Science.gov

Sample records for principales sistemas antivirus

  1. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  2. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Provides rules for protecting computers from viruses, Trojan horses, or worms. Topics include purchasing commercial antivirus programs and keeping them updated; updating virus definitions weekly; precautions before opening attached files; macro virus protection in Microsoft Word; and precautions with executable files. (LRW)

  3. Impact of anti-virus software on computer virus dynamical behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mei; Li, Dandan; Han, Dun; Jia, Changsheng

    2014-11-01

    The impact of anti-virus software on the spreading of computer virus is investigated via developing a mathematical model in this paper. Considering the anti-virus software may not be effective, as it may be an outdated version, and then the computers may be infected with a reduced incidence rate. According to the method of next generation matrix, the basic reproduction number is derived. By introducing appropriate Lyapunov function and the Routh stability criterion, acquiring the stability conditions of the virus-free equilibrium and virus equilibrium. The effect of anti-virus software and disconnecting rate on the spreading of virus are also analyzed. When combined with the numerical results, a set of suggestions are put forward for eradicating virus effectively.

  4. Effect of anti-virus software on infectious nodes in computer network: A mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Bimal Kumar; Pandey, Samir Kumar

    2012-07-01

    An e-epidemic model of malicious codes in the computer network through vertical transmission is formulated. We have observed that if the basic reproduction number is less than unity, the infected proportion of computer nodes disappear and malicious codes die out and also the malicious codes-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable which leads to its eradication. Effect of anti-virus software on the removal of the malicious codes from the computer network is critically analyzed. Analysis and simulation results show some managerial insights that are helpful for the practice of anti-virus in information sharing networks.

  5. Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primich, Tracy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

  6. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the impacts of removable storage media and antivirus software on viral spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Chenquan; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a new computer virus propagation model, which incorporates the effects of removable storage media and antivirus software, is proposed and analyzed. The global stability of the unique equilibrium of the model is independent of system parameters. Numerical simulations not only verify this result, but also illustrate the influences of removable storage media and antivirus software on viral spread. On this basis, some applicable measures for suppressing virus prevalence are suggested.

  7. Personal computer security: part 1. Firewalls, antivirus software, and Internet security suites.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Ronald D

    2003-01-01

    Personal computer (PC) security in the era of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) involves two interrelated elements: safeguarding the basic computer system itself and protecting the information it contains and transmits, including personal files. HIPAA regulations have toughened the requirements for securing patient information, requiring every radiologist with such data to take further precautions. Security starts with physically securing the computer. Account passwords and a password-protected screen saver should also be set up. A modern antivirus program can easily be installed and configured. File scanning and updating of virus definitions are simple processes that can largely be automated and should be performed at least weekly. A software firewall is also essential for protection from outside intrusion, and an inexpensive hardware firewall can provide yet another layer of protection. An Internet security suite yields additional safety. Regular updating of the security features of installed programs is important. Obtaining a moderate degree of PC safety and security is somewhat inconvenient but is necessary and well worth the effort. PMID:12975519

  8. Anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal may be feasible in liver transplant recipients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA are negative.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lei; Lin, Bing-Yi; Shen, Tian; Guo, Hua; Ye, Yu-Fu; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2016-06-01

    Anti-virus prophylactic therapy may be not necessary for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after HBV-related liver transplantation (LT). However, studies on completely stopping the hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUC) after LT are few. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal in liver recipients whose serum hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA are negative. We analyzed 190 patients undergone LT for HBV-related liver disease from 2006 to 2012 and found that 10 patients completely stopped the HBIG and NUC due to poor compliance. These patients were liver biopsied and checked monthly with serum HBV markers, HBV DNA and liver function. Among the 10 patients, 9 did not show the signs of HBV recurrence after a mean follow-up of 51.6 months (range 20-73) after withdrawal of the HBIG and NUC. The average time from LT to the withdrawal of the anti-virus drug was 23.8 (13-42) months; one patient showed hepatitis B surface antigen-positive and detectable HBV DNA after stopping anti-virus drugs and this patient was successfully treated with entecavir. Our data suggested that complete withdrawal of anti-virus prophylaxis was safe and feasible for patients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA were negative at the time of LT. PMID:27298109

  9. Live virus-free or die: coupling of antivirus immunity and programmed suicide or dormancy in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The virus-host arms race is a major theater for evolutionary innovation. Archaea and bacteria have evolved diverse, elaborate antivirus defense systems that function on two general principles: i) immune systems that discriminate self DNA from nonself DNA and specifically destroy the foreign, in particular viral, genomes, whereas the host genome is protected, or ii) programmed cell suicide or dormancy induced by infection. Presentation of the hypothesis Almost all genomic loci encoding immunity systems such as CRISPR-Cas, restriction-modification and DNA phosphorothioation also encompass suicide genes, in particular those encoding known and predicted toxin nucleases, which do not appear to be directly involved in immunity. In contrast, the immunity systems do not appear to encode antitoxins found in typical toxin-antitoxin systems. This raises the possibility that components of the immunity system themselves act as reversible inhibitors of the associated toxin proteins or domains as has been demonstrated for the Escherichia coli anticodon nuclease PrrC that interacts with the PrrI restriction-modification system. We hypothesize that coupling of diverse immunity and suicide/dormancy systems in prokaryotes evolved under selective pressure to provide robustness to the antivirus response. We further propose that the involvement of suicide/dormancy systems in the coupled antivirus response could take two distinct forms: 1) induction of a dormancy-like state in the infected cell to ‘buy time’ for activation of adaptive immunity; 2) suicide or dormancy as the final recourse to prevent viral spread triggered by the failure of immunity. Testing the hypothesis This hypothesis entails many experimentally testable predictions. Specifically, we predict that Cas2 protein present in all cas operons is a mRNA-cleaving nuclease (interferase) that might be activated at an early stage of virus infection to enable incorporation of virus-specific spacers into the CRISPR

  10. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of α-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yao; Liu, Shuangfeng; Li, Juan; Meng, Yanfa; Zhao, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Background Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30) derived from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess antitumor and antivirus activities due to their RNA-N-glycosidase activity. However, strong immunogenicity and short plasma half-life limit their clinical application. To solve this problem, the two proteins were modified with (mPEG)2-Lys-NHS (20 kDa). Methodology/principal findings In this article, a novel purification strategy for the two main type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), α-MMC and MAP30, was successfully developed for laboratory-scale preparation. Using this dramatic method, 200 mg of α-MMC and about 120 mg of MAP30 was obtained in only one purification process from 200 g of Momordica charantia seeds. The homogeneity and some other properties of the two proteins were assessed by gradient SDS-PAGE, electrospray ionization quadruple mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequence analysis as well as Western blot. Two polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated proteins were synthesized and purified. Homogeneous mono-, di-, or tri-PEGylated proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The analysis of antitumor and antivirus activities indicated that the serial PEGylated RIPs preserved moderate activities on JAR choriocarcinoma cells and herpes simplex virus-1. Furthermore, both PEGylated proteins showed about 60%–70% antitumor and antivirus activities, and at the same time decreased 50%–70% immunogenicity when compared with their unmodified counterparts. Conclusion/significance α-MMC and MAP30 obtained from this novel purification strategy can meet the requirement of a large amount of samples for research. Their chemical modification can solve the problem of strong immunogenicity and meanwhile preserve moderate activities. All these findings suggest the potential application of PEGylated α-MMC and PEGylated MAP30 as antitumor and antivirus agents

  11. Anti-tumor and anti-virus activity of polysaccharides extracted from Sipunculus nudus(SNP) on Hepg2.2.15.

    PubMed

    Su, Jie; Jiang, Linlin; Wu, Jingna; Liu, Zhiyu; Wu, Yuping

    2016-06-01

    Many polysaccharides have biological activities and have been investigated for their antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor activity and anti-virus activity of SNP-the water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from Sipunculus nudus on Hepg2.2.15. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that SNP induced dose-dependent cell apoptosis on Hepg2.2.15. Real-time PCR and Western Blot analysis showed that SNP down-regulated the synthesis of HBsAg, HBV-DNA and enhanced the expression of pro-apoptosis proteins TNF-α, caspase-3, and Bax, while decreasing the expression of the anti-apoptosis proteins survivin, Bcl-2, and VEGF. These results suggested that SNP suppressed cell viability of Hepg2.2.15 and that could be a novel anti-tumor and anti-HBV agent. PMID:26987430

  12. El Sistema's Open Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about Venezuela's national youth orchestra program called El Sistema whose attributes offer a direct challenge to traditional Western music practices. As U.S. classical music--and all "high arts"--struggle to find relevance to more than the small "arts club" percentage of the U.S. populace, El Sistema proposes…

  13. Thoughts on Seeing "El Sistema"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The FESNOJIV (the Spanish acronym for the State Foundation for the National System of Youth and Children's Orchestras), more commonly known as "El Sistema," teaches 300,000 of Venezuela's poorest children in the nationwide music learning program. Many begin attending the "nucleo" as early as age two or three, and the vast majority continue well…

  14. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  15. Obstáculos a la adherencia y retención en los sistemas de salud público y privado según pacientes y personal de salud

    PubMed Central

    Arístegui, Inés; Dorigo, Analía; Bofill, Lina; Bordatto, Alejandra; Lucas, Mar; Cabanillas, Graciela Fernández; Sued, Omar; Cahn, Pedro; Cassetti, Isabel; Weiss, Stephen; Jones., Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Introducción el Programa Nacional de Sida garantiza el acceso universal a los antirretrovirales, aun así las personas que reciben medicamentos a través del sistema público no logran obtener una carga viral indetectable en la misma proporción que los pacientes del sistema privado. Este estudio cualitativo tiene como objeto identificar los factores asociados a la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención de VIH de los sistemas de salud público y privado de Buenos Aires, según las percepciones de pacientes y del personal de salud. Métodos se registraron datos cualitativos de 12 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a informantes clave y 4 grupos focales de pacientes y personal de salud tanto del sistema público como privado. Se codificaron y analizaron temas predeterminados sobre adherencia, utilizando el software QRS Nvivo9® de análisis de datos cualitativos. Resultados pacientes y personal de salud de ambos sistemas coinciden en la importancia del estigma asociado al VIH, la relación médicopaciente, la comunicación entre ambos y la división de responsabilidades en relación al tratamiento como aspectos fundamentales para la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención. Se observan diferencias entre los sistemas en la forma en que algunos de estos aspectos actúan. Las barreras estructurales se presentan como principales obstáculos del sistema público. Discusión se resalta la necesidad de intervenciones focalizadas en la díada médico-paciente que considere las particularidades de cada sistema de atención para facilitar el compromiso del paciente en la adherencia. PMID:26878024

  16. El Sistema and American Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesniak, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The brainchild of Jose Antonio Abreu, El Sistema, a music education program for aspiring orchestra musicians launched in Venezuela for students of limited means and now spreading to other parts of the world, has become a subject of interest to music teachers and teacher educators in North America. This article examines a bit of the program's…

  17. Evolución estelar en sistemas binarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O.

    Definición y clasificación de sistemas binarios; descripción del comportamiento del sistema frente a la variación de su masa; binarias de rayos X; transferencia de masa en sistemas binarios masivos aplicado al posible esclarecimiento del progenitor azul de la supernova SN 1987A; comentario acerca de la evolución de enanas blancas de helio de baja masa y su conexión con los sistemas binarios; reseña del trabajo de Kippenhahn y Weigert sobre el cual está basado el código evolutivo desarrollado en la FCAG por el Dr. Benvenuto y sobre el cual se trabajará para poder incluir la evolución de una estrella con pérdida de masa perteneciente a un sistema binario.

  18. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  19. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  20. El problema de estabilidad de los sistemas Hamiltonianos multidimensionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotta, P. M.

    Se revisarán los aspectos básicos del problema de estabilidad de sistemans Hamiltonianos N-dimensionales, haciendo especial énfasis en los posibles mecanismos que dan lugar a la aparición de ``caos": overlap de resonancias, difusión de Arnol'd y otros procesos difusivos alternativos. Se mencionarán los aspectos aún no resueltos sobre la estabilidad de los sistemas con N > 2. Finalmente, se discutirá cuáles de estos mecanismos podrían tener alguna relevancia en la dinámica de sistemas estelares y planetarios.

  1. Sistemas de cúmulos globulares extragalácticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describen las características de los sistemas de cúmulos globulares asociados a galaxias elípticas en una variedad de medios y, en particular, aquellas vinculadas con la distribución espacial, frecuencia específica y composición química. Esta discusión se hace dentro de un conjunto de esquemas orientados a explicar las primeras fases de la formación de las galaxias dominantes en cúmulos y del rol de los sistemas de cúmulos globulares en esos procesos.

  2. The Story of Carora: The Origins of El Sistema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Venezuela's youth symphony program, the Fundación Musical Simón Bolívar, commonly referred to as "El Sistema," combines musical achievement with learning important life skills through orchestral practice and performance. Although the history most commonly reported outside Venezuela is of the program's director, José Antonio Abreu,…

  3. El Sistema de Referencia Celeste convencional de la IAU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. F.

    La Unión Astronómica Internacional (IAU) recomendó la adopción de un nuevo sistema de referencia celeste baricéntrico cuyo plano fundamental y origen de ascensiones rectas estén próximos, respectivamente, al ecuador y equinoccio dinámicos J2000.0. El nuevo sistema de referencia estará materializado por las posiciones J2000.0 de radiofuentes extragalácticas determinadas con la técnica de interferometría de larga línea de base (VLBI). El Working Group on Reference Frames de la IAU (WGRF) decidió adoptar (Grasse, 1995) al sistema de referencia celeste extragaláctico del Servicio Internacional de la Rotación Terrestre (IERS) como futuro sistema de referencia celeste convencional bajo el nombre International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) y encomendó su mantenimiento futuro al IERS. El marco de referencia que materializará al ICRS contiene posiciones precisas J2000.0 de más de 600 radiofuentes extragalácticas. Las coordenadas fueron ajustadas en una única solución VLBI en la cual se incluyeron todas las observaciones realizadas hasta octubre de 1995 con la técnica de adquisición de datos VLBI Mark III. Para minimizar los errores sistemáticos que pueden afectar la calidad del marco de referencia se introdujeron mejoras sustanciales en la modelización y en la selección de datos. Un subconjunto de objetos del marco de referencia se utilizó para referir las posiciones estelares determinadas con el satélite astrométrico Hipparcos al ICRS.

  4. Hatching Plans: Pedagogy and Discourse within an El Sistema-Inspired Music Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I draw on my experience as an instrumental tutor with a music program inspired by and explicitly linked to El Sistema, to explore new perspectives on Sistema-based pedagogy and management. Detailed ethnographic description of an orchestral session provides a first-hand account of the program's pedagogy, which I then contextualize…

  5. Resurrection Symphony: "El Sistema" as Ideology in Venezuela and Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of Venezuela's "El Sistema" is rewriting the agenda of musical education in the West. Many commentators from the world of classical music react to the spectacle of dedicated young colonial musicians playing European masterworks as a kind of "miracle," accepting "Sistema" founder José Antonio…

  6. Lifting the Veil: A Realist Critique of Sistema's Upwardly Mobile Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Owen

    2016-01-01

    El Sistema sits somewhere between a social project and a classical music initiative. However, its promise of delivering upward mobility has not been sufficiently examined as a structural phenomenon which dovetails with critical policy issues in taxation, educational provision, human rights, and welfare. This article argues that Sistema-style…

  7. Estudio del sistema simbiótico AR Pavonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, C.; Brandi, E.; Ferrer, O.; García, L.; Barbá, R.

    Se presenta un estudio espectroscópico y polarimétrico de la binaria eclipsante AR Pavonis a partir de observaciones obtenidas con el telescopio de 2.15 m. del CASLEO (San Juan). El estudio de la naturaleza del sistema se realizó a través del análisis de algunos espectros reunidos entre los años 1990 y 1995 y de datos polarimétricos correspondientes al intervalo 1995 y 1997. El análisis espectroscópico indica que AR Pav está compuesta por una gigante roja M3.7 y una componente caliente compacta, con una temperatura mayor a 90000 K y una luminosidad del orden de 500Lsolar. A lo largo del período orbital, las variaciones observadas en flujo y en velocidades radiales, reflejan que las emisiones permitidas se forman en una región que rodea la componente caliente. El estudio de la polarización lineal de AR Pav indica que además de una componente interestelar, existe una componente intrínseca del sistema que varía temporalmente y con la longitud de onda de la luz polarizada. El distinto comportamiento del grado de polarización y del ángulo de posición observado en fases diferentes, sugiere que distintos mecanismos pueden estar actuando, dependiendo de la región de scattering observado a lo largo de la línea de la visual.

  8. Things to Remember about El Sistema: A Response to "El Sistema--A Perspective for North American Music Educators" by Tricia Tunstall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesniak, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Melissa Lesniak, the executive director of the Greater Miami Youth Symphony, discusses how much she enjoyed reading the responses to her "El Sistema" article and appreciates the opportunity for healthy dialogue and debate. In response, she states that there are many common goals and objectives across all music education programs that can…

  9. "The Feelings Have Come Home to Me." Examining Advertising Films on the Swedish Website of El Sistema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuuse, Anna-Karin; Lindgren, Monica; Skåreus, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze how the music educational program of El Sistema Sweden is advertised and legitimized through moving images. The films are a major part of the information on the Swedish national website of El Sistema and are supposed to contribute to the picture that the organization and its founders wish to market. The use…

  10. [Pharmacodynamic experiment of the antivirus effect of Houttuynia cordata injection on influenza virus in mice].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-zhou; Shi, Han; Shi, Yu-jing; Liu, Ying; Jin, Ya-hong; Gao, Ying-jie; Guo, Shan-shan; Cui, Xiao-lan

    2010-03-01

    It is to investigate the effect of two kinds of Houttuynia Cordata Injection on preventing and treating H1N1 influenza virus infection in mice. Pneumonia model was set up by intranasal infection of the normal and immunocompromised mice with influenza virus FM1 and PR8. The two injections were administered before and after the administration of virus, separately, and the lung index was observed. The results showed that the two preparations have obvious therapeutic effect on normal mice infected with influenza virus FM1 and PR8. And to FM1, the new injection's effect is better at small dosage. The results also showed that the two preparations have obvious prophylactic effect on immunodepressed mice infected with influenza virus FM1 and PR8. And to PR8, the old injection's effect is better at small dosage. Houttuynia Cordata Injection can improve the mice pneumonia caused by influenza virus H1N1 and decrease the lung index markedly. It has a remarkable preventive and therapeutic effect on H1N1 influenza virus in mice. PMID:21351520

  11. [Preparation of hepatic targeting antivirus agent NGA-ACV and its targeting property].

    PubMed

    Fan, J Z; Li, T L; Pang, Q J; Guan, C T; He, Y; Su, K Y

    1996-01-01

    Neoglycoalbumin (NGA), a special ligend of asialoglycoprotein receptor on the hepatocyte, was linked via a butanediacyl bridge to acyclovir to form a conjugate NGA-ACV. By using DTA (Differential thermoanalysis) and HPLC analysis, ACV was shown to be connected with NGA by covalent bonds and stable in blood. The radio-biodistribution of 131I-NGA-ACV with high drug density in vivo was carried out in mice. The maximum absorption of 131I-NGA-ACV in liver was 81.7 +/- 10.4% at 5 min. The radioimage of 131I-NGA-ACV with high or low drug density in rabbit showed no significant difference in liver targeting property. The competitive connection tests indicated that 131I-NGA-ACV was concentrated in liver through receptor mediated mechanism. A tentative test of antihepatitis B of NGA-ACV and ACV in vitro showed that the effective dose of the former was significantly lower than that of the latter. PMID:9772705

  12. El Sistema as a Bourgeois Social Project: Class, Gender, and Victorian Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article asks why classical music in the UK, which is consumed and practiced by the middle and upper classes, is being used as a social action program for working-class children in British music education schemes inspired by El Sistema. Through exploring the discourse of the social benefits of classical music in the late nineteenth century, a…

  13. Improving Middle School Quality in Poor Countries: Evidence from the Honduran "Sistema De Aprendizaje Tutorial"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.; Murphy-Graham, Erin; Torres Irribarra, David; Aguilar, Claudia; Rápalo, Renán

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates the impact and cost-effectiveness of offering an innovative middle school model--the Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial (SAT)--to Honduran villages instead of traditional middle schools. We identified a matched sample of villages with either type of school and collected baseline data among primary school graduates eligible to…

  14. El Sistema de Formas en Colores for Teaching Grammar in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nailon, James

    2010-01-01

    Sistema de formas en colores (SFC) is a symbols-based system for teaching Spanish grammatical structures and concepts within a communicative context in the elementary school. The (ACTFL) Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century states that, "While grammar and vocabulary are essential tools for communication, it is…

  15. Exploración del Sistema Solar -- Una mirada hacia el futuro

    NASA Video Gallery

    ¿Piensas que ya sabemos todo acerca de nuestro sistema solar? La realidad es que apenas hemos comenzado con lo que hay para conocer. Únete a la NASA, en el envío de misiones a los confines del sist...

  16. Social Responsibility and Community Development: Lessons from the Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial in Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeyman, Catherine A.

    2010-01-01

    This article extends understanding of the connections between education, social capital, and development through a mixed-methods case study of the Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial, or SAT, an innovative secondary-level education system. The quantitative dimension of the research used survey measures of social responsibility to compare 93 SAT…

  17. Another Perspective: El Sistema--A Perspective for North American Music Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Herein, Tricia Tunstall presents a critique of the article by Melissa Lesniak published in the December 2012 "Music Educators Journal," and offers a new perspective on the Venezuelan youth orchestra program known as "El Sistema." The program, which began in Caracas thirty-eight years ago, is dedicated to changing the lives of…

  18. Five Encounters with "El Sistema" International: A Venezuelan Marvel Becomes a Global Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Eric; Tunstall, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    Genuine worldwide movements for social change are rare in human history. Even more rare is the phenomenon of a worldwide movement for social change through art, with teaching artists at the forefront. This article presents the evolution of such a movement now, in the global blossoming of "El Sistema," a program that seeks to change the…

  19. Sistema Planeta-Satélite. Simulación orbital y potenciales gravitatorios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, C.; Carrillo, M.

    Se presenta un programa (desarrollado en Quick Basic 4.5) que simula, en tres dimensiones, el movimiento orbital de un satélite (o luna) alrededor de un planeta, al tiempo que calcula y grafica, en un plano, el potencial gravitatorio del sistema en función de la distancia al planeta. Para la simulación orbital, se emplea la matriz de transformación entre el sistema del planeta y el plano orbital. Para el cálculo y graficación del potencial se aplica un desarrollo en serie hasta el segundo orden, que da cuenta del efecto de achatamiento de los polos, en caso de que éste exista. Las longitudes de los ejes del planeta, la masa de éste y del satélite, sus tamaños aparentes, y los parámetros orbitales son introducidos por el usuario.

  20. Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

  1. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete años y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseño Ritchey-Chretién corresponde a la razón focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consideró como utilizable para fotografía directa. En el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, se diseñó y construyó un sistema corrector de campo para la razón focal F/7.5, que actualmente está en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboración en diseflo y evaluación de sistemas ópticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseño de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del tȩlescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideración de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicaría su instalación y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrón cuya área sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cámara directa para foco primario

  2. Instantánea de los cánceres de cerebro y del sistema nervioso central

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre los cánceres de cerebro y del sistema nervioso central; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de estos tipos de cáncer.

  3. Securing PCs and Data in Libraries and Schools: A Handbook with Menuing, Anti-Virus, and Other Protective Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Allen C.

    This handbook is designed to help readers identify and eliminate security risks, with sound recommendations and library-tested security software. Chapter 1 "Managing Your Facilities and Assessing Your Risks" addresses fundamental management responsibilities including planning for a secure system, organizing computer-related information, assessing…

  4. Evaluation of Spirulina platensis extract as natural antivirus against foot and mouth disease virus strains (A, O, SAT2)

    PubMed Central

    Daoud, Hind M.; Soliman, Eman M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work was aimed to document the antiviral activates of Spirulina platensis extract against foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) different types to evaluate its replication in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cell culture and in baby mice. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity assay studied for S. platensis extract on BHK cells to determine the non-toxic dose. The non-toxic dose of Spirulina extract was mixed with each type of FMDV (A, O, SAT2). Then 10-fold dilutions from each mixture were done. FMDV titer for each type of treated FMDV was calculated to evaluate the antiviral activity of the Spirulina extract against FMDV. Furthermore, old baby Swiss mice were inoculated with 0.1 ml intraperitonially from the mixture of FMDV different types and different concentration of Spirulina extracts. After 48 h post inoculation, all the baby mice examined to evaluate the antiviral action of Spirulina extract. Results: The result showed that the non-toxic doses of S. platensis (50 ug/ml) revealed 35.7%, 28.5%, and 31% reductions in FMDV titers Type O, A, and SAT2 on BHK cells, respectively. The same non-toxic dose gave 50% of the inhibitory concentration in baby mice without cytotoxic effect. Conclusion: This study confirmed the biological activity of the ethanol extract of S. platensis against FMDV Types O, A, and SAT2. From the results, S. platensis could be useful as antiviral lead to limitation of infection among animals during outbreaks but further studies need to evaluate the S. platensis on experimental or natural infected farm animals to establish the effective dose side affected period of treatment of S. platensis. PMID:27047027

  5. From the model of El Sistema in Venezuela to current applications: learning and integration through collective music education.

    PubMed

    Majno, Maria

    2012-04-01

    Over the last years, El Sistema--the Venezuelan project started in 1975 and now acknowledged worldwide as the most significant example of collective music education--has inspired a profusion of remarkable initiatives on all continents. From the original impulse by founder José Antonio Abreu, strong social principles of integration are combined with specific musical approaches to achieve individual empowerment as a large-scale alternative to endemic juvenile crime, counteracting the risk factors of social unease, serving as a stimulating example toward emancipation, and providing professional opportunities to the talented. Such a network, in turn, proves to be a powerful instrument of cultural progress: the tenets of "Sistema" become shared values able to foster development, reaching into issues of disability and rehabilitation. This paper presents continuities and contrasts in various ramifications of such a successful trend and outlines perspectives for further impact of this powerful transformational agent. PMID:22524340

  6. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su

  7. Calibração do sistema imageador do telescópio MASCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía, J.; D'Amico, F.; Villela, T.; Braga, J.

    2003-08-01

    O MASCO (MÁScara COdificada) é um telescópio imageador de raios-X e gama atualmente configurado para operar na faixa de 50 a 600 keV com uma resolução angular de 14 minutos de arco num campo de visada total circular de 23,5° de diâmetro. O MASCO está totalmente operacional e deverá ser lançado em um balão estratosférico no segundo semestre de 2003 para realizar observações durante ~20 horas a ~40 km de altitude. O telescópio utiliza uma máscara codificada de padrão uniformemente redundante modificado (MURA) de dimensões 19 ´ 19. Esse padrão pertence a uma subclasse de MURAs que apresenta anti-simetria de 90° e conseqüentemente permite a utilização da técnica de subtração de variações sistemáticas de ruído de fundo através de utilização da configuração anti-máscara, obtida com uma simples rotação da máscara. Neste trabalho apresentamos resultados de calibrações em laboratório que tiveram como objetivo testar o sistema imageador. Imagens de fontes radioativas foram obtidas com o telescópio em configuração de vôo, com a máscara girando. Serão discutidos os resultados desses testes e as técnicas desenvolvidas para eliminar ambigüidades de posição de fontes, otimização da relação sinal-ruído e observação de fontes fora do campo totalmente codificado. O sistema de máscara/antimáscara mostrou-se capaz de aumentar a relação sinal-ruído de ~60% para fontes intensas (100 s). Com a máscara girando, a técnica de reconstrução de imagens desenvolvida identificou a posição exata da fonte e não introduziu perda de sensibilidade. Imagens de uma fonte colocada a 8,3° - fora do campo totalmente codificado do telescópio -, mostraram uma diminuição de ~40% na relação sinal/ruído em relação ao centro do campo de visada, o que se deve à codificação incompleta pela máscara e à absorção parcial do fluxo pelos detectores de blindagem.

  8. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

  9. Transferências orbitais dentro do modelo quase bicircular no sistema Terra-Lua-Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, A. A.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.; Stuchi, T. J.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    O problema quase bicircular planar consiste na determinação da dinâmica de um corpo, de massa desprezível, que se move sob o campo gravitacional de três corpos. No caso estudado, o quarto corpo é considerado um satélite artificial e os demais são a Terra, a Lua e o Sol, formando o sistema de três corpos. Este modelo permite a construção de uma hamiltoniana similar a do problema restrito de três corpos (PRTC), incluindo termos periódicos não autônomos, provenientes da presença do Sol, portanto pode ser entendido como uma perturbação ao PRTC. Suas órbitas periódicas aparecem isoladas e possuem o mesmo período solar. Os pontos de equilíbrio colineares possuem o mesmo caráter de estabilidade linear dos pontos lagrangianos (L1, L2 e L3) do PRTC, sendo do tipo sela x centro x centro, instável na direção x e estáveis nas direções y e z. As órbitas periódicas tridimensionais ao redor do ponto colinear é chamada órbita Halo. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar órbitas de transferências de baixo consumo de combustível para um veículo espacial partindo de uma órbita de estacionamento ao redor da Terra em direção a uma órbita Halo do ponto L1, situado entre a Terra e Lua. Esta tarefa pode ser transformada no problema de valor de contorno: dado um ponto inicial na órbita de estacionamento, um ponto final na órbita halo e o tempo de transferência, deseja-se obter a trajetória que liga estes dois pontos e que minimize os incrementos de velocidade do veículo. Essas transferências são realizadas baseadas no método de Lambert e analisadas de modo a fornecer um baixo consumo. Posteriormente, é feita uma comparação de consumo com as órbitas de transferência equivalentes do PRTC.

  10. Resonances and Tides in Natural Satellites Systems. (Breton Title: Ressonâncias e Marés em Sistemas de Satélites Naturais.) Resonancias y Mareas en Sistemas de Satélites Naturales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegari, Nelson, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    In this work we describe some aspects of the dynamics of the mean-motion resonances. Emphasis to the case of resonances between regular satellites of the giant planets will be given, even so some aspects of the physics of the resonances in extra-solar planetary systems are also briefly treated. The role of the resonances in satellites systems is discussed through examples, showing how certain resonances, and its relations with the tidal dissipation effects, can be the key of the explanation of some phenomena still not explained in the Solar System. Amongst some examples we highlight the problem of the resurfacing of Enceladus, the existence of active volcanoes in Io, and the possible existence of the subsurface ocean in Europe. This work has as objective the divulgation of some topics in Celestial Mechanics and Planetary Sciences for an undergraduate public in exact sciences, as Astronomy and Physics, and not their detailed description. Neste trabalho descrevemos alguns aspectos da dinâmica de ressonâncias de movimentos médios. Será dada ênfase maior ao caso de ressonâncias entre satélites regulares dos planetas gigantes, embora alguns aspectos da física das ressonâncias em sistemas planetários extra-solares também sejam discutidos brevemente. A importância do estudo de ressonâncias em sistemas de satélites é discutida mais detalhadamente através de exemplos, mostrando como certas ressonâncias e suas relações com efeitos de dissipação de maré podem ser a chave de parte da explicação de alguns fenômenos ainda não explicados no Sistema Solar. Dentre vários exemplos destacamos o problema da remodelagem da superfície do satélite Enceladus, a existência de vulcões ativos em Io, e a possível existência do oceano subterrâneo em Europa. Este trabalho tem como objetivo a divulgação de alguns tópicos de Mecânica Celeste e Planetologia para um público de nível de graduação em disciplinas na área de exatas, em especial Astronomia e F

  11. The Development of Musical Skills of Underprivileged Children Over the Course of 1 Year: A Study in the Context of an El Sistema-Inspired Program.

    PubMed

    Ilari, Beatriz S; Keller, Patrick; Damasio, Hanna; Habibi, Assal

    2016-01-01

    Developmental research in music has typically centered on the study of single musical skills (e.g., singing, listening) and has been conducted with middle class children who learn music in schools and conservatories. Information on the musical development of children from different social strata, who are enrolled in community-based music programs, remains elusive. This study examined the development of musical skills in underprivileged children who were attending an El Sistema-inspired program in Los Angeles. We investigated how children, predominantly of Latino ethnicity, developed musically with respect to the following musical skills - pitch and rhythmic discrimination, pitch matching, singing a song from memory, and rhythmic entrainment - over the course of 1 year. Results suggested that participation in an El Sistema-inspired program affects children's musical development in distinct ways; with pitch perception and production skills developing faster than rhythmic skills. Furthermore, children from the same ethnic and social background, who did not participate in the El Sistema-inspired music program, showed a decline in singing and pitch discrimination skills over the course of 1 year. Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea of musical development as a complex, spiraling and recursive process that is influenced by several factors including type of musical training. Implications for future research are outlined. PMID:26869964

  12. The Development of Musical Skills of Underprivileged Children Over the Course of 1 Year: A Study in the Context of an El Sistema-Inspired Program

    PubMed Central

    Ilari, Beatriz S.; Keller, Patrick; Damasio, Hanna; Habibi, Assal

    2016-01-01

    Developmental research in music has typically centered on the study of single musical skills (e.g., singing, listening) and has been conducted with middle class children who learn music in schools and conservatories. Information on the musical development of children from different social strata, who are enrolled in community-based music programs, remains elusive. This study examined the development of musical skills in underprivileged children who were attending an El Sistema-inspired program in Los Angeles. We investigated how children, predominantly of Latino ethnicity, developed musically with respect to the following musical skills – pitch and rhythmic discrimination, pitch matching, singing a song from memory, and rhythmic entrainment – over the course of 1 year. Results suggested that participation in an El Sistema-inspired program affects children’s musical development in distinct ways; with pitch perception and production skills developing faster than rhythmic skills. Furthermore, children from the same ethnic and social background, who did not participate in the El Sistema-inspired music program, showed a decline in singing and pitch discrimination skills over the course of 1 year. Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea of musical development as a complex, spiraling and recursive process that is influenced by several factors including type of musical training. Implications for future research are outlined. PMID:26869964

  13. Experiências internacionais da aplicação de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica em gastroenterologia

    PubMed Central

    Tenório, Josceli Maria; Hummel, Anderson Diniz; Sdepanian, Vera Lucia; Pisa, Ivan Torres; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever as experiências recentes com a aplicação de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica em gastroenterologia, de forma a estabelecer o nível de desenvolvimento, testes e vantagens conferidas à prática médica com a introdução desses softwares. Métodos Foi realizada busca nas bases de dados PubMed, LILACS e ISI Web of Knowledge, utilizando termos relacionados à sistemas de apoio à decisão e à gastroenterogia, incluindo artigos originais publicados no período entre 2005 e 2010. Foram recuperadas 104 publicações, na busca inicial e, após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram eleitos nove estudos para leitura do texto completo. Resultados Os sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica apresentam grande multiplicidade de problemas clínicos e investigação de doenças. Em 89% dos casos, são descritos modelos experimentais para o desenvolvimento de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica. A descrição dos resultados obtidos por técnicas de inteligência artificial em 78% das publicações. Em dois dos estudos foram realizadas comparações com o médico e em apenas uma publicação um estudo controlado foi descrito, mostrando evidências de melhorias na prática médica. Conclusão Os estudos mostram potenciais benefícios dos sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica à prática médica, porém, estudos controlados em ambiente real devem ser realizados para comprovar esta perspectiva. PMID:26491625

  14. ''Principalled'' Leadership in the PDS School: Enhancing the Field Experience for Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenk, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In the mid-1980s and early 1990s, the Holmes group (1990) laid out a blueprint for leadership in PDS schools, positing that effective principals could foster leadership roles for all participants. Since then other scholars have explored the challenges of establishing strong principal-PDS relationships. This qualitative case study reveals how one…

  15. Principales lignes structurales du Maroc nord-oriental : apport de la gravimétrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Touria; Khattach, Driss; Milhi, Abdellah; Andrieux, Pierre; Keating, Pierre

    2007-05-01

    The present work is based on various filtered maps (horizontal derivative, upward continuation) and Euler deconvolution of the gravity data from northeastern Morocco. These results allow the delineation of many geological structures, such as faults, basins, or diapirs. Some of these structures are hidden totally or partially by the Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover. The results were used to make a structural map of the study area; this map confirms the existence of several faults, localised or inferred, from former geological studies. It complements information on some of them and outlines a great number of deep or near-surface faults that had remained unknown until the present time. The major features show two principal directions: N080°-085° and N055°-065°, with a predominance of the latter, and their depth can reach 4500 m. The N080°-085° directions correspond to the Kebdana, Sidi Bouhouria, Naima, and Guefait faults, and the N055°-065° directions correspond to a fault parallel to the Mediterranean coast and the Moulouya, Madagh, Angad, and Zekkara faults.

  16. Cobertura de los sistemas de pensiones y factores asociados al acceso a una pensión de jubilación en México

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-López, Sandra; Venegas-Martínez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Objetivos: obtener estimaciones de indicadores de cobertura de las pensiones por jubilación o retiro para la población mexicana de 65 y más años, y evaluar el impacto que tienen los sistemas de pensiones en las transiciones al retiro de los adultos en edades medias y avanzadas en México. Para ello se utilizan datos microeconómicos provenientes de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento. Mediante análisis econométrico se identifican los factores sociodemográficos, económicos, laborales e institucionales que están asociados al acceso a una pensión de jubilación, o bien, a la dependencia de otras fuentes de ingresos. Se encontró que, en México, las transiciones al retiro del mercado de trabajo en las etapas avanzadas del ciclo de vida son limitadas debido a las características eminentemente contributivas de los esquemas de pensiones, los cuales favorecen a la población con trayectorias laborales formales y más estables asociadas a: características de género, oportunidades educativas y posibilidades de inserción en el mercado laboral. PMID:27524936

  17. The Forum for Defence of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) and its role in building community participation in the fight against the privatization of health.

    PubMed

    de Lara, Lutiane; Guareschi, Neuza Maria de Fátima

    2016-03-01

    Based on a Foucauldian framework, this article discusses the involvement of the Forum for Defence of the Sistema Único de Saúde in the fight against health care privatization. Community participation is a locus of experience that produces subjects implicated in the production of public health care. The locus of experience in this instance derives from the rejection of private elements that historically have been part of Brazilian public policies. It is an experience that produces workers and service users as agents able to defend the public system and endowed with instituting power. PMID:26987838

  18. A critical view of the 'social reinsertion' concept and its implications for the practice of psychologists in the area of mental health in the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde).

    PubMed

    Frazatto, Carina F; Sawaia, Bader B

    2016-03-01

    Improving psychological practice in mental health services in the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) requires a critical analysis of core concepts of the psychiatric reform, such as 'social reinsertion'. This analysis, oriented by the dialectics of exclusion/inclusion, showed that this concept is impregnated with the adaptation paradigm and asylum view which prevents its effective implantation. The results suggest it is necessary to include social aspects in the discussion of mental health, articulating it with networks of social work and recuperating the revolutionary aspects of the psychiatric reform, thus demarcating the political nature of professional practices. PMID:26987835

  19. Correlação de longo alcance em sistemas binários de raios-x usando remoção de flutuações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Moret, M. A.; Zebende, G. F.; Nogueira, E., Jr.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é proposta uma metodologia de analise de series temporais de fontes astrofísicas, baseada no método proposto por Peng et al. (1994) e Liu et al. (1999), o qual consiste na idéia de que uma série temporal correlacionada pode ser mapeada por um processo de busca de auto-similaridades em diversas escalas de tempo n. Removendo as eventuais tendências e integrando o sinal observado, é obtida uma medida do desvio médio quadrático das flutuações do sinal integrado F(n)~na, onde a representa o fator de escala associado com a auto-similaridade da correlação de longo alcance do sinal. Baseado nos valores obtidos de a, é possível distinguir entre os casos de sinais não-correlacionados, tipo ruído branco (a = 0,5), sinal anti-persistentes (a < 0,5) e sinal persistente (a > 0,5). Usando esta metodologia, foram analisadas 129 curvas de luz de sistemas binários de raios-X, provenientes do banco de dados públicos de observações feitas pelo instrumento All Sky Monitor, a bordo do satélite Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (ASM-RXTE). Foram identificadas a presença de a'0,5 em mais de 90% dos sistemas estudados, implicando em dizer que as flutuações de intensidade observadas apresentam correlação de auto-similaridade, sem entretanto, indícios de apresentarem uma escala de tempo característica das flutuações de intensidade. Sistemas onde são observadas erupções (flares), apresentam sistematicamente a > 0,5, característica esta, possivelmente associada com persistência das flutuações de densidade de disco ou taxa de acréscimo de massa. Os sistemas com curvas de luz onde nao são observadas as erupções apresentam uma distribuição normal centrada em a~0,62+/-0,10. Referências ¾ Peng, C.-K., Buldyrev, S.V., Havlin, S., Simons, M., Stanley, H.E., e Goldberg, A.L., Phys. Rev. E, (49), 1685 (1994). ¾ Liu, Y., Gopikrishnan, P., Cizeau, P., Meyer, M., Peng,C.-K., e Stanley, H.E., Phys. Rev. E, (60), 1390 (1999).

  20. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  1. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.

    Se presenta una revisión de los conocimientos actuales sobre el proceso de acreción del sistema solar exterior. En base a nuevas y más realistas simulaciones numéricas, se analiza el impacto que tuvo dicho proceso en otras regiones del sistema solar tales como la nube de Oort, el cinturón de Kuiper y el sistema solar interior. Se presentan entonces, las principales limitaciones de los modelos numéricos actuales, los principales puntos aún oscuros en el problema, y algunos de los posibles caminos a seguir para mejorar nuestro conocimiento en el tema. Se discute a continuación la posible utilidad de este tipo de estudios para el diseño de estrategias de búsqueda de otros sistemas planetarios.

  2. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  3. How to Keep Your Campus Safe from Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how antivirus programs work. He also explains how performances of various antivirus programs vary from one to another. He also takes a look at 13 antivirus programs and explains which of these will keep computers protected. These programs include: (1) Sophos Anti-Virus Version 3.86.2; (2) McAfee VirusScan 9.0;…

  4. Evolution insolite d'une plaie complexe de la voie biliaire principale post cholécystectomie cœlioscopique

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hedfi; Hala, Bouhafa; Youssef, Elcadhi; Abdelhedi, Cherif; Karim, Sassi; Azza, Sridi; Adnen, Chouchene

    2016-01-01

    Depuis l'avènement de la chirurgie coelioscopique de la lithiase biliaire le nombre de plaies des voies biliaires a sensiblement augmenté dans la littérature en rapport avec la courbe d'apprentissage des opérateurs. Les plaies méconnues peuvent avoir des conséquences immédiates dramatiques et évoluer vers la péritonite biliaire. Ailleurs la réparation des fistules biliaires externes au stade de dilatation des voies biliaires nécessite une anastomose bilio digestive ou des résections hépatiques réglées. PMID:27279975

  5. Standards-Based Instruction for All Learners: A Treasure Chest for Principal-Led Building Teams in Improving Results for Learners Most At-Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    This document is designed to help administrators and faculties understand how the many complicated pieces of a high-performing school fit together. Trying to implement all the pieces at once may not be a solid plan for accomplishing a vision of quality. Taking steps to determine what is most critical for students is the logical starting place. The…

  6. A Descriptive Case Study of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (PBS) System in Schools with Principal-Led Planning Teams and Coach-Led Planning Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Ellen K.

    2011-01-01

    Managing disruptive behaviors in schools is a high-ranking concern in communities across the country (Rose & Gallup, 2006). Unfortunately, the practice of instituting tougher and more severe consequences for increased discipline problems has not resulted in a decrease of disruptive behavior (Lewis & Garrison-Harrell, 1999; Safran & Oswald, 2003;…

  7. Architecture for removable media USB-ARM

    DOEpatents

    Shue, Craig A.; Lamb, Logan M.; Paul, Nathanael R.

    2015-07-14

    A storage device is coupled to a computing system comprising an operating system and application software. Access to the storage device is blocked by a kernel filter driver, except exclusive access is granted to a first anti-virus engine. The first anti-virus engine is directed to scan the storage device for malicious software and report results. Exclusive access may be granted to one or more other anti-virus engines and they may be directed to scan the storage device and report results. Approval of all or a portion of the information on the storage device is based on the results from the first anti-virus engine and the other anti-virus engines. The storage device is presented to the operating system and access is granted to the approved information. The operating system may be a Microsoft Windows operating system. The kernel filter driver and usage of anti-virus engines may be configurable by a user.

  8. [Advance of chemical constituents and bioactivity of Saururuaceae plants].

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Wu, Feng; Chen, Rou-yun

    2003-03-01

    Essential oil, flavonoids, alkaloids and lignas were isolated from Saururuaceae plants. They possesses antibacteral, antiviruses, antiinflammatory. Inhibitory of plaleted aggregation activites and exhibit significant neuroleptic activity. PMID:15015297

  9. [The anti-adenovirus activity of larifan in a cell culture].

    PubMed

    Nosach, L N; Diachenko, N S; Zhovnovataia, V L; Butenko, S I

    1998-01-01

    Larifan, belonging to the number of highly active interferon inducers with a broad antivirus spectrum of action, did not manifest any antivirus effect in vitro in respect to human adenovirus of serotype 2 when it was used to treat the cells before and after the infection. PMID:9785803

  10. Alimentation et origine de la salinité de la source sous-marine de Port-Miou (Marseille-Cassis). Principale émergence d'un réseau karstique hérité du Messinien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blavoux, Bernard; Gilli, Éric; Rousset, Claude

    2004-04-01

    (Marseille-Cassis-Bouches-du-Rhône). The salinity of the karstic submarine spring of Port-Miou has sometimes been attributed to the leaching of continental evaporites. Our recent chemical and isotopic analyses indicate a simple mixing between fresh karstic water and seawater. In the main gallery, the contamination by seawater, still present up to 2.2 km from the entrance at a depth of 147 m below the sea level, forces us to think about a general geometry that allows mixing of waters, at a great depth, in the karstic system. The measurements of the discharge of the spring indicate an excess of water compared with its supposed watershed, whereas a succinct evaluation of the aquifers of the Lower Provence indicates a deficit of discharge. Consequently, it seems possible that parts of the calcareous areas of the Lower Provence feed the springs of Port-Miou with a total catchment area of 1200 km 2. This deep and large karstic system was probably installed during the Messinian period, when the important lowering of the level of the Mediterranean Sea provoked an important gradient between Provence and the seashore. To cite this article: B. Blavoux et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  11. Status of Day Care in Canada: A Review of the Major Findings of the National Day Care Study, 1974. (Situation De La Garde De Jour Au Canada: Une Revue des Principales Constatations Sur La Garde De Jour, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet presents (in both French and English) the results of a 1974 survey which assessed the growth of day care services in Canada. Similar national surveys had been conducted in 1971 and 1973. Results indicated that the number of day care spaces and the number of children of working mothers in day care increased substantially from 1973 to…

  12. The Mexican Sistema de Alerta Sismica (SAS) Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa-Aranda, J.; Rodriguez, F.

    2003-12-01

    The Mexico City's SAS is an Early Warning System developed in accordance with recommendations of foreign and national seismology experts, after the disaster generated in 1985 by the M8.1 Michoacan earthquake. The SAS aim is to help mitigate future seismic disasters in Mexico City (MC), mainly if the big forecast "Guerrero Earthquake" hits. In 1991 the SAS started its service in an experimental basis for evaluating its performance both with a group of basic education students in public schools, and with the emergency stop function for the Mexico City Metropolitan Subway System (METRO of MC); after this The Federal District Government (FDG) opened the SAS as a public service in August, 1993, shortly after the SAS warned, with more than 60 seconds of anticipation, the incoming effect of May 13, 1993, M5.8, and M6 double earthquake originated more than 300 Km from MC between Guerrero and Oaxaca, on the coast. That year, an initial technical flaw generated one false alert signal; the cause was readily corrected. The SAS has 12 seismic sensor stations covering a stripe close to 400 X 100 Km on the Guerrero's coast, between Papanoa and Punta Maldonado, that send information through a dedicated radio relay system to the SAS Central Control in MC., using the valuable support of some TELMEX field installations. Until August, 2003, the SAS sensor system has detected more than 1550 earthquakes in the 2.55 magnitude events, which are the ones felt in MC. The SAS has generated 57 warning signals with an average of 60 sec in advance to earthquake effects: 46 of restricted use for M<6, and 11 of public use for M>6 events. Public warnings have the automatic broadcast support of many commercial radio AM/FM and TV stations in Mexico City and Toluca valleys. The FDG controls the SAS signal service that includes the more frequent events (from M>5 up), asking the user to develop procedures and practice useful actions to mitigate seismic disasters. Each validated SAS seismic warning automatically generates and sends the event information by fax and e-mail to the DFG and Civil Protection Authorities, users and news media; it also sends information about the SAS operating conditions to service technicians, via radio, and phone.

  13. El enfoque de sistemas en programas de seguridad cuarentenaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a globalized world, the application of phytosanitary measures for quarantine by the producing countries is becoming more important as it facilitates access to key export markets for fruits and vegetables. Some of the problems currently encountered with quarantine treatments include, among others...

  14. Diversidad de Sistemas Planetarios en Discos de Baja Masa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronco, M. P.; de Elía, G. C.

    The accretion process that allows the formation of terrestrial planets is strongly dependent on the mass distribution in the system and the presence of gas giant planets. Several studies suggest that planetary systems formed only by terrestrial planets are the most common in the Universe. In this work we study the diversity of planetary systems that could form around solar-type stars in low mass disks in absence of gas giants planets and search wich ones are targets of particular interest. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  15. Momentos centrados en sistemas estelares a simetria axial.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz Subirana, J.; Juan Zornoza, J. M.; Català Poch, M. A.

    Centered moments in the galactic plane have been analytically determined up to the fourth order for a non-stationary stellar system model with a distribution of peculiar velocities of the stars symmetric under point-axial transformations and equatorial plane reflexions. The obtained results explain satisfactorily the peculiar velocities distribution of the considered stellar samples in the solar neighborhood.

  16. Drive-by-Downloads

    SciTech Connect

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

  17. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...-9694--USB 2.0 Hard Drive, Portable, 320G NSN: 7045-01-599-9345--USB Flash Drive, 256-Bit AES Encryption, Level 3 Encrypted, Anti-Virus, 4GB NSN: 7045-01-599-9346--USB Flash Drive, 256-Bit AES Encryption, Level 3 Encrypted, Anti-Virus, 32GB NSN: 7045-01-599-9348--USB Flash Drive, 256-Bit AES Encryption,...

  18. Resonancias en la región trans-neptuniana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, T.; Ferraz-Mello, S.

    La expansión de la órbita del planeta Neptuno en la etapa de acreción del Sistema Solar exterior (Fernández e Ip 1984, 1996) parece ser un mecanismo eficiente para la captura de planetesimales en las resonancias exteriores con Neptuno (Malhotra 1995). Por otro lado, los estudios dinámicos realizados por varios autores indican que las resonancias son regiones de evolución estable, en contraste con el comportamiento caótico del resto de la región trans-neptuniana. Por estas razones, y si bien los datos observacionales son todavía muy limitados, se supone que los objetos descubiertos se encuentran en alguna de esas resonancias. En esta comunicación presentamos un estudio analítico y numérico de las principales resonancias exteriores con Neptuno.

  19. Evolución de planetas gigantes y posibilidades de su detección directa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde la reciente detección de planetas gigantes orbitando estrellas cercanas de tipo solar por medio de efecto Doppler, uno de los principales problemas, en cuanto al estudio de los sistemas planetarios extrasolares, se refiere a la posibilidad de obtener evidencia directa de su existencia. Esto parece ser factible gracias a que en un futuro cercano entrarán en operación algunos telescopios especialmente adecuados a estos propósitos. Por tal motivo, hemos comenzado desde hace un tiempo un esfuerzo en cuanto al estudio de la evolución planetaria. A tales efectos hemos adaptado el código de evolución estelar de nuestro Observatorio al caso planetario. Las principales diferencias entre el caso estelar y el planetario se encuentran en la ecuación de estado. A tales fines hemos incluído la reciente ecuación de estado de Saumon, Chabrier y Van Horn, las opacidades radiativas de Guillot et al., procesos de quema de Deuterio, etc. También se ha considerado la posible existencia de fases de hielo y roca en el interior planetario. Por el momento hemos despreciado los efectos de la rotación planetaria. Con este código hemos computado la evolución de planetas con masas desde 10 hasta 0.3 masas de Júpiter. Utilizando nuestros resultados numéricos discutimos la detectabilidad de estos objetos en condiciones realistas.

  20. Universal Serial Bus Architecture for Removable Media (USB-ARM)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-09

    USB-ARM creates operating system drivers which sit between removable media and the user and applications. The drivers isolate the media and submit the contents of the media to a virtual machine containing an entire scanning system. This scanning system may include traditional anti-virus, but also allows more detailed analysis of files, including dynamic run-time analysis, helping to prevent “zero-day” threats not already identified in anti-virus signatures. Once cleared, the media is presented to the operating system, at which point it becomes available to users and applications.

  1. Universal Serial Bus Architecture for Removable Media (USB-ARM)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-03-09

    USB-ARM creates operating system drivers which sit between removable media and the user and applications. The drivers isolate the media and submit the contents of the media to a virtual machine containing an entire scanning system. This scanning system may include traditional anti-virus, but also allows more detailed analysis of files, including dynamic run-time analysis, helping to prevent “zero-day” threats not already identified in anti-virus signatures. Once cleared, the media is presented to the operatingmore » system, at which point it becomes available to users and applications.« less

  2. Contribución de la Estación San Juan SLR al Sistema Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podestá, R.; Actis, E.; Alonso, E.; Pacheco, A.; González, A.; Han, Yanben; Wang, Tanqiang; Zhao, Limin; Liu, Chengzhi; Alacoria, J.; Peñaloza, L.; Brizuela, D.; Flores, M.

    The new San Juan Satellite Laser Ranging Station integrates, with number 7406, the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) network, being one of the few stations located in the southern hemisphere. It works shooting powerful laser pulses towards satellites at different heights, measuring the time of flight and calculating distances. With this technology we can perform high precision astronomical, geophysical and geodesic studies. Within the full constellation of satellites observed with ILRS, we track the two European pioneer satellites (Giove-A and B) of the future Global Positioning System Galileo, the European competitive response to the currently well established American GPS, of worldwide use. The GPS Galileo will be aimed mostly to civil usage, especially to aerial and terrestrial navigation. The Giove-A satellite was launched out to space on December 28, 2005 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, on board of the Russian Soyuz rocket. Since mid 2006, 14 Laser Stations -San Juan station included- took part in a follow-up campaign of the Giove-A. Once the satellite orbital behavior was known, a second Giove-B orbiter was launched in April 2008. A constellation of 30 satellites will complete the Galileo system. Since Giove-A orbits the Earth at a height of 23916 kms, only shots from the best SLR world stations can reach it. San Juan station has tracked it, contributing to the study of its motion. As a new station, the San Juan Satellite Laser Ranging Telescope has become one of the best in the world, consequence of a decade of successful Chinese-Argentinean collaboration. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. Sistemas Eolicos Pequenos para Generacion de Electricidad; Una guia para consumidores en los EE.UU.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-09-01

    This Spanish version of the popular Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  4. Sistemas Eolicos Pequenos para Generacion de Electricidad: Una guia para consumidores en Nuevo Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-09-01

    This Spanish version of the popular Small Wind Electric Systems: A New Mexico Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  5. Sintesis y caracterizacion de portadores magneticos coloidales. Aplicaciones al diseno de sistemas de liberacion de farmacos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Lopera, Salvador Angel

    2003-10-01

    The present work is mainly dedicated to the synthesis and characterization of composite colloidal particles with a magnetic core (magnetite) and a polymeric biodegradable material shell (poly(DL-lactide), PLA). The aim is to use them as drug carrier systems in the field of controlled (or modified) release. The appropriate synthesis conditions are analyzed for such purpose, starting with the synthesis of the magnetic nuclei, and continuing with that of microspheres of the polymer used later as shell material. The final step is the manufacture of the composite colloids. In order to have a good comparison, all the experiments of the work have been run in triplicate, that is, for the three individual materials (magnetic nuclei, PLA and composite particles magnetite/PLA) and all the discussions are presented by way of parallel study of the three colloidal systems. The following surface and bulk properties have been studied: shape and size of the particles, specific surface area, chemical composition. The magnetic behavior of the nuclei is characterized, as well as that of the composite particles, through measurement of the magnetic susceptibility and the hysteresis cycles. In addition, a study of the electrokinetic behavior of the systems as a function of pH---at constant ionic strength---has been complemented by an investigation of their surface thermodynamics to check the extent of coverage achieved. Very significant results were also obtained in the analysis of the stability of the suspensions. Since our final aim was the design of a drug carrier and controlled release system, we also present a series of preliminary results concerning the effect of the glucocorticoid betamethasone 21-phosphate sodium salt on the surface electrical properties of the three kinds of particles, observing clear differences between the behavior of magnetite particles and of composite or pure polymeric colloids. It is demonstrated that the polymer layer affects considerably the capacity of the colloid for adsorbing this drug and, probably, other drugs of interest in the treatment of those pathologies in which one needs an elevated local concentration of any therapeutic product but without adverse side effects, like those used in the chemotherapy of the solid tumors.

  6. Crecimiento adiabático de un agujero negro en el centro de un sistema estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigoni, M.; Carpintero, D. D.

    We present preliminary results on the dynamical influence of an adiabatically grown central black hole upon its surroundings. Young (1980), in his pioneer work, found an r-3/2 density profile for the neighborhood of a black hole, a result not confirmed by observation. In this work, we extend Young's result to a more realistic case, namely an inhomogeneous galactic center, although keeping the spherical symmetry hypothesis, in order to verify whether the final density profile changes.

  7. Il sistema multiplo di Spica osservato dal Padre Giovanni Battista Audiffredi nel 1753

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2005-06-01

    The multiplicity of Spica's system has been first observed in 1753 by the dominican father Giovanni Battista Audiffredi through a lunar occultation. Audiffredi noted that the emersion's duration from the bright lunar limb was not instantaneous. Nowadays Spica has five known components, four of them have been discovered by occultation. This observation is presented along with a general introduction of lunar occultations, Watts' profiles, Cassini regions and grazes.

  8. Coexistencia e integracion de comunicaciones inalambricas en sistemas de transmision opticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Soler, Joaquin

    Current network and telecommunication systems are required to provide higher data rates in access networks to an increasing number of users. This fact is mainly due to the increase in the Internet traffic data, which is related with the higher demand of online videogames and software, the increased complexity in the content of web pages, the joint distribution of audio-visual and added-value online content, and the introduction of high-definition services and contents such as video on demand, as a result of a society increasingly more interconnected. In order to satisfy these higher data rates requirements, new techniques for the joint distribution of several wireless communication systems are proposed in this Thesis. The aim of these techniques is to facilitate the deployment of an integrated access network at the customer premises, enabling the integration of optical transmission over an optical access network and radio-frequency transmission in the same infrastructure. Two main wireless communication systems are considered in this Thesis, WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) and UWB (Ultra-Wide Band) according to WiMedia Alliance recommendation. Comparing the bit rate and expected range, WiMAX and UWB are complementary radio technologies expected to coexist in a near future in integrated access networks. The optical access network considered in this Thesis can be regarded as a FTTH network (Fibre-to-the-Home). The wireless signals are natively transmitted over optical network, that is, without frequency upconversion and remodulation stages, over one or several optical carriers. This technology, which is known as Radio-over-Fibre (RoF), is well suited for integrated access networks. First, the requirements for the wireless convergence of services based on Multi-Band Orthogonal-Frequency Division-Multiplexing UWB (MB-OFDM UWB) and WiMAX 802.16e in Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) are stated. The aim of this study is to provide relevant protection margins in order to ensure the coexistence between both technologies. The obtained protection margins are of great interest for the development of advanced interference mitigation techniques such as DAA (Detect-and-Avoid), in the framework of future cognitive radio technologies. In a second step, the wireless coexistence of MB-OFDM UWB and WiMAX technologies is analyzed from the point of view of access networks based on RoF systems. Two experimental field trials are here carried out. In the first one, the wireless convergence is evaluated in a multi-mode fibre RoF system, whereas in the second one, the RoF system is based on a standard single-mode fibre. These experimental results provide relevant fibre link transmission distances to enable the deployment of RoF networks. Moreover, a new optical transmission technique based on polarization division multiplexing is proposed and experimentally evaluated in order to ensure the wireless coexistence in RoF systems. Finally, the impact of the electro-optical Mach-Zehnder modulator is analyzed, since the dynamic range of this device limits the performance of the RoF system. Moreover, a new optical linearization technique for Mach-Zehnder modulators is proposed and evaluated in order to overcome this limitation.

  9. Sistemas binarios viuda negra: conectando sus orígenes con su estado final

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.; Horvath, J. E.

    ``Black widow'' systems are located in a well determined region of the plane (where is the mass of the pulsar companion and is the orbital period of the system). An attempt has been made to understand which are the mechanisms that lead to companions of ``black widows'' to be located in this region; since standard binary evolution does not provide a satisfactory response. From our evolutionary calculations; we study the path performed in the plane by a binary system to reach the state of ``black widow''. We also discuss whether there is a connection between ``redbacks'' and ``black widows''. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  10. Cuantificacion de la radiacion de la estructura en sistemas de caja cerrada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura Alcaraz, Jorge G.

    In the present work a contribution to the study of the quantification of the radiation of the structure walls in systems of closed box has been made, establishing a relation of the vibroacustic response of this type of radiating systems with the characteristics of the material used, such as the Young modulus, the damping, or the density. From a general point of view, the object of the work fits within the problems of dynamic fluid-structure interaction, so the presented foundations of the procedures and models, are similar to the used in other dominions of application, like the construction, aeronautics, naval construction, Biology, etc. In order to approach the problem, a mecano-acoustic couple between the different elements from the radiating system is considered. Ideally, in the radiating systems composed of loudspeakers mounted on an acoustic enclosure or box, the walls of the box are considerated infinitely rigid with null movement. In the reality, the experience demonstrates that the walls behave like vibrant plates under the action of the inner pressures, and contribute to the final radiation of sound of the system, mainly in the low frequencies range. To obtain the proposed objective, first a series of experimental measures has been made on models of closed box with and without loudspeaker. In the experimental procedure the vibracional behavior of the walls of the structure has been studied by means of modal analysis and measures of vibration. The acoustic response of the systems is evaluated by means of measures of acoustic pressure and intensity. Next, numerical models of the loudspeaker, inner air and structure have been implemented. The implemented numerical models are mechanical-acoustic, the electrical part of the loudspeaker has been replaced by a harmonic excitation force. The first numerical model is three-dimensional, looking for obtaining a simulation of the simultaneous interaction of the three main elements of the system: the inner air of the box, the diaphragm of the loudspeaker, and the walls of the box. Moreover another numerical model in two dimensions has been implemented, adding the air outside of the box, and obtaining a fluid-structure-fluid couple. With both models a parametric study been made. In sumary the structure colors the sonorous response of the system in all the studied frequency range, due to resonances or forced vibrations of the walls. On the other hand the proposed numerical model supposes an advance with respect to the presented ones until the moment. The model constitutes a design tool that allows to study in an economic form, the importance of the structure in the sonorous response of the system.

  11. Investigacion Participativa y Gestion de Sistemas Educativos. (Participatory Research and the Management of Educational Systems).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Elements which, when put in harmony, might generate powerful tools for social change and educational development are (1) the ever present need of the educational systems to evaluate their performance; (2) the universal acceptance of the life-long education concept as a major guideline to design educational programs; (3) the trend toward a…

  12. Una guia a los padres acerca del sistema educacional = A Parent's Guide to Education. Spanish Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowch, Nancy

    A guide for Spanish-speaking parents of elementary and secondary school students in Nebraska provides in Spanish, and then in English, information concerning education in the state. Topics covered include: state policy concerning enrolling children in school, medical requirements for enrollment and attendance, the school curriculum requirements…

  13. Curso Introductorio sobre el Sistema DIALOG (Introductory Course on the DIALOG System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Ketty

    As an introduction to the use of the DIALOG online retrieval service, this guide presents material that was developed during a fellowship at Carlos III University, School of Library Science and Documentation, Madrid (Spain) and that is based on a course on the same subject taught in English at Texas Women's University. Although the use of DIALOG…

  14. The Solar System/El Sistema Solar--A Fully Integrated Instructional Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Heukelem, Tom; Mercado, Maria de Jesus

    This lesson plan for the second grade uses information on the solar system to provide science education for limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in San Diego, California. The lesson has been developed to be taught in a bilingual class, a Spanish-language immersion class, or a two-way bilingual class. Lessons are arranged so that native…

  15. Estudio de la Velocidad de Rotacion EN LOS Sistemas Estelares a Simetria Axial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, J.; Catala, M. A.

    1986-12-01

    This paper contains the calculation of the tangential component of the velocity for a model of galaxy with axial symmetry, non.stationary state and equatorial symmetry plane, from the postulates and fundamental equations of Chandrasekhar theory, that shows a shift of the maximum for different values of the Z coordinate and the 0 direction. Key words: STELLAR DYNAMICS - STELLAR SYSTEMS

  16. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  17. How To: Protect against a Zero-Hour Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Rob

    2005-01-01

    In the last year, a series of viruses and worms that caused damage across the Internet in record time has made very clear how vulnerable computer systems are. The MS Blaster, Slammer, Sasser, and Korgo.W worms have shown that signature-based antivirus software and traditional firewalls are not enough to protect networks. Everyone is worried about…

  18. Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    2001-01-01

    A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

  19. Science and Technology Resources on the Internet: Computer Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinkus, Jane F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses issues related to computer security, including confidentiality, integrity, and authentication or availability; and presents a selected list of Web sites that cover the basic issues of computer security under subject headings that include ethics, privacy, kids, antivirus, policies, cryptography, operating system security, and biometrics.…

  20. Lock It Up! Computer Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    The data contained on desktop computer systems and networks pose security issues for virtually every district. Sensitive information can be protected by educating users, altering the physical layout, using password protection, designating access levels, backing up data, reformatting floppy disks, using antivirus software, and installing encryption…

  1. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  2. The Computer Virus Threat and What You Can Do about It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lateulere, John

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of computer viruses describes two types of viruses and how they work; suggests ways to prevent or minimize virus risk; and explains how to recognize a virus and limit damage once a virus attacks. A sidebar lists several antivirus software products. (two references) (NRP)

  3. How Much Security Does Your Library Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Kyle

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to keep library systems healthy and functioning by taking sensible security measures. Examines why hackers would target library systems and how library systems are compromised. Describes tools that can help, including: firewalls; antivirus software; alarms; network analysis tools; and encryption. Identifies several strategies for…

  4. Peace (of Mind) in Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    There's no silver bullet to information security; universities must continue to keep their antivirus, anti-spyware, firewall, and patch management systems in good working order. These days, the largest target for hackers appears to be university databases. Now, universities are searching for new solutions to safeguard those systems. This article…

  5. Alternancia entre el estado de emisión de Rayos-X y Pulsar en Sistemas Binarios Interactuantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2015-08-01

    Redbacks belong to the family of binary systems in which one of the components is a pulsar. Recent observations show redbacks that have switched their state from pulsar - low mass companion (where the accretion of material over the pulsar has ceased) to low mass X-ray binary system (where emission is produced by the mass accretion on the pulsar), or inversely. The irradiation effect included in our models leads to cyclic mass transfer episodes, which allow close binary systems to switch between one state to other. We apply our results to the case of PSR J1723-2837, and discuss the need to include new ingredients in our code of binary evolution to describe the observed state transitions.

  6. Study of apsidal motion in massive close binary systems. (Spanish Title: Estudio del movimiento apsidal en sistemas binarios masivos)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, G.; Gamen, R.; Fernández-Lajús, E.

    In O+OB close binary systems, superior order momenta of the classical gravitational potential and general relativity effects produce a secular motion of the apsides. This phenomenon, together with theoretical stellar structure models, can be used to estimate the absolute masses of the system components, even for non-eclipsing binaries. We are conducting a spectroscopic study of eccentric close O+OB binaries in order to detect or confirm the existence of apsidal motion, determine its rate, and calculate the absolute masses of the stars. In this work we describe the current status of the project and present some preliminary results obtained for the systems iota Ori A, HD 93205, HD 152248, and HD 165052.

  7. Life Support Systems. Environment Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Sistemas vitales. Libro del medio ambiente 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to improve…

  8. Estudio general de la region del Lago Titicaca evaluando en forma preliminar un sistema de analisis interactivo de imagenes multiespectrales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brockmann, C.E.; Carter, William D.

    1976-01-01

    ERTS-1 digital data in the form of computer compatible tapes provide the geoscientist with an unusual opportunity to test the maximum flexibility of the satellite system using interactive computers, such as the General Electric Image 100 System. Approximately 9 hours of computer and operator time were used to analyze the Lake Titicaca image, 1443-14073, acquired 9 October 1973. The total area of the lake and associate wetlands was calculated and found to be within 3 percent of previous measurements. The area was subdivided by reflectance characteristics employing cluster analysis of all 4 bands and later compared with density values of band 4. Reflectance variations may be attributed to surface roughness, water depth and bottom characteristics, turbidity, and floating matter. Wetland marsh vegetation, vegetation related to ground-water effluents, natural grasses, and farm crops were separated by cluster analysis. Sandstone, limestone, sand dunes, and several volcanic rock types were similarly separated and displayed by assigned colors and extended through the entire scene. Waste dumps of the Matilde Zinc Mine and smaller mine workings were tentatively identified by signature analysis. Histograms of reflectance values and map printouts were automatically obtained as a record of each of the principal themes. These themes were also stored on a work tape for later display and photographic record as well as to serve in training. The Image 100 System is rapid, extremely flexible and very useful to the investigator in identifying subtle features that may not be noticed by conventional image analysis. The entire scene, which covers 34,225 km2, was analyzed at a scale of 1:600,000, and portions at 1:98,000 and 1:25,000, during a 9-hour period at a rental cost of $250 per hour. Costs to the user can be reduced by restricting its uses to specific areas, objectives, and procedures, rather than undertaking a complete analysis of a total scene.

  9. Sistemas Eolicos Pequenos para Generacion de Electridad (Spanish version of Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-07-01

    This Spanish version of the popular Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  10. Region Emilia Romagna: Primary Health Care Integration/Regione Emilia-Romagna: l’integrazione nel sistema di Cure Primarie

    PubMed Central

    Basenghi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The politics of Region Emilia-Romagna have been meant to improve social and health care integration through an architecture of local services coherent with this purpose, setting up a Department dedicated to Primary Care inside the Social and Health District. The territorial basis of the Local Health Units (LHU), the resident people, the sustained public spending, the employed human resources and the provided services all delineate the organization of the LHU. The purpose is to grant strong integration among local bodies and LHUs through a governance system (planning, management and administration) that makes a distinction between commissioning and supply. The Committenza (commissioning department), which reports to the Strategic Direction and the District, directs the offer in connection with the need analysis, whereas the Primary Care Department arranges activities and provides services by means of integrated networks which ensure continuity to the care. The main hub in the network is known as the Casa della Salute (House of Health), which works through structured practices, protocols and procedures. LHU professionals and freelancers under contract supply primary, in-home and nursing home care, plus specialist outpatient treatment. The Casa della Salute, whose size will depend on the context (large, medium and small), are reliable reference points for citizens, who can address to them in every moment of the day. On behalf of the Regione Emilia-Romagna, it is the Primary Care Observatory which registers the functions existing in the 42 Houses of Health and their organizational and structural characteristics. The analysis of the obtained data will increase enhance the Houses’ implementation.

  11. Influencia de diferentes ecuaciones de transformacion del sistema UBVal RGU en el estudio fotometrico de cumulos galacticos.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestamendia Aparicio, G.

    Three-colour photometry of ten open clusters in the RGU system has been carried out. The calibration sequence has been defined using the Buser's transformation equations between the UBV and RGU systems, while in earlier works the Steinlin's formulae have been used. The results have been compared with those given in these works. Some differences have been found in G, G-R and U-G as a function of the spectral type and the interstellar absorption. They have a systematic character.

  12. La producción de cráteres en el Sistema de Satélites de Saturno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanardi, M.; Di Sisto, R. P.

    The saturnian satellite system has been observed by the Cassini-Huygens mission, in particular the impact craters on them. These satellites present a diversity of surfaces which could help us to understand about their history. To study the production of craters on these satellites, we develop a theoretical model from previous simulations and we obtain the contribution of Centaur objects to the production of craters. We calculate the number of craters for a given size and the greatest crater produced by Centaur objects. This allowed us to compare our theoretical results with the observations by the Cassini-Huygens and determine the origin of craters as well as constrain the size distribution of Centaurs. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  13. Cuerpo de Paz Manual de Sistema de Programacion y Capacitacion (Peace Corps Programming and Training System Manual): T0063.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish version of the Peace Corps Programming and Training System Manual is designed to help field staff members of the Peace Corps train volunteers. Its task descriptions, guidelines, examples, and definitions are intended to be practical and informative rather than restrictive. The manual is divided into six major sections: (1)…

  14. Exploring the Academic and Psychosocial Impact of El Sistema-Inspired Music Programs within Two Low Socio-Economic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Margaret S.; McPherson, Gary E.; Faulkner, Robert; Davidson, Jane W.; Barrett, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to understand the potential for positive non-musical outcomes for economically and socially disadvantaged primary school students who are involved in instrumental music learning programs. Two schools with students experiencing generational poverty, current or first-generation immigrant or refugee status who were running El-Sistema…

  15. Efectos difusivos en la formación de enanas blancas de Helio de baja masa en sistemas binarios cerrados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    In the last years, and thanks to advances in observational techniques, many astronomers have discovered in a great number of binary radio-pulsars the presence of a helium white dwarf resulting from a previous evolutionary state in which the progenitor of this star experienced one or more episodes of mass transfer to the compact component in the pair. That is the case for PSR B1855+09 (van Kerkwijk, M. H., Bell, J. F, Kaspi, V. M., & Kulkarni, S. R. 2000, ApJ 530, L37), where the mass for the white dwarf is known accurately from measurements of the Shapiro delay of the pulsar signal, MWD = 0.258+0.028-0.016 M⊙; for PSR J02018 + 4232 (Bassa, C. G., van Kerkwijk, M. H., & Kulkarni, S. R. 2003, A&A, 403, 1067), the spectra confirm that the companion is a helium-core white dwarf of ≈ 0.2 M⊙. On the other hand, there are several authors (Ferraro, F., Possenti, A., Sabbi, E., & D'Amico, N. 2003, ApJ, 596, L211; Bassa et al. 2003) that have identified the optical binary companion to the BMSP PSR J1911 - 5958A, located in the halo of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6752, like a blue star whose position in the color-magnitude diagram is consistent with the cooling sequence of a low-mass, ≈ 0.17 - 0.20 M⊙, low metallicity helium white dwarf at the cluster distance. Finally, the color and magnitude of the stellar companion for B 1620-26 indicate that is a white dwarf of 0.34 ± 0.04 M⊙ (Sigurdson, S., Richer, H. B., Hansen, B. M., Stairs, I. H. & Thorset, S. E. 2003, Science, 301, 193S). This has motivated us to study the formation of low mass helium white dwarfs in the context of binary evolution. For that purpose, using the code of binary evolution, entirely developed in the Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas of the Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina, we have investigated the effects of diffusive processes on the evolution of a star member of a close binary system. A similar study was performed for Althaus, L. G., Serenelli, A. M., & Benvenuto, O. G. (2001, MNRAS, 323, 471) but in that paper the mass transfer was mimicked by subtracting mass to a progenitor of 1 M⊙ to obtain the mass for the desired object. Actually, our binary code has a full nuclear reactions network for hydrogen and helium burning that allowed us to follow the abundances of fifteen isotopes throughout the entire evolution of the star. We have also included a detailed equation of state. The mass loss treatment is non conservative. We have modified the conditions for the beginning and end of mass transfer episodes. In our previous version, we assumed it to occur when the stellar radius was greater or smaller, respectively, that the Roche Lobe radius for the star. This introduced numerical problems, especially at the end of mass transfer phases. We adopted H. Ritter (1988, A&A, 202, 93) formulation that considers a finite scale height in the stellar atmosphere. The numerical behaviour in much more satisfactory, besides that it constitutes a more appropriate description for the physical problem. We perform the calculations for the evolution of the primary star in a close binary system of initial mass 2 M⊙, initial period of 1 day, initial mass ratio of 1.4142 and solar metallicity. We have done the calculations in four cases: A) with diffusion and all Roche Lobe overflows, B) with diffusion and only the first Roche Lobe overflow, C) without diffusion and all Roche Lobe overflows, D) without diffusion and only the first Roche Lobe overflow. Cases B) and D) where performed to compare with results obtained for Althaus et al. (2001). The main conclusion of this work is that the age of these objects is mainly determined by diffusive effects, and the late stages of mass transfer, not considered in Althaus et al. (2001), constituted a minor effect on the scales of cooling times.

  16. Sistema Solar: de la observación de La Tierra a los planetas gigantes y sus lunas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, R.

    La fotoquímica tiene un papel principal en la composición de las atmósferas planetarias. Se examinan diferentes procesos fotoquímicos tanto para atmósferas oxidadas como reductoras, poniendo un especial énfasis en los ciclos químicos más importantes. En este sentido, se presentan diferentes ciclos químicos capaces de producir hidrocarbonos y nitrilos en atmósferas reductoras, así como aquellos capaces de mantener las proporciones de mezcla de las moléculas que contienen oxígeno, tales como CO2, O2 y H2O. También se analizan otros procesos importantes tales como la condensación y procesos de sputtering y de sublimación que han de tenerse en cuenta cuando se realizan modelos sobre la composición atmosférica.

  17. Determinacion de Caracteristicas Opticas del Telescopio OAN150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    En el Observatorio de Calar Alto, en Almería, España, está ubicado un telescopio de 15O-cms de diámetro -construído por REOSC- perteneciente al Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, con sede en Madrid, España. La infraestructura técnica del OAN ha sido tradicionalmente débil y actualmente se está haciendo un esfuerzo por fortalecerla. Existe una información muy limitada del telescopio en general; de su óptica en particular se conocían los valores de los parámetros principales pero sin saber si éstos corresponden a valores teóricos ó de construcción. Por ello se consideró necesario iniciar una investigación para conocer en detalle los valores reales de las componentes ópticas del telescopio, obteniéndose algunos resultados de interés. El primario del telescopio OANl5O es aproximadamente F/3 y el siste ma en su conjunto es F/8.2, con su sistema corrector de campo. En términos generales, la imagen es satisfactoria en todo el campo y, sin sistema corrector, la imagen axial también es buena. En un futuro muy cercano se piensa diseñar instrumentación adicional para este telescopio. Conocer con mayor precisión sus características puede ser de gran utilidad para tal fin, pues se efectúan los cálculos considerando conjuntamente al telescopio y al instrumento.

  18. GPS, punto de contacto entre la Astronomía y otras disciplinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdomo, R.

    En los primeros años de la pasada década, un grupo de Astrónomos de La Plata iniciaron trabajos de investigación en Geodesia Satelital. En esta presentación se propone repasar sus principales logros y situarlos en el contexto del desarrollo de la disciplina a nivel mundial. Por entonces las aplicaciones prácticas de la disciplina eran indirectas y solo evidentes para los especialistas. Los errores del Posicionamiento Satelital eran de varios metros y en posicionamiento relativo, del orden de medio metro. Estos resultados se lograban al cabo de varios días de medición continuada. En los años siguientes, el sistema GPS alcanzó su nivel operacional y produjo una revolución tanto en lo relacionado con los tiempos de medición como con las precisiones. El grupo de La Plata se desarrolló simultáneamente con GPS, lo que posibilitó su participación actual en diversos temas vigentes: aplicaciones de alta precisión para la materialización de sistemas terrestres de referencia, monitoreo de movimientos de la corteza, contribución con servicios internacionales para la determinación de movimientos tectónicos globales y regionales, monitoreo de la ionósfera a partir de la propagación de las señales, determinación de la ondulación del geoide a escala local, etc. También se generaron muchas aplicaciones prácticas algunas en tiempo real: navegación, apoyo a imágenes aéreas o satelitales, aplicaciones a la agricultura, catastro y ordenamiento territorial, apoyo a relevamientos geofísicos, etc.

  19. Segmenting and counting of wall-pasted cells based on gabor filter.

    PubMed

    Sun, Nongliang; Xu, Saicong; Cao, Maoyong; Li, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Correctly counting the live cells plays a great role in the ectogenetic anti-virus experiment. According to the irregular shape and arbitrary size of the wall pasted Hela cells overlapping each other, we propose a scheme to segment and count the cells using Gabor filter with different parameters and Morphological operation. Experiments reveal that filters with different parameters will lead to different results and a better segmentation will be achieved based on the characteristics of cells and optimal parameters. Large amount of experiment results show that this algorithm can successfully segment the cells and the accuracy arrives at 99.3%. This scheme based on image analysis and pattern recognition can overcome some disadvantages of traditional approaches, shortening anti-virus experimental period and reducing experimental cost. PMID:17282957

  20. Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Perú: un estudio cualitativo

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

  1. CRISPR sabotage.

    PubMed

    van der Oost, John; Brouns, Stan J J

    2015-01-01

    The biological arms race generally involves the rapid co-evolution of anti-virus systems in host organisms and of anti-anti-virus systems in their viral parasites. The CRISPR-Cas system is an example of a prokaryotic immune system in which such co-evolution occurs, as was recently demonstrated by the characterization of a set of viral anti-CRISPR proteins. PMID:26553202

  2. Beyond Firewalls: Professional Certification Ensures Your Staff Will Understand Information Security in Its Proper Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetcov, Eric

    2004-01-01

    When it comes to security, many people do not know what they do not know. Consider for example, an administrator who leaves her password taped under her keyboard, or a teacher who doesn't change his password (ever!) or can't be bothered to log out or lock the computer, all the firewalls and antivirus programs in the world will not protect a…

  3. Aptamer-Facilitated Cryoprotection of Viruses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Global vaccination and gene therapy programs have an urgent demand for stabilization of viral vectors at low temperature. We used a quadramer, a bridge-connected DNA tetra-aptamer to antivesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), as a viral cryoprotectant. Results showed that the tetravalent antivirus DNA aptamers protect viral activity during multiple freeze–thaw cycles, shield from neutralizing antibodies, and decrease aggregation of viral particles. PMID:25408838

  4. Exe-Guard Project

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rhett; Marshall, Tim; Chavez, Adrian; Bratus, Sergey

    2015-12-26

    The exe-Guard Project is an alliance between Dominion Virginia Power (DVP), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Dartmouth University, and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). SEL is primary recipient on this project. The exe-Guard project was selected for award under DE-FOA-0000359 with CFDA number 81.122 to address Topic Area of Interest 4: Hardened platforms and Systems. The exe-Guard project developed an antivirus solution for control system embedded devices to prevent the execution of unauthorized code and maintain settings and configuration integrity. This project created a white list antivirus solution for control systems capable of running on embedded Linux® operating systems. White list antivirus methods allow only credible programs to run through the use of digital signatures and hash functions. Once a system’s secure state is baselined, white list antivirus software denies deviations from that state because of the installation of malicious code as this changes hash results. Black list antivirus software has been effective in traditional IT environments but has negative implications for control systems. Black list antivirus uses pattern matching and behavioral analysis to identify system threats while relying on regular updates to the signature file and recurrent system scanning. Black list antivirus is vulnerable to zero day exploits which have not yet been incorporated into a signature file update. System scans hamper the performance of high availability applications, as revealed in NIST special publication 1058 which summarizes the impact of blacklist antivirus on control systems: Manual or “on-demand” scanning has a major effect on control processes in that they take CPU time needed by the control process (Sometimes close to 100% of CPU time). Minimizing the antivirus software throttle setting will reduce but not eliminate this effect. Signature updates can also take up to 100% of CPU time, but for a much shorter period than a typical

  5. Analysis of the maximum discharge of karst springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacci, Ognjen

    2001-07-01

    ) la dimension limitée du conduit karstique, (2) l'écoulement en charge, (3) le débordement dans un autre bassin, (4) le débordement du réseau s'écoulant vers la source principale par des sources temporaires dans le même bassin, (5) le stockage d'eau dans la zone surmontant l'aquifère karstique ou la zone épikarstique du bassin, et (6) des facteurs tels que le climat, le sol et le couvert végétal, l'altitude et la géologie du bassin d'alimentation. Le phénomène de capacité limitée du débit maximal des sources karstiques n'est pas pris en compte dans la modélisation des processus de précipitation-ruissellement, ce qui est probablement une des principales raisons de l'actuelle médiocre qualité de la modélisation hydrologique du karst. Resumen. Se presenta un análisis de las condiciones que limitan la descarga de algunos manantiales kársticos. Un elevado número de los manantiales estudiados muestra que, bajo condiciones de precipitación extremadamente intensa, hay un valor máximo para la descarga de los manantiales principales de la cuenca, independientemente del tamaño de ésta y del volumen de precipitación. La modelación de la descarga de manantiales kársticos no es fácil de generalizar y esquematizar debido a la existencia de numerosas características que son inherentes a los sistemas kársticos de flujo. A partir del estudio detallado de los datos publicados sobre cuatro manantiales kársticos, se identificó las posibles causas de la existencia de un caudal máximo de descarga: (1) el tamaño limitado del conducto kárstico, (2) el caudal surgente, (3) la descarga a otras cuencas, (4) el desbordamiento del sistema de flujo principal hacia manantiales intermitentes dentro de la misma cuenca, (5) el almacenamiento de agua en la zona superior del acuífero kárstico o zona epikárstica de la cuenca, y (6) factores tales como el clima, suelo y cubierta vegetal, y la altitud y geología de la zona de captación. La limitación de la

  6. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Joaquín Ortiz, Clara

    2016-01-01

    En la actualidad existe una alta variabilidad en la práctica clínica en nutrición que podría afectar al estado nutricional de los pacientes oncológicos. La implementación de guías de práctica clínica de adecuada calidad puede ayudarnos a disminuir esta variabilidad y minimizar los efectos deletéreos de la malnutrición en los pacientes oncológicos. Las guías suelen estar basadas en la evidencia, formulando las recomendaciones a partir de la mejor información disponible. No obstante, es importante tener en cuenta la calidad metodológica en la elaboración de las guías y valorar si existen conflictos de interés. Los principales problemas de las guías actuales suelen ser que existe limitada evidencia de alta calidad, y que las recomendaciones basadas exclusivamente en la evidencia pueden no ser útiles en la práctica clínica diaria, ya que no tienen en cuenta la aplicabilidad que es fundamental para su implementación. Por otro lado, las guías clínicas hasta la actualidad han sido inconsistentes en la forma de evaluar la calidad de la evidencia y el grado de recomendación. Como resultado, los usuarios se enfrentan al desafío de comprender los mensajes que los diferentes sistemas de grados de evidencia tratan de comunicar. En esta revisión se realiza un resumen de las recomendaciones de las principales guías clínicas sobre valoración y/o soporte nutricional en pacientes oncohematológicos desarrolladas en los últimos 10 años, incluyendo algunas guías de calidad de sociedades científicas que no son accesibles a través de las bases de datos comúnmente usadas como PubMed. PMID:27269218

  7. Trazando el mapa genético de NGC 1316 a través de su sistema de cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesto, L. A.; Faifer, F. R.; Forte, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    The giant early-type galaxy NGC 1316 (Fornax A) is an intermediate-age merger remnant (-- yrs), in which an unusual pattern of dust, formed by large filaments and dark structures, demands special attention. This galaxy belongs to Fornax, one of the closest and most studied galaxy clusters of the southern hemisphere. The dust structures pose an interesting challenge for photometry in the central regions. Based on the idea that Globular Clusters systems (GCS) constitute genuine tracers of the formation and evolution of galaxies that contain them, we present a multicolor photometric study of globular clusters candidates (GC) associated with NGC 1316. We performed the reduction and analysis of a mosaic of gri images obtained with the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph (GMOS) camera, mounted on the Gemini South telescope. These GMOS data were combined with BVIgz photometry from the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) as well as with published Washington photometry, and used to define a multicolor grid. This grid will be used to attempt to identify the properties of the different subpopulations of CG present in NGC 1316.

  8. Código para imageamento indireto de estrelas em sistemas binarios: simulação de variações elipsoidais e do perfil das linhas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, T. R.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    As estrelas secundárias em variáveis cataclí smicas (VCs) e binárias-x de baixa massa (BXBMs) são cruciais para o entendimento da origem, evolução e comportamento destas binárias interagentes. Elas são estrelas magneticamente ativas submetidas a condições ambientais extremas [e.g., estão muito próximas de uma fonte quente e irradiante; têm rotação extremamente rápida e forma distorcida; estão perdendo massa a taxas de 10-8-10-10 M¤/ano] que contribuem para que suas propriedades sejam distintas das de estrelas de mesma massa na seqüência principal. Por outro lado, o padrão de irradiação na face da secundária fornece informação sobre a geometria das estruturas de acréscimo em torno da estrela primária. Assim, a obtenção de imagens da superfície destas estrelas é de grande interesse astrofísico. A Tomografia Roche usa as variações no perfil das linhas de emissão/absorção da estrela secundária em função da fase orbital para mapear a distribuição de brilho em sua superfície. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados iniciais do desenvolvimento de um programa para o mapeamento da distribuição de brilho na superfí cie das estrelas secundárias em VCs e BXBMs com técnicas de astro-tomografia. Presentemente temos em operação um código que simula as variações no perfil das linhas em conseqüência de efeito Doppler resultante da combinação de rotação e translação de uma estrela em forma de lobo de Roche em torno do centro de massa da binária, em função da distribuição de brilho na superfície desta estrela. O código igualmente produz a curva de luz resultante das variações de aspecto da estrela em função da fase orbital (variações elipsoidais).

  9. Sistemas Eólicos Pequeños para Generación de Electricidad: Una guia para consumidores en Nuevo México

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-10-01

    This Spanish version of the popular Small Wind Electric Systems: A New Mexico Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  10. Distribuciones Espectrales de Energía de las compañeras visibles en sistemas binarios que albergan agujeros negros de masas estelares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cúneo, V. A.; Gómez, M. N.

    Stellar mass black holes are mainly detected in binary systems; where the compact object accretes material from its visible compa-nion. With the objective of characterizing visible companions; we analyse the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of a sample of these objects; selected from a galactic stellar black holes catalogue built by the authors. Using the VOSA SED Analyzer; we obtained; from several catalogues; the fluxes to construct the SEDs. A black body for a single star was adjusted for every observed SED. The excesses found between these distributions are attributed to the presence of the compact object. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  11. [Rethinking how health is promoted in the Colombian general health-related social security system (Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud)].

    PubMed

    Eslava-Castañeda, Juan C

    2006-12-01

    This article takes stock of how promoting health (PH) (promoción de la salud - PS) has been understood within an international setting and gives three meanings for promotion: as general policy orientation, as a set of actions and as a special dimension of sanitary work. Interest expressed in giving it a specific basis distinguishing it from prevention, transcending educational work, has emerged from the subtle differences established from such different ways of coming to terms with PH. After recognising the challenge posed by PH in the field of health, the text succinctly describes how discourse regarding PH has been introduced in Colombia and discusses how an attempt has been made to be more precise regarding its place in the general health-related social security system. Efforts currently being made in Colombia regarding making PH become a reality within the Colombian health system are then mentioned. PMID:17361582

  12. Work-related mental disorders and their inclusion in health policies in the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde).

    PubMed

    Cocchiola-Silva, Rafaela A

    2016-03-01

    This study discusses the inclusion of mental disorders as work-related diseases in occupational health policies in Brazil. Mental disorders first appeared as a group of occupational diseases in 1999. Establishing mental disorders as occupational diseases was a result of the confluence of several factors: a broader notion of health, a positive shift in public perception regarding preconceived judgements relating to mental disorders and the improvement in the process that defines social security benefit entitlements due to the implementation of a new methodology in 2007. PMID:26987833

  13. El humanismo y la educacion en diversos niveles del sistema educativo national (Humanism and Education at Different Levels of the National Education System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of six studies of the different levels of education and the humanistic content of the teaching program at each level. On the preschool level, it is stated that kindergarten education in Mexico attempts to put the small child in contact with the world that surrounds him.…

  14. Tracking and Treating Mobile Populations. The TB Net System. Migrant Clinicians Network Monograph Series. = El Sistema de Red para la TB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migrant Clinicians Network, Inc., Austin, TX.

    A comprehensive tracking and referral network that helps provide continuity of care for mobile populations with active tuberculosis (TB) or TB infection is considered essential for effective treatment of TB. However, the interstate referral system that exists between state health departments has been highly inefficient for serving migrant…

  15. A Handbook for Title I Migrant Parent Advisory Councils: Understanding the System=Un Folleto Para los Concilios de Padres Titulo I Migrante: Entendiendo el Sistema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, C.; And Others

    A bilingual handbook for Title I migrant Parent Advisory Councils (PACs) was designed to be used by administrators, teachers, consultants and parents in organizing and training PACs at local, district, and state levels. All information is duplicated in separate English and Spanish sections. The first part discusses the Texas migrant program,…

  16. Sistema de Transferencia de Archivos para Estudiantes Migrantes: Un Mejor Entendimiento para Padres. (Migrant Student Record Transfer System: A Better Understanding for Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Senaida I.

    When migrant children are enrolled in the Migrant Education Program, they are also enrolled in the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS), a national system which accumulates educational and health information for each child on a computer located in Little Rock, Arkansas. The system affords teachers the opportunity to review the records,…

  17. Sistemas de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa en Belgica, Paises Bajos y Francia (Educational Documentation and Information Systems in Belgium, Holland, and France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi Etchelouz, Nelly Yvis

    This booklet describes the working and organization of the information and documentation systems in Belgium, the Netherlands, and France. The discussion begins with a look at the Belgium educational system and how information services operate within that system. The central library, specialized services, and specialized information centers are all…

  18. El sistema fonologico del dialecto judeo-espanol de Bulgaria (The Phonological System of the Judeo-Spanish Dialect of Bulgaria)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanchev, Ivan V.

    1974-01-01

    The phonetics and phonological system of the Bulgarian Judeo-Spanish dialect is discussed, showing its similarities to and borrowings from modern Spanish and Bulgarian. Treatment of phonemes is analyzed in detail. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  19. Osnovi polojenia na reformata v obrasovatelnata sistema na Narodna republika Bulgaria (Basic Provisions of the Reform of the Public Education System in the People's Republic of Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgarian Communist Party, Sofia.

    This document is an English language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the reform provisions of the Bulgarian education system as formulated by the Bulgarian Communist Party in 1969. These reforms include the following items: access to compulsory secondary education for all; enrollment of all six-year olds; teachers to be specialized from…

  20. Predlog teza o razvoju i usavrsavanju sistema obrazovanja i vaspitanja u SFRJ (Proposals for the Development and Advancement of the System of Education in Yugoslavia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Assembly of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Belgrade,

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a draft setting out an education system for Yugoslavia to be considered by the Federal Assembly. The proposals are divided into six chapters: (1) current trends and developments in education; (2) socioeconomic foundations of educational development; (3) changes in the…

  1. ADIPOQUINAS EN EL NIÑO SANO Y AFECTO DE OBESIDAD

    PubMed Central

    Martos-Moreno, G.A.; Kopchick, J.J.; Argente, y J.

    2015-01-01

    El incremento universal de la prevalencia de obesidad en niños y adolescentes durante las últimas décadas, junto con la evidencia creciente de que el establecimiento de obesidad en etapas precoces de la vida está asociado con un incremento de la prevalencia de comorbilidades y del riesgo de muerte prematura, con gran repercusión económica en los sistemas sanitarios de los países occidentales, ha impulsado la investigación en este área. Estos estudios han remarcado la importante actividad endocrina del tejido adiposo, ejercida por medio de la síntesis y secreción de un gran número de péptidos y citoquinas, denominados adipoquinas. En esta revisión se resume el estado actual de los conocimientos, así como los estudios más relevantes, en relación con la dinámica de secreción de las principales adipoquinas en niños, centrándose en el control de la homeostasis energética, regulación metabólica (fundamentalmente, metabolismo de los hidratos de carbono) e inflamación. Asímismo, se analizan las particularidades de la síntesis, secreción y acciones de las adipoquinas desde el nacimiento hasta la adolescencia, reseñando el efecto que, sobre ellas, ejerce la instauración de la obesidad. PMID:23228441

  2. Aplicación de la metodología Molecular de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) al cálculo de intensidades vibrónicas y vidas medias de niveles vibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Velasco Sanz, Ana

    Desde que se formuló, en 1996, la metodología Molecular de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [1], se han obtenido datos de calidad relativos a intensidades de bandas electrónicas que implican estados Rydberg para una gran variedad de sistemas moleculares [2]. Animados por los buenos resultados obtenidos, recientemente hemos abordado el estudio de transiciones vibrónicas, es decir aquellas que ocurren entre estados vibracionales que pertenecen a distintos estados Rydberg electrónicos. Como prototipo adecuado para nuestros propósitos hemos elegido la molécula de NO, importante en la química de la atmósfera, y para la cual existen en la bibliografía datos experimentales de calidad suficiente para contrastar la validez de nuestros resultados. En concreto, hemos calculado las fuerzas de oscilador y coeficientes de Einstein para transiciones electrónicas y vibrónicas de las principales bandas del NO, al igual que vidas medias radiativas de niveles vibracionales de dicha molécula. Las propiedades estudiadas son esenciales para la comprensión de los aspectos teóricos de los procesos físicos básicos relativos a la dispersión electrónica en moléculas heteronucleares con capas abiertas. Además, valores fiables de probabilidades de transición moleculares tienen importantes aplicaciones en Astrofísica, en la modelización de procesos fotodinámicos moleculares, etc., al igual que para evaluar más profundamente la validez de nuestra metodología teórica.

  3. [Inhibition of adenovirus reproduction in cell culture by specific antibodies].

    PubMed

    Povnytsia, O Iu; Nosach, L M; Zhovnovata, V L; Zahorodnia, S D; Vantsak, N P; Tokarchuk, L V; Polishchuk, O M; Diachenko, N S

    2009-01-01

    The capacity of specific antibodies to inhibit the reproduction of homo- and heterologous adenoviruses in Hela cell added to culture medium after virus adsorption was studied. The inhibiting effect of polyclonal antivirus and monospecific antihexone antibodies to homo- and heterologous adenoviruses was shown. The effect was more expressed when using antibodies to homologous antibodies. The intensity of inhibition depended on antibodies concentration in the medium and infecting dose of the virus. Essential reduction of the quantity of infected cells and a decrease of the titer of adenovirus synthesized in the presence of homo- and heterologous antibodies was shown but adenovirus reproduction was not inhibited completely. PMID:19663330

  4. [Research progress on alkaloids constituents from Zanthoxylum and their pharmacological activities].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hai-mei; Qiu, Lu; Xie, Zhen-jian; Zou, Liang; Zheng, Jin; Fu, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    There are 250 species of Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) in the world. This genus distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Alkaloids are the major and representative ingredients in these plants including quinolines, isoquinolines, and amide alkaloids, with such biological activities as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-virus, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-bacteria and anti- oxidant. These species have been used for a long time to treat toothache, urinary and venereal diseases, lumbago and rheumatism. This review summarizes the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities from the Z. sppplants, in an effort to the systematic research and application of the alkaloids of this genus. PMID:27141666

  5. Evaluation of Tools for Protection of Interest against Hacking and Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahankhani, Hossein; Antonijevic, Branko; Walcott, Terry

    The internet considered a tool that effectively ensures communication globally has been hindered by hackers and crackers continuously. In so doing, a multitude of network facilitated tools such as firewalls, virtual private networks (VPN) and a variety of antivirus software packages has been enabled for dealing with such predicaments. However, more often than not these facilitated tools are marketed as perfect solutions to the ever culminating problems such as loss of data and privacy in networked and world wide intercommunications. We provide a forum for addressing these perceived problems in this paper.

  6. Small-angle neutron scattering study of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Ito, Y.; Kameyama, K.; Imai, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Takagi, T.

    1995-02-01

    The overall and internal structure of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particles was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering using the contrast variation method. The vaccine is a nearly spherical particle, and its contrast-matching point was determined to be at about 24% D 2O content, indicating that a large part of the vaccine particle is occupied by lipids and carbohydrates from the yeast. The Stuhrmann plot suggests that the surface antigens exist predominantly in the peripheral region of the particle, which is favorable to the induction of anti-virus antibodies.

  7. Malware distributed collection and pre-classification system using honeypot technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégio, André R. A.; Oliveira, Isabela L.; Santos, Rafael D. C.; Cansian, Adriano M.; de Geus, Paulo L.

    2009-04-01

    Malware has become a major threat in the last years due to the ease of spread through the Internet. Malware detection has become difficult with the use of compression, polymorphic methods and techniques to detect and disable security software. Those and other obfuscation techniques pose a problem for detection and classification schemes that analyze malware behavior. In this paper we propose a distributed architecture to improve malware collection using different honeypot technologies to increase the variety of malware collected. We also present a daemon tool developed to grab malware distributed through spam and a pre-classification technique that uses antivirus technology to separate malware in generic classes.

  8. Identification of Malicious Web Pages by Inductive Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peishun; Wang, Xuefang

    Malicious web pages are an increasing threat to current computer systems in recent years. Traditional anti-virus techniques focus typically on detection of the static signatures of Malware and are ineffective against these new threats because they cannot deal with zero-day attacks. In this paper, a novel classification method for detecting malicious web pages is presented. This method is generalization and specialization of attack pattern based on inductive learning, which can be used for updating and expanding knowledge database. The attack pattern is established from an example and generalized by inductive learning, which can be used to detect unknown attacks whose behavior is similar to the example.

  9. Design and Implementation of a Secure Modbus Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fovino, Igor Nai; Carcano, Andrea; Masera, Marcelo; Trombetta, Alberto

    The interconnectivity of modern and legacy supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems with corporate networks and the Internet has significantly increased the threats to critical infrastructure assets. Meanwhile, traditional IT security solutions such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and antivirus software are relatively ineffective against attacks that specifically target vulnerabilities in SCADA protocols. This paper describes a secure version of the Modbus SCADA protocol that incorporates integrity, authentication, non-repudiation and anti-replay mechanisms. Experimental results using a power plant testbed indicate that the augmented protocol provides good security functionality without significant overhead.

  10. DEAH-RHA helicase•Znf cofactor systems in kinetoplastid RNA editing and evolutionarily distant RNA processes

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Reyes, Jorge; Mooers, Blaine H.M.; Abu-Adas, Zakaria; Kumar, Vikas; Gulati, Shelly

    2016-01-01

    Multi-zinc finger proteins are an emerging class of cofactors in DEAH-RHA RNA helicases across highly divergent eukaryotic lineages. DEAH-RHA helicase•zinc finger cofactor partnerships predate the split of kinetoplastid protozoa, which include several human pathogens, from other eukaryotic lineages 100–400 Ma. Despite a long evolutionary history, the prototypical DEAH-RHA domains remain highly conserved. This short review focuses on a recently identified DEAH-RHA helicase•zinc finger cofactor system in kinetoplastid RNA editing, and its potential functional parallels with analogous systems in embryogenesis control in nematodes and antivirus protection in humans. PMID:27540585

  11. [Advance of studies on bioactivity of flavonoid-metal complexes].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanji; He, Xiaoyan; Zuo, Hua; Zhang, Qixiong; Li, Zhubo; Shi, Lunyong

    2012-07-01

    The flavonoid-metal complexes showed obviously stronger bioactivities such as antibiosis, antivirus, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-free-radical, possibly because of the stronger binding force caused by the change in complex structure and accessibility to target spots, or the synergy effect between flavonoids and metallic ions. This essay summarizes studies on bioactivity and mechanism of flavonoid-metal complexes, in order to provide reference for in-depth study and development on effective constituents contained in flavonoid traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:23019867

  12. The origin of increased salinity in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system on the Kopli Peninsula, northern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karro, Enn; Marandi, Andres; Vaikmäe, Rein

    , qui renferme des eaux souterraines salines dans sa partie supérieure altérée et fissurée, et est hydrauliquement connecté avec l'aquifère supérieur du Cambrien-Vendien, est la deuxième importante source d'ions. Le soubassement fracturé et le matériel argileux de l'altération, renferme l'eau souterraine de type Ca-Cl, caractérisée par un haut TDS (2-20 g/l). A cause de la mobilisation intensive de l'eau les échanges d'eau souterraine est sont accélérés et la zone d'influence des pompages augmentent. Les études chimiques et isotopiques indiquent une contribution croissante du drainage des eaux du soubassement cristallin. L'intrusion d'eaux salées de la mer dans le système aquifère n'est pas un phénomène évident. El origen del incremento en salinidad en un sistema de acuíferos Cámbrico-Vendiano en la Península Kopli, norte de Estonie Monitoreo a largo plazo de un sistema de acuíferos confinados, de edad Cámbrico-Vendiano, que se utiliza como fuente de abastecimiento industrial en la Península Kopli, al norte de Estonie, revela cambios notables en la composición química del agua subterránea. Un incremento de 1.5 a 3 veces en TDS y en concentraciones de iones mayores en agua subterránea explotada ha sido ocasionado por bombeo fuerte. Las fuentes principales de carga disuelta en el agua subterránea Cámbrico-Vendiano son la lixiviación de la roca encajonante y los procesos geoquímicos que ocurren en la zona saturada. Basamento cristalino subyacente, que aloja agua subterránea salada en la parte superior intemperizada y fisurada, y está conectado hidráulicamente con el sistema acuífero Cámbrico-Vendiano sobreyacente, es la segunda fuente importante de iones. El basamento fracturado y su corteza de intemperismo arcillosa alojan agua subterránea de tipo Ca-Cl la cual se caracteriza por valores altos de TDS (2-20 g/l). Debido a extracción intensiva se ha acelerado el intercambio de agua subterránea y se ha incrementado el área de

  13. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusi

  14. Analysis and Synthesis of Leaky-Wave Devices in Planar Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Ros, Alejandro Javier

    estan determinadas por la constante de fase del modo "leaky" que es el que determina el angulo de apuntamiento y por la tasa de radiacion que es la que determina la intensidad de los campos radiados. De esta manera, controlando en amplitud y fase el modo "leaky" se puede obtener un control efectivo sobre el diagrama de radiacion del dispositivo. Ademas, con el objetivo de poder obtener de una manera mas eficiente las caracteristicas de propagacion de los modos de fuga "leaky" en funcion de los principales parametros geometricos de la estructura, se han desarrollado diversas herramientas de analisis modal basadas en la tecnica de resonancia transversa de la estructura. La capacidad para obtener un control simultaneo de la constante de propagacion compleja del modo "leaky", ha sido demostrada mediante el diseno y fabricacion de varios tipos de antena "leaky wave" (LWA) y de otros dispositivos como multiplexores y sistemas de enfoque en campo cercano. Para ello, se ha utilizado la tecnologia planar de guia de onda integrada en sustrato (susbstrate integrated waveguide, SIW). Esta recientemente desarrollada tecnologia, permite disenar dispositivos de microondas basados en tecnologia clasica de guia de ondas con sistemas de fabricacion estandar usados en tecnologia de circuitos impresos (printed circuit board, PCB). De esta forma, se pueden integrar en un mismo sustrato muchas de las diferentes partes que forman un sistema de comunicaciones, mejorando asi su robustez y compactibilidad, ademas de reducir el coste y de contar con menores perdidas que otras tecnologias planares como la microstrip.

  15. The influence of arboviral infection on the susceptibility of cultured cells to immune injury in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Catanzaro, P. J.; Brandt, W. E.; Russell, P. K.

    1975-01-01

    The susceptibility of LLC-MK2 monkey kidney cells to antivirus (antibodies versus viral antigens in the plasma membrane) and anticell (antibodies versus plasma membrane antigens) immune cytolysis in vitro was observed during the course of 100 continuous subcultures of these cells. In that period, LLC-MK2 cells infected with the Group B arboviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus and dengue 2 virus, became progressively refractory to the complement-dependent antivirus immune cytolysis as measured by 51-Cr release. In addition, the LLC-MK2 cells themselves exhibited a decreasing susceptibility to immune lysis with anticell anti-body. In contrast, during the same period, similar immune cytolysis experiments with the Group A arboviruses, Sindbis virus and Eastern equine encephalitis virus, remained constant. It was observed that arboviral infection of lytic refractory LLC-MK2 cells restored their susceptability to immune cytolysis with anticell antibodies. The kinetics of this restoration were unique for both Group A and B arboviruses and exhibited a constant relationship to the viral growth curve. It was concluded that the above findings could be explained on the basis of differential membrane antigenic density coupled with changes in the properties of the plasma membrane on which subculture and arboviral infection had antagonistic effects. PMID:808137

  16. The origin of increased salinity in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system on the Kopli Peninsula, northern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karro, Enn; Marandi, Andres; Vaikmäe, Rein

    , qui renferme des eaux souterraines salines dans sa partie supérieure altérée et fissurée, et est hydrauliquement connecté avec l'aquifère supérieur du Cambrien-Vendien, est la deuxième importante source d'ions. Le soubassement fracturé et le matériel argileux de l'altération, renferme l'eau souterraine de type Ca-Cl, caractérisée par un haut TDS (2-20 g/l). A cause de la mobilisation intensive de l'eau les échanges d'eau souterraine est sont accélérés et la zone d'influence des pompages augmentent. Les études chimiques et isotopiques indiquent une contribution croissante du drainage des eaux du soubassement cristallin. L'intrusion d'eaux salées de la mer dans le système aquifère n'est pas un phénomène évident. El origen del incremento en salinidad en un sistema de acuíferos Cámbrico-Vendiano en la Península Kopli, norte de Estonie Monitoreo a largo plazo de un sistema de acuíferos confinados, de edad Cámbrico-Vendiano, que se utiliza como fuente de abastecimiento industrial en la Península Kopli, al norte de Estonie, revela cambios notables en la composición química del agua subterránea. Un incremento de 1.5 a 3 veces en TDS y en concentraciones de iones mayores en agua subterránea explotada ha sido ocasionado por bombeo fuerte. Las fuentes principales de carga disuelta en el agua subterránea Cámbrico-Vendiano son la lixiviación de la roca encajonante y los procesos geoquímicos que ocurren en la zona saturada. Basamento cristalino subyacente, que aloja agua subterránea salada en la parte superior intemperizada y fisurada, y está conectado hidráulicamente con el sistema acuífero Cámbrico-Vendiano sobreyacente, es la segunda fuente importante de iones. El basamento fracturado y su corteza de intemperismo arcillosa alojan agua subterránea de tipo Ca-Cl la cual se caracteriza por valores altos de TDS (2-20 g/l). Debido a extracción intensiva se ha acelerado el intercambio de agua subterránea y se ha incrementado el área de

  17. Hydrochemical tracers in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA: 1. Conceptualization of groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Sanford, Ward E.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    zones hydro-chimiques reflète principalement la distribution moderne des charges hydrauliques mais est incohérente avec une dépression dans le niveau d'eau dans la partie centre-ouest du bassin, ce qui indique que cette dépression est un élément transitoire du système aquifère plutôt qu'un élément à long terme. Les âges radiocarbones ajustés aux réactions géochimiques et aux processus de mélange et d'évapotranspiration/dilution qui ont lieu dans l'aquifère sont presque identiques aux âges non ajustés et varient de la période moderne jusqu'à 30 ka. Les gradients d'âge établis à partir des nids de piézomètres s'étendent de 0.1 à 2 a cm-1 et suggèrent un taux de recharge d'environ 3 cm a-1 le long du front des montagnes à l'est et pour l'infiltration provenant du Rio Grande près d'Albuquerque. Il y a eu substantiellement moins de recharge le long du front des montagnes à l'est, au nord et au sud d'Albuquerque. Se utilizaron datos químicos e isotópicos de agua subterránea a lo largo de la cuenca central del río Grande, Nuevo México, EEUU, para identificar y mapear el flujo de agua subterránea de 12 fuentes de agua a la cuenca para evaluar edades por medio de radio carbon y para refinar el modelo conceptual del sistema acuífero del Grupo Santa Fé. Se puede establecer zonas hidrotérmicas que representan el flujo de agua subterránea a lo largo de miles a miles de decenas de años en grandes distancias a través del sistema acuífero principalmente siliclástico. Las ubicaciones de las zonas hidroquímicas mayormente reflejan la distribucion de la cabeza hidráulica pre-desarollo moderna pero son inconsistentes con una depresión en los niveles de agua pre-desarollo en la zona central oeste de la cuenca. Esto indica que esta depresión es un rasgo transitorio y no un rasgo de largo plazo del sistema acuífero. Las edades de radio carbon ajustadas para los procesos de reaciones geoquímicas, de mezclado y de evapotranspiraci

  18. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international

    PubMed Central

    McCAA, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70th anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world’s population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  19. Evolución de estrellas de Helio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Althaus, L. G.

    Podríamos identificar a las estrellas de helio con estrellas Wolf-Rayet (WR) que han perdido su envoltura rica en hidrógeno ya sea porque las mismas pertenecen a sistemas binarios o a través de fuertes vientos estelares. Las WR representan una etapa evolucionaria normal de las estrellas masivas, cuya pérdida de masa es >= 3 × 10-5Msolar/yr y la cual es sufrida por la estrella en un tiempo de escala mucho menor que el tiempo en que se produce la quema del He. Esto garantiza la ``homogeneidad'' de las estrellas de helio para nuestros modelos. Este tipo de estrellas serían posibles progenitores de SN tipo Ib y Ic. Aquí presentamos un estudio sobre la evolución de estrellas de helio a partir de la secuencia principal de helio, pasando por el flash de carbono, hasta agotarlo en la región central; como así también la dependencia con la variable masa y con la pérdida de la misma para distintos tipos de masas. Para tal fin hemos utilizado un código de evolución estelar completo que realiza todas las reacciones de Fowler en forma simultánea. También se han tenido en cuenta los procesos de mezcla convectiva, los principales mecanismos de emisión de neutrinos y los efectos de la pérdida de masa. Las opacidades utilizadas fueron las de Rogers & Iglesias (1992). Debido a la pérdida de masa en este tipo de estrellas, hemos encontrado que los perfiles convectivos, la composición química, las condiciones centrales de temperatura y presión, luminosidad y temperatura efectiva dependen en forma esencial de la velocidad de pérdida de masa adoptada, lo que tendría profundas implicaciones en la evolución posterior de estos objetos.

  20. Deep PDF parsing to extract features for detecting embedded malware.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Cross, Jesse S.

    2011-09-01

    The number of PDF files with embedded malicious code has risen significantly in the past few years. This is due to the portability of the file format, the ways Adobe Reader recovers from corrupt PDF files, the addition of many multimedia and scripting extensions to the file format, and many format properties the malware author may use to disguise the presence of malware. Current research focuses on executable, MS Office, and HTML formats. In this paper, several features and properties of PDF Files are identified. Features are extracted using an instrumented open source PDF viewer. The feature descriptions of benign and malicious PDFs can be used to construct a machine learning model for detecting possible malware in future PDF files. The detection rate of PDF malware by current antivirus software is very low. A PDF file is easy to edit and manipulate because it is a text format, providing a low barrier to malware authors. Analyzing PDF files for malware is nonetheless difficult because of (a) the complexity of the formatting language, (b) the parsing idiosyncrasies in Adobe Reader, and (c) undocumented correction techniques employed in Adobe Reader. In May 2011, Esparza demonstrated that PDF malware could be hidden from 42 of 43 antivirus packages by combining multiple obfuscation techniques [4]. One reason current antivirus software fails is the ease of varying byte sequences in PDF malware, thereby rendering conventional signature-based virus detection useless. The compression and encryption functions produce sequences of bytes that are each functions of multiple input bytes. As a result, padding the malware payload with some whitespace before compression/encryption can change many of the bytes in the final payload. In this study we analyzed a corpus of 2591 benign and 87 malicious PDF files. While this corpus is admittedly small, it allowed us to test a system for collecting indicators of embedded PDF malware. We will call these indicators features throughout

  1. CURRENT PEACH PRODUCTION PRACTICES INCLUDING NEX TRAINING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S. PRACTICAS ACTUALES DE PRODUCCION DE DURAZNO, INCLUYENDO SISTEMAS DE FORMACION EN EL SURESTE DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current production systems used commercially in the Southeastern United States are discussed in relation to their utility for commercial producers in Mexico. Standard southeastern cultural practices are discussed in detail. Topics covered include pre-plant land preparation, fumigation, nematod...

  2. Investigacion educativa. El sistema escolar en sus diferentes niveles, factores que favorecen o frenan su eficacia y medidas de superacion (Educational Research. The Educational System at Different Levels; Factors Promoting or Hindering Its Efficiency; Possible Improvements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Lozano, Blanca; And Others

    This document is an English-language abstract (Approximately 1,500 words) of a study on educational research in Mexico. Chapter one discusses the importance of educational research, in terms of its role both in scientific and technical development; it should use scientific methods so that it will have solid foundations. Chapter two is a survey of…

  3. Memorias Conferencia Internacional IEEE Mexico 1971, Sobre Sistemas, Redes Y Computadoras. Volumen I and Volumen II. (Proceedings of International Conference of IEEE Concerning Systems, Networks, and Computers. Volume I and Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concheiro, A. Alonso, Ed.; And Others

    The following papers in English from this international conference may be of particular interest to those in the field of education. T. Nakahara, A. Tsukamota, and M. Matsumoto describe a computer-aided design technique for an economical urban cable television system. W. D. Wasson and R. K. Chitkara outline a recognition scheme based on analysis…

  4. La Capacitacion de Docentes Como Prioridad de los Sistemas Educativos de America Latino y al Caribe (In-Service Teacher Training as a Priority of Latin American and Caribbean Educational Systems).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Whenever top-level officials in Latin American and Caribbean educational systems are approached, the topic of inservice teacher training is presented as a major priority. This paper outlines some ideas about the subject of inservice teacher training as a priority of educational systems in Latin American and Caribbean countries. The most frequent…

  5. Pautas para Organizar Una Actividad de Capacitacion: Un Seminario-Taller para el Desarrollo de Personal de Direccion de Sistemas Educativos (Guidelines to Organize a Training Activity: A Workshop for Management Development of Educational Systems).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Often personnel performing managerial functions within educational systems are educators with almost no training in management. This paper presents ideas on how to organize a training activity intended to develop management knowledge and skills among educational systems officials and to implement an organizational self-study on management…

  6. Self-Image Development: A Chicano Enfasis. Self-Programmed Counseling and Self-Programmed Control. Instructor's Guide = Desarrollo de la Imagen Propia: Enfasis en el Chicano. Sistema de Consejo y Control Auto-Programado. Manuel del Profesor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles, S. Raymond

    Self-Programmed Counseling, the instructor's guidance, and Self-Programmed Control (SPC), the student's response, was initially developed by Title III Project USTED (United Students and Teachers for Educational Development) for Mexican American students on academic probation to use on a non-credit, special group counseling basis. As part of a…

  7. "Buddy System": A Pedagogical Innovation to Promote Online Interaction (Sistema de amigos: una innovación pedagógica para fomentar la interacción en línea)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espitia Cruz, Martha Isabel; Kwinta, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological development has created new pedagogical practices in the EFL classroom to maximize the time for students to use the language by considering online tools. Whilst working in a pedagogical context with new technologies, some educators were concerned with how online interaction in EFL content-based classes could be effectively…

  8. Metric System Resource Units = Unidades de Trabajo del Sistema Metrico Decimal. K-12. Project C.A.M.B.I.O., Changing Attitudes towards Metrics for Bilingual Instruction & Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulido, Josefina; Almendares, Simon

    Four resource units are included in this document. For each, general objectives on knowledge and concepts, skills, and attitudes are given; content is outlined; and some suggestions for initiating the unit are listed. The first unit, on measuring length, provides six lesson plans, to teach about the meter, the smaller units of the meter, units…

  9. Primera Reunion de la Comision Nacional de Analisis y Evaluacion del Sistema Educativo: Informe Final (The First Meeting of the National Committee for Analysis and Evaluation of the Educational System: Final Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Cultura y Educacion, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro National de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa.

    This document contains the legislation creating the National Committee for Analysis and Evaluation of the Educational System and the final report of that committee's first meeting. The report deals with each level from elementary to higher education. For each level it describes and considers curriculum, school buildings, human resources, current…

  10. Edades y metalicidades de cinco cúmulos estelares proyectados en dirección a la Nube Menor de Magallanes: implicaciones sobre los procesos de formación y evolución de estos sistemas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Santos, J. F. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.; Sarajedini, A.; Geisler, D.

    Washington photometry of the 5 star clusters Lindsay 32, Lindsay 38, Kron 28, Kron 44 and Lindsay 116 and their surrounding fields located towards the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is presented for the first time. From the color-magnitude diagrams, cleaned from field stars contamination, the cluster and SMC field reddenings, ages and metallicities are determined. The ages - derived from the difference in the T1 magnitude betweem the giant clump and the Main Sequence turnoff point - vary between 2 and 6 Gyr, and the metallicities ([Fe/H]) between -1.65 and -1.10. Lindsay 116 is located closer to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) than to the SMC and its fundamental parameters suggests a higher probability of belonging to the LMC. The results obtained in this work, combined with previous estimates of age and metallicity for other seven clusters, allow us to draw the following conclusions: (1) There does not exist an age-position relation in the SMC, but a age-metallicity one. (2) The chemical enrichment in the SMC has been very efficient during the last 5 Gyr. (3) The SMC clusters formation and evolution can be better represented by a bursting star formation process than by a continuum star formation mechanism.

  11. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    used as a base for subsequent work related to traditional medicine and its contribution to allopathic medicine in San Pablo de Huacareta. Resumen Introducción El objetivo del presente estudio fue documentar los tipos de enfermedades tratadas mediante el uso de plantas medicinales, sus aplicaciones principales y también tener un reporte de las enfermedades mayormente atendidas en el Hospital de San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia). Métodos Se realizaron encuestas semiestructuradas a 10 informantes locales anotando los usos atribuidos a sus plantas medicinales, se agruparon las plantas por categorías de enfermedades tratadas en la medicina tradicional. Se obtuvieron reportes de casos tratados en el Hospital de Huacareta para poder relacionar el tratamiento de enfermedades recurrentes en la zona entre la medicina tradicional y la medicina occidental. Resultados Se reportaron 91 especies nativas y exóticas, además de un espécimen indeterminado exótico que intervienen en un total de 258 aplicaciones medicinales, las cuales son empleadas en un total de 13 categorías de enfermedades. Los desórdenes gastrointestinales (55%) son mayormente tratados mediante plantas medicinales, seguidas de las afecciones al sistema esqueleto-muscular (25%) y enfermedades dermatológicas (24%). La información del Hospital indica que las enfermedades más frecuentes son Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (47%) y Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (37%). Los remedios vegetales se emplean en forma de infusiones y cocciones principalmente. Se emplean mayormente plantas nativas, también se introdujo en la farmacopea médica el uso de plantas exóticas al lugar. Conclusiones El tratamiento de trastornos gastrointestinales constituye el objetivo primordial de la etnobotánica médica de los habitantes de Huacareta, las enfermedades del sistema respiratorio, son mayormente tratadas en el Hospital. Observando los datos del libro de consultas del Hospital, se puede inferir que los des

  12. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-03-15

    atraer a las hembras con el proposito de aparearse. Las hembras visitan el lek y eligen entre los machos para copular. La informacion acerca de los principales factores involucrados en la eleccion de la hembra y de la influencia del comportamiento de los machos en los leks en esta eleccion es escasa para A. fraterculus . Esta informacion es importante en el contexto de programas de control que incluyen la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril. En el presente estudio se evaluo el comportamiento sexual de machos de A. fraterculus dentro de los leks, y la asociacion de su comportamiento y de rasgos morfometricos con el exito copulatorio. El lugar preferido de agrupamiento de los machos fue evaluado en jaulas de campo con arboles en su interior y dividiendo el arbol en sectores de acuerdo a un sistema de tres dimensiones. Los machos fueron individualmente pesados, marcados y observados cada quince minutos. Luego de finalizado el ensayo se midieron los rasgos morfometricos. El mayor exito correspondio a machos agrupados en una region del arbol caracterizada por tener la mayor intensidad de luz en las dos primeras horas de la manana. Los resultados mostraron que la actividad de llamado con feromonas esta asociada con el exito copulatorio. Las copulas fueron mas frecuentes para machos que llamaron dentro del lek, indicando que la actividad de llamado con feromonas y la presencia dentro del lek son factores importantes en la obtencion de la copula. Los analisis morfometricos revelaron una asociacion positiva entre el exito copulatorio y el largo del ojo, y que algunas caracteristicas de la cara estan asociadas ademas con la duracion de la copula y la latencia. (author)

  13. Microbial transformation of curcumol by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Shi-Yu; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Tian-Xian; Qiu, Feng

    2013-02-01

    Curcumol is a representative index component for the quality control of the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling, an antivirus and anticancer drug in China. Microbial transformation of curcumol (1) by Aspergillus niger AS 3.739 yielded two products. Their structures were elucidated as 3alpha-hydroxycurcumol (2) and 3alpha-(4'-methoxy-succinyloxy)-curcumol (3) by extensive spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR and HRESI-MS. Among them, 3 is a new compound. Esterification of the substrate with succinic acid is a novel reaction in the field of microbial transformation of natural products. Compound 2, the major transformation product of 1, was a high regio- and stereo-specific hydroxylation product and showed significant antiviral effects. PMID:23513713

  14. Interaction of nanodiamonds materials with influenza viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, V. T.; Ivanova, M. V.; Spitsyn, B. V.; Garina, K. O.; Trushakova, S. V.; Manykin, A. A.; Korzhenevsky, A. P.; Burseva, E. I.

    2012-02-01

    The perspectives of the application of modern materials contained nanodiamonds (ND) are considered in this study. The interaction between detonation paniculate ND, soot and influenza A and B viruses, fragments of cDNA were analyzed at the normal conditions. It was shown that these sorbents can interact with the following viruses: reference epidemic strains of influenza A(H1N1), A(H1N1)v, A(H3N2) and B viruses circulated in the word in 2000-2010. The allantoises, concentrated viruses, cDNA can be absorbed by ND sorbents and getting removed from water solutions within 20 min. ND sorbents can be used for the preparation of antivirus filters for water solution and for future diagnostic systems in virology.

  15. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yong-Wang; Song, Yu-Rong; Jiang, Guo-Ping

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems. A novel multi-group SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure. Then, the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established. It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually, whereas, if R0 is greater than 1, one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable, thus the worm persists in the network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  16. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  17. SYNTHESIS, ANTI-HEPATITIS B AND C VIRUS ACTIVITY AND ANTITUMOR SCREENING OF NOVEL THIAZOLO[4,5-D]-PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES.

    PubMed

    Becan, Lilianna; Wójcicka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the synthesis, antivirus and antitumor evaluation of novel thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrim- idine derivatives. The target compounds 3a-h were synthesized by cyclocondensation of 4-amino-N'-(phenyl- methylidene)-3-phenyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydrothiazole-5-carbohydrazides 2a-d with aromatic aldehydes. The structures of new compounds were determined by IR, ¹H-NMR and elemental analysis. Thiazolopyrimidines 3a and 3d-h were screened by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases against various viruses. Four compounds 3e-h showed in vitro anti-HCV activity. One (3e) demonstrated significant activity against HBV and was submitted to an anti-HBV in vivo assay but had a low bioavailability. As a result of antitumor study, compound 3h was found to be most potent against leukemia SR. PMID:27008805

  18. Access Control of Web and Java Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.; Johnson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Cyber security has gained national and international attention as a result of near continuous headlines from financial institutions, retail stores, government offices and universities reporting compromised systems and stolen data. Concerns continue to rise as threats of service interruption, and spreading of viruses become ever more prevalent and serious. Controlling access to application layer resources is a critical component in a layered security solution that includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. In this paper we discuss the development of an application-level access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, to provide protection to both Web-based and Java-based client and server applications.

  19. Virus reactivation and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kano, Yoko; Inaoka, Miyuki; Sakuma, Keiichi; Shiohara, Tetsuo

    2005-04-15

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) is a severe multi-organ system reaction caused by specific drugs. Many reports have revealed that human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) reactivation contributes to the development of DIHS. In addition, recent articles have shown that reactivation of other herpesviruses such as human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) might be also implicated in the development of DIHS. These observations suggest that not only HHV-6 but also other herpesvirses might reactivate from the latency and play an important role in the appearance of clinical manifestations of DIHS. Several patients with DIHS were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in addition to systemic corticosteroids. The results have been encouraging although virus reactivation could not be suppressed. Although the pathomechanism of IVIG treatment in patients with DIHS remains unknown, the therapeutic effects of IVIG could be dependent, in part, on functional capabilities of anti-virus IgG contained in IVIG. PMID:15767030

  20. A study of malware detection on smart mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Zhang, Hanlin; Xu, Guobin

    2013-05-01

    The growing in use of smart mobile devices for everyday applications has stimulated the spread of mobile malware, especially on popular mobile platforms. As a consequence, malware detection becomes ever more critical in sustaining the mobile market and providing a better user experience. In this paper, we review the existing malware and detection schemes. Using real-world malware samples with known signatures, we evaluate four popular commercial anti-virus tools and our data shows that these tools can achieve high detection accuracy. To deal with the new malware with unknown signatures, we study the anomaly based detection using decision tree algorithm. We evaluate the effectiveness of our detection scheme using malware and legitimate software samples. Our data shows that the detection scheme using decision tree can achieve a detection rate up to 90% and a false positive rate as low as 10%.

  1. Design of Cyber Attack Precursor Symptom Detection Algorithm through System Base Behavior Analysis and Memory Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Cagalaban, Giovanni; Lim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Seoksoo

    More recently, botnet-based cyber attacks, including a spam mail or a DDos attack, have sharply increased, which poses a fatal threat to Internet services. At present, antivirus businesses make it top priority to detect malicious code in the shortest time possible (Lv.2), based on the graph showing a relation between spread of malicious code and time, which allows them to detect after malicious code occurs. Despite early detection, however, it is not possible to prevent malicious code from occurring. Thus, we have developed an algorithm that can detect precursor symptoms at Lv.1 to prevent a cyber attack using an evasion method of 'an executing environment aware attack' by analyzing system behaviors and monitoring memory.

  2. Hypocrellin B graft on activated carbon and photocatalytic oxidation of 2,3,5-trimethylphenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Jucheng; Min, Yong; Yi, Zhongzhou; Zhang, Canbang; Wu, Mingzhu; Chen, Rui

    2008-12-01

    Hypocrellin B, a photosensitizer isolated from Hypocrella Bambuase sacc in Yunnan province, has significant anti-tumor and anti-virus character. In this article, hypocrellin B, which was grafted on activated carbon, was used as photocatalysts to catalytic oxidize 2,3,5-trimethylphenol to 2,3,5-trimethylhydrobenzoquinone because of its high photons efficiency. This study realized nearly 100% selectivity for 2,3,5-trimethylhydrobenzoquinone under visible light irradiation (>400nm) at aerobic atmosphere. The photocatalytic oxidation process has been studied by different parameters like the pretreatment of activated carbon, synthetic mehtod of grafted hypocrellin, and photo-assisted oxidation catalysis of 2,3,5-trimethylphenol to 2,3,5-trimethylhdrobenzoquinone. Compared to the conventional methods, this process could be more eco-friendly.

  3. A Study on Architecture of Malicious Code Blocking Scheme with White List in Smartphone Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kijeong; Tolentino, Randy S.; Park, Gil-Cheol; Kim, Yong-Tae

    Recently, the interest and demands for mobile communications are growing so fast because of the increasing prevalence of smartphones around the world. In addition, the existing feature phones were replaced by smartphones and it has widely improved while using the explosive growth of Internet users using smartphones, e-commerce enabled Internet banking transactions and the importance of protecting personal information. Therefore, the development of smartphones antivirus products was developed and launched in order to prevent malicious code or virus infection. In this paper, we proposed a new scheme to protect the smartphone from malicious codes and malicious applications that are element of security threats in mobile environment and to prevent information leakage from malicious code infection. The proposed scheme is based on the white list smartphone application which only allows installing authorized applications and to prevent the installation of malicious and untrusted mobile applications which can possibly infect the applications and programs of smartphones.

  4. The effect of infected external computers on the spread of viruses: A compartment modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan

    2013-12-01

    Inevitably, there exist infected computers outside of the Internet. This paper aims to understand how infected external computers affect the spread of computer viruses. For that purpose, a new virus-antivirus spreading model, which takes into account the effect of infected/immune external computers, is established. A systematic study shows that, unlike most previous models, the proposed model admits no virus-free equilibrium and admits a globally asymptotically stable viral equilibrium. This result implies that it would be practically impossible to eradicate viruses on the Internet. As a result, inhibiting the virus prevalence to below an acceptable level would be the next best thing. A theoretical study reveals the effect of different parameters on the steady virus prevalence. On this basis, a number of suggestions are made so as to contain virus spreading.

  5. [Advance in study on pharmacological effect of Eucommiae Folium].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tian-Yi; Fang, Lian-Hua; Lv, Yang; Du, Guan-Hu

    2013-03-01

    Eucommia ulmoides is a valuable traditional Chinese medicine, whose cortexes have long been used as medi cines. Due to the scarcity of its resources, people began using its leaves instead of cortexes in medicines. Eucommiae Folium and its leaves have many pharmacological effects and thereby being clinically applied as genuine traditional Chinese medicines. Modern pharmological studies have showed that Eucommiae Folium leaves have such effects as blood pressure reduction, blood lipid regulation, cardiovascular protection, anti-obesity, anti-inflammation, anti-virus, enhancement of immunologic function, resistance against senility and anti-fatigue. In clinic, Eucommiae Folium is mainly used to treat hypertention and obstetrical and gynecological disease. The essay summarizes the latest advance in domestic and foreign studie on pharmacological effeets and clinical applications of Eucommiae Folium leaves, and thus providing reference for studies on new drugs of Eucommiae Folium leave. PMID:23717951

  6. Une angiocholite secondaire à un thrombus tumoral d'une tumeur neuroendocrine primitive du foie

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Hicham; Allaoui, Mohamed; Elfahssi, Mohammed; Bounaim, Ahmed; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; Oukabli, Mohamed; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas exceptionnel d'une patiente de 54 ans prise en charge pour une angiocholite due à un thrombus tumoral, d'une tumeur neuroendocrine primitive (TNE Ive) du foie, dans la voie biliaire principale. PMID:26966504

  7. Baculoviruses Modulate a Proapoptotic DNA Damage Response To Promote Virus Multiplication

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jonathan K.

    2012-01-01

    The baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) initiates apoptosis in diverse insects through events triggered by virus DNA (vDNA) replication. To define the proapoptotic pathway and its role in antivirus defense, we investigated the link between the host's DNA damage response (DDR) and apoptosis. We report here that AcMNPV elicits a DDR in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Replication of vDNA activated DDR kinases, as evidenced by ATM-driven phosphorylation of the Drosophila histone H2AX homolog (H2Av), a critical regulator of the DDR. Ablation or inhibition of ATM repressed H2Av phosphorylation and blocked virus-induced apoptosis. The DDR kinase inhibitors caffeine and KU55933 also prevented virus-induced apoptosis in cells derived from the permissive AcMNPV host, Spodoptera frugiperda. This block occurred at a step upstream of virus-mediated depletion of the cellular inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein, an event that initiates apoptosis in Spodoptera and Drosophila. Thus, the DDR is a conserved, proapoptotic response to baculovirus infection. DDR inhibition also repressed vDNA replication and reduced virus yields 100,000-fold, demonstrating that the DDR contributes to virus production, despite its recognized antivirus role. In contrast to virus-induced phosphorylation of Drosophila H2Av, AcMNPV blocked phosphorylation of the Spodoptera H2AX homolog (SfH2AX). Remarkably, AcMNPV also suppressed SfH2AX phosphorylation following pharmacologically induced DNA damage. These findings indicate that AcMNPV alters canonical DDR signaling in permissive cells. We conclude that AcMNPV triggers a proapoptotic DDR that is subsequently modified, presumably to stimulate vDNA replication. Thus, manipulation of the DDR to facilitate multiplication is an evolutionarily conserved strategy among DNA viruses of insects and mammals. PMID:23035220

  8. Lack of security of networked medical equipment in radiology.

    PubMed

    Moses, Vinu; Korah, Ipeson

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. There are few articles in the literature describing the security and safety aspects of networked medical equipment in radiology departments. Most radiologists are unaware of the security issues. We review the security of the networked medical equipment of a typical radiology department. MATERIALS AND METHODS. All networked medical equipment in a radiology department was scanned for vulnerabilities with a port scanner and a network vulnerability scanner, and the vulnerabilities were classified using the Common Vulnerability Scoring System. A network sniffer was used to capture and analyze traffic on the radiology network for exposure of confidential patient data. We reviewed the use of antivirus software and firewalls on the networked medical equipment. USB ports and CD and DVD drives in the networked medical equipment were tested to see whether they allowed unauthorized access. Implementation of the virtual private network (VPN) that vendors use to access the radiology network was reviewed. RESULTS. Most of the networked medical equipment in our radiology department used vulnerable software with open ports and services. Of the 144 items scanned, 64 (44%) had at least one critical vulnerability, and 119 (83%) had at least one high-risk vulnerability. Most equipment did not encrypt traffic and allowed capture of confidential patient data. Of the 144 items scanned, two (1%) used antivirus software and three (2%) had a firewall enabled. The USB ports were not secure on 49 of the 58 (84%) items with USB ports, and the CD or DVD drive was not secure on 17 of the 31 (55%) items with a CD or DVD drive. One of three vendors had an insecure implementation of VPN access. CONCLUSION. Radiologists and the medical industry need to urgently review and rectify the security issues in existing networked medical equipment. We hope that the results of our study and this article also raise awareness among radiologists about the security issues of networked medical equipment

  9. Three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

    principales en el río, además de numerosos pozos distribuidos por la zona. El modelo simula el flujo de las aguas subterráneas en una superficie de 392 km2 por medio de 70 filas, 40 columnas y 2 capas. El modelo ha sido empleado en condiciones transitorias, por medio de la aproximación en diferencias finitas de las ecuaciones diferenciales parciales en tres dimensiones del flujo en el acuífero durante el período 1991-2001. Se ha calibrado el modelo en condiciones permanentes y transitorias. El ajuste entre los niveles calculados y medidos es razonable. A partir de los resultados de la modelación, se ha obtenido que el sistema acuífero es estable con la tasa de bombeo utilizada, exceptuando unos pocos emplazamientos a lo largo de la costa, donde se ha dado lugar a fenómenos de intrusión marina en una distancia de 50-100 m. El modelo transitorio ha sido ejecutado hasta el año 2010 para predecir el flujo dinámico bajo diversos escenarios de sobreexplotación y de reducción de la recarga. Se produce una disminución en los niveles piezométricos de 0.6 a 0.8 m en la zona oriental, donde el sistema acuífero está sometido a una extracción adicional de 2 millones de galones por día en la estación principal de bombeo. Incluso con las extracciones actuales, los niveles piezométricos se sitúan bajo el nivel del mar durante las épocas secas. El modelo predice el comportamiento de este sistema acuífero bajo varias condiciones de presión hidrológica.

  10. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    hydrologiques associés aux eaux de surface elles-mêmes, tels que des niveaux d'eau de surface saisonnièrement hauts et l'évaporation et la transpiration de l'eau souterraine à la périphérie des eaux de surface, sont les causes essentielles de la dynamique complexe et saisonnière des nappes associées aux eaux de surface. Ces processus ont été mis en évidence sur des sites de recherche dans des formations glaciaires, dunaires, littorales, fluviales et de karst couvert. Resumen Los cuerpos de aguas superficiales son partes integrales de los sistemas de flujo subterráneo. El agua subterránea interactúa con la superficial en prácticamente todo tipo de paisajes, desde pequeños torrentes, lagos y humedales, hasta grandes valles fluviales y costas. Aunque se suele asumir que las áreas topográficamente elevadas son zonas de recarga de aguas subterráneas, mientras las áreas topográficamente más bajas lo son de descarga, esto es cierto básicamente para los sistemas de flujo regional. Al superponer los sistemas de flujo local, asociados a los cuerpos de agua superficial, a las condiciones regionales, resultan interacciones complejas, y esto ocurre independientemente de su posición topográfica. Los procesos hidrológicos asociados con los propios cuerpos de agua superficial, como los niveles superficiales máximos estacionales y la evapotranspiración de agua subterránea en los perímetros de cuerpos superficiales, son una de las principales causas de la complejidad y de las variaciones dinámicas de las interacciones entre aguas subterráneas y superficiales. Estos procesos se han documentado en distintas zonas investigadas, incluyendo depósitos glaciares, dunas, áreas costeras, karsts y terrazas fluviales.

  11. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Molina Recio, Guillermo; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; García Rodríguez, María; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: un gran número de encuestas nutricionales en Perú han identificado la magnitud y la ubicación de los diferentes tipos de desnutrición, siendo la forma crónica la más prevalente. Sin embargo, aunque las tasas pueden considerarse alarmantes (aún más en las zonas rurales), sólo un trabajo contiene información sobre las características de la ingesta, usando recordatorios de 24 horas (R24). Es decir, se carece de otros sistemas de estudio centrados en conocer las características gastronómicas de sus regiones y la biodisponibilidad de los alimentos, con el fin de localizar el origen de esta situación en cada área y proponer soluciones verdaderamente eficaces y eficientes.Objetivo: determinar el valor nutricional de los platos principales consumidos por los residentes de un barrio pobre de la Amazonía Peruana, para identificar las causas de la pérdida de un estado nutricional saludable.Métodos: noventa y ocho participantes completaron tres R24. Basándonos en estos datos, se seleccionaron los 25 platos más comúnmente consumidos y evaluamos su composición nutricional. Tomamos nota de las recetas, pesos y medidas caseras. Además, se observó la preparación y cocción. La composición nutricional media de cada plato se calculó por 100 g utilizando el software Nutriplato 4.6. También se calcularon lasganancias o pérdidas derivadas de los tratamientos culinarios.Resultados: dentro de los platos basados en la leche, el de más alta densidad de energía es el mingado de arroz. En el grupo de los pescados, la mayor cantidad de energía es aportada por el pescado frito, mientras que en las recetas a base de carne, las más energéticas son el tallarín con pollo, la res asada y el cerdo frito. Como platos preparados, el juane tiene la más alta densidad de energía de todas las recetas. Dentro de las guarniciones, aquellas que utilizan los plátanos como el ingrediente principal, el plátano frito y el madurito, son las más energ

  12. Comparing Teaching Styles and Personality Types of EFL Instructors in the Public and Private Sectors (Una comparación de los estilos de enseñanza y los tipos de personalidad de profesores de inglés de los sistemas educativos estatal y privado)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Larenas, Claudio H.; Rodriguez Moran, Andrea Victoria; Poblete Rivera, Karen Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    This is an exploratory non-experimental research study whose main objective is to compare the teaching styles of a group of thirty teachers of English working in either public or private secondary education in Chile. In order to collect the required data, two instruments were administered to the participants: a teaching style inventory and a…

  13. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Bebes y "Toddlers": Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Infant/Toddler Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for caregivers working in center-based infant and toddler day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system. Part 2 explains…

  14. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…

  15. Self-Programmed Counseling and Self-Programmed Control Manual. A Guide to Self-Image Development with Emphasis on the Chicano Student. Student's Guide = Manual de Sistema de Consejo Auto Programado y Control Auto Programado. Una Guia Para el Desarrollo de La Imagen Propia Con un Enfasis en el Estudiante Chicano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles, S. Raymond

    Self-Programmed Counseling, the instructor's guidance, and Self-Programmed Control (SPC), the student's response, was initially developed by Title III Project USTED (United Students and Teachers for Educational Development) for Mexican American college students on academic probation to use on a non-credit, special group counseling basis. As part…

  16. Approaches to optimal aquifer management and intelligent control in a multiresolutional decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Shlomo; Meystel, Alexander M.

    2005-03-01

    Despite remarkable new developments in stochastic hydrology and adaptations of advanced methods from operations research, stochastic control, and artificial intelligence, solutions of complex real-world problems in hydrogeology have been quite limited. The main reason is the ultimate reliance on first-principle models that lead to complex, distributed-parameter partial differential equations (PDE) on a given scale. While the addition of uncertainty, and hence, stochasticity or randomness has increased insight and highlighted important relationships between uncertainty, reliability, risk, and their effect on the cost function, it has also (a) introduced additional complexity that results in prohibitive computer power even for just a single uncertain/random parameter; and (b) led to the recognition in our inability to assess the full uncertainty even when including all uncertain parameters. A paradigm shift is introduced: an adaptation of new methods of intelligent control that will relax the dependency on rigid, computer-intensive, stochastic PDE, and will shift the emphasis to a goal-oriented, flexible, adaptive, multiresolutional decision support system (MRDS) with strong unsupervised learning (oriented towards anticipation rather than prediction) and highly efficient optimization capability, which could provide the needed solutions of real-world aquifer management problems. The article highlights the links between past developments and future optimization/planning/control of hydrogeologic systems. Malgré de remarquables nouveaux développements en hydrologie stochastique ainsi que de remarquables adaptations de méthodes avancées pour les opérations de recherche, le contrôle stochastique, et l'intelligence artificielle, solutions pour les problèmes complexes en hydrogéologie sont restées assez limitées. La principale raison est l'ultime confiance en les modèles qui conduisent à des équations partielles complexes aux paramètres distribués (PDE) à une

  17. Geostatistical mapping of leakance in a regional aquitard, Oak Ridges Moraine area, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Hinton, M. J.; Logan, C. E.; Sharpe, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    'imperméable, dans le but d'évaluer l'importance relative des processus d'alimentation des aquifères inférieurs. À partir d'une vaste base de données constituée par les mesures faites dans les puits et contenant des informations à la fois certaines et incertaines, la méthode de simulation par indicateur séquentiel est utilisée pour créer des cartes d'épaisseur de l'imperméable et de probabilité d'existence des fenêtres. Ces cartes peuvent être utilisées pour mettre en évidence les aquifères de chenaux et pour identifier les zones potentielles de recharge des aquifères inférieurs. Les conductivités hydrauliques sont modélisées à partir de données clairsemées en supposant que leur gamme de corrélation est beaucoup plus faible que le pas de la grille. La drainance à l'échelle des blocs est obtenue par accroissement du niveau d'échelle des valeurs nodales basé sur les champs de conductivité simulée et des épaisseurs. À partir de l'hypothèse d'écoulement dans l'aquifère, l'accroissement d'échelle est réalisé en faisant une moyenne arithmétique spatiale. Des histogrammes et des cartes de drainance avec accroissement d'échelle montrent que les hétérogénéités associées aux fenêtres dans l'imperméable constituent l'effet le plus important dans l'organisation des écoulements souterrains régionaux. Resumen. El Till de Newmarket forma un acuitardo de extensión regional que separa dos sistemas acuíferos principales en la zona de Greater Toronto (Canadá). El till está horadado, y a veces completamente erosionado, por una red de canales rellenos de arena y grava. Estos constituyen acuíferos productivos y, localmente, conexiones de alta permeabilidad entre sistemas acuíferos. El goteo a través del till puede ser fundamental en ciertos lugares. Este estudio investiga la variabilidad espacial del goteo desde el acuitardo con el fin de establecer la importancia relativa de los procesos de recarga hacia los acuíferos inferiores. Se ha

  18. Geostatistical mapping of leakance in a regional aquitard, Oak Ridges Moraine area, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Hinton, M. J.; Logan, C. E.; Sharpe, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    'imperméable, dans le but d'évaluer l'importance relative des processus d'alimentation des aquifères inférieurs. À partir d'une vaste base de données constituée par les mesures faites dans les puits et contenant des informations à la fois certaines et incertaines, la méthode de simulation par indicateur séquentiel est utilisée pour créer des cartes d'épaisseur de l'imperméable et de probabilité d'existence des fenêtres. Ces cartes peuvent être utilisées pour mettre en évidence les aquifères de chenaux et pour identifier les zones potentielles de recharge des aquifères inférieurs. Les conductivités hydrauliques sont modélisées à partir de données clairsemées en supposant que leur gamme de corrélation est beaucoup plus faible que le pas de la grille. La drainance à l'échelle des blocs est obtenue par accroissement du niveau d'échelle des valeurs nodales basé sur les champs de conductivité simulée et des épaisseurs. À partir de l'hypothèse d'écoulement dans l'aquifère, l'accroissement d'échelle est réalisé en faisant une moyenne arithmétique spatiale. Des histogrammes et des cartes de drainance avec accroissement d'échelle montrent que les hétérogénéités associées aux fenêtres dans l'imperméable constituent l'effet le plus important dans l'organisation des écoulements souterrains régionaux. Resumen. El Till de Newmarket forma un acuitardo de extensión regional que separa dos sistemas acuíferos principales en la zona de Greater Toronto (Canadá). El till está horadado, y a veces completamente erosionado, por una red de canales rellenos de arena y grava. Estos constituyen acuíferos productivos y, localmente, conexiones de alta permeabilidad entre sistemas acuíferos. El goteo a través del till puede ser fundamental en ciertos lugares. Este estudio investiga la variabilidad espacial del goteo desde el acuitardo con el fin de establecer la importancia relativa de los procesos de recarga hacia los acuíferos inferiores. Se ha

  19. p-Coumaric acid and its conjugates: dietary sources, pharmacokinetic properties and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Pei, Kehan; Ou, Juanying; Huang, Junqing; Ou, Shiyi

    2016-07-01

    p-Coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is a phenolic acid that has low toxicity in mice (LD50 = 2850 mg kg(-1) body weight), serves as a precursor of other phenolic compounds, and exists either in free or conjugated form in plants. Conjugates of p-coumaric acid have been extensively studied in recent years due to their bioactivities. In this review, the occurrence, bioavailability and bioaccessibility of p-coumaric acid and its conjugates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides, alkyl alcohols, organic acids, amine and lignin are discussed. Their biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antivirus, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation, anxiolytic, antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-arthritis activities, and their mitigatory effects against diabetes, obesity, hyperlipaemia and gout are compared. Cumulative evidence from multiple studies indicates that conjugation of p-coumaric acid greatly strengthens its biological activities; however, the high biological activity but low absorption of its conjugates remains a puzzle. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26692250

  20. Evaluation of chemical and antiviral properties of essential oils from South American plants.

    PubMed

    Duschatzky, Claudia B; Possetto, Mirta L; Talarico, Laura B; García, Cybele C; Michis, Fabiana; Almeida, Norma V; de Lampasona, Marina P; Schuff, Carola; Damonte, Elsa B

    2005-01-01

    The essential oils of seven aromatic plants from Córdoba, San Luis and San Juan Provinces (Argentina) were isolated by steam distillation and analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The oils were screened for cytotoxicity and in vitro inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) and Junin virus (JUNV) by a virucidal test. The oils showed a variable virucidal action according to the virus. The better relationship between cytotoxicity and antivirus action was observed with the essential oils of Heterothalamus alienus and Buddleja cordobensis against JUNV, with virucidal concentration 50% (VC50) values of 44.2 and 39.0 ppm and therapeutic indices (cytotoxicity to virucidal activity ratio) of 3.3 and 4.0, respectively. The inhibitory action was exerted by a direct interaction of virions with the oils. Virions inactivated with B. cordobensis and H. alienus essential oil were not affected in their ability to bind to the host cell. The therapeutic indices shown by these essential oils in toto were very modest, but given the complexity of their chemical composition the future identification of the precise active principle may allow the elimination of cytotoxic components and increase the selectivity of the effective compound. PMID:16130522

  1. Locked nucleic acid couples with Fok I nucleases to target and cleave hepatitis B virus's gene in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Ma; Hongyan, Chen; Huaxing, Zhu; Wei, Li; Daru, Lu

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a dented double-stranded DNA virus. After infecting human hepatic cells, it forms cccDNA that replicates persistently and integrates randomly into the host’s genome during the process of reserve transcription. On average, in each cell with chronic HBV infection, there are about 33 copies of cccDNA with a half of 35-57 days, which can be difficult to eradicate. A new strategy is to inhibit HBV transcription by using locked nucleic acid (LNA). Besides, cleaving HBV genome by targeted genome editing technologies could potentially cure patients. In this study, we explored new genome editing tools for HBV treatment. Based on LNA’s ability to form triple helix by binding to duplex DNA, its stability towards nuclease and polymerase, and its sensitivity to single base mismatches, we designed LNA-modified oligonucleotides as DNA binding domain to effectively increase the specificity of target gene recognition. Meanwhile, by utilizing the small molecular weight and dimerization dependent activity of nuclease Fok I, we used Fok I recombinant dimer protein as DNA cleavage domain. Here, we established a method by chemical coupling of LNA-oligonucleotide with Fok I cleavage domain, and also validated the targeted cleavage of HBV genes with our new tools in vitro. These results provide new possibilities for future in vivo anti-virus gene therapy with high specificity and no integration risk. PMID:27103458

  2. Rice Responses and Resistance to Planthopper-Borne Viruses at Transcriptomic and Proteomic Levels.

    PubMed

    Cui, Feng; Zhao, Wan; Luo, Lan; Kang, Le

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world, especially in Asian areas. Rice virus diseases are considered as the most serious threat to rice yields. Most rice viruses are transmitted by hemipteran insects such as planthoppers and leafhoppers. In Asia five rice viruses are transmitted mainly by three planthopper species in a persistent manner: Rice stripe virus, Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, Rice ragged stunt virus, Rice grassy stunt virus, and Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus. In rice antivirus studies, several individual genes have been shown to function in rice resistance to viruses. Since plant responses to viral infection are complex, system-level omic studies are required to fully understand the responses. Recently more and more omic studies have appeared in the literatures on relationships between planthoppers and viruses, employing microarray, RNA-Seq, small RNA deep sequencing, degradome sequencing, and proteomic analysis. In this paper, we review the current knowledge and progress of omic studies in rice plant responses and resistance to four planthopper-borned viruses. We also discuss progress in the omic study of the interactions of planthoppers and rice viruses. Future research directions and translational applications of fundamental knowledge of virus-vector-rice interactions are proposed. PMID:26363817

  3. AP1S3 is required for hepatitis C virus infection by stabilizing E2 protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Niu, Yuqiang; Cheng, Min; Chi, Xiaojing; Liu, Xiuying; Yang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 130 million people worldwide and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The interactions between viral elements and host factors play critical role on HCV invade, replication and release. Here, we identified adaptor protein complex 1 sigma 3 subunit (AP1S3) as a dependency factor for the efficient HCV infection in hepatoma cells. AP1S3 silencing in cultivated Huh7.5.1 cells significantly reduced the production of HCV progeny particles. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that AP1S3 interacted with the HCV E2 protein. With this interaction, AP1S3 could protect HCV E2 from ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. Using in vivo ubiquitylation assay, we identified that E6-Associated Protein (E6AP) was associated with HCV E2. In addition, treatment with synthetic peptide that contains the AP1S3-recognized motif inhibited HCV infection in Huh7.5.1 cells. Our data reveal AP1 as a novel host network that is required by viruses during infection and provides a potential target for developing broad-spectrum anti-virus strategies. PMID:27079945

  4. Intracellular self-assembly based multi-labeling of key viral components: Envelope, capsid and nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Lu, Wen; Lv, Cheng; Chen, Zhi-Liang; Wang, Han-Zhong; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Envelope, capsid and nucleic acids are key viral components that are all involved in crucial events during virus infection. Thus simultaneous labeling of these key components is an indispensable prerequisite for monitoring comprehensive virus infection process and dissecting virus infection mechanism. Baculovirus was genetically tagged with biotin on its envelope protein GP64 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) on its capsid protein VP39. Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) cells were infected by the recombinant baculovirus and subsequently fed with streptavidin-conjugated quantum dots (SA-QDs) and cell-permeable nucleic acids dye SYTO 82. Just by genetic engineering and virus propagation, multi-labeling of envelope, capsid and nucleic acids was spontaneously accomplished during virus inherent self-assembly process, significantly simplifying the labeling process while maintaining virus infectivity. Intracellular dissociation and transportation of all the key viral components, which was barely reported previously, was real-time monitored based on the multi-labeling approach, offering opportunities for deeply understanding virus infection and developing anti-virus treatment. PMID:27209260

  5. Lettuce chlorosis virus P23 Suppresses RNA Silencing and Induces Local Necrosis with Increased Severity at Raised Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Kenji; Ng, James C K

    2016-06-01

    RNA silencing functions as an antivirus defense strategy in plants, one that plant viruses counter by producing viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs). VSRs have been identified in three members of the genus Crinivirus but they do not all share identical suppression mechanisms. Here, we used Agrobacterium co-infiltration assays to investigate the suppressor activity of proteins encoded by Lettuce chlorosis virus (LCV). Of 7 LCV proteins (1b, P23, HSP70 homolog, P60, CP, CPm, and P27) tested for the suppression of silencing of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in wild-type Nicotiana benthamiana plants, only P23 suppressed the onset of local silencing. Small-interfering (si)RNA accumulation was reduced in leaves co-infiltrated with P23, suggesting that P23 inhibited the accumulation or enhanced the degradation of siRNA. P23 also inhibited the cell-to-cell and systemic movement of RNA silencing in GFP-expressing transgenic N. benthamiana plants. Expression of P23 via agroinfiltration of N. benthamiana leaves induced local necrosis that increased in severity at elevated temperatures, a novelty given that a direct temperature effect on necrosis severity has not been reported for the other crinivirus VSRs. These results further affirm the sophistication of crinivirus VSRs in mediating the evasion of host's antiviral defenses and in symptom modulation. PMID:26828232

  6. Photocatalytic inactivation efficiency of anatase Nano-TiO(2) Sol on the H(9) N(2) avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Haixin; Jiang, Jianfang; Gu, Wei; Sun, Changjiao; Wu, Donglai; Yang, Tao; Yang, Guochen

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate efficiency of TiO(2) nanomaterial as a novel environment-friendly disinfectant to control avian influenza (AI) by its photochemical sterilization ability. Anatase nano-TiO(2) sol, a neutral, viscous aqueous colloid of 1.6% TiO(2) , was synthesized from peroxotitanic acid solution according to the Ichinose method. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the TiO(2) particles were spindle-shaped with an average size of 50 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the crystal phase of TiO(2) particles was anatase type with photocatalytic effect. A photocatalytic film of nano-TiO(2) sol was tested as a means of inactivating H(9) N(2) avian influenza virus (AIV). Inactivation capabilities were examined with 365nm ultraviolet (UV) radiation under black light by adjusting the UV intensity, the UV irradiation time and the quantity of AIV. The titer change of AIV was determined by hemagglutination tests. Cytopathic effect of Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells was monitored by inverted fluorescence microscope. The results showed that anatase nano-TiO(2) sol significantly inactivated AIV under UV irradiation of 365nm. The inactivation of AIV viruses reached up to 100%. Therefore, anatase nano-TiO(2) sol is a potentially environment-friendly antivirus agent to prevent AI. PMID:20553405

  7. Status of hepatitis C virus vaccination: Recent update

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwahab, Kouka Saadeldin; Ahmed Said, Zeinab Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still a major public health problem worldwide since its first identification in 1989. At the start, HCV infection was post-transfusion viral infection, particularly in developing countries. Recently, due to iv drug abuse, HCV infection became number one health problem in well-developed countries as well. Following acute HCV infection, the innate immune response is triggered in the form of activated coordinated interaction of NK cells, dendritic cells and interferon α. The acquired immune response is then developed in the form of the antibody-mediated immune response (ABIR) and the cell-mediated immune response (CMIR). Both are responsible for clearance of HCV infection in about 15% of infected patients. However, HCV has several mechanisms to evade these antivirus immune reactions. The current review gives an overview of HCV structure, immune response and viral evasion mechanisms. It also evaluates the available preventive and therapeutic vaccines that induce innate, ABIR, CMIR. Moreover, this review highlights the progress in recent HCV vaccination studies either in preclinical or clinical phases. The unsatisfactory identification of HCV infection by the current screening system and the limitations of currently available treatments, including the ineligibility of some chronic HCV patients to such antiviral agents, mandate the development of an effective HCV vaccine. PMID:26811632

  8. Phishing for suitable targets in the Netherlands: routine activity theory and phishing victimization.

    PubMed

    Leukfeldt, E Rutger

    2014-08-01

    This article investigates phishing victims, especially the increased or decreased risk of victimization, using data from a cybercrime victim survey in the Netherlands (n=10,316). Routine activity theory provides the theoretical perspective. According to routine activity theory, several factors influence the risk of victimization. A multivariate analysis was conducted to assess which factors actually lead to increased risk of victimization. The model included background and financial data of victims, their Internet activities, and the degree to which they were "digitally accessible" to an offender. The analysis showed that personal background and financial characteristics play no role in phishing victimization. Among eight Internet activities, only "targeted browsing" led to increased risk. As for accessibility, using popular operating systems and web browsers does not lead to greater risk, while having up-to-date antivirus software as a technically capable guardian has no effect. The analysis showed no one, clearly defined group has an increased chance of becoming a victim. Target hardening may help, but opportunities for prevention campaigns aimed at a specific target group or dangerous online activities are limited. Therefore, situational crime prevention will have to come from a different angle. Banks could play the role of capable guardian. PMID:25080013

  9. WSSV-induced crayfish Dscam shows durable immune behavior.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tze Hann; Hung, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Yi-An; Lin, Jia-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ning; Chuang, Ya-Chu; Wang, Han-Ching

    2014-09-01

    One of the major gaps in our understanding of arthropod specific immune priming concerns the mechanism[s] by which the observed long-term (>2 weeks) protective effects might be mediated. Hypervariable Dscam (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule) might support arthropod innate immunity with specificity for more extended periods. We show here that, in the relatively long-lived arthropod Cherax quadricarinatus, CqDscam does not behave like a typical, immediately-acting, short-lived innate immune factor: CqDscam was not induced within hours after challenge with a lethal virus, but instead was only up-regulated after 2-5 days. This initial response faded within ∼ 2 weeks, but another maximum was reached ∼ 1 month later. At around 2 months after the initial challenge, the virus-induced CqDscam bound to the virus virion and acted to neutralize the virus However, although CqDscam helped crayfish to survive during persistent infection, it nevertheless failed to provide any enhanced protection against a subsequent WSSV challenge. Thus, CqDscam is capable of supporting extended anti-virus immune memory in arthropods. Also, during a persistent virus infection, the balance of "immune firepower" in crayfish appears to be altered such that the general immune factors become depleted while CqDscam becomes relatively predominant. PMID:24973514

  10. Trichosanthin-induced autophagy in gastric cancer cell MKN-45 is dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NF-κB/p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bin; Huang, Qiaoying; Huang, Shunrong; Mai, Wei; Zhong, Xiaogang

    2016-06-01

    Trichosanthin (TCS), isolated from the root tuber of Trichosanthes kirilowii tubers in the Cucurbitaceae family, owns a great deal of biological and pharmacological activities including anti-virus and anti-tumor. TCS has been reported to induce cell apoptosis of a diversity of cancers, including cervical cancer, choriocarcinoma, and gastric cancer, etc. However, whether TCS would induce autophagy in gastric cancer cells was seldom investigated. In current study, human gastric cancer MKN-45 cell growth was significantly inhibited by TCS. The anti-proliferation effect of TCS was due to an increased autophagy, which was confirmed by monodansylcadervarine (MDC) staining, up-regulation of Autophagy protein 5 (Atg5), and conversion of LC3 I to LC3 II (autophagosome marker). In addition, TCS induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MKN-45 cells and ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly reversed TCS-induced autophagy. Furthermore, NF-κB/p53 pathway was activated during the process of autophagy induced by TCS and the ROS generation was mediated by it in MKN-45 cells. In vivo results showed that TCS exerted significantly anti-tumor effect on MKN-45 bearing mice. Considering the clinical usage of TCS on other human diseases, these research progresses provided a new insight into cancer research and new therapeutic avenues for patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27032906

  11. Inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection by the sulfated polysaccharide extracts from Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ya-Huang; Chan, Yi-Lin; Li, Tsung-Lin; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2012-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a neurotropic flavivirus, is one of the major causes of acute encephalitis in humans. After infection, inflammatory reactions and neurological diseases often develop. Still there are no effective drugs available against virus infection. Recently, extracts of algae have been shown to possess a broad range of biological activities including antivirus activity. In this study, we identified that the sulfated polysaccharide extracts from Ulva lactuca can inhibit JEV infection in Vero cells. Mechanistic studies further revealed that the Ulva sulfated polysaccharide extracts can block virus adsorption and thus make the virus unable to enter cells. The Ulva sulfated polysaccharide extracts also effectively decrease the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the JEV-infected primary mixed glia cells. In an animal study, the JEV-infected C3H/HeN mice appeared to have neurobehavioral abnormalities on the fifth day and died on the seventh day post infection. However, the JEV-infected mice pretreated with the Ulva sulfated polysaccharide extracts can delay the onset of hind limb paralysis and thereby prevent mice from death. PMID:22193590

  12. A novel metaheuristic for continuous optimization problems: Virus optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yun-Chia; Rodolfo Cuevas Juarez, Josue

    2016-01-01

    A novel metaheuristic for continuous optimization problems, named the virus optimization algorithm (VOA), is introduced and investigated. VOA is an iteratively population-based method that imitates the behaviour of viruses attacking a living cell. The number of viruses grows at each replication and is controlled by an immune system (a so-called 'antivirus') to prevent the explosive growth of the virus population. The viruses are divided into two classes (strong and common) to balance the exploitation and exploration effects. The performance of the VOA is validated through a set of eight benchmark functions, which are also subject to rotation and shifting effects to test its robustness. Extensive comparisons were conducted with over 40 well-known metaheuristic algorithms and their variations, such as artificial bee colony, artificial immune system, differential evolution, evolutionary programming, evolutionary strategy, genetic algorithm, harmony search, invasive weed optimization, memetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing. The results showed that the VOA is a viable solution for continuous optimization.

  13. The interplay between Epstein-Barr virus and the immune system: a rationale for adoptive cell therapy of EBV-related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Anna; Turrini, Riccardo; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Martorelli, Debora; Muraro, Elena; Comoli, Patrizia; Rosato, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus has evolved a plethora of strategies to evade immune system recognition and to establish latent infection in memory B cells, where the virus resides lifelong without any consequence in the majority of individuals. However, some imbalances in the equilibrium between the inherent virus transforming properties and the host immune system can lead to the development of different tumors, such as lymphoproliferative disorders, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The expression of viral antigens in malignant cells makes them suitable targets for immunotherapeutic approaches, which are mainly based on the ex vivo expansion of EBV-specific T cells. Indeed, the infusion of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes has proved not only to be safe and effective, but also capable of restoring or inducing a protective anti-virus immunity, which is lacking, albeit to a different extent, in every EBV-driven malignancy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of adoptive immunotherapy approaches for EBV-related malignancies, with particular emphasis on the immunological and virological aspects linked to the clinical responses obtained. Data collected confirm the clinical relevance of the use of EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the field of adoptive immunotherapy and suggest the increasing importance of this approach also against other tumors, concurrent with the increasing knowledge of the intimate and continuous interplay between the virus and the host immune system. PMID:20421267

  14. Case-Based Multi-Sensor Intrusion Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel G.; Long, Jidong

    2009-08-01

    Multi-sensor intrusion detection systems (IDSs) combine the alerts raised by individual IDSs and possibly other kinds of devices such as firewalls and antivirus software. A critical issue in building a multi-sensor IDS is alert-correlation, i.e., determining which alerts are caused by the same attack. This paper explores a novel approach to alert correlation using case-based reasoning (CBR). Each case in the CBR system's library contains a pattern of alerts raised by some known attack type, together with the identity of the attack. Then during run time, the alert streams gleaned from the sensors are compared with the patterns in the cases, and a match indicates that the attack described by that case has occurred. For this purpose the design of a fast and accurate matching algorithm is imperative. Two such algorithms were explored: (i) the well-known Hungarian algorithm, and (ii) an order-preserving matching of our own device. Tests were conducted using the DARPA Grand Challenge Problem attack simulator. These showed that the both matching algorithms are effective in detecting attacks; but the Hungarian algorithm is inefficient; whereas the order-preserving one is very efficient, in fact runs in linear time.

  15. Dimeric Sesquiterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shang-Gao; Yue, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that a large number of proteins that are responsible for cellular function exist as dimers or need to be activated by dimerization before mediating certain signaling pathways. Simultaneously targeting both monomeric moieties of the dimeric proteins has shown potential in the development of various therapeutic agents. As dimeric molecules might be able to act on both moieties of a dimeric protein, dimeric sesquiterpenoids (DSs), which are generated biogenetically from coupling of two sesquiterpenoid molecules, are in essence potential biologically active molecules, and have attracted in recent years great attention for their peculiar structures and biological activities. In fact, a number of DSs are more potent than their monomeric precursors for some activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, immunosuppressive, potassium channel blocking, antimalarial, anti-virus, and neurotrophic activities.The complex and diversified structures of DSs also attracted attention of chemists in their isolation, structural elucidation, and synthetic construction.In the contribution, a general view of the classification and distribution of DSs will be provided. Strategies for the structural elucidation of DSs and their analogues is presented. Chemical strategies for the convergence of the two sesquiterpenoid units is reviewed. Biological activities are discussed under each type of activity. PMID:26659108

  16. Dicer functions as an antiviral system against human adenoviruses via cleavage of adenovirus-encoded noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Machitani, Mitsuhiro; Sakurai, Fuminori; Wakabayashi, Keisaku; Tomita, Kyoko; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In various organisms, including nematodes and plants, RNA interference (RNAi) is a defense system against virus infection; however, it is unclear whether RNAi functions as an antivirus system in mammalian cells. Rather, a number of DNA viruses, including herpesviruses, utilize post-transcriptional silencing systems for their survival. Here we show that Dicer efficiently suppresses the replication of adenovirus (Ad) via cleavage of Ad-encoding small RNAs (VA-RNAs), which efficiently promote Ad replication via the inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation, to viral microRNAs (mivaRNAs). The Dicer knockdown significantly increases the copy numbers of VA-RNAs, leading to the efficient inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation and the subsequent promotion of Ad replication. Conversely, overexpression of Dicer significantly inhibits Ad replication. Transfection with mivaRNA does not affect eIF2α phosphorylation or Ad replication. These results indicate that Dicer-mediated processing of VA-RNAs leads to loss of activity of VA-RNAs for enhancement of Ad replication and that Dicer functions as a defence system against Ad in mammalian cells. PMID:27273616

  17. Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease and corresponding biosafety considerations in the China Ebola Treatment Center.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing; Fu, Wei-Ling; You, Jian-Ping; Mao, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD), caused by Ebola virus (EBOV), is a potent acute infectious disease with a high case-fatality rate. Etiological and serological EBOV detection methods, including techniques that involve the detection of the viral genome, virus-specific antigens and anti-virus antibodies, are standard laboratory diagnostic tests that facilitate confirmation or exclusion of EBOV infection. In addition, routine blood tests, liver and kidney function tests, electrolytes and coagulation tests and other diagnostic examinations are important for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of EVD. Because of the viral load in body fluids and secretions from EVD patients, all body fluids are highly contagious. As a result, biosafety control measures during the collection, transport and testing of clinical specimens obtained from individuals scheduled to undergo EBOV infection testing (including suspected, probable and confirmed cases) are crucial. This report has been generated following extensive work experience in the China Ebola Treatment Center (ETC) in Liberia and incorporates important information pertaining to relevant diagnostic standards, clinical significance, operational procedures, safety controls and other issues related to laboratory testing of EVD. Relevant opinions and suggestions are presented in this report to provide contextual awareness associated with the development of standards and/or guidelines related to EVD laboratory testing. PMID:26952811

  18. From Intrusion Detection to Self Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Frincke, Deb; Wespi, Andreas; Zamboni, Diego

    2007-04-11

    Modern computer systems have become so complex and interdependent that the traditional model of system defense, utilizing layers and including an intrusion detection system that provides alerts to a human who responds to them, is becoming unfeasible. Effective human-guided real-time responses are no longer a reasonable expectation for large scale systems--this is particularly troublesome because a failure to respond correctly and rapidly can have disastrous consequences. In an ideal world, our systems would automatically detect and respond to threats of all kinds, including but not limited to automated attacks, human-guided attacks, and the constant onslaught of unsolicited email (spam). Traditionally, these threats have been dealt with by separate communities--the anti-virus community, the intrusion-detection/firewall community, and the anti-spam community. Today however, we see an increasing need for integrating different technologies toward achieving a common goal. In this special issue, we surveyed the research community with the intent of identifying novel, multidisciplinary and integrated approaches to system defense that contribute towards development of true self-protecting and self-healing systems. The result is reflected in the articles we selected.

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Biology of Recombinant Adenovirus Vectors with E1, E1/E2A, or E1/E4 Deleted

    PubMed Central

    Lusky, M.; Christ, M.; Rittner, K.; Dieterle, A.; Dreyer, D.; Mourot, B.; Schultz, H.; Stoeckel, F.; Pavirani, A.; Mehtali, M.

    1998-01-01

    Isogenic, E3-deleted adenovirus vectors defective in E1, E1 and E2A, or E1 and E4 were generated in complementation cell lines expressing E1, E1 and E2A, or E1 and E4 and characterized in vitro and in vivo. In the absence of complementation, deletion of both E1 and E2A completely abolished expression of early and late viral genes, while deletion of E1 and E4 impaired expression of viral genes, although at a lower level than the E1/E2A deletion. The in vivo persistence of these three types of vectors was monitored in selected strains of mice with viral genomes devoid of transgenes to exclude any interference by immunogenic transgene-encoded products. Our studies showed no significant differences among the vectors in the short-term maintenance and long-term (4-month) persistence of viral DNA in liver and lung cells of immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. Furthermore, all vectors induced similar antibody responses and comparable levels of adenovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. These results suggest that in the absence of transgenes, the progressive deletion of the adenovirus genome does not extend the in vivo persistence of the transduced cells and does not reduce the antivirus immune response. In addition, our data confirm that, in the absence of transgene expression, mouse cellular immunity to viral antigens plays a minor role in the progressive elimination of the virus genome. PMID:9499056

  20. The need for culture collections to support plant pathogen diagnostic networks.

    PubMed

    Barba, Marina; Van den Bergh, Inge; Belisario, Alessandra; Beed, Fen

    2010-01-01

    Plant-pathogenic microorganisms, by virtue of their size, similarity in disease symptoms and closely related morphologies, are notoriously difficult to diagnose and detect. Diagnosis gives proof as to the causal agent of disease and is important for developing appropriate control measures. Detection shows the presence of a microorganism and is of importance for safeguarding national and international trade. Live reference collections are required to characterize the taxonomy and function of microorganisms as a prerequisite to development of tools for diagnosis and detection. Two case studies will be presented in this paper to demonstrate the importance of microorganism collections for facilitating knowledge sharing and the development of identification methods. Fusarium wilt of banana caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense and sharka disease of stone fruits caused by plum pox virus (PPV) are considered. Both diseases consist of different races/strains with different host specificities, but Fusarium wilt poses a threat to food security, while PPV poses a threat to trade due to its classification as a quarantine pest, since there is no anti-virus treatment available to control sharka disease in orchards. It is only through comprehensive collections of correctly identified and well-maintained strains representing the genetic diversity of a target organism that robust, specific, reliable and efficient diagnostic and detection tools can be developed. PMID:20457251

  1. From Traditional Usage to Pharmacological Evidence: A Systematic Mini-Review of Spina Gleditsiae.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiayu; Yang, Xiao; Yin, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Spina Gleditsiae is an important herb with various medicinal properties in traditional and folk medicinal systems of East Asian countries. In China through the centuries, it has been traditionally used as a source of drugs for anticancer, detoxication, detumescence, apocenosis, and antiparasites effects. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been reported regarding its chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. To further evidence the traditional use, phytochemicals, and pharmacological mechanisms of this herb, a systematic literature review was performed herein for Spina Gleditsiae. The review approach consisted of searching several web-based scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Elsevier using the keywords "Spina Gleditsiae", "Zao Jiao Ci", and "Gleditsia sinensis". Based on the proposed criteria, 17 articles were evaluated in detail. According to the reviewed data, it is quite evident that Spina Gleditsiae contains a number of bioactive phytochemical components, which account for variety medicinal values including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, antimicrobial, antiallergic, and antivirus activities. The phytochemical and pharmacological studies reviewed herein strongly underpin a fundamental understanding of herbal Spina Gleditsiae and support its ongoing clinical uses in China. The further phytochemical evaluation, safety verification, and clinical trials are expected to progress Spina Gleditsiae-based development to finally transform the traditional TCM herb Spina Gleditsiae to the valuable authorized drug. PMID:27433183

  2. Investigating weaknesses in Android certificate security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krych, Daniel E.; Lange-Maney, Stephen; McDaniel, Patrick; Glodek, William

    2015-05-01

    Android's application market relies on secure certificate generation to establish trust between applications and their users; yet, cryptography is often not a priority for application developers and many fail to take the necessary security precautions. Indeed, there is cause for concern: several recent high-profile studies have observed a pervasive lack of entropy on Web-systems leading to the factorization of private keys.1 Sufficient entropy, or randomness, is essential to generate secure key pairs and combat predictable key generation. In this paper, we analyze the security of Android certificates. We investigate the entropy present in 550,000 Android application certificates using the Quasilinear GCD finding algorithm.1 Our results show that while the lack of entropy does not appear to be as ubiquitous in the mobile markets as on Web-systems, there is substantial reuse of certificates only one third of the certificates in our dataset were unique. In other words, we find that organizations frequently reuse certificates for different applications. While such a practice is acceptable under Google's specifications for a single developer, we find that in some cases the same certificates are used for a myriad of developers, potentially compromising Android's intended trust relationships. Further, we observed duplicate certificates being used by both malicious and non-malicious applications. The top 3 repeated certificates present in our dataset accounted for a total of 11,438 separate APKs. Of these applications, 451, or roughly 4%, were identified as malicious by antivirus services.

  3. Optimization of soluble human interferon-γ production in Escherichia coli using SUMO fusion partner.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wang, Qi; Pu, Hefang; Gu, Shasha; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2013-02-01

    Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is a broad-spectrum antiviral glycoprotein that produced by lymphatic T cells and natural killer cells those who had stimulated by antigen. Human IFN-γ (hIFN-γ) often used in clinical research and practice because of its bioactivity, for example, antivirus, antitumor, controlling cell apoptosis, and the strict selectivity. However, due to the difficulties of Escherichia coli expression system meet in protein folding, the hIFN-γ often existed as inclusion body. The production of soluble hIFN-γ can be developed to shorten the production cycle and decrease the cost. In this study, small ubiquitin-related modifier fusion technology was used to express and purify recombinant hIFN-γ. Expression induced by adding 50 mM arginine and 1 % (w/v) glycerol into the culture at 24 °C existed as a soluble form of 70 % in total protein. Finally, about 62 mg recombinant hIFN-γ was obtained from 1 L fermentation culture with no less than 96 % purity. Determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay, the specific activity of the recombinant hIFN-γ achieved at 7.78 × 10(5) IU/mL. PMID:23054704

  4. Herbal Mouthwash Containing Extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia as Agent for the Control of Biofilm: Clinical Evaluation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Mateus Freire; Tavares, Reisla Cristina; Sato, Sandra; do Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae), popularly known as “alecrim-do-campo,” is largely distributed in South America, is shown to exhibit protective actions against gastric ulcers, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is hepatoprotective. Several essential oils obtained from Baccharis species possess biological activities, such as antimicrobial and antivirus activities. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of B. dracunculifolia in the reduction of dental biofilm, comparing this natural product with other mouthwashes already known in the dental market. In measuring the time after use of mouthwash (t = 1), there was no difference between products (P = 0.602); that is, subjects in the study had a similar PI after the first use. After one week (t = 2), there was no difference between the four products evaluated (P = 0.674), so, all research individuals completed the study with a similar reduction in dental biofilm between themselves but it was different from initial state (Friedman test). It is possible to conclude that B. dracunculifolia had the same efficiency of the materials used to oral hygiene in reduction of dental plaque and, consequently, prevention of dental caries. Thus, we can consider B. dracunculifolia as a good candidate for new material to be implemented in dental care. PMID:25874255

  5. SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF TWO MINOR COMPOUNDS FROM RADIX ISATIDIS BY INTEGRATIVE MPLC AND HSCCC WITH PREPARATIVE HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhenjie; Li, Bin; Liang, Yong; Su, Yaping; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Radix isatidis has been widely used as a Chinese traditional medicine for its anti-virus and anticancer activities where the minor components may contribute to these beneficial pharmaceutical effects. In order to enrich the target minor compounds effectively and rapidly, extraction, medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC), high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (pre-HPLC) were integratively used for separation and purification of two target minor compounds indole-3-acetonitrile-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (target 1) and clemastanin B (target 2) in the present study. Radix isatidis was dried, pulverized and extracted with 50% methanol at room temperature, then concentrated and subjected to pretreatment with D-101 macroporous resin chromatography and extraction by MPLC. The first target compound was separated by MPLC at the purity raised to 70–80%, but without the second minor compounds which were irreversibly adsorbed by C18 solid support. Therefore, the second target compound in the crude extract was directly separated by HSCCC at purity of 80–90%. Finally these refined samples were further separated by pre-HPLC to obtain a high purity at 98–99%. The chemical structure identification of each target compound was carried out by IR, ESI-MS and 1H NMR. PMID:25745338

  6. Spectroscopy characterization of the interaction between brevifolin carboxylic acid and bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jianniao; Xie, Yuhuan; Zhao, Yanchun; Li, Caifeng; Zhao, Shulin

    2011-01-01

    Themechanism of binding of the antivirus drug, brevifolin carboxylic acid (BCA) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy under pseudo-physiological conditions for the first time. A strong fluorescence quenching was observed and the quenching mechanism was considered as static quenching. Various binding parameters were evaluated. The quantitative analysis of CD spectral data revealed that the a-helical content of BSA increased from 48.91% (in free BSA) to 52.46% (in bound form) in the presence of BCA. Based on the Förster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the relation of the binding average distance r between the donor (BSA) and acceptor (BCA) and acceptor concentration was determined. The changes in association constants of BCA-BSA in the presence of the common ions are also discussed. From the CD, FT-IR, time-resolved fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic results, it is apparent that the interaction of BCA with BSA causes a conformational change in the protein, and the Trp and Tyr residues are buried in more hydrophobic surroundings. BCA mainly binds to residue Trp 212 located in domain II of BSA by hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond. PMID:20737652

  7. A virus spreading model for cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, L.; Yeung, K. H.; Wong, K. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Since cognitive radio (CR) networks could solve the spectrum scarcity problem, they have drawn much research in recent years. Artificial intelligence(AI) is introduced into CRs to learn from and adapt to their environment. Nonetheless, AI brings in a new kind of attacks specific to CR networks. The most powerful one is a self-propagating AI virus. And no spreading properties specific to this virus have been reported in the literature. To fill this research gap, we propose a virus spreading model of an AI virus by considering the characteristics of CR networks and the behavior of CR users. Several important observations are made from the simulation results based on the model. Firstly, the time taken to infect the whole network increases exponentially with the network size. Based on this result, CR network designers could calculate the optimal network size to slow down AI virus propagation rate. Secondly, the anti-virus performance of static networks to an AI virus is better than dynamic networks. Thirdly, if the CR devices with the highest degree are initially infected, the AI virus propagation rate will be increased substantially. Finally, it is also found that in the area with abundant spectrum resource, the AI virus propagation speed increases notably but the variability of the spectrum does not affect the propagation speed much.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a galectin-1 homolog in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuli; Wei, Jingguang; Xu, Meng; Yang, Min; Li, Pingfei; Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-07-01

    As a member of animal lectin family, galectin has the functions of pathogen recognition, anti-bacteria and anti-virus. In the present study, a galectin-1 homolog (EcGel-1) from grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was cloned and its possible role in fish immunity was analyzed. The full length cDNA of EcGel-1 is 504 bp, including a 408 bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes 135 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15.19 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that EcGel-1 was constitutively expressed in all analyzed tissues of healthy grouper. The expression of EcGel-1 in the spleen of grouper was differentially up-regulated challenged with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), poly (I:C), and LPS. EcGel-1 was abundantly distributed in the cytoplasm in GS cells. Recombinant EcGel-1(rEcGel-1) protein can make chicken erythrocyte aggregation, and combine with gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria in the presence of 2-Mercaptoethanol (β-ME). Taken together, the results showed that EcGel-1 may be an important molecule involved in pathogen recognition and pathogen elimination in the innate immunity of grouper. PMID:27109200

  9. Angel of human health: current research updates in toad medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Bi, Linlin; Miao, Shan; Cao, Wei; Xie, Yanhua; Sun, Jiyuan; Tang, Haifeng; Li, Ying; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

    2015-01-01

    There are currently 34 genera and 410 species of toads in the world. The medicinal parts of toads mainly include their venom, skin, and clothing. The toad’s venom and skin possess the same chemical components, mainly the toad venom lactone class, and their pharmacological effects primarily include the maintenance of strong heart, antitumor, antivirus, anti-infection, and analgesic effects. So far, the produces from the medicinal raw materials of the toad are widely used clinically around the world, especially in China, Japan, and South Korea. About 50 varieties of medicines are used in the clinical treatment of various complicated diseases in China, such as “Liushen pills” which was popular in the whole world. Toads are mainly used in treating malignant tumors (e.g., liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, among others), and some major diseases such as hepatitis B. Despite the therapeutic effects of toad-derived medicines on human health, there is insufficient research and development of toad-derived medicines by leading drug companies. In order to harness the beneficial effects of the resources of the toad species, it is the responsibility of global pharmaceutical researchers to develop and generate economically feasible toad-derived therapeutic products, while promoting maximum protection to the resources of the toad species. PMID:25755824

  10. Antiviral activity of Rheum palmatum methanol extract and chrysophanol against Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Jen; Huang, Su-Hua; Lin, Ying-Ju; Tsou, Yi-Yun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Rheum palmatum, Chinese traditional herb, exhibits a great variety of anti-cancer and anti-viruses properties. This study rates antiviral activity of R. palmatum extracts and its components against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in vitro. Methanol extract of R. palmatum contained higher levels of aloe emodin, chrysophanol, rhein, emodin and physcion than water extract. Methanol extract (IC₅₀ = 15.04 μg/ml) exhibited more potent inhibitory effects on JEV plaque reduction than water extract (IC₅₀ = 51.41 μg/ml). Meanwhile, IC₅₀ values determined by plaque reduction assay were 15.82 μg/ml for chrysophanol and 17.39 μg/ml for aloe-emodin, respectively. Virucidal activity of agents correlated with anti-JEV activity, while virucidal IC₅₀ values were 7.58 μg/ml for methanol extract, 17.36 μg/ml for water extract, 0.75 μg/ml for chrysophanol and 0.46 μg/ml for aloe-emodin, respectively. In addition, 10 μg/ml of extract, chrysophanol or aloe emodin caused 90 % inhibition of JEV yields in cells and significantly activated gamma activated sequence-driven promoters. Hence, methanol extract of R. palmatum and chrysophanol with high therapeutic index might be useful for development of antiviral agents against JEV. PMID:24395532

  11. Attenuation of Histone Methyltransferase KRYPTONITE-mediated transcriptional gene silencing by Geminivirus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan-Wei; Tee, Chuan-Sia; Ma, Yong-Huan; Wang, Gang; Yao, Xiang-Mei; Ye, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Although histone H3K9 methylation has been intensively studied in animals and a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, little is known about the evolution of the histone methyltransferase and its roles in plant biotic stress response. Here we identified a Nicotiana benthamiana homolog of H3K9 histone methyltransferase KRYPTONITE (NbKYP) and demonstrated its fundamental roles on methylation of plant and virus, beside of leading to the suppression of endogenous gene expression and virus replication. NbKYP and another gene encoding DNA methyltransferase CHROMOMETHYLTRANSFERASE 3 (NbCMT3-1) were further identified as the key components of maintenance of transcriptional gene silencing, a DNA methylation involved anti-virus machinery. All three types of DNA methylations (asymmetric CHH and symmetric CHG/CG) were severely affected in NbKYP-silenced plants, but only severe reduction of CHG methylation found in NbCMT3-1-silenced plants. Attesting to the importance of plant histone H3K9 methylation immunity to virus, the virulence of geminiviruses requires virus-encoded trans-activator AC2 which inhibits the expression of KYP via activation of an EAR-motif-containing transcription repressor RAV2 (RELATED TO ABI3 and VP1). The reduction of KYP was correlated with virulence of various similar geminiviruses. These findings provide a novel mechanism of how virus trans-activates a plant endogenous anti-silencing machinery to gain high virulence. PMID:26602265

  12. Hydrolysis is the dominating in vivo metabolism pathway for arctigenin: identification of novel metabolites of arctigenin by LC/MS/MS after oral administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiong; Zhang, Yufeng; Wo, Siukwan; Zuo, Zhong

    2013-04-01

    The phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan arctigenin, a key component found in Arctium lappa, or burdock, has been reported with a variety of therapeutic effects including anticancer, anti-inflammation, and antivirus effects. Using LC/MS/MS, three novel metabolites of arctigenin, namely, arctigenic acid, arctigenin-4-O'-glucuronide, and 4-O-demethylarctigenin were identified after oral administration of arctigenin in rats for the first time. Another potential metabolite of arctigenin, arctigenin-4'-O-sulfate, was identified in vitro but not in vivo. Structure of arctigenic acid, the major metabolite of arctigenin, was confirmed by 13C-NMR and 1H-NMR. Rapid hydrolysis in plasma was identified as the major metabolic pathway of arctigenin after its oral administration, with Vmax, Km, and Clint in rat plasma determined to be 2.21 ± 0.12 nmol/min/mg, 89.12 ± 9.44 µM, and 24.74 µL/min/mg, respectively. Paraoxonase 1 was further confirmed to be the enzyme responsible for arctigenin hydrolysis, with Vmax, Km, and Clint determined to be 55.39 ± 1.49 nmol/min/mg, 300.3 ± 10.86 µM, and 184.45 µL/min/mg, respectively. PMID:23519790

  13. DROP: Detecting Return-Oriented Programming Malicious Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Xiao, Hai; Shen, Xiaobin; Yin, Xinchun; Mao, Bing; Xie, Li

    Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) is a new technique that helps the attacker construct malicious code mounted on x86/SPARC executables without any function call at all. Such technique makes the ROP malicious code contain no instruction, which is different from existing attacks. Moreover, it hides the malicious code in benign code. Thus, it circumvents the approaches that prevent control flow diversion outside legitimate regions (such as W ⊕ X ) and most malicious code scanning techniques (such as anti-virus scanners). However, ROP has its own intrinsic feature which is different from normal program design: (1) uses short instruction sequence ending in "ret", which is called gadget, and (2) executes the gadgets contiguously in specific memory space, such as standard GNU libc. Based on the features of the ROP malicious code, in this paper, we present a tool DROP, which is focused on dynamically detecting ROP malicious code. Preliminary experimental results show that DROP can efficiently detect ROP malicious code, and have no false positives and negatives.

  14. Biotherapies of chronic diseases in the inter-war period: from Witte's peptone to Penicillium extract.

    PubMed

    Löwy, Ilana

    2005-12-01

    In the inter-war period physicians elaborated numerous 'biotherapies' grounded in the complex interactions between physiology, bacteriology and immunology. The elaboration of these non-specific biological treatments was stimulated by the theory of generalized anaphylaxis that linked the violent reaction to a foreign protein to a broad array of chronic diseases, from asthma and urticaria to rheumatism or chronic colitis. Such diseases were perceived as the result of an 'abnormal reactivity' to a sensitisation of tissues and organs by bacteria and by foreign proteins, a view that provided an effective bridge between new concepts derived from bacteriology and immunology and the long-standing pathological tradition. Accordingly, physicians attempted to treat these conditions through specific desensitisation and non-specific biological therapies: peptone treatment, protein therapy, haemotherapy, 'antivirus' or 'opotherapy'. Therapies that attempted to neutralise the harmful effects of chronic infections through 'desensitisation' were not seen as marginal medical practices, but were promoted by leading advocates of the 'Pasteurian sciences', such as Richet, Widal, Vallery-Radot, Wright and Fleming. They also led to development of new products by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:16337556

  15. Chilling temperature stimulates growth, gene over-expression and podophyllotoxin biosynthesis in Podophyllum hexandrum Royle.

    PubMed

    Yang, De Long; Sun, Ping; Li, Meng Fei

    2016-10-01

    Podophyllotoxin (PPT) and its derivatives, isolated from the rhizome of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (P. hexandrum), are typically used in clinical settings for anti-cancer and anti-virus treatments. Empirical studies have verified that P. hexandrum had stronger tolerance to chilling, due to involving PPT accumulation in rhizome induced by cold stress. However, the cold-adaptive mechanism and its association with PPT accumulation at a molecular level in P. hexandrum are still limited. In this study, the morpho-physiological traits related to plant growth, PPT accumulation and key gene expressions controlling PPT biosynthesis were assessed by exposing P. hexandrum seedlings to different temperatures (4 °C and 10 °C as chilling stress and 22 °C as the control). The results showed that chilling significantly increased chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and plant biomass, whereas it greatly decreased transpiration rates and intercellular CO2 concentration. Compared to the control, the chilling treatments under 4 °C and 10 °C conditions induced a 5.00- and 3.33-fold increase in PPT contents, respectively. The mRNA expressions of six key genes were also up-regulated by chilling stresses. The findings are useful in understanding the molecular basis of P. hexandrum response to chilling. PMID:27314513

  16. In vitro immunocompetence of two compounds isolated from Polygala tenuifolia and development of resistance against grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and Dactylogyrus intermedius in respective host.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Guang-Lu; Zhu, Bin; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to isolate some compounds from methanol extract of Polygala tenuifolia and evaluate their immunostimulatory properties and antiviral activity using grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells and GCRV. By applying insecticidal bioassay-guided, chromatography techniques and successive recrystallization, two purified compounds were obtained. The changes of expression of selected immune genes (Mx1, IL-1β, TNFα, MyD88 and IgM) in C. idella kidney cell lines were evaluated after exposure to these isolated compounds. The results showed that compound 1 and 2 up-regulated to varying degrees of Mx1, IL-1β, TNFα, and MyD88 in C. idella kidney cells. WST-8 kit assay verified the two compounds has no toxic effects on CIK cell, and furthermore, have in vitro antivirus activity. Especially, that there is keeping 79% cell viability when exposure to compound 2 (100 mg L(-1)). According to in vivo insecticidal assays against Dactylogyrus intermedius, compound 2 exhibited higher efficacy than compound 1, which was found to be 87.2% effective at the concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) and safe to goldfish (Carassius auratus). Besides, the purified compounds were identified by spectral data as: (1) 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol and (2) 3,4,5-trimethoxy cinnamic acid. Overall, the results indicate that bath administration of these compounds modulates the immune related genes in C. idella kidney cells and to some extent, eliminate the virus and parasitic infections. PMID:25450998

  17. Status of hepatitis C virus vaccination: Recent update.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Kouka Saadeldin; Ahmed Said, Zeinab Nabil

    2016-01-14

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still a major public health problem worldwide since its first identification in 1989. At the start, HCV infection was post-transfusion viral infection, particularly in developing countries. Recently, due to iv drug abuse, HCV infection became number one health problem in well-developed countries as well. Following acute HCV infection, the innate immune response is triggered in the form of activated coordinated interaction of NK cells, dendritic cells and interferon α. The acquired immune response is then developed in the form of the antibody-mediated immune response (ABIR) and the cell-mediated immune response (CMIR). Both are responsible for clearance of HCV infection in about 15% of infected patients. However, HCV has several mechanisms to evade these antivirus immune reactions. The current review gives an overview of HCV structure, immune response and viral evasion mechanisms. It also evaluates the available preventive and therapeutic vaccines that induce innate, ABIR, CMIR. Moreover, this review highlights the progress in recent HCV vaccination studies either in preclinical or clinical phases. The unsatisfactory identification of HCV infection by the current screening system and the limitations of currently available treatments, including the ineligibility of some chronic HCV patients to such antiviral agents, mandate the development of an effective HCV vaccine. PMID:26811632

  18. Herbal mouthwash containing extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia as agent for the control of biofilm: clinical evaluation in humans.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Leite, Mateus Freire; Tavares, Reisla Cristina; Sato, Sandra; do Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae), popularly known as "alecrim-do-campo," is largely distributed in South America, is shown to exhibit protective actions against gastric ulcers, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is hepatoprotective. Several essential oils obtained from Baccharis species possess biological activities, such as antimicrobial and antivirus activities. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of B. dracunculifolia in the reduction of dental biofilm, comparing this natural product with other mouthwashes already known in the dental market. In measuring the time after use of mouthwash (t = 1), there was no difference between products (P = 0.602); that is, subjects in the study had a similar PI after the first use. After one week (t = 2), there was no difference between the four products evaluated (P = 0.674), so, all research individuals completed the study with a similar reduction in dental biofilm between themselves but it was different from initial state (Friedman test). It is possible to conclude that B. dracunculifolia had the same efficiency of the materials used to oral hygiene in reduction of dental plaque and, consequently, prevention of dental caries. Thus, we can consider B. dracunculifolia as a good candidate for new material to be implemented in dental care. PMID:25874255

  19. Platinum(II) and Palladium(II) Complexes of Pyridine-2-Carbaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone as Alternative Antiherpes Simplex Virus Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kovala-Demertzi, D.; Varadinova, T.; Genova, P.; Souza, P.; Demertzis, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    The cytotoxicity and the antivirus activity of Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes with pyridine-2-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (HFoTsc) against HSV replication were evaluated on four HSV strains—two wt strains Victoria (HSV-1) and BJA (HSV-2) and two ACVR mutants with different tk gene mutations R-100 (TKA, HSV-1) and PU (TKN, HSV-2). The experiments were performed on continuous MDBK cells and four HSV 1 and HSV 2 strains were used, two sensitive to acyclovir and two resistant mutants. The five complexes of HFoTsc, [Pt(FoTsc)Cl], [Pt(FoTsc)(H2FoTsc)]Cl2, [Pt(FoTsc)2], [Pd(FoTsc)(H2FoTsc)]Cl2, and [Pd(FoTsc)2], were found to be effective inhibitors of HSV replication. The most promising, active, and selective anti-HSV agent was found to be complex [Pt(FoTsc)(H2FoTsc)]Cl2. This complex could be useful in the treatment of HSV infections, since it is resistant to ACV mutants. PCR study of immediate early 300 bp ReIV Us1 region reveals that the complex [Pt(FoTsc)(H2FoTsc)]Cl2 specifically suppressed wt HSV-1 genome 2 hours after the infection, not inducing apoptosis/necrosis on the 8 hours after virus infection. The target was found to be most probably the viral, instead of the host cell DNA. PMID:17541481

  20. Subversion and piracy: DNA viruses and immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Haig, D M

    2001-06-01

    During the co-evolution of viruses with their vertebrate hosts, the DNA viruses have acquired an impressive array of immunomodulatory genes to combat host immune responses and their hosts have developed a sophisticated immune system to contain virus infections. In order to replicate, the viruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit key host anti-virus responses that include apoptosis, interferon production, chemokine production, inflammatory cytokine production, and the activity of cytotoxic T-cells, natural killer cells and antibody. In addition, some of the viruses encode cytokine or chemokine homologues that recruit or expand cell numbers for infection or that subvert the host cellular response from a protective response to a benign one. The specificity of the viral immunomodulatory molecules reflects the life cycle and the pathogenesis of the viruses. Herpesviruses achieve latency in host cells by inducing cell survival and protecting infected cells from immune recognition. This involves interference with cell signal transduction pathways. Many of the viral immunomodulatory proteins are homologues of host proteins that appear to have been pirated from the host and reassorted in the virus genomes. Some of these have unique functions and indicate novel or important aspects of both viral pathogenesis and host immunity to viruses. The specific example of orf virus infection of sheep is described. PMID:11676616

  1. Suppressive Effects of the Site 1 Protease (S1P) Inhibitor, PF-429242, on Dengue Virus Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Leo; Urata, Shuzo; Ulanday, Gianne Eduard L.; Takamatsu, Yuki; Yasuda, Jiro; Morita, Kouichi; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes one of the most widespread mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Despite the great need, effective vaccines and practical antiviral therapies are still under development. Intracellular lipid levels are regulated by sterol regulatory elements-binding proteins (SREBPs), which are activated by serine protease, site 1 protease (S1P). Small compound PF-429242 is known as a S1P inhibitor and the antivirus effects have been reported in some viruses. In this study, we examined the anti-DENV effects of PF-429242 using all four serotypes of DENV by several primate-derived cell lines. Moreover, emergence of drug-resistant DENV mutants was assessed by sequential passages with the drug. DENV dependency on intracellular lipids during their infection was also evaluated by adding extracellular lipids. The addition of PF-429242 showed suppression of viral propagation in all DENV serotypes. We showed that drug-resistant DENV mutants are unlikely to emerge after five times sequential passages through treatment with PF-429242. Although the levels of intracellular cholesterol and lipid droplets were reduced by PF-429242, viral propagations were not recovered by addition of exogenous cholesterol or fatty acids, indicating that the reduction of LD and cholesterol caused by PF-429242 treatment is not related to its mechanism of action against DENV propagation. Our results suggest that PF-429242 is a promising candidate for an anti-DENV agent. PMID:26875984

  2. [Transgenic wheat expressing virus-derived hairpin RNA is resistant to Barley yellow dwarf virus].

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Xiao, Hong; Li, Shi-Fang; Cheng, Zhuo-Min

    2007-01-01

    An expression vector expected to induce RNA interference against Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), which expressed a composite hpRNA with the dsRNA stem homologous of BYDV GPV replicase gene and the antisense RNA loop homologous of coat protein gene, was designed without marker gene. The vector was transferred into callus cells from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) immature embryos by particle bombardment. To select the positive transformants as early as possible, a rapid PCR, which does not need extract wheat DNA instead of few leaves, was used at regeneration stage of plantlets. Totally 21 plants proved to contain alien sequence. Antivirus test with high dose infected virus revealed that, 9 plants showed low level of resistance to BVDV, 6 plants showed moderate resistance and 6 plants showed high level of resistance. Interestingly, both low and moderate levels of resistance plants were no symptoms when infected by viruses at low dose. It suggests the dose- dependent effect of the resistance mediated by hpRNA to BYDV-GPV. PMID:17284432

  3. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kurosu, Takeshi; Koketsu, Ritsuko Kubota; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and dengue virus (DenV) are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. PMID:27462140

  4. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effects and Antioxidative Activities of Saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia Nutshell

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongmei; Zhou, Quancheng

    2013-01-01

    Certain saponins are bioactive compounds with anticancer, antivirus and antioxidant activities. This paper discussed inhibitory effects of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia on tyrosinase, through the research of the rate of tyrosinase catalyzed L-DOPA oxidation. The inhibition rate of tyrosinase activity presented non-linear changes with the saponins concentration. The rate reached 52.0% when the saponins concentration was 0.96 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia were evaluated by using hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging assays. The hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of the saponins were 15.5–68.7%, respectively at the concentration of 0.18–2.52 mg/ml. The superoxide radical scavenging activity reduced from 96.6% to 7.05% with the time increasing at the concentration of 1.44 mg/ml. All the above antioxidant evaluation indicated that saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia exhibited good antioxidant activity in a concentration- dependent manner. PMID:23990897

  5. Suppressive Effects of the Site 1 Protease (S1P) Inhibitor, PF-429242, on Dengue Virus Propagation.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Leo; Urata, Shuzo; Ulanday, Gianne Eduard L; Takamatsu, Yuki; Yasuda, Jiro; Morita, Kouichi; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2016-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes one of the most widespread mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Despite the great need, effective vaccines and practical antiviral therapies are still under development. Intracellular lipid levels are regulated by sterol regulatory elements-binding proteins (SREBPs), which are activated by serine protease, site 1 protease (S1P). Small compound PF-429242 is known as a S1P inhibitor and the antivirus effects have been reported in some viruses. In this study, we examined the anti-DENV effects of PF-429242 using all four serotypes of DENV by several primate-derived cell lines. Moreover, emergence of drug-resistant DENV mutants was assessed by sequential passages with the drug. DENV dependency on intracellular lipids during their infection was also evaluated by adding extracellular lipids. The addition of PF-429242 showed suppression of viral propagation in all DENV serotypes. We showed that drug-resistant DENV mutants are unlikely to emerge after five times sequential passages through treatment with PF-429242. Although the levels of intracellular cholesterol and lipid droplets were reduced by PF-429242, viral propagations were not recovered by addition of exogenous cholesterol or fatty acids, indicating that the reduction of LD and cholesterol caused by PF-429242 treatment is not related to its mechanism of action against DENV propagation. Our results suggest that PF-429242 is a promising candidate for an anti-DENV agent. PMID:26875984

  6. From Traditional Usage to Pharmacological Evidence: A Systematic Mini-Review of Spina Gleditsiae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Yin, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Spina Gleditsiae is an important herb with various medicinal properties in traditional and folk medicinal systems of East Asian countries. In China through the centuries, it has been traditionally used as a source of drugs for anticancer, detoxication, detumescence, apocenosis, and antiparasites effects. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been reported regarding its chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. To further evidence the traditional use, phytochemicals, and pharmacological mechanisms of this herb, a systematic literature review was performed herein for Spina Gleditsiae. The review approach consisted of searching several web-based scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Elsevier using the keywords “Spina Gleditsiae”, “Zao Jiao Ci”, and “Gleditsia sinensis”. Based on the proposed criteria, 17 articles were evaluated in detail. According to the reviewed data, it is quite evident that Spina Gleditsiae contains a number of bioactive phytochemical components, which account for variety medicinal values including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, antimicrobial, antiallergic, and antivirus activities. The phytochemical and pharmacological studies reviewed herein strongly underpin a fundamental understanding of herbal Spina Gleditsiae and support its ongoing clinical uses in China. The further phytochemical evaluation, safety verification, and clinical trials are expected to progress Spina Gleditsiae-based development to finally transform the traditional TCM herb Spina Gleditsiae to the valuable authorized drug. PMID:27433183

  7. Molecular cloning, recombinant expression, and antimicrobial activity of EC-hepcidin3, a new four-cysteine hepcidin isoform from Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Qu, HaiDong; Chen, Bei; Peng, Hui; Wang, KeJian

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin, a cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide, is widespread in fish and shows multiple activities, including antimicrobial, antivirus, and antitumor. Here, a new four-cysteine hepcidin isoform gene, EC-hepcidin3, was cloned from the marine-cultured orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The complete cDNA sequence consisted of 603 bases with an open reading frame (ORF) of 270 bases. The genomic DNA sequence was composed of two introns and three exons, and its 312-bp upstream region had multiple putative transcription factor binding sites. Soluble recombinant protein EC-proHep3 containing a His-tag at the C-terminus was obtained from expression plasmid pET-28a/EC-proHep3 in Escherichia coli Rosetta. It was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), and it showed antibacterial activity in vitro. Kinetic studies indicated that recombinant EC-proHep3 has strong, rapid activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas stutzeri. The results indicate that EC-hepcidin3 might be an effective component in the innate immune system of groupers. PMID:23291752

  8. Interferon-inducible antiviral protein MxA enhances cell death triggered by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Numajiri Haruki, Akiko; Naito, Tadasuke; Nishie, Tomomi; Saito, Shoko; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2011-11-01

    Human myxovirus resistance gene A (MxA) is a type I interferon-inducible protein and exhibits the antiviral activity against a variety of RNA viruses, including influenza virus. Previously, we reported that MxA accelerates cell death of influenza virus-infected cells through caspase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Similar to other viruses, influenza virus infection induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is one of cell death inducers. Here, we have demonstrated that MxA enhances ER stress signaling in cells infected with influenza virus. ER stress-induced events, such as expression of BiP mRNA and processing of XBP1 mRNA, were upregulated in cells expressing MxA by treatment with an ER stress inducer, tunicamycin (TM), as well as influenza virus infection. TM-induced cell death was also accelerated by MxA. Furthermore, we showed that MxA interacts with BiP and overexpression of BiP reduces MxA-promoted ER stress signaling. Because cell death in virus-infected cells is one of ultimate anti-virus mechanisms, we propose that MxA-enhanced ER stress signaling is a part of the antiviral activity of MxA by accelerating cell death. PMID:21992152

  9. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kurosu, Takeshi; Koketsu, Ritsuko Kubota; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and dengue virus (DenV) are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. PMID:27462140

  10. Critical role of phospholipase A2 group IID in age-related susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome–CoV infection

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Rahul; Hua, Xiaoyang; Meyerholz, David K.; Miki, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kei; Gelb, Michael; Murakami, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and chronic low-grade inflammation in the lungs are associated with aging and may contribute to age-related immune dysfunction. To maintain lung homeostasis, chronic inflammation is countered by enhanced expression of proresolving/antiinflammatory factors. Here, we show that age-dependent increases of one such factor in the lungs, a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) group IID (PLA2G2D) with antiinflammatory properties, contributed to worse outcomes in mice infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Strikingly, infection of mice lacking PLA2G2D expression (Pla2g2d−/− mice) converted a uniformly lethal infection to a nonlethal one (>80% survival), subsequent to development of enhanced respiratory DC migration to the draining lymph nodes, augmented antivirus T cell responses, and diminished lung damage. We also observed similar effects in influenza A virus–infected middle-aged Pla2g2d−/− mice. Furthermore, oxidative stress, probably via lipid peroxidation, was found to induce PLA2G2D expression in mice and in human monocyte–derived macrophages. Thus, our results suggest that directed inhibition of a single inducible phospholipase, PLA2G2D, in the lungs of older patients with severe respiratory infections is potentially an attractive therapeutic intervention to restore immune function. PMID:26392224