time. Subjects were 3000 school children in a suburban area of Tokyo. From the children's responses to questionnaires, they were separated into TV-type (heavy TV viewers and light print media users) and print-type (light TV viewers and heavy print media…

Furu, Takeo

232

Associations of physical activity and television viewing time with retinal vascular caliber in a multiethnic Asian population.  

PubMed

PURPOSE. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of physical activity and television (TV) viewing time with retinal vascular caliber in a multiethnic Asian population. METHODS. Chinese, Indian, and Malay participants (n = 3866) were examined cross-sectionally in the Singapore Prospective Study Program (2004-2007). Leisure-time physical activity and TV viewing time were assessed by the use of an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured from digital retinal photographs. RESULTS. After adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and medical factors, those in the lowest quartile of leisure-time physical activity had a wider venular caliber (by 1.51 ?m; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-2.92) compared with those in the highest quartile. Using sex- and ethnicity-specific quartiles, stronger associations were noted in males (2.23 ?m; 95% CI, 0.10-4.38) and Chinese (2.52 ?m; 95% CI, 0.44-4.59) participants. Females who watched >2 hours of TV per day had a narrow arteriolar caliber (by 1.28 ?m; 95% CI, -2.56--0.03), compared with the arteriolar caliber of those who watched less TV. CONCLUSIONS. Lower physical activity and higher TV viewing time (in females) were adversely associated with retinal microvascular caliber among Asian adults. Additional cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are needed to further clarify the potential mediating role of the microvasculature in the relationship between these behavioral risk factors and poor cardiometabolic health outcomes. PMID:21724909

Anuradha, Satyamurthy; Healy, Genevieve N; Dunstan, David W; Tai, E Shyong; Van Dam, Rob M; Lee, Jeannette; Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; Owen, Neville; Wong, Tien-Yin

2011-08-17

233

Sex, Kids and the Family Hour: A Three-Part Study of Sexual Content on Television. A Special Report from Children Now and the Kaiser Family Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This series of studies focused on the content of television programming about sexual activity and sexual relationships, examining what messages are communicated in the so-called "family hour," the first hour of prime time broadcast television (8-9 p.m. in most areas of the country). First, a content analysis documented the nature of sexual…

Kaiser Foundation, Oakland, CA.

234

NFE-TV: Television for Nonformal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study develops guidelines for the use of television in nonformal education in developing countries. Its recommendations are based on analysis of three cases of television usage: in the formal educational system in El Salvador, community development in village Alaska, and in nonformal education for parenthood in Bogota, Colombia. A selective…

Gunter, Jonathan Forrest

235

Leading Television Center of the USSR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of expansion of the main technical base of Soviet Union's Central Television, located in Moscow, has originated a long time ago. The volume of Central Television transmission is growing continuously. With three-program transmissions the broadc...

I. I. Govallo Y. B. Gruzdev

1968-01-01

236

Traditional sex role development and amount of time spent watching television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested the hypothesis that the amount of time spent watching TV is significantly related to the strength of traditional sex-role development. Data from 80 kindergartners and 2nd, 4th, and 6th graders support the hypothesis and suggest that this relationship holds equally for both sexes and does not change with increasing age.

Terry Frueh; Paul E. McGhee

1975-01-01

237

Does Advertising on Black Entertainment Television Portray More Positive Gender Representations Compared to Broadcast Networks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a content analysis of television commercials (n?=?434) aired during prime-time on US general networks (ABC, NBC, CBS, and FOX) and an African American niche station (Black\\u000a Entertainment Television—BET) in 2002. Targeted group\\/nontargeted group representations are explored in relation to depictions\\u000a of domestic\\/romantic fulfillment and agency. The findings reveal that although the majority of characters on all

Melinda J. Messineo

2008-01-01

238

Helping Parents Reduce Children's Television Viewing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…

Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael

2004-01-01

239

Helping Parents Reduce Children's Television Viewing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…

Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael

2004-01-01

240

Television, Obesity, and Eating Disorders.  

PubMed

Two national survey from the early 1960s indicate that the prevalence of obesity is directly related to the amount of time spent in viewing television in young people aged 6 to 17 years. The author discusses the mechanisms by which television affects obesity and other eating disorders. PMID:10356231

Dietz

1993-10-01

241

Edge enhancement preprocessing using liquid crystal televisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique has been developed that performs elementary edge-enhancement preprocessing, using one or two liquid-crystal TVs, by subtracting an image from its blurred form. This edge-enhancement can be carried out at TV rates, and will accordingly constitute one of the simplest real-time image processing systems currently obtainable. In the apparatus presently employed, the liquid-crystal TV simultaneously functions as a TV monitor and spatial light modulator. Excessively low contrast has been thus far obtained.

Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, S.; Nagata, T.; Gregory, Don A.

1988-01-01

242

Role of television in childhood obesity prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of television as tool for childhood obesity prevention.METHOD:Review of the available literature about the relationship between television and childhood obesity, eating habits and body shape perception.RESULTS: The reviewed studies showed the following: television watching replaces more vigorous activities; there is a positive correlation between time spent watching television and being overweight or obese on populations

M Caroli; L Argentieri; M Cardone; A Masi

2004-01-01

243

Television's Influence on Children's Encoding of Person Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tested the idea that exposure to television people could affect children's judgments of a real person introduced after watching television. Found that television can prime traits and provide a frame of reference for use in encoding new information about people. (PD)|

Reeves, Byron; Garramone, Gina M.

1983-01-01

244

Television and the Teaching of English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recognizing that students spend more time before the television set than in school, this monograph evaluates television as a potential resource in the teaching of English. The nine articles in the collection (1) discuss the effect of massive television viewing on children in and out of the classroom; (2) examine the students' need to apply…

Maxwell, Rhoda, Ed.

245

Television and Schooling: Displacement and Distraction Hypotheses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research on two hypotheses regarding television's possible negative effect on children's academic achievement is reviewed. A lack of support is found for the displacement hypothesis (time spent with television is taken away from more academically beneficial activities) and limited support for the distraction hypothesis (exposure to television

Roberts, Donald F.; And Others

1993-01-01

246

Guidelines for Family Television Viewing. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

247

Re-examining Subaltern Television Spectatorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television has different impacts upon the audiences in different development stages. When the audiences get familiar with watching television, they will selectively accept, repel, comprehend and re-process the information and be influenced by the television culture all life time. The ownership concentration and globalization of media leads to the popularity of American popular culture across the world, which provokes the

Sam Pack

248

What Television Chases out of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the negative impact of television viewing on academic achievement and family life, examining what television chases out of family life (e.g., childhood memories of ordinary days, free time and resourcefulness, and family rituals). Explains how to gain control via parental efforts (e.g., no television on school days); natural limits…

Winn, Marie

2002-01-01

249

EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION, THE NEXT 10 YEARS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS DOCUMENT IS A COMPILATION OF STUDIES ON THE PROBLEMS AND POTENTIALS OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION DURING THE TIME PERIOD 1961-71. SIX TOPIC AREAS WERE COVERED--(1) RECOMMENDATIONS, (2) THE FUTURE OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION, (3) THE COMMUNITY JOB OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION, (4) THE PROBLEM OF IMPROVING PROGRAMS, (5) THE PROBLEM OF FINANCING, (6)…

SCHRAMM, WILBUR

250

Leisure and Television: A Study in Compatibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This seven-chapter essay investigated determinants of television viewing. An introductory chapter suggests the prematurity of considering social effects and the desirability of examining social determinants of television. Chapter One contains a summary of television viewing as studied in the context of communications, leisure, and time allocation…

Myersohn, Rolf Bernard

251

Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) presents a brief description of cable television and explains some basic regulations pertaining to it. The history of cable regulation covers the initial jurisdiction, economic considerations of the regulation, court tests, and the holding of public hearings. The major provisions of new cable rules are…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

252

Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information about cable television and the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating its operation. The initial jurisdiction and rules covered in this report pertain to the court test, public hearing, certificate of compliance, franchising, signal carriage, leapfrogging, access and origination…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

253

Disappearing TVs and Evolving Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores four drafts of a child's story about the disappearance of television, showing how the later draft suggests the writer's interest in questions about the nature of reality, and how the student grew as writer. (HTH)|

Himley, Margaret

1986-01-01

254

Regulation of Television advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of television advertising typically covers both the time devoted to commercials and restrictions on the commodities or services that can be publicized to various audiences (stricter laws often apply to children’s programming). Time restrictions (advertising caps) may improve welfare when advertising is overprovided in the market system. Even then, such caps may reduce the diversity of programming by curtailing

Simon P. Anderson

2005-01-01

255

Enhanced Television Strategy Models: A Study of TV Web Sites.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares the use of enhanced television features and television commerce features on the Web sites of cable and broadcast television networks. Shows differences in strategies and site usability; proposes three enhanced television strategy models; and discusses implications on television revenue and viewership. (Author/LRW)|

Ha, Louisa

2002-01-01

256

Television's Impact on Fantasy Play: A Review of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews research literature on television's influence on children's fantasy play. Notes evidence that television viewing absorbs time that children would otherwise spend in play and that television's influence on play depends on the types of programs watched. Examines whether television viewing influences fantasy play positively or negatively and…

van der Voort, Tom H.; Valkenburg, Patti M.

1994-01-01

257

Influence of Television Programs on Family Communication: A comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television viewing remains a past-time for majority of people in many countries including Malaysia. The television influence on behavior among family members has been extensively researched by various scholars. However, few studies have investigated influence of specific television programs on family communication, especially among women. This study seeks to find out how different television programs influence family communication among Malaysian

Sufyan Rashid; Muhsin Spahic

258

Children and Television...A Primer for Parents [Revised].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet highlights the results of research findings on the impact of television on children and provides advice for parents on why and how they can exercise some moderating influence on television's impact. The issues covered include the effect of the amount of time children spend watching television, the impact on children of televised

Murray, John P.; Lonnborg, Barbara

259

Children and Television...A Primer for Parents [Revised].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet highlights the results of research findings on the impact of television on children and provides advice for parents on why and how they can exercise some moderating influence on television's impact. The issues covered include the effect of the amount of time children spend watching television, the impact on children of televised

Murray, John P.; Lonnborg, Barbara

260

Longitudinal associations between television viewing patterns and adolescent body satisfaction.  

PubMed

This study addressed profiles of adolescent television use and associations between television viewing profiles and the development of body satisfaction. A sample of 841 adolescent boys and girls, ages 11-17, was recruited for participation in a longitudinal study of adolescent media use. Prior research established eight adolescent television profiles among this sample, reflecting unique patterns of consumption of certain genres, character types, and themes (e.g., romance). This study examined whether an adolescent's television profile predicted Time 2 body satisfaction, after controlling for Time 1 body satisfaction. Among boys, television viewing was unrelated to Time 2 body satisfaction. After controlling for initial body satisfaction, hours spent watching television marginally predicted lower Time 2 body satisfaction among girls. After including television profiles alongside television hours, however, television profile emerged as the stronger predictor. Specifically, a group of girls who watched television frequently and indiscriminately reported the most severe drop in body satisfaction. PMID:21050831

Schooler, Deborah; Trinh, Sarah

2010-11-02

261

Associations between dietary patterns, physical activity (leisure-time and occupational) and television viewing in middle-aged French adults.  

PubMed

Diet and physical activity are considered to be major components of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined in detail the relationships between specific types of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and diet in adults. The objective of the present study was to assess differential relationships between dietary patterns, leisure-time and occupational physical activities and time spent watching television (TV), as an indicator of sedentary behaviour, in middle-aged French subjects. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from 1359 participants in the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study, who completed a detailed physical activity questionnaire and at least six 24 h dietary records. Sex-specific dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis; their relationships with leisure-time and occupational physical activities and TV viewing were assessed using ANCOVA, after adjustment for age, educational level and smoking status. Three dietary patterns were identified in each sex. After adjustment for potential confounders, leisure-time physical activity was positively associated with a 'healthy' food pattern in both men (P for trend < 0·01) and women (P for trend < 0·03) and negatively associated with an 'alcohol/meat' pattern in men (P for trend < 0·01). TV viewing was positively associated with a 'convenience' pattern in men and with a 'alcohol-appetiser' pattern in women. In conclusion, identification of relationships between dietary patterns, physical activity and sedentary behaviour can enable identification of different types of lifestyle and should help to target at-risk groups in nutrition prevention programmes. PMID:21251337

Charreire, Hélčne; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Bertrais, Sandrine; Simon, Chantal; Chaix, Basile; Weber, Christiane; Touvier, Mathilde; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Oppert, Jean-Michel

2011-01-21

262

Historical Development of Television Aesthetics/Television Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even though television scholar Herbert Zettl singlehandedly created the term "television aesthetics" by proclaiming that TV is an art, television studies are still excluded from the respectable divisions and disciplines of knowledge. Television is considered the epitome of mass culture/kitsch, and the very idea of a TV "masterpiece," for example,…

Burns, Gary

263

Saturday Children's Television; A Report of TV Programming and Advertising on Boston Commercial Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Saturday children's television programming in Boston was monitored and videotaped so that the content could be analyzed for a study to gather data relevant to content and commercial practices. Some of the major findings were that overall, about 77 percent of time is devoted to program content and 23 percent to announcements of various kinds; that…

Barcus, F. Earle

264

Saturday Children's Television; A Report of TV Programming and Advertising on Boston Commercial Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Saturday children's television programming in Boston was monitored and videotaped so that the content could be analyzed for a study to gather data relevant to content and commercial practices. Some of the major findings were that overall, about 77 percent of time is devoted to program content and 23 percent to announcements of various kinds; that…

Barcus, F. Earle

265

Television Report Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Videotape and closed circuit instructional television (ITV) have been used for training Internal Revenue Service agents, and its use should be expanded. Experiments show that for every hour of conventional instruction converted to ITV a 25% time savings with equal or increased learning effectiveness can be expected. Although the capital cost of…

Internal Revenue Service (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC. National Training Center.

266

Information Retrieval by Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bell Canada, the Public School and Collegiate Institute Boards of Ottawa, and the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education are collaborating on an educational television project which will provide a retrieval system that can supply any given program at any time under the control of the classroom teacher. Four schools in Ottawa will participate…

Billowes, C. A.

1968-01-01

267

Television, Art, and Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the functions of modern television in aesthetic education, the attitude of children toward television as related to their age, and the ability of television to be an influential force. (Author)

Likhachev, B.

1975-01-01

268

Television and Children's Fantasy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television can be a source of knowledge and information or it can cause negative behavior. Parents can help their children understand the difference between fantasy and reality on television and help make television viewing a positive event. (DF)

Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman

1985-01-01

269

Timing accuracy of LF and TV synchronization techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low frequency and television synchronization techniques have been widely used in China for several years. Shaanxi, Shanghai and Beijing Astronomical Observatories have cooperated with the U.S. Naval Observatory in making two portable clock calibration experiments in 1981 and 1982. The results indicate that the LF synchronization method can reach a timing accuracy of + or - 1 microseconds and a precision of + or - 0.05 microseconds to + or - 0.20 microseconds over a range of 2000 km with complex mixed paths. In addition, it has been found that there is a systematic difference of about 4 microseconds between USNO and other laboratories via the North-West Pacific Loran-C chain. The experiment also shows that the timing accuracy for the passive TV synchronization method is about + or - 1 microseconds and the prevision of daily frequency calibrations is better than 2 parts in 10 to the 12th.

Yun-Rui, M.; Xiao-Pei, P.

1985-04-01

270

Gender Sex-Role Portrayals in International Television Advertising over Time: The Australian Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using content analysis, the current study examines sex-role portrayals in Australian television advertisements and contrasts the results with previous studies. The findings indicate that portrayals of women are actually becoming more stereotypical in a way that favors traditional roles. Role portrayals appear to be increasingly distant from women's actual experience. In the global context, this finding is unusual given that

Laura M. Milner; Bronwyn Higgs

2004-01-01

271

Television Viewing and Symptoms of Inattention and Hyperactivity across Time: The Importance of Research Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The importance of well-specified research questions in the evaluation of early predictors of later inattention and hyperactivity is examined. In an analysis of a nationally representative sample of 2,717 children aged 4 to 10, latent growth trajectories for television viewing and inattention and hyperactivity are determined and the relationship…

Stevens, Tara; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; To, Yen

2009-01-01

272

Play-by-Play: Radio, Television, and Big-Time College Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book explores the broadcast media coverage of college athletics from the early days of radio through the development of television. It examines the culture of college athletics, the role of the National Collegiate Athletic Association in media coverage, and the political infighting in college sports. The chapters are: (1) "The Media and…

Smith, Ronald A.

273

Media ritual in catastrophic timeThe populist turn in television coverage of Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television news coverage of Hurricane Katrina's impact on Mississippi and New Orleans presented viewers with broadcast journalists who were on the scene but were largely left without access to traditional government sources. Through a textual analysis of transcripts of cable and network news reports, this study compares the media's performance during the six days following 29 August, 2005 to news

Frank Durham

2008-01-01

274

Watching Television and Civic EngagementDisentangling the Effects of Time, Programs, and Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the debate on the alleged erosion of social cohesion in Western societies, some authors have stressed the negative role of television. Others have argued that some programs like news and current affairs programs could strengthen civic engagement and political participation. In this article, the author uses cross-sectional survey data in an effort to disentangle the possible causal mechanisms between

Marc Hooghe

2002-01-01

275

Guia Para Ver La Television En Familia (Guidelines for Family Television Viewing). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

276

Beyond Entertainment: Television's Effects on Children and Youth. Television and Socialisation Research Report No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent worldwide studies on the viewing habits of children emphasize the large amount of time spent viewing television and the potential influence that television has to shape the behavior of children. Extensive research has investigated the short and long term effects of viewing television violence, and the results, though complex, suggest that…

1976

277

Television and Political Participation Among Adolescents: The Impact of Television Viewing, Entertainment and Information Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sweeping statements about the effect of television viewing on political participation could still be found in the literature in the 1990s, it is now commonly held that the effect of television should be studied as a multidimensional phenomenon. Not only the time spent watching television but also the kinds of programs being watched and even the preference for particular

Ellen Quintelier; Marc Hooghe

2011-01-01

278

76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and to Amend...for Digital Class A Class A Television Stations, MB Docket No...Required to obtain or retain benefits. Statutory authority for...Rules for Digital Low Power Television Translator, Television...

2011-03-03

279

Television viewing and physical fitness in adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which time spent watching television is associated with cardiovascular fitness among 8,885 adults. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, smoking, length of work week, time reported exercising each week, and obesity were also examined. Subjects who watched TV more than 4 hours per day (frequent viewers) were 0.37 times as likely to be physically fit as those who watched TV less than 1 hour per day (infrequent viewers) with age and gender controlled. Similarly, adults who watched TV 3-4 hours per day (moderately frequent viewers) were 0.45 times as likely to be fit as infrequent watchers. Adjustment for potential confounders, particularly measured body fat and reported exercise duration in combination, weakened the TV viewing/fitness relation moderately. Given the findings of this study and the results of previous research, caution should be exercised regarding excessive television viewing. PMID:2132888

Tucker, L A

1990-12-01

280

Maglev ready for prime time.  

SciTech Connect

Putting Maglev on Track' (Issues, Spring 1990) observed that growing airline traffic and associated delays were already significant and predicted that they would worsen. The article argued that a 300-mile-per-hour (mph) magnetic levitation (maglev) system integrated into airport and airline operations could be a part of the solution. Maglev was not ready for prime time in 1990, but it is now.

Rote, D. M.; Johnson, L. R.; Energy Systems

2003-01-01

281

High speed imaging television system  

DOEpatents

A television system for observing an event which provides a composite video output comprising the serially interlaced images the system is greater than the time resolution of any of the individual cameras.

Wilkinson, William O. (Silver Spring, MD); Rabenhorst, David W. (Silver Spring, MD)

1984-01-01

282

Interracial Intimacy: Hegemonic Construction of Asian American and Black Relationships on TV Medical Dramas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the representations of Black and Asian interracial relationships on prime-time television dramas, ER and Grey's Anatomy. Interracial relationships are still a very small percentage of relationships depicted on television, and Black and Asian couplings represent an even smaller fraction, which makes examining the discourses surrounding these relationships valuable and illuminating. Using a close textual analysis of the

Myra Washington

2012-01-01

283

If we call them, will they change? Feasibility of a telephone adaptation of motivational interviewing aimed at parents to reduce television time among 2nd and 4th grade children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television viewing is a sedentary behavior that is modifiable. Reducing media-related behaviors via parent-focused interventions may hold promise for decreasing childhood obesity. This feasibility study examines a novel parent-centered brief telephone-delivered Motivational Enhancement Interview (MEI) to encourage parents of 2nd and 4th graders to set a rules limiting TV time or remove the TV from the child's bedroom. This quasi-experimental

Kelli L Drenner

2009-01-01

284

Effects of TV time and other sedentary pursuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television (TV) viewing is the dominant recreational pastime at all ages, especially for children and adolescents. Many studies have shown that higher TV viewing hours are associated with higher body mass index (BMI), lower levels of fitness and higher blood cholesterol levels. Although the effect size estimated from observational studies is small (with TV viewing explaining very little of the

B Swinburn; A Shelly

2008-01-01

285

Watching People Watching Television: What Goes on in Front of the TV Set?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An observational study of families watching television was conducted in six households, using a video camera. Results show that family members were absent for substantial proportions of the time the television set was in operation, and when present, for most of the time did not pay full attention. Thirteen tables depict information. (AEF)|

Gunter, Barrie; And Others

1995-01-01

286

Stressful Life Events and Television Viewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Finds, studying 491 adults, stress (measured by life events) was unrelated to time spent viewing TV but, for women, was positively related to television "addiction." Finds, studying 329 families, confirmation of mood management theory--stress was associated with increased comedy and decreased news viewing. Finds, studying 140 adults, positive…

Anderson, Daniel R.; And Others

1996-01-01

287

[Television behavior of a pediatric and adolescent psychiatric patient population].  

PubMed

Television viewing is a common phenomen influencing everyday life of children. A questionnaire on the use of television was administered to 97 children aged from 5 to 19 years, and their parents. On an average, children spend 2 to 5 hours daily viewing television. Their parents accept this amount of time. Adolescents watch more TV than younger children. The social background was not related to the amount of time spent viewing television. Children with behavior disorders (F90-92) spend the same time watching television like children without behavior problems. 1/3 of the children owned their own television set using it more often. Nearly 50% like programs with violent and aggressive themes. PMID:8202324

Hässler, F; Gierow, B; Tilch, P; Langemann, I

1993-01-01

288

Reducing Children’s Television-Viewing Time: A Qualitative Study of Parents and Their Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES. The American Academy,of Pediatrics recommends,that children over age 2 years spend 2 hours per day with screen media, because excessive viewing has been linked to a plethora of physical, academic, and behavioral problems. The primary,goal of this study was to qualitatively explore how,a recommendation,to limit television viewing might be received and responded,to by a diverse sample of parents

Amy B. Jordan; James C. Hersey; Judith A. Mcdivitt; Carrie D. Heitzler

289

Teaching on Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiences in teaching with Interactive TV (ITV) network, and the mindsets and goals educators encounter in utilizing this technology. Presents four basic principles of teaching well on TV: television technology is a brand new member of the class, every student is present in class with you, our goal is not "good TV" but a good class,…

Koehler, Anne G.

2000-01-01

290

Filling the 24 × 7 News HoleTelevision News Coverage Following September 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the days following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, all the major television networks devoted their broadcasts to continuous news coverage without commercial interruption. This article analyzes the prime-time broadcasts from ABC, NBC, and CNN over the 3 days from September 12 to 14, 2001. First, the authors ask whether the networks used the additional time to develop longer

Ian R. Mcdonald; Regina G. Lawrence

2004-01-01

291

Validity and reliability of measures of television viewing time and other non-occupational sedentary behaviour of adults: a review.  

PubMed

Time spent in non-occupational sedentary behaviours (particularly television viewing time) is associated with excess adiposity and an increased risk of metabolic disorders among adults; however, there are no reviews of the validity and reliability of assessing these behaviours. This paper aims to document measures used to assess adults' time spent in leisure-time sedentary behaviours and to review the evidence on their reliability and validity. Medline, CINAHL and Psych INFO databases and reference lists from published papers were searched to identify studies in which leisure-time sedentary behaviours had been measured in adults. Sixty papers reporting measurement of at least one type of leisure-time sedentary behaviour were identified. Television viewing time was the most commonly measured sedentary behaviour. The main method of data collection was by questionnaire. Nine studies examined reliability and three examined validity for the questionnaire method of data collection. Test-retest reliabilities were predominantly moderate to high, but the validity studies reported large differences in correlations of self-completion questionnaire data with the various referent measures used. To strengthen future epidemiological and health behaviour studies, the development of reliable and valid self-report instruments that cover the full range of leisure-time sedentary behaviour is a priority. PMID:18631161

Clark, Bronwyn K; Sugiyama, Takemi; Healy, Genevieve N; Salmon, Jo; Dunstan, David W; Owen, Neville

2008-07-08

292

Social TV: Designing for Distributed, Sociable Television Viewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media research has shown that people enjoy watching television as a part of socializing in groups. However, many constraints in daily life limit the opportunities for doing so. The Social TV project builds on the increasing integration of television and computer technology to support sociable, computer-mediated group viewing experiences. In this paper, we describe the initial results from a series

Nicolas Ducheneaut; Robert J. Moore; Lora Oehlberg; James D. Thornton; Eric Nickell

2008-01-01

293

Using prime-time animation to engage students in courses on aging.  

PubMed

Prime-time animation is a television genre that frequently reflects on issues that are significant in contemporary society, including aging issues. Using such programs to present aging-related content can be a constructive pedagogical device, offering a means of actively engaging students. This article provides a brief overview of the use of media, popular culture, and prime-time animation in college teaching and addresses specific issues in, as well as examples of, how such programs can be used in college courses, particularly aging courses. The article also reports on a small survey of students who were exposed to such a teaching technique in an undergraduate aging course. Results showed that, in general, students were positive about viewing prime-time animation videos in class and indicated that they found the viewings and associated assignments helpful for learning about concepts and issues in aging. PMID:21108101

Curch, Lisa M

2010-01-01

294

A favorite waste of time: The experience of watching TV  

Microsoft Academic Search

TV watching is one of the most important ways of spending leisure time, the average daily watching time in the Swedish population is about 141 minutes – about 15 % of non-sleep time. Yet, there is little research on the psychological processes taking place while watching TV. In the present study using still-relevant data from a 1985-86 data base, the

Lennart Sjöberg; Rutger Magneberg

2006-01-01

295

The diffusion of television in India.  

PubMed

Between 1980 and 1987, the number of television sets increased by 10 times in India. Television now reaches an audience of about 800 million, 10% of the population. 3 main reasons account for the rapid diffusion of television in India: the role of communication satellites in expanding access to television signals, the introduction and popularity of soap operas, and the increasing revenues to the national television system (Doordarshan) from commercial advertising. Hum Log, the 1st soap opera on the national network, was patterned after pro-development soap operas in Mexico and addresses social issues such as family communication, women's status, small family size, national integration, dowry, and alcoholism. The main lesson from the Hum Log experience was that indigenous soap operas can attract large audiences and substantial profits. A 1987 household survey indicated that television ownership is more common in urban areas (88% of households) than rural areas (52%) and among households with incomes above RS 1500 (75% of television owners). The commercialization of Indian television has precipitated a policy debate about television's role. Supporters of further expansion of television services cite popular will, the potential to use this medium for educational development, high advertising incomes, the ability of satellite television to penetrate rural areas, and high government expenditures for television broadcasting. On the other hand, detractors of the commercialization policy argue that television promotes consumerism, widens the gap between the urban elite and the rural poor, disregards regional sociocultural norms, and diverts funding from development programs in areas such as health and education. PMID:12342307

Singhal, A; Doshi, J K; Rogers, E M; Rahman, S A

1988-01-01

296

FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE GROWTH AND PROGRESS OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IS DESCRIBED. GRANTS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF NONCOMMERCIAL TELEVISION (TV) BROADCASTING STATIONS (EDUCATIONAL TV FACILITIES ACT), GRANTS OF SURPLUS PROPERTY UNDER THE NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT HAVE AIDED THE GROWTH OF EDUCATIONAL TV. GREATER USE IS MADE OF EDUCATIONAL TV BECAUSE OF GREATER USE…

BYSTROM, JOHN W.

297

FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE GROWTH AND PROGRESS OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IS DESCRIBED. GRANTS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF NONCOMMERCIAL TELEVISION (TV) BROADCASTING STATIONS (EDUCATIONAL TV FACILITIES ACT), GRANTS OF SURPLUS PROPERTY UNDER THE NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT HAVE AIDED THE GROWTH OF EDUCATIONAL TV. GREATER USE IS MADE OF EDUCATIONAL TV BECAUSE OF GREATER…

BYSTROM, JOHN W.

298

Digital Television: A Personal View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's personal view of interactive digital television and describes how he used digital television to learn. The author describes how he was simulating digital TV while watching analogue TV. The author stresses that interactive digital television has great potential for education and training in the twenty first…

James, Frank

2003-01-01

299

The representation on French television of immigrants and ethnic minorities of third World origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic analysis of prime?time television broadcasting reveals that immigrants and ethnic minorities of Third World origin are seriously underrepresented in the output of France's six terrestrial channels. These groups are most visible in news and current affairs programmes, which focus on problems and conflicts rather than on those areas of life in which immigrants and their families co?exist harmoniously

Alec G. Hargreaves; Antonio Perotti

1993-01-01

300

Predictors of Localism in Public Television Scheduling in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, public television claims itself a champion of localism. A prime-time schedule analysis of the Public Broadcasting Service's (PBS) member stations establishes localism scores, and discriminant analysis finds variables that predict differences among stations. Market level variables (income, education, ethnic diversity, geographic component) and organizational level variables (Community Service Grants, membership funding, overall revenue) affect localization of

Amber M. K. Smallwood; Soo Jung Moon

2011-01-01

301

Communication, Values, and Popular Television Series--A Seventeen-Year Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employs a dramatistic system based on the critical frameworks of Kenneth Burke and Northrop Frye to analyze 903 prime-time network television series. Classifies series as ironic, mimetic, leader-centered, romantic, or mythical. Concludes that over the period from 1974-91, series went from individualism, to idealism and authority, to authority…

Chesebro, James W.

1991-01-01

302

An Analysis of Family Role Structures and Interactions in Commercial Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of a study of family role structures and family role interaction patterns of U.S. television families appearing during prime time and Saturday morning programs for the 1976-1977 season. The content analysis constitutes a ...

M. Hines

1978-01-01

303

The Impact of Market Segmentation on African American Frequency, Centrality, and Status in Television Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market segmentation made communication with the advertising audience dependent upon the audience segment. African Americans were the first racial minority group identified as having economic viability as a target market that could be reached through advertising content and placement. A content analysis of 358 prime-time television advertisements for African American and general audiences revealed that African Americans are still playing

Karie L. Hollerbach

2009-01-01

304

Televised Occupational Stereotypes and their Effects on Early Adolescents: Are they Changing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the mid 1980s, prime time television contained frequent portrayals of females in traditionally male occupations such as lawyer, police officer, and private detective. To determine whether young people's gender schemas about such occupations have been affected by these portrayals, fifth and sixth grade students were questioned about stereotypically feminine and masculine occupations they encounter frequently in real life, occupations

Roberta Wroblewski; Aletha C. Huston

1987-01-01

305

Uses and Gratifications of Television Home Shopping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to understand television shopping through examining media use motives. Based on the uses-and-gratifications (U&G) perspective, we examined how social\\/psychological antecedents (i.e., parasocial interaction and compulsive buying) and buying outcomes (i.e., buying frequency and impulse buying) relate to television-shopping viewing motives. Findings suggest that viewers watch television shopping because they want a convenient, time- and

Juliann Cortese; Alan M. Rubin

2010-01-01

306

“The McSpoons”: Using puppetry's narrative impact to reduce family TV time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a theoretically based puppetry intervention, The McSpoon Family puppet show, and evaluate its narrative impact on families' intentions to reduce television (TV) time.Methods: Development of The McSpoons was guided by the application of theory and empirical evidence using an Intervention Mapping framework. A single group post-test design (n = 19 family dyads) assessed narrative impact and feasibility.Results: Parents (89.5%)

Soledad Liliana Escobar-Chaves; Ross Shegog; Christine Markham; Brenda J. Brehm

2010-01-01

307

Sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents: associations with TV watching and leisure-time physical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to describe the sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents and to examine the relationships of sleep duration and morning\\u000a tiredness with participation in leisure-time physical-sporting activities (LT-PA) and television (TV) watching. Sleep duration,\\u000a morning tiredness, participation in LT-PA and time spent on watching TV were reported by 2,179 (1,139 females) Spanish adolescents\\u000a (AVENA study). Data were analyzed by binary

Francisco B. Ortega; Palma Chillón; Jonatan R. Ruiz; Manuel Delgado; Ulrike Albers; Jesús L. Álvarez-Granda; Ascensión Marcos; Luis A. Moreno; Manuel J. Castillo

2010-01-01

308

Black Television: Avenue of Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes a few of the prominent issues in black television, examining public television, commercial television, black ownership of stations, cable television, and some projections for the future. (Author/JM)

Douglas, Pamela

1973-01-01

309

Taking a Look at Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of quotations drawn from research and opinion papers dealing with the impact of television viewing on children. Subtopics addressed are: television viewing statistics, effects of television violence, and the relationship of television to education. (JJD)

King, William, Comp.

1981-01-01

310

Taking a Look at Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collection of quotations drawn from research and opinion papers dealing with the impact of television viewing on children. Subtopics addressed are: television viewing statistics, effects of television violence, and the relationship of television to education. (JJD)|

King, William, Comp.

1981-01-01

311

Television Watching, Leisure-Time Physical Activity and the Genetic Predisposition in Relation to Body Mass Index in Women and Men  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies on gene-lifestyle interaction and obesity have mostly focused on the FTO gene and physical activity, while little attention has been paid to sedentary behavior as indicated by television (TV) watching. Methods and Results We analyzed interactions between TV watching, leisure-time physical activity and genetic predisposition in relation to body mass index (BMI) in 7740 women and 4564 men from 2 prospective cohorts: the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Data on physical activity and TV watching were collected 2 years prior to assessment of BMI. A weighted genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated on the basis of 32 established BMI-associated variants. In both women and men, the genetic associations with BMI strengthened with increased hours of TV watching. An increment of 10 points in the weighted GRS was associated with 0.8 [SE 0.4], 0.8 [0.2], 1.4 [0.2], 1.5 [0.2] and 3.4 [1.0] kg/m2 higher BMI across the 5 categories of TV watching (0-1, 2-5, 6-20, 21-40, and >40h/wk) (P for interaction=0.001). In contrast, the genetic association with BMI weakened with increased levels of physical activity. An increment of 10 points in the weighted GRS was associated with 1.5 [0.2], 1.3 [0.2], 1.2 [0.2], 1.2 [0.2] and 0.8 [0.2] kg/m2 higher BMI across the quintiles of physical activity. The interactions of TV watching and physical activity with genetic predisposition in relation to BMI were independent of each other. Conclusions Sedentary lifestyle indicated by prolonged TV watching may accentuate predisposition to elevated adiposity, whereas greater leisure-time physical activity may attenuate the genetic association.

Qi, Qibin; Li, Yanping; Chomistek, Andrea K.; Kang, Jae H.; Curhan, Gary C.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Hu, Frank B.; Qi, Lu

2013-01-01

312

TELEVISION DRAMA PREFERENCE CHOICE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A BASIS FOR A GENERAL THEORY TO EXPLAIN PREFERENCES OF COMMERCIAL TELEVISION (TV) SHOWS WAS DEVELOPED. THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY WAS BASED ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF EDUCATIONAL LEVEL TO TV PREFERENCES, AND THE STUDY SAMPLE CONSISTED OF SEVENTH-GRADE THROUGH COLLEGE-LEVEL STUDENTS. FINDINGS SHOWED THAT AS EDUCATION INCREASES, DEMAND FOR…

MACDONALD, NEIL W.

313

Handbook on Hospital Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed for both hospital personnel interested in television and audiovisual personnel entering the medical field, this handbook is a verbal and pictorial survey of what is being done with TV within the medical profession. After an introduction which answers technical questions about medical TV posed during the American Hospital Association's…

Prynne, T. A.

314

Inside Public Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the continuing saga of the perils of public television, the author, University of Georgia School of Journalism TV Coordinator, gives the viewer an inside look at the unwieldy structure of this non-commercial medium. Today's episode: Will high-quality programming survive? The players: 265 independent public TV stations, a decentralized public…

Wurtzel, Alan

1977-01-01

315

75 FR 63766 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 [MB Docket No. 03-185; FCC 10-172] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications...

2010-10-18

316

76 FR 44821 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 [MB Docket No. 03-185; FCC 11-110] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules for Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal...

2011-07-27

317

Marketing fat and sugar to children on New Zealand television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We aimed to determine the frequency and content of television food advertisements during children's viewing times on various New Zealand television channels. Methods. A content analysis was conducted of two free-to-air channels covering a total of 155 h of television time during children's viewing times (n = 858 food advertisements in 2005). Comparisons were made with data from 1997

Nick Wilson; Louise Signal; Sarah Nicholls; George Thomson

2006-01-01

318

Television Broadcasting for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An outline of the BBC's provision of television for British schools describing the constitution and function of the School Broadcasting Council and the role of the BBC School Television Department. (Author)|

Hall, Geoffrey

1973-01-01

319

Television Quiz Show Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.|

Hill, Jonnie Lynn

2007-01-01

320

The Television News Exchange  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A special issue with extensive coverage of The Television News Exchange. Contributing authors from all over the world give their perspectives on the current status and future prospects of The Television News Exchange. (HB)|

Boni, Vittorio; And Others

1975-01-01

321

Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of 8,885 adults to determine whether the amount of time spent watching television was associated with cardiovascular fitness, considering confounding effects like age, gender, smoking, work week, exercise time, and obesity. Results indicate the duration of daily television watching is strongly and inversely associated with…

Tucker, Larry A.

1990-01-01

322

Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study of 8,885 adults to determine whether the amount of time spent watching television was associated with cardiovascular fitness, considering confounding effects like age, gender, smoking, work week, exercise time, and obesity. Results indicate the duration of daily television watching is strongly and inversely associated with…

Tucker, Larry A.

1990-01-01

323

3D TV: a scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional TV is expected to be the next revolution in the history of television. We implemented a 3D TV prototype system with real-time acquisition, transmission, and 3D display of dynamic scenes. We developed a distributed, scalable architecture to manage the high computation and bandwidth demands. Our system consists of an array of cameras, clusters of network-connected PCs, and a multi-projector

Wojciech Matusik; Hanspeter Pfister

2004-01-01

324

Television as a Social Force: New Approaches to TV Criticism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These essays provide fresh assessments of the role of television in America. Over the past quarter century, television has become the dominant medium of communications, penetrating virtually every home and providing the primary source of entertainment and...

D. Cater

1975-01-01

325

The Role of Women on Screen and behind the Scenes in the Television and Film Industries: Review of a Program of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes a stream of research examining the role of women behind the scenes in the film industry and on screen and behind the scenes in the television industry. Results are culled from a study of films released in 1987, 1992, and 1997 and studies of the 1995-1996 and 1997-1998 prime-time television seasons. Overall, the findings indicate that women

Martha M. Lauzen; David M. Dozier

1999-01-01

326

Daytime TV's day of compassion for AIDS.  

PubMed

Daytime television's national Day of Compassion programming, a Hollywood Supports-sponsored event where entire shows and storylines were devoted to HIV/AIDS topics, is highlighted. Programming successes are examined, including cable TV's contribution to the event and the general public's approval. Richard Jennings of Hollywood Supports, the entertainment industry group that works to counter workplace fears and discrimination based on HIV status and sexual orientation, states that he and his group are aiming at prime time next year. This mission is particularly important now given the tenor of hateful distortion about people with AIDS from the religious right and the current mood of Congress towards AIDS-related funding. PMID:11362727

McFarlane, R

1995-07-01

327

Vanderbilt Television News Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Television News Archive began at Vanderbilt University on August 5, 1968 because television news was not consistently recorded, preserved and made accessible for research anywhere. After a quarter century, the Archive remains unique in systematically recording, abstracting and indexing the most widely viewed national television newscasts so that they are readily available for study.

328

Television: Images and Meaning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Knowledge of how children "read" television pictures can provide understanding of how powerful a tool television is for teaching and learning. It affects the images viewers have of themselves and of the world. Turning off television is not only turning off experiences but also turning off opportunities for learning as well as preventing…

Mays, Luberta

329

The Twilight of Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the evolution of television technology and the changes in its use brought about by cable television and the videocassette recorder. The increasing use of multimedia, made possible by the marriage of television and computer, are discussed. A reemergence of the importance of written language in this new medium is forecast. (KRN)|

Morrisett, Lloyd N.

1994-01-01

330

Educational Television in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the growth, development and use of television in Zambia's educational system. It represents information obtained from senior education authorities; broadcasting officials; educational television services; headmasters\\/headmistresses and teachers of primary and secondary schools, teacher training colleges, adult education centres, and technical institutes. It traces the use of television from the colonial era to present day, discussing its role,

Elizabeth Soremekun

1973-01-01

331

Aggregation and regional television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the implementation into regional Australian television of the policy known as equalisation. It places the implementation of the policy in context with significant developments since the introduction of regional television in Australia, and analyses h o w by 1997 the aggregation of services had affected individual television markets in four states. It also considers the effect of

Neryl East

1998-01-01

332

Improvements in Television Sound.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the many improvements which have been made in the television picture over the last 25 years of commercial broadcasting, improvements in television sound have lagged behind. Both the telephone company and broadcast equipment manufacturers have made great improvements in the field of audio which may be used to improve television sound.…

Untiedt, Theodore P.

333

Television in American Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

What is television doing to our society and our culture. What has it done to education. Television has had a great impact on human behavior but rather than communicating, it dictates a philosophy of life, moral judgments and a lifestyle. Television presen...

H. D. Hartman

1977-01-01

334

Coping with Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book could be a useful supplement in any course dealing with television, such as mass media, communication, film, and humanities. The book is divided into six sections. "The Impact of Television" discusses the impact of television on society, the broadcast media, the Federal Communications Commission, public broadcasting, educational…

Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.

335

Reducing Excessive Television Viewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive television watching among children can have several negative consequences, including exposure to frequent violent and aggressive scenes and limitations in their opportunities to engage in alternative educational and prosocial activities. In the present study, a youngster evidencing high levels of television viewing behavior was placed on a modified token economy: earned tokens were used to activate the television for

Leonard Jason; Patty Rooney-Rebeck

1984-01-01

336

Television Network Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes television network facilities which are needed to connect studios and other pickup points to transmitters in the same and in distant cities, and discusses their transmission characteristics. Short-haul television circuits may be by microwave radio or over wire circuits. Long-haul television connections may be by radio relay or over coaxial systems of the type originally developed for

L. G. Abraham; H. I. Romnes

1947-01-01

337

Living Happily with Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The amount of violence and inappropriate information that children receive through television and other media is a matter of concern. This paper reviews the values of fantasy play and compares those values with the effects of television viewing on New Zealand children. Both obvious and subtle messages that children receive from television are…

McGilvary, Linda; Penrose, Pat

338

Action for Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…

Ranly, Donald P.

339

Television and Temporal Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children view large amounts of television from very early on, and television's effects permeate our culture and society. In areas of temporal development, proponents of Piaget would argue that children under the age of eight or nine lack the operations that permit logical structuring of temporal relationships and are thus more easily distracted by other information and cues. Television viewing

Bennett Z. Hirsch; Janet M. Kulberg

1987-01-01

340

Cable Television Service; Cable Television Relay Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rules and regulations of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) concerning cable television service and cable relay service are presented along with the comments of the National Cable Television Association, the National Association of Broadcasters, the Association of Maximum Service Telecasters, and a major group of program suppliers.…

Federal Register, 1972

1972-01-01

341

Sexual messages during prime-time programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television provides a wide range of depictions that help to shape people's knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviors. In the realm of sexual socialization, television is thought to contribute to young people's knowledge about sexual relationships, their judgments about social norms regarding sexual activity, and their attitudes about sexual behaviors, among other influences. An increasing collection of evidence documents these

Kirstie Farrar; Dale Kunkel; Erica Biely; Keren Eyal; Rena Fandrich; Edward Donnerstein

2003-01-01

342

Feasibility of Dynamic Spectrum Access in Underutilized Television Bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the preliminary results from a feasibility study regarding the operation of secondary spectrum users within unused television spectrum. Television spectrum is known within the wireless communications community as being underutilized, making it a prime candidate for dynamic spectrum access. Nevertheless, the quality of this spectrum for enabling secondary transmissions has never been assessed. Two unique scenarios are

Victor R. Petty; Rakesh Rajbanshi; Dinesh Datla; Frederick Weidling; Daniel DePardo; Paul J. Kolodzy; Michael J. Marcus; Alexander M. Wyglinski; Joseph B. Evans; Gary J. Minden; James A. Roberts

2007-01-01

343

The Interactions of Television Uses and Gratifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 464 adults were analyzed to provide a more heuristic paradigm for mass communication uses and gratifications research in a study of the interactive nature of television viewing motivations, viewing behavior, and attitude gratifications. Factor analysis located five principal television viewing motivations: passing time, information,…

Rubin, Alan M.

344

Television Technologies in Combating Illiteracy. A Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Responding to a need indicated by President Reagan's 1983 Initiative on Adult Literacy, this monograph considers the past, present, and future uses of television technology in literacy programs. Recognizing the amount of time Americans spend viewing television and the new possibilities for service delivery offered by such technological…

Marchilonis, Barbara A.; Niebuhr, Herman

345

High-definition television  

SciTech Connect

According to this report, high-definition television is the next generation in video technology. By increasing the number of scanning lines from 525 to over 1,000 high-definition television transmits an image that is wider than and twice as sharp as current television. This fact sheet contains information on 14 applications of high- definition television. Defense, medical, space exploration, and other uses are discussed. The report also presents the opinions of key industry officials on the effect that a high- definition television standard would have on potential applications of this technology.

Not Available

1990-01-01

346

Television in Rural Areas; A Low Cost Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Arguments in favor of radio over television as a low cost alternative for reaching rural areas cite the fact that installation and programming costs for television are three to five times that of radio. But new technology can now bring television to rural audiences. The concept of decentralizing transmitting stations, so that each mini-station…

Bourret, Philip L.

347

The Relationship of Television Viewing to Reading Achievement: A Replication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In addition to determining the value of television viewing as a teaching tool for reading, a study examined the relationship between reading achievement and the amount of time spent watching television. During a 10-week period, 21 fourth grade students of various races and ethnic backgrounds recorded their television viewing schedule. The Step…

Rosser, Eleanor

348

Television: A Communication Tool To Help Your Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Television has a pervasive presence in our lives and connects us to a larger world. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity (except sleeping). According to Bernard Percy, television can have a positive effect on children: it can build vocabulary, stimulate interests and motivate actions. Parents should consider doing…

Markham, Reed

349

Television, The Book, and The Classroom: A National Seminar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We should resist the temptation to label our times the Age of Television--it really is an era of mass communication, and books play a strong role in this process. A positive correlation between increased television viewing and the increased use of books is indicated by new highs in library circulation figures in the past two decades. Television

Stanton, Frank

350

Enhancing the Television‐Viewing Experience through Commercial Interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers prefer to watch television programs without commercials. Yet, in spite of most consumers’ extensive experience with watching television, we propose that commercial interruptions can actually improve the television‐viewing experience. Although consumers do not foresee it, their enjoyment diminishes over time. Commercial interruptions can disrupt this adaptation process and restore the intensity of consumers’ enjoyment. Six studies demonstrate that, although

Tom Meyvis; Jeff Galak

2009-01-01

351

Teaching with Television: New Evidence Supports an Old Medium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Television--public television, in particular--has come to be seen as a great educational resource for the home, but it hasn't been as widely embraced in the classroom. Thanks to a number of recent, large-scale research projects, it's time to put those concerns to rest. Not only does educational television have powerful effects on children's…

Linebarger, Deborah L.

2011-01-01

352

California Surveys of Home Television Viewing and School Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

An hypothesis that has tempted many television researchers is that increased or excessive viewing at home causes lower academic achievement. The large amount of time that children spend in front of the television and public concern with the quality of education in the United States are both responsible for interest in the relationship between television and academic achievement. The hypothesis

Mark Fetler

1984-01-01

353

Teaching with Television: New Evidence Supports an Old Medium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television--public television, in particular--has come to be seen as a great educational resource for the home, but it hasn't been as widely embraced in the classroom. Thanks to a number of recent, large-scale research projects, it's time to put those concerns to rest. Not only does educational television have powerful effects on children's…

Linebarger, Deborah L.

2011-01-01

354

Effects of Advertising and Product Placement on Television Audiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital video recorder proliferation and new commercial audience metrics are making television networks' revenues more sensitive to audience losses from advertising. There is currently limited understanding of how traditional advertising and product placement affect television audiences. We estimate a random coefficients logit model of viewing demand for television programs, wherein time given to traditional advertising and product placement plays a

Kenneth C. Wilbur; Michelle S. Goeree; Geert Ridder

2008-01-01

355

How Toddlers' TV Time Can Hurt Kindergarten Success  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. How Toddlers' TV Time Can Hurt Kindergarten Success Weaker skills ... Preidt Tuesday, August 20, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Page Toddler Development TUESDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Toddlers who ...

356

Digital Recordable Integrated Television Based on Embedded Linux Operating System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for digital recordable integrated television is presented. Different to traditional external recorders, the method is recommended by combination with recordable unit and original TV main-board unit, and the whole system is built inside of TV. Using the built-in storage and outside USB mass storage devices, TV programs are recorded successfully and smoothly as well as time-shift function. The

Qiong Li; Minqiang Guo

2009-01-01

357

Sensation seeking, television viewing motives, and home television viewing patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships between sensation seeking and television viewing motives and home TV viewing preferences. A total of 189 participants completed a sensation seeking scale, rated the importance of several global television viewing motives, and indicated viewing frequency for 18 categories of TV programming. Findings indicated that, contrary to previously-reported results, high sensation seekers did not watch less

Richard Potts; Angela Dedmon; Jeff Halford

1996-01-01

358

Time-compression multiplexing (TCM) of three broadcast-quality TV signals on a satellite transponder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to transmit three NTSC TV signals in a 36 MHz satellite transponder is described. The technique uses differential signals to reduce the bandwidth and time-compression multiplexing (TCM) to combine the three TVs into a single signal. Novel circuit configurations are used to significantly reduce the memory requirements. Differential signals are companded to markedly reduce the effect of transmission noise on picture quality. The estimated performance of the system is at or close to broadcast quality if 12-meter earth stations are used in a satellite system such as COMSTAR. Digital audio signals can be sent without interference either to or from the video TCM signal by placing it in the horizontal blanking period. Extensions to up-links from separate earth stations and non-NTSC TVs are also possible.

Eng, K. Y.; Haskell, B. G.; Schmidt, R. L.

1983-12-01

359

Appraising Gender Role Portrayals in TV Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines gender role orientations of characters in prime time television advertisements through the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) completed by 426 college students (43.2% females). Results confirm the appropriateness of the scale for self- and person-perception ratings. Uses of the BSRI in gender role research are discussed. (SLD)|

Kolbe, Richard H.; Langefeld, Carl D.

1993-01-01

360

Appraising Gender Role Portrayals in TV Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines gender role orientations of characters in prime time television advertisements through the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) completed by 426 college students (43.2% females). Results confirm the appropriateness of the scale for self- and person-perception ratings. Uses of the BSRI in gender role research are discussed. (SLD)

Kolbe, Richard H.; Langefeld, Carl D.

1993-01-01

361

The Future of Educational Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to predict the future of educational television, the author discusses first instructional television, then public television, and also comments on the applications of communications satellites to television in both industrialized and developing nations. He predicts that in the future instructional television will be mainly carried by…

Hudson, Robert B.

362

Issue Ownership in Congressional Campaign Television Spots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated issue ownership patterns in 602 U.S. House and Senate Democratic and Republican political campaign television advertisements from 1980–2000. First, the themes in these ads were about equally split between policy and character (unlike presidential TV spots from the same time period, which are roughly two-thirds policy and one-third character). Candidates from each political party addressed their own

LeAnn M. Brazeal; William L. Benoit

2008-01-01

363

Diffusion of solar innovations through television news programming  

SciTech Connect

The rationale, methodology, finished product, and evaluation of a series of short, topical films of various solar applications are presented. They were produced for use on prime-television news programming.

Shoemaker, F.; Halacy, D.; O'Keefe, G.J.; Sendroy, C.G.

1981-04-01

364

Social TV: real-time social media response to TV advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

We link the content of real-time social media response to characteristics of the Super Bowl 2012 TV advertisements, including their advertisers' social media strategies and the categories of the products being advertised. We analyze millions of social media posts about approximately forty-five advertisements during the 2012 Super Bowl. While there are many studies that focus on the popularity of and

Shawndra Hill; Aman Nalavade; Adrian Benton

2012-01-01

365

TV ratings : when do most people watch television?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online activity challenges students to think about and use percentages related to television viewing to make comparisons to determine television viewing preferences. The activity is one of 80 mathematical challenges featured on the Figure This! web site emphasizing real-world uses of mathematics. To answer this activity's initial question, the student reads data from a chart, applies a formula, and uses the calculated information to draw a conclusion about TV viewing preferences. Information about how TV ratings are determined and how viewing data are used to make decisions about television advertising are featured. The activity also offers a series of related questions about viewing habits and making comparisons about the cost of advertising on different shows. Answers to all questions are included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

2002-01-01

366

Relation Between Clinical Depression Risk and Physical Activity and Time Spent Watching Television in Older Women: A 10-Year Prospective Follow-up Study  

PubMed Central

Although physical activity (PA) has been inversely associated with depressive symptoms, it is not clear whether regular PA and television watching are associated with clinical depression risk. The authors conducted a prospective analysis involving 49,821 US women from the Nurses’ Health Study who were free from depressive symptoms at baseline (1996). Information on PA was obtained from validated questionnaires completed in 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, and 2000; analyses were conducted using the cumulative average of PA (minutes/day) with a 2-year latency period applied. Participants were asked about television-watching habits in 1992. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for multiple risk factors were used to estimate relative risks of clinical depression (self-reported physician-diagnosed depression or use of antidepressants). During 10 years of follow-up (1996–2006), 6,505 incident cases of depression were documented. Higher levels of PA were associated with lower depression risk. The multivariate relative risk comparing the highest level of PA (?90 minutes/day) with the lowest (<10 minutes/day) was 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.70, 0.92; Ptrend < 0.001). In contrast, the risk of depression increased with increasing television-watching time. The multivariate relative risk comparing women who spent 21 hours/week or more watching television with those who spent 0–1 hour/week was 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.27; Ptrend = 0.01). Analyses simultaneously considering PA and television watching suggested that both contributed independently to depression risk.

Lucas, Michel; Mekary, Rania; Pan, An; Mirzaei, Fariba; O'Reilly, Eilis J.; Willett, Walter C.; Koenen, Karestan; Okereke, Olivia I.

2011-01-01

367

Relation between clinical depression risk and physical activity and time spent watching television in older women: a 10-year prospective follow-up study.  

PubMed

Although physical activity (PA) has been inversely associated with depressive symptoms, it is not clear whether regular PA and television watching are associated with clinical depression risk. The authors conducted a prospective analysis involving 49,821 US women from the Nurses' Health Study who were free from depressive symptoms at baseline (1996). Information on PA was obtained from validated questionnaires completed in 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, and 2000; analyses were conducted using the cumulative average of PA (minutes/day) with a 2-year latency period applied. Participants were asked about television-watching habits in 1992. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for multiple risk factors were used to estimate relative risks of clinical depression (self-reported physician-diagnosed depression or use of antidepressants). During 10 years of follow-up (1996-2006), 6,505 incident cases of depression were documented. Higher levels of PA were associated with lower depression risk. The multivariate relative risk comparing the highest level of PA (? 90 minutes/day) with the lowest (<10 minutes/day) was 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.70, 0.92; P(trend) < 0.001). In contrast, the risk of depression increased with increasing television-watching time. The multivariate relative risk comparing women who spent 21 hours/week or more watching television with those who spent 0-1 hour/week was 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.27; P(trend) = 0.01). Analyses simultaneously considering PA and television watching suggested that both contributed independently to depression risk. PMID:21984659

Lucas, Michel; Mekary, Rania; Pan, An; Mirzaei, Fariba; O'Reilly, Eilis J; Willett, Walter C; Koenen, Karestan; Okereke, Olivia I; Ascherio, Alberto

2011-10-07

368

Television Viewing and Attentional Abilities in Fourth and Fifth Grade Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the common assumption that television viewing is related to attentional difficulties in school, 70 fourth and fifth grade students recorded a “television diary” for one week and reported their preferred television shows. Parents estimated their child's television viewing time and reported their child's preferred shows. Assessment of attentional difficulties included teacher ratings, parent ratings, standardized tests, and classroom

Laura E Levine; Bradley M Waite

2000-01-01

369

The Effects of Television on Children. Foundation for Child and Youth Studies Selected Papers Number 47.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper begins with an introduction which covers viewing time; television as a significant developmental experience; Piagetian stages of cognitive development; and changing developmental tastes in television viewing. The paper then focuses on television in relation to learning; television and violence; advertising; and parents' ability to…

Tregoning, Julia

370

Sex?role stereotyping of children on television: A content analysis of the roles and attributes of child characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content analysis of child characters on prime?time television revealed that while boys and girls are significantly different on only four out of 13 character traits (boys are considered more active, aggressive, rational and unhappy than are girls) they do differ significantly in the types of activities in which they participate. Girls talk on the telephone, read and help with

Kate Peirce

1989-01-01

371

Reflective liquid crystal television display  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new reflective television display, operating off the air, is described. The display uses the dynamic scattering mode (DSM) in nematic liquid crystals and can be viewed in high-brightness ambients. The liquid crystal cell, 6 to 12 µm thick, was addressed in real time by means of an electron beam using a wire-mosaic faceplate on a demountable cathode ray tube.

J. A. Van Raalte

1968-01-01

372

CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION INSTRUCTION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE USE OF TELEVISION FOR INSTRUCTIONAL PUPOSES IN THE SCHOOLS OF HAGERSTOWN, MD. HAS CREATED A CHANGE WHICH HAS BEEN PROFITABLE AND ADVANTAGEOUS TO THE SCHOOLS. PUPIL CONTROL IS EXTREMELY HIGH, ADMINISTRATORS ARE ABLE TO REDEPLOY TIME AND EFFORT OF TEACHING IN MORE MEANINGFUL WAYS, LESSONS ARE SUPERIOR IN QUALITY AND RICH IN MOTIVATION, COST IS…

CAHALL, T. WILSON

373

Television and Children: Research Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines major issues and problems for research on television and its effects on children through a critical discussion of Cullingford's book, "Children and Television," which focuses on ways in which children learn and what they learn from television. (MBR)

Hart, Andrew

1986-01-01

374

In the eye of the beholder? Representations of video surveillance in German public television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based upon an analysis of the commonalities between CCTV and television. Although this article is not meant to contribute to media studies as a science, it will nonetheless use empirical data from diverse TV shows, time periods and regions to show the decisive role television plays in public acceptance and implementation of public surveillance technology, as well

Leon Hempel

2006-01-01

375

Reading in multimodal environments: assessing legibility and accessibility of typography for television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television viewing is accompanied by ever more complex supporting content: as interactive TV becomes more functional, it also becomes more multimodal. Television typography is no longer limited to teletext, subtitles and captions. It provides navigation, tickers, tabulated results, info-graphics and is embedded in videos and games. At the same time, screen resolution is improving, and the size of household screens

Penelope Allen; Judith Garman; Ian Calvert; Jane Murison

2011-01-01

376

Longitudinal Associations Between Television Viewing and Body Mass Index Among White and Black Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeChildhood overweight is one of the most important public health problems facing America today, and time spent watching television has been proposed as a causal factor. This study examines the effects of television (TV) viewing on the trajectory of body mass index (BMI) over the course of adolescence.

Vani R. Henderson

2007-01-01

377

MASTER TELEVISION ANTENNA SYSTEM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE FURNISHING AND INSTALLATION OF TELEVISION MASTER ANTENNA SYSTEMS FOR SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE GIVEN. CONTRACTOR REQUIREMENTS, EQUIPMENT, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, AND FUNCTIONS ARE DESCRIBED. (MS)|

Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

378

TV Tips for Parents: Using Television To Help Your Child Learn.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recognizing that children watch an average of 25 hours of television per week, this booklet is designed to help parents redirect their children's television viewing to higher quality programs. Ten "tips" are provided to help parents guide their children's television (TV) viewing: (1) set your child's TV schedule; (2) get involved (in the child's…

Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

379

47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication FEDERAL...

2011-10-01

380

47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication FEDERAL...

2012-10-01

381

Digital television's position and effect in the media ecology environment of broadcast and television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various media owns its living space for its specific dissemination feature and ecological niche with special time and space. This article uses media ecology theory to study the effect and function of digital television on the living environment of television media, with the purpose of analyzing the change for the whole media ecology environment. With the application of basic analysis

Lun Liu

2010-01-01

382

Television viewing and obesity in adult females.  

PubMed

We measured the relation between time spent watching television per week and obesity in 4,771 adult females. After controlling for age, education, cigarette smoking, length of work week, and weekly duration of exercise, females who reported three to four hours of TV viewing per day showed almost twice the prevalence of obesity (body fat greater than 30 percent), and those who reported more than four hours of TV watching per day showed more than double the prevalence of obesity, compared to the reference group (less than 1 hr/day). Part of the TV/obesity association was a function of differences in exercise duration among the four TV viewing categories. PMID:2053671

Tucker, L A; Bagwell, M

1991-07-01

383

Portrayals of Women in Prime-Time Network Television: Some Demographic Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One week's network programing was recorded in 1987 to determine character incidence by sex, age, minority group membership, and other variables. Results showed significant changes since the 1950s in the treatment of minority group members but little change in the incidence or nature of portrayals of women. (DM)

Davis, Donald M.

1990-01-01

384

Television viewing and snacking.  

PubMed

With the rise in obesity in America, the search for potential causes for this epidemic has begun to include a focus on environmental factors. Television (TV) viewing is one such factor, partially due to its potential as a stimulus for eating. The current study investigated the relationship between food intake and self-reported TV viewing in an effort to identify the impact of TV viewing on specific eating behaviors. Seventy-four overweight women seeking obesity treatment completed questionnaires assessing dietary habits and TV viewing behaviors. Results suggest that snacking, but not necessarily eating meals, while watching TV is associated with increased overall caloric intake and calories from fat. Therefore, interventions targeting stimulus control techniques to reduce snacking behavior may have an impact on overall caloric intake. PMID:15000965

Gore, Stacy A; Foster, Jill A; DiLillo, Vicki G; Kirk, Kathy; Smith West, Delia

2003-11-01

385

Television: Polysemy and popularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay argues that the television audience is composed of a wide variety of groups or subcultures, and that in order to be popular a television program must be polysemic so that different subcultures can find in it different meanings that correspond to their differing social relations. The dominant ideology is structured into the text as into the social system,

John Fiske

1986-01-01

386

Television: Polysemy and Popularity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that television programs must be polysemic to achieve popularity because of the wide variety of subcultures represented in the television audience. Analyzes two scenes from "Hart to Hart" to demonstrate the textual devices that bear the dominant ideology and those that resist it. (JD)|

Fiske, John

1986-01-01

387

Television for World Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Television will be a valuable tool in preparing people to cope with a shrinking and increasingly interdependent world. A child left to his own devices will equate "strangeness" with "danger". Television can bring a wide variety of experiences with different cultures to a child and help him to formulate an understanding of his place in the world.…

Tyler, I. Keith

388

Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

2002

389

FUNDAMENTALS OF TELEVISION SYSTEMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESIGNED FOR A READER WITHOUT SPECIAL TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE, THIS ILLUSTRATED RESOURCE PAPER EXPLAINS THE COMPONENTS OF A TELEVISION SYSTEM AND RELATES THEM TO THE COMPLETE SYSTEM. SUBJECTS DISCUSSED ARE THE FOLLOWING--STUDIO ORGANIZATION AND COMPATIBLE COLOR TELEVISION PRINCIPLES, WIRED AND RADIO TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS, DIRECT VIEW AND PROJECTION…

KESSLER, WILLIAM J.

390

Parental Mediation of Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study a German-speaking scale for measuring parental mediation of television is tested and various factors influencing television mediation are investigated. 252 German-speaking Swiss parents of children aged 3 to 14 answered questions about their mediation behavior and possible determinants. The results confirm international research findings. Active and restrictive mediation as well as coviewing are identified as important

Saskia Böcking; Tabea Böcking

2009-01-01

391

Television Advertising and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television is education. It may not be education one approves of, but children learn facts, adopt attitudes and values, and learn behaviours from television, just as they learn from the rest of their social and physical environment. Commercials are ‘educational’ too, in the same sense — that, is, there is much that can be learned from them (for good or

Peter G Ghristenson

1984-01-01

392

Caution! Children Watching Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the negative and positive aspects of television viewing. Some harmful effects include less reading and increased passivity. The correct use of television must first be taught to teachers and parents, which in turn is relayed to the student. (Author/JR)|

Andreeva, E.

1975-01-01

393

A Survey of Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on the author's experiences in executive positions in both the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and Independent Television (ITV), this survey offers his personal views on the purpose, achievement and shortcomings of the television industry. The history of the BBC and its commercial counterpart, ITV, is chronicled. After examining the…

Hood, Stuart

394

Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

Baer, Walter S.; And Others

395

Service Engineering for Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortcomings in service engineering cost the consumer tens of thousands of dollars per year. Although the Armed Forces did much to make the electronics engineer service-conscious, there is considerable evidence that these experiences are not being fully utilized in the television industry. A proper approach to this problem can be of immeasurable value to the television manufacturer.

E. E. Ecklund

1950-01-01

396

Brightness Distortion in Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brightness distortion, a term analogous to harmonic distortion in sound transmission, refers to nonlinearity of the brightness transfer characteristic of a television system. This characteristic is the curve relating the brightness values in the televised object to the corresponding brightness values in the received image. Brightness distortion is defined as occurring whenever the brightness transfer characteristic departs from a straight

D. G. Fink

1941-01-01

397

Teaching by Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Live television is the fastest-growing distance learning delivery mode. Instructors must understand how distance learning differs from both the traditional classroom and commercial television, how the basic technology operates, the role played by the teacher in delivering instruction, how to design courses according to system capabilities, and how…

Ostendorf, Virginia A.

1997-01-01

398

Science on Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Television is frequently blamed for the problems adults face with some young people. Does television affect their understanding and behaviour? Of course it does. "Sesame Street", the most researched educational programme in the world, gave its pre-school viewers a head start in literacy that was still measurable ten years later. BBC Schools…

Stringer, John

2011-01-01

399

Taking Television Seriously.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As teachers we must recognize the force that television exerts on our students and their lives. Two very worthwhile curricular thrusts on dealing with television in the classroom are beginning to emerge: "watch the program/read the book" instructional kits and materials for teaching critical viewing skills. (Author/SJL)|

Engel, D. J.

1979-01-01

400

Television Broadcasting for Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an outline of the BBC's provision of television for British schools, describing the constitution and function of the School Broadcasting Council and the role of the BBC School Television Department. The scope and purpose of the programs is described and mention is made of the various supporting publications of the BBC: pamphlets, filmstrips, film loops, gramophone records and

Geoffrey Hall

1973-01-01

401

Television and the Deaf.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a perspective on the limited access deaf people have had to television viewing. Legal and technological breakthroughs which will facilitate access are addressed, as well as the need for researchers and producers to work together in developing effective television programing for use with deaf audiences. (JEG)|

Braverman, Barbara B.; Cronin, Barry Jay

1978-01-01

402

Television's impact on society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of television has been a major phenomenon of American life in recent years. Judged by its rate of growth, the size of its audience, and the man-hours of attention devoted to it, television promises to become the nation's principal communication medium.\\

Thomas E. Coffin

1955-01-01

403

Huck, Tom and Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses why old classics are not as popular with children today and lists the popular childrens books of now. This change suggests a revamping of required educational reading. Also, a correlation between what is on television and what children read leads the author to conclude that television can function as reinforcement to reading…

Ashley, L. F.

1971-01-01

404

Television and Children's Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1970 Census Report states that children under 14 years of age comprise 23.4% of the population, the Committee on Children's Television (CCT) feels that television broadcasters have an obligation to determine and serve the needs of these children. After examining the 1971 license renewal applications of four of the five San Francisco Bay…

Committee on Children's Television, San Francisco, CA.

405

China: The Television Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What is currently happening in China is similar to what happened in the United States in the 1950s and the Soviet Union in the 1970s--television is quickly becoming a mainstay of popular entertainment and news. The Chinese government has made substantial efforts to provide television service to all regions of the country, with importance attached…

Rivenburgh, Nancy K.

406

RX for Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In his remarks delivered at the Second National Symposium on Children and Television, Federal Communications Commissioner Nicholas Johnson charges that television is not adequately serving those 20 million Americans under the age of five. He scores the networks for the inane, if not actually harmful, nature of their programming and for the…

Johnson, Nicholas

407

Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

2002

408

Children and Television Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

Meyer, Timothy P.

1973-01-01

409

Television and the School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Excessive viewing of television, often late into the night, causes children to be tired when they come to school and therefore unable to do a good day's work. Furthermore, television fosters passive behavior, weakening students' ability and willingness to take active roles in their learning. Critics of education continue to attack the abilities…

Elsing, John

410

Community Television Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part of the genius of modern technological society is the dynamic ingenuity with which solutions are found to problems thought to be impossible. When the FCC Table of Television allocations was released to the public, there was much cynical scoffing at the television assignments in communities of less than 2500 persons. Yet, today there is a rapidly growing and soundly

Archer S. Taylor; Bruce Hamilton

1956-01-01

411

Community Antenna Television (CATV).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The number of households hooked up to cable television or community antenna television (CATV) is expanding rapidly, and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been developing regulations since 1962 to guide the growth of the industry. By 1965 the FCC had claimed jurisdiction over all CATV systems in the U. S. This jurisdiction was challenged…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

412

Children's Literature on Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of television adaptations of children's books is traced from television's first attempts at network children's programing to local production, network specials, independent stations' production efforts, reading shows, efforts in Canada and Great Britain, and Weston Woods film company productions. Guidelines for programing success are…

Staven, Karl

1985-01-01

413

Exploring Television Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This inquiry/discovery program is built on two assumptions: (1) that the students know more about television, have had more extensive television experience than their teachers; and (2) that the best moments in this course will spring from the students' ideas, projects, reports, and initiatives. Things to do before the course begins are suggested.…

Kuhns, William; And Others

414

Pressures on TV Programs: Coalition for Better Television's Case.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1981, the conservative Coalition for Better Television (CBTV) threatened an economic boycott against advertisers who marketed their wares on programs that the coalition felt had excessive sex and violence. Because television networks are dependent on advertising, the coalition believed economic pressure on advertisers would force a…

Shipman, John M., Jr.

415

Pressures on TV Programs: Coalition for Better Television's Case.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1981, the conservative Coalition for Better Television (CBTV) threatened an economic boycott against advertisers who marketed their wares on programs that the coalition felt had excessive sex and violence. Because television networks are dependent on advertising, the coalition believed economic pressure on advertisers would force a…

Shipman, John M., Jr.

416

Television in Language Arts Education. A National Instructional Television Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the conferences sponsored by National Instructional Television in 1968 was conducted to evaluate television materials being offered in Language Arts Education in order to stimulate effective television programing. Twelve specialists assessed materials collected from instructional television agencies across the country. They concluded that…

National Instructional Television Center, Bloomington, IN.

417

The Impact of Cable Television in Canada on the Audiences to Canadian TV Stations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey was made of television viewing in Canada in order to show the impact of cable television on television viewing in general, with special emphasis on examining the effect on the various categories of television station ownership. The report shows the extent to which television viewing habits vary between (a) those who watch television via…

Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

418

Computerized Television: New Developments in Television Production Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on the notion that technological and artistic developments in the area of television production affect viewers' comprehension and appreciation of televised programs, this essay examines the impact of telecommunication advances on the industry. The first section briefly considers the technological advances of the last decade in major TV

Metallinos, Nikos

419

Cable Television's Impact on the Audience of Public Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although circulation of public television increased because of cable's extension, the amount of public television viewing as a portion of total TV use fell. This decrease follows no strong pattern of market characteristic, dial position, day part, or age of viewer, but does relate to the kinds of available competition. (MER)|

Agostino, Don

1980-01-01

420

Sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents: associations with TV watching and leisure-time physical activity.  

PubMed

We aimed to describe the sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents and to examine the relationships of sleep duration and morning tiredness with participation in leisure-time physical-sporting activities (LT-PA) and television (TV) watching. Sleep duration, morning tiredness, participation in LT-PA and time spent on watching TV were reported by 2,179 (1,139 females) Spanish adolescents (AVENA study). Data were analyzed by binary logistic regression. One-fifth of the adolescents reported insufficient night sleep (<8 h) on school days. The review of the literature (30 studies) showed that the Spanish adolescents sleep as long as adolescents from central Europe, and longer than those from other Mediterranean countries, South Africa, Asia and North America. Insufficient sleep duration doubled the odds of excessive TV watching (?3 h/day) in males, regardless of morning tiredness (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.42-3.27). Morning tiredness reduced the odds of participating in any LT-PA in both males and females (0.49, 0.34-0.70 and 0.49, 0.35-0.69, respectively), and increased the odds of excessive TV watching in females, regardless of sleep duration (2.49, 1.64-3.79). We conclude that non-participation in LT-PA is associated with morning tiredness in male and female adolescents, while excessive TV watching is more associated with short sleep or morning tiredness depending on gender. PMID:20556419

Ortega, Francisco B; Chillón, Palma; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Delgado, Manuel; Albers, Ulrike; Alvarez-Granda, Jesús L; Marcos, Ascensión; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

2010-06-17

421

Social Television and User Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

At first glance, the notion of social interactive television seems to be a tautology. Television watching has always been a social activity. People watch television together in their living rooms, and outside their homes they talk about last night's football match; and even call each other to recommend an interesting program. Unfortunately, until recently, research on social interactive television has

Pablo Cesar; Konstantinos Chorianopoulos; Jens F. Jensen

2008-01-01

422

Television Studies: A Widening Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews three books concerned with the effects of television advertising upon children and their parents: "Television Advertising and Children," edited by June Esserman; "Children and the Faces of Television," edited by Edward Palmer and Aimee Dorr; and "The Effects of Television Advertising on Children," by Richard Adler and others. (JJD)|

Comstock, George

1981-01-01

423

Media Literacy and Television News.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four television journalists address television's impact on student cultural literacy. Comments indicate television's superior use of language teaches how to use language effectively, television has a tremendous impact in shaping our culture, and teachers can help students be better media consumers by involving them in critical thinking about…

Journal of Teaching Writing, 1985

1985-01-01

424

Television Studies: A Widening Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews three books concerned with the effects of television advertising upon children and their parents: "Television Advertising and Children," edited by June Esserman; "Children and the Faces of Television," edited by Edward Palmer and Aimee Dorr; and "The Effects of Television Advertising on Children," by Richard Adler and others. (JJD)

Comstock, George

1981-01-01

425

Television and Very Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has recommended that children younger than 24 months of age not be exposed to television. Nevertheless, television programs and home videos are increasingly produced for very young children. This article reviews the extant research concerning television and very young children with respect to the AAP recommendation. More very young children are currently watching television

Daniel R. Anderson; Tiffany A. Pempek

2005-01-01

426

Democracy, privatization and public television  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the Carnegie Commission on the Future of Educational Television coined the term “public television” in its 1967 report, Public Television: A Program for Action, it did so with a belief that television and democratic processes were fundamentally intertwined. The spirit of the Carnegie Commission report, which led to the passage of the Public Broadcasting Act, is infused with both

William Hoynes

1999-01-01

427

Color Television-Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief history of color television and the reasons leading up to the Columbia Broadcasting System color television system have been presented. A general theory for color television, including color, flicker, and electrical characteristics, is also given. Equipment for color-television transmission and reception has been designed and constructed based on these principles. I. INTRODUCTION Much of the significance of color

P. C. Goldmark; J. N. Dyer; E. R. Piore; J. M. Hollywood

1999-01-01

428

Food advertising on Australian television: the extent of children's exposure.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the extent and nature of food advertising during Australian children's television (TV) viewing hours and programs, and to determine whether confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements were more likely to be broadcast during children's programs than during adults' programs on Sydney television stations. One week (390 h) of Australian advertising data broadcast during children's TV viewing hours over 15 television stations were analysed to determine the proportion of food advertisements and, in turn, the proportion of those advertisements promoting foods high in fat and/or sugar. One week (346 h) of confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements broadcast over three Sydney television stations were analysed to determine whether these types of advertisements were more likely to be advertised during children's programs than adults' programs. Half of all food advertisements promoted foods high in fat and/or sugar. 'Confectionery' and 'fast food restaurants' were the most advertised food categories during children's TV viewing hours. Confectionery advertisements were three times as likely, and fast food restaurant advertisements twice as likely, to be broadcast during children's programs than adults' programs. It can be concluded that foods most advertised during children's viewing hours are not those foods that contribute to a healthy diet for children. Confectionery and fast food restaurant advertising appears to target children. Australian children need protection from the targeted promotion of unhealthy foods on television, but currently little exists. PMID:15722367

Neville, Leonie; Thomas, Margaret; Bauman, Adrian

2005-02-18

429

"Kids' Stuff": Television Cartoons as Mirrors of the American Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cartoons are generally regarded as "kids' stuff," unworthy of scholarly study. As an aspect of popular culture, television cartoons do not attract scholars who are interested in being part of the "critical elite." Some scholars believe, however, that less time should be spent discussing how TV might be used to teach children what society thinks…

Mitchell, Tracey L.

430

Description of Children's Television Advertising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is a report of two studies which were conducted on children's television. The first, "Saturday Children's Television," is a content analysis of programming and advertising matter on four Boston commercial TV stations. The second, "Romper Room, An Analysis," focuses on that program's commercial practices. The first study involved the…

Barcus, F. Earle

431

AdScorer: an event-based system for near real-time impact analysis of television advertisements (industry article)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The media measurement industry is in turmoil, with the old prediction-based models being challenged by more accurate measurement techniques, based on actual viewer behaviour drawn from much larger sample selections. As measurement methods converge across different types of media, the online\\/offline measurement divide will diminish. Television is one such medium that has traditionally required offline measurements. Advertisers are, for the

Pĺl Evensen; Hein Meling

2012-01-01

432

AUSTRALIAN TELEVISION, GENDER AND THE OLYMPIC GAMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies investigating media coverage of sport in Australia during normal programming indicate that women's sport receives less than 10 percent of the air-time given to men's. This study of the Australian television coverage of the 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics found that female events received 32.9 percent and 27.7 percent, respectively, of the Games televised. While it is unfortunate

Kristine Toohey

1997-01-01

433

Communication, values, and popular television series—A seventeen?year assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing a dramatistic system based upon the critical frameworks of Kenneth Burke and Northrop Frye, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of prime?time network television series from the 1974–1975 season through the 1990–1991 season is presented. A total of 903 series are classified as either ironic, mimetic, leader?centered, romantic, or mythical communication systems and then examined for their value orientation. It

James W. Chesebro

1991-01-01

434

Television Situation Comedies: Female Weight, Male Negative Comments, and Audience Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content analysis of 18 prime-time television situation comedies (two episodes each) examined the body weights of 37 central female characters (92% White, 8% Black), the negative comments they received from male characters about their weight or bodies, and the audience reactions (e.g., laughter) following the negative comments. It was found that (a) below-average weight females were overrepresented in the

Gregory Fouts; Kimberley Burggraf

2000-01-01

435

Profile: Children's favorite television families: A descriptive analysis of role interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the interaction behaviors of television families from the 1989?1990 season with those of an earlier analysis of interactions of families in the late 1970s. An analysis of six episodes of the five family prime?time programs selected most often as favorites by 381 elementary school children reveals that conflictual interactions occur twice as much as in the past,

Katharine E. Heintz

1992-01-01

436

Television's Potential to Deaf Persons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Commercial TV broadcasters have, for the most part, failed to present programming with displays designed for the deaf viewer; and education of the deaf has made little use of cable television facilities. (Author)|

Good, John W.

1973-01-01

437

Television Viewing, Internet Use, and Self-Reported Bedtime and Rise Time in Adults: Implications for Sleep Hygiene Recommendations From an Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the availability of the Internet and TV in the bedroom and overall Internet use and TV viewing were related to sleep variables in a sample of 711 residents of Flanders, Belgium. Although the relations were small, there was some evidence of time shifting: Internet access in the bedroom predicted later bedtime (? = .12, p <

Kathleen Custers; Jan Van den Bulck

2012-01-01

438

Digital Television as Persuasive Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of digital television technologies will rapidly expand viewer interaction with computer-mediated television. This\\u000a paper reports on research demonstrating how new computer-mediated TV advertising models, including iTV microsites and telescopic\\u000a ads, are superior to their linear counterparts. The authors argue that, in part, such superiority may result from the degree\\u000a to which interactivity heightens mental engagement (facilitating a shift

Duane Varan; Steve Bellman

2007-01-01

439

High definition television: Evaluation for remote task performance  

SciTech Connect

High definition television (HDTV) transmits a video image with more than twice the number of horizontal scan lines that standard resolution television provides (1125 for HDTV to 525 for standard resolution television), with impressive picture quality improvement. These experimental activities are part of a joint collaboration between the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan in the field of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Reprocessing Technology. Objects in the HDTV picture have more sharply defined edges, better contrast, and more accurate shading and color pattern reproduction. Because television is a key component for teleoperator performance, picture quality improvement could mean speed and accuracy. This paper describes three experiments which evaluated the impact of HDTV on remote task performance. HDTV was compared to standard resolution, monochromatic television and standard resolution, stereoscopic, monochromatic television. Tasks included judgement of depth in a televised scene, visual inspection, and a remote maintenance task. The experiments show that HDTV can improve performance. HDTV is superior to monoscopic, monochromatic, standard resolution television and to stereoscopic television for remote inspection tasks; it is less proficient than stereo television for distance matching. HDTV leads to lower error rate during tasks but does not reduce time required to complete tasks. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Draper, J. V.; Handel, S. J.; Herndon, J. N.

1988-01-01

440

TV Diets: Towards a Typology of TV Viewership  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts to construct and test a typology of television viewing based on a combination of various measures of the amount of watching of various TV genres. Unlike earlier typologies, ours relies on several dimensions of content, time and devotion, yielding a categorization of viewers according to the pattern of their TV consumption. The data come from a British

Gabriel Weimann; Hans-Bernd Brosius; Mallory Wober

1992-01-01

441

Developmental trends in television coviewing of parent-child dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, long-term trends in joint parent-child television viewing are taken as prototype for developmental changes of the parent-child relationship during adolescence. To describe and compare trends of television coviewing in different configurations of family members, trajectories of daily television viewing, tmeasured with Nielsen-type people meters over a time period of three years, were analyzed using time series methods.

Fritz Sang; Bernhard Schmitz; Karl Tasche

1993-01-01

442

RockOnTV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

RockOnTV attempts to keep track of all television shows that may be of interest to fans of popular music. The particular focus is rock music and live performances, but they include other shows from time to time that are noteworthy. Music related shows are listed in a weekly schedule.

1999-01-01

443

Olympic Television Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1960, the escalation in the price of exclusive U.S. television rights for the Olympic Games reflects a geometric progression. The U.S. rights for the 1988 Games alone total $ 609 million. This paper discusses the scope and impact of U.S. television revenue on the Olympics. The analysis is comprised of the following four major sections: 1. history of Olympic

Richard K. Alaszkiewicz; Thomas L. McPhail

1986-01-01

444

The Effect of Network and Public Television Programs on Four and Five Year Olds' Ability To Attend to Educational Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the effect of network and public television programs on children's: ability to attend to a task, time on task, and engagement in rough-and-tumble play. Sixty-two children were assigned to one of three groups that watched: (1) a public television program; (2) a network television program; and (3) no television and instead played with…

Geist, Eugene A.; Gibson, Marty

2000-01-01

445

The Effect of Network and Public Television Programs on Four and Five Year Olds' Ability To Attend to Educational Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effect of network and public television programs on children's: ability to attend to a task, time on task, and engagement in rough-and-tumble play. Sixty-two children were assigned to one of three groups that watched: (1) a public television program; (2) a network television program; and (3) no television and instead played with…

Geist, Eugene A.; Gibson, Marty

2000-01-01

446

Time-average TV holography for vibration fringe analysis  

SciTech Connect

Time-average TV holography is widely used method for vibration measurement. The method generates speckle correlation time-averaged J0 fringes that can be used for full-field qualitative visualization of mode shapes at resonant frequencies of an object under harmonic excitation. In order to map the amplitudes of vibration, quantitative evaluation of the time-averaged fringe pattern is desired. A quantitative evaluation procedure based on the phase-shifting technique used in two beam interferometry has also been adopted for this application with some modification. The existing procedure requires a large number of frames to be recorded for implementation. We propose a procedure that will reduce the number of frames required for the analysis. The TV holographic system used and the experimental results obtained with it on an edge-clamped, sinusoidally excited square aluminium plate sample are discussed.

Kumar, Upputuri Paul; Kalyani, Yanam; Mohan, Nandigana Krishna; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

2009-06-01

447

Television viewing and self?concept among black children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research suggests that television has a negative influence on Black children's self?concept. To test this assumption, this study examined the association between amount of time spent watching television and perceptions of self?concept among 102 Black children. The major finding was that television viewing was related positively to the self?concepts of girls and unrelated to boys’ self?concepts.

Carolyn A. Stroman

1986-01-01

448

Channel One: Time for a TV Break.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An ethnographic study of an urban comprehensive high school shows that teachers rarely used Channel One as a focus of instruction in their classrooms. Students watched Channel One primarily during an 18-minute homeroom period--a concession to parents, teachers, and administrators reluctant to sacrifice instructional time to show the program. Two…

Celano, Donna; Neuman, Susan B.

1995-01-01

449

Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Radio and T.V. Repair. Course: Television Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of four individualized courses included in a radio and television repair, curriculum, this course focuses on trouble-shooting procedures for both black and white and color television equipment. The course is comprised of ten units: (1) Introduction to/and Block Diagrams of Television, (2) Television Audio Section Troubles, (3) Television

Arneson, R.; And Others

450

Sex and genre on prime time.  

PubMed

Sexual activity is never explicitly represented on network television programs. Rather, realms of sexuality are suggested. These realms are represented differently according to the genre of the program; sitcoms explore the realm of the taboo, while nighttime soaps plumb the inevitable consequences of sexual activity. Detective shows display the sexual underworld. When a program shows sexuality from more than a generic perspective, it provides a more global representation and is also a more fruitful object of study. PMID:1856464

Smith, C

1991-01-01

451

Making Broadcast Television Participative: Eliciting Mathematical Behavior through "Square One TV."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the potential of television to elicit active participation in mathematics by reviewing research concerning the "Square One TV" television series. Types of participation that have been observed among viewers are described, and characteristics of "Square One TV" formats that have been particularly successful in eliciting participative…

Fisch, Shalom M.; McCann, Susan K.

1993-01-01

452

Children’s television programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes how educational media company Sesame Workshop has applied research to the development and evaluation of children’s TV programming; Sesame Workshop was the creator in 1969 of the “Sesame Street” TV series, which intentionally blended entertainment and education, and it has now teamed up with Applied Research and Consulting LLC (ARC). Explains the historical background to television research, and the

Michael Cohen; Sara Guciardo; Joel Schneider

2002-01-01

453

The relationship between TV/computer time and adolescents' health-promoting behavior: a secondary data analysis.  

PubMed

Television and computers provide significant benefits for learning about the world. Some studies have linked excessive television (TV) watching or computer game playing to disadvantage of health status or some unhealthy behavior among adolescents. However, the relationships between watching TV/playing computer games and adolescents adopting health promoting behavior were limited. This study aimed to discover the relationship between time spent on watching TV and on leisure use of computers and adolescents' health promoting behavior, and associated factors. This paper used secondary data analysis from part of a health promotion project in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used and purposive sampling was conducted among adolescents in the original project. A total of 660 participants answered the questions appropriately for this work between January and June 2004. Findings showed the mean age of the respondents was 15.0 +/- 1.7 years. The mean numbers of TV watching hours were 2.28 and 4.07 on weekdays and weekends respectively. The mean hours of leisure (non-academic) computer use were 1.64 and 3.38 on weekdays and weekends respectively. Results indicated that adolescents spent significant time watching TV and using the computer, which was negatively associated with adopting health-promoting behaviors such as life appreciation, health responsibility, social support and exercise behavior. Moreover, being boys, being overweight, living in a rural area, and being middle-school students were significantly associated with spending long periods watching TV and using the computer. Therefore, primary health care providers should record the TV and non-academic computer time of youths when conducting health promotion programs, and educate parents on how to become good and healthy electronic media users. PMID:18348110

Chen, Mei-Yen; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Wu, Jen-Yee

2008-03-01

454

The World According to Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adult guidance and discussion are two elements necessary to transform children from passive consumers into active critics of the social world presented by television. Ways in which teachers can help students scrutinize what they see on television are discussed. (CB)|

Kaplan, Don

1985-01-01

455

Television Criticism: A Multifarious Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recognizing the need for a multifarious approach to television, this paper provides the reader with the following multidimensional approaches to television criticism: rhetorical, dramatic, literary, cinematic, content analysis, myth, linguistics, semiotics, phenomenalism, phenomenology, interpersonal communication, public relations, image,…

Oseguera, A. Anthony

456

Mobile and interactive social television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Services that were traditionally designed for a static environment can now be implemented into mobile devices. At the same time, services with traditionally passive-consumption-oriented paradigms are moving toward participative and interactive services. One such service is mobile and interactive social TV (MIST), which allows geographically dispersed people to meet in a virtual shared space and watch TV while being able

Sujeet Mate; Igor D. D. Curcio

2009-01-01

457

Real-Time Monitoring System for TV Commercials Using Video Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

For companies, TV commercial is a very important way to introduce and advertise their products. It is expensive to put an\\u000a advertisement on TV. So these companies generally charge other companies to monitor that their TV commercials are broadcasted\\u000a properly as contracted. Currently, these monitorings have been done manually. The monitoring company records all the TV programs\\u000a and their air-times

Sung Hwan Lee; Won Young Yoo; Young-suk Yoon

2006-01-01

458

Television viewing and the learning of sex-role stereotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the relationship between the amount of time children spend watching television and their knowledge of adult sex-role stereotypes. Males and females in grades 1, 3, 5, and 7 who were classified as heavy television viewers (25 or more hours per week) or light viewers (10 or less hours per week) both at the time

Paul E. McGhee; Terry Frueh

1980-01-01

459

An investigation of time course of category and semantic priming.  

PubMed

Low semantically similar exemplars in a category demonstrate the category-priming effect through priming of the category (i.e., exemplar-category-exemplar), whereas high semantically similar exemplars in the same category demonstrate the semantic-priming effect (i.e., direct activation of one high semantically similar exemplar by another). The author asked whether the category- and semantic-priming effects are based on a common memory process. She examined this question by testing the time courses of category- and semantic-priming effects. She tested participants on either category- or semantic-priming paradigm at 2 different time intervals (6 min and 42 min) by using a lexical decision task using exemplars from categories. Results showed that the time course of category priming was different from that of semantic priming. The author concludes that these 2 priming effects are based on 2 separate memory processes. PMID:18507314

Ray, Suchismita

2008-04-01

460

Perceived usefulness and performance of human-to-human communications on television  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key assumption of future television (TV) environments is that the future TV viewing experi- ences will be more active and interactive. Currently several TV technologies based on networked computing, e.g., IPTV (Internet Protocol TV) or Mobile TV, have made it possible for people to interact with their TVs, or even with other viewers through their TVs, by allowing them

Hokyoung Ryu; Aaron Wong

2008-01-01

461

Relationship between parental estimate and an objective measure of child television watching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many young children have televisions in their bedrooms, which may influence the relationship between parental estimate and objective measures of child television usage\\/week. Parental estimates of child television time of eighty 4–7 year old children (6.0 ± 1.2 years) at the 75th BMI percentile or greater (90.8 ± 6.8 BMI percentile) were compared to an objective measure of television time

Jodie L Robinson; Dana D Winiewicz; Janene H Fuerch; James N Roemmich; Leonard H Epstein

2006-01-01

462

UCLA Film & Television Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1965, the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (ATAS) joined forces with the UCLA Theater Arts Department to create the ATAS/UCLA Television Library. 11 years later, the UCLA Film & Television Archive was formally established, and donations began arriving from Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and other major motion picture studios. On the ATAS website, visitors can learn about upcoming screenings and lectures, along with more about the prodigious collections. The Collections area is a great place to start investigating opportunities to borrow prints, donate materials, and license media. The online exhibitions are a pip, and visitors should not miss the UCLA Preserved Silent Animation area. Here they can watch eleven different remarkable (and very rare) films, including "The Enchanted Drawing" and "Bob's Electric Theatre." Finally, visitors can connect with the Archive via a range of social media, including Twitter and YouTube.

2012-05-11

463

Television and adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored. PMID:2307597

Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S

1990-01-01

464

Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a) study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age < 2 years), (b) investigate the association between time spent on television (as recommended by the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP), < 2 hours per day)

Nichara Ruangdaraganon; Jariya Chuthapisith; Ladda Mo-suwan; Suntree Kriweradechachai; Umaporn Udomsubpayakul; Chanpen Choprapawon

2009-01-01

465

Television as a Cultural Force.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains nine critical essays on television as a cultural force. Television as dream and television as cultural document are the subjects of two essays. The popularity of "All in the Family" and "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" is assessed in terms of the moral messages and cultural factors in the shows which have a broad appeal to American…

Adler, Richard, Ed.; Cater, Douglass, Ed.

466

TELEVISION VIOLENCE AND KIDS' BEHAVIOUR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the televised violence on children and their exposure to television violence. Since children are very visual learners, they model both the positive and negative the behaviors they see. This paper also reviews the television violence effect on the child's youth, which can also affect his or her adulthood. Some psychologists and psychiatrists feel that continued exposure to

MIRZA JAN

467

Television Violence and Your Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Television programing has a high degree of credibility to the undiscriminating eyes of children. Programing on commercial television is composed of shows produced specifically for children and shows formerly made for adults but now shown as reruns. Observation and imitation of behavior viewed on television by children may be a link to aggressive…

Williams, Sally; Crane, Valerie

468

Television and the Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys ERIC/ChESS resources on both the influence of television on children and methods for using television effectively in the classroom. Titles of documents include "Getting Through: The Use of Media in the Classroom"; "Censorship, the Classroom, and the Electronic Environment"; and "Inside Television. Instructor's Guide (and) Students…

Seiter, David M.

1988-01-01

469

Television and Child Language Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on the effects of television viewing, particularly educational programing, on preschool children. Describes a study conducted in Athens, Greece, of television's impact on language development in kindergarten children; and of the impact of mother's educational level on child's language ability and television-viewing habits. Details…

Koutsouvanou, Eugenia

1993-01-01

470

How Older People Watch Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been prompted by the relatively small body of knowledge on the media use of the elderly. The aim of this study was to show how people 50 years and older use the medium television in Germany. Therefore, the 1996 television usership data collected in a representative ‘peoplemeter’ panel of about 4,800 German television households have been surveyed,

Andreas Grajczyk; Oliver Zöllner

1998-01-01

471

Television Between Analog and Digital  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the diffusion of the digital television platforms introduced since the 1990s. Thus far, the adoption of these platforms has tended to break down on socioeconomic lines, prompting concerned observers to take note of a widening “digital television divide.” But even more disconcerting than this digital television divide is the research deficit that has accompanied it. Although the

Max Dawson

2010-01-01

472

Television and the Female Consumer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This special issue brings together an editorial, six articles, and three book reviews that focus on the relationship between television and the female audience. The articles are: (1) "Installing the Television Set: Popular Discourses on Television and Domestic Space, 1948-1955" (Lynn Spigel); (2) "The Spectacularization of Everyday Life:…

Mann, Denise, Ed.; Spigel, Lynn, Ed.

1988-01-01

473

The Evidence on Television Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To some degree television is the current inheritor of anxiety over the effects of communications from outside the home, and is not alone among mass media in presenting sizeable amounts of violence. However the accessibility, pervasiveness, and very character of television make it the ultimate mass medium, and hence a cause for concern. Television

Comstock, George

474

Television and the Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surveys ERIC/ChESS resources on both the influence of television on children and methods for using television effectively in the classroom. Titles of documents include "Getting Through: The Use of Media in the Classroom"; "Censorship, the Classroom, and the Electronic Environment"; and "Inside Television. Instructor's Guide (and) Students…

Seiter, David M.

1988-01-01

475

Coming of Age on Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unlike commercial television, whose portrayal of older adults is often negative or degrading, cable television could offer an opportunity for more positive programming directed at older adults. Those who are interested in the portrayal of older adults and aging on television should seek control of the medium available to them, i.e., local cable…

DeJesus, Ora M.

476

Television viewing and obesity in adult males.  

PubMed

We estimated the extent to which time spent watching television is associated with obesity and super-obesity among 6,138 employed adult males. After adjustment for age, smoking status, length of work week, measured physical fitness, and reported weekly hours of exercise, people who viewed TV more than three hours/day were twice as likely to be obese as those who viewed less than 1 hour/day. Those who viewed for 1 to 2 hours daily had a relative risk of 1.60 (1.21, 2.11). Physical fitness consistently confounded the associations between TV viewing and obesity/super-obesity, but the other control variables did not do so. PMID:2929820

Tucker, L A; Friedman, G M

1989-04-01

477

Measurements and Analysis of Secondary User Device Effects on Digital Television Receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents results from a study of the potential effects of secondary users operating in unoccupied television spectrum. Television spectrum is known within the wireless communications community as being underutilized, making it a prime candidate for dynamic spectrum access. the proposed use of this open spectrum has prompted questions concerning the quantity of available channel space that could be

Timothy R. Newman; Daniel DePardo; Alexander M. Wyglinski; Joseph B. Evans; Rakesh Rajbanshi; Victor R. Petty; Dinesh Datla; Frederick Weidling; Paul J. Kolodzy; Michael J. Marcus; Gary J. Minden; James A. Roberts

2009-01-01

478

Television, The Book, and The Classroom: A National Seminar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We should resist the temptation to label our times the Age of Television--it really is an era of mass communication, and books play a strong role in this process. A positive correlation between increased television viewing and the increased use of books i...

F. Stanton

1978-01-01

479

Educational and Prosocial Programming on Saturday Morning Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study assessed the educational and informational television programming provided by four major networks, ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox. Assessed were 29 children's television programs during the 1995-1996 season. Programs were videotaped from 7:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m., a time frame when children are most likely to be in the viewing audience. A…

Calvert, Sandra L.; And Others

480

Fast Structuring of Large Television Streams Using Program Guides  

Microsoft Academic Search

An original task of structuring and labeling large television streams is tackled in this paper. Emphasis is put on simple and efficient methods to detect precise boundaries of programs. These programs are further analysed and labeled with information coming from a standard television program guide using an improved Dynamic Time Warping al- gorithm (DTW) and a manually labeled reference video

Xavier Naturel; Guillaume Gravier; Patrick Gros

2006-01-01

481

Cable Television U. S. A. An Analysis of Government Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is the opinion of the author that the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has wasted much of its time and energy in recent years constantly forming and revising cable television regulations when cable television is a relatively minor phenomenon with which the Commission should not have concerned itself in the first place. Thus, this book…

Seiden, Martin H.

482

Social class differences in how children talk about television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much time and space has been devoted to such questions as “What does television do to the child?”; and “How do children use television?”; The findings of research into these questions often are unsatisfactorily vague and ambiguous. Laymen (and our own common sense) tell us that there must be more effect from the spending of many hours a day before

Frederick Williams

1969-01-01

483

Television: the Community Hearth for the College Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examined how college students watch television: Are there gender differences in how students watch? Is watching a form of socialization or a means of escape and diversion? Is there a relationship between students' GPA and the number of hours they spend watching television? Subjects were 379 full-time undergraduates--half of whom were male…

Porter, Michael J.; Sapp, Aimee

484

Partners' influence on each other's television exposure : dominance or symmetry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this study we analyzed to what extent partners who share the same household affect each other's exposure to television. With the use of linear structural equation modeling,we analyzed data from a large scale representative survey in The Netherlands (n 697 couples). Results indicate that both men and women,influence their partner's exposure to television. When people spend much time

Ruben P. Konig; Gerbert Kraaykamp; Henk Westerik

2008-01-01

485

Television in the Classroom: Critical Viewing/Thinking Skill Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Before teachers can effectively use television technology in the classroom, many of their fears and uncertainties regarding the medium must be eliminated. For example, there are no studies indicating that television is nurturing a generation of dependent, passive watchers. Nevertheless, because children do spend one-sixth of their time between…

Parrish, Berta; And Others

486

Television Viewing and Self-Concept among Black Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the association between amount of time spent watching television and perceptions of self concept among 102 Black children ranging in age from 7 to 13. A major finding was that television viewing was related positively to the self concepts of girls and unrelated to boys' self concepts. (Author/MBR)|

Stroman, Carolyn A.

1986-01-01

487

The importance of studying viewers’ perceptions of television violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the earliest days of television there has been concern about the depiction of crime and violence in programs. For a long time anxieties centered on whether examples set by television characters shown as using violence to overcome obstacles and achieve personal goals encouraged the development and display of delinquent and antisocial behaviors among viewers, especially the young and impressionable.

Barrie Gunter

1988-01-01

488

Motivations for Television Viewing among Deaf and Hearing Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Motivations for watching television were compared for 128 hearing and 178 hearing impaired freshman students at a technical college. The questionnaire consisted of 31 television viewing motivation items, a list of program titles for frequency and enjoyment information, attitudinal statements, and demographic items. Ss reported the amount of time

Austin, Bruce A.

489

Watching Television in Australia: A Story of Innocence and Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excitement and naiveté of early viewers have become central to narratives of the Australian viewing past. These stories are of simpler times when the pleasure of watching television was unmediated by modern self-consciousness and cynicism. This popular way of 'remembering' television seems both natural and inevitable, but its role as a discursive strategy is highlighted by the alacrity with

Susan Bye

490

Regulatory axes on food advertising to children on television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes and evaluates some of the criteria on the basis of which food advertising to children on television could be regulated, including controls that revolve around the type of television programme, the type of product, the target audience and the time of day. Each of these criteria potentially functions as a conceptual device or \\

Elizabeth Handsley; Kaye Mehta; John Coveney; Chris Nehmy

2009-01-01

491

Attentional Inertia and Recognition Memory in Adult Television Viewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of attentional inertia holds that attentional engagement increases over the time course of a look at television and that this engagement rapidly dissipates when the look ends. The theory was tested in a study of 41 undergraduate students' viewing of 2 hours of videotaped dramatic television programs and associated commercials. The main results were that (a) inertial engagement

JOHN J. BURNS; DANIEL R. ANDERSON

1993-01-01

492

The Influence of New Media and Family Structure on Young Adolescents' Television and Radio Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 2,056 12- to 14-year-olds from 10 southeastern U.S. cities showed that Blacks and girls spent more time with television and radio than Whites and boys did; television use declined with age, whereas radio use increased. Access to cable television and videocassette recorders was not related to frequency of television or radio use. Lack of access to parents,

JANE DELANO BROWN; KIM WALSH CHILDERS; KARL E. BAUMAN; GARY G. KOCH

1990-01-01

493

Appraising gender role portrayals in TV commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to appraise the gender role orientations of characters appearing in prime-time television advertisements. Four hundred twenty-six college students (primarily Caucasian) rated major ad characters on the BSRI and provided perceptual judgments about the character and ad presentation. The confirmatory analysis of the psychometric properties of the BSRI indicated the appropriateness of the scale

Richard H. Kolbe; Carl D. Langefeld

1993-01-01

494

Does Television Rot Your Brain? New Evidence from the Coleman Study. NBER Working Paper No. 12021  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We use heterogeneity in the timing of television's introduction to different local markets to identify the effect of preschool television exposure on standardized test scores later in life. Our preferred point estimate indicates that an additional year of preschool television exposure raises average test scores by about .02 standard deviations.…

Gentzkow, Matthew; Shapiro, Jesse M.

2006-01-01

495

Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. METHODS: Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school

Daheia J Barr-Anderson; Nicole I Larson; Melissa C Nelson; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Mary Story

2009-01-01

496

Does Television Rot Your Brain? New Evidence from the Coleman Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use heterogeneity in the timing of television's introduction to different local markets to identify the effect of preschool television exposure on standardized test scores later in life. Our preferred point estimate indicates that an additional year of preschool television exposure raises average test scores by about .02 standard deviations. We are able to reject negative effects larger than about

Matthew Gentzkow; Jesse M. Shapiro

2006-01-01

497

Digital Television: Sharpening the Focus on Children. Media Now, Spring 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As television transitions from analog to digital, questions arise as to how to best meet the needs of children. What are the potential benefits of digital television? How can the technology be used to serve children and families, while at the same time protect them from possible harm? The transition to digital television offers a unique…

Espejo, Eileen; Miller, Patti

2004-01-01

498

Television's Impact on Children's Reading Comprehension and Decoding Skills: A 3-Year Panel Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores longitudinal effects of television viewing on 1,050 Dutch children's reading comprehension, causal mechanisms that underlie these effects on reading comprehension, and longitudinal effects of television on decoding skills. Surveys children three times at one-year intervals. Suggests that television viewing inhibited development of reading…

Koolstra, Cees M.; And Others

1997-01-01

499

Television watching during lunch increases afternoon snack intake of young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating while watching television has been shown to increase food intake in part due to the distracting effects of television viewing. It is also known that enhancing memory for the specific attributes of foods eaten in the recent past decreases subsequent food intake. Because distraction at the time of encoding interferes with memory formation, we predicted that television watching during

Suzanne Higgs; Morgan Woodward

2009-01-01

500

Television's Impact on Children's Reading Comprehension and Decoding Skills: A 3-Year Panel Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores longitudinal effects of television viewing on 1,050 Dutch children's reading comprehension, causal mechanisms that underlie these effects on reading comprehension, and longitudinal effects of television on decoding skills. Surveys children three times at one-year intervals. Suggests that television viewing inhibited development of…

Koolstra, Cees M.; And Others

1997-01-01