Sample records for prion protein sequence

  1. What makes a protein sequence a prion?

    PubMed

    Sabate, Raimon; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost; Ventura, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Typical amyloid diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's were thought to exclusively result from de novo aggregation, but recently it was shown that amyloids formed in one cell can cross-seed aggregation in other cells, following a prion-like mechanism. Despite the large experimental effort devoted to understanding the phenomenon of prion transmissibility, it is still poorly understood how this property is encoded in the primary sequence. In many cases, prion structural conversion is driven by the presence of relatively large glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) enriched segments. Several studies suggest that it is the amino acid composition of these regions rather than their specific sequence that accounts for their priogenicity. However, our analysis indicates that it is instead the presence and potency of specific short amyloid-prone sequences that occur within intrinsically disordered Q/N-rich regions that determine their prion behaviour, modulated by the structural and compositional context. This provides a basis for the accurate identification and evaluation of prion candidate sequences in proteomes in the context of a unified framework for amyloid formation and prion propagation. PMID:25569335

  2. What Makes a Protein Sequence a Prion?

    PubMed Central

    Sabate, Raimon; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost; Ventura, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Typical amyloid diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's were thought to exclusively result from de novo aggregation, but recently it was shown that amyloids formed in one cell can cross-seed aggregation in other cells, following a prion-like mechanism. Despite the large experimental effort devoted to understanding the phenomenon of prion transmissibility, it is still poorly understood how this property is encoded in the primary sequence. In many cases, prion structural conversion is driven by the presence of relatively large glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) enriched segments. Several studies suggest that it is the amino acid composition of these regions rather than their specific sequence that accounts for their priogenicity. However, our analysis indicates that it is instead the presence and potency of specific short amyloid-prone sequences that occur within intrinsically disordered Q/N-rich regions that determine their prion behaviour, modulated by the structural and compositional context. This provides a basis for the accurate identification and evaluation of prion candidate sequences in proteomes in the context of a unified framework for amyloid formation and prion propagation. PMID:25569335

  3. Amino acid sequence of the Amur tiger prion protein.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changde; Pang, Wanyong; Zhao, Deming

    2006-10-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in human and animal associated with conformational conversion of a cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into the pathologic isoform (PrP(Sc)). Various data indicate that the polymorphisms within the open reading frame (ORF) of PrP are associated with the susceptibility and control the species barrier in prion diseases. In the present study, partial Prnp from 25 Amur tigers (tPrnp) were cloned and screened for polymorphisms. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (T423C, A501G, C511A, A610G) were found; the C511A and A610G nucleotide substitutions resulted in the amino acid changes Lysine171Glutamine and Alanine204Threoine, respectively. The tPrnp amino acid sequence is similar to house cat (Felis catus ) and sheep, but differs significantly from other two cat Prnp sequences that were previously deposited in GenBank. PMID:16780982

  4. Sequence analysis of the prion protein gene in Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiqin; Qin, Zhenkui; Bao, Yonggan; Qiao, Junwen; Yang, Lifeng; Zhao, Deming

    2009-10-01

    Prion diseases are a group of human and animal neurodegenerative conditions, which are caused by the deposition of an abnormal isoform prion protein (PrPSc) encoded by a single copy prion protein gene (Prnp). In sheep, genetic variations of Prnp were found to be associated with the incubation period, susceptibility, and species barrier to the scrapie disease. We investigated the sequence and polymorphisms of the prion protein gene of Mongolian gazelles (gPrnp). gPrnp gene sequence analysis of blood samples from 26 Mongolian gazelles showed high identity within species. The gPrnp gene was closely related to the Prnp genes of Thomson’s gazelle, blackbuck, and cattle with 100, 100, and 98.5% identity, respectively, whereas the gPrnp gene with a deletion was closely related to the Prnp genes of wildebeest, Western roe deer, and sheep with 99.3, 99.3, and 98.9% identity, respectively. Polymorphisms of the open reading frame of Prnp as amino acid substitutions were detected at codons 119(N --> S), 143(S --> G) or 160(Y --> H), 172(V --> A), 182(N --> S) and 221(V --> A). There was also deletion of one octapeptide repeat at the N-terminal octapeptide repeat region. The polymorphisms of gPrnp will assist the study of prion disease pathogenesis, resistance, and cross species transmission. PMID:19579063

  5. Generating recombinant C-terminal prion protein fragments of exact native sequence.

    PubMed

    Johanssen, V A; Barnham, K J; Masters, C L; Hill, A F; Collins, S J

    2012-02-01

    Transmissibility and distinctive neuropathology are hallmark features of prion diseases differentiating them from other neurodegenerative disorders, with pathogenesis and transmission appearing closely linked to misfolded conformers (PrP(Sc)) of the ubiquitously expressed cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(C)). Given the apparent pathogenic primacy of misfolded PrP, the utilisation of peptides based on the prion protein has formed an integral approach for providing insights into misfolding pathways and pathogenic mechanisms. In parallel with studies employing prion peptides, similar approaches in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer Disease, have demonstrated that differential processing of parent proteins and quite minor variations in the primary sequence of cognate peptides generated from the same constitutive processing (such as A?1-40 versus A?1-42 produced from ?-secretase activity) can be associated with very different pathogenic consequences. PrP(C) also undergoes constitutive ?- or ?-cleavage yielding C1 (residues 112-231 human sequence) or C2 (residues 90-231), respectively, with the full cell biological significance of such processing unresolved; however, it is noteworthy that in prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and murine models, the moderately extended C2 fragment predominates in the brain suggesting that the two cleavage events and the consequent C-terminal fragments may differ in their pathogenic significance. Accordingly, studies characterising biologically relevant peptides like C1 and C2, would be most valid if undertaken using peptides completely free of any inherent non-native sequence that arises as a by-product of commonly employed recombinant production techniques. To achieve this aim and thereby facilitate more representative biophysical and neurotoxicity studies, we adapted the combination of high fidelity Taq TA cloning with a SUMO-Hexa-His tag-type approach, incorporating the SUMO protease step. This technique consistently produced sufficient yields (?10 mg/L) of high purity peptides (>95%) equating to C1 and C2 of exact native primary sequence in the ?-helical conformation suitable for biological and biophysical investigations. PMID:22197912

  6. Human Prion Diseases with Variant Prion Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuyuki Kitamoto; Jun Tateishi

    1994-01-01

    Recent molecular genetic studies revealed that the human prion protein (PrP) gene has a large repertoire of polymorphisms and mutations. Each variant PrP seems to correspond to a distinct type of prion diseases. We report herein that it is useful to classify prion diseases into plaque type or non-plaque type, based on the distribution of PrP in the central nervous

  7. Analysis of sequence variability of the bovine prion protein gene ( PRNP ) in German cattle breeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Sander; Henning Hamann; Ina Pfeiffer; Wilhelm Wemheuer; Bertram Brenig; Martin H. Groschup; Ute Ziegler; Ottmar Distl; Tosso Leeb

    2004-01-01

    Different alleles of the prion protein gene ( PRNP) of human and sheep are known to be associated with varying susceptibilities to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, no polymorphisms in the bovine PRNP gene with an effect on susceptibility to prion diseases have been identified to date. In this study we investigated such polymorphisms in German cattle; 48 healthy animals from

  8. Metabolism of minor isoforms of prion proteins: Cytosolic prion protein and transmembrane prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhiqi; Zhao, Deming; Yang, Lifeng

    2013-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease is triggered by the conversion from cellular prion protein to pathogenic prion protein. Growing evidence has concentrated on prion protein configuration changes and their correlation with prion disease transmissibility and pathogenicity. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that several cytosolic forms of prion protein with specific topological structure can destroy intracellular stability and contribute to prion protein pathogenicity. In this study, the latest molecular chaperone system associated with endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation, the endoplasmic reticulum resident protein quality-control system and the ubiquitination proteasome system, is outlined. The molecular chaperone system directly correlates with the prion protein degradation pathway. Understanding the molecular mechanisms will help provide a fascinating avenue for further investigations on prion disease treatment and prion protein-induced neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25206608

  9. Prions, protein homeostasis, and phenotypic diversity

    E-print Network

    Lindquist, Susan

    Prions are fascinating but often misunderstood protein aggregation phenomena. The traditional association of the mammalian prion protein with disease has overshadowed a potentially more interesting attribute of prions: ...

  10. A Systematic Survey Identifies Prions and Illuminates Sequence Features of Prionogenic Proteins

    E-print Network

    Kapila, Atul

    Prions are proteins that convert between structurally and functionally distinct states, one or more of which is transmissible. In yeast, this ability allows them to act as non-Mendelian elements of phenotypic inheritance. ...

  11. Amyloid Core Formed of Full-Length Recombinant Mouse Prion Protein Involves Sequence 127–143 but Not Sequence 107–126

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Biswanath; Lee, Chung-Yu; Lin, Chen; Chen, Eric H.-L.; Huang, Chao-Li; Yang, Chien-Chih; Chen, Rita P.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    The principal event underlying the development of prion disease is the conversion of soluble cellular prion protein (PrPC) into its disease-causing isoform, PrPSc. This conversion is associated with a marked change in secondary structure from predominantly ?-helical to a high ?-sheet content, ultimately leading to the formation of aggregates consisting of ordered fibrillar assemblies referred to as amyloid. In vitro, recombinant prion proteins and short prion peptides from various species have been shown to form amyloid under various conditions and it has been proposed that, theoretically, any protein and peptide could form amyloid under appropriate conditions. To identify the peptide segment involved in the amyloid core formed from recombinant full-length mouse prion protein mPrP(23–230), we carried out seed-induced amyloid formation from recombinant prion protein in the presence of seeds generated from the short prion peptides mPrP(107–143), mPrP(107–126), and mPrP(127–143). Our results showed that the amyloid fibrils formed from mPrP(107–143) and mPrP(127–143), but not those formed from mPrP(107–126), were able to seed the amyloidogenesis of mPrP(23–230), showing that the segment residing in sequence 127–143 was used to form the amyloid core in the fibrillization of mPrP(23–230). PMID:23844138

  12. Discriminant analysis of prion sequences for prediction of susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hae; Bae, Se-Eun; Jung, Sunghoon; Ahn, Insung; Son, Hyeon Seok

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases, including ovine scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), human kuru and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), originate from a conformational change of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) into abnormal protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc). There is concern regarding these prion diseases because of the possibility of their zoonotic infections across species. Mutations and polymorphisms of prion sequences may influence prion-disease susceptibility through the modified expression and conformation of proteins. Rapid determination of susceptibility based on prion-sequence polymorphism information without complex structural and molecular biological analyses may be possible. Information regarding the effects of mutations and polymorphisms on prion-disease susceptibility was collected based on previous studies to classify the susceptibilities of sequences, whereas the BLOSUM62 scoring matrix and the position-specific scoring matrix were utilised to determine the distance of target sequences. The k-nearest neighbour analysis was validated with cross-validation methods. The results indicated that the number of polymorphisms did not influence prion-disease susceptibility, and three and four k-objects showed the best accuracy in identifying the susceptible group. Although sequences with negative polymorphisms showed relatively high accuracy for determination, polymorphisms may still not be an appropriate factor for estimating variation in susceptibility. Discriminant analysis of prion sequences with scoring matrices was attempted as a possible means of determining susceptibility to prion diseases. Further research is required to improve the utility of this method. PMID:24113272

  13. Prion protein and aging

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Lisa; Legname, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been widely investigated ever since its conformational isoform, the prion (or PrPSc), was identified as the etiological agent of prion disorders. The high homology shared by the PrPC-encoding gene among mammals, its high turnover rate and expression in every tissue strongly suggest that PrPC may possess key physiological functions. Therefore, defining PrPC roles, properties and fate in the physiology of mammalian cells would be fundamental to understand its pathological involvement in prion diseases. Since the incidence of these neurodegenerative disorders is enhanced in aging, understanding PrPC functions in this life phase may be of crucial importance. Indeed, a large body of evidence suggests that PrPC plays a neuroprotective and antioxidant role. Moreover, it has been suggested that PrPC is involved in Alzheimer disease, another neurodegenerative pathology that develops predominantly in the aging population. In prion diseases, PrPC function is likely lost upon protein aggregation occurring in the course of the disease. Additionally, the aging process may alter PrPC biochemical properties, thus influencing its propensity to convert into PrPSc. Both phenomena may contribute to the disease development and progression. In Alzheimer disease, PrPC has a controversial role because its presence seems to mediate ?-amyloid toxicity, while its down-regulation correlates with neuronal death. The role of PrPC in aging has been investigated from different perspectives, often leading to contrasting results. The putative protein functions in aging have been studied in relation to memory, behavior and myelin maintenance. In aging mice, PrPC changes in subcellular localization and post-translational modifications have been explored in an attempt to relate them to different protein roles and propensity to convert into PrPSc. Here we provide an overview of the most relevant studies attempting to delineate PrPC functions and fate in aging. PMID:25364751

  14. Prions

    PubMed Central

    Prusiner, Stanley B.

    1998-01-01

    Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases by an entirely novel mechanism. Prion diseases may present as genetic, infectious, or sporadic disorders, all of which involve modification of the prion protein (PrP). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), scrapie of sheep, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) of humans are among the most notable prion diseases. Prions are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid and seem to be composed exclusively of a modified protein (PrPSc). The normal, cellular PrP (PrPC) is converted into PrPSc through a posttranslational process during which it acquires a high ?-sheet content. The species of a particular prion is encoded by the sequence of the chromosomal PrP gene of the mammals in which it last replicated. In contrast to pathogens carrying a nucleic acid genome, prions appear to encipher strain-specific properties in the tertiary structure of PrPSc. Transgenetic studies argue that PrPSc acts as a template upon which PrPC is refolded into a nascent PrPSc molecule through a process facilitated by another protein. Miniprions generated in transgenic mice expressing PrP, in which nearly half of the residues were deleted, exhibit unique biological properties and should facilitate structural studies of PrPSc. While knowledge about prions has profound implications for studies of the structural plasticity of proteins, investigations of prion diseases suggest that new strategies for the prevention and treatment of these disorders may also find application in the more common degenerative diseases. PMID:9811807

  15. Metal Binding to Prion Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Bonomo; D. Grasso; G. Grasso; V. Guantieri; G. Impellizzeri; C. Rosa; D. Milardi; G. Pappalardo; G. Tabbì; E. Rizzarelli

    \\u000a The number of original research articles, review articles, book chapters, and monographs published annually on prion is staggering.\\u000a The experienced reader in this field might ask: “Do we really need another review on prion protein?” This chapter attempts\\u000a to be different from other recent reviews by focusing on the chemical aspects of metal binding of prion and some of its

  16. Prion protein genes in caribou from Alaska.

    PubMed

    Happ, George M; Huson, Heather J; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Kennedy, Lorna J

    2007-04-01

    Prion protein genes were sequenced in free-ranging Alaska caribou (Rangifer tarandus grantii). Caribou prion alleles are identical or nearly so to those of wapiti, white-tailed deer, and mule deer. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected with substitutions at residues 2 (V-->M), 129 (G-->S), 138 (S-->N), 146 (N-->N), and 169 (V-->M). The 138N codon had been previously reported only in prion pseudogenes of other cervids. In caribou, the 138S and 138N alleles are present at frequencies of approximately 0.7 and 0.3, respectively, and they are seen in both homozygotes and heterozygotes of three geographically separated herds, each a component of the continental metapopulation. Genetics seems to permit the spread of chronic wasting disease from middle-latitude deer to high-latitude caribou in North America. PMID:17495306

  17. Prion protein in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Won

    2011-01-01

    The infectious agent of prion diseases is believed to be nucleic acid-free particles composed of misfolded conformational isomers of a host protein known as prion protein (PrP). Although this “protein-only” concept is generally accepted, decades of extensive research have not been able to elucidate the mechanisms by which PrP misfolding leads to neurodegeneration and infectivity. The challenges in studying prion diseases relate in part to the limitations of mammalian prion models, which include the long incubation period post-infection until symptoms develop, the high expense of maintaining mammals for extended periods, as well as safety issues. In order to develop prion models incorporating a genetically tractable simple system with a well-defined neuronal system, we generated transgenic C. elegans expressing the mouse PrP behind the pan-neuronal ric-19 promoter (Pric-19). We show here that high expression of Pric-19::PrP in C. elegans can result in altered morphology, defective mobility and shortened lifespan. Low expression of Pric-19::PrP, however, does not cause any detectable harm. Using the dopamine neuron specific promoter Pdat-1, we also show that expression of the murine BAX, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, causes dopamine neuron destruction in the nematode. However, co-expression of PrP inhibits BAX-mediated dopamine neuron degeneration, demonstrating for the first time that PrP has anti-BAX activity in living animals. Thus, these distinct PrP-transgenic C. elegans lines recapitulate a number of functional and neuropathological features of mammalian prion models and provide an opportunity for facile identification of genetic and environmental contributors to prion-associated pathology. PMID:21084837

  18. Prions: The Chemistry of Infectious Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prion is pathological protein that causes a set of rare fatal neurological diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). TSE diseases occur in humans, sheep, goats, deer, elk, mink, cows and other mammals. A prion and the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) have the same primar...

  19. Mammalian prions: tolerance to sequence changes-how far?

    PubMed

    Salamat, Muhammad Khalid; Munoz-Montesino, Carola; Moudjou, Mohammed; Rezaei, Human; Laude, Hubert; Béringue, Vincent; Dron, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Upon prion infection, abnormal prion protein (PrP (Sc) ) self-perpetuate by conformational conversion of ?-helix-rich PrP (C) into ? sheet enriched form, leading to formation and deposition of PrP (Sc) aggregates in affected brains. However the process remains poorly understood at the molecular level and the regions of PrP critical for conversion are still debated. Minimal amino acid substitutions can impair prion replication at many places in PrP. Conversely, we recently showed that bona fide prions could be generated after introduction of eight and up to 16 additional amino acids in the H2-H3 inter-helix loop of PrP. Prion replication also accommodated the insertions of an octapeptide at different places in the last turns of H2. This reverse genetic approach reveals an unexpected tolerance of prions to substantial sequence changes in the protease-resistant part which is associated with infectivity. It also demonstrates that conversion does not require the presence of a specific sequence in the middle of the H2-H3 area. We discuss the implications of our findings according to different structural models proposed for PrP (Sc) and questioned the postulated existence of an N- or C-terminal prion domain in the protease-resistant region. PMID:23232499

  20. Prion protein self-interaction in prion disease therapy approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Rigter; Jan Priem; Jan P. M. Langeveld; Alex Bossers

    2011-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are unique disorders that are not caused by infectious micro-organisms (bacteria or fungi), viruses or parasites, but rather seem to be the result of an infectious protein. TSEs are comprised of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting both human and animals. Prion diseases cause sponge-like degeneration of neuronal tissue and include (among others) Creutzfeldt–Jacob disease

  1. ?-Cleavage of cellular prion protein.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingjing; Kong, Qingzhong

    2012-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrP (C) ) is subjected to various processing under physiological and pathological conditions, of which the ?-cleavage within the central hydrophobic domain not only disrupts a region critical for both PrP toxicity and PrP (C) to PrP (Sc) conversion but also produces the N1 fragment that is neuroprotective and the C1 fragment that enhances the pro-apoptotic effect of staurosporine in one report and inhibits prion in another. The proteases responsible for the ?-cleavage of PrP (C) are controversial. The effect of ADAM10, ADAM17, and ADAM9 on N1 secretion clearly indicates their involvement in the ?-cleavage of PrP (C) , but there has been no report of direct PrP (C) ?-cleavage activity with any of the three ADAMs in a purified protein form. We demonstrated that, in muscle cells, ADAM8 is the primary protease for the ?-cleavage of PrP (C) , but another unidentified protease(s) must also play a minor role. We also found that PrP (C) regulates ADAM8 expression, suggesting that a close examination on the relationships between PrP (C) and its processing enzymes may reveal novel roles and underlying mechanisms for PrP (C) in non-prion diseases such as asthma and cancer. PMID:23052041

  2. Prions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The following websites provide a quick review of prion research in the news. Prions, short for "proteinaceous infectious particles," are responsible for Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), mad cow disease, scrapie disease, chronic wasting disease, and other deadly brain diseases. The first website, a Science Update from the journal _Nature_, reports on an intriguing study published earlier this year that found genes in some human populations offer protection from prion diseases, possibly in response to a history of cannibalism (1). This article also provides a good overview of what prions are and how they function. The next article, also from _Nature_, describes how "researchers in Switzerland claim to have proved a long-standing theory about prions: that the proteins couple up to breed mad cow disease" (2). The next three sites contain articles from BBC News: The first is a recent story relating new findings that CJD prions exist in very low levels in muscle tissue, not just in the brain, posing a theoretical (if remote) risk of transmitting the disease during surgery (3). The next article describes recent findings that suggest it's not prions themselves that cause disease, but rather "something to do with the conversion process between a normal prion and an abnormal prion" (4). A slightly earlier study provides other insights into prion pathology (5). The next two sites, excellent features from the Whyfiles, offer an in-depth look at both the science and politics of mad cow disease (6 ) and chronic wasting disease (7).

  3. Alzheimer's Disease and Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiayi; Liu, Bingqian

    2013-01-01

    Summary Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease with progressive loss of memory and cognitive function, pathologically hallmarked by aggregates of the amyloid-beta (A?) peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain. Aggregation of A? under the form of amyloid fibrils has long been considered central to the pathogenesis of AD. However, recent evidence has indicated that soluble A? oligomers, rather than insoluble fibrils, are the main neurotoxic species in AD. The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has newly been identified as a cell surface receptor for A? oligomers. PrPC is a cell surface glycoprotein that plays a key role in the propagation of prions, proteinaceous infectious agents that replicate by imposing their abnormal conformation to PrPC molecules. In AD, PrPC acts to transduce the neurotoxic signals arising from A? oligomers, leading to synaptic failure and cognitive impairment. Interestingly, accumulating evidence has also shown that aggregated A? or tau possesses prion-like activity, a property that would allow them to spread throughout the brain. In this article, we review recent findings regarding the function of PrPC and its role in AD, and discuss potential therapeutic implications of PrPC-based approaches in the treatment of AD. PMID:25343100

  4. Prions, protein homeostasis, and phenotypic diversity

    E-print Network

    Lindquist, Susan

    novelty. The self-templating replicative state of most biochemi- cally characterized prions is amyloid [5 phenomena [9,10]. Amyloid is a highly ordered, fibrillar protein aggregate with a unique set of biophysical-prion con- formers [11,12] (Figure 1). Finally, the growing protein fiber fragments into smaller propagating

  5. Significance of prion and prion-like proteins in cancer development, progression and multi-drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Caroline; Antony, Helma; Hashimi, Saeed M; Munn, Alan; Wei, Ming Q

    2013-10-01

    Prions are renowned for their role in neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals. These are manifested as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) that result from the conversion of the normal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) to a misfolded, aggregated and pathogenic form, prion protein scrapie (PrP(Sc)) via a post-translational process followed by the accumulation of PrP(Sc) within the central nervous system. New research in this area has demonstrated that PrP is over-expressed in a variety of cancers including gastric, pancreatic and breast cancers, affecting the growth and invasiveness of these cancers as well as playing an important role in the acquisition of multi-drug resistant (MDR) gastric cancer. Prion-like doppel protein (Dpl), sharing 25% amino acid sequence homology to PrP and whose function remains elusive, has also been shown to exhibit a high level of expression in a number of cancers including acute myeloid leukemia's, myelodysplastic syndromes, gastric adenocarcinoma, anaplastic meningioma and astrocytomas. Furthermore, the tumour suppressor protein, p53, already known for its involvement in cancer development, has recently been shown to display prion-like tendencies. This review provides an overview of prions and prion-like proteins in mammals discussing their structure, function and role in cell function and disease. Furthermore, current research progress on the role of prion/prion-like proteins in the development, progression, and drug resistance of various cancers will be summarized. Potential implications for future development of new therapeutic treatments targeting prion and prion-like proteins will be discussed. PMID:24015988

  6. Recombinant prion protein induces a new transmissible prion disease in wild-type animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natallia Makarava; Gabor G. Kovacs; Olga Bocharova; Regina Savtchenko; Irina Alexeeva; Herbert Budka; Robert G. Rohwer; Ilia V. Baskakov

    2010-01-01

    Prion disease is a neurodegenerative malady, which is believed to be transmitted via a prion protein in its abnormal conformation\\u000a (PrPSc). Previous studies have failed to demonstrate that prion disease could be induced in wild-type animals using recombinant\\u000a prion protein (rPrP) produced in Escherichia coli. Here, we report that prion infectivity was generated in Syrian hamsters after inoculating full-length rPrP

  7. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification of infectious prions

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Rodrigo; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Diaz-Espinoza, Rodrigo; Camacho, Manuel V; Soto, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Prions are proteinaceous infectious agents responsible for the transmission of prion diseases. The lack of a procedure for cultivating prions in the laboratory has been a major limitation to the study of the unorthodox nature of this infectious agent and the molecular mechanism by which the normal prion protein (PrPC) is converted into the abnormal isoform (PrPSc). Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA ), described in detail in this protocol, is a simple, fast and efficient methodology to mimic prion replication in the test tube. PMCA involves incubating materials containing minute amounts of infectious prions with an excess of PrPC and boosting the conversion by cycles of sonication to fragment the converting units, thereby leading to accelerated prion replication. PMCA is able to detect the equivalent of a single molecule of infectious PrPSc and propagate prions that maintain high infectivity, strain properties and species specificity. A single PMCA assay takes little more than 3 d to replicate a large amount of prions, which could take years in an in vivo situation. Since its invention 10 years ago, PMCA has helped to answer fundamental questions about this intriguing infectious agent and has been broadly applied in research areas that include the food industry, blood bank safety and human and veterinary disease diagnosis. PMID:22743831

  8. Green fluorescent protein as a reporter of prion protein folding

    PubMed Central

    Vasiljevic, Snezana; Ren, Junyuan; Yao, YongXiu; Dalton, Kevin; Adamson, Catherine S; Jones, Ian M

    2006-01-01

    Background The amino terminal half of the cellular prion protein PrPc is implicated in both the binding of copper ions and the conformational changes that lead to disease but has no defined structure. However, as some structure is likely to exist we have investigated the use of an established protein refolding technology, fusion to green fluorescence protein (GFP), as a method to examine the refolding of the amino terminal domain of mouse prion protein. Results Fusion proteins of PrPc and GFP were expressed at high level in E.coli and could be purified to near homogeneity as insoluble inclusion bodies. Following denaturation, proteins were diluted into a refolding buffer whereupon GFP fluorescence recovered with time. Using several truncations of PrPc the rate of refolding was shown to depend on the prion sequence expressed. In a variation of the format, direct observation in E.coli, mutations introduced randomly in the PrPc protein sequence that affected folding could be selected directly by recovery of GFP fluorescence. Conclusion Use of GFP as a measure of refolding of PrPc fusion proteins in vitro and in vivo proved informative. Refolding in vitro suggested a local structure within the amino terminal domain while direct selection via fluorescence showed that as little as one amino acid change could significantly alter folding. These assay formats, not previously used to study PrP folding, may be generally useful for investigating PrPc structure and PrPc-ligand interaction. PMID:16939649

  9. Exploring prion protein biology in flies

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Tinto, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been a favored tool for genetic studies for over 100 years and has become an excellent model system to study development, signal transduction, cell biology, immunity and behavior. The relevance of Drosophila to humans is perhaps best illustrated by the fact that more than 75% of the genes identified in human diseases have counterparts in Drosophila. During the last decade, many fly models of neurodegenerative disorders have contributed to the identification of novel pathways mediating pathogenesis. However, the development of prion disease models in flies has been remarkably challenging. We recently reported a Drosophila model of sporadic prion pathology that shares relevant features with the typical disease in mammals. This new model provides the basis to explore relevant aspects of the biology of the prion protein, such as uncovering the genetic mechanisms regulating prion protein misfolding and prion-induced neurodegeneration, in a dynamic, genetically tractable in vivo system. PMID:20083902

  10. Yeast prion architecture explains how proteins can be genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickner, Reed

    2013-03-01

    Prions (infectious proteins) transmit information without an accompanying DNA or RNA. Most yeast prions are self-propagating amyloids that inactivate a normally functional protein. A single protein can become any of several prion variants, with different manifestations due to different amyloid structures. We showed that the yeast prion amyloids of Ure2p, Sup35p and Rnq1p are folded in-register parallel beta sheets using solid state NMR dipolar recoupling experiments, mass-per-filament-length measurements, and filament diameter measurements. The extent of beta sheet structure, measured by chemical shifts in solid-state NMR and acquired protease-resistance on amyloid formation, combined with the measured filament diameters, imply that the beta sheets must be folded along the long axis of the filament. We speculate that prion variants of a single protein sequence differ in the location of these folds. Favorable interactions between identical side chains must hold these structures in-register. The same interactions must guide an unstructured monomer joining the end of a filament to assume the same conformation as molecules already in the filament, with the turns at the same locations. In this way, a protein can template its own conformation, in analogy to the ability of a DNA molecule to template its sequence by specific base-pairing.

  11. Prion protein in health and disease

    E-print Network

    Steele, Andrew D., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) is a conserved glycoprotein tethered to cell membranes by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. In mammals, PrP is expressed in many tissues, most abundantly in brain, heart, and muscle. Importantly, ...

  12. Propagation of prion strains through specific conformers of the prion protein.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, M R; Groth, D; Tatzelt, J; Torchia, M; Tremblay, P; DeArmond, S J; Prusiner, S B

    1997-01-01

    Two prion strains with identical incubation periods in mice exhibited distinct incubation periods and different neuropathological profiles upon serial transmission to transgenic mice expressing chimeric Syrian hamster/mouse (MH2M) prion protein (PrP) genes [Tg(MH2M) mice] and subsequent transmission to Syrian hamsters. After transmission to Syrian hamsters, the Me7 strain was indistinguishable from the previously established Syrian hamster strain Sc237, despite having been derived from an independent ancestral source. This apparent convergence suggests that prion diversity may be limited. The Me7 mouse strain could also be transmitted directly to Syrian hamsters, but when derived in this way, its properties were distinct from those of Me7 passaged through Tg(MH2M) mice. The Me7 strain did not appear permanently altered in either case, since the original incubation period could be restored by effectively reversing the series of passages. Prion diversity enciphered in the conformation of the scrapie isoform of PrP (PrP(Sc)) (G. C. Telling et al., Science 274:2079-2082, 1996) seems to be limited by the sequence of the PrP substrates serially converted into PrP(Sc), while prions are propagated through interactions between the cellular and scrapie isoforms of PrP. PMID:9371560

  13. Atypical Scrapie Prions from Sheep and Lack of Disease in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Human Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M.; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Spiropoulos, John; Simmons, Marion M.; Griffiths, Peter C.; Groschup, Martin H.; Hope, James; Brandner, Sebastian; Asante, Emmanuel A.; Collinge, John

    2013-01-01

    Public and animal health controls to limit human exposure to animal prions are focused on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), but other prion strains in ruminants may also have zoonotic potential. One example is atypical/Nor98 scrapie, which evaded statutory diagnostic methods worldwide until the early 2000s. To investigate whether sheep infected with scrapie prions could be another source of infection, we inoculated transgenic mice that overexpressed human prion protein with brain tissue from sheep with natural field cases of classical and atypical scrapie, sheep with experimental BSE, and cattle with BSE. We found that these mice were susceptible to BSE prions, but disease did not develop after prolonged postinoculation periods when mice were inoculated with classical or atypical scrapie prions. These data are consistent with the conclusion that prion disease is less likely to develop in humans after exposure to naturally occurring prions of sheep than after exposure to epizootic BSE prions of ruminants. PMID:24188521

  14. Cellular Prion Protein: From Physiology to Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Yusa, Sei-ichi; Oliveira-Martins, José B.; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kikuchi, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    The human cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored membrane glycoprotein with two N-glycosylation sites at residues 181 and 197. This protein migrates in several bands by Western blot analysis (WB). Interestingly, PNGase F treatment of human brain homogenates prior to the WB, which is known to remove the N-glycosylations, unexpectedly gives rise to two dominant bands, which are now known as C-terminal (C1) and N-terminal (N1) fragments. This resembles the ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimer disease (AD), which can be physiologically processed by ?-, ?-, and ?-secretases. The processing of APP has been extensively studied, while the identity of the cellular proteases involved in the proteolysis of PrPC and their possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the neurotoxicity caused by prion proteins and the blockade of their normal proteolysis. For example, expression of non-cleavable PrPC mutants in transgenic mice generates neurotoxicity, even in the absence of infectious prions, suggesting that PrPC proteolysis is physiologically and pathologically important. As many mouse models of prion diseases have recently been developed and the knowledge about the proteases responsible for the PrPC proteolysis is accumulating, we examine the historical experimental evidence and highlight recent studies that shed new light on this issue. PMID:23202518

  15. Regional mapping of prion proteins in brain.

    PubMed Central

    Taraboulos, A; Jendroska, K; Serban, D; Yang, S L; DeArmond, S J; Prusiner, S B

    1992-01-01

    Scrapie is characterized by the accumulation of a protease-resistant isoform of the prion protein PrPSc. Limited proteolysis and chaotropes were used to map the distribution of PrPSc in cryostat sections of scrapie-infected brain blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes, designated histoblots. Proteolysis was omitted in order to map the cellular isoform of the prion protein (PrPC) in uninfected brains. Compared with immunohistochemistry, histoblots increased the sensitivity for PrPSc detection and showed different patterns of PrPSc accumulation. In Syrian hamsters with Sc237 scrapie, the most intense PrPSc signals occurred in sites with relatively little PrPC, suggesting that aberrant localization of prion protein may be an important feature in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. Immunostaining of PrPSc in white-matter tracts suggested that prions spread along neuroanatomical pathways. PrPSc immunostaining in histoblots was quantitated by densitometry, permitting assessment of the extent of PrPSc accumulation within specific structures. Histoblots were also useful in localizing PrPCJD and beta/A4-amyloid peptide in the brains of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Alzheimer disease, respectively. Images PMID:1354357

  16. Sonication Induced Intermediate in Prion Protein Conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vivo conversion of prion protein (PrPC) to its abnormal pathogenic isoform (PrPSc) is associated with conformational transition of alpha-helices and unstructured regions to beta-sheets. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) is thought to mimics this conversion in vitro. PMCA involves son...

  17. Biochemical insight into the prion protein family

    PubMed Central

    Ciric, Danica; Rezaei, Human

    2015-01-01

    Prion protein family comprises proteins, which share not only similarity in their primary structure, but also similarity in their fold. These two groups of similarity presume a parceling in their respective biological function through the common biochemical properties. In this review, biochemical and structural similarities of PrP and two other proteins, Doppel and Shadoo, are evocated. Some evidence demonstrating respectively similarity between PrP N-terminal and C-terminal domain with respectively Shadoo and Doppel is presented. We extended primary structure similarity analysis to the other PrP subdomain as 166-176 polyNQ domain and compare it to proteins using aggregation as a support for structural information transference and structural epigenetic. Finally, we questioned if prion protein family have conserved the PrP structural bistability, which should be at the origin of Prion phenomenon and if Prion pathology is not, ultimately, an exaptation of the physiological propensity of PrP to undergo a structural switch and polymerize. PMID:25717473

  18. Copper Binding to the N-Terminal Tandem Repeat Regions of Mammalian and Avian Prion Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Hornshaw; J. R. Mcdermott; J. M. Candy

    1995-01-01

    Mammalian prion protein (PrP) is a normal cellular protein (PrPc) which through post-translational modification produces the infectious prion protein (PrPsc). We have shown, using mass spectrometry, that synthetic peptides containing three or four copies of an octapeptide repeat sequence (PHGGGWGQ), found in a highly conserved N-terminal domain of PrP, preferentially bind copper over other metals. Peptides from the analogous region

  19. Prion biology problem space: Mad cows, itchy sheep and protein structure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sebrenka Robic (Agnes Scott College; Biology)

    2004-06-20

    Prions are infectious protein particles associated with various neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals. This problem space introduces basic skills in protein structure and sequence exploration that can be used to analyze some unusual properties of prions, and develop testable hypotheses that can be explored through these tools. Students will be challenged to use a systems-biology approach to link structure, evolution and function of proteins.

  20. Prion biology problem space: Mad cows, itchy sheep and protein structure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sebrenka Robic (Agnes Scott College; )

    2004-06-12

    Prions are infectious protein particles associated with various neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals. This problem space introduces basic skills in protein structure and sequence exploration that can be used to analyze some unusual properties of prions, and develop testable hypotheses that can be explored through these tools. Students will be challenged to use a systems-biology approach to link structure, evolution and function of proteins.

  1. Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Buffalo Prion Protein

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to TSEs (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) (same as rabbits, horses and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (in humans prion diseases are (v)CJDs, GSS, FFI, and kulu etc). It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to prion diseases (as rabbits, dogs, horses). In molecular structures, these neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein, predominantly with alpha-helices, into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions, rich in beta-sheets. This paper studies the molecular structure and structural dynamics of buffalo prion protein, in order to find out the reason why buffaloes are resistant to prion diseases. We first did molecular modeling a homology structure constructed by one mutation at residue 143 from the Nuclear Magnetic Resonanc...

  2. Prion Protein Interaction with Soil Humic Substances: Environmental Implications

    PubMed Central

    Giachin, Gabriele; Narkiewicz, Joanna; Scaini, Denis; Ngoc, Ai Tran; Margon, Alja; Sequi, Paolo; Leita, Liviana; Legname, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by prions. Animal TSE include scrapie in sheep and goats, and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Effective management of scrapie in many parts of the world, and of CWD in North American deer population is complicated by the persistence of prions in the environment. After shedding from diseased animals, prions persist in soil, withstanding biotic and abiotic degradation. As soil is a complex, multi-component system of both mineral and organic components, it is important to understand which soil compounds may interact with prions and thus contribute to disease transmission. Several studies have investigated the role of different soil minerals in prion adsorption and infectivity; we focused our attention on the interaction of soil organic components, the humic substances (HS), with recombinant prion protein (recPrP) material. We evaluated the kinetics of recPrP adsorption, providing a structural and biochemical characterization of chemical adducts using different experimental approaches. Here we show that HS act as potent anti-prion agents in prion infected neuronal cells and in the amyloid seeding assays: HS adsorb both recPrP and prions, thus sequestering them from the prion replication process. We interpreted our findings as highly relevant from an environmental point of view, as the adsorption of prions in HS may affect their availability and consequently hinder the environmental transmission of prion diseases in ruminants. PMID:24937266

  3. Knocked-out and still walking: prion protein-deficient cattle are resistant to prion disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are caused by the propagation of a misfolded form (PrP**d) of the normal cellular prion protein, PrP**c. Disruption of PrP**c expression in the mouse results in resistance to PrP-propagation and disease. However, the impa...

  4. Neurotoxicity of a prion protein fragment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianluigi Forloni; Nadia Angeretti; Roberto Chiesa; Enrico Monzani; Mario Salmona; Orso Bugiani; Fabrizio Tagliavini

    1993-01-01

    THE cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a sialoglycoprotein of Mr 33-35K that is expressed predominantly in neurons1-3. In transmissible and genetic neurodegenerative disorders such as scrapie of sheep, spongiform encephalopathy of cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob or Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker diseases of humans4,5, PrPc is converted into an altered form (termed PrPSc) which is distinguishable from its normal homologue by its relative resistance to

  5. Evolutionary implications of metal binding features in different species' prion protein: an inorganic point of view.

    PubMed

    La Mendola, Diego; Rizzarelli, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Prion disorders are a group of fatal neurodegenerative conditions of mammals. The key molecular event in the pathogenesis of such diseases is the conformational conversion of prion protein, PrPC, into a misfolded form rich in ?-sheet structure, PrPSc, but the detailed mechanistic aspects of prion protein conversion remain enigmatic. There is uncertainty on the precise physiological function of PrPC in healthy individuals. Several evidences support the notion of its role in copper homeostasis. PrPC binds Cu2+ mainly through a domain composed by four to five repeats of eight amino acids. In addition to mammals, PrP homologues have also been identified in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. The globular domain of protein is retained in the different species, suggesting that the protein carries out an essential common function. However, the comparison of amino acid sequences indicates that prion protein has evolved differently in each vertebrate class. The primary sequences are strongly conserved in each group, but these exhibit a low similarity with those of mammals. The N-terminal domain of different prions shows tandem amino acid repeats with an increasing amount of histidine residues going from amphibians to mammals. The difference in the sequence affects the number of copper binding sites, the affinity and the coordination environment of metal ions, suggesting that the involvement of prion in metal homeostasis may be a specific characteristic of mammalian prion protein. In this review, we describe the similarities and the differences in the metal binding of different species' prion protein, as revealed by studies carried out on the entire protein and related peptide fragments. PMID:24970230

  6. Association of prion protein genotype and scrapie prion protein type with cellular prion protein charge isoform profiles in cerebrospinal fluid of humans with sporadic or familial prion diseases.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Matthias; Lüllmann, Katharina; Zafar, Saima; Ebert, Elisabeth; Wohlhage, Marie; Oikonomou, Panteleimon; Schlomm, Markus; Mitrova, Eva; Beekes, Michael; Zerr, Inga

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigates whether posttranslational modifications of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of humans with prion diseases are associated with methionine (M) and/or valine (V) polymorphism at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), scrapie prion protein (PrP(Sc)) type in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), or PRNP mutations in familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD/E200K), and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). We performed comparative 2-dimensional immunoblotting of PrP(C) charge isoforms in CSF samples from cohorts of diseased and control donors. Mean levels of total PrP(C) were significantly lower in the CSF from fCJD patients than from those with sCJD or FFI. Of the 12 most abundant PrP(C) isoforms in the examined CSF, one (IF12) was relatively decreased in (1) sCJD with VV (vs. MM or MV) at PRNP codon 129; (2) in sCJD with PrP(Sc) type 2 (vs. PrP(Sc) type 1); and (3) in FFI versus sCJD or fCJD. Furthermore, truncated PrP(C) species were detected in sCJD and control samples without discernible differences. Finally, serine 43 of PrP(C) in the CSF and brain tissue from CJD patients showed more pronounced phosphorylation than in control donors. PMID:24360565

  7. Subtyping of human cellular prion proteins and their differential solubility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Kuczius; Janet Wohlers; Helge Karch; Martin H. Groschup

    2011-01-01

    A human form of a prion disorder is the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. A hallmark of the disease is the accumulation of misfolded prion proteins (PrPSc), which exist as heterogeneous subtypes. PrPSc is formed by protein conversion from the host-encoded cellular prion (PrPC), which is expressed and modified to various isoforms. Little is known about variation in PrPC; however, it is assumed

  8. Sialylation of Prion Protein Controls the Rate of Prion Amplification, the Cross-Species Barrier, the Ratio of PrPSc Glycoform and Prion Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Katorcha, Elizaveta; Makarava, Natallia; Savtchenko, Regina; d?Azzo, Alessandra; Baskakov, Ilia V.

    2014-01-01

    The central event underlying prion diseases involves conformational change of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrPC) into the disease-associated, transmissible form (PrPSc). PrPC is a sialoglycoprotein that contains two conserved N-glycosylation sites. Among the key parameters that control prion replication identified over the years are amino acid sequence of host PrPC and the strain-specific structure of PrPSc. The current work highlights the previously unappreciated role of sialylation of PrPC glycans in prion pathogenesis, including its role in controlling prion replication rate, infectivity, cross-species barrier and PrPSc glycoform ratio. The current study demonstrates that undersialylated PrPC is selected during prion amplification in Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCAb) at the expense of oversialylated PrPC. As a result, PMCAb-derived PrPSc was less sialylated than brain-derived PrPSc. A decrease in PrPSc sialylation correlated with a drop in infectivity of PMCAb-derived material. Nevertheless, enzymatic de-sialylation of PrPC using sialidase was found to increase the rate of PrPSc amplification in PMCAb from 10- to 10,000-fold in a strain-dependent manner. Moreover, de-sialylation of PrPC reduced or eliminated a species barrier of for prion amplification in PMCAb. These results suggest that the negative charge of sialic acid controls the energy barrier of homologous and heterologous prion replication. Surprisingly, the sialylation status of PrPC was also found to control PrPSc glycoform ratio. A decrease in PrPC sialylation levels resulted in a higher percentage of the diglycosylated glycoform in PrPSc. 2D analysis of charge distribution revealed that the sialylation status of brain-derived PrPC differed from that of spleen-derived PrPC. Knocking out lysosomal sialidase Neu1 did not change the sialylation status of brain-derived PrPC, suggesting that Neu1 is not responsible for desialylation of PrPC. The current work highlights previously unappreciated role of PrPC sialylation in prion diseases and opens multiple new research directions, including development of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:25211026

  9. Ultraviolet-ozone treatment reduces levels of disease-associated prion protein and prion infectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Gilbert, P.; McKenzie, D.; Pedersen, J.A.; Aiken, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by novel infectious agents referred to as prions. Prions appear to be composed primarily, if not exclusively, of a misfolded isoform of the cellular prion protein. TSE infectivity is remarkably stable and can resist many aggressive decontamination procedures, increasing human, livestock and wildlife exposure to TSEs. Findings. We tested the hypothesis that UV-ozone treatment reduces levels of the pathogenic prion protein and inactivates the infectious agent. We found that UV-ozone treatment decreased the carbon and prion protein content in infected brain homogenate to levels undetectable by dry-ashing carbon analysis or immunoblotting, respectively. After 8 weeks of ashing, UV-ozone treatment reduced the infectious titer of treated material by a factor of at least 105. A small amount of infectivity, however, persisted despite UV-ozone treatment. When bound to either montmorillonite clay or quartz surfaces, PrPTSE was still susceptible to degradation by UV-ozone. Conclusion. Our findings strongly suggest that UV-ozone treatment can degrade pathogenic prion protein and inactivate prions, even when the agent is associated with surfaces. Using larger UV-ozone doses or combining UV-ozone treatment with other decontaminant methods may allow the sterilization of TSE-contaminated materials. ?? 2009 Aiken et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. Molecular mechanism of prion protein oligomerization at atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Schlepckow, Kai; Schwalbe, Harald

    2013-09-16

    Prion protein oligomerization: Despite the crucial role of oligomers during prion protein (PrP) pathogenesis the molecular mechanism of their formation has remained largely elusive. A 2D time-resolved NMR study which made it possible to characterize the oligomerization kinetics with unprecedented site-specificity is reported. PMID:23934741

  11. Prion Protein Misfolding, Strains, and Neurotoxicity: An Update from Studies on Mammalian Prions

    PubMed Central

    Poggiolini, Ilaria; Parchi, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and other mammalian species. The central event in TSE pathogenesis is the conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein, PrPC, into the aggregate, ?-sheet rich, amyloidogenic form, PrPSc. Increasing evidence indicates that distinct PrPSc conformers, forming distinct ordered aggregates, can encipher the phenotypic TSE variants related to prion strains. Prion strains are TSE isolates that, after inoculation into syngenic hosts, cause disease with distinct characteristics, such as incubation period, pattern of PrPSc distribution, and regional severity of histopathological changes in the brain. In analogy with other amyloid forming proteins, PrPSc toxicity is thought to derive from the existence of various intermediate structures prior to the amyloid fiber formation and/or their specific interaction with membranes. The latter appears particularly relevant for the pathogenesis of TSEs associated with GPI-anchored PrPSc, which involves major cellular membrane distortions in neurons. In this review, we update the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying three fundamental aspects of the basic biology of prions such as the putative mechanism of prion protein conversion to the pathogenic form PrPSc and its propagation, the molecular basis of prion strains, and the mechanism of induced neurotoxicity by PrPSc aggregates. PMID:24454379

  12. Prion protein induced signaling cascades in monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, Bjarne [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Muenchen (Germany); Dorner-Ciossek, Cornelia [CNS Research III, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Biberach/Riss (Germany); Schmalzbauer, Ruediger [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Vassallo, Neville [Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Herms, Jochen [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Kretzschmar, Hans A. [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: Hans.Kretzschmar@med.uni-muenchen.de

    2006-02-03

    Prion proteins play a central role in transmission and pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}), whose physiological function remains elusive, is anchored to the surface of a variety of cell types including neurons and cells of the lymphoreticular system. In this study, we investigated the response of a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line to exposure with PrP{sup C} fusion proteins synthesized with a human Fc-tag. PrP{sup C} fusion proteins showed an attachment to the surface of monocyte/macrophages in nanomolar concentrations. This was accompanied by an increase of cellular tyrosine phosphorylation as a result of activated signaling pathways. Detailed investigations exhibited activation of downstream pathways through a stimulation with PrP fusion proteins, which include phosphorylation of ERK{sub 1,2} and Akt kinase. Macrophages opsonize and present antigenic structures, contact lymphocytes, and deliver cytokines. The findings reported here may become the basis of understanding the molecular function of PrP{sup C} in monocytes and macrophages.

  13. Attachment of Pathogenic Prion Protein to Model Oxide Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Prions are the infectious agents in the class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which affect humans, deer, sheep, and cattle. Prion diseases of deer and sheep can be transmitted via environmental routes, and soil is has been implicated in the transmission of these diseases. Interaction with soil particles is expected to govern the transport, bioavailability and persistence of prions in soil environments. A mechanistic understanding of prion interaction with soil components is critical for understanding the behavior of these proteins in the environment. Here, we report results of a study to investigate the interactions of prions with model oxide surfaces (Al2O3, SiO2) using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and optical waveguide light mode spectroscopy. The efficiency of prion attachment to Al2O3 and SiO2 depended strongly on pH and ionic strength in a manner consistent with electrostatic forces dominating interaction with these oxides. The N-terminal portion of the protein appeared to facilitate attachment to Al2O3 under globally electrostatically repulsive conditions. We evaluated the utility of recombinant prion protein as a surrogate for prions in attachment experiments and found that its behavior differed markedly from that of the infectious agent. Our findings suggest that prions preferentially associate with positively charged mineral surfaces in soils (e.g., iron and aluminum oxides). PMID:23611152

  14. Conformational variations in an infectious protein determine prion strain differences.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motomasa; Chien, Peter; Naber, Nariman; Cooke, Roger; Weissman, Jonathan S

    2004-03-18

    A remarkable feature of prion biology is the strain phenomenon wherein prion particles apparently composed of the same protein lead to phenotypically distinct transmissible states. To reconcile the existence of strains with the 'protein-only' hypothesis of prion transmission, it has been proposed that a single protein can misfold into multiple distinct infectious forms, one for each different strain. Several studies have found correlations between strain phenotypes and conformations of prion particles; however, whether such differences cause or are simply a secondary manifestation of prion strains remains unclear, largely due to the difficulty of creating infectious material from pure protein. Here we report a high-efficiency protocol for infecting yeast with the [PSI+] prion using amyloids composed of a recombinant Sup35 fragment (Sup-NM). Using thermal stability and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we demonstrate that Sup-NM amyloids formed at different temperatures adopt distinct, stably propagating conformations. Infection of yeast with these different amyloid conformations leads to different [PSI+] strains. These results establish that Sup-NM adopts an infectious conformation before entering the cell--fulfilling a key prediction of the prion hypothesis--and directly demonstrate that differences in the conformation of the infectious protein determine prion strain variation. PMID:15029196

  15. Normal Modes of Prion Proteins: From Native to Infectious particle?

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Abraham O.; Levitt, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Prion proteins (PrP) are the infectious agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (i.e. mad cow disease). To be infectious, prion proteins must undergo a conformational change involving a decrease of ?-helical content along with an increase of ?-strand structure. This conformational change was evaluated by means of elastic normal modes. Elastic normal modes show a diminution of two ?-helices by one and two residues, as well as an extension of two ?-strands by three residues each which could instigate the conformational change. The conformational change occurs in a region that is compatible with immunological studies, and it is observed more frequently in mutant prions which are prone to conversion, than in WT prions due to differences in their starting structures, which are amplified through normal modes. These findings are valuable for our comprehension of the conversion mechanism associated with the conformational change of prion proteins. PMID:21338080

  16. Context Dependent Neuroprotective Properties of Prion Protein (Prp)

    E-print Network

    Steele, Andrew D.

    Although it has been known for more than twenty years that an aberrant conformation of the prion protein (PrP) is the causative agent in prion diseases, the role of PrP in normal biology is undetermined. Numerous studies ...

  17. In vitro assay for fragmentation of amyloid fibers of yeast prion protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Inoue; Masasuke Yoshida

    2006-01-01

    In prion propagation, fragmentation of amyloid fibers, as well as conformational conversion of prion protein, is critical: the latter increases the net amount of abnormal prion proteins and the former multiplies number of seeds. We present here a method for in vitro measurement of fragmentation of amyloid fibers of yeast Sup35 prion protein. In this method, amyloid fibers are tethered

  18. Prion neuropathology follows the accumulation of alternate prion protein isoforms after infective titre has peaked

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Malin K.; Al-Doujaily, Huda; Sharps, Bernadette; De Oliveira, Michael Wiggins; Schmidt, Christian; Richard-Londt, Angela; Lyall, Sarah; Linehan, Jacqueline M.; Brandner, Sebastian; Wadsworth, Jonathan D. F.; Clarke, Anthony R.; Collinge, John

    2014-01-01

    Prions are lethal infectious agents thought to consist of multi-chain forms (PrPSc) of misfolded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Prion propagation proceeds in two distinct mechanistic phases: an exponential phase 1, which rapidly reaches a fixed level of infectivity irrespective of PrPC expression level, and a plateau (phase 2), which continues until clinical onset with duration inversely proportional to PrPC expression level. We hypothesized that neurotoxicity relates to distinct neurotoxic species produced following a pathway switch when prion levels saturate. Here we show a linear increase of proteinase K-sensitive PrP isoforms distinct from classical PrPSc at a rate proportional to PrPC concentration, commencing at the phase transition and rising until clinical onset. The unaltered level of total PrP during phase 1, when prion infectivity increases a million-fold, indicates that prions comprise a small minority of total PrP. This is consistent with PrPC concentration not being rate limiting to exponential prion propagation and neurotoxicity relating to critical concentrations of alternate PrP isoforms whose production is PrPC concentration dependent. PMID:25005024

  19. Stability and conformational properties of doppel, a prion-like protein, and its single-disulphide mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Sheena M; Sylvester, Ian D; Martin, Stephen R; Gill, Andrew C; Wopfner, Franziska; Schätzl, Hermann M; Dodson, Guy G; Bayley, Peter M

    2003-01-01

    Both prion protein and the structurally homologous protein doppel are associated with neurodegenerative disease by mechanisms which remain elusive. We have prepared murine doppel, and a mutant with one of the two disulphide bonds removed, in the expectation of increasing the similarity of doppel to prion protein in terms of conformation and stability. Unfolding studies of doppel and the mutant have been performed using far-UV CD over a range of solution conditions known to favour the alpha-->beta transformation of recombinant prion protein. Only partial unfolding of doppel or the mutant occurs at elevated temperature, but both exhibit full and reversible unfolding in chemical denaturation with urea. Doppel is significantly less stable than prion protein, and this stability is further reduced by removal of the disulphide bond between residues 95-148. Both doppel and the mutant are observed to unfold by a two-state mechanism, even under the mildly acidic conditions where prion protein forms an equilibrium intermediate with enhanced beta-structure, potentially analogous to the conversion of the cellular form of the prion protein into the infectious form (PrP(C)-->PrP(Sc)). Furthermore, no direct interaction of either doppel protein with prion protein, either in the alpha-form or the beta-rich conformation, was detectable spectroscopically. These studies indicate that, in spite of the similarity in secondary structure between the doppel and prion protein, there are significant differences in their solution properties. The fact that neither doppel nor its mutant exhibited the alpha-->beta transformation of the prion protein suggests that this conversion property may be dependent on unique sequences specific to the prion protein. PMID:12665426

  20. Mammalian prions

    PubMed Central

    Salamat, Muhammad Khalid; Munoz-Montesino, Carola; Moudjou, Mohammed; Rezaei, Human; Laude, Hubert; Béringue, Vincent; Dron, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Upon prion infection, abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) self-perpetuate by conformational conversion of ?-helix-rich PrPC into ? sheet enriched form, leading to formation and deposition of PrPSc aggregates in affected brains. However the process remains poorly understood at the molecular level and the regions of PrP critical for conversion are still debated. Minimal amino acid substitutions can impair prion replication at many places in PrP. Conversely, we recently showed that bona fide prions could be generated after introduction of eight and up to 16 additional amino acids in the H2-H3 inter-helix loop of PrP. Prion replication also accommodated the insertions of an octapeptide at different places in the last turns of H2. This reverse genetic approach reveals an unexpected tolerance of prions to substantial sequence changes in the protease-resistant part which is associated with infectivity. It also demonstrates that conversion does not require the presence of a specific sequence in the middle of the H2-H3 area. We discuss the implications of our findings according to different structural models proposed for PrPSc and questioned the postulated existence of an N- or C-terminal prion domain in the protease-resistant region. PMID:23232499

  1. SSCP analysis and sequencing of the human prion protein gene (PRNP) detects two different 24 bp deletions in an atypical Alzheimer`s disease family

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.T.; Go, R.C.P.; Harrell, L.E.; Acton, R.T. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is a progressive, degenerative neurological disorder of the central nervous system. AD is the fourth leading cause of death in elderly persons 65 years or older in Western industrialized societies. The etiology of AD is unknown, but clinical, pathological, epidemiological, and molecular investigations suggest it is etiologically heterogeneous. Mutations in the amyloid protein are rare and segregate with the disease in a few early-onset familial AD (FAD) families. Similarities between AD and the unconventional viral (UCV) diseases, and between the amyloid and prion proteins, implicate the human prion protein gene (PRNP) as another candidate gene. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was used to screen for mutations at this locus in 82 AD patients from 54 families (30 FAD), vs. 39 age-matched controls. A 24-bp deletion around codon 68 that codes for one of five Gly-Pro rich octarepeats was identified in two affected sibs and one offspring of one late-onset FAD family. Two other affected sibs, three unaffected sibs, and three offspring from this family, in addition to one sporadic AD patient and three age-matched controls, were heterozygous for another octarepeat deletion located around codon 82. Two of the four affected sibs had features of PD, including one who was autopsy-verified AD and PD. Although these deletions were found infrequently in other AD patients and controls, they appear to be a rare polymorphism that is segregating in this FAD family. It does not appear that mutations at the PRNP locus are frequently associated with AD in this population. 54 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Copper-dependent functions for the prion protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Brown; Judyth Sassoon

    2002-01-01

    Prion diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are fatal neurodegenerative diseases.\\u000a These diseases are characterized by the conversion of a normal cellular protein, the prion protein, to an abnormal isoform\\u000a that is thought to be responsible for both pathogenesis in the disease and the infectious nature of the disease agent. Understanding\\u000a the biology and metabolism of the

  3. The cellular prion protein mediates neurotoxic signalling of ?-sheet-rich conformers independent of prion replication

    PubMed Central

    Resenberger, Ulrike K; Harmeier, Anja; Woerner, Andreas C; Goodman, Jessica L; Müller, Veronika; Krishnan, Rajaraman; Vabulas, R Martin; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Lindquist, Susan; Hartl, F Ulrich; Multhaup, Gerd; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Tatzelt, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Formation of aberrant protein conformers is a common pathological denominator of different neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease or prion diseases. Moreover, increasing evidence indicates that soluble oligomers are associated with early pathological alterations and that oligomeric assemblies of different disease-associated proteins may share common structural features. Previous studies revealed that toxic effects of the scrapie prion protein (PrPSc), a ?-sheet-rich isoform of the cellular PrP (PrPC), are dependent on neuronal expression of PrPC. In this study, we demonstrate that PrPC has a more general effect in mediating neurotoxic signalling by sensitizing cells to toxic effects of various ?-sheet-rich (?) conformers of completely different origins, formed by (i) heterologous PrP, (ii) amyloid ?-peptide, (iii) yeast prion proteins or (iv) designed ?-peptides. Toxic signalling via PrPC requires the intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain (N-PrP) and the GPI anchor of PrP. We found that the N-terminal domain is important for mediating the interaction of PrPC with ?-conformers. Interestingly, a secreted version of N-PrP associated with ?-conformers and antagonized their toxic signalling via PrPC. Moreover, PrPC-mediated toxic signalling could be blocked by an NMDA receptor antagonist or an oligomer-specific antibody. Our study indicates that PrPC can mediate toxic signalling of various ?-sheet-rich conformers independent of infectious prion propagation, suggesting a pathophysiological role of the prion protein beyond of prion diseases. PMID:21441896

  4. Prion gene sequence variation within diverse groups of U.S. sheep, beef cattle, and deer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Heaton; Kreg A. Leymaster; Brad A. Freking; Deedra A. Hawk; Timothy P. L. Smith; John W. Keele; Warren M. Snelling; James M. Fox; Carol G. Chitko-McKown; William W. Laegreid

    2003-01-01

    Prions are proteins that play a central role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in a variety of mammals. Among the most notable prion disorders in ungulates are scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, and chronic wasting disease in deer. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the sheep prion gene ( PRNP) have been correlated with susceptibility to natural scrapie in some

  5. Antigen Retrieval in Prion Protein Immunohistochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Van Everbroeck; Philippe Pals; Jean-Jacques Martin; Patrick Cras

    1999-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a group of neurodegenerative diseases occurring in both humans and animals and are most likely caused by prions. Neuropathological confirmation of the clinical diagnosis has been a problem because of the difficulty in epitope retrieval from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain specimens. Many different protocols for the detection of prions in brain tissue have been used. Thus far,

  6. Identification of Two Prion Protein Regions That Modify Scrapie Incubation Time

    PubMed Central

    Supattapone, Surachai; Muramoto, Tamaki; Legname, Giuseppe; Mehlhorn, Ingrid; Cohen, Fred E.; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.; Scott, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    A series of prion transmission experiments was performed in transgenic (Tg) mice expressing either wild-type, chimeric, or truncated prion protein (PrP) molecules. Following inoculation with Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) murine prions, scrapie incubation times for Tg(MoPrP)4053, Tg(MHM2)294/Prnp0/0, and Tg(MoPrP,?23–88)9949/Prnp0/0 mice were ?50, 120, and 160 days, respectively. Similar scrapie incubation times were obtained after inoculation of these lines of Tg mice with either MHM2(MHM2(RML)) or MoPrP(?23–88)(RML) prions, excluding the possibility that sequence-dependent transmission barriers could account for the observed differences. Tg(MHM2)294/Prnp0/0 mice displayed prolonged scrapie incubation times with four different strains of murine prions. These data provide evidence that the N terminus of MoPrP and the chimeric region of MHM2 PrP (residues 108 through 111) both influence the inherent efficiency of prion propagation. PMID:11152514

  7. Persistence of pathogenic prion protein during simulated wastewater treatment processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, G.T.; Johnson, C.J.; Jacobson, K.H.; Bartholomay, C.; Mcmahon, K.D.; McKenzie, D.; Aiken, J.M.; Pedersen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP TSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Prions are highly resistant to degradation and to many disinfection procedures suggesting that, if prions enter wastewater treatment systems through sewers and/or septic systems (e.g., from slaughterhouses, necropsy laboratories, rural meat processors, private game dressing) or through leachate from landfills that have received TSE-contaminated material, prions could survive conventional wastewater treatment Here, we report the results of experiments examining the partitioning and persistence of PrPTSE during simulated wastewater treatment processes including activated and mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. Incubation with activated sludge did not result in significant PrPTSE degradation. PrPTSE and prion infectivity partitioned strongly to activated sludge solids and are expected to enter biosolids treatment processes. A large fraction of PrPTSE survived simulated mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. The small reduction in recoverable PrPTSE after 20-d anaerobic sludge digestion appeared attributable to a combination of declining extractability with time and microbial degradation. Our results suggest that if prions were to enter municipal wastewater treatment systems, most would partition to activated sludge solids, survive mesophilic anaerobic digestion, and be present in treated biosolids. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  8. Manganese Upregulates Cellular Prion Protein and Contributes to Altered Stabilization and Proteolysis: Relevance to Role of Metals in Pathogenesis of Prion Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases resulting from misfolding of normal cellular prion (PrP**C) into an abnormal form of scrapie prion (PrP**Sc). The cellular mechanisms underlying the misfolding of PrP**C are not well understood. Since cellular prion proteins harbor divalent metal b...

  9. The fate of the prion protein in the prion\\/plasminogen complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack A. Kornblatt; Stephane Marchal; Human Rezaei; M. Judith Kornblatt; Claude Balny; Reinhard Lange; Marie-Pascale Debey; Gaston Hui Bon Hoa; Michael C. Marden; Jeanne Grosclaude

    2003-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPc) forms complexes with plasminogen. Here, we show that the PrPc in this complex is cleaved to yield fragments of PrPc. The cleavage is accelerated by plasmin but does not appear to be dependent on it.

  10. Efficacy and Mechanism of a Glycoside Compound Inhibiting Abnormal Prion Protein Formation in Prion-Infected Cells: Implications of Interferon and Phosphodiesterase 4D-Interacting Protein

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Keiko; Oguma, Ayumi; Kawata, Maki; Sakasegawa, Yuji; Teruya, Kenta

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A new type of antiprion compound, Gly-9, was found to inhibit abnormal prion protein formation in prion-infected neuroblastoma cells, in a prion strain-independent manner, when the cells were treated for more than 1 day. It reduced the intracellular prion protein level and significantly modified mRNA expression levels of genes of two types: interferon-stimulated genes were downregulated after more than 2 days of treatment, and the phosphodiesterase 4D-interacting protein gene, a gene involved in microtubule growth, was upregulated after more than 1 day of treatment. A supplement of interferon given to the cells partly restored the abnormal prion protein level but did not alter the normal prion protein level. This interferon action was independent of the Janus activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway. Therefore, the changes in interferon-stimulated genes might be a secondary effect of Gly-9 treatment. However, gene knockdown of phosphodiesterase 4D-interacting protein restored or increased both the abnormal prion protein level and the normal prion protein level, without transcriptional alteration of the prion protein gene. It also altered the localization of abnormal prion protein accumulation in the cells, indicating that phosphodiesterase 4D-interacting protein might affect prion protein levels by altering the trafficking of prion protein-containing structures. Interferon and phosphodiesterase 4D-interacting protein had no direct mutual link, demonstrating that they regulate abnormal prion protein levels independently. Although the in vivo efficacy of Gly-9 was limited, the findings for Gly-9 provide insights into the regulation of abnormal prion protein in cells and suggest new targets for antiprion compounds. IMPORTANCE This report describes our study of the efficacy and potential mechanism underlying the antiprion action of a new antiprion compound with a glycoside structure in prion-infected cells, as well as the efficacy of the compound in prion-infected animals. The study revealed involvements of two factors in the compound's mechanism of action: interferon and a microtubule nucleation activator, phosphodiesterase 4D-interacting protein. In particular, phosphodiesterase 4D-interacting protein was suggested to be important in regulating the trafficking or fusion of prion protein-containing vesicles or structures in cells. The findings of the study are expected to be useful not only for the elucidation of cellular regulatory mechanisms of prion protein but also for the implication of new targets for therapeutic development. PMID:24453367

  11. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  12. Cytoplasmic Expression of Mouse Prion Protein Causes Severe Toxicity in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Won; Li, Liming

    2008-01-01

    To test if Caenorhabditis elegans could be established as a model organism for prion study, we created transgenic C. elegans expressing the cytosolic form of the mouse prion .protein, MoPrP(23-231), which lacks the N-terminal signal sequence and the C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinisotol (GPI) anchor site. We report here that transgenic worms expressing MoPrP(23-231)–CFP exhibited a wide range of distinct phenotypes: from normal growth and development, reduced mobility and development delay, complete paralysis and development arrest, to embryonic lethality. Similar levels of MoPrP (23-231)-CFP were produced in animals exhibiting these distinct phenotypes, suggesting that MoPrP (23-231)-CFP might have misfolded into distinct toxic species. In combining with the observation that mutations in PrP that affect prion pathogenesis also affect the toxic phenotypes in C. elegans, we conclude that the prion protein folding mechanism is similar in mammals and C. elegans. Thus, C. elegans can be a useful model organism for prion research. PMID:18519028

  13. Prions Ex Vivo: What Cell Culture Models Tell Us about Infectious Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Sybille

    2013-01-01

    Prions are unconventional infectious agents that are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein. Prions replicate their conformation by template-assisted conversion of the endogenous prion protein PrP. Templated conversion of soluble proteins into protein aggregates is also a hallmark of other neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease are not considered infectious diseases, although aggregate pathology appears to progress in a stereotypical fashion reminiscent of the spreading behavior ofmammalian prions. While basic principles of prion formation have been studied extensively, it is still unclear what exactly drives PrP molecules into an infectious, self-templating conformation. In this review, we discuss crucial steps in the life cycle of prions that have been revealed in ex vivo models. Importantly, the persistent propagation of prions in mitotically active cells argues that cellular processes are in place that not only allow recruitment of cellular PrP into growing prion aggregates but also enable the multiplication of infectious seeds that are transmitted to daughter cells. Comparison of prions with other protein aggregates demonstrates that not all the characteristics of prions are equally shared by prion-like aggregates. Future experiments may reveal to which extent aggregation-prone proteins associated with other neurodegenerative diseases can copy the replication strategies of prions. PMID:24282413

  14. Prions in Saccharomyces and Podospora spp.: Protein-Based Inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Taylor, Kimberly L.; Edskes, Herman K.; Maddelein, Marie-Lise; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Roberts, B. Tibor

    1999-01-01

    Genetic evidence showed two non-Mendelian genetic elements of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, called [URE3] and [PSI], to be prions of Ure2p and Sup35p, respectively. [URE3] makes cells derepressed for nitrogen catabolism, while [PSI] elevates the efficiency of weak suppressor tRNAs. The same approach led to identification of the non-Mendelian element [Het-s] of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, as a prion of the het-s protein. The prion form of the het-s protein is required for heterokaryon incompatibility, a normal fungal function, suggesting that other normal cellular functions may be controlled by prions. [URE3] and [PSI] involve a self-propagating aggregation of Ure2p and Sup35p, respectively. In vitro, Ure2p and Sup35p form amyloid, a filamentous protein structure, high in ?-sheet with a characteristic green birefringent staining by the dye Congo Red. Amyloid deposits are a cardinal feature of Alzheimer’s disease, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and many other diseases. The prion domain of Ure2p consists of Asn-rich residues 1 to 80, but two nonoverlapping fragments of the molecule can, when overproduced, induce the de nova appearance of [URE3]. The prion domain of Sup35 consists of residues 1 to 114, also rich in Asn and Gln residues. While runs of Asn and Gln are important for [URE3] and [PSI], no such structures are found in PrP or the Het-s protein. Either elevated or depressed levels of the chaperone Hsp104 interfere with propagation of [PSI]. Both [URE3] and [PSI] are cured by growth of cells in millimolar guanidine HCl. [URE3] is also cured by overexpression of fragments of Ure2p or fusion proteins including parts of Ure2p. PMID:10585968

  15. Humic substances interfere with detection of pathogenic prion protein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Christen B.; Booth, Clarissa J.; Wadzinski, Tyler J.; Legname, Giuseppe; Chappell, Rick; Johnson, Christopher J.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the persistence of prions (the etiological agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies) in soil require accurate quantification of pathogenic prion protein (PrPTSE) extracted from or in the presence of soil particles. Here, we demonstrate that natural organic matter (NOM) in soil impacts PrPTSE detection by immunoblotting. Methods commonly used to extract PrPTSE from soils release substantial amounts of NOM, and NOM inhibited PrPTSE immunoblot signal. The degree of immunoblot interference increased with increasing NOM concentration and decreasing NOM polarity. Humic substances affected immunoblot detection of prion protein from both deer and hamsters. We also establish that after interaction with humic acid, PrPTSE remains infectious to hamsters inoculated intracerebrally, and humic acid appeared to slow disease progression. These results provide evidence for interactions between PrPTSE and humic substances that influence both accurate measurement of PrPTSE in soil and disease transmission.

  16. Peptidylarginine deiminase and protein citrullination in prion diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Byungki; Ishigami, Akihito; Maruyama, Naoki; Carp, Richard I.; Kim, Yong-Sun; Choi, Eun-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    The post-translational citrullination (deimination) process is mediated by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), which convert peptidylarginine into peptidylcitrulline in the presence of high calcium concentrations. Over the past decade, PADs and protein citrullination have been commonly implicated as abnormal pathological features in neurodegeneration and inflammatory responses associated with diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Based on this evidence, we investigated the roles of PADs and citrullination in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. Prion diseases (also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that are pathologically well characterized as the accumulation of disease-associated misfolded prion proteins, spongiform changes, glial cell activation and neuronal loss. We previously demonstrated that the upregulation of PAD2, mainly found in reactive astrocytes of infected brains, leads to excessive citrullination, which is correlated with disease progression. Further, we demonstrated that various cytoskeletal and energy metabolism-associated proteins are particularly vulnerable to citrullination. Our recent in vivo and in vitro studies elicited altered functions of enolase as the result of citrullination; these altered functions included reduced enzyme activity, increased protease sensitivity and enhanced plasminogen-binding affinity. These findings suggest that PAD2 and citrullinated proteins may play a key role in the brain pathology of prion diseases. By extension, we believe that abnormal increases in protein citrullination may be strong evidence of neurodegeneration. PMID:23022892

  17. Transport of the Pathogenic Prion Protein through Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt H. Jacobson; Seunghak Lee; Robert A. Somerville; Debbie McKenzie; Craig H. Benson; Joel A. Pedersen

    2010-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are progressive neurodegenerative diseases and include bovine spongiform encephalopathy of cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk, scrapie in sheep and goats, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. An abnormally folded form of the prion protein (designated PrP TSE ) is typically associated with TSE infectivity and may constitute the major, if not sole, component

  18. PRIONS: PATHOLOGICAL PROTEINS AT THE INTERFACE OF OIL AND WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prions are infectious proteins that cause of a set of rare fatal neurological diseases referred to as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). TSE diseases occur in humans, sheep, goats, deer, elk, mink, cows and other mammals. This presentation will include an historical review of the scie...

  19. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Glycated Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Dvorakova, Eva; Prouza, Marek; Janouskova, Olga; Panigaj, Martin; Holada, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Transmissive spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by depositions of abnormally folded prion protein (PrPTSE) in brain. PrPTSE is at present the only specific biochemical marker of human and animal TSE. As deposits of PrPTSE remain in the body for long periods, there is substantial chance of them being nonenzymatically modified by glycation. The detection of glycated PrPTSE may have potential to serve as a diagnostic marker. Monoclonal antibodies specific for carboxymethyl lysine/arginine-modified prion protein were prepared. Recombinant human prion protein (rhPrP) was bacterially expressed and purified by affinity chromatography. rhPrP was modified by glyoxylic acid that introduces carboxymethyl groups on lysine and arginine residues present within the molecule of the protein. Modified rhPrP (rhPrP-CML) was used for immunization of 6 mice, and 960 hybridoma cells were prepared. Screening of cell supernatants resulted in the selection of four promising clones. One of them (EM-31) strongly reacts with human and mouse recombinant PrP-CML, and three other clones react also with CML in vitro modified human and mouse brain PrP. Besides possible implication in TSE diagnostics, the antibodies may serve as tolls to advance our knowledge regarding the role of glycation in the prion pathophysiology. PMID:22043908

  20. Increasing prion propensity by hydrophobic insertion.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Nelson, Aaron C; Paul, Kacy R; Petri, Michelina; Flores, Noe; Rogge, Ryan A; Cascarina, Sean M; Ross, Eric D

    2014-01-01

    Prion formation involves the conversion of proteins from a soluble form into an infectious amyloid form. Most yeast prion proteins contain glutamine/asparagine-rich regions that are responsible for prion aggregation. Prion formation by these domains is driven primarily by amino acid composition, not primary sequence, yet there is a surprising disconnect between the amino acids thought to have the highest aggregation propensity and those that are actually found in yeast prion domains. Specifically, a recent mutagenic screen suggested that both aromatic and non-aromatic hydrophobic residues strongly promote prion formation. However, while aromatic residues are common in yeast prion domains, non-aromatic hydrophobic residues are strongly under-represented. Here, we directly test the effects of hydrophobic and aromatic residues on prion formation. Remarkably, we found that insertion of as few as two hydrophobic residues resulted in a multiple orders-of-magnitude increase in prion formation, and significant acceleration of in vitro amyloid formation. Thus, insertion or deletion of hydrophobic residues provides a simple tool to control the prion activity of a protein. These data, combined with bioinformatics analysis, suggest a limit on the number of strongly prion-promoting residues tolerated in glutamine/asparagine-rich domains. This limit may explain the under-representation of non-aromatic hydrophobic residues in yeast prion domains. Prion activity requires not only that a protein be able to form prion fibers, but also that these fibers be cleaved to generate new independently-segregating aggregates to offset dilution by cell division. Recent studies suggest that aromatic residues, but not non-aromatic hydrophobic residues, support the fiber cleavage step. Therefore, we propose that while both aromatic and non-aromatic hydrophobic residues promote prion formation, aromatic residues are favored in yeast prion domains because they serve a dual function, promoting both prion formation and chaperone-dependent prion propagation. PMID:24586661

  1. Increasing Prion Propensity by Hydrophobic Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Michelina; Flores, Noe; Rogge, Ryan A.; Cascarina, Sean M.; Ross, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    Prion formation involves the conversion of proteins from a soluble form into an infectious amyloid form. Most yeast prion proteins contain glutamine/asparagine-rich regions that are responsible for prion aggregation. Prion formation by these domains is driven primarily by amino acid composition, not primary sequence, yet there is a surprising disconnect between the amino acids thought to have the highest aggregation propensity and those that are actually found in yeast prion domains. Specifically, a recent mutagenic screen suggested that both aromatic and non-aromatic hydrophobic residues strongly promote prion formation. However, while aromatic residues are common in yeast prion domains, non-aromatic hydrophobic residues are strongly under-represented. Here, we directly test the effects of hydrophobic and aromatic residues on prion formation. Remarkably, we found that insertion of as few as two hydrophobic residues resulted in a multiple orders-of-magnitude increase in prion formation, and significant acceleration of in vitro amyloid formation. Thus, insertion or deletion of hydrophobic residues provides a simple tool to control the prion activity of a protein. These data, combined with bioinformatics analysis, suggest a limit on the number of strongly prion-promoting residues tolerated in glutamine/asparagine-rich domains. This limit may explain the under-representation of non-aromatic hydrophobic residues in yeast prion domains. Prion activity requires not only that a protein be able to form prion fibers, but also that these fibers be cleaved to generate new independently-segregating aggregates to offset dilution by cell division. Recent studies suggest that aromatic residues, but not non-aromatic hydrophobic residues, support the fiber cleavage step. Therefore, we propose that while both aromatic and non-aromatic hydrophobic residues promote prion formation, aromatic residues are favored in yeast prion domains because they serve a dual function, promoting both prion formation and chaperone-dependent prion propagation. PMID:24586661

  2. Pharmacological prion protein silencing accelerates central nervous system autoimmune disease via T cell receptor signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Nessler, Stefan; Hemmer, Bernhard; Eagar, Todd N.; Kane, Lawrence P.; Leliveld, S. Rutger; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Gocke, Anne R.; Lovett-Racke, Amy; Ben, Li-Hong; Hussain, Rehana Z.; Breil, Andreas; Elliott, Jeffrey L.; Puttaparthi, Krishna; Cravens, Petra D.; Singh, Mahendra P.; Petsch, Benjamin; Stitz, Lothar; Racke, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    The primary biological function of the endogenous cellular prion protein has remained unclear. We investigated its biological function in the generation of cellular immune responses using cellular prion protein gene-specific small interfering ribonucleic acid in vivo and in vitro. Our results were confirmed by blocking cellular prion protein with monovalent antibodies and by using cellular prion protein-deficient and -transgenic mice. In vivo prion protein gene-small interfering ribonucleic acid treatment effects were of limited duration, restricted to secondary lymphoid organs and resulted in a 70% reduction of cellular prion protein expression in leukocytes. Disruption of cellular prion protein signalling augmented antigen-specific activation and proliferation, and enhanced T cell receptor signalling, resulting in zeta-chain-associated protein-70 phosphorylation and nuclear factor of activated T cells/activator protein 1 transcriptional activity. In vivo prion protein gene-small interfering ribonucleic acid treatment promoted T cell differentiation towards pro-inflammatory phenotypes and increased survival of antigen-specific T cells. Cellular prion protein silencing with small interfering ribonucleic acid also resulted in the worsening of actively induced and adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Finally, treatment of myelin basic protein1–11 T cell receptor transgenic mice with prion protein gene-small interfering ribonucleic acid resulted in spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, central nervous system autoimmune disease was modulated at all stages of disease: the generation of the T cell effector response, the elicitation of T effector function and the perpetuation of cellular immune responses. Our findings indicate that cellular prion protein regulates T cell receptor-mediated T cell activation, differentiation and survival. Defects in autoimmunity are restricted to the immune system and not the central nervous system. Our data identify cellular prion protein as a regulator of cellular immunological homoeostasis and suggest cellular prion protein as a novel potential target for therapeutic immunomodulation. PMID:20145049

  3. Pharmacological prion protein silencing accelerates central nervous system autoimmune disease via T cell receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Nessler, Stefan; Hemmer, Bernhard; Eagar, Todd N; Kane, Lawrence P; Leliveld, S Rutger; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Gocke, Anne R; Lovett-Racke, Amy; Ben, Li-Hong; Hussain, Rehana Z; Breil, Andreas; Elliott, Jeffrey L; Puttaparthi, Krishna; Cravens, Petra D; Singh, Mahendra P; Petsch, Benjamin; Stitz, Lothar; Racke, Michael K; Korth, Carsten; Stüve, Olaf

    2010-02-01

    The primary biological function of the endogenous cellular prion protein has remained unclear. We investigated its biological function in the generation of cellular immune responses using cellular prion protein gene-specific small interfering ribonucleic acid in vivo and in vitro. Our results were confirmed by blocking cellular prion protein with monovalent antibodies and by using cellular prion protein-deficient and -transgenic mice. In vivo prion protein gene-small interfering ribonucleic acid treatment effects were of limited duration, restricted to secondary lymphoid organs and resulted in a 70% reduction of cellular prion protein expression in leukocytes. Disruption of cellular prion protein signalling augmented antigen-specific activation and proliferation, and enhanced T cell receptor signalling, resulting in zeta-chain-associated protein-70 phosphorylation and nuclear factor of activated T cells/activator protein 1 transcriptional activity. In vivo prion protein gene-small interfering ribonucleic acid treatment promoted T cell differentiation towards pro-inflammatory phenotypes and increased survival of antigen-specific T cells. Cellular prion protein silencing with small interfering ribonucleic acid also resulted in the worsening of actively induced and adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Finally, treatment of myelin basic protein(1-11) T cell receptor transgenic mice with prion protein gene-small interfering ribonucleic acid resulted in spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, central nervous system autoimmune disease was modulated at all stages of disease: the generation of the T cell effector response, the elicitation of T effector function and the perpetuation of cellular immune responses. Our findings indicate that cellular prion protein regulates T cell receptor-mediated T cell activation, differentiation and survival. Defects in autoimmunity are restricted to the immune system and not the central nervous system. Our data identify cellular prion protein as a regulator of cellular immunological homoeostasis and suggest cellular prion protein as a novel potential target for therapeutic immunomodulation. PMID:20145049

  4. Prion induction involves an ancient system for the sequestration of aggregated proteins and heritable

    E-print Network

    Lindquist, Susan

    amyloid fibers to generate prion seeds, also referred to as propagons (5), facilitating inheritance long uninterrupted bundles of fibers, whereas Dot fibers were highly fragmented. Both forms were of damaged proteins and heritable changes in the extent of prion fragmentation. yeast prion | fiber

  5. Pharmacological chaperone for the structured domain of human prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Nicoll, Andrew J.; Trevitt, Clare R.; Tattum, M. Howard; Risse, Emmanuel; Quarterman, Emma; Ibarra, Amaurys Avila; Wright, Connor; Jackson, Graham S.; Sessions, Richard B.; Farrow, Mark; Waltho, Jonathan P.; Clarke, Anthony R.; Collinge, John

    2010-01-01

    In prion diseases, the misfolded protein aggregates are derived from cellular prion protein (PrPC). Numerous ligands have been reported to bind to human PrPC (huPrP), but none to the structured region with the affinity required for a pharmacological chaperone. Using equilibrium dialysis, we screened molecules previously suggested to interact with PrP to discriminate between those which did not interact with PrP, behaved as nonspecific polyionic aggregates or formed a genuine interaction. Those that bind could potentially act as pharmacological chaperones. Here we report that a cationic tetrapyrrole [Fe(III)-TMPyP], which displays potent antiprion activity, binds to the structured region of huPrP. Using a battery of biophysical techniques, we demonstrate that Fe(III)-TMPyP forms a 1?1 complex via the structured C terminus of huPrP with a Kd of 4.5 ± 2 ?M, which is in the range of its IC50 for curing prion-infected cells of 1.6 ± 0.4 ?M and the concentration required to inhibit protein-misfolding cyclic amplification. Therefore, this molecule tests the hypothesis that stabilization of huPrPC, as a principle, could be used in the treatment of human prion disease. The identification of a binding site with a defined 3D structure opens up the possibility of designing small molecules that stabilize huPrP and prevent its conversion into the disease-associated form. PMID:20876144

  6. Thermodynamic Characterization of the Unfolding of the Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Moulick, Roumita; Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

    2014-01-01

    The prion protein appears to be unusually susceptible to conformational change, and unlike nearly all other proteins, it can easily be made to convert to alternative misfolded conformations. To understand the basis of this structural plasticity, a detailed thermodynamic characterization of two variants of the mouse prion protein (moPrP), the full-length moPrP (23–231) and the structured C-terminal domain, moPrP (121–231), has been carried out. All thermodynamic parameters governing unfolding, including the changes in enthalpy, entropy, free energy, and heat capacity, were found to be identical for the two protein variants. The N-terminal domain remains unstructured and does not interact with the C-terminal domain in the full-length protein at pH 4. Moreover, the enthalpy and entropy of unfolding of moPrP (121–231) are similar in magnitude to values reported for other proteins of similar size. However, the protein has an unusually high native-state heat capacity, and consequently, the change in heat capacity upon unfolding is much lower than that expected for a protein of similar size. It appears, therefore, that the native state of the prion protein undergoes substantial fluctuations in enthalpy and hence, in structure. PMID:24461016

  7. Abnormal Activation of Glial Cells in the Brains of Prion Protein-deficient Mice Ectopically Expressing Prion Protein-Like Protein, PrPLP\\/Dpl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryuichiro Atarashi; Suehiro Sakaguchi; Kazuto Shigematsu; KazuhikoArima; Nobuhiko Okimura; Naohiro Yamaguchi; Aimin Li; JurajKopacek; Shigeru Katamine

    2001-01-01

    Background: Some lines of mice homozygous for a dis- rupted prion protein gene (Prnp), including Ngsk Prnp0\\/0 mice, exhibit Purkinje cell degeneration as a consequence of the ectopic overexpression of the downstream gene for prion protein-like protein (PrPLP\\/Dpl) in the brain, but others, such as Zrch I Prnp0\\/0 mice, show neither the neu- rodegeneration nor the expression of PrPLP\\/Dpl. In

  8. Role of the prion protein family in the gonads

    PubMed Central

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Pailhoux, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The prion-gene family comprises four members named PRNP (PRPc), PRND (Doppel), PRNT (PRT), and SPRN (Shadoo). According to species, PRND is located 16–52 kb downstream from the PRNP locus, whereas SPRN is located on another chromosome. The fourth prion-family gene, PRNT, belongs to the same genomic cluster as PRNP and PRND in humans and bovidae. PRNT and PRND possibly resulted from a duplication event of PRND and PRNP, respectively, that occurred early during eutherian species divergence. Although most of the studies concerning the prion-family has been done on PRPc and its involvement in transmissible neurodegenerative disorders, different works report some potential roles of these proteins in the reproductive function of both sexes. Among them, a clear role of PRND, that encodes for the Doppel protein, in male fertility has been demonstrated through gene targeting studies in mice. In other species, Doppel seems to play a role in testis and ovary development but its cellular localization is variable according to the gonadal developmental stage and to the mammalian species considered. For the other three genes, their roles in reproductive function appear ill-defined and/or controversial. The present review aimed to synthesize all the available data on these prion-family members and their relations with reproductive processes, mainly in the gonad of both sexes. PMID:25364761

  9. Kinetics of Ozone Inactivation of Infectious Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ning; Price, Luke M.; Braithwaite, Shannon L.; Balachandran, Aru; Mitchell, Gordon; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics of ozone inactivation of infectious prion protein (PrPSc, scrapie 263K) was investigated in ozone-demand-free phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Diluted infectious brain homogenates (IBH) (0.01%) were exposed to a predetermined ozone dose (10.8 ± 2.0 mg/liter) at three pHs (pH 4.4, 6.0, and 8.0) and two temperatures (4°C and 20°C). The inactivation of PrPSc was quantified by determining the in vitro destruction of PrPSc templating properties using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) assay and bioassay, which were shown to correlate well. The inactivation kinetics were characterized by both Chick-Watson (CW) and efficiency factor Hom (EFH) models. It was found that the EFH model fit the experimental data more appropriately. The efficacy of ozone inactivation of PrPSc was both pH and temperature dependent. Based on the EFH model, CT (disinfectant concentration multiplied by contact time) values were determined for 2-log10, 3-log10, and 4-log10 inactivation at the conditions under which they were achieved. Our results indicated that ozone is effective for prion inactivation in ozone-demand-free water and may be applied for the inactivation of infectious prion in prion-contaminated water and wastewater. PMID:23416994

  10. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  11. CELL BIOLOGY: Sowing the Protein Seeds of Prion Propagation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mick F. Tuite (University of Kent; Department of Biosciences)

    2000-07-28

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Ever since Prusiner first proposed his radical "protein-only" hypothesis to explain how certain infectious proteins (prions) are transmitted from one mammal to another in the absence of DNA or RNA, scientists have been trying to prove him right (or wrong). The study of mammalian prions, such as those causing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep and mad cow disease in cattle, has been slow to yield answers. However, as Tuite discusses in his Perspective, the Sup35p and Ure2p proteins of yeast that exist in both normal and infectious forms are providing evidence that the "protein-only" hypothesis may be right (Sparrer et al.).

  12. Gingerol prevents prion protein-mediated neuronal toxicity by regulating HIF prolyl hydroxylase 2 and prion protein.

    PubMed

    Park, Yang-Gyu; Park, Sang-Youel

    2014-11-01

    Prion diseases are a family of progressive neurodegenerative disorders, which are fatal in the majority of cases and affect both humans and domestic animals. Prion protein (PrP) (106-126) retains the neurotoxic properties of the entire pathological PrPsc and it is generally used as a reasonable model to study the mechanisms responsible for prion diseases. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? is involved in the gingerol-mediated protection of neuronal cells. HIF mediates cellular adaptations to low oxygen. Prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (PHD2) is an oxygen sensor that hydroxylates the HIF-?-subunit, promoting its proteasomal degradation under normoxic conditions. Thus, in the present study we wished to determine whether gingerol inhibits the catalytic activity of PHD2 and prevents HIF-1? protein proteasomal degradation, thereby preventing the occurrence of PrP (106-126)-induced neuronal apoptosis. We used the pharmacological inhibition of PHD2 by dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) or deferoxamine (DFO) and the genetic inhibition of HIF-1? by HIF-1? small interfering RNA (siRNA) to block the effects of gingerol against PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that gingerol prevented PrP (106?126)-induced neuronal apoptosis by upregulating HIF-1? and inhibiting the catalytic activity of PHD2 under normoxic conditions. Moreover, the protective effects of gingerol against PrP (106-126)-induced neuronal apoptosis were associated with the upregulation of the expression of cellular prion protein (PrPc). In conclusion, our results indicate that gingerol has therapeutic potential for use in the treatment or prevention of prion diseases, and its inhibitory effects on the catalytic activity of PHD2 may be of clinical benefit. PMID:25231392

  13. Stability and Cu(II) Binding of Prion Protein Variants Related to Inherited Human Prion Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cereghetti, Grazia M.; Schweiger, Arthur; Glockshuber, Rudi; Van Doorslaer, Sabine

    2003-01-01

    All inherited forms of human prion diseases are linked with mutations in the prion protein (PrP) gene. Here we have investigated the stability and Cu(II) binding properties of three recombinant variants of murine full-length PrP(23–231)-containing destabilizing point mutations that are associated with human Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (F198S), Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (E200K), and fatal familial insomnia (D178N) by electron paramagnetic resonance and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Furthermore, we analyzed the variants H140S, H177S, and H187S of the isolated C-terminal domain of murine PrP, mPrP(121–231), to test a role of the histidine residues in Cu(II) binding. The F198S and E200K variants of PrP(23–231) differed in Cu(II) binding from the wild-type mPrP(23–231). However, circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the variants and the wild type did not undergo conformational changes in the presence of Cu(II). The D178N variant showed a high tendency to aggregate at pH 7.4 both with and without Cu(II). At lower pH values, it showed the same Cu(II) binding behavior as the wild type. The analysis allowed for a better location of the Cu(II) binding sites in the C-terminal part of the protein. Our present data indicate that hereditary forms of prion diseases cannot be rationalized on the basis of altered Cu(II) binding or mutation-induced protein destabilization alone. PMID:12609901

  14. Resistance to chronic wasting disease in transgenic mice expressing a naturally occurring allelic variant of deer prion protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Meade-White; Brent Race; Matthew Trifilo; Alex Bossers; Cynthia Favara; Rachel Lacasse; Michael Miller; Elizabeth Williams; Michael Oldstone; Richard Race; Bruce Chesebro

    2007-01-01

    Prion protein (PrP) is a required factor for susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion diseases. In transgenic mice, expression of prion protein (PrP) from another species often confers susceptibility to prion disease from that donor species. For example, expression of deer or elk PrP in transgenic mice has induced susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD), the prion disease of

  15. Chemical chaperones interfere with the formation of scrapie prion protein.

    PubMed Central

    Tatzelt, J; Prusiner, S B; Welch, W J

    1996-01-01

    The fundamental event in prion diseases involves a conformational change in one or more of the alpha-helices of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) as they are converted into beta-sheets during the formation of the pathogenic isoform (PrP(Sc)). Here, we show that exposure of scrapie-infected mouse neuroblastoma (ScN2a) cells to reagents known to stabilize proteins in their native conformation reduced the rate and extent of PrP(Sc) formation. Such reagents include the cellular osmolytes glycerol and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and the organic solvent dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which we refer to as 'chemical chaperones' because of their influence on protein folding. Although the chemical chaperones did not appear to affect the existing population of PrP(Sc) molecules in ScN2a cells, they did interfere with the formation of PrP(Sc) from newly synthesized PrP(C). We suggest that the chemical chaperones act to stabilize the alpha-helical conformation of PrP(C) and thereby prevent the protein from undergoing a conformational change to produce PrP(Sc). These observations provide further support for the idea that prions arise due to a change in protein conformation and reveal potential strategies for preventing PrP(Sc) formation. Images PMID:8978663

  16. Selective expression of prion protein in peripheral tissues of the adult mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J Ford; L. J Burton; R. J Morris; S. M Hall

    2002-01-01

    The level of expression of normal cellular prion protein, PrPc (cellular prion protein), controls both the rate and the route of neuroinvasive infection, from peripheral entry portal to the CNS. Paradoxically, an overview of the distribution of PrPc within tissues outside the CNS is lacking. We have used novel antibodies that recognise cellular prion protein in glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue (in order

  17. Amyloid aggregates of the HET-s prion protein are infectious

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Lise Maddelein; Suzana Dos Reis; Stéphane Duvezin-Caubet; Bénédicte Coulary-Salin; Sven J. Saupe

    2002-01-01

    The [Het-s] infectious element of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina is a prion. We have recently reported that recombinant HET-s protein aggregates in vitro into amyloid fibers. In vivo, the protein aggregates specifically in the [Het-s] prion strains. Here, we show that biolistic introduction of aggregated recombinant HET-s protein into fungal cells induces emergence of the [Het-s] prion with a

  18. The consequences of pathogenic mutations to the human prion protein

    PubMed Central

    van der Kamp, Marc W.; Daggett, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Prion diseases, in which the conformational transition of the native prion protein (PrP) to a misfolded form causes aggregation and subsequent neurodegeneration, have fascinated the scientific community as this transmissible disease appears to be purely protein-based. Disease can arise due to genetic factors only. At least 30 single point mutations have been indicated to cause disease in humans. Somehow, these mutations must influence the stability, processing and/or cellular interactions of PrP, such that aggregation can occur and disease develops. In this review, the current evidence for such effects of single point mutations is discussed, indicating that PrP can be affected in many different ways, although questions remain about the mechanism by which mutations cause disease. PMID:19602567

  19. Transition-metal prion protein attachment: Competition with copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2012-02-01

    Prion protein, PrP, is a protein capable of binding copper ions in multiple modes depending on their concentration. Misfolded PrP is implicated in a group of neurodegenerative diseases, which include ``mad cow disease'' and its human form, variant Creutzfeld-Jacob disease. An increasing amount of evidence suggests that attachment of non-copper metal ions to PrP triggers transformations to abnormal forms similar to those observed in prion diseases. In this work, we use hybrid Kohn-Sham/orbital-free density functional theory simulations to investigate copper replacement by other transition metals that bind to PrP, including zinc, iron and manganese. We consider all known copper binding modes in the N-terminal domain of PrP. Our calculations identify modes most susceptible to copper replacement and reveal metals that can successfully compete with copper for attachment to PrP.

  20. Copper and the Prion Protein: Methods, Structures, Function, and Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millhauser, Glenn L.

    2007-05-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) arise from conversion of the membrane-bound prion protein from PrPC to PrPSc. Examples of the TSEs include mad cow disease, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk, scrapie in goats and sheep, and kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Although the precise function of PrPC in healthy tissues is not known, recent research demonstrates that it binds Cu(II) in an unusual and highly conserved region of the protein termed the octarepeat domain. This review describes recent connections between copper and PrPC, with an emphasis on the electron paramagnetic resonance elucidation of the specific copper-binding sites, insights into PrPC function, and emerging connections between copper and prion disease.

  1. Prion protein detection in serum using micromechanical resonator arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madhukar Varshney; Philip S. Waggoner; Richard A. Montagna; Harold G. Craighead

    2009-01-01

    Prion proteins that have transformed from their normal cellular counterparts (PrPc) into infectious form (PrPres) are responsible for causing progressive neurodegenerative diseases in numerous species, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle (also known as mad cow disease), scrapie in sheep, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. Due to a possible link between BSE and CJD it is highly

  2. BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen A. Richt; S. Mark Hall

    2008-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of cattle and was first detected in 1986 in the United Kingdom. It is the most likely cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. The origin of BSE remains an enigma. Here we report an H-type BSE case associated with the novel mutation E211K within the prion protein gene

  3. Prion Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingzhong Kong; Richard A. Bessen

    The modern history of the prion diseases is one of novel microbes, anthropological intrigue, and food safety mishaps. The\\u000a prion diseases, also called the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that can be\\u000a sporadic, inherited, or acquired. These multiple origins are unique among human disease. The basis of all prion diseases is\\u000a the misfolding of the host prion protein

  4. Prion protein self-interactions: A gateway to novel therapeutic strategies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Rigter; Jan P. M. Langeveld; Fred G. van Zijderveld; Alex Bossers

    2010-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders and include among others Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, and scrapie in sheep. The central event in disease development in TSEs is the refolding of the normal host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP) into abnormal and disease associated prion protein. The agent is thought to

  5. SIRT1, a histone deacetylase, regulates prion protein-induced neuronal cell death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Suk Seo; Myung-Hee Moon; Jae-Kyo Jeong; Jae-Won Seol; You-Jin Lee; Byung-Hyun Park; Sang-Youel Park

    Prion diseases associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to the misfolded isoform (PrPSc), affect the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. Resveratrol, an activator of class III histone deacetylase SIRT1, is important in attenuating cellular injury and oxidative stress. The present study investigated the effects of SIRT1 activation on prion protein-mediated neuronal cell death

  6. Prion protein fragment (106-126) induces prothrombotic state by raising platelet intracellular calcium and microparticle release.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Ram L; Kumari, Sharda; Singh, Nitesh; Sonkar, Vijay K; Dash, Debabrata

    2015-04-01

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders where infectious prion proteins (PrP) accumulate in brain leading to aggregation of amyloid fibrils and neuronal cell death. The amino acid sequence 106-126 from prion proteins, PrP(106-126), is highly amyloidogenic and implicated in prion-induced pathologies. As PrP is known to be expressed in blood following leakage from brain tissue, we sought to investigate its biological effects on human platelets, which have been widely employed as 'peripheral' model for neurons. Our findings suggested that, PrP(106-126) (20?M) induced dramatic 30-fold rise in intracellular calcium (from 105±30 to 3425±525nM) in platelets, which was attributable to influx from extracellular fluid with comparatively less contribution from intracellular stores. Calcium mobilization was associated with 8-10-fold stimulation in the activity of thiol protease calpain that led to partial cleavage of cytoskeleton-associated protein talin and extensive shedding of microparticles from platelets, thus transforming platelets to 'activated' phenotype. Both proteolysis of talin and microparticle release were precluded by calpeptin, a specific inhibitor of calpain. As microparticles are endowed with phosphatidylserine-enriched surface and hence are pro-coagulant in nature, exposure to prion favored a thrombogenic state in the organism. PMID:25749016

  7. Structural studies of the scrapie prion protein by electron crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Wille, Holger; Michelitsch, Melissa D.; Guénebaut, Vincent; Supattapone, Surachai; Serban, Ana; Cohen, Fred E.; Agard, David A.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2002-01-01

    Because the insolubility of the scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) has frustrated structural studies by x-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy, we used electron crystallography to characterize the structure of two infectious variants of the prion protein. Isomorphous two-dimensional crystals of the N-terminally truncated PrPSc (PrP 27-30) and a miniprion (PrPSc106) were identified by negative stain electron microscopy. Image processing allowed the extraction of limited structural information to 7 ? resolution. By comparing projection maps of PrP 27-30 and PrPSc106, we visualized the 36-residue internal deletion of the miniprion and localized the N-linked sugars. The dimensions of the monomer and the locations of the deleted segment and sugars were used as constraints in the construction of models for PrPSc. Only models featuring parallel ?-helices as the key element could satisfy the constraints. These low-resolution projection maps and models have implications for understanding prion propagation and the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. PMID:11891310

  8. Doppel-induced cytotoxicity in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells is antagonized by the prion protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Li; Chenfang Dong; Yanjun Lei; Bing Shan; Xinli Xiao; Huiying Jiang; Xin Wang; Chen Gao; Qi Shi; Kun Xu; Chan Tian; Jun Han; Xiaoping Dong

    2009-01-01

    Doppel (Dpl) is a prion (PrP)-like protein due to the structural and biochemical similarities; however, the natural functions of Dpl and PrP remain unclear. In this study, a 531-bp human PRND gene sequence encoding Dpl protein was amplified from human peripheral blood leucocytes. Full-length and various truncated human Dpl and PrP proteins were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. Supplement

  9. Atypical prion protein in sheep brain collected during the British scrapie-surveillance programme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Everest; L. Thorne; D. A. Barnicle; J. C. Edwards; H. Elliott; R. Jackman; J. Hope

    2006-01-01

    Scrapie of sheep and goats is the most common prion disease (or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, TSE) of mammals and aggregates of abnormal, proteinase-resistant prion protein (PrPSc) are found in all naturally occurring prion diseases. During active surveillance of British sheep for TSEs, 29201 sheep brain stem samples were collected from abattoirs and analysed for the presence of PrPSc. Of these

  10. Prion protein facilitates synaptic vesicle release by enhancing release probability

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Susan W.; Nugent, Marie L.; Dinsdale, David; Steinert, Joern R.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases as a result of protein misfolding. In humans, prion disease occurs typically with a sporadic origin where uncharacterized mechanisms induce spontaneous PrPC misfolding leading to neurotoxic PrP-scrapie formation (PrPSC). The consequences of misfolded PrPC signalling are well characterized but little is known about the physiological roles of PrPC and its involvement in disease. Here we investigated wild-type PrPC signalling in synaptic function as well as the effects of a disease-relevant mutation within PrPC (proline-to-leucine mutation at codon 101). Expression of wild-type PrPC at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction leads to enhanced synaptic responses as detected in larger miniature synaptic currents which are caused by enlarged presynaptic vesicles. The expression of the mutated PrPC leads to reduction of both parameters compared with wild-type PrPC. Wild-type PrPC enhances synaptic release probability and quantal content but reduces the size of the ready-releasable vesicle pool. Partially, these changes are not detectable following expression of the mutant PrPC. A behavioural test revealed that expression of either protein caused an increase in locomotor activities consistent with enhanced synaptic release and stronger muscle contractions. Both proteins were sensitive to proteinase digestion. These data uncover new functions of wild-type PrPC at the synapse with a disease-relevant mutation in PrPC leading to diminished functional phenotypes. Thus, our data present essential new information possibly related to prion pathogenesis in which a functional synaptic role of PrPC is compromised due to its advanced conversion into PrPSC thereby creating a lack-of-function scenario. PMID:24722203

  11. Species barrier in prion diseases: a kinetic interpretation based on the conformational adaptation of the prion protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kellershohn, N; Laurent, M

    1998-01-01

    Prion diseases are thought to result from the conformational change of the normal cellular prion protein to a pathogenic protease-resistant isoform. However, brain extracts not containing the protease-resistant isoform of the prion protein can be infectious following interspecies transmission. The 'protein-only' hypothesis of pathogenesis is extended to provide possible explanations which could be interpreted in terms of a different infectious agent. It is proposed that normal cellular protein (PrPC) may be transformed into a form (PrP*) that is conformationally distinct from the host-specific abnormal isoform (PrPSc). In infection from a heterologous donor, the dimeric forms of heterologous PrPSc, which may catalyse the formation of host PrP* from PrPC, host PrP* and host PrPSc are all considered to be capable of catalysing, to some extent, the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc. However, depending on the species involved, PrP* may, or may not, be pathogenic, and may, or may not, be sensitive to proteolysis. It is shown, by numerical integration of the differential rate equations derived from this model, that a strain may be stabilized after two or three passages through a different species and that transmission might occur in the absence of detectable protease-resistant prion protein. The natural transmission of scrapie to cattle is discussed in relation to the model. PMID:9729459

  12. Parallel in-register intermolecular ?-sheet architectures for prion-seeded prion protein (PrP) amyloids.

    PubMed

    Groveman, Bradley R; Dolan, Michael A; Taubner, Lara M; Kraus, Allison; Wickner, Reed B; Caughey, Byron

    2014-08-29

    Structures of the infectious form of prion protein (e.g. PrP(Sc) or PrP-Scrapie) remain poorly defined. The prevalent structural models of PrP(Sc) retain most of the native ?-helices of the normal, noninfectious prion protein, cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), but evidence is accumulating that these helices are absent in PrP(Sc) amyloid. Moreover, recombinant PrP(C) can form amyloid fibrils in vitro that have parallel in-register intermolecular ?-sheet architectures in the domains originally occupied by helices 2 and 3. Here, we provide solid-state NMR evidence that the latter is also true of initially prion-seeded recombinant PrP amyloids formed in the absence of denaturants. These results, in the context of a primarily ?-sheet structure, led us to build detailed models of PrP amyloid based on parallel in-register architectures, fibrillar shapes and dimensions, and other available experimentally derived conformational constraints. Molecular dynamics simulations of PrP(90-231) octameric segments suggested that such linear fibrils, which are consistent with many features of PrP(Sc) fibrils, can have stable parallel in-register ?-sheet cores. These simulations revealed that the C-terminal residues ?124-227 more readily adopt stable tightly packed structures than the N-terminal residues ?90-123 in the absence of cofactors. Variations in the placement of turns and loops that link the ?-sheets could give rise to distinct prion strains capable of faithful template-driven propagation. Moreover, our modeling suggests that single PrP monomers can comprise the entire cross-section of fibrils that have previously been assumed to be pairs of laterally associated protofilaments. Together, these insights provide a new basis for deciphering mammalian prion structures. PMID:25028516

  13. Cellular and sub-cellular pathology of animal prion diseases: relationship between morphological changes, accumulation of abnormal prion protein and clinical disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Jeffrey; Gillian McGovern; Silvia Sisó; Lorenzo González

    2011-01-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases of animals are characterised by CNS spongiform change,\\u000a gliosis and the accumulation of disease-associated forms of prion protein (PrPd). Particularly in ruminant prion diseases, a wide range of morphological types of PrPd depositions are found in association with neurons and glia. When light microscopic patterns of PrPd accumulations are correlated with sub-cellular

  14. Prion protein and A?-related synaptic toxicity impairment

    PubMed Central

    Calella, Anna Maria; Farinelli, Mélissa; Nuvolone, Mario; Mirante, Osvaldo; Moos, Rita; Falsig, Jeppe; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder, goes along with extracellular amyloid-? (A?) deposits. The cognitive decline observed during AD progression correlates with damaged spines, dendrites and synapses in hippocampus and cortex. Numerous studies have shown that A? oligomers, both synthetic and derived from cultures and AD brains, potently impair synaptic structure and functions. The cellular prion protein (PrPC) was proposed to mediate this effect. We report that ablation or overexpression of PrPC had no effect on the impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a transgenic model of AD. These findings challenge the role of PrPC as a mediator of A? toxicity. PMID:20665634

  15. Deletion/insertion polymorphism of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    PubMed

    Czarnik, Urszula; Zabolewicz, Tadeusz; Strychalski, Janusz; Grzybowski, Grzegorz; Bogusz, Marcin; Walawski, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the deletion/insertion polymorphism of the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) within the promoter sequence (23 bp), intron 1 (12 bp) and 3' untranslated region (14 bp). DNA was isolated from blood of 234 randomly tested Polish Holstein-Friesian cows and from semen of 47 sires used for artificial insemination (AI) in 2004. No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of genotypes and alleles between cows and breeding bulls in the 3 analysed polymorphic sites within the PRNP gene. Only 3 haplotypes were identified in sires and 4 haplotypes in cows. PMID:17272863

  16. Recombinant Prion Protein Refolded with Lipid and RNA Has the Biochemical Hallmarks of a Prion but Lacks In Vivo Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Timmes, Andrew G.; Moore, Roger A.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Priola, Suzette A.

    2013-01-01

    During prion infection, the normal, protease-sensitive conformation of prion protein (PrPC) is converted via seeded polymerization to an abnormal, infectious conformation with greatly increased protease-resistance (PrPSc). In vitro, protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) uses PrPSc in prion-infected brain homogenates as an initiating seed to convert PrPC and trigger the self-propagation of PrPSc over many cycles of amplification. While PMCA reactions produce high levels of protease-resistant PrP, the infectious titer is often lower than that of brain-derived PrPSc. More recently, PMCA techniques using bacterially derived recombinant PrP (rPrP) in the presence of lipid and RNA but in the absence of any starting PrPSc seed have been used to generate infectious prions that cause disease in wild-type mice with relatively short incubation times. These data suggest that lipid and/or RNA act as cofactors to facilitate the de novo formation of high levels of prion infectivity. Using rPrP purified by two different techniques, we generated a self-propagating protease-resistant rPrP molecule that, regardless of the amount of RNA and lipid used, had a molecular mass, protease resistance and insolubility similar to that of PrPSc. However, we were unable to detect prion infectivity in any of our reactions using either cell-culture or animal bioassays. These results demonstrate that the ability to self-propagate into a protease-resistant insoluble conformer is not unique to infectious PrP molecules. They suggest that the presence of RNA and lipid cofactors may facilitate the spontaneous refolding of PrP into an infectious form while also allowing the de novo formation of self-propagating, but non-infectious, rPrP-res. PMID:23936256

  17. Ubiquitin Ligase gp78 Targets Unglycosylated Prion Protein PrP for Ubiquitylation and Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Haili; Tsai, Yien Che; Weissman, Allan M.; Luo, Shiwen; Rao, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Prion protein PrP is a central player in several devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including mad cow disease and Creutzfeltd-Jacob disease. Conformational alteration of PrP into an aggregation-prone infectious form PrPSc can trigger pathogenic events. How levels of PrP are regulated is poorly understood. Human PrP is known to be degraded by the proteasome, but the specific proteolytic pathway responsible for PrP destruction remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase gp78, known for its role in protein quality control, is critical for unglycosylated PrP ubiquitylation and degradation. Furthermore, C-terminal sequences of PrP protein are crucial for its ubiquitylation and degradation. Our study reveals the first ubiquitin ligase specifically involved in prion protein PrP degradation and PrP sequences crucial for its turnover. Our data may lead to a new avenue to control PrP level and pathogenesis. PMID:24714645

  18. Prion protein inhibits microtubule assembly by inducing tubulin oligomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Nieznanski, Krzysztof [Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Department of Muscle Biochemistry, Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: k.nieznanski@nencki.gov.pl; Podlubnaya, Zoya A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Laboratory of Structure and Function of Muscle Proteins, Pushchino (Russian Federation); Pushchino State University, Pushchino (Russian Federation); Nieznanska, Hanna [Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Department of Muscle Biochemistry, Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-10-13

    A growing body of evidence points to an association of prion protein (PrP) with microtubular cytoskeleton. Recently, direct binding of PrP to tubulin has also been found. In this work, using standard light scattering measurements, sedimentation experiments, and electron microscopy, we show for First time the effect of a direct interaction between these proteins on tubulin polymerization. We demonstrate that full-length recombinant PrP induces a rapid increase in the turbidity of tubulin diluted below the critical concentration for microtubule assembly. This effect requires magnesium ions and is weakened by NaCl. Moreover, the PrP-induced light scattering structures of tubulin are cold-stable. In preparations of diluted tubulin incubated with PrP, electron microscopy revealed the presence of {approx}50 nm disc-shaped structures not reported so far. These unique tubulin oligomers may form large aggregates. The effect of PrP is more pronounced under the conditions promoting microtubule formation. In these tubulin samples, PrP induces formation of the above oligomers associated with short protofilaments and sheets of protofilaments into aggregates. Noticeably, this is accompanied by a significant reduction of the number and length of microtubules. Hence, we postulate that prion protein may act as an inhibitor of microtubule assembly by inducing formation of stable tubulin oligomers.

  19. Decrypting Prion Protein Conversion into a ?-Rich Conformer by Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the formation of ?-rich oligomers and the accumulation of amyloid fibrillar deposits in the central nervous system. Understanding the conversion of the cellular prion protein into its ?-rich polymeric conformers is fundamental to tackling the early stages of the development of prion diseases. In this paper, we have identified unfolding and refolding steps critical to the conversion into a ?-rich conformer for different constructs of the ovine prion protein by molecular dynamics simulations. By combining our results with in vitro experiments, we show that the folded C-terminus of the ovine prion protein is able to recurrently undergo a drastic conformational change by displacement of the H1 helix, uncovering of the H2H3 domain, and formation of persistent ?-sheets between H2 and H3 residues. The observed ?-sheets refold toward the C-terminus exposing what we call a “bending region” comprising residues 204–214. This is strikingly coincident with the region harboring mutations determining the fate of the prion oligomerization process. The ?-rich intermediate is used here for the construction of a putative model for the assembly into an oligomeric aggregate. The results presented here confirm the importance of the H2H3 domain for prion oligomer formation and therefore its potential use as molecular target in the design of novel prion inhibitors. PMID:23700393

  20. Metal ions and protein aggregation: the case fo Prion protein and -amyloids

    E-print Network

    Morante, Silvia

    , metals high chemical reactivity can easily become harmful. Metals are essential cell components in allMetal ions and protein aggregation: the case fo Prion protein and -amyloids Silvia Morante macromolecules and the cloud of surrounding small molecules (solvent, ions, membrane components, etc

  1. Normal prion protein has an activity like that of superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D R; Wong, B S; Hafiz, F; Clive, C; Haswell, S J; Jones, I M

    1999-01-01

    We show here that mouse prion protein (PrP(C)) either as recombinant protein or immunoprecipitated from brain tissue has superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. SOD activity was also associated with recombinant chicken PrP(C) confirming the evolutionary conserved phenotype suggested by sequence similarity. Acquisition of copper by PrP(C) during protein folding endowed SOD activity on the protein but the addition of copper following refolding did not. PrP(C) dependent SOD activity was abolished by deletion of the octapeptide-repeat region involved in copper binding. These results describe an enzymic function for PrP(C) consistent with its cellular distribution and suggest it has a direct role in cellular resistance to oxidative stress. PMID:10548526

  2. Spontaneous deamidation and isomerization of Asn108 in prion peptide 106-126 and in full-length prion protein.

    PubMed

    Sandmeier, E; Hunziker, P; Kunz, B; Sack, R; Christen, P

    1999-08-11

    In prion-related encephalopathies, the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) undergoes a change in conformation to become the scrapie prion protein (PrP(Sc)) which forms infectious deposits in the brain. Conceivably, the conformational transition of PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) might be linked with posttranslational alterations in the covalent structure of a fraction of the PrP molecules. We tested a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 106-126 of human PrP for the occurrence of spontaneous chemical modifications. The only asparagine residue, Asn108, was deamidated to aspartic acid and isoaspartic acid with a half-life of about 12 days. The same posttranslational modifications were found in recombinant murine full-length protein. On aging, 0.8 mol of isoaspartyl residue per mole of protein was detected by the protein-l-isoaspartyl methyltransferase assay (t(1/2) approximately 30 days). Mass spectrometry and Edman degradation of Lys-C fragments identified Asn108 in the amino-terminal flexible part of the protein to be partially converted to aspartic acid and isoaspartic acid. A second modification was the partial isomerization of Asp226' which is only present in rodents. PMID:10441469

  3. CRISPR-Cas9-Based Knockout of the Prion Protein and Its Effect on the Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; MacIsaac, Sarah; Kim, Jin Kyu; Gunawardana, C . Geeth; Wang, Hansen; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2014-01-01

    The molecular function of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) and the mechanism by which it may contribute to neurotoxicity in prion diseases and Alzheimer's disease are only partially understood. Mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells and, more recently, C2C12 myocytes and myotubes have emerged as popular models for investigating the cellular biology of PrP. Mouse epithelial NMuMG cells might become attractive models for studying the possible involvement of PrP in a morphogenetic program underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions. Here we describe the generation of PrP knockout clones from these cell lines using CRISPR-Cas9 knockout technology. More specifically, knockout clones were generated with two separate guide RNAs targeting recognition sites on opposite strands within the first hundred nucleotides of the Prnp coding sequence. Several PrP knockout clones were isolated and genomic insertions and deletions near the CRISPR-target sites were characterized. Subsequently, deep quantitative global proteome analyses that recorded the relative abundance of>3000 proteins (data deposited to ProteomeXchange Consortium) were undertaken to begin to characterize the molecular consequences of PrP deficiency. The levels of ?120 proteins were shown to reproducibly correlate with the presence or absence of PrP, with most of these proteins belonging to extracellular components, cell junctions or the cytoskeleton. PMID:25490046

  4. Accumulation of Pathological Prion Protein PrPSc in the Skin of Animals with Experimental and Natural Scrapie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achim Thomzig; Walter Schulz-Schaeffer; Arne Wrede; Wilhelm Wemheuer; Bertram Brenig; Christine Kratzel; Karin Lemmer; Michael Beekes

    2007-01-01

    Prion infectivity and its molecular marker, the pathological prion protein PrPSc, accumulate in the central nervous system and often also in lymphoid tissue of animals or humans affected by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Recently, PrPSc was found in tissues previously considered not to be invaded by prions (e.g., skeletal muscles). Here, we address the question of whether prions target the skin

  5. Overactivation of calcineurin induced by amyloid-beta and prion proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Agostinho; João P. Lopes; Zélia Velez; Catarina R. Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Amyloid-beta protein (A?) and the scrapie isoform of prion protein (PrPSs) have a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and prion-related encephalopathies (PRE), respectively. In both disorders, the deposition of these misfolded proteins is accompanied by apoptotic neuronal loss. However, the pathogenesis and molecular basis of A?- and PrPSc-neurotoxic effects are not completely understood. The Ca2+\\/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase

  6. Prion protein insertional mutations increase aggregation propensity but not fiber stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tejas Kalastavadi; Heather L True

    2008-01-01

    Background  Mutations in the PRNPgene account for ~15% of all prion disease cases. Little is understood about the mechanism of how some of these mutations\\u000a in PRNPcause the protein to aggregate into amyloid fibers or cause disease. We have taken advantage of a chimeric protein system\\u000a to study the oligopeptide repeat domain (ORD) expansions of the prion protein, PrP, and their

  7. NMR structure of the mouse prion protein domain PrP(121-231)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Riek; Simone Hornemann; Gerhard Wider; Martin Billeter; Rudi Glockshuber; Kurt Wüthrich

    1996-01-01

    THE 'protein only' hypothesis1 states that a modified form of normal prion protein triggers infectious neurodegenerative diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans2-4. Prion proteins are thought to exist in two different conformations5: the 'benign' PrPC form, and the infectious 'scrapie form', PrPSc. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of PrPC is essential for understanding

  8. Glycan chains modulate prion protein binding to immobilized metal ions.

    PubMed

    Moudjou, Mohammed; Bernard, Julie; Sabuncu, Elifsu; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2007-04-01

    PrP(c) is the normal isoform of the prion protein which can be converted into PrP(Sc), the pathology-associated conformer in prion diseases. It contains two N-linked glycan chains attached to the C-proximal globular domain. While the biological functions of PrP(c) are still unknown, its ability to bind Cu(2+) is well documented. The main Cu(2+)-binding sites are located in the N-proximal, unstructured region of the molecule. Here we report that PrP(c) glycans influence the capacity of PrP(c) from sheep brain or cultured Rov cells to bind IMAC columns loaded with Cu(2+) or Co(2+). Using different anti-PrP antibodies and PrP(c) glycosylation mutants, we show that the full length non-glycosylated form of PrP(c) has a higher binding efficiency for column-bound Cu(2+) and Co(2+) than the corresponding glycosylated form. Our findings raise the possibility that the accessibility of the PrP(c) metal ion-binding sites might be controlled by the glycan chains. PMID:17293006

  9. To develop with or without the prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Halliez, Sophie; Passet, Bruno; Martin-Lannerée, Séverine; Hernandez-Rapp, Julia; Laude, Hubert; Mouillet-Richard, Sophie; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Béringue, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The deletion of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrPC) in mouse, goat, and cattle has no drastic phenotypic consequence. This stands in apparent contradiction with PrPC quasi-ubiquitous expression and conserved primary and tertiary structures in mammals, and its pivotal role in neurodegenerative diseases such as prion and Alzheimer's diseases. In zebrafish embryos, depletion of PrP ortholog leads to a severe loss-of-function phenotype. This raises the question of a potential role of PrPC in the development of all vertebrates. This view is further supported by the early expression of the PrPC encoding gene (Prnp) in many tissues of the mouse embryo, the transient disruption of a broad number of cellular pathways in early Prnp?/? mouse embryos, and a growing body of evidence for PrPC involvement in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation in various types of mammalian stem cells and progenitors. Finally, several studies in both zebrafish embryos and in mammalian cells and tissues in formation support a role for PrPC in cell adhesion, extra-cellular matrix interactions and cytoskeleton. In this review, we summarize and compare the different models used to decipher PrPC functions at early developmental stages during embryo- and organo-genesis and discuss their relevance. PMID:25364763

  10. Prion-like proteins sequester and suppress the toxicity of huntingtin exon 1

    PubMed Central

    Kayatekin, Can; Matlack, Kent E. S.; Hesse, William R.; Guan, Yinghua; Chakrabortee, Sohini; Russ, Jenny; Wanker, Erich E.; Shah, Jagesh V.; Lindquist, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Expansions of preexisting polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts in at least nine different proteins cause devastating neurodegenerative diseases. There are many unique features to these pathologies, but there must also be unifying mechanisms underlying polyQ toxicity. Using a polyQ-expanded fragment of huntingtin exon-1 (Htt103Q), the causal protein in Huntington disease, we and others have created tractable models for investigating polyQ toxicity in yeast cells. These models recapitulate key pathological features of human diseases and provide access to an unrivalled genetic toolbox. To identify toxicity modifiers, we performed an unbiased overexpression screen of virtually every protein encoded by the yeast genome. Surprisingly, there was no overlap between our modifiers and those from a conceptually identical screen reported recently, a discrepancy we attribute to an artifact of their overexpression plasmid. The suppressors of Htt103Q toxicity recovered in our screen were strongly enriched for glutamine- and asparagine-rich prion-like proteins. Separated from the rest of the protein, the prion-like sequences of these proteins were themselves potent suppressors of polyQ-expanded huntingtin exon-1 toxicity, in both yeast and human cells. Replacing the glutamines in these sequences with asparagines abolished suppression and converted them to enhancers of toxicity. Replacing asparagines with glutamines created stronger suppressors. The suppressors (but not the enhancers) coaggregated with Htt103Q, forming large foci at the insoluble protein deposit in which proteins were highly immobile. Cells possessing foci had fewer (if any) small diffusible oligomers of Htt103Q. Until such foci were lost, cells were protected from death. We discuss the therapeutic implications of these findings. PMID:25092318

  11. Distinct patterns of spread of prion infection in brains of mice expressing anchorless or anchored forms of prion protein

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In humans and animals, prion protein (PrP) is usually expressed as a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein, but anchorless PrP may be pathogenic in humans with certain familial prion diseases. Anchored PrP expressed on neurons mediates spread of prions along axons in the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, the mechanism of prion spread in individuals expressing anchorless PrP is poorly understood. Here we studied prion spread within brain of mice expressing anchorless or anchored PrP. Results To create a localized initial point of infection, we microinjected scrapie in a 0.5 microliter volume in the striatum. In this experiment, PrPres and gliosis were first detected in both types of mice at 40 days post-inoculation near the needle track. In mice with anchored PrP, PrPres appeared to spread via neurons to distant connected brain areas by the clinical endpoint at 150 days post-inoculation. This PrPres was rarely associated with blood vessels. In contrast, in mice with anchorless PrP, PrPres spread did not follow neuronal circuitry, but instead followed a novel slower pattern utilizing the drainage system of the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) including perivascular areas adjacent to blood vessels, subependymal areas and spaces between axons in white matter tracts. Conclusions In transgenic mice expressing anchorless PrP small amyloid-seeding PrPres aggregates appeared to be transported in the ISF, thus spreading development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) throughout the brain. Spread of amyloid seeding by ISF may also occur in multiple human brain diseases involving CAA. PMID:24447368

  12. Cooperative binding modes of Cu(II) in prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Chisnell, Robin; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2007-03-01

    The misfolding of the prion protein, PrP, is responsible for a group of neurodegenerative diseases including mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. It is known that the PrP can efficiently bind copper ions; four high-affinity binding sites located in the octarepeat region of PrP are now well known. Recent experiments suggest that at low copper concentrations new binding modes, in which one copper ion is shared between two or more binding sites, are possible. Using our hybrid Thomas-Fermi/DFT computational scheme, which is well suited for simulations of biomolecules in solution, we investigate the geometries and energetics of two, three and four binding sites cooperatively binding one copper ion. These geometries are then used as inputs for classical molecular dynamics simulations. We find that copper binding affects the secondary structure of the PrP and that it stabilizes the unstructured (unfolded) part of the protein.

  13. CYTOSOLIC PRION PROTEIN IS THE PREDOMINANT ANTI-BAX PRION PROTEIN FORM: EXCLUSION OF TRANSMEMBRANE AND SECRETED PRION PROTEIN FORMS IN THE ANTI-BAX FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Lin, David T. S.; Jodoin, Julie; Baril, Michaël; Goodyer, Cynthia G.; LeBlanc, Andréa C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Prion protein (PrP) prevents Bax-mediated cell death by inhibiting the initial Bax conformational change that converts cytosolic Bax into a pro-apoptotic protein. PrP is mostly a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface protein but it is also retrotranslocated into cytosolic PrP (CyPrP) or can become a type 1 or type 2 transmembrane protein. To determine the form and subcellular location of the PrP that has anti-Bax function, we co-expressed various Syrian hamster PrP (SHaPrP) mutants that favour specific PrP topologies and subcellular localization with N-terminally green fluorescent protein tagged pro-apoptotic Bax (EGFP-Bax) in MCF-7 cells and primary human neurons. Mutants that generate both CyPrP and secreted PrP (SecPrP) or only CyPrP have anti-Bax activity. Mutants that produce CtmPrP or NtmPrP lose the anti-Bax activity, despite their ability to also make SecPrP. Transmembrane generating mutants do not produce CyPrP and both normal and cognate mutant forms of CyPrP rescue against the loss of anti-Bax activity. SecPrP generating constructs also produce non-membrane attached SecPrP. However, this form of PrP has minimal anti-Bax activity. We conclude that CyPrP is the predominant form of PrP with anti-Bax function. These results imply that the retro-translocation of PrP encompasses a survival function and is not merely a pathway for the proteasomal degradation of misfolded protein. PMID:18590778

  14. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Prion Diseases)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a prion ( prion is short for proteinaceous infectious particle ). Prion proteins occur in both a normal form, which is a harmless protein found in the body's cells, and in an infectious form, which causes disease. ...

  15. Structural and Dynamic Properties of the Human Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; van der Kamp, Marc W.; Daggett, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases involve the conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to its misfolded pathogenic form (PrPSc). To better understand the structural mechanism of this conversion, we performed extensive all-atom, explicit-solvent molecular-dynamics simulations for three structures of the wild-type human PrP (huPrP) at different pH values and temperatures. Residue 129 is polymorphic, being either Met or Val. Two of the three structures have Met in position 129 and the other has Val. Lowering the pH or raising the temperature induced large conformational changes of the C-terminal globular domain and increased exposure of its hydrophobic core. In some simulations, HA and its preceding S1-HA loop underwent large displacements. The C-terminus of HB was unstable and sometimes partially unfolded. Two hydrophobic residues, Phe-198 and Met-134, frequently became exposed to solvent. These conformational changes became more dramatic at lower pH or higher temperature. Furthermore, Tyr-169 and the S2-HB loop, or the X-loop, were different in the starting structures but converged to common conformations in the simulations for the Met-129, but not the Val-129, protein. ?-Strands and ?-strands formed in the initially unstructured N-terminus. ?-Strand propensity in the N-terminus was different between the Met-129 and Val129 proteins, but ?-strand propensity was similar. This study reveals detailed structural and dynamic properties of huPrP, providing insight into the mechanism of the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc. PMID:24606939

  16. Context-dependent perturbation of neural systems in transgenic mice expressing a cytosolic prion protein

    E-print Network

    Lindquist, Susan

    We analyzed the relationship between pathogenic protein expression and perturbations to brain anatomy and physiology in a genetic model of prion disease. In this model, the mouse line 1D4, neuropathology is promoted by ...

  17. Conversion of a yeast prion protein to an infectious form in bacteria

    E-print Network

    Lindquist, Susan

    Prions are infectious, self-propagating protein aggregates that have been identified in evolutionarily divergent members of the eukaryotic domain of life. Nevertheless, it is not yet known whether prokaryotes can support ...

  18. Prion Links

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ab, Eiso.

    1996-01-01

    Prion Links, provided by Eiso AB of the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Groningen (Netherlands), contains 39 diverse links related to prion diseases and research. Although prion research has been going on for over 25 years, the scientific and medical communities have only recently acknowledged the existence of prions and there remains serious debate over their role in a variety of neurological diseases. The name "prion" is derived from "proteinaceous infectious particles," and was coined by Dr. Stanley Prusiner, who discovered the agents and who recently received the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work. Prions are thought to be the first transmissible and heritable disease-causing agents that lack DNA and RNA. They are composed solely of protein and appear to be the cause of such diseases as kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, and bovine spongiform encephalopathies, mad cow disease, and scrapie in sheep and goats.

  19. Three hamster species with different scrapie incubation times and neuropathological features encode distinct prion proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, D H; Butler, D A; Westaway, D; McKinley, M P; DeArmond, S J; Prusiner, S B

    1990-01-01

    Given the critical role of the prion protein (PrP) in the transmission and pathogenesis of experimental scrapie, we investigated the PrP gene and its protein products in three hamster species, Chinese (CHa), Armenian (AHa), and Syrian (SHa), each of which were found to have distinctive scrapie incubation times. Passaging studies demonstrated that the host species, and not the source of scrapie prions, determined the incubation time for each species, and histochemical studies of hamsters with clinical signs of scrapie revealed characteristic patterns of neuropathology. Northern (RNA) analysis showed the size of PrP mRNA from CHa, AHa, and SHa hamsters to be 2.5, 2.4, and 2.1 kilobases, respectively. Immunoblotting demonstrated that the PrP isoforms were of similar size (33 to 35 kilodaltons); however, the monoclonal antibody 13A5 raised against SHa PrP did not react with the CHa or AHa PrP molecules. Comparison of the three predicted amino acid sequences revealed that each is distinct. Furthermore, differences within the PrP open reading frame that uniquely distinguish the three hamster species are within a hydrophilic segment of 11 amino acids that includes polymorphisms linked to scrapie incubation times in inbred mice and an inherited prion disease of humans. Single polymorphisms in this region correlate with the presence or absence of amyloid plaques for a given hamster species or mouse inbred strain. Our findings demonstrate distinctive molecular, pathological, and clinical characteristics of scrapie in three related species and are consistent with the hypothesis that molecular properties of the host PrP play a pivotal role in determining the incubation time and neuropathological features of scrapie. Images PMID:2406562

  20. Functional implications of multistage copper binding to the prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Hodak, Miroslav; Chisnell, Robin; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, J.

    2009-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) is responsible for a group of neurodegenerative diseases called the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The normal function of PrP has not yet been discovered, but indirect evidence suggests a linkage to its ability to bind copper. In this article, low-copper-concentration bindings of Cu2+ to PrP are investigated by using a recently developed hybrid density functional theory (DFT)/DFT method. It is found that at the lowest copper concentrations, the binding site consists of 4 histidine residues coordinating the copper through ? imidazole nitrogens. At higher concentrations, 2 histidines are involved in the binding, one of them in the axial position. These results are in good agreement with existing experimental data. Comparison of free energies for all modes of coordination shows that when enough copper is available, the binding sites will spontaneously rearrange to accommodate more copper ions, despite the fact that binding energy per copper ion decreases with concentration. These findings support the hypothesis that PrP acts as a copper buffer in vivo, protecting other proteins from the attachment of copper ions. Using large-scale classical molecular dynamics, we also probe the structure of full-length copper-bound PrP, including its unfolded N-terminal domain. The results show that copper attachment leads to rearrangement of the structure of the Cu-bonded octarepeat region and to development of turns in areas separating copper-bound residues. These turns make the flexible N-terminal domain more rigid and thus more resistant to misfolding. The last result suggests that copper binding plays a beneficial role in the initial stages of prion diseases. PMID:19561303

  1. Cell-surface prion protein interacts with glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tao; Wong, Boon-Seng; Liu, Tong; Li, Ruliang; Petersen, Robert B; Sy, Man-Sun

    2002-01-01

    We used ELISA and flow cytometry to study the binding of prion protein PrP to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). We found that recombinant human PrP (rPrP) binds GAGs including chondroitin sulphate A, chondroitin sulphate B, hyaluronic acid, and heparin. rPrP binding to GAGs occurs via the N-terminus, a region known to bind divalent cations. Additionally, rPrP binding to GAGs is enhanced in the presence of Cu2+ and Zn2+, but not Ca2+ and Mn2+. rPrP binds heparin strongest, and the binding is inhibited by certain heparin analogues, including heparin disaccharide and sulphate-containing monosaccharides, but not by acetylated heparin. Full-length normal cellular prion protein (PrPC), but not N-terminally truncated PrPC species, from human brain bind GAGs in a similar Cu2+/Zn2+-enhanced fashion. We found that GAGs specifically bind to a synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acid residues 23-35 in the N-terminus of rPrP. We further demonstrated that while both wild-type PrPC and an octapeptide-repeat-deleted mutant PrP produced by transfected cells bound heparin at the cell surface, the PrP N-terminal deletion mutant and non-transfectant control failed to bind heparin. Binding of heparin to wild-type PrPC on the cell surface results in a reduction of the level of cell-surface PrPC. These results provide strong evidence that PrPC is a surface receptor for GAGs. PMID:12186633

  2. Crystallographic Studies of Prion Protein (PrP) Segments Suggest How Structural Changes Encoded by Polymorphism at Residue 129 Modulate Susceptibility to Human Prion Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Apostol, Marcin I.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Cascio, Duilio; Eisenberg, David (UCLA)

    2010-09-23

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in codon 129 of the human prion gene, leading to a change from methionine to valine at residue 129 of prion protein (PrP), has been shown to be a determinant in the susceptibility to prion disease. However, the molecular basis of this effect remains unexplained. In the current study, we determined crystal structures of prion segments having either Met or Val at residue 129. These 6-residue segments of PrP centered on residue 129 are 'steric zippers,' pairs of interacting {beta}-sheets. Both structures of these 'homozygous steric zippers' reveal direct intermolecular interactions between Met or Val in one sheet and the identical residue in the mating sheet. These two structures, plus a structure-based model of the heterozygous Met-Val steric zipper, suggest an explanation for the previously observed effects of this locus on prion disease susceptibility and progression.

  3. Scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prion proteins share physical properties and antigenic determinants.

    PubMed Central

    Bendheim, P E; Bockman, J M; McKinley, M P; Kingsbury, D T; Prusiner, S B

    1985-01-01

    Scrapie of sheep and goats as well as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) of humans are neurologic disorders caused by slow infectious pathogens. The novel molecular properties of the pathogen causing scrapie have prompted introduction of the term "prion" to denote a small proteinaceous infectious particle that resists inactivation by nucleic acid-modifying procedures. Antiserum to the major hamster scrapie prion protein (PrP 27-30) was found to cross-react with murine CJD proteins. The CJD proteins had molecular weights similar to those observed for scrapie prion proteins as determined by NaDodSO4 gel electrophoresis. In addition, the CJD proteins were resistant to digestion by proteinase K and appear to polymerize into rod-shaped particles. The purification procedure developed for scrapie prions was found to be useful in purifying the CJD agent. Purification of the two infectious pathogens by virtually identical procedures provided further evidence for similarities in their molecular structures. We conclude that the molecular and biologic properties of the CJD agent are sufficiently similar to those of the scrapie prion protein that CJD should be classified as a prion disease. Images PMID:2579394

  4. Prion Protein-Specific Antibodies-Development, Modes of Action and Therapeutics Application

    PubMed Central

    Rovis, Tihana Lenac; Legname, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases or Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) are lethal neurodegenerative disorders involving the misfolding of the host encoded cellular prion protein, PrPC. This physiological form of the protein is expressed throughout the body, and it reaches the highest levels in the central nervous system where the pathology occurs. The conversion into the pathogenic isoform denoted as prion or PrPSc is the key event in prion disorders. Prominent candidates for the treatment of prion diseases are antibodies and their derivatives. Anti-PrPC antibodies are able to clear PrPSc from cell culture of infected cells. Furthermore, application of anti-PrPC antibodies suppresses prion replication in experimental animal models. Major drawbacks of immunotherapy are immune tolerance, the risks of neurotoxic side effects, limited ability of compounds to cross the blood-brain barrier and their unfavorable pharmacokinetic. The focus of this review is to recapitulate the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms for antibody mediated anti-prion activity. Although relevant for designing immunotherapeutic tools, the characterization of key antibody parameters shaping the molecular mechanism of the PrPC to PrPSc conversion remains elusive. Moreover, this review illustrates the various attempts towards the development of anti-PrP antibody compounds and discusses therapeutic candidates that modulate PrP expression. PMID:25275428

  5. POLYMORPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF THE PRION PROTEIN (PRNP) GENE IN SCRAPIE-INFECTED SHEEP FLOCKS IN WHICH EMBRYO TRANSFER WAS USED TO CIRCUMVENT THE TRANSMISSIONS OF SCRAPIE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic sequence of the ovine prion protein (PrP) gene between codons 102 and 175, with emphasis on ovine PrP gene codons 136 and 171, was determined in scrapie-exposed Suffolk embryo donors and in offspring from those donors that had been transferred to scrapie-free recipient ewes. The most com...

  6. Prion Protein Promotes Kidney Iron Uptake via Its Ferrireductase Activity.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Swati; Tripathi, Ajai; Qian, Juan; Beserra, Amber; Suda, Srinivas; McElwee, Matthew; Turner, Jerrold; Hopfer, Ulrich; Singh, Neena

    2015-02-27

    Brain iron-dyshomeostasis is an important cause of neurotoxicity in prion disorders, a group of neurodegenerative conditions associated with the conversion of prion protein (PrP(C)) from its normal conformation to an aggregated, PrP-scrapie (PrP(Sc)) isoform. Alteration of iron homeostasis is believed to result from impaired function of PrP(C) in neuronal iron uptake via its ferrireductase activity. However, unequivocal evidence supporting the ferrireductase activity of PrP(C) is lacking. Kidney provides a relevant model for this evaluation because PrP(C) is expressed in the kidney, and ?370 ?g of iron are reabsorbed daily from the glomerular filtrate by kidney proximal tubule cells (PT), requiring ferrireductase activity. Here, we report that PrP(C) promotes the uptake of transferrin (Tf) and non-Tf-bound iron (NTBI) by the kidney in vivo and mainly NTBI by PT cells in vitro. Thus, uptake of (59)Fe administered by gastric gavage, intravenously, or intraperitoneally was significantly lower in PrP-knock-out (PrP(-/-)) mouse kidney relative to PrP(+/+) controls. Selective in vivo radiolabeling of plasma NTBI with (59)Fe revealed similar results. Expression of exogenous PrP(C) in immortalized PT cells showed localization on the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles and increased transepithelial transport of (59)Fe-NTBI and to a smaller extent (59)Fe-Tf from the apical to the basolateral domain. Notably, the ferrireductase-deficient mutant of PrP (PrP(?51-89)) lacked this activity. Furthermore, excess NTBI and hemin caused aggregation of PrP(C) to a detergent-insoluble form, limiting iron uptake. Together, these observations suggest that PrP(C) promotes retrieval of iron from the glomerular filtrate via its ferrireductase activity and modulates kidney iron metabolism. PMID:25572394

  7. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  8. Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Structural Stability of Wild-type HORSE PRION PROTEIN

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases {\\it (e.g. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), variant CJD (vCJD), Gerstmann-Str$\\ddot{\\text{a}}$ussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI) and Kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or `mad-cow' disease) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cattles)} are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals. However, by now there have not been some effective therapeutic approaches or medications to treat all these prion diseases. Rabbits, dogs, and horses are the only mammalian species reported to be resistant to infection from prion diseases isolated from other species. Recently, the $\\beta$2--$\\alpha$2 loop has been reported to contribute to their protein structural stabilities. The author has found that rabbit prion protein has a strong salt bridge ASP177-ARG163 (like a taut bow string) keeping this loop linked. This paper confirms that this salt bridge also contributes to the structural stability of ...

  9. Prion protein self-interactions : a gateway to novel therapeutic strategies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rigter

    2011-01-01

    Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are unique disorders that are not caused by infectious micro-organisms (bacteria or fungi), viruses or parasites, but rather seems to be the result of an infectious protein. TSEs are comprised of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting both human and animals. Prion diseases cause sponge-like degeneration of neuronal tissue and include (among others) Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease

  10. Preclinical Deposition of Pathological Prion Protein in Muscle of Experimentally Infected Primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Krasemann; Melanie Neumann; Markus Geissen; Walter Bodemer; Franz-Josef Kaup; Walter Schulz-Schaeffer; Nathalie Morel; Adriano Aguzzi; Markus Glatzel; Per Westermark

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and animals. A central step in disease progression is the accumulation of a misfolded form (PrPSc) of the host encoded prion protein (PrPC) in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. The involvement of peripheral tissues in preclinical states increases the risk of accidental transmission. On the other hand, detection of PrPSc in non-neuronal

  11. Following the aggregation of human prion protein on Au(111) surface in real-time.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Guo, Cunlan; Lou, Zhichao; Xu, Bingqian

    2015-02-01

    Aggregations of human prion protein (23-231) were monitored by atomic force microscopy in real-time under pH 4. Prion dimers and trimers were determined as the basic units by AFM images and simulated structures. Aggregates aligned with the herringbone structures of an Au(111) reconstructed surface via Au-S bonds as the first layer, while the second layer was formed by non-covalent interactions. PMID:25535923

  12. Lysosomotropic Agents and Cysteine Protease Inhibitors Inhibit Scrapie-Associated Prion Protein Accumulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATSUMI DOH-URA; TORU IWAKI; BYRON CAUGHEY

    2000-01-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, constitute a group of related neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation in the central ner- vous system of an abnormal protease-resistant prion protein (PrP-res), which is made posttranslationally from its normal endogenous protease-sensitive isoform, PrP-sen, by an appar- ent conformational alteration rather than a modification of the covalent structure (for review, see

  13. Cloning and expression of prion protein encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Sun, Xiuqin; Zhang, Jinxing; Zan, Jindong

    2008-02-01

    The prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) was cloned. It was not interrupted by an intron. This gene has two promoters in its 5' upstream, indicating that its transcription may be intensive, and should have an important function. It was expressed in all 14 tissues tested, demonstrating that it is a house-keeping gene. Its expression in digestion and reproduction systems implies that the possible prions of fish may transfer horizontally.

  14. Surface charge of polyoxometalates modulates polymerization of the scrapie prion protein

    E-print Network

    isoform of the prion protein (PrP), designated PrPSc. N-terminally truncated PrPSc, denoted PrP 27 of amyloid. We report here that some polyoxometalates (POMs) favor poly- merization of PrP 27-30 into prion with epitopes in denatured PrP 27-30 also bound to 2D crystals treated with 3 M urea. These same antibodies did

  15. N-terminal peptides from unprocessed prion proteins enter cells by macropinocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Magzoub, Mazin [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University (Sweden); Sandgren, Staffan [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section for Oncology, Lund University (Sweden); Lundberg, Pontus [Department of Neurochemistry, Stockholm University (Sweden); Oglecka, Kamila [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University (Sweden); Lilja, Johanna [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section for Oncology, Lund University (Sweden); Wittrup, Anders [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section for Oncology, Lund University (Sweden); Goeran Eriksson, L.E. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University (Sweden); Langel, Ulo [Department of Neurochemistry, Stockholm University (Sweden); Belting, Mattias [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section for Oncology, Lund University (Sweden)]. E-mail: mattias.belting@med.lu.se; Graeslund, Astrid [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University (Sweden)]. E-mail: astrid@dbb.su.se

    2006-09-22

    A peptide derived from the N-terminus of the unprocessed bovine prion protein (bPrPp), incorporating the hydrophobic signal sequence (residues 1-24) and a basic domain (KKRPKP, residues 25-30), internalizes into mammalian cells, even when coupled to a sizeable cargo, and therefore functions as a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP). Confocal microscopy and co-localization studies indicate that the internalization of bPrPp is mainly through macropinocytosis, a fluid-phase endocytosis process, initiated by binding to cell-surface proteoglycans. Electron microscopy studies show internalized bPrPp-DNA-gold complexes residing in endosomal vesicles. bPrPp induces expression of a complexed luciferase-encoding DNA plasmid, demonstrating the peptide's ability to transport the cargo across the endosomal membrane and into the cytosol and nucleus. The novel CPP activity of the unprocessed N-terminal domain of PrP could be important for the retrotranslocation of partly processed PrP and for PrP trafficking inside or between cells, with implications for the infectivity associated with prion diseases.

  16. Copper attachment to a non-octarepeat site in prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2010-03-01

    Prion protein, PrP, plays a causative role in several neurodegenerative diseases, including mad cow disease in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The PrP is known to efficiently bind copper ions and this ability has been linked to its function. PrP contains up to six binding sites, four of which are located in the so-called octarepeat region and are now well known. The binding sites outside this region are still largely undetermined, despite evidence of their relevance to prion diseases. Using a hybrid DFT/DFT, which combines Kohn-Sham DFT with orbital-free DFT to achieve accurate and efficient description of solvent effects in ab initio calculations, we have investigated copper attachment to the sequence GGGTH, which represents the copper binding site located at His96. We have considered both NNNN and NNNO types of copper coordination, as suggested by experiments. Our calculations have determined the geometry of copper attachment site and its energetics. Comparison to the already known binding sites provides insight into the process of copper uptake in PrP.

  17. Immunohistochemical characterization of cell types expressing the cellular prion protein in the small intestine of cattle and mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohtaro Miyazawa; Takashi Kanaya; Sachi Tanaka; Ikuro Takakura; Kouichi Watanabe; Shyuichi Ohwada; Haruki Kitazawa; Michael T. Rose; Suehiro Sakaguchi; Shigeru Katamine; Takahiro Yamaguchi; Hisashi Aso

    2007-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is thought to be the main site of entry for the pathological isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc). Prion diseases are believed to result from a conformational change of the cellular prion protein (PrPc) to PrPSc. Therefore, PrPc expression is a prerequisite for the infection and spread of the disease to the central nervous system. However, the

  18. Molecular docking of thiamine reveals similarity in binding properties between the prion protein and other thiamine-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Pagadala, Nataraj S; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Blinov, Nikolay; Kovalenko, Andriy; Wishart, David S

    2013-12-01

    Prion-induced diseases are a global health concern. The lack of effective therapy and 100% mortality rates for such diseases have made the prion protein an important target for drug discovery. Previous NMR experimental work revealed that thiamine and its derivatives bind the prion protein in a pocket near the N-terminal loop of helix 1, and conserved intermolecular interactions were noted between thiamine and other thiamine-binding proteins. Furthermore, water-mediated interactions were observed in all of the X-ray crystallographic structures of thiamine-binding proteins, but were not observed in the thiamine-prion NMR study. To better understand the potential role of water in thiamine-prion binding, a docking study was employed using structural X-ray solvent. Before energy minimization, docked thiamine assumed a "V" shape similar to some of the known thiamine-dependent proteins. Following minimization with NMR-derived restraints, the "F" conformation was observed. Our findings confirmed that water is involved in ligand stabilization and phosphate group interaction. The resulting refined structure of thiamine bound to the prion protein allowed the 4-aminopyrimidine ring of thiamine to ?-stack with Tyr150, and facilitated hydrogen bonding between Asp147 and the amino group of 4-aminopyrimidine. Investigation of the ?-stacking interaction through mutation of the tyrosine residue further revealed its importance in ligand placement. The resulting refined structure is in good agreement with previous experimental restraints, and is consistent with the pharmacophore model of thiamine-binding proteins. PMID:24126825

  19. Differential stability of the bovine prion protein upon urea unfolding

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Olivier; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Thiessen, Angela; Graether, Steffen P; Sykes, Brian D

    2009-01-01

    Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are a group of infectious neurological diseases associated with the structural conversion of an endogenous protein (PrP) in the central nervous system. There are two major forms of this protein: the native and noninfectious cellular form, PrPC; and the misfolded, infectious, and proteinase K-resistant form, PrPSc. The C-terminal domain of PrPC is mainly ?-helical in structure, whereas PrPSc in known to aggregate into an assembly of ?-sheets, forming amyloid fibrils. To identify the regions of PrPC potentially involved in the initial steps of the conversion to the infectious conformation, we have used high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to characterize the stability and structure of bovine recombinant PrPC (residues 121 to 230) during unfolding with the denaturant urea. Analysis of the 800 MHz 1H NMR spectra reveals region-specific information about the structural changes occurring upon unfolding. Our data suggest that the dissociation of the native ?-sheet of PrPC is a primary step in the urea-induced unfolding process, while strong hydrophobic interactions between helices ?1 and ?3, and between ?2 and ?3, stabilize these regions even at very high concentrations of urea. PMID:19693935

  20. Combined copper/zinc attachment to prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2013-03-01

    Misfolding of prion protein (PrP) is responsible for diseases such as ``mad-cow disease'' in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jacob in humans. Extensive experimental investigation has established that this protein strongly interacts with copper ions, and this ability has been linked to its still unknown function. Attachment of other metal ions (zinc, iron, manganese) have been demonstrated as well, but none of them could outcompete copper. Recent finding, however, indicates that at intermediate concentrations both copper and zinc ions can attach to the PrP at the octarepeat region, which contains high affinity metal binding sites. Based on this evidence, we have performed density functional theory simulations to investigate the combined Cu/Zn attachment. We consider all previously reported binding modes of copper at the octarepeat region and examine a possibility simultaneous Cu/Zn attachment. We find that this can indeed occur for only one of the known binding sites, when copper changes its coordination mode to allow for attachment of zinc ion. The implications of the simultaneous attachment on neural function remain to be explored.

  1. Superoxide dismutase activity of Cu-bound prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2009-03-01

    Misfolding of the prion protein, PrP, has been linked to a group of neurodegenerative diseases, including the mad cow disease in cattle and the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The normal function of PrP is still unknown, but it was found that the PrP can efficiently bind Cu(II) ions. Early experiments suggested that Cu-PrP complex possesses significant superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but later experiments failed to confirm it and at present this issue remains unresolved. Using a recently developed hybrid DFT/DFT method, which combines Kohn-Sham DFT for the solute and its first solvation shells with orbital-free DFT for the remainder of the solvent, we have investigated SOD activity of PrP. The PrP is capable of incorporating Cu(II) ions in several binding modes and our calculations find that each mode has a different SOD activity. The highest activity found is comparable to those of well-known SOD proteins, suggesting that the conflicting experimental results may be due to different bindings of Cu(II) in those experiments.

  2. Sensitive electrical detection of human prion proteins using field effect transistor biosensor with dual-ligand binding amplification.

    PubMed

    Wustoni, Shofarul; Hideshima, Sho; Kuroiwa, Shigeki; Nakanishi, Takuya; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Mori, Yasuro; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2015-05-15

    Simple and accurate detection of prion proteins in biological samples is of utmost importance in recent years. In this study, we developed a label-free electrical detection-based field effect transistor (FET) biosensor using thiamine as a probe molecule for a non-invasive and specific test of human prion protein detection. We found that thiamine-immobilized FETs can be used to observe the prion protein oligomer, and might be a significant test for the early diagnosis of prion-related diseases. The thiamine-immobilized FET was also demonstrated for the detection of prion proteins in blood serum without any complex pre-treatments. Furthermore, we designed a dual-ligand binding approach by the addition of metal ions as a second ligand to bind with the adsorbed prion protein on the thiamine-immobilized surface. When the prion attached to metal ions, the additional positive charge was induced on the gate surface of the FET. This approach was capable of amplifying the magnitude of the FET response and of enhancing the sensitivity of the FET biosensor. Detection of prion proteins has achieved the required concentration for clinical diagnosis in blood serum, which is less than 2nM. In summary, this FET biosensor was successfully applied to prion detection and proved useful as a simple, fast, sensitive and low-cost method towards a mass-scale and routine blood screening-based test. PMID:25175745

  3. Alteration of NF-?B activity leads to mitochondrial apoptosis after infection with pathological prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Bourteele, Soizic; Oesterle, Katja; Weinzierl, Andreas O; Paxian, Stephan; Riemann, Marc; Schmid, Roland M; Planz, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) is a key regulator of the immune response, but in almost the same manner it is involved in induction of inflammation, proliferation and regulation of apoptosis. In the central nervous system activated NF-?B plays a neuroprotective role. While in some neurodegenerative disorders the role of NF-?B is well characterized, there is poor knowledge on the role of NF-?B in prion disease. We found binding but no transcriptional activity of the transcription factor in vitro. Characterizing the mechanism of cell death after infection with pathological prion protein increased caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity was detected and the lack of NF-?B activity resulted in the inability to activate target genes that usually play an important role in neuroprotection. Additionally, we investigated the role of NF-?B after prion infection of Nfkb1–/–, Nfkb2–/– and Bcl3–/– mice and central nervous system-specific p65-deleted mice revealing an accelerated prion disease in NF-?B2- and Bcl-3-deficient mice, which is in line with a reduced neuroprotective activity in prion infection. Based on our findings, we propose a model whereby the alteration of NF-?B activity at the early stages of infection with pathological prion protein leads to neuronal cell death mediated by mitochondrial apoptosis. PMID:17573907

  4. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, TA; Pulford, Bruce; Wyckoff, A Christy; Meyerett, Crystal; Michel, Brady; Gertig, Kevin; Hoover, Edward A; Jewell, Jean E; Telling, Glenn C

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the only known transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting free-ranging wildlife. Although the exact mode of natural transmission remains unknown, substantial evidence suggests that prions can persist in the environment, implicating components thereof as potential prion reservoirs and transmission vehicles.1–4 CWD-positive animals may contribute to environmental prion load via decomposing carcasses and biological materials including saliva, blood, urine and feces.5–7 Sensitivity limitations of conventional assays hamper evaluation of environmental prion loads in soil and water. Here we show the ability of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) to amplify a 1.3 × 10?7 dilution of CWD-infected brain homogenate spiked into water samples, equivalent to approximately 5 × 107 protease resistant cervid prion protein (PrPCWD) monomers. We also detected PrPCWD in one of two environmental water samples from a CWD endemic area collected at a time of increased water runoff from melting winter snow pack, as well as in water samples obtained concurrently from the flocculation stage of water processing by the municipal water treatment facility. Bioassays indicated that the PrPCWD detected was below infectious levels. These data demonstrate detection of very low levels of PrPCWD in the environment by sPMCA and suggest persistence and accumulation of prions in the environment that may promote CWD transmission. PMID:19823039

  5. Prion Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Heaphy, Shaun.

    1997-01-01

    Prion Diseases is one of a set of lecture notes for Virology 335 by Shaun Heaphy of Leicester University (UK). It contains detailed information on its topic, along with selected links. Although prion research has been going on for over 25 years, the scientific and medical communities have only recently acknowledged the existence of prions and there remains serious debate over their role in a variety of neurological diseases. The name "prion" is derived from "proteinaceous infectious particles," and was coined by Dr. Stanley Prusiner, who discovered the agents and who recently received the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work. Prions are thought to be the first transmissible and heritable disease-causing agents that lack DNA and RNA. They are composed solely of protein and appear to be the cause of such diseases as kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, and bovine spongiform encephalopathies, mad cow disease, and scrapie in sheep and goats.

  6. Can copper binding to the prion protein generate a misfolded form of the protein?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jake Pushie; Arvi Rauk; Frank R. Jirik; Hans J. Vogel

    2009-01-01

    The native prion protein (PrP) has a two domain structure, with a globular folded ?-helical C-terminal domain and a flexible\\u000a extended N-terminal region. The latter can selectively bind Cu2+ via four His residues in the octarepeat (OR) region, as well as two sites (His96 and His111) outside this region. In the\\u000a disease state, the folded C-terminal domain of PrP undergoes

  7. Location and properties of metal-binding sites on the human prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Graham S.; Murray, Ian; Hosszu, Laszlo L. P.; Gibbs, Nicholas; Waltho, Jonathan P.; Clarke, Anthony R.; Collinge, John

    2001-01-01

    Although a functional role in copper binding has been suggested for the prion protein, evidence for binding at affinities characteristic of authentic metal-binding proteins has been lacking. By presentation of copper(II) ions in the presence of the weak chelator glycine, we have now characterized two high-affinity binding sites for divalent transition metals within the human prion protein. One is in the N-terminal octapeptide-repeat segment and has a Kd for copper(II) of 10?14 M, with other metals (Ni2+, Zn2+, and Mn2+) binding three or more orders of magnitude more weakly. However, NMR and fluorescence data reveal a previously unreported second site around histidines 96 and 111, a region of the molecule known to be crucial for prion propagation. The Kd for copper(II) at this site is 4 × 10?14 M, whereas nickel(II), zinc(II), and manganese(II) bind 6, 7, and 10 orders of magnitude more weakly, respectively, regardless of whether the protein is in its oxidized ?-helical (?-PrP) or reduced ?-sheet (?-PrP) conformation. A role for prion protein (PrP) in copper metabolism or transport seems likely and disturbance of this function may be involved in prion-related neurotoxicity. PMID:11438695

  8. Scrambled Prion Domains Form Prions and Amyloid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric D. Ross; Ulrich Baxa; Reed B. Wickner

    2004-01-01

    The (URE3) prion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a self-propagating amyloid form of Ure2p. The amino- terminal prion domain of Ure2p is necessary and sufficient for prion formation and has a high glutamine (Q) and asparagine (N) content. Such Q\\/N-rich domains are found in two other yeast prion proteins, Sup35p and Rnq1p, although none of the many other yeast Q\\/N-rich domain

  9. The prion protein family: a view from the placenta

    PubMed Central

    Makzhami, Samira; Passet, Bruno; Halliez, Sophie; Castille, Johan; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katayoun; Duchesne, Amandine; Vilotte, Marthe; Laude, Hubert; Mouillet-Richard, Sophie; Béringue, Vincent; Vaiman, Daniel; Vilotte, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Based on its developmental pattern of expression, early studies suggested the implication of the mammalian Prion protein PrP, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ubiquitously expressed and evolutionary conserved glycoprotein encoded by the Prnp gene, in early embryogenesis. However, gene invalidation in several species did not result in obvious developmental abnormalities and it was only recently that it was associated in mice with intra-uterine growth retardation and placental dysfunction. A proposed explanation for this lack of easily detectable developmental-related phenotype is the existence in the genome of one or more gene (s) able to compensate for the absence of PrP. Indeed, two other members of the Prnp gene family have been recently described, Doppel and Shadoo, and the consequences of their invalidation alongside that of PrP tested in mice. No embryonic defect was observed in mice depleted for Doppel and PrP. Interestingly, the co-invalidation of PrP and Shadoo in two independent studies led to apparently conflicting observations, with no apparent consequences in one report and the observation of a developmental defect of the ectoplacental cone that leads to early embryonic lethality in the other. This short review aims at summarizing these recent, apparently conflicting data highlighting the related biological questions and associated implications in terms of animal and human health. PMID:25364742

  10. Transport of the Pathogenic Prion Protein through Soils

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Lee, Seunghak; Somerville, Robert A.; McKenzie, Debbie; Benson, Craig H.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are progressive neurodegenerative diseases and include bovine spongiform encephalopathy of cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk, scrapie in sheep and goats, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. An abnormally folded form of the prion protein (designated PrPTSE) is typically associated with TSE infectivity and may constitute the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Transmission of CWD and scrapie is mediated in part by an environmental reservoir of infectivity. Soil appears to be a plausible candidate for this reservoir. TSE agent transport through soil is expected to influence the accessibility of the pathogen to animals after deposition and must be understood to assess the risks associated with burial of infected carcasses. We report results of saturated column experiments designed to evaluate PrPTSE transport through five soils with relatively high sand or silt contents. Protease-treated TSE-infected brain homogenate was used as a model for PrPTSE present in decomposing infected tissue. Synthetic rainwater was used as the eluent. PrPTSE was retained by all five soils; no detectable PrPTSE was eluted over more than 40 pore volumes of flow. Lower bound apparent attachment coefficients were estimated for each soil. Our results suggest that TSE agent released from decomposing tissues would remain near the site of initial deposition. In the case of infected carcasses deposited on the land surface, this may result in local sources of infectivity to other animals. PMID:20830901

  11. Conformational diversity in prion protein variants influences intermolecular ?-sheet formation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungjoo; Antony, Lizamma; Hartmann, Rune; Knaus, Karen J; Surewicz, Krystyna; Surewicz, Witold K; Yee, Vivien C

    2010-01-01

    A conformational transition of normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) to its pathogenic form (PrPSc) is believed to be a central event in the transmission of the devastating neurological diseases known as spongiform encephalopathies. The common methionine/valine polymorphism at residue 129 in the PrP influences disease susceptibility and phenotype. We report here seven crystal structures of human PrP variants: three of wild-type (WT) PrP containing V129, and four of the familial variants D178N and F198S, containing either M129 or V129. Comparison of these structures with each other and with previously published WT PrP structures containing M129 revealed that only WT PrPs were found to crystallize as domain-swapped dimers or closed monomers; the four mutant PrPs crystallized as non-swapped dimers. Three of the four mutant PrPs aligned to form intermolecular ?-sheets. Several regions of structural variability were identified, and analysis of their conformations provides an explanation for the structural features, which can influence the formation and conformation of intermolecular ?-sheets involving the M/V129 polymorphic residue. PMID:19927125

  12. Fatal Familial Insomnia and Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Different Prion Proteins Determined by a DNA Polymorphism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Monari; Shu G. Chen; Paul Brown; Piero Parchi; Robert B. Petersen; Jacqueline Mikol; Franscoise Gray; Pietro Cortelli; Pasquale Montagna; Bernardino Ghetti; Lev G. Goldfarb; D. Carleton Gajdusek; Elio Lugaresi; Pierluigi Gambetti; Lucila Autilio-Gambetti

    1994-01-01

    Fatal familial insomnia and a subtype of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, two clinically and pathologically distinct diseases, are linked to the same mutation at codon 178 (Asp-178 --> Asn) but segregate with different genotypes determined by this mutation and the methionine-valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the prion protein gene. The abnormal isoforms of the prion protein in these two diseases were

  13. Hydrolysis of the Amyloid Prion Protein and Nonpathogenic Meat and Bone Meal by Anaerobic Thermophilic Prokaryotes and Streptomyces Subspecies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirill Tsiroulnikov; Human Rezai; Elisaveta Bonch-Osmolovskaya; Peter Nedkov; Adriana Gousterova; Valérie Cueff; Anne Godfroy; Georges Barbier; François Métro; Jean-Marc Chobert; Pascal Clayette; Dominique Dormont; Jeanne Grosclaude; Thomas Haertlé

    2004-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are caused by accumulation of highly resistant misfolded amyloid prion protein PrPres and can be initiated by penetration of such pathogen molecules from infected tissue to intact organism. Decontamination of animal meal containing amyloid prion protein is proposed thanks to the use of proteolytic enzymes secreted by thermophilic bacteria Thermo- anaerobacter, Thermosipho, and Thermococcus subsp. and mesophilic

  14. Unique Structural Characteristics of the Rabbit Prion Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Li, Jun; Yao, Wenming; Xiong, Minqian; Hong, Jing; Peng, Yu; Xiao, Gengfu; Lin, Donghai

    2010-01-01

    Rabbits are one of the few mammalian species that appear to be resistant to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies due to the structural characteristics of the rabbit prion protein (RaPrPC) itself. Here, we determined the solution structures of the recombinant protein RaPrPC-(91–228) and its S173N variant and detected the backbone dynamics of their structured C-terminal domains-(121–228). In contrast to many other mammalian PrPCs, loop 165–172, which connects ?-sheet-2 and ?-helix-2, is well-defined in RaPrPC. For the first time, order parameters S2 are obtained for residues in this loop region, indicating that loop 165–172 of RaPrPC is highly ordered. Compared with the wild-type RaPrPC, less hydrogen bonds form in the S173N variant. The NMR dynamics analysis reveals a distinct increase in the structural flexibility of loop 165–172 and helix-3 after the S173N substitution, implying that the S173N substitution disturbs the long range interaction of loop 165–172 with helix-3, which further leads to a marked decrease in the global conformational stability. Significantly, RaPrPC possesses a unique charge distribution, carrying a continuous area of positive charges on the surface, which is distinguished from other PrPCs. The S173N substitution causes visible changes of the charge distribution around the recognition sites for the hypothetical protein X. Our results suggest that the ordered loop 165–172 and its interaction with helix-3, together with the unique distribution of surface electrostatic potential, significantly contribute to the unique structural characteristics of RaPrPC. PMID:20639199

  15. Flexibility damps macromolecular crowding effects on protein folding dynamics: Application to the murine prion protein (121-231)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergasa-Caceres, Fernando; Rabitz, Herschel A.

    2014-01-01

    A model of protein folding kinetics is applied to study the combined effects of protein flexibility and macromolecular crowding on protein folding rate and stability. It is found that the increase in stability and folding rate promoted by macromolecular crowding is damped for proteins with highly flexible native structures. The model is applied to the folding dynamics of the murine prion protein (121-231). It is found that the high flexibility of the native isoform of the murine prion protein (121-231) reduces the effects of macromolecular crowding on its folding dynamics. The relevance of these findings for the pathogenic mechanism are discussed.

  16. STI571 protects neuronal cells from neurotoxic prion protein fragment-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yaoqian; Sun, Liyong; Wang, Jihong; Fu, Wenzhuo; Fu, Yongyao; Wang, Jin; Tong, Yigang; Pan, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders caused by the accumulation of misfolded prion proteins [scrapie form of PrP (PrP(Sc))]. PrP(Sc) accumulation in the brain causes neurotoxicity by inducing mitochondrial-apoptotic pathways. Neurodegeneration can be prevented by imatinib mesylate (Gleevec or STI571) that regulates c-Abl tyrosine kinases, which elicit protective effects in neurodegenerative disease models. However, the protective effect of STI571 against prion disease remains unknown. In the present study, the effect of STI571 on prion peptide-induced neuronal death was investigated. Results showed that STI571 rescued neurons from PrP106-126-induced neurotoxicity by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction. STI571-inhibited c-Abl tyrosine kinases prevented PrP106-126-induced reduction in mitochondrial potential, Bax translocation to the mitochondria and cytochrome c release. The protective effect of STI571 against mitochondrial dysfunction was related to the activation of BIM expression. This study is the first to demonstrate the protective effect of STI571 against prion-mediated neurotoxicity. Our results suggested that imatinib mesylate treatment may be a novel therapeutic strategy to treat prion-mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:25681617

  17. Mutation and polymorphism of the prion protein gene in Libyan Jews with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gabizon; H. Rosenmann; Z. Meiner; I. Kahana; E. Kahana; Y. Shugart; J. Ott; S. B. Prusiner

    1993-01-01

    The inherited prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders which are not only genetic but also transmissible. More than a dozen mutations in the prion protein gene that result in nonconservative amino acid substitutions segregate with the inherited prion diseases including familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In Israel, the incidence of CJD is about 1 case\\/10[sup 4] Libyan Jews. A Lys[sub 200] substitution

  18. Stress-inducible protein 1 is a cell surface ligand for cellular prion that triggers neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Silvio M; Lopes, Marilene H; Mercadante, Adriana F; Hajj, Glaucia N M; Chiarini, Luciana B; Nomizo, Regina; Freitas, Adriana R O; Cabral, Ana L B; Lee, Kil S; Juliano, Maria A; de Oliveira, Elizabeth; Jachieri, Saul G; Burlingame, Alma; Huang, Lan; Linden, Rafael; Brentani, Ricardo R; Martins, Vilma R

    2002-07-01

    Prions are composed of an isoform of a normal sialoglycoprotein called PrP(c), whose physiological role has been under investigation, with focus on the screening for ligands. Our group described a membrane 66 kDa PrP(c)-binding protein with the aid of antibodies against a peptide deduced by complementary hydropathy. Using these antibodies in western blots from two-dimensional protein gels followed by sequencing the specific spot, we have now identified the molecule as stress-inducible protein 1 (STI1). We show that this protein is also found at the cell membrane besides the cytoplasm. Both proteins interact in a specific and high affinity manner with a K(d) of 10(-7) M. The interaction sites were mapped to amino acids 113-128 from PrP(c) and 230-245 from STI1. Cell surface binding and pull-down experiments showed that recombinant PrP(c) binds to cellular STI1, and co-immunoprecipitation assays strongly suggest that both proteins are associated in vivo. Moreover, PrP(c) interaction with either STI1 or with the peptide we found that represents the binding domain in STI1 induce neuroprotective signals that rescue cells from apoptosis. PMID:12093732

  19. Study on interaction between microtubule associated protein tau and prion protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Han; Jin Zhang; Hailan Yao; Xiaofan Wang; Feng Li; Lan Chen; Chen Gao; Jianmei Gao; Kai Nie; Wei Zhou; Xiaoping Dong

    2006-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein tau is considered to play roles in many neurodegenerative diseases including some transmissible\\u000a spongiform encephalopathies. To address the possible molecular linkage of prion protein (PrP) and tau, a GST-fusion segment\\u000a of human tau covering the three-repeat region and various PrP segments was used in the tests of GST pull-down and immunoprecipitation.\\u000a We found tau protein interacted with various

  20. SIRP? polymorphisms, but not the prion protein, control phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Nuvolone, Mario; Kana, Veronika; Hutter, Gregor; Sakata, Daiji; Mortin-Toth, Steven M.; Russo, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Prnp?/? mice lack the prion protein PrPC and are resistant to prion infections, but variable phenotypes have been reported in Prnp?/? mice and the physiological function of PrPC remains poorly understood. Here we examined a cell-autonomous phenotype, inhibition of macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, previously reported in Prnp?/? mice. Using formal genetic, genomic, and immunological analyses, we found that the regulation of phagocytosis previously ascribed to PrPC is instead controlled by a linked locus encoding the signal regulatory protein ? (Sirpa). These findings indicate that control of phagocytosis was previously misattributed to the prion protein and illustrate the requirement for stringent approaches to eliminate confounding effects of flanking genes in studies modeling human disease in gene-targeted mice. The plethora of seemingly unrelated functions attributed to PrPC suggests that additional phenotypes reported in Prnp?/? mice may actually relate to Sirpa or other genetic confounders. PMID:24145514

  1. Monitoring prion protein expression in complex biological samples by SERS for diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manno, D.; Filippo, E.; Fiore, R.; Serra, A.; Urso, E.; Rizzello, A.; Maffia, M.

    2010-04-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) allows a new insight into the analysis of cell physiology. In this work, the difficulty of producing suitable substrates that, besides permitting the amplification of the Raman signal, do not interact with the biological material causing alteration, has been overcome by a combined method of hydrothermal green synthesis and thermal annealing. The SERS analysis of the cell membrane has been performed with special attention to the cellular prion protein PrPC. In addition, SERS has also been used to reveal the prion protein-Cu(II) interaction in four different cell models (B104, SH-SY5Y, GN11, HeLa), expressing PrPC at different levels. A significant implication of the current work consists of the intriguing possibility of revealing and quantifying prion protein expression in complex biological samples by a cheap SERS-based method, replacing the expensive and time-consuming immuno-assay systems commonly employed.

  2. Copper-zinc cross-modulation in prion protein binding.

    PubMed

    Stellato, Francesco; Minicozzi, Velia; Millhauser, Glenn L; Pascucci, Marco; Proux, Olivier; Rossi, Giancarlo C; Spevacek, Ann; Morante, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we report a systematic XAS study of a set of samples in which Cu(II) was progressively added to complexes in which Zn(II) was bound to the tetra-octarepeat portion of the prion protein. This work extends previous EPR and XAS analysis in which, in contrast, the effect of adding Zn(II) to Cu(II)-tetra-octarepeat complexes was investigated. Detailed structural analysis of the XAS spectra taken at both the Cu and Zn K-edge when the two metals are present at different relative concentrations revealed that Zn(II) and Cu(II) ions compete for binding to the tetra-octarepeat peptide by cross-regulating their relative binding modes. We show that the specific metal-peptide coordination mode depends not only, as expected, on the relative metal concentrations, but also on whether Zn(II) or Cu(II) was first bound to the peptide. In particular, it seems that the Zn(II) binding mode in the absence of Cu(II) is able to promote the formation of small peptide clusters in which triplets of tetra-octarepeats are bridged by pairs of Zn ions. When Cu(II) is added, it starts competing with Zn(II) for binding, disrupting the existing peptide cluster arrangement, despite the fact that Cu(II) is unable to completely displace Zn(II). These results may have a bearing on our understanding of peptide-aggregation processes and, with the delicate cross-regulation balancing we have revealed, seem to suggest the existence of an interesting, finely tuned interplay among metal ions affecting protein binding, capable of providing a mechanism for regulation of metal concentration in cells. PMID:25395329

  3. Prion protein polymorphisms in white-tailed deer influence susceptibility to chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chad; Johnson, Jody; Vanderloo, Joshua P; Keane, Delwyn; Aiken, Judd M; McKenzie, Debbie

    2006-07-01

    The primary sequence of the prion protein affects susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, in mice, sheep and humans. The Prnp gene sequence of free-ranging, Wisconsin white-tailed deer was determined and the Prnp genotypes of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-positive and CWD-negative deer were compared. Six amino acid changes were identified, two of which were located in pseudogenes. Two alleles, a Q-->K polymorphism at codon 226 and a single octapeptide repeat insertion into the pseudogene, have not been reported previously. The predominant alleles--wild-type (Q95, G96 and Q226) and a G96S polymorphism--comprised almost 98% of the Prnp alleles in the Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Comparison of the allelic frequencies in the CWD-positive and CWD-negative deer suggested that G96S and a Q95H polymorphism were linked to a reduced susceptibility to CWD. The G96S allele did not, however, provide complete resistance, as a CWD-positive G96S/G96S deer was identified. The G96S allele was also linked to slower progression of the disease in CWD-positive deer based on the deposition of PrP(CWD) in the obex region of the medulla oblongata. Although the reduced susceptibility of deer with at least one copy of the Q95H or G96S allele is insufficient to serve as a genetic barrier, the presence of these alleles may modulate the impact of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:16760415

  4. Prevalence of the prion protein gene E211K variant in U.S. cattle

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Michael P; Keele, John W; Harhay, Gregory P; Richt, Jürgen A; Koohmaraie, Mohammad; Wheeler, Tommy L; Shackelford, Steven D; Casas, Eduardo; King, D Andy; Sonstegard, Tad S; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Neibergs, Holly L; Chase, Chad C; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S; Smith, Timothy PL; Clawson, Michael L; Laegreid, William W

    2008-01-01

    Background In 2006, an atypical U.S. case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was discovered in Alabama and later reported to be polymorphic for glutamate (E) and lysine (K) codons at position 211 in the bovine prion protein gene (Prnp) coding sequence. A bovine E211K mutation is important because it is analogous to the most common pathogenic mutation in humans (E200K) which causes hereditary Creutzfeldt – Jakob disease, an autosomal dominant form of prion disease. The present report describes a high-throughput matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry assay for scoring the Prnp E211K variant and its use to determine an upper limit for the K211 allele frequency in U.S. cattle. Results The K211 allele was not detected in 6062 cattle, including those from five commercial beef processing plants (3892 carcasses) and 2170 registered cattle from 42 breeds. Multiple nearby polymorphisms in Prnp coding sequence of 1456 diverse purebred cattle (42 breeds) did not interfere with scoring E211 or K211 alleles. Based on these results, the upper bounds for prevalence of the E211K variant was estimated to be extremely low, less than 1 in 2000 cattle (Bayesian analysis based on 95% quantile of the posterior distribution with a uniform prior). Conclusion No groups or breeds of U.S. cattle are presently known to harbor the Prnp K211 allele. Because a carrier was not detected, the number of additional atypical BSE cases with K211 will also be vanishingly low. PMID:18625065

  5. Location and properties of metal-binding sites on the human prion protein

    E-print Network

    Hosszu, Laszlo

    of magnitude more weakly, respec- tively, regardless of whether the protein is in its oxidized -helical ( -PrP) or reduced -sheet ( -PrP) conformation. A role for prion protein (PrP) in copper metabolism or transport, it has been reported that recombinant PrP possesses copper-dependent superoxide dismutase, albeit at low

  6. Detecting and discriminating among pathogenic protein conformers(prions), using mass spectrometry-based and antibody-based approaches(Abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A set of fatal neurological diseases that includes scrapie and chronic wasting disease (CWD) are caused by a pathological protein referred to as a prion (PrPSc). A prion propagates an infection by converting a normal cellular protein (PrPC) into a prion. Unlike viral, bacterial, or fungal pathogens,...

  7. A comparative molecular dynamics study on thermostability of human and chicken prion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Hong-Fang [Shandong Provincial Research Center for Bioinformatic Engineering and Technique, Center for Advanced Study, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Zhang, Hong-Yu [Shandong Provincial Research Center for Bioinformatic Engineering and Technique, Center for Advanced Study, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)]. E-mail: zhanghy@sdut.edu.cn

    2007-08-03

    To compare the thermostabilities of human and chicken normal cellular prion proteins (HuPrP{sup C} and CkPrP{sup C}), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for both proteins at an ensemble level (10 parallel simulations at 400 K and 5 parallel simulations at 300 K as a control). It is found that the thermostability of HuPrP{sup C} is comparable with that of CkPrP{sup C}, which implicates that the non-occurrence of prion diseases in non-mammals cannot be completely attributed to the thermodynamic properties of non-mammalian PrP{sup C}.

  8. Cellular Prion Protein Promotes Brucella Infection into Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Watarai, Masahisa; Kim, Suk; Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Makino, Sou-ichi; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Shirahata, Toshikazu; Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Katamine, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    The products of the Brucella abortus virB gene locus, which are highly similar to conjugative DNA transfer system, enable the bacterium to replicate within macrophage vacuoles. The replicative phagosome is thought to be established by the interaction of a substrate of the VirB complex with macrophages, although the substrate and its host cellular target have not yet been identified. We report here that Hsp60, a member of the GroEL family of chaperonins, of B. abortus is capable of interacting directly or indirectly with cellular prion protein (PrPC) on host cells. Aggregation of PrPC tail-like formation was observed during bacterial swimming internalization into macrophages and PrPC was selectively incorporated into macropinosomes containing B. abortus. Hsp60 reacted strongly with serum from human brucellosis patients and was exposed on the bacterial surface via a VirB complex–associated process. Under in vitro and in vivo conditions, Hsp60 of B. abortus bound to PrPC. Hsp60 of B. abortus, expressed on the surface of Lactococcus lactis, promoted the aggregation of PrPC but not PrPC tail formation on macrophages. The PrPC deficiency prevented swimming internalization and intracellular replication of B. abortus, with the result that phagosomes bearing the bacteria were targeted into the endocytic network. These results indicate that signal transduction induced by the interaction between bacterial Hsp60 and PrPC on macrophages contributes to the establishment of B. abortus infection. PMID:12847134

  9. Deficiency of prion protein induces impaired autophagic flux in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hae-Young; Park, Jeong-Ho; Carp, Richard I.; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Kim, Yong-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) is highly expressed in the central nervous system. The Zürich I Prnp-deficient mouse strain did not show an abnormal phenotype in initial studies, however, in later studies, deficits in exploratory behavior and short- and long-term memory have been revealed. In the present study, numerous autophagic vacuoles were found in neurons from Zürich I Prnp-deficient mice. The autophagic accumulation in the soma of cortical neurons in Zürich I Prnp-deficient mice was observed as early as 3 months of age, and in the hippocampal neurons at 6 months of age. Specifically, there is accumulation of electron dense pigments associated with autophagy in the neurons of Zürich I Prnp-deficient mice. Furthermore, autophagic accumulations were observed as early as 3 months of age in the CA3 region of hippocampal and cerebral cortical neuropils. The autophagic vacuoles increased with age in the hippocampus of Zürich I Prnp-deficient mice at a faster rate and to a greater extent than in normal C57BL/6J mice, whereas the cortex exhibited high levels that were maintained from 3 months old in Zürich I Prnp-deficient mice. The pigmented autophagic accumulation is due to the incompletely digested material from autophagic vacuoles. Furthermore, a deficiency in PrPC may disrupt the autophagic flux by inhibiting autophagosome-lysosomal fusion. Overall, our results provide insight into the protective role of PrPC in neurons, which may play a role in normal behavior and other brain functions. PMID:25202268

  10. Mechanisms of triggering H1 helix in prion proteins unfolding revealed by molecular dynamic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chih-Yuan; Lee, H. C.

    2006-03-01

    In template-assistance model, normal Prion protein (PrP^C), the pathogen to cause several prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) in human, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cow, and scrapie in sheep, converts to infectious prion (PrP^Sc) through a transient interaction with PrP^Sc. Furthermore, conventional studies showed S1-H1-S2 region in PrP^C to be the template of S1-S2 ?-sheet in PrP^Sc, and Prion protein's conformational conversion may involve an unfolding of H1 and refolding into ?-sheet. Here we prepare several mouse prion peptides that contain S1-H1-S2 region with specific different structures, which are corresponding to specific interactions, to investigate possible mechanisms to trigger H1 ?-helix unfolding process via molecular dynamic simulation. Three properties, conformational transition, salt-bridge in H1, and hydrophobic solvent accessible surface (SAS) are analyzed. From these studies, we found the interaction that triggers H1 unfolding to be the one that causes dihedral angle at residue Asn^143 changes. Whereas interactions that cause S1 segment's conformational changes play a minor in this process. These studies offers an additional evidence for template-assistance model.

  11. Prion protein-coated magnetic beads: synthesis, characterization and development of a new ligands screening method.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Marcela Cristina; Santos, Juliana Bosco; Dos Anjos, Daniel Meira; Rangel, Luciana Pereira; Vieira, Tuane Cristine Ramos Gonçalves; Moaddel, Ruin; da Silva, Jerson Lima

    2015-01-30

    Prion diseases are characterized by protein aggregation and neurodegeneration. Conversion of the native prion protein (PrP(C)) into the abnormal scrapie PrP isoform (PrP(Sc)), which undergoes aggregation and can eventually form amyloid fibrils, is a critical step leading to the characteristic path morphological hallmark of these diseases. However, the mechanism of conversion remains unclear. It is known that ligands can act as cofactors or inhibitors in the conversion mechanism of PrP(C) into PrP(Sc). Within this context, herein, we describe the immobilization of PrP(C) onto the surface of magnetic beads and the morphological characterization of PrP(C)-coated beads by fluorescence confocal microscopy. PrP(C)-coated magnetic beads were used to identify ligands from a mixture of compounds, which were monitored by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. This affinity-based method allowed the isolation of the anti-prion compound quinacrine, an inhibitor of PrP aggregation. The results indicate that this approach can be applied to not only "fish" for anti-prion compounds from complex matrixes, but also to screening for and identify possible cellular cofactors involved in the deflagration of prion diseases. PMID:25576041

  12. Pathogenic prion protein is degraded by a manganese oxide mineral found in soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russo, F.; Johnson, C.J.; McKenzie, D.; Aiken, J.M.; Pedersen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Prions, the aetiological agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, exhibit extreme resistance to degradation. Soil can retain prion infectivity in the environment for years. Reactive soil components may, however, contribute to the inactivation of prions in soil. Members of the birnessite family of manganese oxides (MnO2) rank among the strongest natural oxidants in soils. Here, we report the abiotic degradation of pathogenic prion protein (PrPTSE) by a synthetic analogue of naturally occurring birnessite minerals. Aqueous MnO2 suspensions degraded the PrPTSE as evidenced by decreased immunoreactivity and diminished ability to seed protein misfolding cyclic amplification reactions. Birnessite-mediated PrPTSE degradation increased as a solution's pH decreased, consistent with the pH-dependence of the redox potential of MnO2. Exposure to 5.6 mg MnO2 ml-1 (PrPTSE:MnO2=1 : 110) decreased PrPTSE levels by ???4 orders of magnitude. Manganese oxides may contribute to prion degradation in soil environments rich in these minerals. ?? 2009 SGM.

  13. Baicalein prevents human prion protein-induced neuronal cell death by regulating JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hong; Park, Sang-Youel

    2015-02-01

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal isoform of the protease-insensitive isoform (PrPSc) of prion protein. Human prion protein fragment 106?126 [PrP (106?126)] contains most of the pathological characteristics associated with PrPSc. Although a number of compounds have been identified to inhibit PrP accumulation or dissolve fibrils and aggregates in vitro, there is currenlty no treatment available for these progressive neurodegenerative diseases. Baicalein, the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis) Georgi (known as Huang-qin in traditional Chinese medicine) has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects on neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of baicalein on the development of prion diseases using SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells in vitro. We found that baicalein protected the cells against PrP?induced neuronal cell death by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction using ROS detection assay and MTP assay. We demonstrated that baicalein treatment regulated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by using western blot analysis and Annexin V assay. Our data suggest that baicalein has potential for use as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases, including prion diseases. PMID:25435015

  14. Unfolded protein response transcription factor XBP-1 does not influence prion replication or pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hetz, Claudio; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Gonzalez-Romero, Dennisse; Thielen, Peter; Castilla, Joaquín; Soto, Claudio; Glimcher, Laurie H.

    2008-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a conserved adaptive reaction that increases cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions. X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1) is a key transcriptional regulator of the UPR that activates genes involved in protein folding, secretion, and degradation to restore ER function. The occurrence of chronic ER stress has been extensively described in neurodegenerative conditions linked to protein misfolding and aggregation. However, the role of the UPR in the CNS has not been addressed directly. Here we describe the generation of a brain-specific XBP-1 conditional KO strain (XBP-1Nes?/?). XBP-1Nes?/? mice are viable and do not develop any spontaneous neurological dysfunction, although ER stress signaling in XBP-1Nes?/? primary neuronal cell cultures was impaired. To assess the function of XBP-1 in pathological conditions involving protein misfolding and ER stress, we infected XBP-1Nes?/? mice with murine prions. To our surprise, the activation of stress responses triggered by prion replication was not influenced by XBP-1 deficiency. Neither prion aggregation, neuronal loss, nor animal survival was affected. Hence, this most highly conserved arm of the UPR may not contribute to the occurrence or pathology of neurodegenerative conditions associated with prion protein misfolding despite predictions that such diseases are related to ER stress and irreversible neuronal damage. PMID:18178615

  15. Shaking Alone Induces De Novo Conversion of Recombinant Prion Proteins to ?-Sheet Rich Oligomers and Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Ladner-Keay, Carol L.; Griffith, Bethany J.; Wishart, David S.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of ?-sheet rich prion oligomers and fibrils from native prion protein (PrP) is thought to be a key step in the development of prion diseases. Many methods are available to convert recombinant prion protein into ?-sheet rich fibrils using various chemical denaturants (urea, SDS, GdnHCl), high temperature, phospholipids, or mildly acidic conditions (pH 4). Many of these methods also require shaking or another form of agitation to complete the conversion process. We have identified that shaking alone causes the conversion of recombinant PrP to ?-sheet rich oligomers and fibrils at near physiological pH (pH 5.5 to pH 6.2) and temperature. This conversion does not require any denaturant, detergent, or any other chemical cofactor. Interestingly, this conversion does not occur when the water-air interface is eliminated in the shaken sample. We have analyzed shaking-induced conversion using circular dichroism, resolution enhanced native acidic gel electrophoresis (RENAGE), electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thioflavin T fluorescence and proteinase K resistance. Our results show that shaking causes the formation of ?-sheet rich oligomers with a population distribution ranging from octamers to dodecamers and that further shaking causes a transition to ?-sheet fibrils. In addition, we show that shaking-induced conversion occurs for a wide range of full-length and truncated constructs of mouse, hamster and cervid prion proteins. We propose that this method of conversion provides a robust, reproducible and easily accessible model for scrapie-like amyloid formation, allowing the generation of milligram quantities of physiologically stable ?-sheet rich oligomers and fibrils. These results may also have interesting implications regarding our understanding of prion conversion and propagation both within the brain and via techniques such as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) and quaking induced conversion (QuIC). PMID:24892647

  16. Disease-associated prion protein in neural and lymphoid tissues of mink (Mustela vison) inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a prion disorder of farmed raised mink. As with the other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the disorder is associated with accumulation of the misfolded prion protein in the brain and an invariably fatal outcome. TME outbreaks have been rare but...

  17. Divalent metals stabilize cellular prion proteins and alter the rate of proteinase-K dependent limited proteolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The key biochemical event in the pathogenesis of prion diseases is the conversion of normal cellular prion proteins (PrP**c) to the proteinase K (PK) resistant, abnormal form (PrP**sc); however, the cellular mechanisms underlying the conversion remain enigmatic. Binding of divalent ca...

  18. MANGANESE UPREGULATES CELLULAR PRION PROTEINS AND INHIBITS THE RATE OF PROTEINASE-K DEPENDENT LIMITED PROTEOLYSIS IN NEURONAL CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The key event in the pathogenesis of prion diseases is the conversion of normal cellular prion proteins (PrP**c) to the proteinase K (PK) resistant, abnormal form (PrP**sc); however, the cellular mechanisms underlying the conversion remain enigmatic. Binding of divalent cations such as copper to th...

  19. Clinical features in prion protein-deficient and wild-type cattle inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are caused by the propagation of a misfolded form (PrP**d) of the normal cellular prion protein, PrP**c. Recently, we have reported the generation and characterization of PrP**C-deficient cattle (PrP-/-) produced by a seq...

  20. Structure of the flexible amino-terminal domain of prion protein bound to a sulfated glycan.

    PubMed

    Taubner, Lara M; Bienkiewicz, Ewa A; Copié, Valérie; Caughey, Byron

    2010-01-22

    The intrinsically disordered amino-proximal domain of hamster prion protein (PrP) contains four copies of a highly conserved octapeptide sequence, PHGGGWGQ, that is flanked by two polycationic residue clusters. This N-terminal domain mediates the binding of sulfated glycans, which can profoundly influence the conversion of PrP to pathological forms and the progression of prion disease. To investigate the structural consequences of sulfated glycan binding, we performed multidimensional heteronuclear ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N) NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence studies on hamster PrP residues 23-106 (PrP 23-106) and fragments thereof when bound to pentosan polysulfate (PPS). While the majority of PrP 23-106 remain disordered upon PPS binding, the octarepeat region adopts a repeating loop-turn structure that we have determined by NMR. The beta-like turns within the repeats are corroborated by CD data demonstrating that these turns are also present, although less pronounced, without PPS. Binding to PPS exposes a hydrophobic surface composed of aligned tryptophan side chains, the spacing and orientation of which are consistent with a self-association or ligand binding site. The unique tryptophan motif was probed by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, which displayed enhanced fluorescence of PrP 23-106 when bound to PPS, consistent with the alignment of tryptophan side chains. Chemical-shift mapping identified binding sites on PrP 23-106 for PPS, which include the octarepeat histidine and an N-terminal basic cluster previously linked to sulfated glycan binding. These data may in part explain how sulfated glycans modulate PrP conformational conversions and oligomerizations. PMID:19913031

  1. Requirements for mutant and wild-type prion protein misfolding in vitro.

    PubMed

    Noble, Geoffrey P; Walsh, Daniel J; Miller, Michael B; Jackson, Walker S; Supattapone, Surachai

    2015-02-10

    Misfolding of the prion protein (PrP) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of infectious, sporadic, and inherited prion diseases. Here we use a chemically defined prion propagation system to study misfolding of the pathogenic PrP mutant D177N in vitro. This mutation causes PrP to misfold spontaneously in the absence of cofactor molecules in a process dependent on time, temperature, pH, and intermittent sonication. Spontaneously misfolded mutant PrP is able to template its unique conformation onto wild-type PrP substrate in a process that requires a phospholipid activity distinct from that required for the propagation of infectious prions. Similar results were obtained with a second pathogenic PrP mutant, E199K, but not with the polymorphic substitution M128V. Moreover, wild-type PrP inhibits mutant PrP misfolding in a dose-dependent manner, and cofactor molecules can antagonize this effect. These studies suggest that interactions between mutant PrP, wild-type PrP, and other cellular factors may control the rate of PrP misfolding in inherited prion diseases. PMID:25584902

  2. Conditional modulation of membrane protein expression in cultured cells mediated by prion protein recognition of short phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides.

    PubMed

    Karpuj, Marcela Viviana; Gelibter-Niv, Sagit; Tiran, Anat; Rambold, Angelika; Tatzelt, Jörg; Nunziante, Max; Schatzl, Hermann M

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate that the levels of native as well as transfected prion protein (PrP) are lowered in various cell lines exposed to phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (PS-DNA) and can be rapidly reverted to their normal amounts by removal of PS-DNA. This transient modulation was independent of the glycosylation state of PrP, and in addition, all three PrP glycoforms were susceptible to PS-DNA treatment. Deletion of the N-terminal domain (amino acids 23-99), but not of the other domains of PrP, abrogated its PS-DNA-mediated down-regulation. PrP versions localized in the mitochondria, cytoplasm, or nucleus were not modulated by PS-DNA, indicating that PrP surface exposure is required for executing this effect. Proteins that in their native forms were not responsive to PS-DNA, such as thymocyte antigen 1 (Thy1), Doppel protein (Dpl), green fluorescent protein (GFP), and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), became susceptible to PS-DNA-mediated down-regulation following introduction of the N terminus of PrP into their sequence. These observations demonstrate the essential role of the N-terminal domain for promoting oligonucleotide-mediated reduction of the PrP level and suggest that transient treatment of cultured cells with PS-DNA may provide a general method for targeted modulation of the levels of desired surface proteins in a conditional and reversible manner. PMID:21156803

  3. Cellular prion protein accelerates colorectal cancer metastasis via the Fyn-SP1-SATB1 axis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianwei; Qian, Jianming; Wang, Fangrui; Ma, Zhenyu

    2012-12-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a glycoprotein anchored by glycosylphosphatidylinositol to the cell surface and is abundantly expressed in various tissues. The putative roles of PrPc are thought to be related to cell signaling, survival, and differentiation and cancer progression. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of PrPc correlates with a more aggressive and histologically unfavorable disease in colorectal carcinomas. Moreover, we found that PrPc mediates the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and, thereby, promotes CRC metastasis. Transcriptome profiling of PrPc-depleted cells revealed downregulation of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (SATB1). PrPc is demonstrated to be involved in regulating SATB1 expression via the Fyn-SP1 pathway. Since SATB1 has been previously proposed as a key protein that controls tumor development and progression, knockdown of PrPc resulted in a reduced metastatic capacity in CRC cells, as well as a reduction in distant metastases in vivo. In conclusion, our data characterize a novel molecular mechanism that links PrPc expression to the regulation of CRC metastasis. Targeting PrPc will, therefore, be a promising strategy to overcome the metastatic advantage in colorectal tumors. PMID:22972305

  4. Prion Protein M129V Polymorphism Affects Retrieval-Related Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Andreas; Mondadori, Christian R. A.; Hanggi, Jurgen; Aerni, Amanda; Vrticka, Pascal; Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M.; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Henke, Katharina

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein Met129Val polymorphism has recently been related to human long-term memory with carriers of either the 129[superscript MM] or the 129[superscript MV] genotype recalling 17% more words than 129[superscript VV] carriers at 24 h following learning. Here, we sampled genotype differences in retrieval-related brain activity at 30 min…

  5. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF PRION PROTEIN IN A GOAT WITH NATURAL SCRAPIE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from a 3-year-old female Angora goat suffering from clinical scrapie were immunostained using a monoclonal antibody (mAb, F99/97.6.1; IgG1) specific for a conserved epitope on the prion protein. Widespread and prominent deposition of the scrapie iso...

  6. Comparison of DNA Sequences with Protein Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Pearson; Todd Wood; Zheng Zhang; Webb Miller

    1997-01-01

    The FASTA package of sequence comparison programs has been expanded to include FASTX and FASTY, which compare a DNA sequence to a protein sequence database, translating the DNA sequence in three frames and aligning the translated DNA sequence to each sequence in the protein database, allowing gaps and frameshifts. Also new are TFASTX and TFASTY, which compare a protein sequence

  7. New Insights into Metal Interactions with the Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Alex; Pushie, M. Jake; Millhauser, Glenn L.; George, Graham N.

    2013-01-01

    Copper coordination to the prion protein (PrP) has garnered considerable interest for almost 20 years, due in part to the possibility that this interaction may be part of the normal function of PrP. The most characterized form of copper binding to PrP has been Cu2+ interaction with the conserved tandem repeats in the N-terminal domain of PrP, termed the octarepeats, with many studies focusing on single and multiple repeats of PHGGGWGQ. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been used in several previous instances to characterize the solution structure of Cu2+ binding into the peptide backbone in the HGGG portion of the octarepeats. All previous EXAFS studies, however, have benefitted from crystallographic structure information for [CuII (Ac-HGGGW-NH2)–2H], but have not conclusively demonstrated that the complex EXAFS spectrum represents the same coordination environment for Cu2+ bound to the peptide backbone. Density functional structure calculations as well as full multiple scattering EXAFS curve fitting analysis are brought to bear on the predominant coordination mode for Cu2+ with the Ac-PHGGGWGQ-NH2 peptide at physiological pH, under high Cu2+ occupancy conditions. In addition to the structure calculations, which provide a thermodynamic link to structural information, methods are also presented for extensive deconvolution of the EXAFS spectrum. We demonstrate how the EXAFS data can be analyzed to extract the maximum structural information and arrive at a structural model that is significantly improved over previous EXAFS characterizations. The EXAFS spectrum for the chemically reduced form of copper binding to the Ac-PHGGGWGQ-NH2 peptide is presented, which is best modeled as a linear 2-coordinate species with a single His imidazole ligand and a water molecule. The extent of in situ photoreduction of the copper center during standard data collection is also presented and EXAFS curve fitting of the photoreduced species reveals an intermediate structure that is similar to the Cu2+ form with reduced coordination number. PMID:24102071

  8. Prion propagation in mice expressing human and chimeric PrP transgenes implicates the interaction of cellular PrP with another protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn C. Telling; Michael Scott; James Mastrianni; Ruth Gabizon; Marilyn Torchia; Fred E. Cohen; Stephen J. DeArmond

    1995-01-01

    Transgenic (Tg) mice expressing human (Hu) and chimeric prion protein (PrP) genes were inoculated with brain extracts from humans with inherited or sporadic prion disease to investigate the mechanism by which PrPc is transformed into PrPSc. Although Tg(HuPrP) mice expressed high levels of HuPrPc, they were resistant to human prions. They became susceptible to human prions upon ablation of the

  9. A bipolar functionality of Q/N-rich proteins: Lsm4 amyloid causes clearance of yeast prions

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Keita; Kurahashi, Hiroshi; Pack, Chan-Gi; Sako, Yasushi; Nakamura, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Prions are epigenetic modifiers that cause partially loss-of-function phenotypes of the proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The molecular chaperone network that supports prion propagation in the cell has seen a great progress in the last decade. However, the cellular machinery to activate or deactivate the prion states remains an enigma, largely due to insufficient knowledge of prion-regulating factors. Here, we report that overexpression of a [PSI+]-inducible Q/N-rich protein, Lsm4, eliminates the three major prions [PSI+], [URE3], and [RNQ+]. Subcloning analysis revealed that the Q/N-rich region of Lsm4 is responsible for the prion loss. Lsm4 formed an amyloid in vivo, which seemed to play a crucial role in the prion elimination. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy analysis revealed that in the course of the Lsm4-driven [PSI+] elimination, the [PSI+] aggregates undergo a size increase, which ultimately results in the formation of conspicuous foci in otherwise [psi?]-like mother cells. We also found that the antiprion activity is a general property of [PSI+]-inducible factors. These data provoked a novel “unified” model that explains both prion induction and elimination by a single scheme. PMID:23512891

  10. Assessing Proteinase K Resistance of Fish Prion Proteins in a Scrapie-Infected Mouse Neuroblastoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Salta, Evgenia; Kanata, Eirini; Ouzounis, Christos A.; Gilch, Sabine; Schätzl, Hermann; Sklaviadis, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    The key event in prion pathogenesis is the structural conversion of the normal cellular protein, PrPC, into an aberrant and partially proteinase K resistant isoform, PrPSc. Since the minimum requirement for a prion disease phenotype is the expression of endogenous PrP in the host, species carrying orthologue prion genes, such as fish, could in theory support prion pathogenesis. Our previous work has demonstrated the development of abnormal protein deposition in sea bream brain, following oral challenge of the fish with natural prion infectious material. In this study, we used a prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma cell line for the expression of three different mature fish PrP proteins and the evaluation of the resistance of the exogenously expressed proteins to proteinase K treatment (PK), as an indicator of a possible prion conversion. No evidence of resistance to PK was detected for any of the studied recombinant proteins. Although not indicative of an absolute inability of the fish PrPs to structurally convert to pathogenic isoforms, the absence of PK-resistance may be due to supramolecular and conformational differences between the mammalian and piscine PrPs. PMID:25402173

  11. Development of techniques in magnetic resonance and structural studies of the prion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, Hans-Marcus L.

    2000-07-01

    Magnetic resonance is the most powerful analytical tool used by chemists today. Its applications range from determining structures of large biomolecules to imaging of human brains. Nevertheless, magnetic resonance remains a relatively young field, in which many techniques are currently being developed that have broad applications. In this dissertation, two new techniques are presented, one that enables the determination of torsion angles in solid-state peptides and proteins, and another that involves imaging of heterogenous materials at ultra-low magnetic fields. In addition, structural studies of the prion protein via solid-state NMR are described. More specifically, work is presented in which the dependence of chemical shifts on local molecular structure is used to predict chemical shift tensors in solid-state peptides with theoretical ab initio surfaces. These predictions are then used to determine the backbone dihedral angles in peptides. This method utilizes the theoretical chemicalshift tensors and experimentally determined chemical-shift anisotropies (CSAs) to predict the backbone and side chain torsion angles in alanine, leucine, and valine residues. Additionally, structural studies of prion protein fragments are described in which conformationally-dependent chemical-shift measurements were made to gain insight into the structural differences between the various conformational states of the prion protein. These studies are of biological and pathological interest since conformational changes in the prion protein are believed to cause prion diseases. Finally, an ultra-low field magnetic resonance imaging technique is described that enables imaging and characterization of heterogeneous and porous media. The notion of imaging gases at ultra-low fields would appear to be very difficult due to the prohibitively low polarization and spin densities as well as the low sensitivities of conventional Faraday coil detectors. However, Chapter 5 describes how gas imaging at ultra-low fields is realized by incorporating the high sensitivities of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with the high polarizations attainable through optica11y pumping {sup 129}Xe gas.

  12. N-terminal domain of prion protein directs its oligomeric association.

    PubMed

    Trevitt, Clare R; Hosszu, Laszlo L P; Batchelor, Mark; Panico, Silvia; Terry, Cassandra; Nicoll, Andrew J; Risse, Emmanuel; Taylor, William A; Sandberg, Malin K; Al-Doujaily, Huda; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Saibil, Helen R; Scott, David J; Collinge, John; Waltho, Jonathan P; Clarke, Anthony R

    2014-09-12

    The self-association of prion protein (PrP) is a critical step in the pathology of prion diseases. It is increasingly recognized that small non-fibrillar ?-sheet-rich oligomers of PrP may be of crucial importance in the prion disease process. Here, we characterize the structure of a well defined ?-sheet-rich oligomer, containing ?12 PrP molecules, and often enclosing a central cavity, formed using full-length recombinant PrP. The N-terminal region of prion protein (residues 23-90) is required for the formation of this distinct oligomer; a truncated form comprising residues 91-231 forms a broad distribution of aggregated species. No infectivity or toxicity was found using cell and animal model systems. This study demonstrates that examination of the full repertoire of conformers and assembly states that can be accessed by PrP under specific experimental conditions should ideally be done using the full-length protein. PMID:25074940

  13. N-terminal Domain of Prion Protein Directs Its Oligomeric Association*

    PubMed Central

    Trevitt, Clare R.; Hosszu, Laszlo L. P.; Batchelor, Mark; Panico, Silvia; Terry, Cassandra; Nicoll, Andrew J.; Risse, Emmanuel; Taylor, William A.; Sandberg, Malin K.; Al-Doujaily, Huda; Linehan, Jacqueline M.; Saibil, Helen R.; Scott, David J.; Collinge, John; Waltho, Jonathan P.; Clarke, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    The self-association of prion protein (PrP) is a critical step in the pathology of prion diseases. It is increasingly recognized that small non-fibrillar ?-sheet-rich oligomers of PrP may be of crucial importance in the prion disease process. Here, we characterize the structure of a well defined ?-sheet-rich oligomer, containing ?12 PrP molecules, and often enclosing a central cavity, formed using full-length recombinant PrP. The N-terminal region of prion protein (residues 23–90) is required for the formation of this distinct oligomer; a truncated form comprising residues 91–231 forms a broad distribution of aggregated species. No infectivity or toxicity was found using cell and animal model systems. This study demonstrates that examination of the full repertoire of conformers and assembly states that can be accessed by PrP under specific experimental conditions should ideally be done using the full-length protein. PMID:25074940

  14. Oligopeptide repeats in the yeast protein Sup35p stabilize intermolecular prion interactions

    PubMed Central

    Parham, Steven N.; Resende, Catarina G.; Tuite, Mick F.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear-encoded Sup35p protein is responsible for the prion-like [PSI+] determinant of yeast, with Sup35p existing largely as a high molecular weight aggregate in [PSI+] strains. Here we show that the five oligopeptide repeats present at the N-terminus of Sup35p are responsible for stabilizing aggregation of Sup35p in vivo. Sequential deletion of the oligopeptide repeats prevented the maintenance of [PSI+] by the truncated Sup35p, although deletants containing only two repeats could be incorporated into pre-existing aggregates of wild-type Sup35p. The mammalian prion protein PrP also contains similar oligopeptide repeats and we show here that a human PrP repeat (PHGGGWGQ) is able functionally to replace a Sup35p oligopeptide repeat to allow stable [PSI+] propagation in vivo. Our data suggest a model in which the oligopeptide repeats in Sup35p stabilize intermolecular interactions between Sup35p proteins that initiate establishment of the aggregated state. Modulating repeat number therefore alters the rate of yeast prion conversion in vivo. Furthermore, there appears to be evolutionary conservation of function of the N-terminally located oligopeptide repeats in prion propagation. PMID:11331577

  15. Role of Lipid Rafts and GM1 in the Segregation and Processing of Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Botto, Laura; Cunati, Diana; Coco, Silvia; Sesana, Silvia; Bulbarelli, Alessandra; Biasini, Emiliano; Colombo, Laura; Negro, Alessandro; Chiesa, Roberto; Masserini, Massimo; Palestini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The prion protein (PrPC) is highly expressed within the nervous system. Similar to other GPI-anchored proteins, PrPC is found in lipid rafts, membrane domains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. PrPC raft association, together with raft lipid composition, appears essential for the conversion of PrPC into the scrapie isoform PrPSc, and the development of prion disease. Controversial findings were reported on the nature of PrPC-containing rafts, as well as on the distribution of PrPC between rafts and non-raft membranes. We investigated PrPC/ganglioside relationships and their influence on PrPC localization in a neuronal cellular model, cerebellar granule cells. Our findings argue that in these cells at least two PrPC conformations coexist: in lipid rafts PrPC is present in the native folding (?-helical), stabilized by chemico-physical condition, while it is mainly present in other membrane compartments in a PrPSc-like conformation. We verified, by means of antibody reactivity and circular dichroism spectroscopy, that changes in lipid raft-ganglioside content alters PrPC conformation and interaction with lipid bilayers, without modifying PrPC distribution or cleavage. Our data provide new insights into the cellular mechanism of prion conversion and suggest that GM1-prion protein interaction at the cell surface could play a significant role in the mechanism predisposing to pathology. PMID:24859148

  16. Linkage of prion protein and scrapie incubation time genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G A Carlson; D T Kingsbury; P A Goodman; S Coleman; S T Marshall; S DeArmond; D Westaway; S B Prusiner

    1986-01-01

    A single gene (Prn-i) that affects scrapie incubation period in mice has been identified. I\\/LnJ mice have a very long incubation period after inoculation of scrapie prions (200-385 days) and NZW\\/LacJ mice have a short one (113 +\\/- 2.8 days). (NZW X I\\/Ln)F1 hybrid mice had incubation times of 223 +\\/- 2.8 days indicating longer incubation times were dominant. Incubation

  17. Cotranslational Partitioning of Nascent Prion Protein into Multiple Populations at the Translocation Channel

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jung; Hegde, Ramanujan S.

    2002-01-01

    The decisive events that direct a single polypeptide such as the prion protein (PrP) to be synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum in both fully translocated and transmembrane forms are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that the topological heterogeneity of PrP is determined cotranslationally, while at the translocation channel. By evaluating sequential intermediates during PrP topogenesis, we find that signal sequence-mediated initiation of translocation results in an interaction between nascent PrP and endoplasmic reticulum chaperones, committing the N terminus to the lumen. Synthesis of the transmembrane domain before completion of this step allows it to direct the generation of CtmPrP, a transmembrane form with its N terminus in the cytosol. Thus, segregation of nascent PrP into different topological configurations is critically dependent on the precise timing of signal-mediated initiation of N-terminus translocation. Consequently, this step could be experimentally tuned to modify PrP topogenesis, including complete reversal of the elevated CtmPrP caused by disease-associated mutations in the transmembrane domain. These results delineate the sequence of events involved in PrP biogenesis, explain the mechanism of action of CtmPrP-favoring mutations associated with neurodegenerative disease, and more generally, reveal that translocation substrates can be cotranslationally partitioned into multiple populations at the translocon. PMID:12429823

  18. Translation of the Prion Protein mRNA Is Robust in Astrocytes but Does Not Amplify during Reactive Astrocytosis in the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Walker S.; Krost, Clemens; Borkowski, Andrew W.; Kaczmarczyk, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases induce neurodegeneration in specific brain areas for undetermined reasons. A thorough understanding of the localization of the disease-causing molecule, the prion protein (PrP), could inform on this issue but previous studies have generated conflicting conclusions. One of the more intriguing disagreements is whether PrP is synthesized by astrocytes. We developed a knock-in reporter mouse line in which the coding sequence of the PrP expressing gene (Prnp), was replaced with that for green fluorescent protein (GFP). Native GFP fluorescence intensity varied between and within brain regions. GFP was present in astrocytes but did not increase during reactive gliosis induced by scrapie prion infection. Therefore, reactive gliosis associated with prion diseases does not cause an acceleration of local PrP production. In addition to aiding in Prnp gene activity studies, this reporter mouse line will likely prove useful for analysis of chimeric animals produced by stem cell and tissue transplantation experiments. PMID:24752288

  19. Lack of Prion Accumulation in Lymphoid Tissues of Scrapie-affected Sheep with the AA136, QR171 Prion Protein Genotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Sheep scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy which can be transmitted horizontally through the shedding of an infectious conformer (PrP**Sc) of the normal cellular prion protein (PrP**c). Genetics profoundly influence the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie. PrP**c amino-aci...

  20. The neutral sphingomyelinase pathway regulates packaging of the prion protein into exosomes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Belinda B; Bellingham, Shayne A; Hill, Andrew F

    2015-02-01

    Prion diseases are a group of transmissible, fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with the misfolding of the host-encoded prion protein, PrP(C), into a disease-associated form, PrP(Sc). The transmissible prion agent is principally formed of PrP(Sc) itself and is associated with extracellular vesicles known as exosomes. Exosomes are released from cells both in vitro and in vivo, and have been proposed as a mechanism by which prions spread intercellularly. The biogenesis of exosomes occurs within the endosomal system, through formation of intraluminal vesicles (ILVs), which are subsequently released from cells as exosomes. ILV formation is known to be regulated by the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, although an alternative neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) pathway has been suggested to also regulate this process. Here, we investigate a role for the nSMase pathway in exosome biogenesis and packaging of PrP into these vesicles. Inhibition of the nSMase pathway using GW4869 revealed a role for the nSMase pathway in both exosome formation and PrP packaging. In agreement, targeted knockdown of nSMase1 and nSMase2 in mouse neurons using lentivirus-mediated RNAi also decreases exosome release, demonstrating the nSMase pathway regulates the biogenesis and release of exosomes. We also demonstrate that PrP(C) packaging is dependent on nSMase2, whereas the packaging of disease-associated PrP(Sc) into exosomes occurs independently of nSMase2. These findings provide further insight into prion transmission and identify a pathway which directly assists exosome-mediated transmission of prions. PMID:25505180

  1. Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Structural Stability of Wild-Type Rabbit Prion Protein: Surface Electrostatic Charge Distributions

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases cover a large range of neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals, which are invariably fatal and highly infectious. By now there have not been some effective therapeutic approaches or medications to treat all prion diseases. Fortunately, numerous experimental experiences have showed that rabbits are resistant to infection from prion diseases isolated from other species, and recently the molecular structures of rabbit prion protein and its mutants were released into protein data bank. Prion diseases are "protein structural conformational" diseases. Thus, in order to reveal some secrets of prion diseases, it is amenable to study rabbits by techniques of the molecular structure and its dynamics. Wen et al. (PLoS One 5(10) e13273 (2010), Journal of Biological Chemistry 285(41) 31682-31693 (2010)) reported the surface of NMR RaPrPC(124-228) molecular snapshot has a large land of continuous positive charge distribution, which contributes to the structural stability of rabbit prion protein. Thi...

  2. Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease and “Anchorless Prion Protein” Mice Share Prion Conformational Properties Diverging from Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Zanusso, Gianluigi; Fiorini, Michele; Ferrari, Sergio; Meade-White, Kimberly; Barbieri, Ilaria; Brocchi, Emiliana; Ghetti, Bernardino; Monaco, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The role of the GPI-anchor in prion disease pathogenesis is still a challenging issue. In vitro studies have shown that anchorless cellular prion protein (PrPC) undergoes aberrant post-translational processing and metabolism. Moreover, transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing anchorless PrPC develop a spontaneous neurological disease accompanied with widespread brain PrP amyloid deposition, in the absence of spongiform changes. Generation of PrP forms lacking the GPI and PrP amyloidosis are striking features of human stop codon mutations in the PrP gene (PRNP), associated with PrP cerebral amyloid angiopathy (PrP-CAA) and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome. More recently, the presence of anchorless PrP species has been also claimed in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Using a highly sensitive protein separation technique and taking advantage of reference maps of synthetic PrP peptides, we investigated brain tissues from scrapie-infected “anchorless PrP” Tg mice and wild type mice to determine the contribution of the GPI-anchor to the molecular mass and isoelectric point of PrP quasispecies under two-dimensional electrophoresis. We also assessed the conformational properties of anchorless and anchored prions under standard and inactivating conditions. These studies were extended to sCJD and GSS. At variance with GSS, characterization of PrP quasispecies in different sCJD subtypes ruled out the presence of anchorless prions. Moreover, under inactivating conditions, mice anchorless prions, but not sCJD prions, generated internal PrP fragments, cleaved at both N and C termini, similar to those found in PrP-CAA and GSS brain tissues. These findings show that anchorless PrPSc generates GSS-like PrP fragments, and suggest a major role for unanchored PrP in amyloidogenesis. PMID:24398683

  3. Cellular Prion Protein Expression Is Not Regulated by the Alzheimer's Amyloid Precursor Protein Intracellular Domain

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Victoria; Whitehouse, Isobel J.; Baybutt, Herbert; Manson, Jean C.; Collins, Steven J.; Hooper, Nigel M.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of molecular and cellular links between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and prion diseases. The cellular prion protein, PrPC, modulates the post-translational processing of the AD amyloid precursor protein (APP), through its inhibition of the ?-secretase BACE1, and oligomers of amyloid-? bind to PrPC which may mediate amyloid-? neurotoxicity. In addition, the APP intracellular domain (AICD), which acts as a transcriptional regulator, has been reported to control the expression of PrPC. Through the use of transgenic mice, cell culture models and manipulation of APP expression and processing, this study aimed to clarify the role of AICD in regulating PrPC. Over-expression of the three major isoforms of human APP (APP695, APP751 and APP770) in cultured neuronal and non-neuronal cells had no effect on the level of endogenous PrPC. Furthermore, analysis of brain tissue from transgenic mice over-expressing either wild type or familial AD associated mutant human APP revealed unaltered PrPC levels. Knockdown of endogenous APP expression in cells by siRNA or inhibition of ?-secretase activity also had no effect on PrPC levels. Overall, we did not detect any significant difference in the expression of PrPC in any of the cell or animal-based paradigms considered, indicating that the control of cellular PrPC levels by AICD is not as straightforward as previously suggested. PMID:22363722

  4. Identification of Misfolded Proteins in Body Fluids for the Diagnosis of Prion Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pocchiari, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or prion diseases are fatal rare neurodegenerative disorders affecting man and animals and caused by a transmissible infectious agent. TSE diseases are characterized by spongiform brain lesions with neuronal loss and the abnormal deposition in the CNS, and to less extent in other tissues, of an insoluble and protease resistant form of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), named PrPTSE. In man, TSE diseases affect usually people over 60 years of age with no evident disease-associated risk factors. In some cases, however, TSE diseases are unequivocally linked to infectious episodes related to the use of prion-contaminated medicines, medical devices, or meat products as in the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Clinical signs occur months or years after infection, and during this silent period PrPTSE, the only reliable marker of infection, is not easily measurable in blood or other accessible tissues or body fluids causing public health concerns. To overcome the limit of PrPTSE detection, several highly sensitive assays have been developed, but attempts to apply these techniques to blood of infected hosts have been unsuccessful or not yet validated. An update on the latest advances for the detection of misfolded prion protein in body fluids is provided. PMID:24027585

  5. Identification of a common sphingolipid-binding domain in Alzheimer, prion, and HIV-1 proteins.

    PubMed

    Mahfoud, Radhia; Garmy, Nicolas; Maresca, Marc; Yahi, Nouara; Puigserver, Antoine; Fantini, Jacques

    2002-03-29

    The V3 loop of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 surface envelope glycoprotein gp120 is a sphingolipid-binding domain mediating the attachment of HIV-1 to plasma membrane microdomains (rafts). Sphingolipid-induced conformational changes in gp120 are required for HIV-1 fusion. Galactosylceramide and sphingomyelin have been detected in highly purified preparations of prion rods, suggesting that the prion protein (PrP) may interact with selected sphingolipids. Moreover, a major conformational transition of the Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide has been observed upon interaction with sphingolipid-containing membranes. Structure similarity searches with the combinatorial extension method revealed the presence of a V3-like domain in the human prion protein PrP and in the Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide. In each case, synthetic peptides derived from the predicted V3-like domain were found to interact with monomolecular films of galactosylceramide and sphingomyelin at the air-water interface. The V3-like domain of PrP is a disulfide-linked loop (Cys(179)-Cys(214)) that includes the E200K mutation site associated with familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. This mutation abrogated sphingomyelin recognition. The identification of a common sphingolipid-binding motif in gp120, PrP, and beta-amyloid peptide underscores the role of lipid rafts in the pathogenesis of HIV-1, Alzheimer, and prion diseases and may provide new therapeutic strategies. PMID:11792705

  6. Coexistence of protease sensitive and resistant prion protein in 129VV homozygous sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The coexistence of different molecular types of classical protease-resistant prion protein in the same individual have been described, however, the simultaneous finding of these with the recently described protease-sensitive variant or variably protease-sensitive prionopathy has, to the best of our knowledge, not yet been reported. Case presentation A 74-year-old Caucasian woman showed a sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease clinical phenotype with reactive depression, followed by cognitive impairment, akinetic-rigid Parkinsonism with pseudobulbar syndrome and gait impairment with motor apraxia, visuospatial disorientation, and evident frontal dysfunction features such as grasping, palmomental reflex and brisk perioral reflexes. She died at age 77. Neuropathological findings showed: spongiform change in the patient’s cerebral cortex, striatum, thalamus and molecular layer of the cerebellum with proteinase K-sensitive synaptic-like, dot-like or target-like prion protein deposition in the cortex, thalamus and striatum; proteinase K-resistant prion protein in the same regions; and elongated plaque-like proteinase K-resistant prion protein in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. Molecular analysis of prion protein after proteinase K digestion revealed decreased signal intensity in immunoblot, a ladder-like protein pattern, and a 71% reduction of PrPSc signal relative to non-digested material. Her cerebellum showed a 2A prion protein type largely resistant to proteinase K. Genotype of polymorphism at codon 129 was valine homozygous. Conclusion Molecular typing of prion protein along with clinical and neuropathological data revealed, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of the coexistence of different protease-sensitive prion proteins in the same patient in a rare case that did not fulfill the current clinical diagnostic criteria for either probable or possible sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. This highlights the importance of molecular analyses of several brain regions in order to correctly diagnose rare and atypical prionopathies. PMID:23057723

  7. Yeast prions: structure, biology, and prion-handling systems.

    PubMed

    Wickner, Reed B; Shewmaker, Frank P; Bateman, David A; Edskes, Herman K; Gorkovskiy, Anton; Dayani, Yaron; Bezsonov, Evgeny E

    2015-03-01

    A prion is an infectious protein horizontally transmitting a disease or trait without a required nucleic acid. Yeast and fungal prions are nonchromosomal genes composed of protein, generally an altered form of a protein that catalyzes the same alteration of the protein. Yeast prions are thus transmitted both vertically (as genes composed of protein) and horizontally (as infectious proteins, or prions). Formation of amyloids (linear ordered ?-sheet-rich protein aggregates with ?-strands perpendicular to the long axis of the filament) underlies most yeast and fungal prions, and a single prion protein can have any of several distinct self-propagating amyloid forms with different biological properties (prion variants). Here we review the mechanism of faithful templating of protein conformation, the biological roles of these prions, and their interactions with cellular chaperones, the Btn2 and Cur1 aggregate-handling systems, and other cellular factors governing prion generation and propagation. Human amyloidoses include the PrP-based prion conditions and many other, more common amyloid-based diseases, several of which show prion-like features. Yeast prions increasingly are serving as models for the understanding and treatment of many mammalian amyloidoses. Patients with different clinical pictures of the same amyloidosis may be the equivalent of yeasts with different prion variants. PMID:25631286

  8. Bovine Doppel (Dpl) and Prion Protein (PrP) Expression on Lymphoid Tissue and Circulating Leukocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saverio Paltrinieri; Stefano Comazzi; Valentina Spagnolo; Marco Rondena; Wilma Ponti; Fabrizio Ceciliani

    2004-01-01

    Doppel (Dpl) protein shares some structural features with prion protein (PrP), whose pathologic isoform (PrPsc) is considered to be the causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Dpl is mainly expressed in testes but, when ectopically expressed in the central nervous system, is neurotoxic. We have examined the expression pattern of Dpl and PrP on bovine lymphoid tissues and circulating leukocytes.

  9. Molecular interaction between prion protein and GFAP both in native and recombinant forms in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen-Fang Dong; Xiao-Fan Wang; Xin Wang; Song Shi; Gui-Rong Wang; Bing Shan; Run An; Xiao-Li Li; Bao-Yun Zhang; Jun Han; Xiao-Ping Dong

    2008-01-01

    Gliosis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) associated astrocytes is considered to be one of the hallmarks of transmissible\\u000a spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). In the present study, remarkable GFAP–PrPSc or GFAP–PrPC complexes were separately detected in the brain homogenates of 263 K (Scrapie)-infected or normal hamsters by co-immunoprecipitation\\u000a assay. To get more exact molecular evidences for interaction between prion protein (PrP) and

  10. Distinct prion proteins in short and long scrapie incubation period mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Westaway; P A Goodman; C A Mirenda; M P McKinley; G A Carlson; S B Prusiner

    1987-01-01

    The Prn-i gene, controlling scrapie incubation period, is linked to or congruent with the murine prion protein (PrP) gene, Prn-p. In prototypic mouse strains with long (l\\/Ln) and short (NZW) incubation periods, Prn-p transcription is initiated at similar multiple sites. The predicted NZW and l\\/Ln PrP proteins differ at codons 108 and 189. Codon 189, highly conserved in mammals, lies

  11. In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; BHS) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of CWD in cervids. No TSEs have been documented in BHS, but the susceptibility of this species to TSEs remains unknown. Results We acquired a library of BHS tissues and found no evidence of preexisting TSEs in these animals. The prion protein gene (Prnp) in all BHS in our library was identical to scrapie-susceptible domestic sheep (A136R154Q171 genotype). Using an in vitro prion protein conversion assay, which has been previously used to assess TSE species barriers and, in our study appears to recollect known species barriers in mice, we assessed the potential transmissibility of TSEs to BHS. As expected based upon Prnp genotype, we observed BHS prion protein conversion by classical scrapie agent and evidence for a species barrier between transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BHS. Interestingly, our data suggest that the species barrier of BHS to white-tailed deer or wapiti CWD agents is likely low. We also used protein misfolding cyclic amplification to confirm that CWD, but not TME, can template prion protein misfolding in A136R154Q171 genotype sheep. Conclusions Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including animal studies, is warranted. The lack of reported TSEs in BHS may be attributable to other host factors or a lack of TSE surveillance in this species. PMID:23938169

  12. Small is not beautiful: antagonizing functions for the prion protein PrP C and its homologue Dpl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel Behrens; Adriano Aguzzi

    2002-01-01

    A conformational variant of the normal prion protein PrPC is believed to be identical to PrPSc, the agent that causes prion diseases. Recently, a novel protein, named Doppel (Dpl), was identified that shares significant biochemical and structural homology with PrPC. In specific strains of PrPC-deficient mouse lines, Dpl is overexpressed and causes a neurological disease. Dpl neurotoxicity is counteracted and

  13. Origins and Evolution of the HET-s Prion-Forming Protein: Searching for Other Amyloid-Forming Solenoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deena M. A. Gendoo; Paul M. Harrison

    2011-01-01

    The HET-s prion-forming domain from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina is gaining considerable interest since it yielded the first well-defined atomic structure of a functional amyloid fibril. This structure has been identified as a left-handed beta solenoid with a triangular hydrophobic core. To delineate the origins of the HET-s prion-forming protein and to discover other amyloid-forming proteins, we searched for

  14. Proteomics Analyses for the Global Proteins in the Brain Tissues of Different Human Prion Diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qi; Chen, Li-Na; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Xiao, Kang; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Cao; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Tian, Chan; Gao, Chen; Wang, Jing; Han, Jun; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics changes of brain tissues have been described in different neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, the brain proteomics of human prion disease remains less understood. In the study, the proteomics patterns of cortex and cerebellum of brain tissues of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and G114V genetic CJD were analyzed with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation combined with multidimensional liquid chromatography and MS analysis, with the brains from three normal individuals as controls. Global protein profiling, significant pathway, and functional categories were analyzed. In total, 2287 proteins were identified with quantitative information both in cortex and cerebellum regions. Cerebellum tissues appeared to contain more up- and down-regulated proteins (727 proteins) than cortex regions (312 proteins) of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and G114V genetic CJD. Viral myocarditis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, lysosome, oxidative phosphorylation, protein export, and drug metabolism-cytochrome P450 were the most commonly affected pathways of the three kinds of diseases. Almost coincident biological functions were identified in the brain tissues of the three diseases. In all, data here demonstrate that the brain tissues of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and G114V genetic CJD have obvious proteomics changes at their terminal stages, which show the similarities not only among human prion diseases but also with other neurodegeneration diseases. This is the first study to provide a reference proteome map for human prion diseases and will be helpful for future studies focused on potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and therapy of human prion diseases. PMID:25616867

  15. Proteomics analyses for the global proteins in the brain tissues of different human prion diseases.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qi; Chen, Li-Na; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Xiao, Kang; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Cao; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Tian, Chan; Gao, Chen; Wang, Jing; Han, Jun; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Proteomics changes of brain tissues have been described in different neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, the brain proteomics of human prion disease remains less understood. In the study, the proteomics patterns of cortex and cerebellum of brain tissues of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and G114V genetic CJD were analyzed with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation combined with multidimensional liquid chromatography and MS analysis, with the brains from three normal individuals as controls. Global protein profiling, significant pathway, and functional categories were analyzed. In total, 2287 proteins were identified with quantitative information both in cortex and cerebellum regions. Cerebellum tissues appeared to contain more up- and down-regulated proteins (727 proteins) than cortex regions (312 proteins) of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and G114V genetic CJD. Viral myocarditis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, lysosome, oxidative phosphorylation, protein export, and drug metabolism-cytochrome P450 were the most commonly affected pathways of the three kinds of diseases. Almost coincident biological functions were identified in the brain tissues of the three diseases. In all, data here demonstrate that the brain tissues of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and G114V genetic CJD have obvious proteomics changes at their terminal stages, which show the similarities not only among human prion diseases but also with other neurodegeneration diseases. This is the first study to provide a reference proteome map for human prion diseases and will be helpful for future studies focused on potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and therapy of human prion diseases. PMID:25616867

  16. Genetic variability of the coding region for the prion protein gene (PRNP) in gayal (Bos frontalis).

    PubMed

    Xi, Dongmei; Liu, Qing; Guo, Jianhong; Yu, Hongman; Yang, Yuai; He, Yiduo; Mao, Huaming; Gou, Xiao; Deng, Weidong

    2012-02-01

    The gayal (Bos frontalis) is a rare semi-wild bovid species in which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has not been reported. Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been correlated significantly with resistance to BSE. In this study, the coding region of PRNP was cloned and characterized in samples from 125 gayal. A total of ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including six silent mutations (C60T, G75A, A108T, G126A, C357T and C678T) and four mis-sense mutations (C8A, G145A, G461A and C756G), corresponding to amino acids T3K, G49S9, N154S and I252M were identified, revealing high genetic diversity. Three novel SNPs including C60T, G145A and C756G, which have not been reported previously in bovid species, were retrieved. There also was one insertion-deletion (187Del24) at the N-terminal octapeptide repeat region. Alignment of nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed a high degree of similarity with other bovid species. Using phylogenetic analyses it was revealed that gayal has a close genetic relationship with Zebu cattle. In short, preliminary information is provided about genotypes of the PRNP in gayal. This could assist with the study of the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and cross species transmission as well as a molecular breeding project for gayal in China. PMID:21633886

  17. The prion protein gene in humans revisited: Lessons from a worldwide resequencing study

    PubMed Central

    Soldevila, Marta; Andrés, Aida M.; Ramírez-Soriano, Anna; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Calafell, Francesc; Navarro, Arcadi; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2006-01-01

    Ample evidence has accumulated showing that different coding variants of the PRNP gene confer differential susceptibility for prion diseases. Here we evaluate the patterns of nucleotide variation in PRNP exon 2, which includes all the protein-coding sequence, by resequencing a worldwide sample of 174 humans for 2378 bp. In line with previous studies, we found two main haplotypes differentiated by nonsynonymous substitution in codon 129. Our analyses reveal the worldwide pattern of variation at the PRNP gene to be inconsistent with neutral expectations, indicating instead an excess of low-frequency variants, a footprint of the action of either positive or purifying selection. A comparison of neutrality test statistics for PRNP with other human genes indicates that the signal of positive selection on PRNP is stronger than expected from a possible confounding genome-wide background signal of population expansion. Two main conclusions arise from our analysis. First, the existence of an ancient, stable, balanced polymorphism that has been claimed in a previous study and related to cannibalism can be rejected and is shown to be due to ascertainment bias. Second, our results are consistent with a complex history of selection including mainly positive selection, even if short local periods of balancing selection (Kuru-like episodes), or even a weak purifying selection model, are consistent with our data. PMID:16369046

  18. Simultaneous detection of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ovine prion protein gene.

    PubMed

    Benkel, Bernhard F; Valle, Edith; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Hossain Farid, A

    2007-01-01

    Amino acid polymorphisms in the prion protein gene (PrP) affect the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). In particular, amino acid substitutions at codons 136, 154 and 171 of the ovine PrP gene are associated with different degrees of susceptibility to the classical form of scrapie, caused by 'typical' scrapie strains. Existing genotyping tests for scrapie susceptibility normally interrogate only the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) most relevant to 'typical' strains. Recently, however, a number of novel variants of the scrapie agent have been discovered. The ability of these new, 'atypical' scrapie variants to infect sheep that are resistant to 'typical' variants has raised concerns about the reduction in genetic variability that may result from intense selection for resistance to classical scrapie. Furthermore, a growing interest in a potential role for specific PrP genotypes in modulating performance traits is also driving a move toward more extensive characterization of haplotypes at the PrP locus. Here, we describe a single-tube method for the interrogation of eight SNPs within seven codons (112, 136, 141, 154, 171, 231 and 241) of the ovine PrP gene. This method is as accurate as sequencing, yet more affordable, and can easily be automated for high-throughput sample screening. Moreover, it can be modified to accommodate genetic variations that are found in local and heritage breeds. PMID:17590312

  19. Conformational Stability of Mammalian Prion Protein Amyloid Fibrils Is Dictated by a Packing Polymorphism within the Core Region*

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Nathan J.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Chen, Shugui; Smirnovas, Vytautas; Surewicz, Witold K.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian prion strains are believed to arise from the propagation of distinct conformations of the misfolded prion protein PrPSc. One key operational parameter used to define differences between strains has been conformational stability of PrPSc as defined by resistance to thermal and/or chemical denaturation. However, the structural basis of these stability differences is unknown. To bridge this gap, we have generated two strains of recombinant human prion protein amyloid fibrils that show dramatic differences in conformational stability and have characterized them by a number of biophysical methods. Backbone amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments revealed that, in sharp contrast to previously studied strains of infectious amyloid formed from the yeast prion protein Sup35, differences in ?-sheet core size do not underlie differences in conformational stability between strains of mammalian prion protein amyloid. Instead, these stability differences appear to be dictated by distinct packing arrangements (i.e. steric zipper interfaces) within the amyloid core, as indicated by distinct x-ray fiber diffraction patterns and large strain-dependent differences in hydrogen/deuterium exchange kinetics for histidine side chains within the core region. Although this study was limited to synthetic prion protein amyloid fibrils, a similar structural basis for strain-dependent conformational stability may apply to brain-derived PrPSc, especially because large strain-specific differences in PrPSc stability are often observed despite a similar size of the PrPSc core region. PMID:24338015

  20. Prion protein function and the disturbance of early embryonic development in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Press, Charles McL; Alestrøm, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Transmissible Spongiform Encephal-opathies (TSE) or prion diseases are a threat to food safety and to human and animal health. The molecular mechanisms responsible for prion diseases share similarities with a wider group of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease and the central pathological event is a disturbance of protein folding of a normal cellular protein that is eventually accompanied by neuronal cell death and the death of the host. Prion protein (PrP) is a constituent of most normal mammalian cells and its presence is essential in the pathogenesis of TSE. However, the function of this normal cellular protein remains unclear. The prevention of PRNP gene expression in mammalian species has been undramatic, implying a functional redundancy. Yet PrP is conserved from mammals to fish. Recent studies of PrP in zebrafish have yielded novel findings showing that PrP has essential roles in early embryonic development. The amenability of zebrafish to global technologies has generated data indicating the existence of “anchorless” splice variants of PrP in the early embryo. This paper will discuss the possibility that the experimentalist's view of PrP functions might be clearer at a greater phylogenetic distance. PMID:21628994

  1. Prion induction involves an ancient system for the sequestration of aggregated proteins and heritable changes in prion fragmentation

    E-print Network

    Tyedmers, Jens

    When the translation termination factor Sup35 adopts the prion state, [PSI+], the read-through of stop codons increases, uncovering hidden genetic variation and giving rise to new, often beneficial, phenotypes. Evidence ...

  2. Protein Transmission, Seeding and Degradation: Key Steps for ?-Synuclein Prion-Like Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Ximerakis, Methodios; Vekrellis, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that cell-to-cell transmission and the self-propagation of pathogenic amyloidogenic proteins play a central role in the initiation and the progression of several neurodegenerative disorders. This "prion-like" hypothesis has been recently reported for ?-synuclein, a presynaptic protein implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and related disorders. This review summarizes recent findings on ?-synuclein prion-like propagation, focusing on its transmission, seeding and degradation and discusses some key questions that remain to be explored. Understanding how ?-synuclein exits cells and propagates from one brain region to another will lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of PD, aiming at slowing or stopping the disease progression. PMID:25548532

  3. In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Morawski, A.R.; Carlson, C.M.; Chang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including animal studies, is warranted. The lack of reported TSEs in BHS may be attributable to other host factors or a lack of TSE surveillance in this species.

  4. Prions in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Bosque, Patrick J; Ryou, Chongsuk; Telling, Glenn; Peretz, David; Legname, Giuseppe; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2002-03-19

    Considerable evidence argues that consumption of beef products from cattle infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions causes new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In an effort to prevent new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, certain "specified offals," including neural and lymphatic tissues, thought to contain high titers of prions have been excluded from foods destined for human consumption [Phillips, N. A., Bridgeman, J. & Ferguson-Smith, M. (2000) in The BSE Inquiry (Stationery Office, London), Vol. 6, pp. 413-451]. Here we report that mouse skeletal muscle can propagate prions and accumulate substantial titers of these pathogens. We found both high prion titers and the disease-causing isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the skeletal muscle of wild-type mice inoculated with either the Me7 or Rocky Mountain Laboratory strain of murine prions. Particular muscles accumulated distinct levels of PrP(Sc), with the highest levels observed in muscle from the hind limb. To determine whether prions are produced or merely accumulate intramuscularly, we established transgenic mice expressing either mouse or Syrian hamster PrP exclusively in muscle. Inoculating these mice intramuscularly with prions resulted in the formation of high titers of nascent prions in muscle. In contrast, inoculating mice in which PrP expression was targeted to hepatocytes resulted in low prion titers. Our data demonstrate that factors in addition to the amount of PrP expressed determine the tropism of prions for certain tissues. That some muscles are intrinsically capable of accumulating substantial titers of prions is of particular concern. Because significant dietary exposure to prions might occur through the consumption of meat, even if it is largely free of neural and lymphatic tissue, a comprehensive effort to map the distribution of prions in the muscle of infected livestock is needed. Furthermore, muscle may provide a readily biopsied tissue from which to diagnose prion disease in asymptomatic animals and even humans. PMID:11904434

  5. Molecular dynamics studies on the NMR structures of rabbit prion protein wild type and mutants: surface electrostatic charge distributions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiapu; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yuanli

    2015-06-01

    Prion diseases are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species such as sheep and goats, cattle, deer and elk, and humans. But for rabbits, studies have shown that they have a low susceptibility to be infected by prion diseases. This paper does molecular dynamics (MD) studies of rabbit NMR structures (of the wild type and its two mutants of two surface residues), in order to understand the specific mechanism of rabbit prion proteins (RaPrP(C)). Protein surface electrostatic charge distributions are specially focused to analyze the MD trajectories. This paper can conclude that surface electrostatic charge distributions indeed contribute to the structural stability of wild-type RaPrP(C); this may be useful for the medicinal treatment of prion diseases. PMID:25105226

  6. Prion protein deposition and abnormal synaptic protein expression in the cerebellum in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, I; Puig, B; Blanco, R; Martí, E

    2000-01-01

    Prion protein (PrP(C)) is a cell membrane-anchored glycoprotein, which is replaced by a pathogenic protease-resistant, beta-sheet-containing isoform (PrP(CJD) or PrP(SC)) in human and animal prion encephalopathies, including sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Cell fractionation methods show that PrP(C) localizes in presynaptic membrane-enriched fractions. Following infection, abnormal PrP accumulates in nerve cell processes and synaptic regions. The present study examines the possible correlation between abnormal PrP deposition and the expression of synaptic proteins controlling neurotransmission in the cerebellum of six 129 Met/Met sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Aggregates of protease-resistant PrP-positive granules, reminiscent of cerebellar glomeruli, were found in the granular cell layer, whereas fine punctate PrP-immunoreactive deposits occurred in the molecular layer. Small numbers of diffuse, irregular plaque-like PrP deposits in the molecular and granular cell layers were present in every case. The somas of Purkinje cells, and stellate, basket and Golgi neurons, were not immunostained. PrP-immunoreactive fibres were found in the album of the cerebellum and hilus of the dentate nucleus. Punctate PrP deposition decorated the neuropil of the dentate nucleus and the surface of dentate neurons. Synaptic protein expression was examined with synaptophysin, synapsin-1, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25,000 mol. wt, syntaxin-1 and Rab3a immunohistochemistry. Reduced synaptophysin, synapsin-1, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25,000 mol. wt, syntaxin-1 and Rab3a immunoreactivity was noted in the granular cell layer in every case, but reduced expression was inconstant in the molecular layer. Synaptophysin accumulated in axon torpedoes, thus indicating abnormal axon transport. Expression of synaptic proteins was relatively preserved in the dentate nucleus, although synaptophysin immunohistochemistry disclosed large coarse pericellular terminals in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, instead of the fine granular terminals in control cases, around the soma of dentate neurons. Finally, Rab3a accumulated in the cytoplasm of Purkinje cells, thus suggesting major anomalies in Rab3a transport. These observations demonstrate, for the first time, abnormal expression of crucial synaptic proteins in the cerebellum of cases with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. However, abnormal PrP deposition is not proportional to the degree of reduction of synaptic protein expression in the different layers of the cerebellar cortex and in the dentate nucleus. Therefore, it remains to be elucidated how abnormal PrP impacts on the metabolism of proteins linked to exocytosis and neurotransmission, and how abnormal PrP deposition results in eventual synaptic loss. PMID:10842016

  7. Prion versus doppel protein misfolding: new insights from replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Baillod, Pascal; Garrec, Julian; Tavernelli, Ivano; Rothlisberger, Ursula

    2013-11-26

    The doppel (Dpl) and prion (PrP) proteins share a very similar fold (three helices and two short ?-strands), while they differ significantly in sequence (only 25% homologous) and in disease-related ?-rich conformations that occur for PrP only. In a previous study [Baillod, P., et al. (2012) Biochemistry 51, 9891-9899], we investigated the misfolding and rare, ?-rich folds of monomeric PrP with replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations. In the work presented here, we perform analogous simulations for Dpl with the aim of comparing the two systems and characterizing possible specificities of PrP for misfolding and amyloidogenesis. Our extensive simulations, which allow us to overcome high energy barriers via the REMD approach, sample several ?-rich folds, some of which are stable at room temperature, for both proteins. Per residue secondary structure propensities reveal that novel ?-sheets of Dpl and PrP are formed by amino acids belonging to the helices that are the least stable in the respective native structure, H1 for Dpl and H2 and H3 for PrP, in agreement with experimental data. Using a specific clustering method that allows discrimination against different ?-strand arrangements, seven ?-rich folds could be characterized for PrP and five for Dpl, which are clearly distinct and share only one single similar fold. A major difference between the two proteins is found in the free energy barriers leading to misfolded structures: they are approximately 3 times higher for Dpl than for PrP. This suggests that the difference in amyloidogenic behavior between PrP and Dpl might be due to kinetic reasons. PMID:24143866

  8. Observation of intermediate states of the human prion protein by high pressure NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kachel, Norman; Kremer, Werner; Zahn, Ralph; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2006-01-01

    Background Prions as causative agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in humans and animals are composed of the infectious isomer, PrPSc, of the cellular prion protein, PrPC. The conversion and thus the propensity of PrPC to adopt alternative folds leads to the species-specific propagation of the disease. High pressure is a powerful tool to study the physico-chemical properties of proteins as well as the dynamics and structure of folding intermediates. Results Conformational intermediates of the human prion protein huPrPC were characterized by a combination of hydrostatic pressure (up to 200 MPa) with two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. All pressure effects showed to be reversible and there is virtually no difference in the overall pressure response between the folded core of the N-terminal truncated huPrPC(121–230) and the full-length huPrPC(23–230). The only significant differences in the pressure response of full-length and truncated PrP suggest that E168, H187, T192, E207, E211 and Y226 are involved in a transient interaction with the unfolded N-terminus. High-pressure NMR spectroscopy indicates that the folded core of the human prion protein occurs in two structural states N1and N2 in solution associated with rather small differences in free enthalpies (3.0 kJ/mol). At atmospheric pressure approximately 29% of the protein are already in the pressure favored conformation N2. There is a second process representing two possible folding intermediates I1 and I2 with corresponding average free enthalpies of 10.8 and 18.6 kJ/mol. They could represent preaggregation states of the protein that coexist at ambient pressure with a very small population of approximately 1.2% and less than 0.1%. Further the pressure response of the N-terminus indicates that four different regions are in a fast equilibrium with non-random structural states whose populations are shifted by pressure. Conclusion We identified pressure stabilized folding intermediates of the human prion protein. The regions reflecting most strongly the transition to the intermediate states are the ?1/?1-loop and the solvent exposed side of ?3. The most pressure-sensitive region (representing mainly intermediate I1) is the loop between ?-strand 1 and ?-helix 1 (residue 139–141), indicating that this region might be the first entry point for the infectious conformer to convert the cellular protein. PMID:16846506

  9. Genetic variability of the coding region for the prion protein gene ( PRNP ) in gayal ( Bos frontalis )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongmei XiQing; Qing Liu; Jianhong Guo; Hongman Yu; Yuai Yang; Yiduo He; Huaming Mao; Xiao Gou; Weidong Deng

    The gayal (Bos frontalis) is a rare semi-wild bovid species in which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has not been reported. Polymorphisms of\\u000a the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been correlated significantly with resistance to BSE. In this study, the coding region of PRNP was cloned and characterized in samples from 125 gayal. A total of ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs),

  10. Early Embryonic Gene Expression Profiling of Zebrafish Prion Protein (Prp2) Morphants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rasoul Nourizadeh-Lillabadi; Jacob Seilø Torgersen; Olav Vestrheim; Melanie König; Peter Aleström; Mohasina Syed; Sharyn Jane Goldstien

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe Prion protein (PRNP\\/Prp) plays a crucial role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) like Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), scrapie and mad cow disease. Notwithstanding the importance in human and animal disease, fundamental aspects of PRNP\\/Prp function and transmission remains unaccounted for.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe zebrafish (Danio rerio) genome contains three Prp encoding genes assigned prp1, prp2 and prp3. Currently, the second paralogue is

  11. Structural and Hydration Properties of the Partially Unfolded States of the Prion Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfonso De Simone; Adriana Zagari; Philippe Derreumaux

    2007-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of the prion protein (PrP) is responsible for the development of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). To gain insights into possible aggregation-prone intermediate states, we construct the free energy surface of the C-terminal globular domain of the PrP from enhanced sampling of replica exchange molecular dynamics. This cellular domain is characterized by three helices H1–H3 and a small

  12. Degradation of the Disease-Associated Prion Protein by a Serine Protease from Lichens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Johnson; James P. Bennett; Steven M. Biro; Juan Camilo Duque-Velasquez; Cynthia M. Rodriguez; Richard A. Bessen; Tonie E. Rocke; Jason C. Bartz

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and

  13. Prion diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Kaski; Simon Mead

    2009-01-01

    Human prion diseases are a rare and diverse group of neurodegenerative diseases that have long provoked interest from physicians and scientists. Initially, this related to the enigma of a group of diseases with inherited, sporadic and acquired forms, and then subsequently to the proposition that the infectious agent comprised an abnormally folded but widely expressed cell-surface protein. More recently, the

  14. Prion diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Mead

    2005-01-01

    Human prion diseases are a rare and diverse group of neurodegenerative diseases that have long provoked interest from physicians and scientists. Initially, this related to the enigma of a disease with inherited, sporadic and acquired forms, and the subsequent demonstration that the infectious agent comprised an abnormally folded but widely expressed cell-surface protein. More recently, the epidemic of bovine spongiform

  15. Cellular prion protein electron microscopy: attempts\\/limits and clues to a synaptic trait. Implications in neurodegeneration process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Guy Fournier

    2008-01-01

    Prion diseases are caused by an infectious agent constituted by a rogue protein called prion (PrPSc) of neuronal origin (PrPc) and are exemplified by Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle. Considerable\\u000a efforts have been made to understand the cerebral damage caused by these diseases but a clear comprehensive view cannot be\\u000a achieved without defining the neurophysiological

  16. Mice deficient for prion protein exhibit normal neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Lledo, P M; Tremblay, P; DeArmond, S J; Prusiner, S B; Nicoll, R A

    1996-01-01

    We recorded in the CA1 region from hippocampal slices of prion protein (PrP) gene knockout mice to investigate whether the loss of the normal form of prion protein (PrPC) affects neuronal excitability as well as synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. No deficit in synaptic inhibition was found using field potential recordings because (i) responses induced by stimulation in stratum radiatum consisted of a single population spike in PrP gene knockout mice similar to that recorded from control mice and (ii) the plot of field excitatory postsynaptic potential slope versus the population spike amplitude showed no difference between the two groups of mice. Intracellular recordings also failed to detect any difference in cell excitability and the reversal potential for inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Analysis of the kinetics of inhibitory postsynaptic current revealed no modification. Finally, we examined whether synaptic plasticity was altered and found no difference in long-term potentiation between control and PrP gene knockout mice. On the basis of our findings, we propose that the loss of the normal form of prion protein does not alter the physiology of the CA1 region of the hippocampus. PMID:8637886

  17. Comparative genomic analysis of prion genes

    PubMed Central

    Premzl, Marko; Gamulin, Vera

    2007-01-01

    Background The homologues of human disease genes are expected to contribute to better understanding of physiological and pathogenic processes. We made use of the present availability of vertebrate genomic sequences, and we have conducted the most comprehensive comparative genomic analysis of the prion protein gene PRNP and its homologues, shadow of prion protein gene SPRN and doppel gene PRND, and prion testis-specific gene PRNT so far. Results While the SPRN and PRNP homologues are present in all vertebrates, PRND is known in tetrapods, and PRNT is present in primates. PRNT could be viewed as a TE-associated gene. Using human as the base sequence for genomic sequence comparisons (VISTA), we annotated numerous potential cis-elements. The conserved regions in SPRNs harbour the potential Sp1 sites in promoters (mammals, birds), C-rich intron splicing enhancers and PTB intron splicing silencers in introns (mammals, birds), and hsa-miR-34a sites in 3'-UTRs (eutherians). We showed the conserved PRNP upstream regions, which may be potential enhancers or silencers (primates, dog). In the PRNP 3'-UTRs, there are conserved cytoplasmic polyadenylation element sites (mammals, birds). The PRND core promoters include highly conserved CCAAT, CArG and TATA boxes (mammals). We deduced 42 new protein primary structures, and performed the first phylogenetic analysis of all vertebrate prion genes. Using the protein alignment which included 122 sequences, we constructed the neighbour-joining tree which showed four major clusters, including shadoos, shadoo2s and prion protein-likes (cluster 1), fish prion proteins (cluster 2), tetrapode prion proteins (cluster 3) and doppels (cluster 4). We showed that the entire prion protein conformationally plastic region is well conserved between eutherian prion proteins and shadoos (18–25% identity and 28–34% similarity), and there could be a potential structural compatibility between shadoos and the left-handed parallel beta-helical fold. Conclusion It is likely that the conserved genomic elements identified in this analysis represent bona fide cis-elements. However, this idea needs to be confirmed by functional assays in transgenic systems. PMID:17199895

  18. Absolute Quantification of Prion Protein (90-231) Using Stable Isotope-Labeled Chymotryptic Peptide Standards in a LC-MRM AQUA Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Robert; Sheynkman, Gloria; Booth, Clarissa; Smith, Lloyd M.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Li, Lingjun

    2012-09-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that the disease-associated conformer of the prion protein (PrPTSE) constitutes the etiologic agent in prion diseases. These diseases affect multiple mammalian species. PrPTSE has the ability to convert the conformation of the normal prion protein (PrPC) into a ?-sheet rich form resistant to proteinase K digestion. Common immunological techniques lack the sensitivity to detect PrPTSE at subfemtomole levels, whereas animal bioassays, cell culture, and in vitro conversion assays offer higher sensitivity but lack the high-throughput the immunological assays offer. Mass spectrometry is an attractive alternative to the above assays as it offers high-throughput, direct measurement of a protein's signature peptide, often with subfemtomole sensitivities. Although a liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MRM) method has been reported for PrPTSE, the chemical composition and lack of amino acid sequence conservation of the signature peptide may compromise its accuracy and make it difficult to apply to multiple species. Here, we demonstrate that an alternative protease (chymotrypsin) can produce signature peptides suitable for a LC-MRM absolute quantification (AQUA) experiment. The new method offers several advantages, including: (1) a chymotryptic signature peptide lacking chemically active residues (Cys, Met) that can confound assay accuracy; (2) low attomole limits of detection and quantitation (LOD and LOQ); and (3) a signature peptide retaining the same amino acid sequence across most mammals naturally susceptible to prion infection as well as important laboratory models. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the use of a non-tryptic peptide in a LC-MRM AQUA workflow.

  19. Sialylated and O-glycosidically linked glycans in prion protein deposits in a case of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease.

    PubMed

    Zomosa-Signoret, Viviana; Mayoral, Miguel; Limón, Daniel; Espinosa, Blanca; Calvillo, Minerva; Zenteno, Edgar; Martínez, Victor; Guevara, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    Prion diseases are caused by an abnormal form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)). We identified, with lectins, post-translational modifications of brain proteins due to glycosylation in a Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) patient. The lectin Amaranthus leucocarpus (ALL), specific for mucin type O-glycosylated structures (Galß1,3 GalNAc?1,0 Ser/Thr or GalNAc?1,0 Ser/Thr), and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), specific for Neu5Ac?2,6 Gal/GalNAc, showed positive labeling in all the prion deposits and in the core of the PrP(Sc) deposits, respectively, indicating specific distribution of O-glycosylated and sialylated structures. Lectins from Maackia amurensis (MAA, Neu5Ac?2,3), Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrL, Neu5,9Ac2-specific) and Arachis hypogaea (PNA, Gal-specific) showed low staining of prion deposits. Immunohistochemistry colocalization with prion antibody indicated that all lectins stained prion protein deposits. These results show that specific modifications in the glycosylation pattern are closely related to the hallmark lesions and might be an early event in neuronal degeneration in GSS disease. PMID:20667006

  20. Prion protein gene polymorphism and blood lymphocyte profile in cows naturally infected with bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk, E; Bojaroj?-Nosowicz, B; Czarnik, U; Strychalski, J

    2010-01-01

    The polymorphic loci of the bovine prion protein (PRNP) gene, comprising 23-bp insertion/deletion (23-bp indel) within the promoter sequence and 12-bp insertion/deletion (12-bp indel) within the intron 1 sequence, are located in regions which play a key role in gene expression. The objective of this study was to determine whether the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism within the PRNP gene leads to significant differences in the blood lymphocyte profile and to investigate changes in the composition of these cells in cattle naturally infected with Bovine Leukemia Virus. An analysis of the effect of the bovine PRNP gene polymorphism on the blood lymphocyte profile revealed considerable differences between animals with the 23-bp indel genotypes, and small and statistically non-significant differences between those with the 12-bp indel genotypes. 23-bp del/del homozygotes had a significantly lower percentage of T lymphocytes with the phenotypes CD2 (P < 0.01), CD8 (P < 0.01) and WC1-N2 (P < 0.05), and a higher ratio of CD4 to CD8 T lymphocytes, compared to animals with the 23-bp ins/ins genotype. The obtained results indicate that the 23-bp indel polymorphism, in contrast to the 12-bp indel polymorphism, has a significant effect on changes in the blood lymphocyte profile. The size of blood lymphocyte subpopulations was also found to change under the influence of enzootic bovine leukosis. The direction of those changes in EBL-positive animals is consistent with that observed in 23-bp del/del homozygotes, which may testify to the adverse effect of this genotype on immunological efficiency. PMID:21033554

  1. A new paradigm for enzymatic control of ?-cleavage and ?-cleavage of the prion protein.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Alex J; Dibble, Jessie P; Evans, Eric G B; Millhauser, Glenn L

    2014-01-10

    The cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(C)) is found in both full-length and several different cleaved forms in vivo. Although the precise functions of the PrP(C) proteolytic products are not known, cleavage between the unstructured N-terminal domain and the structured C-terminal domain at Lys-109?His-110 (mouse sequence), termed ?-cleavage, has been shown to produce the anti-apoptotic N1 and the scrapie-resistant C1 peptide fragments. ?-Cleavage, residing adjacent to the octarepeat domain and N-terminal to the ?-cleavage site, is thought to arise from the action of reactive oxygen species produced from redox cycling of coordinated copper. We sought to elucidate the role of key members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) enzyme family, as well as Cu(2+) redox cycling, in recombinant mouse PrP (MoPrP) cleavage through LC/MS analysis. Our findings show that although Cu(2+) redox-generated reactive oxygen species do produce fragmentation corresponding to ?-cleavage, ADAM8 also cleaves MoPrP in the octarepeat domain in a Cu(2+)- and Zn(2+)-dependent manner. Additional cleavage by ADAM8 was observed at the previously proposed location of ?-cleavage, Lys-109?His-110 (MoPrP sequencing); however, upon addition of Cu(2+), the location of ?-cleavage shifted by several amino acids toward the C terminus. ADAM10 and ADAM17 have also been implicated in ?-cleavage at Lys-109?His-110; however, we observed that they instead cleaved MoPrP at a novel location, Ala-119?Val-120, with additional cleavage by ADAM10 at Gly-227?Arg-228 near the C terminus. Together, our results show that MoPrP cleavage is far more complex than previously thought and suggest a mechanism by which PrP(C) fragmentation responds to Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). PMID:24247244

  2. A New Paradigm for Enzymatic Control of ?-Cleavage and ?-Cleavage of the Prion Protein*

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Alex J.; Dibble, Jessie P.; Evans, Eric G. B.; Millhauser, Glenn L.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular form of the prion protein (PrPC) is found in both full-length and several different cleaved forms in vivo. Although the precise functions of the PrPC proteolytic products are not known, cleavage between the unstructured N-terminal domain and the structured C-terminal domain at Lys-109?His-110 (mouse sequence), termed ?-cleavage, has been shown to produce the anti-apoptotic N1 and the scrapie-resistant C1 peptide fragments. ?-Cleavage, residing adjacent to the octarepeat domain and N-terminal to the ?-cleavage site, is thought to arise from the action of reactive oxygen species produced from redox cycling of coordinated copper. We sought to elucidate the role of key members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) enzyme family, as well as Cu2+ redox cycling, in recombinant mouse PrP (MoPrP) cleavage through LC/MS analysis. Our findings show that although Cu2+ redox-generated reactive oxygen species do produce fragmentation corresponding to ?-cleavage, ADAM8 also cleaves MoPrP in the octarepeat domain in a Cu2+- and Zn2+-dependent manner. Additional cleavage by ADAM8 was observed at the previously proposed location of ?-cleavage, Lys-109?His-110 (MoPrP sequencing); however, upon addition of Cu2+, the location of ?-cleavage shifted by several amino acids toward the C terminus. ADAM10 and ADAM17 have also been implicated in ?-cleavage at Lys-109?His-110; however, we observed that they instead cleaved MoPrP at a novel location, Ala-119?Val-120, with additional cleavage by ADAM10 at Gly-227?Arg-228 near the C terminus. Together, our results show that MoPrP cleavage is far more complex than previously thought and suggest a mechanism by which PrPC fragmentation responds to Cu2+ and Zn2+. PMID:24247244

  3. Integrity of helix 2-helix 3 domain of the PrP protein is not mandatory for prion replication.

    PubMed

    Salamat, Khalid; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Herzog, Laetitia; Jaumain, Emilie; Béringue, Vincent; Rezaei, Human; Pastore, Annalisa; Laude, Hubert; Dron, Michel

    2012-06-01

    The process of prion conversion is not yet well understood at the molecular level. The regions critical for the conformational change of PrP remain mostly debated and the extent of sequence change acceptable for prion conversion is poorly documented. To achieve progress on these issues, we applied a reverse genetic approach using the Rov cell system. This allowed us to test the susceptibility of a number of insertion mutants to conversion into prion in the absence of wild-type PrP molecules. We were able to propagate several prions with 8 to 16 extra amino acids, including a polyglycine stretch and His or FLAG tags, inserted in the middle of the protease-resistant fragment. These results demonstrate the possibility to increase the length of the loop between helices H2 and H3 up to 4-fold, without preventing prion replication. They also indicate that this loop probably remains unstructured in PrP(Sc). We also showed that bona fide prions can be produced following insertion of octapeptides in the two C-terminal turns of H2. These insertions do not interfere with the overall fold of the H2-H3 domain indicating that the highly conserved sequence of the terminal part of H2 is not critical for the conversion. Altogether these data showed that the amplitude of modifications acceptable for prion conversion in the core of the globular domain of PrP is much greater than one might have assumed. These observations should help to refine structural models of PrP(Sc) and elucidate the conformational changes underlying prions generation. PMID:22511770

  4. Integrity of Helix 2-Helix 3 Domain of the PrP Protein Is Not Mandatory for Prion Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Salamat, Khalid; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Herzog, Laetitia; Jaumain, Emilie; Béringue, Vincent; Rezaei, Human; Pastore, Annalisa; Laude, Hubert; Dron, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The process of prion conversion is not yet well understood at the molecular level. The regions critical for the conformational change of PrP remain mostly debated and the extent of sequence change acceptable for prion conversion is poorly documented. To achieve progress on these issues, we applied a reverse genetic approach using the Rov cell system. This allowed us to test the susceptibility of a number of insertion mutants to conversion into prion in the absence of wild-type PrP molecules. We were able to propagate several prions with 8 to 16 extra amino acids, including a polyglycine stretch and His or FLAG tags, inserted in the middle of the protease-resistant fragment. These results demonstrate the possibility to increase the length of the loop between helices H2 and H3 up to 4-fold, without preventing prion replication. They also indicate that this loop probably remains unstructured in PrPSc. We also showed that bona fide prions can be produced following insertion of octapeptides in the two C-terminal turns of H2. These insertions do not interfere with the overall fold of the H2-H3 domain indicating that the highly conserved sequence of the terminal part of H2 is not critical for the conversion. Altogether these data showed that the amplitude of modifications acceptable for prion conversion in the core of the globular domain of PrP is much greater than one might have assumed. These observations should help to refine structural models of PrPSc and elucidate the conformational changes underlying prions generation. PMID:22511770

  5. Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy: a novel disease of the prion protein.

    PubMed

    Gambetti, Pierluigi; Puoti, Gianfranco; Zou, Wen-Quan

    2011-11-01

    Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) is a novel disease involving the prion protein (PrP) that has clinical similarities with non-Alzheimer's dementias especially frontotemporal dementia, diffuse Lewis body disease, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. VPSPr can be distinguished from sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) especially for the characteristics of the abnormal PrP. Furthermore, although VPSPr like sCJD affects patients with the three PrP genotypes as determined by the common methionine/valine polymorphism, the allelic prevalence is very different in the two diseases. These findings suggest that VPSPr is basically different from classical prion diseases such as sCJD being perhaps more akin to other neurodegenerative dementias. PMID:21584652

  6. Electrochemical aptasensor of cellular prion protein based on modified polypyrrole with redox dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Miodek, A; Castillo, G; Hianik, T; Korri-Youssoufi, H

    2014-06-15

    This work consists of the development of an electrochemical aptasensor based on polyprrole modified with redox dendrimers, able to detect human cellular prions PrP(C) with high sensitivity. The gold surface was modified by conductive polypyrrole film coupled to polyamidoamine dendrimers of fourth generation (PAMAM G4) and ferrocenyl group as redox marker. The aptamers were immobilized on the surface via biotin/streptavidin chemistry. Electrochemical signal was detected by ferrocenyl group incorporated between dendrimers and aptamers layers. We demonstrated that the interaction between aptamer and prion protein led to variation in electrochemical signal of the ferrocenyl group. The kinetics parameters (diffusion coefficient D and heterogeneous constant transfer ket) calculated from electrochemical signals demonstrate that the variation in redox signal results from the lower diffusion process of ions during redox reaction after prion interaction due to bulk effect of larger protein. The association of redox dendrimers with conducting polypyrrole leads to high sensitivity of PrP(C) determination with detection limit of 0.8 pM, which is three orders of magnitude lower, compared to flat ferrocene-functionalized polypyrrole. Detection of PrP(C) in spiked blood plasma has been achieved and demonstrated a recovery up to 90%. PMID:24480126

  7. Ultrastructural studies on scrapie prion protein crystals obtained from reverse micellar solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Wille, H; Prusiner, S B

    1999-01-01

    The structural transition from the cellular prion protein (PrPC) that is rich in alpha-helices to the pathological form (PrPSc) that has a high beta-sheet content seems to be the fundamental event underlying the prion diseases. Determination of the structure of PrPSc and the N-terminally truncated PrP 27-30 has been complicated by their insolubility. Here we report the solubilization of PrP 27-30 through a system of reverse micelles that yields monomeric and dimeric PrP. Although solubilization of PrP 27-30 was not accompanied by any recognizable change in secondary structure as measured by FTIR spectroscopy, it did result in a loss of prion infectivity. The formation of small two- and three-dimensional crystals upon exposure to uranyl salts argues that soluble PrP 27-30 possesses considerable tertiary structure. The crystals of PrP 27-30 grown from reverse micellar solutions suggest a novel crystallization mechanism that might be applicable for other membrane proteins. A variety of different crystal lattices diffracted up to 1.85 nm by electron microscopy. Despite the lack of measurable biological activity, the structure of PrP 27-30 in these crystals may provide insight into the structural transition that occurs during PrPSc formation. PMID:9916037

  8. Oligomerization of the human prion protein proceeds via a molten globule intermediate.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Remo; Tahiri-Alaoui, Abdessamad; Hore, P J; James, William

    2007-03-01

    The conformational transition of the human prion protein from an alpha-helical to a beta-sheet-rich structure is believed to be the critical event in prion pathogenesis. The molecular mechanism of misfolding and the role of intermediate states during this transition remain poorly understood. To overcome the obstacle of insolubility of amyloid fibrils, we have studied a beta-sheet-rich misfolded isoform of the prion protein, the beta-oligomer, which shares some structural properties with amyloid, including partial proteinase resistance. We demonstrate here that the beta-oligomer can be studied by solution-state NMR spectroscopy and obtain insights into the misfolding mechanism via its transient monomeric precursor. It is often assumed that misfolding into beta-sheet-rich isoforms proceeds via a compatible precursor with a beta-sheet subunit structure. We show here, on the contrary, evidence for an almost natively alpha-helix-rich monomeric precursor state with molten globule characteristics, converting in vitro into the beta-oligomer. We propose a possible mechanism for the formation of the beta-oligomer, triggered by intermolecular contacts between constantly rearranging structures. It is concluded that the beta-oligomer is not preceded by precursors with beta-sheet structure but by a partially unfolded clearly distinguishable alpha-helical state. PMID:17210575

  9. Neurotoxicity of Prion Peptides Mimicking the Central Domain of the Cellular Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Vilches, Silvia; Vergara, Cristina; Nicolás, Oriol; Sanclimens, Gloria; Merino, Sandra; Varón, Sonia; Acosta, Gerardo A.; Albericio, Fernando; Royo, Miriam; Río, José A. Del; Gavín, Rosalina

    2013-01-01

    The physiological functions of PrPC remain enigmatic, but the central domain, comprising highly conserved regions of the protein may play an important role. Indeed, a large number of studies indicate that synthetic peptides containing residues 106–126 (CR) located in the central domain (CD, 95–133) of PrPC are neurotoxic. The central domain comprises two chemically distinct subdomains, the charge cluster (CC, 95–110) and a hydrophobic region (HR, 112–133). The aim of the present study was to establish the individual cytotoxicity of CC, HR and CD. Our results show that only the CD peptide is neurotoxic. Biochemical, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy experiments demonstrated that the CD peptide is able to activate caspase-3 and disrupt the cell membrane, leading to cell death. PMID:23940658

  10. Reversible monomer-oligomer transition in human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ken; Gaikwad, Jyoti; Hashiguchi, Shuhei; Kubota, Toshiya; Sugimura, Kazuhisa; Kremer, Werner; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert; Akasaka, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    The structure and the dissociation reaction of oligomers Pr(Poligo) from reduced human prion huPrP(C)(23-231) have been studied by (1)H-NMR and tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy at varying pressure, along with circular dichroism and atomic force microscopy. The 1H-NMR and fluorescence spectral feature of the oligomer is consistent with the notion that the N-terminal residues including all seven Trp residues, are free and mobile, while residues 105 approximately 210, comprising the AGAAAAGA motif and S1-Loop-HelixA-Loop-S2-Loop-HelixC, are engaged in intra- and/ or inter-molecular interactions. By increasing pressure to 200 MPa, the oligomers tend to dissociate into monomers which may be identified with PrP(C*), a rare metastable form of PrP(C) stabilized at high pressure (Kachel et al., BMC Struct Biol 6:16). The results strongly suggest that the oligomeric form PrP(oligo) is in dynamic equilibrium with the monomeric forms via PrP(C*), namely huPrP(C)[left arrow over right arrow]huPrP(C*)[left arrow over right arrow]huPrP(oligo). PMID:19158507

  11. Reversible monomer-oligomer transition in human prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Ken; Gaikwad, Jyoti; Hashiguchi, Shuhei; Kubota, Toshiya; Sugimura, Kazuhisa; Kremer, Werner; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2008-01-01

    The structure and the dissociation reaction of oligomers PrPoligo from reduced human prion huPrPC(23–231) have been studied by 1H-NMR and tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy at varying pressure, along with circular dichroism and atomic force microscopy. The 1H-NMR and fluorescence spectral feature of the oligomer is consistent with the notion that the N-terminal residues including all seven Trp residues, are free and mobile, while residues 105?210, comprising the AGAAAAGA motif and S1-Loop-HelixA-Loop-S2-Loop-HelixC, are engaged in intra- and/or inter-molecular interactions. By increasing pressure to 200 MPa, the oligomers tend to dissociate into monomers which may be identified with PrPC*, a rare metastable form of PrPC stabilized at high pressure (Kachel et al., BMC Struct Biol 6:16). The results strongly suggest that the oligomeric form PrPoligo is in dynamic equilibrium with the monomeric forms via PrPC*, namely huPrPC ? huPrPC* ? huPrPoligo. PMID:19158507

  12. Preparation and characterization of antibodies against mouse prion protein (PrP) peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, T; Kimura, K; Tagawa, Y; Yuasa, N

    1995-01-01

    Antisera were raised in rabbits against three peptides, representing amino acid sequences 150 to 159, 165 to 174, and 213 to 226 of mouse prion (PrP), which were synthesized by using a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) system. The reactivities of these sera to PrP were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western immunoblotting (WB), and immunohistochemical procedures. The results of both ELISA and WB showed that antisera to peptide sequence 150 to 159 (Ab150-159) did not react with purified mouse PrP. On the other hand, sera to the sequence 165 to 174 (Ab165-174) reacted weakly with purified mouse PrP, as detected by WB but not by ELISA. However, antiserum to peptide sequence 213 to 226 (Ab213-226) reacted strongly with mouse, Syrian hamster, and sheep PrP by WB and with mouse PrP as shown by the results of ELISA. Moreover, Ab213-226 clearly detected PrP immunohistochemically in mouse, Syrian hamster, and sheep brains affected with scrapie as well as in the brain of a cow with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. From these data, we conclude that rabbit antiserum against the MAP representing amino acid sequence 213 to 226 of mouse PrP is useful as a diagnostic tool for prion disease of animals. PMID:7535178

  13. Mouse-Hamster Chimeric Prion Protein (PrP) Devoid of N-Terminal Residues 23-88 Restores Susceptibility to 22L Prions, but Not to RML Prions in PrP-Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Imamura, Morikazu; Muramatsu, Naomi; Das, Nandita Rani; Chida, Junji; Hara, Hideyuki; Sakaguchi, Suehiro

    2014-01-01

    Prion infection induces conformational conversion of the normal prion protein PrPC, into the pathogenic isoform PrPSc, in prion diseases. It has been shown that PrP-knockout (Prnp0/0) mice transgenically reconstituted with a mouse-hamster chimeric PrP lacking N-terminal residues 23-88, or Tg(MHM2?23-88)/Prnp0/0 mice, neither developed the disease nor accumulated MHM2Sc?23-88 in their brains after inoculation with RML prions. In contrast, RML-inoculated Tg(MHM2?23-88)/Prnp0/+ mice developed the disease with abundant accumulation of MHM2Sc?23-88 in their brains. These results indicate that MHM2?23-88 itself might either lose or greatly reduce the converting capacity to MHM2Sc?23-88, and that the co-expressing wild-type PrPC can stimulate the conversion of MHM2?23-88 to MHM2Sc?23-88 in trans. In the present study, we confirmed that Tg(MHM2?23-88)/Prnp0/0 mice remained resistant to RML prions for up to 730 days after inoculation. However, we found that Tg(MHM2?23-88)/Prnp0/0 mice were susceptible to 22L prions, developing the disease with prolonged incubation times and accumulating MHM2Sc?23-88 in their brains. We also found accelerated conversion of MHM2?23-88 into MHM2Sc?23-88 in the brains of RML- and 22L-inoculated Tg(MHM2?23-88)/Prnp0/+ mice. However, wild-type PrPSc accumulated less in the brains of these inoculated Tg(MHM2?23-88)/Prnp0/+ mice, compared with RML- and 22L-inoculated Prnp0/+ mice. These results show that MHM2?23-88 itself can convert into MHM2Sc?23-88 without the help of the trans-acting PrPC, and that, irrespective of prion strains inoculated, the co-expressing wild-type PrPC stimulates the conversion of MHM2?23-88 into MHM2Sc?23-88, but to the contrary, the co-expressing MHM2?23-88 disturbs the conversion of wild-type PrPC into PrPSc. PMID:25330286

  14. Neuronal death induced by misfolded prion protein is due to NAD+ depletion and can be relieved in vitro and in vivo by NAD+ replenishment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Minghai; Ottenberg, Gregory; Sferrazza, Gian Franco; Hubbs, Christopher; Fallahi, Mohammad; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Brantley, Alicia F; Lasmézas, Corinne I

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms of neuronal death in protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion diseases are poorly understood. We used a highly toxic misfolded prion protein (TPrP) model to understand neurotoxicity induced by prion protein misfolding. We show that abnormal autophagy activation and neuronal demise is due to severe, neuron-specific, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) depletion. Toxic prion protein-exposed neuronal cells exhibit dramatic reductions of intracellular NAD(+) followed by decreased ATP production, and are completely rescued by treatment with NAD(+) or its precursor nicotinamide because of restoration of physiological NAD(+) levels. Toxic prion protein-induced NAD(+) depletion results from PARP1-independent excessive protein ADP-ribosylations. In vivo, toxic prion protein-induced degeneration of hippocampal neurons is prevented dose-dependently by intracerebral injection of NAD(+). Intranasal NAD(+) treatment of prion-infected sick mice significantly improves activity and delays motor impairment. Our study reveals NAD(+) starvation as a novel mechanism of autophagy activation and neurodegeneration induced by a misfolded amyloidogenic protein. We propose the development of NAD(+) replenishment strategies for neuroprotection in prion diseases and possibly other protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25678560

  15. Dopamine induces the accumulation of insoluble prion protein and affects autophagic flux

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Marcio H. M.; Peres, Italo T.; Santos, Tiago G.; Martins, Vilma R.; Icimoto, Marcelo Y.; Lee, Kil S.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of protein aggregates is a histopathological hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases, but in most cases the aggregation occurs without defined mutations or clinical histories, suggesting that certain endogenous metabolites can promote aggregation of specific proteins. One example that supports this hypothesis is dopamine and its metabolites. Dopamine metabolism generates several oxidative metabolites that induce aggregation of ?-synuclein, and represents the main etiology of Parkinson's diseases. Because dopamine and its metabolites are unstable and can be highly reactive, we investigated whether these molecules can also affect other proteins that are prone to aggregate, such as cellular prion protein (PrPC). In this study, we showed that dopamine treatment of neuronal cells reduced the number of viable cells and increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as demonstrated in previous studies. Overall PrPC expression level was not altered by dopamine treatment, but its unglycosylated form was consistently reduced at 100 ?M of dopamine. At the same concentration, the level of phosphorylated mTOR and 4EBP1 was also reduced. Moreover, dopamine treatment decreased the solubility of PrPC, and increased its accumulation in autophagosomal compartments with concomitant induction of LC3-II and p62/SQSTM1 levels. In vitro oxidation of dopamine promoted formation of high-order oligomers of recombinant prion protein. These results suggest that dopamine metabolites alter the conformation of PrPC, which in turn is sorted to degradation pathway, causing autophagosome overload and attenuation of protein synthesis. Accumulation of PrPC aggregates is an important feature of prion diseases. Thus, this study brings new insight into the dopamine metabolism as a source of endogenous metabolites capable of altering PrPC solubility and its subcellular localization. PMID:25698927

  16. Stability of the ?-structure in prion protein: A molecular dynamics study based on polarized force field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhijun; Lazim, Raudah; Mei, Ye; Zhang, Dawei

    2012-06-01

    Conformational changes of the antiparallel ?-sheet in normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) of rat, bovine, and human are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations in both neutral and acidic environment. Using a recently developed simulation method based on an on-the-fly polarized protein-specific charge (PPC) update scheme during the simulation process, we evaluate and compare the cross-species performances of the ?-sheet during the early stage transition from the PrPC to its mutant configuration. Through this study, we observe the growth of the ?-sheet structure in all species studied with the extent of elongation in ?-sheet being different across the three species.

  17. Molecular architecture of human prion protein amyloid: A parallel, in-register ?-structure

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Nathan J.; Sönnichsen, Frank D.; Mchaourab, Hassane; Surewicz, Witold K.

    2007-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) represent a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with conformational conversion of the normally monomeric and ?-helical prion protein, PrPC, to the ?-sheet-rich PrPSc. This latter conformer is believed to constitute the main component of the infectious TSE agent. In contrast to high-resolution data for the PrPC monomer, structures of the pathogenic PrPSc or synthetic PrPSc-like aggregates remain elusive. Here we have used site-directed spin labeling and EPR spectroscopy to probe the molecular architecture of the recombinant PrP amyloid, a misfolded form recently reported to induce transmissible disease in mice overexpressing an N-terminally truncated form of PrPC. Our data show that, in contrast to earlier, largely theoretical models, the con formational conversion of PrPC involves major refolding of the C-terminal ?-helical region. The core of the amyloid maps to C-terminal residues from ?160–220, and these residues form single-molecule layers that stack on top of one another with parallel, in-register alignment of ?-strands. This structural insight has important implications for understanding the molecular basis of prion propagation, as well as hereditary prion diseases, most of which are associated with point mutations in the region found to undergo a refolding to ?-structure. PMID:18025469

  18. NMR-detected hydrogen exchange and molecular dynamics simulations provide structural insight into fibril formation of prion protein fragment 106–126

    PubMed Central

    Kuwata, Kazuo; Matumoto, Tomoharu; Cheng, Hong; Nagayama, Kuniaki; James, Thomas L.; Roder, Heinrich

    2003-01-01

    PrP106–126, a peptide corresponding to residues 107–127 of the human prion protein, induces neuronal cell death by apoptosis and causes proliferation and hypertrophy of glia, reproducing the main neuropathological features of prion-related transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Although PrP106–126 has been shown to form amyloid-like fibrils in vitro, their structural properties have not been elucidated. Here, we investigate the conformational characteristics of a fibril-forming fragment of the mouse prion protein, MoPrP106–126, by using electron microscopy, CD spectroscopy, NMR-detected hydrogen–deuterium exchange measurements, and molecular dynamics simulations. The fibrils contain ?50% ?-sheet structure, and strong amide exchange protection is limited to the central portion of the peptide spanning the palindromic sequence VAGAAAAGAV. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that MoPrP106–126 in water assumes a stable structure consisting of two four-stranded parallel ?-sheets that are tightly packed against each other by methyl–methyl interactions. Fibril formation involving polyalanine stacking is consistent with the experimental observations. PMID:14657385

  19. Structure of the ?2-?2 loop and interspecies prion transmission

    PubMed Central

    Bett, Cyrus; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Kurt, Timothy D.; Lucero, Melanie; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Castilla, Joaquín; Sigurdson, Christina J.

    2012-01-01

    Prions are misfolded, aggregated conformers of the prion protein that can be transmitted between species. The precise determinants of interspecies transmission remain unclear, although structural similarity between the infectious prion and host prion protein is required for efficient conversion to the misfolded conformer. The ?2-?2 loop region of endogenous prion protein, PrPC, has been implicated in barriers to prion transmission. We recently discovered that conversion was efficient when incoming and host prion proteins had similar ?2-?2 loop structures; however, the roles of primary vs. secondary structural homology could not be distinguished. Here we uncouple the effect of primary and secondary structural homology of the ?2-?2 loop on prion conversion. We inoculated prions from animals having a disordered or an ordered ?2-?2 loop into mice having a disordered loop or an ordered loop due to a single residue substitution (D167S). We found that prion conversion was driven by a homologous primary structure and occurred independently of a homologous secondary structure. Similarly, cell-free conversion using PrPC from mice with disordered or ordered loops and prions from 5 species correlated with primary but not secondary structural homology of the loop. Thus, our findings support a model in which efficient interspecies prion conversion is determined by small stretches of the primary sequence rather than the secondary structure of PrP.—Bett, C., Fernández-Borges, N., Kurt, T. D., Lucero, M., Nilsson, K. P. R., Castilla, J., Sigurdson, C. J. Structure of the ?2-?2 loop and interspecies prion transmission. PMID:22490928

  20. Prions, From Structure to Epigenetics and Neuronal Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, Susan

    2012-02-01

    Prions are a unique type of protein that can misfold and convert other proteins to the same shape. The well-characterized yeast prion [PSI+] is formed from an inactive amyloid fiber conformation of the translation-termination factor, Sup35. This altered conformation is passed from mother cells to daughters, acting as a template to perpetuate the prion state and providing a mechanism of protein-based inheritance. We employed a variety of methods to determine the structure of Sup35 amyloid fibrils. First, using fluorescent tags and cross-linking we identified specific segments of the protein monomer that form intermolecular contacts in a ``Head-to-Head,'' ``Tail-to-Tail'' fashion while a central region forms intramolecular contacts. Then, using peptide arrays we mapped the region responsible for the prion transmission barrier between two different yeast species. We have also used optical tweezers to reveal that the non-covalent intermolecular contacts between monomers are unusually strong, and maintain fibril integrity even under forces that partially unfold individual monomers and extend fibril length. Based on the handful of known yeast prion proteins we predicted sequences that could be responsible for prion-like amyloid folding. Our screen identified 19 new candidate prions, whose protein-folding properties and diverse cellular functions we have characterized using a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques. Prion-driven phenotypic diversity increases under stress, and can be amplified by the dynamic maturation of prion-initiating states. These qualities allow prions to act as ``bet-hedging'' devices that facilitate the adaptation of yeast to stressful environments, and might speed the evolution of new traits. Together with Kandel and Si, we have also found that a regulatory protein that plays an important role in synaptic plasticity behaves as a prion in yeast. Cytoplasmic polyAdenylation element binding protein, CPEB, maintains synapses by promoting the local translation of mRNAs. We postulate that the self-perpetuating folding of the prion domain acts as a molecular memory. Thus yeast prions have provided evidence for the surprising possibility that amyloid protein folds can serve as the basis for memory and inheritance.

  1. Analysis of 27 mammalian and 9 avian PrPs reveals high conservation of flexible regions of the prion protein 1 1 Edited by A. R. Fersht

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franziska Wopfner; Georg Weidenhöfer; Ralf Schneider; Albrecht von Brunn; Sabine Gilch; Tino F Schwarz; Thomas Werner; Hermann M Schätzl

    1999-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in man and animal associated with conformational conversion of a cellular prion protein (PrPc) into the pathologic isoform (PrPSc). The function of PrPcand the tertiary structure of PrPScare unclear. Various data indicate which parts of PrP might control the species barrier in prion diseases and the binding of putative factors to PrP. To elucidate

  2. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification induces the conversion of recombinant prion protein to PrP oligomers causing neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhen; Yang, Lifeng; Chen, Baian; Zhu, Ting; Hassan, Mohammad Farooque; Yin, Xiaomin; Zhou, Xiangmei; Zhao, Deming

    2015-06-01

    The formation of neurotoxic prion protein (PrP) oligomers is thought to be a key step in the development of prion diseases. Recently, it was determined that the sonication and shaking of recombinant PrP can convert PrP monomers into ?-state oligomers. Herein, we demonstrate that ?-state oligomeric PrP can be generated through protein misfolding cyclic amplification from recombinant full-length hamster, human, rabbit, and mutated rabbit PrP, and that these oligomers can be used for subsequent research into the mechanisms of PrP-induced neurotoxicity. We have characterized protein misfolding cyclic amplification-induced monomer-to-oligomer conversion of PrP from three species using western blotting, circular dichroism, size-exclusion chromatography, and resistance to proteinase K (PK) digestion. We have further shown that all of the resulting ?-oligomers are toxic to primary mouse cortical neurons independent of the presence of PrP(C) in the neurons, whereas the corresponding monomeric PrP were not toxic. In addition, we found that this toxicity is the result of oligomer-induced apoptosis via regulation of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 in both wild-type and PrP(-/-) cortical neurons. It is our hope that these results may contribute to our understanding of prion transformation within the brain. We found that ?-state oligomeric PrPs can be generated through protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) from recombinant full-length hamster, human, rabbit, and mutated rabbit PrP. ?-oligomers are toxic to primary mouse cortical neurons independent of the presence of PrP(C) in the neurons, while the corresponding monomeric PrPs were not toxic. This toxicity is the result of oligomers-induced apoptosis via regulation of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3. These results may contribute to our understanding of prion transformation within the brain. PMID:25810062

  3. Prion formation correlates with activation of translation-regulating protein 4E-BP and neuronal transcription factor Elk1.

    PubMed

    Allard, Elin K; Grujic, Mirjana; Fisone, Gilberto; Kristensson, Krister

    2013-10-01

    Cellular mechanisms play a role in conversion of the normal prion protein PrP(C) to the disease-associated protein PrP(Sc). The cells provide not only PrP(C), but also still largely undefined factors required for efficient prion replication. Previously, we have observed that interference with ERK and p38-JNK MAP kinase pathways has opposing effects on the formation of prions indicating that the process is regulated by a balance in intracellualar signaling pathways. In order to obtain a "flow-chart" of such pathways, we here studied the activation of MEK/ERK and mTORC1 downstream targets in relation to PrP(Sc) accumulation in GT1-1 cells infected with the RML or 22L prion strains. We show that inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin causes a reduction of PrP(Sc) accumulation at similar low levels as seen when the interaction between the translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G downstream mTORC1 is inhibited using 4EGI-1. No effect is seen following the inhibition of molecules (S6K1 and Mnk1) that links MEK/ERK signaling to mTORC1-mediated control of translation. Instead, stimulation (high [KCl] or [serum]) or inhibition (MEK-inhibitor) of prion formation is associated with increased or decreased phosphorylation of the neuronal transcription factor Elk1, respectively. This study shows that prion formation can be modulated by translational initiating factors, and suggests that MEK/ERK signaling plays a role in the conversion of PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) via an Elk1-mediated transcriptional control. Altogether, our studies indicate that prion protein conversion is under the control of intracellular signals, which hypothetically, under certain conditions may elicit irreversible responses leading to progressive neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23742760

  4. Prions and the Oral Cavity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Smith; J. Bagg; J. W. Ironside; R. G. Will; C. Scully

    2003-01-01

    Prion diseases have recently emerged as a significant challenge to health-care workers, including those involved in dentistry. Abnormal prion proteins are resistant to complete inactivation by conventional sterilization techniques. In the last decade, a new form of prion disease emerged in the UK, termed “variant CJD”, thought to be acquired by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy-contaminated food products. At present,

  5. Interaction between a recombinant prion protein and organo-mineral complexes as evidenced by CPMAS 13C-NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, F.; Scotti, R.; Gianfreda, L.; Conte, P.; Rao, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    Prion proteins (PrP) are the main responsible for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE). The TSE etiological agent is a misfolded form of the normal cellular prion protein. The amyloidal aggregates accumulated in the brain of infected animals and mainly composed of PrPSc exhibit resistance to protease attack and many conventional inactivating procedures. The prion protein diseases cause an environmental issue because the environment and in particular the soil compartment can be contaminated and then become a potential reservoir and diffuser of TSEs infectivity as a consequence of (i) accidental dispersion from storage plants of meat and bone meal, (ii) incorporation of contaminated material in fertilizers, (iii) possible natural contamination of pasture soils by grazing herds, and (v) burial of carcasses. The environmental problem can be even more relevant because very low amounts of PrPSc are able to propagate the disease. Several studies evidenced that infectious prion protein remains active in soils for years. Contaminated soils result, thus, a possible critical route of TSE transmission in wild animals. Soil can also protect prion protein toward degradation processes due to the presence of humic substances and inorganic components such as clays. Mineral and organic colloids and the more common association between clay minerals and humic substances can contribute to the adsorption/entrapment of molecules and macromolecules. The polymerization of organic monomeric humic precursors occurring in soil in the presence of oxidative enzymes or manganese and iron oxides, is considered one of the most important processes contributing to the formation of humic substances. The process is very fast and produces a population of polymeric products of different molecular structures, sizes, shapes and complexity. Other molecules and possibly biomacromolecules such as proteins may be involved. The aim of the present work was to study by CPMAS 13C-NMR the interactions between a non pathogenic ovine recombinant prion protein and a model soil system represented by a manganese oxide in the form of birnessite (?-MnO2), coated with a polymerized catechol. To better understand the effect of the polymerization process, PrP was added to the birnessite-cathecol system either before or after the polymerization processes. The NMR spectra of the prion protein interacting directly with birnessite revealed disappearance of the signals due to the paramagnetic nature of manganese oxide or abiotic degradation. Conversely, the signal pattern of the protein re-appeared as it is mixed to the soil-like system either during or after the catechol polymerization process. Results suggested that the possible interactions of the prion protein on soil systems can be mediated by natural organic matter. However, deeper studies on more complex real soil systems are needed to definitely confirm such hypothesis.

  6. Molecular dynamics studies on the NMR structures of rabbit prion protein wild-type and mutants: surface electrostatic charge distributions

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2014-01-01

    Prion is a misfolded protein found in mammals that causes infectious diseases of the nervous system in humans and animals. Prion diseases are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species such as sheep and goats, cattle, deer, elk and humans etc. Recent studies have shown that rabbits have a low susceptibility to be infected by prion diseases with respect to other animals including humans. The present study employs molecular dynamics (MD) means to unravel the mechanism of rabbit prion proteins (RaPrPC) based on the recently available rabbit NMR structures (of the wild-type and its two mutants of two surface residues). The electrostatic charge distributions on the protein surface are the focus when analysing the MD trajectories. It is found that we can conclude that surface electrostatic charge distributions indeed contribute to the structural stability of wild-type RaPrPC; this may be useful for the medicinal treatment of prion diseases.

  7. Nanoimaging for prion related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Alexander M; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Deckert, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of prion proteins is linked to a number of neurodegenerative disorders such as Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) and its variants: Kuru, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome and fatal familial insomnia. In prion diseases, infectious particles are proteins that propagate by transmitting a misfolded state of a protein, leading to the formation of aggregates and ultimately to neurodegeneration. Prion phenomenon is not restricted to humans. There are a number of prion-related diseases in a variety of mammals, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, also known as “mad cow disease”) in cattle. All known prion diseases, collectively called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are untreatable and fatal. Prion proteins were also found in some fungi where they are responsible for heritable traits. Prion proteins in fungi are easily accessible and provide a powerful model for understanding the general principles of prion phenomenon and molecular mechanisms of mammalian prion diseases. Presently, several fundamental questions related to prions remain unanswered. For example, it is not clear how prions cause the disease. Other unknowns include the nature and structure of infectious agent and how prions replicate. Generally, the phenomenon of misfolding of the prion protein into infectious conformations that have the ability to propagate their properties via aggregation is of significant interest. Despite the crucial importance of misfolding and aggregation, very little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms of these processes. While there is an apparent critical need to study molecular mechanisms underlying misfolding and aggregation, the detailed characterization of these single molecule processes is hindered by the limitation of conventional methods. Although some issues remain unresolved, much progress has been recently made primarily due to the application of nanoimaging tools. The use of nanoimaging methods shows great promise for understanding the molecular mechanisms of prion phenomenon, possibly leading toward early diagnosis and effective treatment of these devastating diseases. This review article summarizes recent reports which advanced our understanding of the prion phenomenon through the use of nanoimaging methods. PMID:20724837

  8. Loss of N-terminal Acetylation Suppresses A Prion Phenotype By Modulating Global Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, William M.; Mannakee, Brian K.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Serio, Tricia R.

    2014-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation is among the most ubiquitous of protein modifications in eukaryotes. While loss of N-terminal acetylation is associated with many abnormalities, the molecular basis of these effects is known for only a few cases, where acetylation of single factors has been linked to binding avidity or metabolic stability. In contrast, the impact of N-terminal acetylation for the majority of the proteome, and its combinatorial contributions to phenotypes, are unknown. Here, by studying the yeast prion [PSI+], an amyloid of the Sup35 protein, we show that loss of N-terminal acetylation promotes general protein misfolding, a redeployment of chaperones to these substrates, and a corresponding stress response. These proteostasis changes, combined with the decreased stability of unacetylated Sup35 amyloid, reduce the size of prion aggregates and reverse their phenotypic consequences. Thus, loss of N-terminal acetylation, and its previously unanticipated role in protein biogenesis, globally resculpts the proteome to create a unique phenotype. PMID:25023910

  9. Degradation of the Disease-Associated Prion Protein by a Serine Protease from Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Bennett, James P.; Biro, Steven M.; Duque-Velasquez, Juan Camilo; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bessen, Richard A.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted. PMID:21589935

  10. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher J; Bennett, James P; Biro, Steven M; Duque-Velasquez, Juan Camilo; Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bessen, Richard A; Rocke, Tonie E

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE) inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE). Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE)-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE) and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted. PMID:21589935

  11. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J.C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE) inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE). Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE)-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE) and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  12. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  13. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  14. Effect of Charged Residues in the N-domain of Sup35 Protein on Prion [PSI+] Stability and Propagation*

    PubMed Central

    Bondarev, Stanislav A.; Shchepachev, Vadim V.; Kajava, Andrey V.; Zhouravleva, Galina A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Sup35p prion fibrils probably have a parallel in-register ?-structure. However, the part(s) of the N-domain critical for fibril formation and maintenance of the [PSI+] phenotype remains unclear. Here we designed a set of five SUP35 mutant alleles (sup35KK) with lysine substitutions in each of five N-domain repeats, and investigated their effect on infectivity and ability of corresponding proteins to aggregate and coaggregate with wild type Sup35p in the [PSI+] strain. Alleles sup35-M1 (Y46K/Q47K) and sup35-M2 (Q61K/Q62K) led to prion loss, whereas sup35-M3 (Q70K/Q71K), sup35-M4 (Q80K/Q81K), and sup35-M5 (Q89K/Q90K) were able to maintain the [PSI+] prion. This suggests that the critical part of the parallel in-register ?-structure for the studied [PSI+] prion variant lies in the first 63–69 residues. Our study also reveals an unexpected interplay between the wild type Sup35p and proteins expressed from the sup35KK alleles during prionization. Both Sup35-M1p and Sup35-M2p coaggregated with Sup35p, but only sup35-M2 led to prion loss in a dominant manner. We suggest that in the fibrils, Sup35p can bind to Sup35-M1p in the same conformation, whereas Sup35-M2p only allowed the Sup35p conformation that leads to the non-heritable fold. Mutations sup35-M4 and sup35-M5 influence the structure of the prion forming region to a lesser extent, and can lead to the formation of new prion variants. PMID:23965990

  15. Zinc modulates copper coordination mode in prion protein octa-repeat subdomains.

    PubMed

    Stellato, Francesco; Spevacek, Ann; Proux, Olivier; Minicozzi, Velia; Millhauser, Glenn; Morante, Silvia

    2011-11-01

    In this work we present and analyse XAS measurements carried out on various portions of Prion-protein tetra-octa-repeat peptides in complexes with Cu(II) ions, both in the presence and in the absence of Zn(II). Because of the ability of the XAS technique to provide detailed local structural information, we are able to demonstrate that Zn acts by directly interacting with the peptide, in this way competing with Cu for binding with histidine. This finding suggests that metal binding competition can be important in the more general context of metal homeostasis. PMID:21710304

  16. David Goodsell PRION ALZHEIMER'S

    E-print Network

    Sabatini, David M.

    and Neurodegeneration PRION ALZHEIMER'S A huntingtin Prion protein TDP-43 -synuclein tau FT DEMENTIA PARKINSON-binder with peculiar properties #12;Common and Rare Synucleinopathies · Parkinson's disease (PD) · Dementia with Lewy mining urban pollution drug abuse #12;Mul$ple' Disease'' Genes!" YPK9" Human'disease5related'gene' Gene

  17. Solid-state NMR studies of the prion protein H1 fragment.

    PubMed Central

    Heller, J.; Kolbert, A. C.; Larsen, R.; Ernst, M.; Bekker, T.; Baldwin, M.; Prusiner, S. B.; Pines, A.; Wemmer, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Conformational changes in the prion protein (PrP) seem to be responsible for prion diseases. We have used conformation-dependent chemical-shift measurements and rotational-resonance distance measurements to analyze the conformation of solid-state peptides lacking long-range order, corresponding to a region of PrP designated H1. This region is predicted to undergo a transformation of secondary structure in generating the infectious form of the protein. Solid-state NMR spectra of specifically 13C-enriched samples of H1, residues 109-122 (MKHMAGAAAAGAVV) of Syrian hamster PrP, have been acquired under cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning conditions. Samples lyophilized from 50% acetonitrile/50% water show chemical shifts characteristic of a beta-sheet conformation in the region corresponding to residues 112-121, whereas samples lyophilized from hexafluoroisopropanol display shifts indicative of alpha-helical secondary structure in the region corresponding to residues 113-117. Complete conversion to the helical conformation was not observed and conversion from alpha-helix back to beta-sheet, as inferred from the solid-state NMR spectra, occurred when samples were exposed to water. Rotational-resonance experiments were performed on seven doubly 13C-labeled H1 samples dried from water. Measured distances suggest that the peptide is in an extended, possibly beta-strand, conformation. These results are consistent with the experimental observation that PrP can exist in different conformational states and with structural predictions based on biological data and theoretical modeling that suggest that H1 may play a key role in the conformational transition involved in the development of prion diseases. PMID:8844854

  18. A novel form of human disease with a protease-sensitive prion protein and heterozygosity methionine\\/valine at codon 129: Case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana B Rodríguez-Martínez; Joseba M Garrido; Juan J Zarranz; Jose M Arteagoitia; Marian M de Pancorbo; Begoña Atarés; Miren J Bilbao; Isidro Ferrer; Ramón A Juste

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder in humans included in the group of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies or prion diseases. The vast majority of sCJD cases are molecularly classified according to the abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) conformations along with polymorphism of codon 129 of the PRNP gene. Recently, a novel human disease, termed \\

  19. Accumulation of protease-resistant prion protein (PrP) and apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells in transgenic mice expressing a PrP insertional mutation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Chiesa; Bettina Drisaldi; Elena Quaglio; Antonio Migheli; Pedro Piccardo; Bernardino Ghetti; David A. Harris

    2000-01-01

    We have generated lines of transgenic mice that express a mutant prion protein (PrP) containing 14 octapeptide repeats whose human homologue is associated with an inherited prion dementia. These mice develop a neurological illness with prominent ataxia at 65 or 240 days of age, depending on whether the transgene array is, respectively, homozygous or hemizygous. Starting from birth, mutant PrP

  20. Modelling human prion replication in cell-free systems 

    E-print Network

    Barria Matus, Marcelo Alejandro

    2014-11-28

    One of the key molecular events in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases is the conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein PrPC into the misfolded and pathogenic isoform, PrPSc. Prion ...

  1. Proteolysis of abnormal prion protein with a thermostable protease from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1.

    PubMed

    Koga, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shun-ichi; Sakudo, Akikazu; Tobiume, Minoru; Aranishi, Mutsuo; Hirata, Azumi; Takano, Kazufumi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2014-03-01

    The abnormal prion protein (scrapie-associated prion protein, PrP(Sc)) is considered to be included in the group of infectious agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Since PrP(Sc) is highly resistant to normal sterilization procedures, the decontamination of PrP(Sc) is a significant public health issue. In the present study, a hyperthermostable protease, Tk-subtilisin, was used to degrade PrP(Sc). Although PrP(Sc) is known to be resistant toward proteolytic enzymes, Tk-subtilisin was able to degrade PrP(Sc) under extreme conditions. The level of PrP(Sc) in brain homogenates was found to decrease significantly in vitro following Tk-subtilisin treatment at 100 °C, whereas some protease-resistant fractions remain after proteinase K treatment. Rather small amounts of Tk-subtilisin (0.3 U) were required to degrade PrP(Sc) at 100 °C and pH 8.0. In addition, Tk-subtilisin was observed to degrade PrP(Sc) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate or other industrial surfactants. Although several proteases degrading PrP(Sc) have been reported, practical decontamination procedures using enzymes are not available. This report aims to provide basic information for the practical use of a proteolytic enzyme for PrP(Sc) degradation. PMID:23880875

  2. Cellular Prion Protein Regulates Its Own ?-Cleavage through ADAM8 in Skeletal Muscle*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jingjing; Wang, Wei; Sorensen, Debra; Medina, Sarah; Ilchenko, Sergei; Kiselar, Janna; Surewicz, Witold K.; Booth, Stephanie A.; Kong, Qingzhong

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed cellular prion protein (PrPC) is subjected to the physiological ?-cleavage at a region critical for both PrP toxicity and the conversion of PrPC to its pathogenic prion form (PrPSc), generating the C1 and N1 fragments. The C1 fragment can activate caspase 3 while the N1 fragment is neuroprotective. Recent articles indicate that ADAM10, ADAM17, and ADAM9 may not play a prominent role in the ?-cleavage of PrPC as previously thought, raising questions on the identity of the responsible protease(s). Here we show that, ADAM8 can directly cleave PrP to generate C1 in vitro and PrP C1/full-length ratio is greatly decreased in the skeletal muscles of ADAM8 knock-out mice; in addition, the PrP C1/full-length ratio is linearly correlated with ADAM8 protein level in myoblast cell line C2C12 and in skeletal muscle tissues of transgenic mice. These results indicate that ADAM8 is the primary protease responsible for the ?-cleavage of PrPC in muscle cells. Moreover, we found that overexpression of PrPC led to up-regulation of ADAM8, suggesting that PrPC may regulate its own ?-cleavage through modulating ADAM8 activity. PMID:22447932

  3. The cellular prion protein traps Alzheimer's A? in an oligomeric form and disassembles amyloid fibers

    PubMed Central

    Younan, Nadine D.; Sarell, Claire J.; Davies, Paul; Brown, David R.; Viles, John H.

    2013-01-01

    There is now strong evidence to show that the presence of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) mediates amyloid-? (A?) neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we probe the molecular details of the interaction between PrPC and A? and discover that substoichiometric amounts of PrPC, as little as 1/20, relative to A? will strongly inhibit amyloid fibril formation. This effect is specific to the unstructured N-terminal domain of PrPC. Electron microscopy indicates PrPC is able to trap A? in an oligomeric form. Unlike fibers, this oligomeric A? contains antiparallel ? sheet and binds to a oligomer specific conformational antibody. Our NMR studies show that a specific region of PrPC, notably residues 95–113, binds to A? oligomers, but only once A? misfolds. The ability of PrPC to trap and concentrate A? in an oligomeric form and disassemble mature fibers suggests a mechanism by which PrPC might confer A? toxicity in AD, as oligomers are thought to be the toxic form of A?. Identification of a specific recognition site on PrPC that traps A? in an oligomeric form is potentially a therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.—Younan, N. D., Sarell, C. J., Davies, P., Brown, D. R., Viles, J. H. The cellular prion protein traps Alzheimer's A? in an oligomeric form and disassembles amyloid fibers. PMID:23335053

  4. Conformational detection of prion protein with biarsenical labeling and FlAsH fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Bradley M. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Nisbet, Rebecca M.; Han, Sen [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Pathology and Mental Health Research Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Cappai, Roberto [Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Pathology and Mental Health Research Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Hatters, Danny M. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Pathology and Mental Health Research Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Hill, Andrew F. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Pathology and Mental Health Research Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: a.hill@unimelb.edu.au

    2009-03-13

    Prion diseases are associated with the misfolding of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) into a disease associated form (PrP{sup Sc}). Recombinant PrP can be refolded into either an {alpha}-helical rich conformation ({alpha}-PrP) resembling PrP{sup C} or a {beta}-sheet rich, protease resistant form similar to PrP{sup Sc}. Here, we generated tetracysteine tagged recombinant PrP, folded this into {alpha}- or {beta}-PrP and determined the levels of FlAsH fluorescence. Insertion of the tetracysteine tag at three different sites within the 91-111 epitope readily distinguished {beta}-PrP from {alpha}-PrP upon FlAsH labeling. Labelling of tetracysteine tagged PrP in the {alpha}-helical form showed minimal fluorescence, whereas labeling of tagged PrP in the {beta}-sheet form showed high fluorescence indicating that this region is exposed upon conversion. This highlights a region of PrP that can be implicated in the development of diagnostics and is a novel, protease free mechanism for distinguishing PrP{sup Sc} from PrP{sup C}. This technique may also be applied to any protein that undergoes conformational change and/or misfolding such as those involved in other neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases.

  5. MEK1 transduces the prion protein N2 fragment antioxidant effects.

    PubMed

    Haigh, C L; McGlade, A R; Collins, S J

    2015-04-01

    The prion protein (PrP(C)) when mis-folded is causally linked with a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. PrP(C) normal function is still incompletely defined with such investigations complicated by PrP(C) post-translational modifications, such as internal cleavage, which feasibly could change, activate, or deactivate the function of this protein. Oxidative stress induces ?-cleavage and the N-terminal product of this cleavage event, N2, demonstrates a cellular protective response against oxidative stress. The mechanisms by which N2 mediates cellular antioxidant protection were investigated within an in vitro cell model. N2 protection was regulated by copper binding to the octarepeat domain, directing the route of internalisation, which stimulated MEK1 signalling. Precise membrane interactions of N2, determined by copper saturation, and involving both the copper-co-ordinating octarepeat region and the structure conferred upon the N-terminal polybasic region by the proline motif, were essential for the correct engagement of this pathway. The phenomenon of PrP(C) post-translational modification, such as cleavage and copper co-ordination, as a molecular "switch" for activation or deactivation of certain functions provides new insight into the apparent multi-functionality of PrP(C). PMID:25391659

  6. Cellular prion protein regulates its own ?-cleavage through ADAM8 in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingjing; Wang, Wei; Sorensen, Debra; Medina, Sarah; Ilchenko, Sergei; Kiselar, Janna; Surewicz, Witold K; Booth, Stephanie A; Kong, Qingzhong

    2012-05-11

    The ubiquitously expressed cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is subjected to the physiological ?-cleavage at a region critical for both PrP toxicity and the conversion of PrP(C) to its pathogenic prion form (PrP(Sc)), generating the C1 and N1 fragments. The C1 fragment can activate caspase 3 while the N1 fragment is neuroprotective. Recent articles indicate that ADAM10, ADAM17, and ADAM9 may not play a prominent role in the ?-cleavage of PrP(C) as previously thought, raising questions on the identity of the responsible protease(s). Here we show that, ADAM8 can directly cleave PrP to generate C1 in vitro and PrP C1/full-length ratio is greatly decreased in the skeletal muscles of ADAM8 knock-out mice; in addition, the PrP C1/full-length ratio is linearly correlated with ADAM8 protein level in myoblast cell line C2C12 and in skeletal muscle tissues of transgenic mice. These results indicate that ADAM8 is the primary protease responsible for the ?-cleavage of PrP(C) in muscle cells. Moreover, we found that overexpression of PrP(C) led to up-regulation of ADAM8, suggesting that PrP(C) may regulate its own ?-cleavage through modulating ADAM8 activity. PMID:22447932

  7. Methionine Oxidation Perturbs the Structural Core of the Prion Protein and Suggests a Generic Misfolding Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Younan, Nadine D.; Nadal, Rebecca C.; Davies, Paul; Brown, David R.; Viles, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and misfolding of the prion protein (PrPC) are fundamental to prion diseases. We have therefore probed the effect of oxidation on the structure and stability of PrPC. Urea unfolding studies indicate that H2O2 oxidation reduces the thermodynamic stability of PrPC by as much as 9 kJ/mol. 1H-15N NMR studies indicate methionine oxidation perturbs key hydrophobic residues on one face of helix-C as follows: Met-205, Val-209, and Met-212 together with residues Val-160 and Tyr-156. These hydrophobic residues pack together and form the structured core of the protein, stabilizing its ternary structure. Copper-catalyzed oxidation of PrPC causes a more significant alteration of the structure, generating a monomeric molten globule species that retains its native helical content. Further copper-catalyzed oxidation promotes extended ?-strand structures that lack a cooperative fold. This transition from the helical molten globule to ?-conformation has striking similarities to a misfolding intermediate generated at low pH. PrP may therefore share a generic misfolding pathway to amyloid fibers, irrespective of the conditions promoting misfolding. Our observations support the hypothesis that oxidation of PrP destabilizes the native fold of PrPC, facilitating the transition to PrPSc. This study gives a structural and thermodynamic explanation for the high levels of oxidized methionine in scrapie isolates. PMID:22654104

  8. Evolutionary Conserved Tyr169 Stabilizes the ?2-?2 Loop of the Prion Protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danzhi; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2015-03-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the primary structure of the ?2-?2 loop region (residues 165-175) in mammalian prion proteins (PrP) influences the conversion from the cellular species (PrP(C)) to the ?-sheet-rich aggregate. Here, we captured the transition of the ?2-?2 loop from 310-helical turn to ? turn by unbiased molecular dynamics simulations of the single-point mutant Y169G. Multiple conformations along the spontaneous transition of the mutant were then used as starting point for sampling of the free-energy surface of the wild type and other single-point mutants. Using two different methods for the determination of free energy profiles, we found that the barrier for the 310-helical turn to ? turn transition of the wild type is higher by about 2.5 kcal/mol than for the Y169G mutant, which is due to favorable stacking of the aromatic rings of Y169 and F175, and a stable hydrogen bond between the side chains of Y169 and D178. The transition of the ?2-?2 loop to ? turn increases the solvent-exposure of the hydrophobic stretch 169-YSNQNNF-175. The simulations indicate that the strictly conserved Y169 in mammalian prion proteins stabilizes the 310-helical turn in the ?2-?2 loop, thus hindering the conversion to an aggregation-prone conformation. PMID:25671636

  9. A novel expression system for production of soluble prion proteins in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Expression of eukaryotic proteins in Escherichia coli is challenging, especially when they contain disulfide bonds. Since the discovery of the prion protein (PrP) and its role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the need to obtain large quantities of the recombinant protein for research purposes has been essential. Currently, production of recombinant PrP is achieved by refolding protocols. Here, we show that the co-expression of two different PrP with the human Quiescin Sulfhydryl OXidase (QSOX), a human chaperone with thiol/disulfide oxidase activity, in the cytoplasm of E. coli produces soluble recombinant PrP. The structural integrity of the soluble PrP has been confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, demonstrating that properly folded PrP can be easily expressed in bacteria. Furthermore, the soluble recombinant PrP produced with this method can be used for functional and structural studies. PMID:22233534

  10. The Rich Electrochemistry and Redox Reactions of the Copper Sites in the Cellular Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feimeng; Millhauser, Glenn L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews recent electrochemical studies of the copper complexes of prion protein (PrP) and its related peptides, and correlates their redox behavior to chemical and biologically relevant reactions. Particular emphasis is placed on the difference in redox properties between copper in the octarepeat (OR) and the non-OR domains of PrP, as well as differences between the high and low copper occupancy states in the OR domain. Several discrepancies in literature concerning these differences are discussed and reconciled. The PrP copper complexes, in comparison to copper complexes of other amyloidogenic proteins/peptides, display a more diverse and richer redox chemistry. The specific protocols and caveats that need to be considered in studying the electrochemistry and redox reactions of copper complexes of PrP, PrP-derived peptides, and other related amyloidogenic proteins are summarized. PMID:23144499

  11. Impact of methionine oxidation as an initial event on the pathway of human prion protein conversion

    PubMed Central

    Elmallah, Mohammed IY; Borgmeyer, Uwe; Betzel, Christian; Redecke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases comprise a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the autocatalytic conversion of the cellular prion protein PrPC into the infectious misfolded isoform PrPSc. Increasing evidence supports a specific role of oxidative stress in the onset of pathogenesis. Although the associated molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated in detail, several studies currently suggest that methionine oxidation already detected in misfolded PrPSc destabilizes the native PrP fold as an early event in the conversion pathway. To obtain more insights about the specific impact of surface-exposed methionine residues on the oxidative-induced conversion of human PrP we designed, produced, and comparatively investigated two new pseudosulfoxidation mutants of human PrP 121–231 that comprises the well-folded C-terminal domain. Applying circular dichroism spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering techniques we showed that pseudosulfoxidation of all surface exposed Met residues formed a monomeric molten globule-like species with striking similarities to misfolding intermediates recently reported by other groups. However, individual pseudosulfoxidation at the polymorphic M129 site did not significantly contribute to the structural destabilization. Further metal-induced oxidation of the partly unfolded pseudosulfoxidation mutant resulted in the formation of an oligomeric state that shares a comparable size and stability with PrP oligomers detected after the application of different other triggers for structural conversion, indicating a generic misfolding pathway of PrP. The obtained results highlight the specific importance of methionine oxidation at surface exposed residues for PrP misfolding, strongly supporting the hypothesis that increased oxidative stress could be one causative event for sporadic prion diseases and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24121542

  12. Association between genotypes at codon 171 and 136 of the prion protein gene and production traits in market lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of small ruminants for which infection is genetically controlled by commonly occurring polymorphisms in the gene encoding the normal prion protein precursor gene Prnp. Selection of sheep with the Prnp allele encoding arginine at codon 171 is rema...

  13. CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE OF ELK AND DEER AND CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SCRAPIE PRION PROTEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with, and possibly caused by, accumulation of a neurotoxic, misfolded isoform, termed PrP-d, of a normal cellular protein, PrP-c. Primary amino acid differences and secondary conformati...

  14. Prion Protein is Expressed on Long-term Repopulating Hematopoietic Stem Cells and is Necessary for their Self-renewal

    E-print Network

    Lodish, Harvey F.

    We show that the prion protein (PrP) is expressed on the surface of bone marrow cell populations enriched in long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells. Affinity purification of the PrP-positive and PrP-negative ...

  15. HELIX 3 IS NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT FOR PRION PROTEIN’S ANTI-BAX FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Laroche-Pierre, Stéphanie; Jodoin, Julie; LeBlanc, Andréa C.

    2009-01-01

    To identify the structural elements of the prion protein (PrP) necessary for its protective function against Bax, we performed structure-function analyses of the anti-Bax function of cytosolic PrP (CyPrP) in MCF-7 cells. Deletions of 1, 2, or 3 N-terminal BH2-like octapeptide repeats (BORs), but not deletion of all 4 BORs, abolish CyPrP’s anti-Bax function. Deletion of ?-helix 3 (PrP23-199) or further C-terminal deletions of ?-helix 1 and 2, and ?-strand 1 and 2 (PrP23-172, PrP23-160, PrP23-143, PrP23-127) eliminates CyPrP’s protection against Bax-mediated cell death. The substitution of helix 3 amino acid residues K204, V210, and E219 by proline inhibits the anti-Bax function of CyPrP. The substitution of K204, but not V210 and E219, by alanine residues also prevents CyPrP’s anti-Bax function. Expression of PrP’s helix 3 displays anti-Bax activity in MCF-7 cells and in human neurons. Together, these results indicate that although the BOR domain has an influence on PrP’s anti-Bax function, the helix 3 is necessary and sufficient for the anti-Bax function of CyPrP. Identification of helix 3 as the structural element for the anti-Bax function thus provides a molecular target to modulate PrP’s anti-Bax function in cancer and neurodegeneration. PMID:19196429

  16. The Role of the N-Terminal Oligopeptide Repeats of the Yeast Sup35 Prion Protein in Propagation and Transmission of Prion Variants

    PubMed Central

    Shkundina, Irina S.; Kushnirov, Vitaly V.; Tuite, Mick F.; Ter-Avanesyan, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    The cytoplasmic [PSI+] determinant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the prion form of the Sup35 protein. Oligopeptide repeats within the Sup35 N-terminal domain (PrD) presumably are required for the stable [PSI+] inheritance that in turn involves fragmentation of Sup35 polymers by the chaperone Hsp104. The nonsense suppressor [PSI+] phenotype can vary in efficiency probably due to different inheritable Sup35 polymer structures. Here we study the ability of Sup35 mutants with various deletions of the oligopeptide repeats to support [PSI+] propagation. We define the minimal region of the Sup35–PrD necessary to support [PSI+] as amino acids 1–64, which include the first two repeats, although a longer fragment, 1–83, is required to maintain weak [PSI+] variants. Replacement of wild-type Sup35 with deletion mutants decreases the strength of the [PSI+] phenotype. However, with one exception, reintroducing the wild-type Sup35 restores the original phenotype. Thus, the specific prion fold defining the [PSI+] variant can be preserved by the mutant Sup35 protein despite the change of phenotype. Coexpression of wild-type and mutant Sup35 containing three, two, one, or no oligopeptide repeats causes variant-specific [PSI+] elimination. These data suggest that [PSI+] variability is primarily defined by differential folding of the Sup35–PrD oligopeptide-repeat region. PMID:16272413

  17. Cloning and expression analysis of a prion protein encoding gene in guppy ( Poecilia reticulata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Suihan; Wei, Qiwei; Yang, Guanpin; Wang, Dengqiang; Zou, Guiwei; Chen, Daqing

    2008-11-01

    The full length cDNA of a prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of guppy ( Poecilia reticulata) and the corresponding genomic DNA were cloned. The cDNA was 2245 bp in length and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1545 bp encoding a protein of 515 amino acids, which held all typical structural characteristics of the functional PrP. The cloned genomic DNA fragment corresponding to the cDNA was 3720 bp in length, consisting of 2 introns and 2 exons. The 5' untranslated region of cDNA originated from the 2 exons, while the ORF originated from the second exon. Although the gene was transcribed in diverse tissues including brain, eye, liver, intestine, muscle and tail, its transcript was most abundant in the brain. In addition, the transcription of the gene was enhanced by 5 salinity, implying that it was associated with the response of guppy to saline stress.

  18. Complement protein C3 exacerbates prion disease in a mouse model of chronic wasting disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows a critical role of the complement system in facilitating attachment of prions to both B cells and follicular dendritic cells and assisting in prion replication. Complement activation intensifies disease in prion-infected animals, and elimination of complement components inhibits prion accumulation, replication and pathogenesis. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a highly infectious prion disease of captive and free-ranging cervid populations that utilizes the complement system for efficient peripheral prion replication and most likely efficient horizontal transmission. Here we show that complete genetic or transient pharmacological depletion of C3 prolongs incubation times and significantly delays splenic accumulation in a CWD transgenic mouse model. Using a semi-quantitative prion amplification scoring system we show that C3 impacts disease progression in the early stages of disease by slowing the rate of prion accumulation and/or replication. The delayed kinetics in prion replication correlate with delayed disease kinetics in mice deficient in C3. Taken together, these data support a critical role of C3 in peripheral CWD prion pathogenesis. PMID:24038599

  19. Age-dependent impairment of eyeblink conditioning in prion protein-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yasushi; Hirono, Moritoshi; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Yoshioka, Tohru; Katamine, Shigeru; Kirino, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Mice lacking the prion protein (PrP(C)) gene (Prnp), Ngsk Prnp (0/0) mice, show late-onset cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration because of ectopic overexpression of PrP(C)-like protein (PrPLP/Dpl). Because PrP(C) is highly expressed in cerebellar neurons (including PCs and granule cells), it may be involved in cerebellar synaptic function and cerebellar cognitive function. However, no studies have been conducted to investigate the possible involvement of PrP(C) and/or PrPLP/Dpl in cerebellum-dependent discrete motor learning. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study was designed to examine cerebellum-dependent delay eyeblink conditioning in Ngsk Prnp (0/0) mice in adulthood (16, 40, and 60 weeks of age). The aims of the present study were two-fold: (1) to examine the role of PrP(C) and/or PrPLP/Dpl in cerebellum-dependent motor learning and (2) to confirm the age-related deterioration of eyeblink conditioning in Ngsk Prnp (0/0) mice as an animal model of progressive cerebellar degeneration. Ngsk Prnp (0/0) mice aged 16 weeks exhibited intact acquisition of conditioned eyeblink responses (CRs), although the CR timing was altered. The same result was observed in another line of PrP(c)-deficient mice, ZrchI PrnP (0/0) mice. However, at 40 weeks of age, CR incidence impairment was observed in Ngsk Prnp (0/0) mice. Furthermore, Ngsk Prnp (0/0) mice aged 60 weeks showed more significantly impaired CR acquisition than Ngsk Prnp (0/0) mice aged 40 weeks, indicating the temporal correlation between cerebellar PC degeneration and motor learning deficits. Our findings indicate the importance of the cerebellar cortex in delay eyeblink conditioning and suggest an important physiological role of prion protein in cerebellar motor learning. PMID:23593266

  20. Non-targeted Identification of Prions and Amyloid-forming Proteins from Yeast and Mammalian Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Pripuzova, Natalia; Burnett, Barrington G.; Shewmaker, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The formation of amyloid aggregates is implicated both as a primary cause of cellular degeneration in multiple human diseases and as a functional mechanism for providing extraordinary strength to large protein assemblies. The recent identification and characterization of several amyloid proteins from diverse organisms argues that the amyloid phenomenon is widespread in nature. Yet identifying new amyloid-forming proteins usually requires a priori knowledge of specific candidates. Amyloid fibers can resist heat, pressure, proteolysis, and denaturation by reagents such as urea or sodium dodecyl sulfate. Here we show that these properties can be exploited to identify naturally occurring amyloid-forming proteins directly from cell lysates. This proteomic-based approach utilizes a novel purification of amyloid aggregates followed by identification by mass spectrometry without the requirement for special genetic tools. We have validated this technique by blind identification of three amyloid-based yeast prions from laboratory and wild strains and disease-related polyglutamine proteins expressed in both yeast and mammalian cells. Furthermore, we found that polyglutamine aggregates specifically recruit some stress granule components, revealing a possible mechanism of toxicity. Therefore, core amyloid-forming proteins as well as strongly associated proteins can be identified directly from cells of diverse origin. PMID:23926098

  1. The shortest known prion protein gene allele occurs in goats, has only three octapeptide repeats and is non-pathogenic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfred Goldmann; Angela Chong; James Foster; James Hope; Nora Hunter

    1998-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) gene modulates the in- cidence and incubation periods of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of sheep, goats, mice and man. Here, a new caprine PrP allele encoding the shortest naturally occurring PrP protein so far described is reported. This variant contains only three instead of the usual five copies of a short peptide repeat (Pro-Gln\\/His-Gly-Gly-Gly-(Gly)-Trp- Gly-Gln) characteristic of

  2. Cellular prion protein inhibits proapoptotic Bax conformational change in human neurons and in breast carcinoma MCF7 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X Roucou; P N Giannopoulos; Y Zhang; J Jodoin; C G Goodyer; A LeBlanc

    2005-01-01

    Prion protein (PrP) prevents Bcl-2-associated protein X (Bax)-mediated cell death, but the step at which PrP inhibits is not known. We first show that PrP is very specific for Bax and cannot prevent Bak (Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1)-, tBid-, staurosporine- or thapsigargin-mediated cell death. As Bax activation involves Bax conformational change, mitochondrial translocation, cytochrome c release and caspase activation, we

  3. The cellular prion protein (PrP) selectively binds to Bcl2 in the yeast two-hybrid system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelia Kurschner; James I. Morgan

    1995-01-01

    Bcl-2 can rescue neurons from death and might, therefore, exert its action by associating with neuron-specific proteins. Using LexA-Bcl-2 as bait, we find that the cellular prion protein (PrP) interacts with Bcl-2, but not Bax, in the yeast two-hybrid system. Since the PrP gene has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, this preliminary observation suggests a potential pathogenic mechanism for these

  4. Both Met(109) and Met(112) are Utilized for Cu(II) Coordination to the Amyloidogenic Fragment of the Human Prion Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, J.; Soh, P; Lentz, S

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein is a ubiquitous neuronal membrane protein. Misfolding of the prion protein has been implicated in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases). It has been demonstrated that the human prion protein (PrP) is capable of coordinating at least five Cu{sup II} ions under physiological conditions; four copper binding sites can be found in the octarepeat domain between residues 61 and 91, while another copper binding site can be found in the unstructured 'amyloidogenic' domain between residues 91 and 126 PrP(91-126). Herein we expand upon a previous study (J. Shearer, P. Soh, Inorg. Chem. 46 (2007) 710-719) where we demonstrated that the physiologically relevant high affinity Cu{sup II} coordination site within PrP(91-126) is found between residues 106 and 114. It was shown that Cu{sup II} is contained within a square planar (N/O){sub 3}S coordination environment with one His imidazole ligand (H(111)) and one Met thioether ligand (either M(109) or M(112)). The identity of the Met thioether ligand was not identified in that study. In this study we perform a detailed investigation of the Cu{sup II} coordination environment within the PrP fragment containing residues 106-114 (PrP(106-114)) involving optical, X-ray absorption, EPR, and fluorescence spectroscopies in conjunction with electronic structure calculations. By using derivatives of PrP(106-114) with systematic Met {yields} Ile 'mutations' we show that the Cu{sup II} coordination environment within PrP(106-114) is actually comprised of a mixture of two major species; one CuII(N/O){sub 3}S center with the M(109) thioether coordinated to Cu{sup II} and another Cu{sup II}(N/O){sub 3}S center with the M(112) thioether coordinated to Cu{sup II}. Furthermore, deletion of one or more Met residues from the primary sequence of PrP(106-114) both reduces the Cu{sup II} affinity of the peptide by two to seven fold, and renders the resulting Cu{sup II} metallopeptides redox inactive. The biological implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. The intriguing prion disorders

    PubMed Central

    Abid, K.

    2009-01-01

    Prion diseases are among the most intriguing illnesses. Despite their rare incidence, they have captured enormous attention from the scientific community and general public. One of the most hotly debated issues in these diseases is the nature of the infectious material. In recent years increasing evidence has emerged supporting the protein-only hypothesis of prion transmission. In this model PrPSc (the pathological isoform of the prion protein, PrPC) represents the sole component of the infectious particle. However, uncertainties about possible additional factors involved in the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc remain despite extensive attempts to isolate and characterize these elusive components. In this article, we review recent developments concerning the protein-only hypothesis as well as the possible involvement of cellular factors in PrPC to PrPSc conformational change and their influence on the pathogenesis of prion diseases. PMID:16927029

  6. Physiological and environmental control of yeast prions

    PubMed Central

    Chernova, Tatiana A.; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2014-01-01

    Prions are self-perpetuating protein isoforms that cause fatal and incurable neurodegenerative disease in mammals. Recent evidence indicates that a majority of human proteins involved in amyloid and neural inclusion disorders possess at least some prion properties. In lower eukaryotes, such as yeast, prions act as epigenetic elements, which increase phenotypic diversity by altering a range of cellular processes. While some yeast prions are clearly pathogenic, it is also postulated that prion formation could be beneficial in variable environmental conditions. Yeast and mammalian prions have similar molecular properties. Crucial cellular factors and conditions influencing prion formation and propagation were uncovered in the yeast models. Stress-related chaperones, protein quality control deposits, degradation pathways and cytoskeletal networks control prion formation and propagation in yeast. Environmental stresses trigger prion formation and loss, supposedly acting via influencing intracellular concentrations of the prion-inducing proteins, and/or by localizing prionogenic proteins to the prion induction sites via heterologous ancillary helpers. Physiological and environmental modulation of yeast prions points to new opportunities for pharmacological intervention and/or prophylactic measures targeting general cellular systems rather than the properties of individual amyloids and prions. PMID:24236638

  7. Cellular prion protein participates in amyloid-? transcytosis across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Pflanzner, Thorsten; Petsch, Benjamin; André-Dohmen, Bettina; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Tschickardt, Sabrina; Weggen, Sascha; Stitz, Lothar; Korth, Carsten; Pietrzik, Claus U

    2012-04-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) facilitates amyloid-? (A?) exchange between the blood and the brain. Here, we found that the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)), a putative receptor implicated in mediating A? neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD), participates in A? transcytosis across the BBB. Using an in vitro BBB model, [(125)I]-A?(1-40) transcytosis was reduced by genetic knockout of PrP(c) or after addition of a competing PrP(c)-specific antibody. Furthermore, we provide evidence that PrP(c) is expressed in endothelial cells and, that monomeric A?(1-40) binds to PrP(c). These observations provide new mechanistic insights into the role of PrP(c) in AD. PMID:22293988

  8. Cellular prion protein participates in amyloid-? transcytosis across the blood–brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Pflanzner, Thorsten; Petsch, Benjamin; André-Dohmen, Bettina; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Tschickardt, Sabrina; Weggen, Sascha; Stitz, Lothar; Korth, Carsten; Pietrzik, Claus U

    2012-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) facilitates amyloid-? (A?) exchange between the blood and the brain. Here, we found that the cellular prion protein (PrPc), a putative receptor implicated in mediating A? neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD), participates in A? transcytosis across the BBB. Using an in vitro BBB model, [125I]-A?1?40 transcytosis was reduced by genetic knockout of PrPc or after addition of a competing PrPc-specific antibody. Furthermore, we provide evidence that PrPc is expressed in endothelial cells and, that monomeric A?1?40 binds to PrPc. These observations provide new mechanistic insights into the role of PrPc in AD. PMID:22293988

  9. Polymorphism of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in Polish cattle affected by classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Gurgul, Artur; Czarnik, Urszula; Urszula, Czarnik; Larska, Magdalena; Polak, Miros?aw P; Strychalski, Janusz; S?ota, Ewa

    2012-05-01

    Recent attempts to discover genetic factors affecting cattle resistance/susceptibility to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have led to the identification of two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms, located within the promoter and intron 1 of the prion protein gene PRNP, showing a significant association with the occurrence of classical form of the disease. Because the effect of the polymorphisms was studied only in few populations, in this study we investigated whether previously described association of PRNP indel polymorphisms with BSE susceptibility in cattle is also present in Polish cattle population. We found a significant relation between the investigated PRNP indel polymorphisms (23 and 12 bp indels), and susceptibility of Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle to classical BSE (P < 0.05). The deletion variants of both polymorphisms were related to increased susceptibility, whereas insertion variants were protective against BSE. PMID:22170597

  10. Alzheimer’s Amyloid-? Oligomers Rescue Cellular Prion Protein Induced Tau Reduction via the Fyn Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid-? (A?) and tau are the pathogenic hallmarks in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A? oligomers are considered the actual toxic entities, and the toxicity relies on the presence of tau. Recently, A? oligomers have been shown to specifically interact with cellular prion protein (PrPC) where the role of PrPC in AD is still not fully understood. To investigate the downstream mechanism of PrPC and A? oligomer interaction and their possible relationships to tau, we examined tau expression in human neuroblastoma BE(2)-C cells transfected with murine PrPC and studied the effect under A? oligomer treatment. By Western blotting, we found that PrPC overexpression down-regulated tau protein and A? oligomer binding alleviated the tau reduction induced by wild type but not M128V PrPC, the high AD risk polymorphic allele in human prion gene. PrPC lacking the A? oligomer binding site was incapable of rescuing the level of tau reduction. Quantitative RT-PCR showed the PrPC effect was attributed to tau reduction at the transcription level. Treatment with Fyn pathway inhibitors, Fyn kinase inhibitor PP2 and MEK inhibitor U0126, reversed the PrPC-induced tau reduction and A? oligomer treatment modulated Fyn kinase activity. The results suggested Fyn pathway regulated A?–PrPC–tau signaling. Overall, our results demonstrated that PrPC down-regulated tau via the Fyn pathway and the effect can be regulated by A? oligomers. Our study facilitated the understanding of molecular mechanisms among PrPC, tau, and A? oligomers. PMID:23805846

  11. Roles of the cellular prion protein in the regulation of cell-cell junctions and barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Constance S.V.; Besnier, Laura; Morel, Etienne; Rousset, Monique; Thenet, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The cellular prion protein was historically characterized owing to its misfolding in prion disease. Although its physiological role remains incompletely understood, PrPC has emerged as an evolutionary conserved, multifaceted protein involved in a wide-range of biological processes. PrPC is a GPI-anchored protein targeted to the plasma membrane, in raft microdomains, where its interaction with a repertoire of binding partners, which differ depending on cell models, mediates its functions. Among identified PrPC partners are cell adhesion molecules. This review will focus on the multiple implications of PrPC in cell adhesion processes, mainly the regulation of cell-cell junctions in epithelial and endothelial cells and the consequences on barrier properties. We will show how recent findings argue for a role of PrPC in the recruitment of signaling molecules, which in turn control the targeting or the stability of adhesion complexes at the plasma membrane. PMID:24665391

  12. Mass Spectrometric Approaches to Detecting and Quantifying Prions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prions are infectious proteins that replicate by converting a normal cellular protein (PrPC)into a prion. Although prions and PrPC are isoforms, they have dramatically different physicochemical properties. Prions are resistant to proteinase K (PK) degradation, while PrPC is completely degraded by PK...

  13. Complementarity determining regions of an anti-prion protein scFv fragment orchestrate conformation specificity and antiprion activity.

    PubMed

    Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Petsch, Benjamin; Leliveld, S Rutger; Muyrers, Janine; Salwierz, Agnieska; Mangels, Christian; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Riesner, Detlev; Stitz, Lothar; Korth, Carsten

    2009-02-01

    The prion protein, PrP, exists in several stable conformations, with the presence of one conformation, PrP(Sc), associated with transmissible neurodegenerative diseases. Targeting PrP by high-affinity ligands has been proven to be an effective way of preventing peripheral prion infections. Here, we have generated bacterially expressed single chain fragments of the variable domains (scFv) of a monoclonal antibody in Escherichia coli, originally raised against purified PrP(Sc) that recognizes both PrP(C) and PrP(Sc). This scFv fragment had a dissociation constant (K(D)) with recombinant PrP of 2 nM and cleared prions in ScN2a cells at 4 nM, as demonstrated by a mouse prion bioassay. A peptide corresponding to the complementarity determining region 3 of the heavy chain (CDR3H) selectively bound PrP(Sc) but had lost antiprion activity. However, synthesis and application of an improved peptide mimicking side chain topology of CDR3H while exhibiting increased protease resistance, a retro-inverso d-peptide of CDR3H, still bound PrP(Sc) and reinstated antiprion activity. We conclude that (1) scFvW226 is so far the smallest polypeptide with bioassay confirmed antiprion activity, and (2) differential conformation specificity and bioactivity can be regulated by orchestrating the participation of different CDRs. PMID:18973947

  14. How Does Domain Replacement Affect Fibril Formation of the Rabbit/Human Prion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xu; Huang, Jun-Jie; Zhou, Zheng; Chen, Jie; Liang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that in vivo human prion protein (PrP) have the tendency to form fibril deposits and are associated with infectious fatal prion diseases, while the rabbit PrP does not readily form fibrils and is unlikely to cause prion diseases. Although we have previously demonstrated that amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and macromolecular crowding has different effects on fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs, we do not know which domains of PrPs cause such differences. In this study, we have constructed two PrP chimeras, rabbit chimera and human chimera, and investigated how domain replacement affects fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs. Methodology/Principal Findings As revealed by thioflavin T binding assays and Sarkosyl-soluble SDS-PAGE, the presence of a strong crowding agent dramatically promotes fibril formation of both chimeras. As evidenced by circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and proteinase K digestion assays, amyloid fibrils formed by human chimera have secondary structures and proteinase K-resistant features similar to those formed by the human PrP. However, amyloid fibrils formed by rabbit chimera have proteinase K-resistant features and secondary structures in crowded physiological environments different from those formed by the rabbit PrP, and secondary structures in dilute solutions similar to the rabbit PrP. The results from transmission electron microscopy show that macromolecular crowding caused human chimera but not rabbit chimera to form short fibrils and non-fibrillar particles. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate for the first time that the domains beyond PrP-H2H3 (?-strand 1, ?-helix 1, and ?-strand 2) have a remarkable effect on fibrillization of the rabbit PrP but almost no effect on the human PrP. Our findings can help to explain why amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and why macromolecular crowding has different effects on fibrillization of PrPs from different species. PMID:25401497

  15. Highly infectious CJD particles lack prion protein but contain many viral-linked peptides by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kipkorir, Terry; Tittman, Sarah; Botsios, Sotirios; Manuelidis, Laura

    2014-11-01

    It is widely believed that host prion protein (PrP), without nucleic acid, converts itself into an infectious form (PrP-res) that causes transmissible encephalopathies (TSEs), such as human sporadic CJD (sCJD), endemic sheep scrapie, and epidemic BSE. There are many detailed investigations of PrP, but proteomic studies of other proteins in verified infectious TSE particles have not been pursued, even though brain homogenates without PrP retain their complete infectious titer. To define proteins that may be integral to, process, or protect an agent genome, we developed a streamlined, high-yield purification of infectious FU-CJD mouse brain particles with minimal PrP. Proteinase K (PK) abolished all residual particle PrP, but did not reduce infectivity, and viral-size particles lacking PrP were ?70S (vs. 90-120S without PK). Furthermore, over 1,500 non-PrP proteins were still present and positively identified in high titer FU-CJD particles without detectable PrP by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); 114 of these peptides were linked to viral motifs in the environmental-viral database, and not evident in parallel uninfected controls. Host components were also identified in both PK and non-PK treated particles from FU-CJD mouse brain and human sCJD brain. This abundant cellular data had several surprises, including finding Huntingtin in the sCJD but not normal human brain samples. Similarly, the neural Wiskott-Aldrich sequence and multivesicular and endosome components associated with retromer APP (Alzheimer amyloid) processing were only in sCJD. These cellular findings suggest that new therapies directed at retromer-vesicular trafficking in other neurodegenerative diseases may also counteract late-onset sCJD PrP amyloid pathology. PMID:24933657

  16. Molecular population genetics and evolution of a prion-like protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, M A; True, H L; Chernoff, Y O; Lindquist, S

    2001-01-01

    The prion-like behavior of Sup35p, the eRF3 homolog in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mediates the activity of the cytoplasmic nonsense suppressor known as [PSI(+)]. Sup35p is divided into three regions of distinct function. The N-terminal and middle (M) regions are required for the induction and propagation of [PSI(+)] but are not necessary for translation termination or cell viability. The C-terminal region encompasses the termination function. The existence of the N-terminal region in SUP35 homologs of other fungi has led some to suggest that this region has an adaptive function separate from translation termination. To examine this hypothesis, we sequenced portions of SUP35 in 21 strains of S. cerevisiae, including 13 clinical isolates. We analyzed nucleotide polymorphism within this species and compared it to sequence divergence from a sister species, S. paradoxus. The N domain of Sup35p is highly conserved in amino acid sequence and is highly biased in codon usage toward preferred codons. Amino acid changes are under weak purifying selection based on a quantitative analysis of polymorphism and divergence. We also conclude that the clinical strains of S. cerevisiae are not recently derived and that outcrossing between strains in S. cerevisiae may be relatively rare in nature. PMID:11606530

  17. Cellular isoform of the prion protein PrPc in human intestinal cell lines: genetic polymorphism at codon 129, mRNA quantification and protein detection in lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Garmy, Nicolas; Guo, Xiao-Jun; Taïeb, Nadira; Tourrès, Christian; Tamalet, Catherine; Fantini, Jacques; Yahi, Nouara

    2006-06-01

    The cellular isoform of the normal prion protein PrP(c), encoded by the PRNP gene, is expressed in human intestinal epithelial cells where it may represent a potential target for infectious prions. We have sequenced the PRNP gene in Caco-2 and HT-29 parental and clonal cell lines, and found that these cells have a distinct polymorphism at codon 129. HT-29 cells are homozygous Met/Met, whereas Caco-2 cells are heterozygous Met/Val. The 129Val variant was also detected in Caco-2 mRNAs. Real-time PCR quantifications revealed that PrP(c) mRNAs were more expressed in HT-29 cells than in Caco-2 cells. These data were confirmed by studying the expression of PrP(c) in plasma membranes and lipid rafts prepared from these cells. Overall, these results may be important in view of using human intestinal cell lines Caco-2 and HT-29 as cellular in vitro models to study the initial steps of prion propagation after oral inoculation. PMID:16672189

  18. Proteomics applications in prion biology and structure.

    PubMed

    Moore, Roger A; Faris, Robert; Priola, Suzette A

    2015-04-01

    Prion diseases are a heterogeneous class of fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with misfolding of host cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into a pathological isoform, termed PrP(Sc). Prion diseases affect various mammals, including humans, and effective treatments are not available. Prion diseases are distinguished from other protein misfolding disorders - such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease - in that they are infectious. Prion diseases occur sporadically without any known exposure to infected material, and hereditary cases resulting from rare mutations in the prion protein have also been documented. The mechanistic underpinnings of prion and other neurodegenerative disorders remain poorly understood. Various proteomics techniques have been instrumental in early PrP(Sc) detection, biomarker discovery, elucidation of PrP(Sc) structure and mapping of biochemical pathways affected by pathogenesis. Moving forward, proteomics approaches will likely become more integrated into the clinical and research settings for the rapid diagnosis and characterization of prion pathogenesis. PMID:25795148

  19. Neutron reflectometry studies define prion protein N-terminal peptide membrane binding.

    PubMed

    Le Brun, Anton P; Haigh, Cathryn L; Drew, Simon C; James, Michael; Boland, Martin P; Collins, Steven J

    2014-11-18

    The prion protein (PrP), widely recognized to misfold into the causative agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, has previously been shown to bind to lipid membranes with binding influenced by both membrane composition and pH. Aside from the misfolding events associated with prion pathogenesis, PrP can undergo various posttranslational modifications, including internal cleavage events. Alpha- and beta-cleavage of PrP produces two N-terminal fragments, N1 and N2, respectively, which interact specifically with negatively charged phospholipids at low pH. Our previous work probing N1 and N2 interactions with supported bilayers raised the possibility that the peptides could insert deeply with minimal disruption. In the current study we aimed to refine the binding parameters of these peptides with lipid bilayers. To this end, we used neutron reflectometry to define the structural details of this interaction in combination with quartz crystal microbalance interrogation. Neutron reflectometry confirmed that peptides equivalent to N1 and N2 insert into the interstitial space between the phospholipid headgroups but do not penetrate into the acyl tail region. In accord with our previous studies, interaction was stronger for the N1 fragment than for the N2, with more peptide bound per lipid. Neutron reflectometry analysis also detected lengthening of the lipid acyl tails, with a concurrent decrease in lipid area. This was most evident for the N1 peptide and suggests an induction of increased lipid order in the absence of phase transition. These observations stand in clear contrast to the findings of analogous studies of Ab and ?-synuclein and thereby support the possibility of a functional role for such N-terminal fragment-membrane interactions. PMID:25418300

  20. Molecular dynamics study of the dominant-negative E219K polymorphism in human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Jahandideh, Samad; Jamalan, Mostafa; Faridounnia, Maryam

    2015-06-01

    Human prion diseases are associated with misfolding or aggregation of the Human Prion Protein (HuPrP). Missense mutations in the HuPrP gene, contribute to conversion of HuPrP(C) to HuPrP(Sc) and amyloid formation. Based on our previous comprehensive study, three missense mutations, from two different functional groups, i.e. disease-related mutations, and protective mutations, were selected and extensive molecular dynamics simulations were performed on these three mutants to compare their dynamics and conformations with those of the wildtype HuPrP. In addition to simulations of monomeric forms of mutants, in order to study the dominant-negative effect of protective mutation (E219K), 30-ns simulations were performed on E219K-wildtype and wildtype-wildtype dimeric forms. Our results indicate that, although after 30-ns simulations the global three-dimensional structure of models remain fairly intact, the disease-related mutations (V210I and Q212P) introduce local structural changes, i.e. close contact changes and secondary structure changes, in addition to global flexibility changes. Furthermore, our results support the loss of hydrophobic interaction due to the mutations in hydrophobic core that has been reported by previous NMR and computational studies. On the other hand, this protective mutation (E219K) results in helix elongation, and significant increases of overall flexibility of E219K mutant during 30-ns simulation. In conclusion, the simulations of dimeric forms suggest that the dominant-negative effect of this protective mutation (E219K) is due to the incompatible structures and dynamics of allelic variants during conversion process. PMID:25027605

  1. Conformation-dependent high-affinity mAbs to prion proteins1

    PubMed Central

    Stanker, Larry H.; Serban, Ana V.; Cleveland, Elisa; Hnasko, Robert; Lemus, Azucena; Safar, Jiri; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal, neurodegenerative illnesses caused by the accumulation of PrPSc, an aberrantly folded isoform of the normal, cellular prion protein (PrPC). Detection of PrPSc commonly relies on immunochemical methods, a strategy hampered by the lack of antibodies specific for this disease-causing isoform. Here, we report the generation of 8 mAbs against PrP following immunization of Prnp-null mice with recombinant (rec) PrP. The 8 mAbs exhibited distinct differential binding to PrPC and PrPSc from different species as well as PrP-derived synthetic peptides. Five of the 8 mAbs exhibited binding discontinuous PrP epitopes, all of which were disrupted by addition of ?-mercaptoethanol or dithiothreitol, which reduced the single disulfide bond found in PrP. One mAb F20-29 reacted only with human PrP while the F4- 31 mAb bound bovine PrP; the KD values for both mAbs F4-31 and F20-29 were ~500 pM. Binding of all five conformation-dependent mAbs to PrP was inhibited by ?-mercaptoethanol in ELISA, Western blots and histoblots. One conformation-dependent mAb F4-31 was found to increase the sensitivity of an ELISA-based test by nearly 500-fold when it was used as the capture antibody. These new conformation-dependent mAbs were found be particularly useful in histoblotting studies, in which the low backgrounds after treatment with ?-mercaptoethanol created unusually high signal-to-noise ratios. PMID:20530267

  2. Zebrafish Prion Protein PrP2 Controls Collective Migration Process during Lateral Line Sensory System Development

    PubMed Central

    Huc-Brandt, Sylvaine; Hieu, Nelson; Imberdis, Thibaut; Cubedo, Nicolas; Silhol, Michelle; Leighton, Patricia L. A.; Domaschke, Thomas; Allison, W. Ted; Perrier, Véronique; Rossel, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    Prion protein is involved in severe neurodegenerative disorders but its physiological role is still in debate due to an absence of major developmental defects in knockout mice. Previous reports in zebrafish indicate that the two prion genes, PrP1 and PrP2, are both involved in several steps of embryonic development thus providing a unique route to discover prion protein function. Here we investigate the role of PrP2 during development of a mechano-sensory system, the posterior lateral line, using morpholino knockdown and PrP2 targeted inactivation. We confirm the efficiency of the translation blocking morpholino at the protein level. Development of the posterior lateral line is altered in PrP2 morphants, including nerve axonal outgrowth and primordium migration defects. Reduced neuromast deposition was observed in PrP2 morphants as well as in PrP2?/? mutants. Rosette formation defects were observed in PrP2 morphants, strongly suggesting an abnormal primordium organization and reflecting loss of cell cohesion during migration of the primordium. In addition, the adherens junction proteins, E-cadherin and ß-catenin, were mis-localized after reduction of PrP2 expression and thus contribute to the primordium disorganization. Consequently, hair cell differentiation and number were affected and this resulted in reduced functional neuromasts. At later developmental stages, myelination of the posterior lateral line nerve was altered. Altogether, our study reports an essential role of PrP2 in collective migration process of the primordium and in neuromast formation, further implicating a role for prion protein in cell adhesion. PMID:25436888

  3. Idiopathic Brainstem Neuronal Chromatolysis (IBNC): a novel prion protein related disorder of cattle?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Jeffrey; Belinda Baquero Perez; Stuart Martin; Linda Terry; Lorenzo González

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The epidemic form of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is generally considered to have been caused by a single prion strain but at least two strain variants of cattle prion disorders have recently been recognized. An additional neurodegenerative condition, idiopathic brainstem neuronal chromatolysis and hippocampal sclerosis (IBNC), a rare neurological disease of adult cattle, was also recognised in a sub-set

  4. Mass Spectrometric Detection of Attomole Amounts of the Prion Protein by nanoLC-MS-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitation of prions in biological samples other than brain or spinal cord is an extremely important and challenging analytical problem. Prions are the cause of several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animal and humans known as Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs). At present there...

  5. Molecular conformation and dynamics of the Y145Stop variant of human prion protein in amyloid fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Helmus, Jonathan J.; Surewicz, Krystyna; Nadaud, Philippe S.; Surewicz, Witold K.; Jaroniec, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    A C-terminally truncated Y145Stop variant of the human prion protein (huPrP23–144) is associated with a hereditary amyloid disease known as PrP cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Previous studies have shown that recombinant huPrP23–144 can be efficiently converted in vitro to the fibrillar amyloid state, and that residues 138 and 139 play a critical role in the amyloidogenic properties of this protein. Here, we have used magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy to provide high-resolution insight into the protein backbone conformation and dynamics in fibrils formed by 13C,15N-labeled huPrP23–144. Surprisingly, we find that signals from ?100 residues (i.e., ?80% of the sequence) are not detected above approximately ?20°C in conventional solid-state NMR spectra. Sequential resonance assignments revealed that signals, which are observed, arise exclusively from residues in the region 112–141. These resonances are remarkably narrow, exhibiting average 13C and 15N linewidths of ?0.6 and 1 ppm, respectively. Altogether, the present findings indicate the existence of a compact, highly ordered core of huPrP23–144 amyloid encompassing residues 112–141. Analysis of 13C secondary chemical shifts identified likely ?-strand segments within this core region, including ?-strand 130–139 containing critical residues 138 and 139. In contrast to this relatively rigid, ?-sheet-rich amyloid core, the remaining residues in huPrP23–144 amyloid fibrils under physiologically relevant conditions are largely unordered, displaying significant conformational dynamics. PMID:18436646

  6. Transcriptional Activation of Prion Protein Gene in Growth-Arrested and Differentiated Mouse Erythroleukemia and Human Neoplastic Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios D. Gougoumas; Ioannis S. Vizirianakis; Asterios S. Tsiftsoglou

    2001-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) is a GPI-anchored sialoglycoprotein that has attracted worldwide attention over the years due to its involvement in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in sheep (scrapie), cattle (BSE), and humans (CJD). To understand the precise role of the Prn-p gene in cell growth and differentiation we investigated the expression pattern of the Prn-p gene in proliferating

  7. Clinical and Pathologic Features of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated with E211K Prion Protein Polymorphism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin J. Greenlee; Jodi D. Smith; M. Heather West Greenlee; Eric M. Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    The majority of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases have been ascribed to the classical form of the disease. H-type and L-type BSE cases have atypical molecular profiles compared to classical BSE and are thought to arise spontaneously. However, one case of H-type BSE was associated with a heritable E211K mutation in the prion protein gene. The purpose of this study

  8. Hydrated autoclave pretreatment enhancement of prion protein immunoreactivity in formalin-fixed bovine spongiform encephalopathy-affected brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Haritani; Y. I. Spencer; G. A. H. Wells

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of three pretreatment techniques for the detection of prion protein (PrP) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-affected brain tissue were compared using automated image analysis. The most abundant immunostaining was in the form of particulate expression observed in sections pretreated with hydrated autoclaving for 30 min. Considerably less immunostaining occurred in sections pretreated with formic acid and

  9. Frequencies of prion protein (PrP) genotypes and distribution of ages in 15 scrapieaffected flocks in Great Britain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Tongue; J. W. Wilesmith; C. J. Cook

    2004-01-01

    The frequencies of prion protein (PrP) genotypes were investigated in 15 scrapie-affected flocks in Great Britain. The flocks were heterogeneous in the frequencies of different genotypes and alleles, and in their age distributions. The median flock frequency of animals with VRQ-containing genotypes was 21 per cent (range 2 to 82 per cent, mean 25 per cent). The VRQ-containing and other

  10. Effects of Nutrition and Genotype on Prion Protein (PrPC) Gene Expression in the Fetal and Maternal Sheep Placenta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Evoniuk; M. L. Johnson; P. P. Borowicz; J. S. Caton; K. A. Vonnahme; L. P. Reynolds; J. B. Taylor; C. L. Stoltenow; K. I. O'Rourke; D. A. Redmer

    2008-01-01

    For placental transmission of scrapie to occur, the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) must be converted to an abnormal infectious form known as PrPSc. PrPC genotype influences susceptibility to contracting scrapie, but we still do not understand whether genotype or expression levels of PrPC are important in transmission of scrapie. Some evidence exists that nutrition affects expression levels of PrPC.

  11. Acquisition of Protease Resistance by Prion Proteins in Scrapie-Infected Cells does not Require Asparagine-Linked Glycosylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Taraboulos; Mark Rogers; David R. Borchelt; Michael P. McKinley; Michael Scott; Dan Serban

    1990-01-01

    The scrapie and cellular isoforms of the prion protein (PrPSc and PrP^C) differ strikingly in a number of their biochemical and metabolic properties. The structural features underlying these differences are unknown, but they are thought to result from a posttranslational process. Both PrP isoforms contain complex type oligosaccharides, raising the possibility that differences in the asparagine-linked glycosylation account for the

  12. Organ Distribution of Proteinase-resistant Prion Protein in Humans and Mice with Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TETSUYUKI KITAMOTO; SHIROU MOHRI; JUN TATEISHI

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY We attempted to clarify the organ distribution of human and murine proteirtase- resistant prion protein (prpCm)in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and to measure the concentration of PrP cJD, using a semi-quantitative Western blot analysis. Human PrP cJD was restricted to the central nervous system, whereas murine PrP cJo was present in the central nervous system and in the lymphoreticular system

  13. Prions and Prion-Like Pathogens in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peggion, Caterina; Sorgato, Maria Catia; Bertoli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Prions are unique elements in biology, being able to transmit biological information from one organism to another in the absence of nucleic acids. They have been identified as self-replicating proteinaceous agents responsible for the onset of rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorders—known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases—which affect humans and other animal species. More recently, it has been proposed that other proteins associated with common neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, can self-replicate like prions, thus sustaining the spread of neurotoxic entities throughout the nervous system. Here, we review findings that have contributed to expand the prion concept, and discuss if the involved toxic species can be considered bona fide prions, including the capacity to infect other organisms, or whether these pathogenic aggregates share with prions only the capability to self-replicate. PMID:25437612

  14. Conformational pH dependence of intermediate states during oligomerization of the human prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Remo; Tahiri-Alaoui, Abdessamad; Hore, P.J.; James, William

    2008-01-01

    Intermediate states are key to understanding the molecular mechanisms governing protein misfolding. The human prion protein (PrP) can follow various misfolding pathways, and forms a soluble ?-sheet-rich oligomer under acidic, mildly denaturing, high salt conditions. Here we describe a fast conformational switch from the native ?-monomer to monomeric intermediate states under oligomer-forming conditions, followed by a slower oligomerization process. We observe a pH dependence of the secondary structure of these intermediate forms, with almost native-like ?-helical secondary structure at pH 4.1 and predominantly ?-sheet characteristics at pH 3.6. NMR spectroscopy differentiates these intermediate states from the native protein and indicates dynamic rearrangements of secondary structure elements characteristic of a molten globule. The ?-helical intermediate formed at pH 4.1 can convert to the ?-sheet conformation at pH 3.6 but not vice versa, and neither state can be reconverted to an ?-monomer. The presence of methionine rather than valine at codon 129 accelerates the rate of oligomer formation from the intermediate state. PMID:18218718

  15. Use of Proteinase K Nonspecific Digestion for Selective and Comprehensive Identification of Interpeptide Cross-links: Application to Prion Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V.; Serpa, Jason J.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Berjanskii, Mark; Suriyamongkol, Bow P.; Wishart, David S.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry is a rapidly developing technique for structural proteomics. Cross-linked proteins are usually digested with trypsin to generate cross-linked peptides, which are then analyzed by mass spectrometry. The most informative cross-links, the interpeptide cross-links, are often large in size, because they consist of two peptides that are connected by a cross-linker. In addition, trypsin targets the same residues as amino-reactive cross-linkers, and cleavage will not occur at these cross-linker-modified residues. This produces high molecular weight cross-linked peptides, which complicates their mass spectrometric analysis and identification. In this paper, we examine a nonspecific protease, proteinase K, as an alternative to trypsin for cross-linking studies. Initial tests on a model peptide that was digested by proteinase K resulted in a “family” of related cross-linked peptides, all of which contained the same cross-linking sites, thus providing additional verification of the cross-linking results, as was previously noted for other post-translational modification studies. The procedure was next applied to the native (PrPC) and oligomeric form of prion protein (PrP?). Using proteinase K, the affinity-purifiable CID-cleavable and isotopically coded cross-linker cyanurbiotindipropionylsuccinimide and MALDI-MS cross-links were found for all of the possible cross-linking sites. After digestion with proteinase K, we obtained a mass distribution of the cross-linked peptides that is very suitable for MALDI-MS analysis. Using this new method, we were able to detect over 60 interpeptide cross-links in the native PrPC and PrP? prion protein. The set of cross-links for the native form was used as distance constraints in developing a model of the native prion protein structure, which includes the 90–124-amino acid N-terminal portion of the protein. Several cross-links were unique to each form of the prion protein, including a Lys185–Lys220 cross-link, which is unique to the PrP? and thus may be indicative of the conformational change involved in the formation of prion protein oligomers. PMID:22438564

  16. Substitutions at residue 211 in the prion protein drive a switch between CJD and GSS syndrome, a new mechanism governing inherited neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Peoc'h, Katell; Levavasseur, Etienne; Delmont, Emilien; De Simone, Alfonso; Laffont-Proust, Isabelle; Privat, Nicolas; Chebaro, Yassmine; Chapuis, Céline; Bedoucha, Pierre; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Laquerriere, Annie; Kemeny, Jean-Louis; Hauw, Jean-Jacques; Borg, Michel; Rezaei, Human; Derreumaux, Philippe; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Haïk, Stéphane

    2012-12-15

    Human prion diseases are a heterogeneous group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by the deposition of the partially protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)), astrocytosis, neuronal loss and spongiform change in the brain. Among inherited forms that represent 15% of patients, different phenotypes have been described depending on the variations detected at different positions within the prion protein gene. Here, we report a new mechanism governing the phenotypic variability of inherited prion diseases. First, we observed that the substitution at residue 211 with either Gln or Asp leads to distinct disorders at the clinical, neuropathological and biochemical levels (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome with abundant amyloid plaques and tau neurofibrillar pathology). Then, using molecular dynamics simulations and biophysical characterization of mutant proteins and an in vitro model of PrP conversion, we found evidence that each substitution impacts differently the stability of PrP and its propensity to produce different protease resistant fragments that may contribute to the phenotypical switch. Thus, subtle differences in the PrP primary structure and stability are sufficient to control amyloid plaques formation and tau abnormal phosphorylation and fibrillation. This mechanism is unique among neurodegenerative disorders and is consistent with the prion hypothesis that proposes a conformational change as the key pathological event in prion disorders. PMID:22965875

  17. Role of the cellular prion protein in the neuron adaptation strategy to copper deficiency.

    PubMed

    Urso, Emanuela; Manno, Daniela; Serra, Antonio; Buccolieri, Alessandro; Rizzello, Antonia; Danieli, Antonio; Acierno, Raffaele; Salvato, Benedetto; Maffia, Michele

    2012-08-01

    Copper transporter 1 (CTR1), cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 2 (NRAMP2) and ATP7A proteins control the cell absorption and efflux of copper (Cu) ions in nervous tissues upon physiological conditions. Little is known about their regulation under reduced Cu availability, a condition underlying the onset of diffused neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, rat neuron-like cells were exposed to Cu starvation for 48 h. The activation of Caspase-3 enzymes and the impairment of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn SOD) activity depicted the initiation of a pro-apoptotic program, preliminary to the appearance of the morphological signs of apoptosis. The transcriptional response related to Cu transport proteins has been investigated. Notably, PrP(C) transcript and protein levels were consistently elevated upon Cu deficiency. The CTR1 protein amount was stable, despite a two-fold increase in the transcript amount, meaning the activation of post-translational regulatory mechanisms. NRAMP2 and ATP7A expressions were unvaried. The up-regulated PrP(C) has been demonstrated to enhance the cell Cu uptake ability by about 50% with respect to the basal transport, and so sustain the Cu delivery to the Cu,Zn SOD cuproenzymes. Conclusively, the study suggests a pivotal role for PrP(C) in the cell adaptation to Cu limitation through a direct activity of ion uptake. In this view, the PrP(C) accumulation observed in several cancer cell lines could be interpreted as a molecular marker of cell Cu deficiency and a potential target of therapeutic interventions against disorders caused by metal imbalances. PMID:22362149

  18. Double replacement gene targeting for the production of a series of mouse strains with different prion protein gene alterations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.C.; Redhead, N.J.; Selfridge, J. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); and others

    1995-09-01

    We have developed a double replacement gene targeting strategy which enables the production of a series of mouse strains bearing different subtle alterations to endogenous genes. This is a two-step process in which a region of the gene of interest is first replaced with a selectable marker to produce an inactivated allele, which is then re-targeted with a second vector to reconstruct the inactivated allele, concomitantly introducing an engineered mutation. Five independent embryonic stem cell lines have been produced bearing different targeted alterations to the prion protein gene, including one which raises the level of expression. We have constructed mice bearing the codon 101 proline to leucine substitution linked to the human familial prion disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome. We anticipate that this procedure will have applications to the study of human inherited diseases and the development of therapies. 43 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Prion Problem Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Everse (University of Vermont College of Medicine; Biochemistry)

    2005-12-16

    This problem space introduces basic skills in protein structure exploration, utilizing prions -- relatively small proteins that display dramatically alternate conformations for similar primary structures. We will learn to search databases for protein structures, explore the Cn3D software, and propose questions that may be answered with these tools.

  20. Clinical features of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with V180I mutation in the prion protein gene

    PubMed Central

    Qina, Temu; Sanjo, Nobuo; Hizume, Masaki; Higuma, Maya; Tomita, Makoto; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Satoh, Katsuya; Nozaki, Ichiro; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Murayama, Shigeo; Murai, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) due to V180I mutation in the prion protein gene (PRNP) is of great interest because of the differences from sporadic CJD and other genetic prion diseases in terms of clinical features, as well as pathological and biochemical findings. However, few systematic observations about the clinical features in patients with this unique mutation have been published. Therefore, the goal of this study was to relate this mutation to other forms of CJD from a clinical perspective. Design We analysed clinical symptoms, prion protein genetics, biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and MRI of patients. Participants 186 Japanese patients with the V180I mutation in PRNP. Results Our results indicate that the V180I mutation caused CJD at an older age, with a slower progression and a lower possibility of developing myoclonus, cerebellar, pyramidal signs and visual disturbance compared with classical sporadic CJD with methionine homozygosity at codon 129 of PRNP. Cognitive impairment was the major symptom. Diffuse hyperintensity of the cerebral cortex in diffusion-weighted MRI might be helpful for diagnosis. Owing to the low positivity of PrPSc in the CSF, genetic analysis was often required for a differential diagnosis from slowly progressive dementia. Conclusions We conclude that the V180I mutation in PRNP produces a late-developing and slow-developing, less severe form of CJD, whose lesions are uniquely distributed compared with sporadic and other genetic forms of CJD. PMID:24838726

  1. Prion Protein and Copper Cooperatively Protect Neurons by Modulating NMDA Receptor Through S-nitrosylation

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Lisa; Meneghetti, Elisa; Pastore, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Several neurodegenerative disorders show alterations in glutamatergic synapses and increased susceptibility to excitotoxicity. Mounting evidence suggests a central role for the cellular prion protein (PrPC) in neuroprotection. Therefore, the loss of PrPC function occurring in prion disorders may contribute to the disease progression and neurodegeneration. Indeed, PrPC modulates N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR), thus preventing cell death. In this study, we show that PrPC and copper cooperatively inhibit NMDAR through S-nitrosylation, a post-translational modification resulting from the chemical reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with cysteines. Results: Comparing wild-type Prnp (Prnp+/+) and PrPC knockout (Prnp0/0) mouse hippocampi, we found that GluN1 and GluN2A S-nitrosylation decrease in Prnp0/0. Using organotypic hippocampal cultures, we found that copper chelation decreases NMDAR S-nitrosylation in Prnp+/+ but not in Prnp0/0. This suggests that PrPC requires copper to support the chemical reaction between NO and thiols. We explored PrPC-Cu neuroprotective role by evaluating neuron susceptibility to excitotoxicity in Prnp+/+ and Prnp0/0 cultures. We found that (i) PrPC-Cu modulates GluN2A-containing NMDAR, those inhibited by S-nitrosylation; (ii) PrPC and copper are interdependent to protect neurons from insults; (iii) neuronal NO synthase inhibition affects susceptibility in wild-type but not in Prnp0/0, while (iv) the addition of a NO donor enhances Prnp0/0 neurons survival. Innovation and Conclusions: Our results show that PrPC and copper support NMDAR S-nitrosylation and cooperatively exert neuroprotection. In addition to NMDAR, PrPC may also favor the S-nitrosylation of other proteins. Therefore, this mechanism may be investigated in the context of the different cellular processes in which PrPC is involved. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 772–784. PMID:25490055

  2. Ovine Reference Materials and Assays for Prion Genetic Testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Genetic predisposition to scrapie in sheep is associated with variation in the peptide sequence of the ovine prion protein encoded by Prnp. Codon variants implicated in scrapie susceptibility or disease progression include those at amino acid positions 112, 136, 141, 154, and 171. Nin...

  3. New insights into metal interactions with the prion protein: EXAFS analysis and structure calculations of copper binding to a single octarepeat from the prion protein.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Alex; Pushie, M Jake; Millhauser, Glenn L; George, Graham N

    2013-11-01

    Copper coordination to the prion protein (PrP) has garnered considerable interest for almost 20 years, due in part to the possibility that this interaction may be part of the normal function of PrP. The most characterized form of copper binding to PrP has been Cu(2+) interaction with the conserved tandem repeats in the N-terminal domain of PrP, termed the octarepeats, with many studies focusing on single and multiple repeats of PHGGGWGQ. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been used in several previous instances to characterize the solution structure of Cu(2+) binding into the peptide backbone in the HGGG portion of the octarepeats. All previous EXAFS studies, however, have benefitted from crystallographic structure information for [Cu(II) (Ac-HGGGW-NH2)(-2H)] but have not conclusively demonstrated that the complex EXAFS spectrum represents the same coordination environment for Cu(2+) bound to the peptide backbone. Density functional structure calculations as well as full multiple scattering EXAFS curve fitting analysis are brought to bear on the predominant coordination mode for Cu(2+) with the Ac-PHGGGWGQ-NH2 peptide at physiological pH, under high Cu(2+) occupancy conditions. In addition to the structure calculations, which provide a thermodynamic link to structural information, methods are also presented for extensive deconvolution of the EXAFS spectrum. We demonstrate how the EXAFS data can be analyzed to extract the maximum structural information and arrive at a structural model that is significantly improved over previous EXAFS characterizations. The EXAFS spectrum for the chemically reduced form of copper binding to the Ac-PHGGGWGQ-NH2 peptide is presented, which is best modeled as a linear two-coordinate species with a single His imidazole ligand and a water molecule. The extent of in situ photoreduction of the copper center during standard data collection is also presented, and EXAFS curve fitting of the photoreduced species reveals an intermediate structure that is similar to the Cu(2+) form with reduced coordination number. PMID:24102071

  4. Salivary prions in sheep and deer

    PubMed Central

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ?17 L/day of saliva and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of ?0.5 to 1.7 log ID50 U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of ?1.1 to ?0.4 log ID50 U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID50 units for sheep and 7.0 log ID50 units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID50 units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission. PMID:22453179

  5. Adsorption of prion and tissue proteins to surgical stainless steel surfaces and the efficacy of decontamination following dry and wet storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Secker, T J; Hervé, R; Keevil, C W

    2011-08-01

    Iatrogenic transmission of the infectious prion protein (PrP(Sc)) is a potential threat due to its resistance to many chemical and enzymatic decontamination protocols and its strong adhesive properties to stainless steel. The conditions in which surgical instruments are handled during and after surgery may affect the level of tissue protein, prion attachment and the efficacy of subsequent decontamination regimes. This study investigated the adhesion of tissue protein and prion-associated amyloid to surgical stainless steel with respect to time and various storage conditions, and the subsequent outcome on the efficacy of enzymatic cleaning chemistries. Surfaces were contaminated with ME7-infected brain homogenate and left to dry between 0 and 120 min at room temperature or 24 h, in dry or moist conditions. Residual contamination before and after cleaning was visualised using sensitive fluorescent staining and episcopic differential interference contrast/epifluorescence microscopy. Longer drying times increased both protein and prion amyloid adsorption and affected the efficacy of the cleaning chemistries tested. A moist environment post-contamination significantly reduced the attachment of both protein and prion amyloid to the surgical stainless steel surface. Maintaining moist conditions could potentially improve the subsequent decontamination of reusable surgical instruments, also reducing process time and cost. PMID:21658801

  6. Prion transmission

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Ben C

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases range from being highly infectious, for example scrapie and CWD, which show facile transmission between susceptible individuals, to showing negligible horizontal transmission, such as BSE and CJD, which are spread via food or iatrogenically, respectively. Scrapie and CWD display considerable in vivo dissemination, with PrPSc and infectivity being found in a range of peripheral tissues. This in vivo dissemination appears to facilitate the recently reported excretion of prion through multiple routes such as from skin, feces, urine, milk, nasal secretions, saliva and placenta. Furthermore, excreted scrapie and CWD agent is detected within environmental samples such as water and on the surfaces of inanimate objects. The cycle of “uptake of prion from the environment—widespread in vivo prion dissemination—prion excretion—prion persistence in the environment” is likely to explain the facile transmission and maintenance of these diseases within wild and farmed populations over many years. PMID:20948292

  7. Alzheimer Amyloid-? Oligomer Bound to Post-Synaptic Prion Protein Activates Fyn to Impair Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Um, Ji Won; Nygaard, Haakon B.; Heiss, Jacqueline K.; Kostylev, Mikhail A.; Stagi, Massimiliano; Vortmeyer, Alexander; Wisniewski, Thomas; Gunther, Erik C.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Amyloid-beta (A?) oligomers are thought to trigger Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathophysiology. Cellular Prion Protein (PrPC) selectively binds oligomeric A? and can mediate AD-related phenotypes. Here, we examined the specificity, distribution and signaling from A?/PrP complexes, seeking to explain how they might alter the function of NMDA receptors in neurons. PrPC is enriched in post-synaptic densities, and A?/PrPC interaction leads to Fyn kinase activation. Soluble A? assemblies derived from human AD brain interact with PrPC to activate Fyn. A? engagement of PrPC/Fyn signaling yields phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of NMDA-receptors, which is coupled to an initial increase and then loss of surface NMDA-receptors. A?-induced LDH release and dendritic spine loss require both PrPC and Fyn, and human familial AD transgene-induced convulsive seizures do not occur in mice lacking PrPC. These results delineate an A? oligomer signal transduction pathway requiring PrPC and Fyn to alter synaptic function with relevance to AD. PMID:22820466

  8. Lipid rafts: linking prion protein to zinc transport and amyloid-? toxicity in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Nicole T.; Griffiths, Heledd H.; Hooper, Nigel M.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of neuronal zinc homeostasis plays a major role in many processes related to brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yet, despite the critical role of zinc in neuronal function, the cellular mechanisms underpinning its homeostatic control are far from clear. We reported that the cellular prion protein (PrPC) is involved in the uptake of zinc into neurons. This PrPC-mediated zinc influx required the metal-binding octapeptide repeats in PrPC and the presence of the zinc permeable AMPA channel with which PrPC directly interacted. Together with the observation that PrPC is evolutionarily related to the ZIP family of zinc transporters, these studies indicate that PrPC plays a key role in neuronal zinc homeostasis. Therefore, PrPC could contribute to cognitive health and protect against age-related zinc dyshomeostasis but PrPC has also been identified as a receptor for amyloid-? oligomers which accumulate in the brains of those with AD. We propose that the different roles that PrPC has are due to its interaction with different ligands and/or co-receptors in lipid raft-based signaling/transport complexes. PMID:25364748

  9. Cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) modulates ethanol-induced behavioral adaptive changes in mice.

    PubMed

    Rial, Daniel; Pandolfo, Pablo; Bitencourt, Rafael M; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Moreira, Karin M; Hipolide, Débora; Dombrowski, Patrícia A; Da Cunha, Claudio; Walz, Roger; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Prediger, Rui D

    2014-09-01

    Chronic consumption of drugs with addictive potential induces profound synaptic changes in the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic pathway that underlie the long-term behavioral alterations seen in addicted subjects. Thus, exploring modulation systems of dopaminergic function may reveal novel targets to interfere with drug addiction. We recently showed that cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) affects the homeostasis of the dopaminergic system by interfering with dopamine synthesis, content, receptor density and signaling pathways in different brain areas. Here we report that the genetic deletion of PrP(C) modulates ethanol (EtOH)-induced behavioral alterations including the maintenance of drug seeking, voluntary consumption and the development of EtOH tolerance, all pivotal steps in drug addiction. Notably, these behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant depletion of dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex and reduced dopamine D1 receptors in PrP(C) knockout mice. Furthermore, the pharmacological blockade of dopamine D1 receptors, but not D2 receptors, attenuated the abnormal EtOH consumption in PrP(C) knockout mice. Altogether, these findings provide new evidence that the PrP(C)/dopamine interaction plays a pivotal role in EtOH addictive properties in mice. PMID:24975422

  10. Characterizing antiprion compounds based on their binding properties to prion proteins: Implications as medical chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Kamatari, Yuji O; Hayano, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Kei-ichi; Hosokawa-Muto, Junji; Kuwata, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    A variety of antiprion compounds have been reported that are effective in ex vivo and in vivo treatment experiments. However, the molecular mechanisms for most of these compounds remain unknown. Here we classified antiprion mechanisms into four categories: I, specific conformational stabilization; II, nonspecific stabilization; III, aggregation; and IV, interaction with molecules other than PrPC. To characterize antiprion compounds based on this classification, we determined their binding affinities to PrPC using surface plasmon resonance and their binding sites on PrPC using NMR spectroscopy. GN8 and GJP49 bound specifically to the hot spot in PrPC, and acted as “medical chaperones” to stabilize the native conformation. Thus, mechanisms I was predominant. In contrast, quinacrine and epigallocathechin bound to PrPC rather nonspecifically; these may stabilize the PrPC conformation nonspecifically including the interference with the intermolecular interaction following mechanism II. Congo red and pentosan polysulfate bound to PrPC and caused aggregation and precipitation of PrPC, thus reducing the effective concentration of prion protein. Thus, mechanism III was appropriate. Finally, CP-60, an edarabone derivative, did not bind to PrPC. Thus these were classified into mechanism IV. However, their antiprion activities were not confirmed in the GT + FK system, whose details remain to be elucidated. This proposed antiprion mechanisms of diverse antiprion compounds could help to elucidate their antiprion activities and facilitate effective antiprion drug discovery. PMID:23081827

  11. Influence of specific HSP70 domains on fibril formation of the yeast prion protein Ure2

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li-Qiong; Wu, Si; Buell, Alexander K.; Cohen, Samuel I. A.; Chen, Li-Jun; Hu, Wan-Hui; Cusack, Sarah A.; Itzhaki, Laura S.; Zhang, Hong; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Welland, Mark E.; Jones, Gary W.; Perrett, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Ure2p is the protein determinant of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae prion state [URE3]. Constitutive overexpression of the HSP70 family member SSA1 cures cells of [URE3]. Here, we show that Ssa1p increases the lag time of Ure2p fibril formation in vitro in the presence or absence of nucleotide. The presence of the HSP40 co-chaperone Ydj1p has an additive effect on the inhibition of Ure2p fibril formation, whereas the Ydj1p H34Q mutant shows reduced inhibition alone and in combination with Ssa1p. In order to investigate the structural basis of these effects, we constructed and tested an Ssa1p mutant lacking the ATPase domain, as well as a series of C-terminal truncation mutants. The results indicate that Ssa1p can bind to Ure2p and delay fibril formation even in the absence of the ATPase domain, but interaction of Ure2p with the substrate-binding domain is strongly influenced by the C-terminal lid region. Dynamic light scattering, quartz crystal microbalance assays, pull-down assays and kinetic analysis indicate that Ssa1p interacts with both native Ure2p and fibril seeds, and reduces the rate of Ure2p fibril elongation in a concentration-dependent manner. These results provide new insights into the structural and mechanistic basis for inhibition of Ure2p fibril formation by Ssa1p and Ydj1p. PMID:23530260

  12. Plasma Soluble Prion Protein, a Potential Biomarker for Sport-Related Concussions: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Nam; Akonasu, Hungbo; Shishkin, Rhonda; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2015-01-01

    Sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion is a significant health concern to athletes with potential long-term consequences. The diagnosis of sport concussion and return to sport decision making is one of the greatest challenges facing health care clinicians working in sports. Blood biomarkers have recently demonstrated their potential in assisting the detection of brain injury particularly, in those cases with no obvious physical injury. We have recently discovered plasma soluble cellular prion protein (PrPC) as a potential reliable biomarker for blast induced TBI (bTBI) in a rodent animal model. In order to explore the application of this novel TBI biomarker to sport-related concussion, we conducted a pilot study at the University of Saskatchewan (U of S) by recruiting athlete and non-athlete 18 to 30 year-old students. Using a modified quantitative ELISA method, we first established normal values for the plasma soluble PrPC in male and female students. The measured plasma soluble PrPC in confirmed concussion cases demonstrated a significant elevation of this analyte in post-concussion samples. Data collected from our pilot study indicates that the plasma soluble PrPC is a potential biomarker for sport-related concussion, which may be further developed into a clinical diagnostic tool to assist clinicians in the assessment of sport concussion and return-to-play decision making. PMID:25643046

  13. Plasma soluble prion protein, a potential biomarker for sport-related concussions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pham, Nam; Akonasu, Hungbo; Shishkin, Rhonda; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2015-01-01

    Sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion is a significant health concern to athletes with potential long-term consequences. The diagnosis of sport concussion and return to sport decision making is one of the greatest challenges facing health care clinicians working in sports. Blood biomarkers have recently demonstrated their potential in assisting the detection of brain injury particularly, in those cases with no obvious physical injury. We have recently discovered plasma soluble cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) as a potential reliable biomarker for blast induced TBI (bTBI) in a rodent animal model. In order to explore the application of this novel TBI biomarker to sport-related concussion, we conducted a pilot study at the University of Saskatchewan (U of S) by recruiting athlete and non-athlete 18 to 30 year-old students. Using a modified quantitative ELISA method, we first established normal values for the plasma soluble PrP(C) in male and female students. The measured plasma soluble PrP(C) in confirmed concussion cases demonstrated a significant elevation of this analyte in post-concussion samples. Data collected from our pilot study indicates that the plasma soluble PrP(C) is a potential biomarker for sport-related concussion, which may be further developed into a clinical diagnostic tool to assist clinicians in the assessment of sport concussion and return-to-play decision making. PMID:25643046

  14. Alzheimer amyloid-? oligomer bound to postsynaptic prion protein activates Fyn to impair neurons.

    PubMed

    Um, Ji Won; Nygaard, Haakon B; Heiss, Jacqueline K; Kostylev, Mikhail A; Stagi, Massimiliano; Vortmeyer, Alexander; Wisniewski, Thomas; Gunther, Erik C; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2012-09-01

    Amyloid-beta (A?) oligomers are thought to trigger Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. Cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) selectively binds oligomeric A? and can mediate Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes. We examined the specificity, distribution and signaling of A?-PrP(C) complexes, seeking to understand how they might alter the function of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in neurons. PrP(C) is enriched in postsynaptic densities, and A?-PrP(C) interaction leads to Fyn kinase activation. Soluble A? assemblies derived from the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease interacted with PrP(C) to activate Fyn. A? engagement of PrP(C)-Fyn signaling yielded phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of NMDARs, which was coupled to an initial increase and then a loss of surface NMDARs. A?-induced dendritic spine loss and lactate dehydrogenase release required both PrP(C) and Fyn, and human familial Alzheimer's disease transgene-induced convulsive seizures did not occur in mice lacking PrP(C). These results delineate an A? oligomer signal transduction pathway that requires PrP(C) and Fyn to alter synaptic function, with deleterious consequences in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22820466

  15. Phthalocyanine tetrasulfonates bind to multiple sites on natively-folded prion protein.

    PubMed

    Dee, Derek R; Gupta, Amar Nath; Anikovskiy, Max; Sosova, Iveta; Grandi, Elena; Rivera, Laura; Vincent, Abhilash; Brigley, Angela M; Petersen, Nils O; Woodside, Michael T

    2012-06-01

    The phthalocyanine tetrasulfonates (PcTS), a class of cyclic tetrapyrroles, bind to the mammalian prion protein, PrP. Remarkably, they can act as anti-scrapie agents to prevent the formation and spread of infectious, misfolded PrP. While the effects of phthalocyanines on the diseased state have been investigated, the interaction between PcTS and PrP has not yet been extensively characterized. Here we use multiple, complementary assays (surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and tryptophan fluorescence quenching) to characterize the binding of PcTS to natively-folded hamster PrP(90-232), in order to determine binding constants, ligand stoichiometry, influence of buffer ionic strength, and the effects of chelated metal ions. We found that binding strength depends strongly on chelated metal ions, with Al(3+)-PcTS binding the weakest and free-base PcTS the strongest of the three types tested (Al(3+), Zn(2+), and free-base). Buffer ionic strength also affected the binding, with K(d) increasing along with salt concentration. The binding isotherms indicated the presence of at least two different binding sites with micromolar affinities and a total stoichiometry of ~4-5 PcTS molecules per PrP molecule. PMID:22480824

  16. Alzheimer's A? interacts with cellular prion protein inducing neuronal membrane damage and synaptotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christian; Espinoza, María Paz; Gallegos, Scarlet; Opazo, Carlos; Aguayo, Luis G

    2015-03-01

    A major feature of Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) peptide in the brain. Recent studies have indicated that A? oligomers (A?o) can interact with the cellular prion protein (PrPc). Therefore, this interaction might be driving some of A? toxic effects in the synaptic region. In the present study, we report that A?o binds to PrPc in the neuronal membrane playing a role on toxic effects induced by A?. Phospholipase C-enzymatic cleavage of PrPc from the plasma membrane attenuated the association of A?o to the neurons. Furthermore, an anti-PrP antibody (6D11) decreased the association of A?o to hippocampal neurons with a concomitant reduction in A?o and PrPc co-localization. Interestingly, this antibody blocked the increase in membrane conductance and intracellular calcium induced by A?o. Thus, the data indicate that PrPc plays a role on the membrane perforations produced by A?o, the increase in calcium ions and the release of synaptic vesicles that subsequently leads to synaptic failure. Future studies blocking A?o interaction with PrPc could be important for the discovery of new therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25599875

  17. Copper attachment to prion protein at a non-octarepeat site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2011-03-01

    Prion protein (PrP) plays a causative role in a group of neurodegenerative diseases, which include "mad cow disease" or its human form variant Creutzfeld-Jacob disease. Normal function of PrP remains unknown, but it is now well established that PrP can efficiently bind copper ions and this ability has been linked to its function. The primary binding sites are located in the so-called octarepeat region located between residues 60-91. While these are by now well characterized, the sites located outside these region remain mostly undetermined. In this work, we investigate the properties of Cu binding site located at His 111 using recently developed hybrid Kohn-Sham/orbital-free density functional simulations. Experimental data indicate that copper is coordinated by either four nitrogens or three nitrogens and one oxygen. We investigate both possibilities, comparing their energetics and attachment geometries. Similarities and differences with other binding sites and implications for PrP function will also be discussed.

  18. Conformational diversity in prion protein variants influences intermolecular [beta]-sheet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seungjoo; Antony, Lizamma; Hartmann, Rune; Knaus, Karen J.; Surewicz, Krystyna; Surewicz, Witold K.; Yee, Vivien C. (Case Western); (Cleveland Clinic)

    2010-04-19

    A conformational transition of normal cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) to its pathogenic form (PrP{sup Sc}) is believed to be a central event in the transmission of the devastating neurological diseases known as spongiform encephalopathies. The common methionine/valine polymorphism at residue 129 in the PrP influences disease susceptibility and phenotype. We report here seven crystal structures of human PrP variants: three of wild-type (WT) PrP containing V129, and four of the familial variants D178N and F198S, containing either M129 or V129. Comparison of these structures with each other and with previously published WT PrP structures containing M129 revealed that only WT PrPs were found to crystallize as domain-swapped dimers or closed monomers; the four mutant PrPs crystallized as non-swapped dimers. Three of the four mutant PrPs aligned to form intermolecular {beta}-sheets. Several regions of structural variability were identified, and analysis of their conformations provides an explanation for the structural features, which can influence the formation and conformation of intermolecular {beta}-sheets involving the M/V129 polymorphic residue.

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulations Capture the Misfolding of the Bovine Prion Protein at Acidic pH

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin Jung; Daggett, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or mad cow disease, is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that is transmissible to humans and that is currently incurable. BSE is caused by the prion protein (PrP), which adopts two conformers; PrPC is the native innocuous form, which is ?-helix rich; and PrPSc is the ?-sheet rich misfolded form, which is infectious and forms neurotoxic species. Acidic pH induces the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of bovine PrP at various pH regimes. An acidic pH environment induced conformational changes that were not observed in neutral pH simulations. Putative misfolded structures, with nonnative ?-strands formed in the flexible N-terminal domain, were found in acidic pH simulations. Two distinct pathways were observed for the formation of nonnative ?-strands: at low pH, hydrophobic contacts with M129 nucleated the nonnative ?-strand; at mid-pH, polar contacts involving Q168 and D178 facilitated the formation of a hairpin at the flexible N-terminus. These mid- and low pH simulations capture the process of nonnative ?-strand formation, thereby improving our understanding of how PrPC misfolds into the ?-sheet rich PrPSc and how pH factors into the process. PMID:24970211

  20. Establishing homologies in protein sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayhoff, M. O.; Barker, W. C.; Hunt, L. T.

    1983-01-01

    Computer-based statistical techniques used to determine homologies between proteins occurring in different species are reviewed. The technique is based on comparison of two protein sequences, either by relating all segments of a given length in one sequence to all segments of the second or by finding the best alignment of the two sequences. Approaches discussed include selection using printed tabulations, identification of very similar sequences, and computer searches of a database. The use of the SEARCH, RELATE, and ALIGN programs (Dayhoff, 1979) is explained; sample data are presented in graphs, diagrams, and tables and the construction of scoring matrices is considered.

  1. Co-existence of scrapie prion protein types 1 and 2 in sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease: its effect on the phenotype and prion-type characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Cali, Ignazio; Castellani, Rudolph; Alshekhlee, Amer; Cohen, Yvonne; Blevins, Janis; Yuan, Jue; Langeveld, Jan P. M.; Parchi, Piero; Safar, Jiri G.; Zou, Wen-Quan

    2009-01-01

    Five phenotypically distinct subtypes have been identified in sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD), based on the methionine/valine polymorphic genotype of codon 129 of the prion protein (PrP) gene and the presence of either one of the two protease K-resistant scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) types identified as 1 and 2. The infrequent co-existence of both PrPSc types in the same case has been known for a long time. Recently, it has been reported, using type-specific antibodies, that the PrPSc type 1 is present in all cases of sCJD carrying PrPSc type 2. The consistent co-occurrence of both PrPSc types complicates the diagnosis and the current classification of sCJD, and has implications for the pathogenesis of naturally occurring prion diseases. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of PrPSc types 1 and 2 co-occurrence, along with its effects on the disease phenotype and PrPSc strain characteristics, comparatively analysing 34 cases of sCJD, all methionine homozygous at codon 129 of the PrP gene (sCJDMM). To minimize overestimating the prevalence of the sCJDMM cases carrying PrPSc types 1 and 2 (sCJDMM1-2), we used proteinase K concentrations designed to hydrolyse all fragments resulting from an incomplete digestion, while preserving the protease-resistant PrPSc core. Furthermore, we used several antibodies to maximize the detection of both PrPSc types. Our data show that sCJDMM cases associated exclusively with either PrPSc type 1 (sCJDMM1) or PrPSc type 2 (sCJDMM2) do exist; we estimate that they account for approximately 56% and 5% of all the sCJDMM cases, respectively; while in 39% of the cases, both PrPSc types 1 and 2 are present together (sCJDMM1-2) either mixed in the same anatomical region or separate in different regions. Clinically, sCJDMM1-2 had an average disease duration intermediate between the other two sCJDMM subtypes. The histopathology was also intermediate, except for the cerebellum where it resembled that of sCJDMM1. These features, along with the PrP immunostaining pattern, offer a diagnostic clue. We also observed a correlation between the disease duration and the prevalence of PrPSc type 2 and sCJDMM2 phenotypes. The use of different antibodies and of the conformational stability immunoassay indicated that the co-existence of types 1 and 2 in the same anatomical region may confer special conformational characteristics to PrPSc types 1 and 2. All of these findings indicate that sCJDMM1-2 should be considered as a separate entity at this time. PMID:19734292

  2. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltzius, Jed J.W.; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B.; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David; (Cornell); (HHMI)

    2009-12-01

    In prion inheritance and transmission, strains are phenotypic variants encoded by protein 'conformations'. However, it is unclear how a protein conformation can be stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms. Here we describe new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins, which offer two structural mechanisms for the encoding of prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packing arrangements (polymorphs) of {beta}-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct {beta}-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring conformations capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of protein-encoded information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of nucleic acid-encoded information into microbial strains, including sequence specificity and recognition by noncovalent bonds.

  3. Spontaneous generation of prion infectivity in fatal familial insomnia knock-in mice

    E-print Network

    Faas, Henryk

    A crucial tenet of the prion hypothesis is that misfolding of the prion protein (PrP) induced by mutations associated with familial prion disease is, in an otherwise normal mammalian brain, sufficient to generate the ...

  4. Direct Evidence of Generation and Accumulation of ?-Sheet-rich Prion Protein in Scrapie-infected Neuroblastoma Cells with Human IgG1 Antibody Specific for ?-Form Prion Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Toshiya; Hamazoe, Yuta; Hashiguchi, Shuhei; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Akasaka, Kazuyuki; Nishida, Noriyuki; Katamine, Shigeru; Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Kuroki, Ryota; Nakashima, Toshihiro; Sugimura, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    We prepared ?-sheet-rich recombinant full-length prion protein (?-form PrP) (Jackson, G. S., Hosszu, L. L., Power, A., Hill, A. F., Kenney, J., Saibil, H., Craven, C. J., Waltho, J. P., Clarke, A. R., and Collinge, J. (1999) Science 283, 1935–1937). Using this ?-form PrP and a human single chain Fv-displaying phage library, we have established a human IgG1 antibody specific to ?-form but not ?-form PrP, PRB7 IgG. When prion-infected ScN2a cells were cultured with PRB7 IgG, they generated and accumulated PRB7-binding granules in the cytoplasm with time, consequently becoming apoptotic cells bearing very large PRB7-bound aggregates. The SAF32 antibody recognizing the N-terminal octarepeat region of full-length PrP stained distinct granules in these cells as determined by confocal laser microscopy observation. When the accumulation of proteinase K-resistant PrP was examined in prion-infected ScN2a cells cultured in the presence of PRB7 IgG or SAF32, it was strongly inhibited by SAF32 but not at all by PRB7 IgG. Thus, we demonstrated direct evidence of the generation and accumulation of ?-sheet-rich PrP in ScN2a cells de novo. These results suggest first that PRB7-bound PrP is not responsible for the accumulation of ?-form PrP aggregates, which are rather an end product resulting in the triggering of apoptotic cell death, and second that SAF32-bound PrP lacking the PRB7-recognizing ?-form may represent so-called PrPSc with prion propagation activity. PRB7 is the first human antibody specific to ?-form PrP and has become a powerful tool for the characterization of the biochemical nature of prion and its pathology. PMID:22356913

  5. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, W.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  6. Genetic Predictions of Prion Disease Susceptibility in Carnivore Species Based on Variability of the Prion Gene Coding Region

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Paula; Campbell, Lauren; Skogtvedt, Susan; Griffin, Karen A.; Arnemo, Jon M.; Tryland, Morten; Girling, Simon; Miller, Michael W.; Tranulis, Michael A.; Goldmann, Wilfred

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian species vary widely in their apparent susceptibility to prion diseases. For example, several felid species developed prion disease (feline spongiform encephalopathy or FSE) during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom, whereas no canine BSE cases were detected. Whether either of these or other groups of carnivore species can contract other prion diseases (e.g. chronic wasting disease or CWD) remains an open question. Variation in the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC) largely explains observed disease susceptibility patterns within ruminant species, and may explain interspecies differences in susceptibility as well. We sequenced and compared the open reading frame of the PRNP gene encoding PrPC protein from 609 animal samples comprising 29 species from 22 genera of the Order Carnivora; amongst these samples were 15 FSE cases. Our analysis revealed that FSE cases did not encode an identifiable disease-associated PrP polymorphism. However, all canid PrPs contained aspartic acid or glutamic acid at codon 163 which we propose provides a genetic basis for observed susceptibility differences between canids and felids. Among other carnivores studied, wolverine (Gulo gulo) and pine marten (Martes martes) were the only non-canid species to also express PrP-Asp163, which may impact on their prion diseases susceptibility. Populations of black bear (Ursus americanus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) from Colorado showed little genetic variation in the PrP protein and no variants likely to be highly resistant to prions in general, suggesting that strain differences between BSE and CWD prions also may contribute to the limited apparent host range of the latter. PMID:23236380

  7. Genetic predictions of prion disease susceptibility in carnivore species based on variability of the prion gene coding region.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Paula; Campbell, Lauren; Skogtvedt, Susan; Griffin, Karen A; Arnemo, Jon M; Tryland, Morten; Girling, Simon; Miller, Michael W; Tranulis, Michael A; Goldmann, Wilfred

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian species vary widely in their apparent susceptibility to prion diseases. For example, several felid species developed prion disease (feline spongiform encephalopathy or FSE) during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom, whereas no canine BSE cases were detected. Whether either of these or other groups of carnivore species can contract other prion diseases (e.g. chronic wasting disease or CWD) remains an open question. Variation in the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C)) largely explains observed disease susceptibility patterns within ruminant species, and may explain interspecies differences in susceptibility as well. We sequenced and compared the open reading frame of the PRNP gene encoding PrP(C) protein from 609 animal samples comprising 29 species from 22 genera of the Order Carnivora; amongst these samples were 15 FSE cases. Our analysis revealed that FSE cases did not encode an identifiable disease-associated PrP polymorphism. However, all canid PrPs contained aspartic acid or glutamic acid at codon 163 which we propose provides a genetic basis for observed susceptibility differences between canids and felids. Among other carnivores studied, wolverine (Gulo gulo) and pine marten (Martes martes) were the only non-canid species to also express PrP-Asp163, which may impact on their prion diseases susceptibility. Populations of black bear (Ursus americanus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) from Colorado showed little genetic variation in the PrP protein and no variants likely to be highly resistant to prions in general, suggesting that strain differences between BSE and CWD prions also may contribute to the limited apparent host range of the latter. PMID:23236380

  8. Molecular advances in understanding inherited prion diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Brown

    2002-01-01

    The prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders that have attracted great interest because of the possible link between\\u000a bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CTD) in humans. Possible transmission of these\\u000a diseases has been linked to a single protein termed the prion protein. This protein is an abnormal isoform of a normal synaptic\\u000a glycoprotein. The majority of prion diseases

  9. Prion Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nasal test for the human prion disease CJD Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Prion ...

  10. Charge neutralization of the central lysine cluster in prion protein (PrP) promotes PrP(Sc)-like folding of recombinant PrP amyloids.

    PubMed

    Groveman, Bradley R; Kraus, Allison; Raymond, Lynne D; Dolan, Michael A; Anson, Kelsie J; Dorward, David W; Caughey, Byron

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the infectious form of prion protein, PrP(Sc), remains unclear. Most pure recombinant prion protein (PrP) amyloids generated in vitro are not infectious and lack the extent of the protease-resistant core and solvent exclusion of infectious PrP(Sc), especially within residues ?90-160. Polyanionic cofactors can enhance infectivity and PrP(Sc)-like characteristics of such fibrils, but the mechanism of this enhancement is unknown. In considering structural models of PrP(Sc) multimers, we identified an obstacle to tight packing that might be overcome with polyanionic cofactors, namely, electrostatic repulsion between four closely spaced cationic lysines within a central lysine cluster of residues 101-110. For example, in our parallel in-register intermolecular ?-sheet model of PrP(Sc), not only would these lysines be clustered within the 101-110 region of the primary sequence, but they would have intermolecular spacings of only ?4.8 Å between stacked ?-strands. We have now performed molecular dynamics simulations predicting that neutralization of the charges on these lysine residues would allow more stable parallel in-register packing in this region. We also show empirically that substitution of these clustered lysine residues with alanines or asparagines results in recombinant PrP amyloid fibrils with extended proteinase-K resistant ?-sheet cores and infrared spectra that are more reminiscent of bona fide PrP(Sc). These findings indicate that charge neutralization at the central lysine cluster is critical for the folding and tight packing of N-proximal residues within PrP amyloid fibrils. This charge neutralization may be a key aspect of the mechanism by which anionic cofactors promote PrP(Sc) formation. PMID:25416779

  11. Prions of Fungi: Inherited Structures and Biological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Edskes, Herman K.; Shewmaker, Frank; Nakayashiki, Toru

    2008-01-01

    PREFACE The term 'prion' means an infectious protein that does not need an accompanying nucleic acid. There are six fungal prions, including four self-propagating amyloids and two enzymes that are necessary to activate their inactive precursors. Here we explore the scope of the prion phenomenon, the biological and evolutionary roles of prions, the structural basis of the amyloid prions, and the prominent role of chaperones (proteins that affect the folding of other proteins) and other cellular components in prion generation and propagation. PMID:17632572

  12. Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation Specifies the Organ Tropism of Prions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikenwalder, Mathias; Zeller, Nicolas; Seeger, Harald; Prinz, Marco; Klöhn, Peter-Christian; Schwarz, Petra; Ruddle, Nancy H.; Weissmann, Charles; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2005-02-01

    Prions typically accumulate in nervous and lymphoid tissues. Because proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells are required for lymphoid prion replication, we tested whether inflammatory conditions affect prion pathogenesis. We administered prions to mice with five inflammatory diseases of the kidney, pancreas, or liver. In all cases, chronic lymphocytic inflammation enabled prion accumulation in otherwise prion-free organs. Inflammatory foci consistently correlated with lymphotoxin up-regulation and ectopic induction of FDC-M1+ cells expressing the normal cellular prion protein PrPC. By contrast, inflamed organs of mice lacking lymphotoxin-? or its receptor did not accumulate the abnormal isoform PrPSc, nor did they display infectivity upon prion inoculation. By expanding the tissue distribution of prions, chronic inflammatory conditions may act as modifiers of natural and iatrogenic prion transmission.

  13. Evidence That Bank Vole PrP Is a Universal Acceptor for Prions

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Joel C.; Giles, Kurt; Patel, Smita; Oehler, Abby; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2014-01-01

    Bank voles are uniquely susceptible to a wide range of prion strains isolated from many different species. To determine if this enhanced susceptibility to interspecies prion transmission is encoded within the sequence of the bank vole prion protein (BVPrP), we inoculated Tg(M109) and Tg(I109) mice, which express BVPrP containing either methionine or isoleucine at polymorphic codon 109, with 16 prion isolates from 8 different species: humans, cattle, elk, sheep, guinea pigs, hamsters, mice, and meadow voles. Efficient disease transmission was observed in both Tg(M109) and Tg(I109) mice. For instance, inoculation of the most common human prion strain, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) subtype MM1, into Tg(M109) mice gave incubation periods of ?200 days that were shortened slightly on second passage. Chronic wasting disease prions exhibited an incubation time of ?250 days, which shortened to ?150 days upon second passage in Tg(M109) mice. Unexpectedly, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant CJD prions caused rapid neurological dysfunction in Tg(M109) mice upon second passage, with incubation periods of 64 and 40 days, respectively. Despite the rapid incubation periods, other strain-specified properties of many prion isolates—including the size of proteinase K–resistant PrPSc, the pattern of cerebral PrPSc deposition, and the conformational stability—were remarkably conserved upon serial passage in Tg(M109) mice. Our results demonstrate that expression of BVPrP is sufficient to engender enhanced susceptibility to a diverse range of prion isolates, suggesting that BVPrP may be a universal acceptor for prions. PMID:24699458

  14. Evidence that bank vole PrP is a universal acceptor for prions.

    PubMed

    Watts, Joel C; Giles, Kurt; Patel, Smita; Oehler, Abby; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2014-04-01

    Bank voles are uniquely susceptible to a wide range of prion strains isolated from many different species. To determine if this enhanced susceptibility to interspecies prion transmission is encoded within the sequence of the bank vole prion protein (BVPrP), we inoculated Tg(M109) and Tg(I109) mice, which express BVPrP containing either methionine or isoleucine at polymorphic codon 109, with 16 prion isolates from 8 different species: humans, cattle, elk, sheep, guinea pigs, hamsters, mice, and meadow voles. Efficient disease transmission was observed in both Tg(M109) and Tg(I109) mice. For instance, inoculation of the most common human prion strain, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) subtype MM1, into Tg(M109) mice gave incubation periods of ?200 days that were shortened slightly on second passage. Chronic wasting disease prions exhibited an incubation time of ?250 days, which shortened to ?150 days upon second passage in Tg(M109) mice. Unexpectedly, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant CJD prions caused rapid neurological dysfunction in Tg(M109) mice upon second passage, with incubation periods of 64 and 40 days, respectively. Despite the rapid incubation periods, other strain-specified properties of many prion isolates--including the size of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc, the pattern of cerebral PrPSc deposition, and the conformational stability--were remarkably conserved upon serial passage in Tg(M109) mice. Our results demonstrate that expression of BVPrP is sufficient to engender enhanced susceptibility to a diverse range of prion isolates, suggesting that BVPrP may be a universal acceptor for prions. PMID:24699458

  15. Effect of electrostatics on aggregation of prion protein Sup35 peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo, Alexander M.; Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V.; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.

    2012-04-01

    Self-assembly of misfolded proteins into ordered fibrillar structures is a fundamental property of a wide range of proteins and peptides. This property is also linked with the development of various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Environmental conditions modulate the misfolding and aggregation processes. We used a peptide, CGNNQQNY, from yeast prion protein Sup35, as a model system to address effects of environmental conditions on aggregate formation. The GNNQQNY peptide self-assembles in fibrils with structural features that are similar to amyloidogenic proteins. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay were employed to follow the aggregation process at various pHs and ionic strengths. We also used single molecule AFM force spectroscopy to probe interactions between the peptides under various conditions. The ThT fluorescence data showed that the peptide aggregates fast at pH values approaching the peptide isoelectric point (pI = 5.3) and the kinetics is 10 times slower at acidic pH (pH 2.0), suggesting that electrostatic interactions contribute to the peptide self-assembly into aggregates. This hypothesis was tested by experiments performed at low (11 mM) and high (150 mM) ionic strengths. Indeed, the aggregation lag time measured at pH 2 at low ionic strength (11 mM) is 195 h, whereas the lag time decreases ˜5 times when the ionic strength is increased to 150 mM. At conditions close to the pI value, pH 5.6, the aggregation lag time is 12 ± 6 h under low ionic strength, and there is minimal change to the lag time at 150 mM NaCl. The ionic strength also influences the morphology of aggregates visualized with AFM. In pH 2.0 and at high ionic strength, the aggregates are twofold taller than those formed at low ionic strength. In parallel, AFM force spectroscopy studies revealed minimal contribution of electrostatics to dissociation of transient peptide dimers.

  16. Assessing the Susceptibility of Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Deer Prion Protein to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Christopher M.; Lockey, Richard; Holder, Thomas M.; Thorne, Leigh; Beck, Katy E.; Wilson, Christina; Denyer, Margaret; Sheehan, John; Marsh, Sarah; Webb, Paul R.; Dexter, Ian; Norman, Angela; Popescu, Emma; Schneider, Amanda; Holden, Paul; Griffiths, Peter C.; Plater, Jane M.; Dagleish, Mark P.; Martin, Stuart; Telling, Glenn C.; Simmons, Marion M.

    2014-01-01

    Several transgenic mouse models have been developed which facilitate the transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids and allow prion strain discrimination. The present study was designed to assess the susceptibility of the prototypic mouse line, Tg(CerPrP)1536+/?, to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions, which have the ability to overcome species barriers. Tg(CerPrP)1536+/? mice challenged with red deer-adapted BSE resulted in 90% to 100% attack rates, and BSE from cattle failed to transmit, indicating agent adaptation in the deer. PMID:24257620

  17. A Nine Amino Acid Domain is Essential for Mutant Prion Protein Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Westergard, Laura; Turnbaugh, Jessie A.; Harris, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing PrP molecules with several different internal deletions display spontaneous neurodegenerative phenotypes that can be dose-dependently suppressed by co-expression of wild-type PrP. Each of these deletions, including the largest one (?32–134), retains nine amino acids immediately following the signal peptide cleavage site (residues 23–31; KKRPKPGGW). These residues have been implicated in several biological functions of PrP, including endocytic trafficking and binding of glycosaminoglycans. We report here on our experiments to test the role of this domain in the toxicity of deleted forms of PrP. We find that transgenic mice expressing ?23–134 PrP display no clinical symptoms or neuropathology, in contrast to mice expressing ?32–134 PrP, suggesting that residues 23–31 are essential for the toxic phenotype. Using a newly developed cell culture assay, we narrow the essential region to amino acids 23–26, and we show that mutant PrP toxicity is not related to the role of the N-terminal residues in endocytosis or binding to endogenous glycosaminoglycans. However, we find that mutant PrP toxicity is potently inhibited by application of exogenous glycosaminoglycans, suggesting that the latter molecules block an essential interaction between the N-terminus of PrP and a membrane-associated target site. Our results demonstrate that a short segment containing positively charged amino acids at the N-terminus of PrP plays an essential role in mediating PrP-related neurotoxicity. This finding identifies a protein domain that may serve as a drug target for amelioration of prion neurotoxicity. PMID:21957261

  18. Detection of prion protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease using protein misfolding cyclic amplification.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Tom; Powers, Jenny G; Telling, Glenn C; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Zabel, Mark D

    2012-07-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been examined as a possible source for preclinical diagnosis of prion diseases in hamsters and sheep. The present report describes the detection of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in the CSF of elk and evaluates its usefulness as an antemortem test for CWD. The CSF from 6 captive and 31 free-ranging adult elk was collected at necropsy and evaluated for the presence of the abnormal isoform of the prion protein that has been associated with CWD (PrP(CWD)) via protein misfolding cyclic amplification. Additionally, the obex from each animal was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Four out of 6 captive animals were CWD-positive and euthanized due to signs of terminal CWD. The remaining 2 were CWD negative. None of the 31 free-range animals showed overt signs of CWD, but 12 out of 31 tested positive for CWD by IHC. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification detected PrP(CWD) from 3 of the 4 captive animals showing clinical signs of CWD and none of the nonclinical animals that were CWD positive by IHC. The data suggests that CWD prions can be detected in the CSF of elk, but only relatively late in the course of the disease. PMID:22621952

  19. Origins and kinetic consequences of diversity in Sup35 yeast prion fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela H. DePace; Jonathan S. Weissman

    2002-01-01

    A remarkable feature of prions is that infectious particles composed of the same prion protein can give rise to different phenotypes. This strain phenomenon suggests that a single prion protein can adopt multiple infectious conformations. Here we use a novel single fiber growth assay to examine the heterogeneity of amyloid fibers formed by the yeast Sup35 prion protein. Sup35 spontaneously

  20. Pathogenic mutations in the hydrophobic core of the human prion protein can promote structural instability and misfolding

    PubMed Central

    van der Kamp, Marc W.; Daggett, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Summary Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are caused by misfolding and aggregation of the prion protein PrP. These diseases can be hereditary in humans and four of the many disease-associated missense mutants of PrP are in the hydrophobic core: V180I, F198S, V203I and V210I. The T183A mutation is related to the hydrophobic core mutants as it is close to the hydrophobic core and known to cause instability. We have performed extensive molecular dynamics simulations of these five PrP mutants and compared their dynamics and conformations to wild-type PrP. The simulations highlight the changes that occur upon introduction of mutations and help to rationalize experimental findings. Changes can occur around the mutation site, but they can also be propagated over long distances. In particular, the F198S and T183A mutations lead to increased flexibility in parts of the structure that are normally stable, and the short ?-sheet moves away from the rest of the protein. Mutations V180I, V210I and, to a lesser extent, V203I cause changes similar to those observed upon lowering the pH, which has been linked to misfolding. Early misfolding is observed in one V180I simulation. Overall, mutations in the hydrophobic core have a significant effect on the dynamics and stability of PrP, including the propensity to misfold, which helps to explain their role in the development of familial prion diseases. PMID:20932979

  1. Immunomodulation for prion and prion-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Thomas; Goñi, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases are a unique category of illness, affecting both animals and humans, where the underlying pathogenesis is related to a conformational change of a normal self protein called cellular prion protein to a pathological and infectious conformer known as scrapie prion protein (PrPSc). Currently, all prion diseases lack effective treatment and are universally fatal. Past experiences with bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease mainly in Europe, as well as the current epidemic of chronic wasting disease in North America, have highlighted the need to develop prophylactic and/or therapeutic approaches. In Alzheimer’s disease that, like prion disease, is a conformational neurodegenerative disorder, both passive and active immunization has been shown to be highly effective in model animals at preventing disease and cognitive deficits, with emerging data from human trials suggesting that this approach is able to reduce amyloid-related pathology. However, any immunomodulatory approach aimed at a self-antigen has to finely balance an effective humoral immune response with potential autoimmune toxicity. The prion diseases most commonly acquired by infection typically have the alimentary tract as a portal of infectious agent entry. This makes mucosal immunization a potentially attractive method to produce a local immune response that partially or completely prevents prion entry across the gut barrier, while at the same time producing modulated systemic immunity that is unlikely to be associated with toxicity. Our results using an attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain expressing the prion protein showed that mucosal vaccination can protect against prion infection from a peripheral source, suggesting the feasibility of this approach. It is also possible to develop active and/or passive immunomodulatory approaches that more specifically target PrPSc or target the shared pathological conformer found in numerous conformational disorders. Such approaches could have a significant impact on many of the common age-associated dementias. PMID:21105779

  2. The incidence of genotypes at codon 171 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in five breeds of sheep and production traits of ewes associated with those genotypes1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Alexander; R. H. Stobart; W. C. Russell; K. I. O'Rourke; G. S. Lewis; J. R. Logan; J. V. Duncan; G. E. Moss

    Scrapie is one of several transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of livestock. Disease sus- ceptibility is linked to polymorphisms in the normal prion protein gene that encodes the mammalian prion precursor. Codon 171 of this gene is a major determi- nant of scrapie susceptibility. Selection for arginine (R) at codon 171 is encouraged by the USDA to decrease the incidence of scrapie.

  3. Abnormal prion protein in the retina of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus Elaphus Nelsoni)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, has been reported in captive and free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). An abnormal isoform of a prion pro...

  4. Characterisation of two promoters for prion protein (PrP) gene expression in neuronal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Baybutt; Jean Manson

    1997-01-01

    The neuronal membrane protein, PrP, has a key role in the development of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and the level of expression of the PrP gene has been shown to affect the disease profile. In order to define the sequences that are responsible for the normal expression of the PrP gene we have isolated and sequenced a 5? region of

  5. Statistical Mechanics of Prion Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Slepoy; R. R. P. Singh; F. Pázmándi; R. V. Kulkarni; D. L. Cox

    2001-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional, lattice based, protein-level statistical mechanical model for prion diseases (e.g., mad cow disease) with concomitant prion protein misfolding and aggregation. Our studies lead us to the hypothesis that the observed broad incubation time distribution in epidemiological data reflect fluctuation dominated growth seeded by a few nanometer scale aggregates, while much narrower incubation time distributions for innoculated

  6. Deletion/insertion polymorphism of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in Polish red cattle, Polish White-backed cattle and European bison (Bison bonasus L., 1758).

    PubMed

    Czarnik, U; Grzybowski, G; Zabolewicz, T; Strychalski, J; Kaminski, S

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify deletion/insertion polymorphism of the bovine prion protein (PRNP) gene within the promoter sequence (23 bp indel), intron 1 (12 bp indel) and the 3' end untranslated region (14 bp indel). The experiment was performed on three groups of animals protected under a genetic resources conservation program: 139 Polish Red (PR) cows, 79 Polish White-backed cows and 50 European bison (Bison bonasus L., 1758). White-backed cattle were characterized by a higher frequency of ins/del heterozygotes and a relatively lower frequency of ins/ins homozygotes within the promoter sequence region (23 bp indel), compared to Polish Red cattle. At the polymorphic locus of intron 1 (12 bp indel) the genetic structure of both cattle populations was similar. Monomorphism, expressed by the occurrence of one genotype variant in each of the analyzed sequence regions, was observed in European bison. Five haplotypes were found in Polish White-backed cows, four haplotypes in Polish Red cows and only one in analyzed group of bison. Differences between the observed and expected number of PRNP haplotypes were recorded in Polish Red cattle. PMID:19507705

  7. MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION OF ATTOMOLE AMOUNTS OF THE PRION PROTEIN, PRP 27-30, BY NANOLC-MS-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At present there are no methods to diagnose Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in live animals, or to assure a prion-free blood supply; and the result of prion infection is initiation of a neurodegenerative disease, invariably fatal after onset of symptoms. Prions have been shown to be present ...

  8. BIOCHEMISTRY OF PRION DISEASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nucleation-polymerization and template assistance models for conversion of the normal cellular form of the prion protein, PrP**C, to the disease associated, protease resistant conformation, PrP**d, will be discussed. Attention will be paid to a recent model of PrP**d fibril structure, the impli...

  9. Cyclin-dependent Kinase 5 Phosphorylation of Familial Prion Protein Mutants Exacerbates Conversion into Amyloid Structure.

    PubMed

    Rouget, Raphaël; Sharma, Gyanesh; LeBlanc, Andréa C

    2015-02-27

    Familial prion protein (PrP) mutants undergo conversion from soluble and protease-sensitive to insoluble and partially protease-resistant proteins. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) phosphorylation of wild type PrP (pPrP) at serine 43 induces a conversion of PrP into aggregates and fibrils. Here, we investigated whether familial PrP mutants are predisposed to Cdk5 phosphorylation and whether phosphorylation of familial PrP mutants increases conversion. PrP mutants representing three major familial PrP diseases and different PrP structural domains were studied. We developed a novel in vitro kinase reaction coupled with Thioflavin T binding to amyloid structure assay to monitor phosphorylation-dependent amyloid conversion. Although non-phosphorylated full-length wild type or PrP mutants did not convert into amyloid, Cdk5 phosphorylation rapidly converted these into Thioflavin T-positive structures following first order kinetics. Dephosphorylation partially reversed conversion. Phosphorylation-dependent conversion of PrP from ?-helical structures into ?-sheet structures was confirmed by circular dichroism. Relative to wild type pPrP, most PrP mutants showed increased rate constants of conversion. In contrast, non-phosphorylated truncated PrP Y145X (where X represents a stop codon) and Q160X mutants converted spontaneously into Thioflavin T-positive fibrils after a lag phase of over 20 h, indicating nucleation-dependent polymerization. Phosphorylation reduced the lag phase by over 50% and thus accelerated the formation of the nucleating event. Consistently, phosphorylated Y145X and phosphorylated Q160X exacerbated conversion in a homologous seeding reaction, whereas WT pPrP could not seed WT PrP. These results demonstrate an influence of both the N terminus and the C terminus of PrP on conversion. We conclude that post-translational modifications of the flexible N terminus of PrP can cause or exacerbate PrP mutant conversion. PMID:25572400

  10. Identification of anti-prion compounds as efficient inhibitors of polyglutamine protein aggregation in a zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Niclas W; Broadley, Sarah A; Hirschberger, Thomas; Tavan, Paul; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Giese, Armin; Haass, Christian; Hartl, F Ulrich; Schmid, Bettina

    2007-03-23

    Several neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington disease (HD), are associated with aberrant folding and aggregation of polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion proteins. Here we established the zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a vertebrate HD model permitting the screening for chemical suppressors of polyQ aggregation and toxicity. Upon expression in zebrafish embryos, polyQ-expanded fragments of huntingtin (htt) accumulated in large SDS-insoluble inclusions, reproducing a key feature of HD pathology. Real time monitoring of inclusion formation in the living zebrafish indicated that inclusions grow by rapid incorporation of soluble htt species. Expression of mutant htt increased the frequency of embryos with abnormal morphology and the occurrence of apoptosis. Strikingly, apoptotic cells were largely devoid of visible aggregates, suggesting that soluble oligomeric precursors may instead be responsible for toxicity. As in nonvertebrate polyQ disease models, the molecular chaperones, Hsp40 and Hsp70, suppressed both polyQ aggregation and toxicity. Using the newly established zebrafish model, two compounds of the N'-benzylidene-benzohydrazide class directed against mammalian prion proved to be potent inhibitors of polyQ aggregation, consistent with a common structural mechanism of aggregation for prion and polyQ disease proteins. PMID:17170113

  11. A theoretical study on Cu(II) binding modes and antioxidant activity of mammalian normal prion protein.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hong-Fang; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, the density functional theory (DFT) method B3LYP/LANL2DZ was used to calculate binding energies and electron affinities for various Cu(II) binding modes of mammalian normal prion protein (PrP(c)). The calculation results not only provide solid evidence to support one of the experimentally determined Cu(II) binding modes of PrP(c) but also shed new light on the normal function of the elusive protein; that is, PrP(c) is rather a Cu(II) transporter than an antioxidant. In addition, the employed theoretical methodology is also useful to investigate the metal chelating properties of other proteins and to rationally design Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase mimics. PMID:15089089

  12. Effects of nutrition and genotype on prion protein (PrP-c) gene expression and localization in the fetal and maternal sheep placenta.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is the prototype transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, or prion disease, of domestic livestock. The disease appears to be transmitted most readily by post-parturient ewes and the presence of the marker protein PrP-Sc in the shed fetal cotyledon suggests that contamination of the lambing ...

  13. ABNORMAL PRION PROTEIN IN ECTOPIC LYMPHOID TISSUE IN A KIDNEY OF AN ASYMPTOMATIC WHITE-TAILED DEER EXPERIMENTALLY INOCULATED WITH THE AGENT OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk is one of a group of fatal, neurologic disease that affects several mammalian species, including human beings. Infection by the causative agent induces accumulations of an abnormal form of prion protein (...

  14. Oxidation of methionine 216 in sheep and elk prion protein is highly dependent upon the amino acid at position 218 but is not important for prion propagation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a sensitive mass spectrometry-based method of quantitating the prions present in elk and sheep. Calibration curves relating the area ratios of the selected analyte peptides and their homologous stable isotope labeled internal standards were prepared. This method was compared to the ELIS...

  15. Prevalence of disease related prion protein in anonymous tonsil specimens in Britain: cross sectional opportunistic survey

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish with improved accuracy the prevalence of disease related prion protein (PrPCJD) in the population of Britain and thereby guide a proportionate public health response to limit the threat of healthcare associated transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Design Cross sectional opportunistic survey. Study samples Anonymised tonsil pairs removed at elective tonsillectomy throughout England and Scotland. Setting National anonymous tissue archive for England and Scotland. Main outcome measure Presence of PrPCJD determined by using two enzyme immunoassays based on different analytical principles, with further investigation by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting of any samples reactive in either assay. Results Testing of 63?007 samples was completed by the end of September 2008. Of these, 12?753 were from the birth cohort in which most vCJD cases have arisen (1961-85) and 19?908 were from the 1986-95 cohort that would have been also exposed to bovine spongiform encephalopathy through infected meat or meat products. None of the samples tested was unequivocally reactive in both enzyme immunoassays. Only two samples were reactive in one or other enzyme immunoassay and equivocal in the other, and nine samples were equivocally reactive in both enzyme immunoassays. Two hundred and seventy six samples were initially reactive in one or other enzyme immunoassay; the repeat reactivity rate was 15% or less, depending on the enzyme immunoassay and cut-off definition. None of the samples (including all the 276 initially reactive in enzyme immunoassay) that were investigated by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting was positive for the presence of PrPCJD. Conclusions The observed prevalence of PrPCJD in tonsils from the 1961-95 combined birth cohort was 0/32?661 with a 95% confidence interval of 0 to 113 per million. In the 1961-85 cohort, the prevalence of zero with a 95% confidence interval of 0 to 289 per million was lower than, but still consistent with, a previous survey of appendix tissue that showed a prevalence of 292 per million with a 95% confidence interval of 60 to 853 per million. Continuing to archive and test tonsil specimens, especially in older birth cohorts, and other complementary large scale anonymous tissue surveys, particularly of post-mortem tissues, will further refine the calculated prevalence of PrPCJD. PMID:19460798

  16. Targeted mutation of the gene encoding prion protein in zebrafish reveals a conserved role in neuron excitability.

    PubMed

    Fleisch, Valerie C; Leighton, Patricia L A; Wang, Hao; Pillay, Laura M; Ritzel, R Gary; Bhinder, Ganive; Roy, Birbickram; Tierney, Keith B; Ali, Declan W; Waskiewicz, Andrew J; Allison, W Ted

    2013-07-01

    The function of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in healthy brains remains poorly understood, in part because Prnp knockout mice are viable. On the other hand, transient knockdown of Prnp homologs in zebrafish (including two paralogs, prp1 and prp2) has suggested that PrP(C) is required for CNS development, cell adhesion, and neuroprotection. It has been argued that zebrafish Prp2 is most similar to mammalian PrP(C), yet it has remained intransigent to the most thorough confirmations of reagent specificity during knockdown. Thus we investigated the role of prp2 using targeted gene disruption via zinc finger nucleases. Prp2(-/-) zebrafish were viable and did not display overt developmental phenotypes. Back-crossing female prp2(-/-) fish ruled out a role for maternal mRNA contributions. Prp2(-/-) larvae were found to have increased seizure-like behavior following exposure to the convulsant pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), as compared to wild type fish. In situ recordings from intact hindbrains demonstrated that prp2 regulates closing of N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, concomitant with neuroprotection during glutamate excitotoxicity. Overall, the knockout of Prp2 function in zebrafish independently confirmed hypothesized roles for PrP, identifying deeply conserved functions in post-developmental regulation of neuron excitability that are consequential to the etiology of prion and Alzheimer diseases. PMID:23523635

  17. The Cellular Prion Protein Negatively Regulates Phagocytosis and Cytokine Expression in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Jin; Wang, Jin; Yin, Xiaomin; Yang, Lifeng; Zhou, Xiangmei

    2014-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein on the cell surface. Previous studies have demonstrated contradictory roles for PrPC in connection with the phagocytic ability of macrophages. In the present work, we investigated the function of PrPC in phagocytosis and cytokine expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with Escherichia coli. E. coli infection induced an increase in the PRNP mRNA level. Knockout of PrPC promoted bacterial uptake; upregulated Rab5, Rab7, and Eea1 mRNA expression; and increased the recruitment of lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 to phagosomes, suggesting enhanced microbicidal activity. Remarkably, knockout of PrPC suppressed the proliferation of internalized bacteria and increased the expression of cytokines such as interleukin-1?. Collectively, our data reveal an important role of PrPC as a negative regulator for phagocytosis, phagosome maturation, cytokine expression, and macrophage microbicidal activity. PMID:25058617

  18. Coupled action of ?-glutamyl transpeptidase-glutathione and keratinase effectively degrades feather keratin and surrogate prion protein, Sup 35NM.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Richa; Gupta, Rani

    2012-09-01

    Recombinant Escherichia coli HB101 harboring keratinase rKP2 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa KS-1 degraded 2% chicken feather in LB-Amp medium in 24h. SEM analysis and detailed studies revealed that bacterial colonization of feather was a pre-requisite for degradation of feather by keratinase. The mechanism of sulfitolysis revealed involvement of free cystinyl group as a source of redox during colonization as DTNB inhibited feather degradation by rKP2. Involvement of GGT-GSH system in contribution of free cystinyl group for redox was established by using GGT knockout recombinant E. coli strain that failed to degrade feather inspite of successful colonization and keratinase production. Short term experiments further confirmed enhanced protein release from feather keratin in presence of GGT-GSH redox. In the presence of similar redox, rKP2 also degraded surrogate prion protein, Sup 35NM in 15 min at 37°C, pH 7.0. PMID:22776236

  19. Interaction of human laminin receptor with Sup35, the [PSI?] prion-forming protein from S. cerevisiae: a yeast model for studies of LamR interactions with amyloidogenic proteins.

    PubMed

    Pampeno, Christine; Derkatch, Irina L; Meruelo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The laminin receptor (LamR) is a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix laminin, whereas the same protein within the cell interacts with ribosomes, nuclear proteins and cytoskeletal fibers. LamR has been shown to be a receptor for several bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, LamR interacts with both cellular and infectious forms of the prion protein, PrP(C) and PrP(Sc). Indeed, LamR is a receptor for PrP(C). Whether LamR interacts with PrP(Sc) exclusively in a capacity of the PrP receptor, or LamR specifically recognizes prion determinants of PrP(Sc), is unclear. In order to explore whether LamR has a propensity to interact with prions and amyloids, we examined LamR interaction with the yeast prion-forming protein, Sup35. Sup35 is a translation termination factor with no homology or functional relationship to PrP. Plasmids expressing LamR or LamR fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) were transformed into yeast strain variants differing by the presence or absence of the prion conformation of Sup35, respectively [PSI?] and [psi?]. Analyses by immunoprecipitation, centrifugal fractionation and fluorescent microscopy reveal interaction between LamR and Sup35 in [PSI?] strains. The presence of [PSI?] promotes LamR co-precipitation with Sup35 as well as LamR aggregation. In [PSI?] cells, LamR tagged with GFP or mCherry forms bright fluorescent aggregates that co-localize with visible [PSI?] foci. The yeast prion model will facilitate studying the interaction of LamR with amyloidogenic prions in a safe and easily manipulated system that may lead to a better understanding and treatment of amyloid diseases. PMID:24416454

  20. Prion protein gene heterogeneity in free-ranging white-tailed deer within the chronic wasting disease affected region of Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chad; Johnson, Jody; Clayton, Murray; McKenzie, Debbie; Aiken, Judd

    2003-07-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was first identified in Wisconsin (USA) in whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in February 2002. To determine if prion protein gene (Prnp) allelic variability was associated with CWD in white-tailed deer from Wisconsin, we sequenced Prnp from 26 CWD-positive and 100 CWD-negative deer. Sequence analysis of Prnp suggests that at least 86-96% of the white-tailed deer in this region have Prnp allelic combinations that will support CWD infection. Four Prnp alleles were identified in the deer population, one of which, resulting in a glutamine to histidine change at codon 95, has not been previously reported. The predominant allele in the population encodes for glutamine at codon 95, glycine at codon 96, and serine at codon 138 (QGS). Less abundant alleles encoded QSS, QGN, and HGS at the three variable positions. Comparison of CWD-positive with CWD-negative deer suggested a trend towards an over-representation of the QGS allele and an under-representation of the QSS allele. PMID:14567218

  1. Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet

    PubMed Central

    Angers, Rachel C.; Seward, Tanya S.; Napier, Dana; Green, Michael; Hoover, Edward; Spraker, Terry; O’Rourke, Katherine; Balachandran, Aru

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, fatal prion disease of deer and elk that continues to emerge in new locations. To explore the means by which prions are transmitted with high efficiency among cervids, we examined prion infectivity in the apical skin layer covering the growing antler (antler velvet) by using CWD-susceptible transgenic mice and protein misfolding cyclic amplification. Our finding of prions in antler velvet of CWD-affected elk suggests that this tissue may play a role in disease transmission among cervids. Humans who consume antler velvet as a nutritional supplement are at risk for exposure to prions. The fact that CWD prion incubation times in transgenic mice expressing elk prion protein are consistently more rapid raises the possibility that residue 226, the sole primary structural difference between deer and elk prion protein, may be a major determinant of CWD pathogenesis. PMID:19402954

  2. Chronic wasting disease prions in elk antler velvet.

    PubMed

    Angers, Rachel C; Seward, Tanya S; Napier, Dana; Green, Michael; Hoover, Edward; Spraker, Terry; O'Rourke, Katherine; Balachandran, Aru; Telling, Glenn C

    2009-05-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, fatal prion disease of deer and elk that continues to emerge in new locations. To explore the means by which prions are transmitted with high efficiency among cervids, we examined prion infectivity in the apical skin layer covering the growing antler (antler velvet) by using CWD-susceptible transgenic mice and protein misfolding cyclic amplification. Our finding of prions in antler velvet of CWD-affected elk suggests that this tissue may play a role in disease transmission among cervids. Humans who consume antler velvet as a nutritional supplement are at risk for exposure to prions. The fact that CWD prion incubation times in transgenic mice expressing elk prion protein are consistently more rapid raises the possibility that residue 226, the sole primary structural difference between deer and elk prion protein, may be a major determinant of CWD pathogenesis. PMID:19402954

  3. Does an infrasonic acoustic shock wave resonance of the manganese 3+ loaded/copper depleted prion protein initiate the pathogenesis of TSE?

    PubMed

    Purdey, Mark

    2003-06-01

    Intensive exposures to natural and artificial sources of infrasonic acoustic shock (tectonic disturbances, supersonic aeroplanes, etc.) have been observed in ecosystems supporting mammalian populations that are blighted by clusters of traditional and new variant strains of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). But TSEs will only emerge in those 'infrasound-rich' environments which are simultaneously influenced by eco-factors that induce a high manganese (Mn)/low copper (Cu)-zinc (Zn) ratio in brains of local mammalian populations. Since cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a cupro-protein expressed throughout the circadian mediated pathways of the body, it is proposed that PrP's Cu component performs a role in the conduction and distribution of endogenous electromagnetic energy; energy that has been transduced from incoming ultraviolet, acoustic, geomagnetic radiations. TSE pathogenesis is initiated once Mn substitutes at the vacant Cu domain on PrPc and forms a nonpathogenic, protease resistant, 'sleeping' prion. A second stage of pathogenesis comes into play once a low frequency wave of infrasonic shock metamorphoses the piezoelectric atomic structure of the Mn 3+ component of the prion, thereby 'priming' the sleeping prion into its fully fledged, pathogenic TSE isoform - where the paramagnetic status of the Mn 3+ atom is transformed into a stable ferrimagnetic lattice work, due to the strong electron-phonon coupling resulting from the dynamic 'Jahn-Teller' type distortions of the oxygen octahedra specific to the trivalent Mn species. The so called 'infectivity' of the prion is a misnomer and should be correctly defined as the contagious field inducing capacity of the ferrimagnetic Mn 3+ component of the prion; which remains pathogenic at all temperatures below the 'curie point'. A progressive domino-like 'metal to ligand to metal' ferrimagnetic corruption of the conduits of electromagnetic superexchange is initiated. The TSE diseased brain can be likened to a solar charged battery on continuous charge; where the Mn contaminated/Cu depleted circadian-auditory pathways absorb and pile up, rather than conduct the vital life force energies of incoming ultra violet, acoustic and geomagnetic radiation. Instead of harnessing these energies for the body's own bio-rhythmic requirements, an infrasonic shock induced metamorphosis of the Mn atom intervenes; initiating an explosive pathogenesis that perverts the healthy pathways of darkness and light; Cu prions are replaced by hyperpolarized Mn 3+ prions that seed self perpetuating 'cluster bombs' of free radical mediated neurodegeneration. TSE ensues. PMID:12699706

  4. Pathogenesis of prion diseases: a progress report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Aguzzi; F L Heppner

    2000-01-01

    Almost 20 years have passed since Stanley Prusiner proposed that the agent causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies consists exclusively of a protein and termed it prion. A mixed balance can be drawn from the enormous research efforts that have gone into prion research during this time. On the negative side, the protein-only hypothesis has not been conclusively proven yet. On the

  5. Endogenous proteolytic cleavage of disease-associated prion protein to produce C2 fragments is strongly cell- and tissue-dependent.

    PubMed

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-04-01

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrP(Sc) N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrP(Sc) accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrP(Sc) proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrP(Sc) fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrP(Sc) and cell pathogenesis of prion infection. PMID:20154089

  6. Endogenous Proteolytic Cleavage of Disease-associated Prion Protein to Produce C2 Fragments Is Strongly Cell- and Tissue-dependent*

    PubMed Central

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrPSc) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrPSc N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrPSc accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrPSc proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrPSc fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrPSc and cell pathogenesis of prion infection. PMID:20154089

  7. Cells release prions in association with exosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benoit Fevrier; Didier Vilette; Fabienne Archer; Damarys Loew; Wolfgang Faigle; Michel Vidal; Hubert Laude; Graça Raposo

    2004-01-01

    Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders linked to the accumulation in the central nervous system of the abnormally folded prion protein (PrP) scrapie (PrPsc), which is thought to be the infectious agent. Once present, PrPsc catalyzes the conversion of naturally occurring cellular PrP (PrPc) to PrPsc. Prion infection is usually initiated in peripheral organs, but the mechanisms involved in infectious

  8. Inhibition of protease-resistant prion protein formation in a transformed deer cell line infected with chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Gregory J; Olsen, Emily A; Lee, Kil Sun; Raymond, Lynne D; Bryant, P Kruger; Baron, Gerald S; Caughey, Winslow S; Kocisko, David A; McHolland, Linda E; Favara, Cynthia; Langeveld, Jan P M; van Zijderveld, Fred G; Mayer, Richard T; Miller, Michael W; Williams, Elizabeth S; Caughey, Byron

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of North American cervids, i.e., mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk (wapiti). To facilitate in vitro studies of CWD, we have developed a transformed deer cell line that is persistently infected with CWD. Primary cultures derived from uninfected mule deer brain tissue were transformed by transfection with a plasmid containing the simian virus 40 genome. A transformed cell line (MDB) was exposed to microsomes prepared from the brainstem of a CWD-affected mule deer. CWD-associated, protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(CWD)) was used as an indicator of CWD infection. Although no PrP(CWD) was detected in any of these cultures after two passes, dilution cloning of cells yielded one PrP(CWD)-positive clone out of 51. This clone, designated MDB(CWD), has maintained stable PrP(CWD) production through 32 serial passes thus far. A second round of dilution cloning yielded 20 PrP(CWD)-positive subclones out of 30, one of which was designated MDB(CWD2). The MDB(CWD2) cell line was positive for fibronectin and negative for microtubule-associated protein 2 (a neuronal marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (an activated astrocyte marker), consistent with derivation from brain fibroblasts (e.g., meningeal fibroblasts). Two inhibitors of rodent scrapie protease-resistant PrP accumulation, pentosan polysulfate and a porphyrin compound, indium (III) meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine chloride, potently blocked PrP(CWD) accumulation in MDB(CWD) cells. This demonstrates the utility of these cells in a rapid in vitro screening assay for PrP(CWD) inhibitors and suggests that these compounds have potential to be active against CWD in vivo. PMID:16378962

  9. Reduced expression of the presynaptic co-chaperone cysteine string protein alpha (CSP?) does not exacerbate experimentally-induced ME7 prion disease

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Matthew J.; Cooper, Matthew; Perry, V. Hugh; O’Connor, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Infection of mice with the ME7 prion agent results in well-characterised neuropathological changes, which includes vacuolation, neurodegeneration and synaptic degeneration. Presynaptic dysfunction and degeneration is apparent through the progressive reduction in synaptic vesicle proteins and eventual loss of synapses. Cysteine string protein alpha (CSP?), which regulates refolding pathways at the synapse, exhibits an early decline during chronic neurodegeneration implicating it as a mediator of disease mechanisms. CSP? null mice develop a progressive neuronal dysfunction through disruption of the integrity of presynaptic function. In this study, we investigated whether reduced expression of CSP? would exacerbate ME7 prion disease. Wild type (+/+) and heterozygous (+/?) mice, which express about a ?50% reduction in CSP?, were used as a distinct genetic background on which to impose prion disease. +/+ and +/ ? mice were inoculated with brain homogenate from either a normal mouse brain (NBH) or from the brain of a mouse which displayed clinical signs of prion disease (ME7). Behavioural tests, western blotting and immunohistochemistry, which resolve key elements of synaptic dysfunction, were used to assess the effect of reduced CSP? on disease. Behavioural tests revealed no change in the progression of disease in ME7–CSP? +/? animals compared to ME7–CSP? +/+ animals. In addition, the accumulation of misfolded PrPSc, the diseased associated gliosis or synaptic loss were not different. Thus, the misfolding events that generate synaptic dysfunction and lead to synaptic loss are unlikely to be mediated by a disease associated decrease in the refolding pathways associated with CSP?. PMID:25623034

  10. 3D local structure around copper site of rabbit prion-related protein: Quantitative determination by XANES spectroscopy combined with multiple-scattering calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, P. X.; Lian, F. L.; Wang, Y.; Wen, Yi; Chu, W. S.; Zhao, H. F.; Zhang, S.; Li, J.; Lin, D. H.; Wu, Z. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Prion-related protein (PrP), a cell-surface copper-binding glycoprotein, is considered to be responsible for a number of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The structural conversion of PrP from the normal cellular isoform (PrPC) to the post-translationally modified form (PrPSc) is thought to be relevant to Cu2+ binding to histidine residues. Rabbits are one of the few mammalian species that appear to be resistant to TSEs, because of the structural characteristics of the rabbit prion protein (RaPrPC) itself. Here we determined the three-dimensional local structure around the C-terminal high-affinity copper-binding sites using X-ray absorption near-edge structure combined with ab initio calculations in the framework of the multiple-scattering (MS) theory. Result shows that two amino acid resides, Gln97 and Met108, and two histidine residues, His95 and His110, are involved in binding this copper(II) ion. It might help us understand the roles of copper in prion conformation conversions, and the molecular mechanisms of prion-involved diseases.

  11. Reduced expression of the presynaptic co-chaperone cysteine string protein alpha (CSP?) does not exacerbate experimentally-induced ME7 prion disease.

    PubMed

    Davies, Matthew J; Cooper, Matthew; Perry, V Hugh; O'Connor, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Infection of mice with the ME7 prion agent results in well-characterised neuropathological changes, which includes vacuolation, neurodegeneration and synaptic degeneration. Presynaptic dysfunction and degeneration is apparent through the progressive reduction in synaptic vesicle proteins and eventual loss of synapses. Cysteine string protein alpha (CSP?), which regulates refolding pathways at the synapse, exhibits an early decline during chronic neurodegeneration implicating it as a mediator of disease mechanisms. CSP? null mice develop a progressive neuronal dysfunction through disruption of the integrity of presynaptic function. In this study, we investigated whether reduced expression of CSP? would exacerbate ME7 prion disease. Wild type (+/+) and heterozygous (+/-) mice, which express about a ?50% reduction in CSP?, were used as a distinct genetic background on which to impose prion disease. +/+ and +/ - mice were inoculated with brain homogenate from either a normal mouse brain (NBH) or from the brain of a mouse which displayed clinical signs of prion disease (ME7). Behavioural tests, western blotting and immunohistochemistry, which resolve key elements of synaptic dysfunction, were used to assess the effect of reduced CSP? on disease. Behavioural tests revealed no change in the progression of disease in ME7-CSP? +/- animals compared to ME7-CSP? +/+ animals. In addition, the accumulation of misfolded PrP(Sc), the diseased associated gliosis or synaptic loss were not different. Thus, the misfolding events that generate synaptic dysfunction and lead to synaptic loss are unlikely to be mediated by a disease associated decrease in the refolding pathways associated with CSP?. PMID:25623034

  12. Biology and Genetics of Prions Causing Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2014-01-01

    Prions are proteins that acquire alternative conformations that become self-propagating. Transformation of proteins into prions is generally accompanied by an increase in ?-sheet structure and a propensity to aggregate into oligomers. Some prions are beneficial and perform cellular functions, whereas others cause neurodegeneration. In mammals, more than a dozen proteins that become prions have been identified and a similar number has been found in fungi. In both mammals and fungi, variations in the prion conformation encipher the biological properties of distinct prion strains. Increasing evidence argues that prions cause many neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Creutzfeldt-Jakob, and Lou Gehrig’s diseases, as well as the tauopathies. The majority of NDs are sporadic, and 10% to 20% are inherited. The late onset of heritable NDs, like their sporadic counterparts, may reflect the stochastic nature of prion formation; the pathogenesis of such illnesses seems to require prion accumulation to exceed some critical threshold before neurological dysfunction manifests. PMID:24274755

  13. From Prion Diseases to Prion-Like Propagation Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Acquatella-Tran Van Ba, Isabelle; Imberdis, Thibaut; Perrier, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative sporadic, inherited, or acquired disorders. In humans, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is the most studied prion disease. In animals, the most frequent prion diseases are scrapie in sheep and goat, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, and the emerging chronic wasting disease in wild and captive deer in North America. The hallmark of prion diseases is the deposition in the brain of PrPSc, an abnormal ?-sheet-rich form of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) (Prusiner 1982). According to the prion hypothesis, PrPSc can trigger the autocatalytic conversion of PrPC into PrPSc, presumably in the presence of cofactors (lipids and small RNAs) that have been recently identified. In this review, we will come back to the original works that led to the discovery of prions and to the protein-only hypothesis proposed by Dr. Prusiner. We will then describe the recent reports on mammalian synthetic prions and recombinant prions that strongly support the protein-only hypothesis. The new concept of “deformed templating” regarding a new mechanism of PrPSc formation and replication will be exposed. The review will end with a chapter on the prion-like propagation of other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease and tauopathies. PMID:24222767

  14. The Presence of Disease-Associated Prion Protein in Skeletal Muscle of Cattle Infected with Classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    OKADA, Hiroyuki; MIYAZAWA, Kohtaro; FUKUDA, Shigeo; IWAMARU, Yoshifumi; IMAMURA, Morikazu; MASUJIN, Kentaro; MATSUURA, Yuichi; FUJII, Takashi; FUJII, Kei; KAGEYAMA, Soichi; YOSHIOKA, Miyako; MURAYAMA, Yuichi; YOKOYAMA, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the skeletal muscle of cattle infected with classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE). The study was carried out systematically in 12 different muscle samples from 43 (3 field and 40 experimental) cases of C-BSE; however, muscle spindles were not available in many of these cases. Therefore, analysis became restricted to a total of 31 muscles in 23 cattle. Even after this restriction, low levels of PrPSc were detected in the muscle spindles of the masseter, intercostal, triceps brachii, psoas major, quadriceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles from 3 field and 6 experimental clinical-stage cases. The present data indicate that small amounts of PrPSc are detectable by immunohistochemistry in the skeletal muscles of animals terminally affected with C-BSE. PMID:23986118

  15. An overview of animal prion diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative conditions affecting human and a wide range of animal species. The pathogenesis of prion diseases is associated with the accumulation of aggregates of misfolded conformers of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Animal prion diseases include scrapie of sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, exotic ungulate spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of cervids and spongiform encephalopathy of primates. Although some cases of sporadic atypical scrapie and BSE have also been reported, animal prion diseases have basically occurred via the acquisition of infection from contaminated feed or via the exposure to contaminated environment. Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are naturally sustaining epidemics. The transmission of BSE to human has caused more than 200 cases of variant Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease and has raised serious public health concerns. The present review discusses the epidemiology, clinical neuropathology, transmissibility and genetics of animal prion diseases. PMID:22044871

  16. Pathogenesis of prion diseases: current status and future outlook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Heikenwalder; Adriano Aguzzi

    2006-01-01

    The prion, a conformational variant of a host protein, is the infectious particle responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), a fatal neurodegenerative disease of humans and animals. The principal target of prion pathology is the brain, yet most TSEs also display prion replication at extra-cerebral locations, including secondary lymphoid organs and sites of chronic inflammation. Despite significant progress in our

  17. Detecting and quantifying prions: Mass spectrometry-based approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prions are novel pathogens that cause a set of rare fatal neurological diseases know as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Examples of these diseases include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, scrapie and chronic wasting disease. Prions are able to recruit a normal cellular prion protein and convert...

  18. Mass Spectrometry of Prions: Approaches to Conformational Distinction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prions are the agents that cause a set of fatal neurological diseases that include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Prions are composed solely of protein. Unlike viral, bacterial, or fungal pathogens, the information necessary to propagate the infection is contained in the conformation of the prion isofor...

  19. Mechanism of yeast prion portein aggregation and strain formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tejas Baba Kalastavadi

    2010-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of the prion protein (PrP) causes fatal neurodegenerative diseases in many mammalian species, including humans. Mutations in the gene encoding PrP are associated with ~15% of the incidences, while, the vast majority of the cases are sporadic. Interestingly, prion diseases also display pathological variation, suggesting that there are multiple different strains. To elucidate the mechanism of prion

  20. [PSI+] Maintenance Is Dependent on the Composition, Not Primary Sequence, of the Oligopeptide Repeat Domain

    PubMed Central

    Toombs, James A.; Liss, Nathan M.; Cobble, Kacy R.; Ben-Musa, Zobaida; Ross, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    [PSI+], the prion form of the yeast Sup35 protein, results from the structural conversion of Sup35 from a soluble form into an infectious amyloid form. The infectivity of prions is thought to result from chaperone-dependent fiber cleavage that breaks large prion fibers into smaller, inheritable propagons. Like the mammalian prion protein PrP, Sup35 contains an oligopeptide repeat domain. Deletion analysis indicates that the oligopeptide repeat domain is critical for [PSI+] propagation, while a distinct region of the prion domain is responsible for prion nucleation. The PrP oligopeptide repeat domain can substitute for the Sup35 oligopeptide repeat domain in supporting [PSI+] propagation, suggesting a common role for repeats in supporting prion maintenance. However, randomizing the order of the amino acids in the Sup35 prion domain does not block prion formation or propagation, suggesting that amino acid composition is the primary determinant of Sup35's prion propensity. Thus, it is unclear what role the oligopeptide repeats play in [PSI+] propagation: the repeats could simply act as a non-specific spacer separating the prion nucleation domain from the rest of the protein; the repeats could contain specific compositional elements that promote prion propagation; or the repeats, while not essential for prion propagation, might explain some unique features of [PSI+]. Here, we test these three hypotheses and show that the ability of the Sup35 and PrP repeats to support [PSI+] propagation stems from their amino acid composition, not their primary sequences. Furthermore, we demonstrate that compositional requirements for the repeat domain are distinct from those of the nucleation domain, indicating that prion nucleation and propagation are driven by distinct compositional features. PMID:21760933

  1. Immune cell types involved in early uptake and transport of recombinant mouse prion protein in Peyer's patches of calves.

    PubMed

    Lwin, Sein; Inoshima, Yasuo; Atoji, Yasuro; Ueno, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2009-12-01

    We have previously reported the early uptake and transport of foreign particles into Peyer's patches (PPs) of newborn and 2-month-old calves and shown that the peak uptake of particles occurs 6 h after inoculation, in addition to site- and size-related effects on particle uptake. We now report the distribution of immune cells within PPs of the distal ileum in newborn and 2-month-old calves inoculated with carbon black. The types of immune cells involved in the early uptake and transport of recombinant mouse prion protein (rMPrP) within PPs of newborn calf were investigated by using monoclonal antibodies CD11c, CD14, CD68, CD172a, and CD21. CD11c(+), CD14(+), CD68(+), CD172a(+), and CD21(+) immune cells were widely distributed in four tissue compartments (villi, dome, interfollicular region, and follicles) of PPs in the distal ileum of newborn and 2-month-old calves, whereas CD11c(+), CD14(+), CD172a(+), and CD21(+) immune cells were more prominently distributed in the dome areas of newborn calves than in 2-month-old calves. Moreover, CD11c(+) and CD14(+) dendritic cells, CD172a(+) and CD68(+) macrophages, and CD21(+) follicular dendritic cells containing rMPrP were primarily observed in the dome and inner follicular regions. The deposition of rMPrP within CD11c(+), CD14(+), CD172a(+), and CD68(+) cells, but not CD21(+) cells, was detected in villous regions. rMPrP-positive immune cells within the interfollicular regions included only CD11c(+) and CD172(+) cells. Although the particles used in this investigation do not include the infectious prion protein, PrP(Sc), our experimental setup provides a useful model for studying immune cells involved in the early uptake and transport of PrP(Sc). PMID:19834742

  2. Genetic evaluation of the ovine and bovine prion protein genes (PRNP)

    E-print Network

    Seabury, Christopher Mark

    2006-04-12

    ; Belt et al. 1995; Hunter et al. 1997; O?Rourke et al. 1999; Collinge 2001; Billinis et al. 2002; Johnson et al. 2003; O?Rourke et al. 2004; Sander et al. 2004). Four nonsynonymous mutations (P102L, P105L, A117V, F198S) encoded by exon two... been significantly associated with BSE susceptibility in a few German cattle breeds (Sander et al. 2004). The physiological function of PrPC Perhaps the most intriguing yet difficult aspect of prion biology has been to define the precise...

  3. Nucleic acid-free mutation of prion strains

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    While prions share the ability to propagate strain information with nucleic acid-based pathogens, it is unclear how they mutate and acquire fitness in the absence of this informational component. Because prion diseases occur as epidemics, understanding this mechanism is of paramount importance for implementing control strategies to limit their spread and for evaluating their zoonotic potential. Here we review emerging evidence indicating how prion protein primary structures, in concert with PrPSc conformational compatibility, determine prion strain mutation. PMID:20948302

  4. Long-standing prion dementia manifesting as posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Depaz, Raphaël; Haik, Stéphane; Peoc'h, Katell; Seilhean, Danielle; Grabli, David; Vicart, Savine; Sarazin, Marie; DeToffol, Bertrand; Remy, Catherine; Fallet-Bianco, Catherine; Laplanche, J L; Fontaine, Bertrand; Brandel, Jean Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases commonly manifest with the phenotype of subacute myoclonic encephalopathy. However, genetic forms of prion disease may have prolonged evolution mimicking neurodegenerative disease. We present the clinical and neuropathological features of a family with an early and long-standing dementia manifesting with posterior cortical atrophy and related to a 120 bp insertional mutation of the prion protein gene. Two cases exhibited mixed prion and A? pathology. The differential diagnosis with Alzheimer disease is discussed. PMID:21959360

  5. Distinguishing Proteins From Arbitrary Amino Acid Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Stephen S.-T.; Mao, Wei-Guang; Benson, Max; He, Rong Lucy

    2015-01-01

    What kinds of amino acid sequences could possibly be protein sequences? From all existing databases that we can find, known proteins are only a small fraction of all possible combinations of amino acids. Beginning with Sanger's first detailed determination of a protein sequence in 1952, previous studies have focused on describing the structure of existing protein sequences in order to construct the protein universe. No one, however, has developed a criteria for determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Here we show that when the collection of arbitrary amino acid sequences is viewed in an appropriate geometric context, the protein sequences cluster together. This leads to a new computational test, described here, that has proved to be remarkably accurate at determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Even more, if the results of this test indicate that the sequence can be a protein, and it is indeed a protein sequence, then its identity as a protein sequence is uniquely defined. We anticipate our computational test will be useful for those who are attempting to complete the job of discovering all proteins, or constructing the protein universe. PMID:25609314

  6. Distinguishing proteins from arbitrary amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Yau, Stephen S-T; Mao, Wei-Guang; Benson, Max; He, Rong Lucy

    2015-01-01

    What kinds of amino acid sequences could possibly be protein sequences? From all existing databases that we can find, known proteins are only a small fraction of all possible combinations of amino acids. Beginning with Sanger's first detailed determination of a protein sequence in 1952, previous studies have focused on describing the structure of existing protein sequences in order to construct the protein universe. No one, however, has developed a criteria for determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Here we show that when the collection of arbitrary amino acid sequences is viewed in an appropriate geometric context, the protein sequences cluster together. This leads to a new computational test, described here, that has proved to be remarkably accurate at determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Even more, if the results of this test indicate that the sequence can be a protein, and it is indeed a protein sequence, then its identity as a protein sequence is uniquely defined. We anticipate our computational test will be useful for those who are attempting to complete the job of discovering all proteins, or constructing the protein universe. PMID:25609314

  7. Oral Transmissibility of Prion Disease Is Enhanced by Binding to Soil Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Johnson; Joel A. Pedersen; Rick J. Chappell; Debbie McKenzie; Judd M. Aiken

    2007-01-01

    Soil may serve as an environmental reservoir for prion infectivity and contribute to the horizontal transmission of prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs)) of sheep, deer, and elk. TSE infectivity can persist in soil for years, and we previously demonstrated that the disease-associated form of the prion protein binds to soil particles and prions adsorbed to the common soil mineral

  8. Complete penetrance of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Libyan Jews carrying the E200K mutation in the prion protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, S.; Mastrianni, J. A.; Wrensch, M.; Gabizon, R.; Meiner, Z.; Kahana, I.; Rosenmann, H.; Kahana, E.; Prusiner, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a prion disease which is manifest as a sporadic, inherited, and transmissible neurodegenerative disorder. The mean age at onset of CJD is approximately 60 years, and as such, many people destined to succumb undoubtedly die of other illnesses first. The delayed onset of CJD has complicated the analysis of inherited forms of the illness and led to the suggestion that mutations in the prion protein (PrP) gene are necessary but not sufficient for prion disease despite genetic linkage; indeed, an environmental factor such as a ubiquitous virus has been proposed as a second necessary factor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To examine what appeared to be incomplete penetrance, we applied a life-table analysis to clinical and pedigree data from a cluster population of Libyan Jews in which the E200K mutation is prevalent. The study population included 42 affected and 44 unaffected members of 13 Libyan Jewish families, all of whom possessed the E200K mutation. RESULTS: The calculated value using life table analysis is 0.77 at age 70 which increases to 0.89 if a mutation carrier survives to age 80 and 0.96 if age 80 is surpassed. CONCLUSIONS: These data argue that the E200K mutation alone is sufficient to cause prion disease and does so in an age-dependent manner. PMID:8529127

  9. Rapidly progressive dementia with thalamic degeneration and peculiar cortical prion protein immunoreactivity, but absence of proteinase K resistant PrP: a new disease entity?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human prion diseases are a group of rare fatal neurodegenerative conditions with well-developed clinical and neuropathological diagnostic criteria. Recent observations have expanded the spectrum of prion diseases beyond the classically recognized forms. Results In the present study we report six patients with a novel, apparently sporadic disease characterised by thalamic degeneration and rapidly progressive dementia (duration of illness 2–12 months; age at death: 55–81 years). Light and electron microscopic immunostaining for the prion protein (PrP) revealed a peculiar intraneuritic distribution in neocortical regions. Proteinase K resistant PrP (PrPres) was undetectable by Western blotting in frontal cortex from the three cases with frozen tissue, even after enrichment for PrPres by centrifugation or by phosphotungstic acid precipitation. Conformation-dependent immunoassay analysis using a range of PK digestion conditions (and no PK digestion) produced only very limited evidence of meaningful D-N (denatured/native) values, indicative of the presence of disease-associated PrP (PrPSc) in these cases, when the results were compared with appropriate negative control groups. Conclusions Our observation expands the spectrum of conditions associated with rapidly progressive dementia and may have implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of prion diseases. PMID:24252716

  10. Disease-Associated Prion Protein in Neural and Lymphoid Tissues of Mink (Mustela vison) Inoculated with Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, D. A.; Harrington, R. D.; Zhuang, D.; Yan, H.; Truscott, T. C.; Dassanayake, R. P.; O'Rourke, K. I.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are diagnosed by immunodetection of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd). The distribution of PrPd within the body varies with the time-course of infection and between species, during interspecies transmission, as well as with prion strain. Mink are susceptible to a form of TSE known as transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), presumed to arise due to consumption of feed contaminated with a single prion strain of ruminant origin. After extended passage of TME isolates in hamsters, two strains emerge, HY and DY, each of which is associated with unique structural isoforms of PrPTME and of which only the HY strain is associated with accumulation of PrPTME in lymphoid tissues. Information on the structural nature and lymphoid accumulation of PrPTME in mink is limited. In this study, 13 mink were challenged by intracerebral inoculation using late passage TME inoculum after which brain and lymphoid tissues were collected at preclinical and clinical time points. The distribution and molecular nature of PrPTME was investigated by techniques including blotting of paraffin wax-embedded tissue and epitope mapping by western blotting. PrPTME was detected readily in the brain and retropharyngeal lymph node during preclinical infection with delayed progression of accumulation within other lymphoid tissues. For comparison, three mink were inoculated by the oral route and examined during clinical disease. Accumulation of PrPTME in these mink was greater and more widespread, including follicles of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Western blot analyses revealed that PrPTME accumulating in the brain of mink is structurally most similar to that accumulating in the brain of hamsters infected with the DY strain. Collectively, the results of extended passage in mink are consistent with the presence of only a single strain of TME, the DY strain, capable of inducing accumulation of PrPTME in the lymphoid tissues of mink but not in hamsters. Thus mink are a relevant animal model for further study of this unique strain, which ultimately may have been introduced through consumption of a TSE of ruminant origin. PMID:22595634

  11. Prion Proteins with Different Conformations Accumulate in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease Caused by A117V and F198S Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Piccardo, Pedro; Liepnieks, Juris J.; William, Albert; Dlouhy, Stephen R.; Farlow, Martin R.; Young, Katherine; Nochlin, David; Bird, Thomas D.; Nixon, Randal R.; Ball, Melvyn J.; DeCarli, Charles; Bugiani, Orso; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Benson, Merrill D.; Ghetti, Bernardino

    2001-01-01

    Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) is characterized by the accumulation of proteinase K (PK)-resistant prion protein fragments (PrPsc) of ?7 to 15 kd in the brain. Purified GSS amyloid is composed primarily of ?7-kd PrP peptides, whose N terminus corresponds to residues W81 and G88 to G90 in patients with the A117V mutation and to residue W81 in patients with the F198S mutation. The aim of this study was to characterize PrP in brain extracts, microsomal preparations, and purified fractions from A117V patients and to determine the N terminus of PrPsc species in both GSS A117V and F198S. In all GSS A117V patients, the ?7-kd PrPsc fragment isolated from nondigested and PK-digested samples had the major N terminus at residue G88 and G90, respectively. Conversely, in all patients with GSS F198S, an ?8-kd PrPsc fragment was isolated having the major N terminus start at residue G74. It is possible that a further degradation of this fragment generates the amyloid subunit starting at W81. The finding that patients with GSS A117V and F198S accumulate PrPsc fragments of different size and N-terminal sequence, suggests that these mutations generate two distinct PrP conformers. PMID:11395398

  12. Prion diseases — close to effective therapy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil R. Cashman; Byron Caughey

    2004-01-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies could represent a new mode of transmission for infectious diseases — a process more akin to crystallization than to microbial replication. The prion hypothesis proposes that the normal isoform of the prion protein is converted to a disease-specific species by template-directed misfolding. Therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to combat these diseases have emerged from immunological and chemotherapeutic

  13. Bacterial Colitis Increases Susceptibility to Oral Prion Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdson, Christina J.; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Manco, Giuseppe; Barthel, Manja; Schwarz, Petra; Stecher, Bärbel; Krautler, Nike J.; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Seifert, Burkhardt; MacPherson, Andrew J. S.; Corthesy, Irène; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    Dietary exposure to prion-contaminated materials has caused kuru and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of cattle, mink, and felines. The epidemiology of dietary prion infections suggest that host genetic modifiers, and possibly exogenous cofactors, may play a decisive role in determining disease susceptibility. However, few cofactors influencing prion susceptibility have been identified. Here we investigated whether colitis might represent one such cofactor. We report that moderate colitis caused by an attenuated strain of Salmonella more than doubles the susceptibility of mice to oral prion infection, and modestly accelerates the development of disease after prion challenge. The prion protein was upregulated in intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes of mice with colitis, providing a possible mechanism for the impact of colitis onto prion pathogenesis. Therefore, moderate intestinal inflammation at the time of prion exposure may constitute one of the elusive risk factors underlying the development of TSE. PMID:19072552

  14. Evidence for zoonotic potential of ovine scrapie prions.

    PubMed

    Cassard, Hervé; Torres, Juan-Maria; Lacroux, Caroline; Douet, Jean-Yves; Benestad, Sylvie L; Lantier, Frédéric; Lugan, Séverine; Lantier, Isabelle; Costes, Pierrette; Aron, Naima; Reine, Fabienne; Herzog, Laetitia; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos; Beringue, Vincent; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Although Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is the cause of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans, the zoonotic potential of scrapie prions remains unknown. Mice genetically engineered to overexpress the human prion protein (tgHu) have emerged as highly relevant models for gauging the capacity of prions to transmit to humans. These models can propagate human prions without any apparent transmission barrier and have been used used to confirm the zoonotic ability of BSE. Here we show that a panel of sheep scrapie prions transmit to several tgHu mice models with an efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. The serial transmission of different scrapie isolates in these mice led to the propagation of prions that are phenotypically identical to those causing sporadic CJD (sCJD) in humans. These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions. PMID:25510416

  15. Critical significance of the region between Helix 1 and 2 for efficient dominant-negative inhibition by conversion-incompetent prion protein.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yuzuru; Mistica, Arla M A; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Schätzl, Hermann M

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal infectious neurodegenerative disorders in man and animals associated with the accumulation of the pathogenic isoform PrP(Sc) of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(c)). A profound conformational change of PrP(c) underlies formation of PrP(Sc) and prion propagation involves conversion of PrP(c) substrate by direct interaction with PrP(Sc) template. Identifying the interfaces and modalities of inter-molecular interactions of PrPs will highly advance our understanding of prion propagation in particular and of prion-like mechanisms in general. To identify the region critical for inter-molecular interactions of PrP, we exploited here dominant-negative inhibition (DNI) effects of conversion-incompetent, internally-deleted PrP (?PrP) on co-expressed conversion-competent PrP. We created a series of ?PrPs with different lengths of deletions in the region between first and second ?-helix (H1?H2) which was recently postulated to be of importance in prion species barrier and PrP fibril formation. As previously reported, ?PrPs uniformly exhibited aberrant properties including detergent insolubility, limited protease digestion resistance, high-mannose type N-linked glycans, and intracellular localization. Although formerly controversial, we demonstrate here that ?PrPs have a GPI anchor attached. Surprisingly, despite very similar biochemical and cell-biological properties, DNI efficiencies of ?PrPs varied significantly, dependant on location and inversely correlated with the size of deletion. This data demonstrates that H1?H2 and the region C-terminal to it are critically important for efficient DNI. It also suggests that this region is involved in PrP-PrP interaction and conversion of PrP(C) into PrP(Sc). To reconcile the paradox of how an intracellular PrP can exert DNI, we demonstrate that ?PrPs are subject to both proteasomal and lysosomal/autophagic degradation pathways. Using autophagy pathways ?PrPs obtain access to the locale of prion conversion and PrP(Sc) recycling and can exert DNI there. This shows that the intracellular trafficking of PrPs is more complex than previously anticipated. PMID:23825952

  16. Critical Significance of the Region between Helix 1 and 2 for Efficient Dominant-Negative Inhibition by Conversion-Incompetent Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Yuzuru; Mistica, Arla M. A.; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Schätzl, Hermann M.

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal infectious neurodegenerative disorders in man and animals associated with the accumulation of the pathogenic isoform PrPSc of the host-encoded prion protein (PrPc). A profound conformational change of PrPc underlies formation of PrPSc and prion propagation involves conversion of PrPc substrate by direct interaction with PrPSc template. Identifying the interfaces and modalities of inter-molecular interactions of PrPs will highly advance our understanding of prion propagation in particular and of prion-like mechanisms in general. To identify the region critical for inter-molecular interactions of PrP, we exploited here dominant-negative inhibition (DNI) effects of conversion-incompetent, internally-deleted PrP (?PrP) on co-expressed conversion-competent PrP. We created a series of ?PrPs with different lengths of deletions in the region between first and second ?-helix (H1?H2) which was recently postulated to be of importance in prion species barrier and PrP fibril formation. As previously reported, ?PrPs uniformly exhibited aberrant properties including detergent insolubility, limited protease digestion resistance, high-mannose type N-linked glycans, and intracellular localization. Although formerly controversial, we demonstrate here that ?PrPs have a GPI anchor attached. Surprisingly, despite very similar biochemical and cell-biological properties, DNI efficiencies of ?PrPs varied significantly, dependant on location and inversely correlated with the size of deletion. This data demonstrates that H1?H2 and the region C-terminal to it are critically important for efficient DNI. It also suggests that this region is involved in PrP-PrP interaction and conversion of PrPC into PrPSc. To reconcile the paradox of how an intracellular PrP can exert DNI, we demonstrate that ?PrPs are subject to both proteasomal and lysosomal/autophagic degradation pathways. Using autophagy pathways ?PrPs obtain access to the locale of prion conversion and PrPSc recycling and can exert DNI there. This shows that the intracellular trafficking of PrPs is more complex than previously anticipated. PMID:23825952

  17. Multiorgan Detection and Characterization of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in a Case of Variant CJD Examined in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Stephen B.; Belay, Ermias D.; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Cali, Ignazio; Parchi, Piero; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Brown, Paul; Zaki, Sherif; Zou, Wen-Quan; Gambetti, Pierluigi

    2010-01-01

    Background Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD) is a prion disease thought to be acquired by the consumption of prion-contaminated beef products. To date, over 200 cases have been identified around the world, but mainly in the United Kingdom. Three cases have been identified in the United States; however, these subjects were likely exposed to prion infection elsewhere. Here we report on the first of these subjects. Methodology/Principal Findings Neuropathological and genetic examinations were carried out using standard procedures. We assessed the presence and characteristics of protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) in brain and 23 other organs and tissues using immunoblots performed directly on total homogenate or following sodium phosphotungstate precipitation to increase PrPres detectability. The brain showed a lack of typical spongiform degeneration and had large plaques, likely stemming from the extensive neuronal loss caused by the long duration (32 months) of the disease. The PrPres found in the brain had the typical characteristics of the PrPres present in vCJD. In addition to the brain and other organs known to be prion positive in vCJD, such as the lymphoreticular system, pituitary and adrenal glands, and gastrointestinal tract, PrPres was also detected for the first time in the dura mater, liver, pancreas, kidney, ovary, uterus, and skin. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the number of organs affected in vCJD is greater than previously realized and further underscore the risk of iatrogenic transmission in vCJD. PMID:20098730

  18. Biochemical Properties of Highly Neuroinvasive Prion Strains

    PubMed Central

    Bett, Cyrus; Joshi-Barr, Shivanjali; Lucero, Melanie; Trejo, Margarita; Liberski, Pawel; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Masliah, Eliezer; Sigurdson, Christina J.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious prions propagate from peripheral entry sites into the central nervous system (CNS), where they cause progressive neurodegeneration that ultimately leads to death. Yet the pathogenesis of prion disease can vary dramatically depending on the strain, or conformational variant of the aberrantly folded and aggregated protein, PrPSc. Although most prion strains invade the CNS, some prion strains cannot gain entry and do not cause clinical signs of disease. The conformational basis for this remarkable variation in the pathogenesis among strains is unclear. Using mouse-adapted prion strains, here we show that highly neuroinvasive prion strains primarily form diffuse aggregates in brain and are noncongophilic, conformationally unstable in denaturing conditions, and lead to rapidly lethal disease. These neuroinvasive strains efficiently generate PrPSc over short incubation periods. In contrast, the weakly neuroinvasive prion strains form large fibrillary plaques and are stable, congophilic, and inefficiently generate PrPSc over long incubation periods. Overall, these results indicate that the most neuroinvasive prion strains are also the least stable, and support the concept that the efficient replication and unstable nature of the most rapidly converting prions may be a feature linked to their efficient spread into the CNS. PMID:22319450

  19. An overview of human prion diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible, progressive and invariably fatal neurodegenerative conditions associated with misfolding and aggregation of a host-encoded cellular prion protein, PrPC. They have occurred in a wide range of mammalian species including human. Human prion diseases can arise sporadically, be hereditary or be acquired. Sporadic human prion diseases include Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD), fatal insomnia and variably protease-sensitive prionopathy. Genetic or familial prion diseases are caused by autosomal dominantly inherited mutations in the gene encoding for PrPC and include familial or genetic CJD, fatal familial insomnia and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome. Acquired human prion diseases account for only 5% of cases of human prion disease. They include kuru, iatrogenic CJD and a new variant form of CJD that was transmitted to humans from affected cattle via meat consumption especially brain. This review presents information on the epidemiology, etiology, clinical assessment, neuropathology and public health concerns of human prion diseases. The role of the PrP encoding gene (PRNP) in conferring susceptibility to human prion diseases is also discussed. PMID:22196171

  20. Lichens: unexpected anti-prion agents?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bennett, James P.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than 20 lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered.

  1. Protein sequence randomness and sequence/structure correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, R S; Rackovsky, S

    1995-01-01

    We investigated protein sequence/structure correlation by constructing a space of protein sequences, based on methods developed previously for constructing a space of protein structures. The space is constructed by using a representation of the amino acids as vectors of 10 property factors that encode almost all of their physical properties. Each sequence is represented by a distribution of overlapping sequence fragments. A distance between any two sequences can be calculated. By attaching a weight to each factor, intersequence distances can be varied. We optimize the correlation between corresponding distances in the sequence and structure spaces. The optimal correlation between the sequence and structure spaces is significantly better than that which results from correlating randomly generated sequences, having the overall composition of the data base, with the structure space. However, sets of randomly generated sequences, each of which approximates the composition of the real sequence it replaces, produce correlations with the structure space that are as good as that observed for the actual protein sequences. A connection is proposed with previous studies of the protein folding code. It is shown that the most important property factors for the correlation of the sequence and structure spaces are related to helix/bend preference, side chain bulk, and beta-structure preference. PMID:7787038

  2. Pathological mutations H187R and E196K facilitate subdomain separation and prion protein conversion by destabilization of the native structure.

    PubMed

    Hadži, San; Ondra?ka, Andrej; Jerala, Roman; Hafner-Bratkovi?, Iva

    2015-03-01

    The mechanism of prion protein (PrP) conversion, the key event in prion diseases, is still not understood. We investigated how perturbations of interactions between the subdomains ?1-?1-?2 and ?2-?3 affect PrP conversion. In vitro fibrillization and biophysical methods were used to relate mouse PrP conversion kinetics to thermodynamic stability. We show that pathologic mutations H187R and E196K destabilize PrP (by 3.2 and 1.1 kJ/mol, respectively, at pH 7) and accelerate fibrillization. At acidic pH, the major contribution to the destabilization of PrP comes from the protonation of histidine 187 because its replacement by tyrosine led to more stable protein (by 4.2 kJ/mol at pH 4) with slower fibrillization. Furthermore, we show that the introduction of a novel histidine residue into the subdomain interface (F198H) acts as a pH-inducible switch that promotes conversion upon histidine protonation, whereas this effect is not observed when His residue is introduced at the protein surface (Y155H). We observed a strong correlation between the stability of native structure and kinetics of fibrillization of PrP variants. Our results show that pathologic mutations promote subdomain separation and suggest that stabilization of the native structure might be a viable strategy for the development of novel therapeutics for prion diseases.-Hadži, S., Ondra?ka, A., Jerala, R., and Hafner-Bratkovi?, I. Pathological mutations H187R and E196K facilitate subdomain separation and prion protein conversion by destabilization of the native structure. PMID:25416551

  3. A Scrapie-Like Unfolding Intermediate of the Prion Protein Domain PrP(121-231) Induced by Acidic pH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Hornemann; Rudi Glockshuber

    1998-01-01

    The infectious agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is believed to consist of an oligomeric isoform, PrPSc, of the monomeric cellular prion protein, PrPC. The conversion of PrPC to PrPSc is characterized by a decrease in alpha -helical structure, an increase in beta -sheet content, and the formation of PrPSc amyloid. Whereas the N-terminal part of PrPC comprising residues 23-120 is

  4. Calorimetric investigation of copper binding in the N-terminal region of the prion protein at low copper loading: evidence for an entropically favorable first binding event.

    PubMed

    Gogineni, Devi Praneetha; Spuches, Anne M; Burns, Colin S

    2015-01-20

    Although the Cu(2+)-binding sites of the prion protein have been well studied when the protein is fully saturated by Cu(2+), the Cu(2+)-loading mechanism is just beginning to come into view. Because the Cu(2+)-binding modes at low and intermediate Cu(2+) occupancy necessarily represent the highest-affinity binding modes, these are very likely populated under physiological conditions, and it is thus essential to characterize them in order to understand better the biological function of copper-prion interactions. Besides binding-affinity data, almost no other thermodynamic parameters (e.g., ?H and ?S) have been measured, thus leaving undetermined the enthalpic and entropic factors that govern the free energy of Cu(2+) binding to the prion protein. In this study, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to quantify the thermodynamic parameters (K, ?G, ?H, and T?S) of Cu(2+) binding to a peptide, PrP(23-28, 57-98), that encompasses the majority of the residues implicated in Cu(2+) binding by full-length PrP. Use of the buffer N-(2-acetomido)-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES), which is also a well-characterized Cu(2+) chelator, allowed for the isolation of the two highest affinity binding events. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to characterize the different binding modes as a function of added Cu(2+). The Kd values determined by ITC, 7 and 380 nM, are well in line with those reported by others. The first binding event benefits significantly from a positive entropy, whereas the second binding event is enthalpically driven. The thermodynamic values associated with Cu(2+) binding by the A? peptide, which is implicated in Alzheimer's disease, bear striking parallels to those found here for the prion protein. PMID:25541747

  5. Accelerated, Spleen-Based Titration of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Infectivity in Transgenic Mice Expressing Human Prion Protein with Sensitivity Comparable to That of Survival Time Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Halliez, Sophie; Reine, Fabienne; Herzog, Laetitia; Jaumain, Emilie; Haïk, Stéphane; Rezaei, Human; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Laude, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The dietary exposure of the human population to the prions responsible for the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epizooty has led to the emergence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). This fatal, untreatable neurodegenerative disorder is a growing public health concern because the prevalence of the infection seems much greater than the disease incidence and because secondary transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion or use of blood products has occurred. A current limitation in variant CJD risk assessment is the lack of quantitative information on the infectivity of contaminated tissues. To address this limitation, we tested the potential of a transgenic mouse line overexpressing human prion protein (PrP), which was previously reported to propagate vCJD prions. Endpoint titration of vCJD infectivity in different tissues was evaluated by two different methods: (i) the “classical” bioassay, based on the appearance of clinical symptoms and the detection of pathological prion protein in tissues of the inoculated mouse, and (ii) a shortened bioassay based on the detection of the protein in the mouse spleen at defined time points. The two methods proved equally sensitive in quantifying infectivity, even after very-low-dose inoculation of infected material, but the time schedule was shortened from ?2.5 years to ?1 year with the spleen bioassay. Compared to the “gold-standard” RIII model routinely used for endpoint titration of vCJD/BSE prions, either method improved the sensitivity by >2 orders of magnitude and allowed reevaluating the infectious titer of spleen from a vCJD individual at disease end stage to >1,000-fold-higher values. IMPORTANCE Here, we provide key reevaluation of the infectious titer of variant CJD brain and spleen tissues. The highly sensitive, accelerated spleen-based assay should thus constitute a key advance for variant CJD epidemiological and risk assessment purposes and should greatly facilitate future titration studies, including, for example, those aimed at validating decontamination procedures. The overlooked notion that the lymphoid tissue exhibits a higher capacity than the brain to replicate prions even after low-dose infection raises new questions about the molecular and/or cellular determinant(s) involved, a key issue regarding potent silent carriers of variant CJD in the lymphoid tissue. PMID:24850746

  6. The Heat Shock Response Is Modulated by and Interferes with Toxic Effects of Scrapie Prion Protein and Amyloid ?*

    PubMed Central

    Resenberger, Ulrike K.; Müller, Veronika; Munter, Lisa M.; Baier, Michael; Multhaup, Gerd; Wilson, Mark R.; Winklhofer, Konstanze F.; Tatzelt, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The heat shock response (HSR) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway designed to maintain proteostasis and to ameliorate toxic effects of aberrant protein folding. We have studied the modulation of the HSR by the scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) and amyloid ? peptide (A?) and investigated whether an activated HSR or the ectopic expression of individual chaperones can interfere with PrPSc- or A?-induced toxicity. First, we observed different effects on the HSR under acute or chronic exposure of cells to PrPSc or A?. In chronically exposed cells the threshold to mount a stress response was significantly increased, evidenced by a decreased expression of Hsp72 after stress, whereas an acute exposure lowered the threshold for stress-induced expression of Hsp72. Next, we employed models of PrPSc- and A?-induced toxicity to demonstrate that the induction of the HSR ameliorates the toxic effects of both PrPSc and A?. Similarly, the ectopic expression of cytosolic Hsp72 or the extracellular chaperone clusterin protected against PrPSc- or A?-induced toxicity. However, toxic signaling induced by a pathogenic PrP mutant located at the plasma membrane was prevented by an activated HSR or Hsp72 but not by clusterin, indicating a distinct mode of action of this extracellular chaperone. Our study supports the notion that different pathological protein conformers mediate toxic effects via similar cellular pathways and emphasizes the possibility to exploit the heat shock response therapeutically. PMID:23115236

  7. Disruption of prion protein-HOP engagement impairs glioblastoma growth and cognitive decline and improves overall survival.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M H; Santos, T G; Rodrigues, B R; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, N; Cunha, I W; Wasilewska-Sampaio, A P; Costa-Silva, B; Marchi, F A; Bleggi-Torres, L F; Sanematsu, P I; Suzuki, S H; Oba-Shinjo, S M; Marie, S K N; Toulmin, E; Hill, A F; Martins, V R

    2014-08-25

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are resistant to current therapy protocols and identification of molecules that target these tumors is crucial. Interaction of secreted heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70)-Hsp90-organizing protein (HOP) with cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) triggers a large number of trophic effects in the nervous system. We found that both PrP(C) and HOP are highly expressed in human GBM samples relative to non-tumoral tissue or astrocytoma grades I-III. High levels of PrP(C) and HOP were associated with greater GBM proliferation and lower patient survival. HOP-PrP(C) binding increased GBM proliferation in vitro via phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathways, and a HOP peptide mimicking the PrP(C) binding site (HOP230-245) abrogates this effect. PrP(C) knockdown impaired tumor growth and increased survival of mice with tumors. In mice, intratumor delivery of HOP230-245 peptide impaired proliferation and promoted apoptosis of GBM cells. In addition, treatment with HOP230-245 peptide inhibited tumor growth, maintained cognitive performance and improved survival. Thus, together, the present results indicate that interfering with PrP(C)-HOP engagement is a promising approach for GBM therapy.Oncogene advance online publication, 25 August 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.261. PMID:25151961

  8. Novel compounds lowering the cellular isoform of the human prion protein in cultured human cells

    PubMed Central

    Silber, B. Michael; Gever, Joel R.; Rao, Satish; Li, Zhe; Renslo, Adam R.; Widjaja, Kartika; Wong, Casper; Giles, Kurt; Freyman, Yevgeniy; Elepano, Manuel; Irwin, John J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies showed that lowering PrPC concomitantly reduced PrPSc in the brains of mice inoculated with prions. We aimed to develop assays that measure PrPC on the surface of human T98G glioblastoma and IMR32 neuroblastoma cells. Using these assays, we sought to identify chemical hits, confirmed hits, and scaffolds that potently lowered PrPC levels in human brains cells, without lethality, and that could achieve drug concentrations in the brain after oral or intraperitoneal dosing in mice. Methods We utilized HTS ELISA assays to identify small compounds that lower PrPC levels by ?30% on the cell surface of human glioblastoma (T98G) and neuroblastoma (IMR32) cells. Results From 44,578 diverse chemical compounds tested, 138 hits were identified by single point confirmation (SPC) representing 7 chemical scaffolds in T98G cells, and 114 SPC hits representing 6 scaffolds found in IMR32 cells. When the confirmed SPC hits were combined with structurally related analogs, >300 compounds (representing 6 distinct chemical scaffolds) were tested for dose-response (EC50) in both cell lines, only studies in T98G cells identified compounds that reduced PrPC without killing the cells. EC50 values from 32 hits ranged from 65 nM to 4.1 ?M. Twenty-eight were evaluated in vivo in pharmacokinetic studies after a single 10 mg/kg oral or intraperitoneal dose in mice. Our results showed brain concentrations as high as 16.2 ?M, but only after intraperitoneal dosing. Conclusions Our studies identified leads for future studies to determine which compounds might lower PrPC levels in rodent brain, and provide the basis of a therapeutic for fatal disorders caused by PrP prions. PMID:24530226

  9. Rapidly progressive dementia syndrome associated with a novel four extra repeat mutation in the prion protein gene

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, C; Yasuda, M; Maeda, K; Miyoshi, K; Nishimura, Y

    2002-01-01

    Background: Genetic prion diseases are associated with point or insertional mutations in the PrP gene. The insertional mutations described so far consist of one to nine extra octapeptide repeats, except three repeats. Insertions of one to four extra octapeptide repeats cause Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in patients without a family history of neurological disorders. CJD generally presents as progressive dementia. Methods: Routine clinical assessment and sequence analysis of the PrP gene of DNA from a 56 year old Japanese man with progressive dementia syndrome. Results: Sequence analysis disclosed a novel four octapeptide repeat insertion within the PrP gene. The patient was initially affected by progressive cerebellar and brainstem signs; a few months later myoclonus and rapidly progressive dementia appeared. These symptoms were similar to those of sporadic CJD. Conclusion: Taken together with previous investigations of CJD patients with insertional mutations, the current observation strengthens the notion that small octapeptide insertions from one to four extra repeats within the PrP gene cause CJD, which is characterised by late onset after the sixth decade, rapid progression, death within a few months, and lack of a family history of neurological disorders, the latter suggesting incomplete penetrance. Different patients with four extra octapeptide repeats have different patterns of extra insertions, suggesting that progression of the disease depends on the number of extra repeats. PMID:12023426

  10. Genetics of prion diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Sarah E; Mead, Simon; Collinge, John

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible, fatal neurodegenerative diseases that include scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in animals and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) in human. The prion protein gene (PRNP) is the major genetic determinant of susceptibility, however, several studies now suggest that other genes are also important. Two recent genome wide association studies in human have identified four new loci of interest: ZBTB38-RASA2 in UK CJD cases and MTMR7 and NPAS2 in variant CJD. Complementary studies in mouse have used complex crosses to identify new modifiers such as Cpne8 and provided supporting evidence for previously implicated genes (Rarb and Stmn2). Expression profiling has identified new candidates, including Hspa13, which reduces incubation time in a transgenic model. PMID:23518043

  11. Multiple protein sequence comparison by genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Raquel R.; Izquierdo, Carmen M.; Seijas, Juan

    1998-03-01

    In the analysis of molecular evolution, it is very frequent to consider M sequences at a time, where M greater than 2. The simultaneous study of the relationships among M sequences is a large and difficult problem. This paper presents a new approach to multiple protein sequence comparison based on Genetic Algorithms, (G.A.). In particular, it is described an algorithm for finding the alignment of three protein sequences; besides, it can be easily changed for finding the alignment of more than three sequences or for other types of sequences. The G.A. was originally developed for only two sequences comparison [Morato96].

  12. Neuron dysfunction is induced by prion protein with an insertional mutation via a Fyn kinase and reversed by sirtuin activation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Bizat, Nicolas; Peyrin, Jean-Michel; Haïk, Stephane; Cochois, Véronique; Beaudry, Patrick; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Néri, Christian

    2010-04-14

    Although prion propagation is well understood, the signaling pathways activated by neurotoxic forms of prion protein (PrP) and those able to mitigate pathological phenotypes remain largely unknown. Here, we identify src-2, a Fyn-related kinase, as a gene required for human PrP with an insertional mutation to be neurotoxic in Caenorhabditis elegans, and the longevity modulator sir-2.1/SIRT1, a sirtuin deacetylase, as a modifier of prion neurotoxicity. The expression of octarepeat-expanded PrP in C. elegans mechanosensory neurons led to a progressive loss of response to touch without causing cell death, whereas wild-type PrP expression did not alter behavior. Transgenic PrP molecules showed expression at the plasma membrane, with protein clusters, partial resistance to proteinase K (PK), and protein insolubility detected for mutant PrP. Loss of function (LOF) of src-2 greatly reduced mutant PrP neurotoxicity without reducing PK-resistant PrP levels. Increased sir-2.1 dosage reversed mutant PrP neurotoxicity, whereas sir-2.1 LOF showed aggravation, and these effects did not alter PK-resistant PrP. Resveratrol, a polyphenol known to act through sirtuins for neuroprotection, reversed mutant PrP neurotoxicity in a sir-2.1-dependent manner. Additionally, resveratrol reversed cell death caused by mutant PrP in cerebellar granule neurons from prnp-null mice. These results suggest that Fyn mediates mutant PrP neurotoxicity in addition to its role in cellular PrP signaling and reveal that sirtuin activation mitigates these neurotoxic effects. Sirtuin activators may thus have therapeutic potential to protect from prion neurotoxicity and its effects on intracellular signaling. PMID:20392961

  13. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Sequester High Prion Titres at Early Stages of Prion Infection

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Seoane, Rocio; Hummerich, Holger; Sweeting, Trevor; Tattum, M. Howard; Linehan, Jacqueline M.; Fernandez de Marco, Mar; Brandner, Sebastian; Collinge, John; Klöhn, Peter-Christian

    2012-01-01

    In most transmissible spongiform encephalopathies prions accumulate in the lymphoreticular system (LRS) long before they are detectable in the central nervous system. While a considerable body of evidence showed that B lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells play a major role in prion colonization of lymphoid organs, the contribution of various other cell types, including antigen-presenting cells, to the accumulation and the spread of prions in the LRS are not well understood. A comprehensive study to compare prion titers of candidate cell types has not been performed to date, mainly due to limitations in the scope of animal bioassays where prohibitively large numbers of mice would be required to obtain sufficiently accurate data. By taking advantage of quantitative in vitro prion determination and magnetic-activated cell sorting, we studied the kinetics of prion accumulation in various splenic cell types at early stages of prion infection. Robust estimates for infectious titers were obtained by statistical modelling using a generalized linear model. Whilst prions were detectable in B and T lymphocytes and in antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells and macrophages, highest infectious titers were determined in two cell types that have previously not been associated with prion pathogenesis, plasmacytoid dendritic (pDC) and natural killer (NK) cells. At 30 days after infection, NK cells were more than twice, and pDCs about seven-fold, as infectious as lymphocytes respectively. This result was unexpected since, in accordance to previous reports prion protein, an obligate requirement for prion replication, was undetectable in pDCs. This underscores the importance of prion sequestration and dissemination by antigen-presenting cells which are among the first cells of the immune system to encounter pathogens. We furthermore report the first evidence for a release of prions from lymphocytes and DCs of scrapie-infected mice ex vivo, a process that is associated with a release of exosome-like membrane vesicles. PMID:22359509

  14. Tissue- and cell type-specific modification of prion protein (PrP)-like protein Doppel, which affects PrP endoproteolysis.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A prion protein (PrP)-like protein, Doppel (Dpl) is a homologue of cellular PrP (PrP(C)). Immunoblotting revealed heterogeneous glycosylation patterns of Dpl and PrP(C) in several cell lines and tissues, including brain and testis. To investigate whether the glycosylation and modification of Dpl and PrP(C) could influence each other, PrP gene (Prnp)-deficient neuronal cells, transfected with Prnp and/or the Dpl gene (Prnd), were analyzed by deglycosylation with peptide N-glycosidase F. The modification of Dpl was not influenced by PrP(C), whereas an N-terminally truncated fragment of PrP(C) was reduced by Dpl expression. These results indicated that Dpl was glycosylated in a cell type- and tissue-specific manner regardless of PrP(C), while PrP(C) endoproteolysis was modulated by Dpl expression. PMID:21144827

  15. mGlu5 receptors and cellular prion protein mediate amyloid-?-facilitated synaptic long-term depression in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Neng-Wei; Nicoll, Andrew J.; Zhang, Dainan; Mably, Alexandra J.; O’Malley, Tiernan; Purro, Silvia A.; Terry, Cassandra; Collinge, John; Walsh, Dominic M.; Rowan, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are currently regarded as paramount in the potent and selective disruption of synaptic plasticity by Alzheimer’s disease amyloid ?-protein (A?). Non-NMDAR mechanisms remain relatively unexplored. Here we describe how A? facilitates NMDAR-independent long-term depression of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus in vivo. Synthetic A? and A? in soluble extracts of Alzheimer’s disease brain usurp endogenous acetylcholine muscarinic receptor-dependent long-term depression, to enable long-term depression that required metabotropic glutamate-5 receptors (mGlu5Rs). We also find that mGlu5Rs are essential for A?-mediated inhibition of NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation in vivo. Blocking A? binding to cellular prion protein with antibodies prevents the facilitation of long-term depression. Our findings uncover an overarching role for A?-PrPC-mGlu5R interplay in mediating both LTD facilitation and LTP inhibition, encompassing NMDAR-mediated processes that were previously considered primary. PMID:24594908

  16. Prion protein- and cardiac troponin T-marked interstitial cells from the adult myocardium spontaneously develop into beating cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Omatsu-Kanbe, Mariko; Nishino, Yuka; Nozuchi, Nozomi; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Matsuura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Atypically-shaped cardiomyocytes (ACMs) constitute a novel subpopulation of beating heart cells found in the cultures of cardiac myocyte-removed crude fraction cells obtained from adult mouse cardiac ventricles. Although ~500 beating ACMs are observed under microscope in the cell cultures obtained from the hearts of either male or female mice, the origin of these cells in cardiac tissue has yet to be elucidated due to the lack of exclusive markers. In the present study, we demonstrate the efficacy of cellular prion protein (PrP) as a surface marker of ACMs. Cells expressing PrP at the plasma membrane in the culture of the crude fraction cells were found to develop into beating ACMs by themselves or fuse with each other to become larger multinuclear beating ACMs. Combining PrP with a cardiac-specific contractile protein cardiac troponin T (cTnT) allowed us to identify native ACMs in the mouse cardiac ventricles as either clustered or solitary cells. PrP- and cTnT-marked cells were also found in the adult, even aged, human cardiac ventricles. These findings suggest that interstitial cells marked by PrP and cTnT, native ACMs, exhibit life-long survival in the cardiac ventricles of both mice and humans. PMID:25466571

  17. In vitro Expression in Eukaryotic Cells of a Prion Protein Gene Cloned from Scrapie-Infected Mouse Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughey, Byron; Race, Richard E.; Vogel, Mari; Buchmeier, Michael J.; Chesebro, Bruce

    1988-07-01

    It has been proposed that the causative agent of scrapie represents a class of infectious particle that is devoid of nucleic acid and that an altered form of the endogenous prion protein (PrP) is the agent. However, it has been difficult to exclude the possibility that PrP purified from scrapie tissues might be contaminated with a more conventional viral agent. To obtain PrP uncontaminated by scrapie-infected tissues, PrP cDNA cloned from a scrapie-infected mouse brain was expressed in mouse C127 cells in vitro. mRNA and protein encoded by the cloned PrP gene were identified. The expressed PrP polypeptides appeared to be glycosylated and were released from the cell surface into the medium. Homogenates of the cells expressing the cloned PrP gene were inoculated into susceptible mice but failed to induce clinical signs of scrapie. Thus, either PrP is not the transmissible agent of scrapie or the expressed PrP requires additional modification to be infectious.

  18. Prions and the prion disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Fisher; Glenn Telling; John Collinge

    1998-01-01

    .   One of us remembers sitting in a high school biology class in 1977 being taught about scrapie, a naturally occurring disorder\\u000a of sheep. The teacher had no particular interest in agriculture, but was pointing out some peculiar characteristics of this\\u000a disease as a biological curiosity on a wet Friday afternoon. The prion disorders captured the imagination of a range

  19. Axonal and Transynaptic Spread of Prions

    PubMed Central

    Shearin, Harold

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural transmission of prion diseases depends upon the spread of prions from the nervous system to excretory or secretory tissues, but the mechanism of prion transport in axons and into peripheral tissue is unresolved. Here, we examined the temporal and spatial movement of prions from the brain stem along cranial nerves into skeletal muscle as a model of axonal transport and transynaptic spread. The disease-specific isoform of the prion protein, PrPSc, was observed in nerve fibers of the tongue approximately 2 weeks prior to PrPSc deposition in skeletal muscle. Initially, PrPSc deposits had a small punctate pattern on the edge of muscle cells that colocalized with synaptophysin, a marker for the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), in >50% of the cells. At later time points PrPSc was widely distributed in muscle cells, but <10% of prion-infected cells exhibited PrPSc deposition at the NMJ, suggesting additional prion replication and dissemination within muscle cells. In contrast to the NMJ, PrPSc was not associated with synaptophysin in nerve fibers but was found to colocalize with LAMP-1 and cathepsin D during early stages of axonal spread. We propose that PrPSc-bound endosomes can lead to membrane recycling in which PrPSc is directed to the synapse, where it either moves across the NMJ into the postsynaptic muscle cell or induces PrPSc formation on muscle cells across the NMJ. IMPORTANCE Prion diseases are transmissible and fatal neurodegenerative diseases in which prion dissemination to excretory or secretory tissues is necessary for natural disease transmission. Despite the importance of this pathway, the cellular mechanism of prion transport in axons and into peripheral tissue is unresolved. This study demonstrates anterograde spread of prions within nerve fibers prior to infection of peripheral synapses (i.e., neuromuscular junction) and infection of peripheral tissues (i.e., muscle cells). Within nerve fibers prions were associated with the endosomal-lysosomal pathway prior to entry into muscle cells. Since early prion spread is anterograde and endosome-lysosomal movement within axons is primarily retrograde, these findings suggest that endosome-bound prions may have an alternate fate that directs prions to the peripheral synapse. PMID:24850738

  20. Identification of Microglial Signal Transduction Pathways Mediating a Neurotoxic Response to Amyloidogenic Fragments of b-Amyloid and Prion Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin K. Combs; Derrick E. Johnson; Steve B. Cannady; Timothy M. Lehman; Gary E. Landreth

    1999-01-01

    Microglial interaction with amyloid fibrils in the brains of Alzhei- mer's and prion disease patients results in the inflammatory activation of these cells. We observed that primary microglial cultures and the THP-1 monocytic cell line are stimulated by fibrillar b-amyloid and prion peptides to activate identical ty- rosine kinase-dependent inflammatory signal transduction cas- cades. The tyrosine kinases Lyn and Syk

  1. Gene and protein patterns of potential prion-related markers in the central nervous system of clinical and preclinical infected sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The molecular pathogenic mechanisms of prion diseases are far from clear. Genomic analyses have revealed genetic biomarkers potentially involved in prion neuropathology in naturally scrapie-infected sheep, a good animal model of infectious prionopathies. However, these biomarkers must be validated in independent studies at different stages of the disease. The gene and protein expression profiles and protein distribution of six potential genetic biomarkers (i.e., CAPN6, COL1A2, COL3A1, GALA1, MT2A and MTNR1B) are presented here for both the early and terminal stages of scrapie in five different brain regions. Gene transcription changes were confirmed in the medulla oblongata, and the expression profiles were generally similar in other central nervous system regions. The changes were more substantial in clinical animals compared to preclinical animals. The expression of the CAPN6 protein increased in the spinal cord and cerebellum of the clinical and preclinical brains. The distribution of the GALA1 was identified in glial cells from the cerebellum of scrapie-infected animals, GALA1 protein expression was increased in clinical animals in the majority of regions, and the increase of MT2A was in agreement with previous reports. The downregulation of MTNR1B was especially marked in the Purkinje cells. Finally, although collagen genes were downregulated the protein immunostaining did not reveal significant changes between the scrapie-infected and control animals. In conclusion, this study of gene transcription and protein expression and distribution confirm CAPN6, GALA1, MTNR1B and MT2A as potential targets for further prion disease research. PMID:23497022

  2. On the statistical mechanics of prion diseases

    E-print Network

    A. Slepoy; R. R. P. Singh; F. Pázmándi; R. N. Kulkarni; D. L. Cox

    2001-02-26

    We simulate a two-dimensional, lattice based, protein-level statistical mechanical model for prion diseases (e.g., Mad Cow disease) with concommitant prion protein misfolding and aggregation. Our simulations lead us to the hypothesis that the observed broad incubation time distribution in epidemiological data reflect fluctuation dominated growth seeded by a few nanometer scale aggregates, while much narrower incubation time distributions for innoculated lab animals arise from statistical self averaging. We model `species barriers' to prion infection and assess a related treatment protocol.

  3. A systems approach to prion disease

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Daehee; Lee, Inyoul Y; Yoo, Hyuntae; Gehlenborg, Nils; Cho, Ji-Hoon; Petritis, Brianne; Baxter, David; Pitstick, Rose; Young, Rebecca; Spicer, Doug; Price, Nathan D; Hohmann, John G; DeArmond, Stephen J; Carlson, George A; Hood, Leroy E

    2009-01-01

    Prions cause transmissible neurodegenerative diseases and replicate by conformational conversion of normal benign forms of prion protein (PrPC) to disease-causing PrPSc isoforms. A systems approach to disease postulates that disease arises from perturbation of biological networks in the relevant organ. We tracked global gene expression in the brains of eight distinct mouse strain–prion strain combinations throughout the progression of the disease to capture the effects of prion strain, host genetics, and PrP concentration on disease incubation time. Subtractive analyses exploiting various aspects of prion biology and infection identified a core of 333 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that appeared central to prion disease. DEGs were mapped into functional pathways and networks reflecting defined neuropathological events and PrPSc replication and accumulation, enabling the identification of novel modules and modules that may be involved in genetic effects on incubation time and in prion strain specificity. Our systems analysis provides a comprehensive basis for developing models for prion replication and disease, and suggests some possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:19308092

  4. [Protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) in the blood of offspring of cows that developed BSE].

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Tschuor, A; Hässig, M; Franitza, S; Berli, E; El Gedaily, A; Franscini, N; Matthey, U; Zahn, R

    2009-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) occurs in plasma samples of offspring of cows that developed bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; group A) and to compare the prevalence with that of a healthy control group in 2006 (Group B). Group A consisted of 181 offspring of cows that developed BSE and group B consisted of 240 healthy animals from a region in Switzerland where no cases of BSE occurred from 2001 to the end of 2006. All plasma samples were evaluated using Alicon PrioTrap, an antemortem test for PrPres. The time between birth of the offspring and onset of BSE in the dam was calculated to determine its relationship with the presence of PrPres in the plasma of the offspring. From 181 offspring, 29 (16.1%) had PrPres-positive plasma samples. Offspring that were born within one year of the onset of BSE in the dam had a significantly higher prevalence of PrPres-positive plasma samples than those born more than one year before the onset of BSE in the dam. Ten (4.2%) of 240 control cattle had PrPres-positive plasma samples. Thus, PrPres can be detected in bovine blood and occurs more frequently in the offspring of cows that develop BSE than in cattle of a healthy control population. PMID:19722131

  5. Prion protein gene analysis in three kindreds with fatal familial insomnia (FFI): Codon 178 mutation and codon 129 polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Medori, R.; Tritschler, H.J. (Universita di Bologna (Italy))

    1993-10-01

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a disease linked to a GAC(Asp) [yields] AAC(Asn) mutation in codon 178 of the prion protein (PrP) gene. FFI is characterized clinically by untreatable progressive insomnia, dysautonomia, and motor dysfunctions and is characterized pathologically by selective thalamic atrophy. The authors confirmed the 178[sup Asn] mutation in the PrP gene of a third FFI family of French ancestry. Three family members who are under 40 years of age and who inherited the mutation showed only reduced perfusion in the basal ganglia on single photon emission computerized tomography. Some FFI features differ from the clinical and neuropathologic findings associated with 178[sup Asn] reported elsewhere. However, additional intragenic mutations accounting for the phenotypic differences were not observed in two affected individuals. In other sporadic and familial forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Straeussler syndrome, Met or Val homozygosity at polymorphic codon 129 is associated with a more severe phenotype, younger age at onset, and faster progression. In FFI, young and old individuals at disease onset had 129[sup Met/Val]. Moreover, of five 178[sup Asn] individuals who are above age-at-onset range and who are well, two have 129[sup Met] and three have 129[sup Met/Val], suggesting that polymorphic site 129 does not modulate FFI phenotypic expression. Genetic heterogeneity and environment may play an important role in inter- and intrafamilial variability of the 178[sup Asn] mutation. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Experimental H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy characterized by plaques and glial- and stellate-type prion protein deposits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has recently been identified in Europe, North America, and Japan. It is classified as H-type and L-type BSE according to the molecular mass of the disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc). To investigate the topographical distribution and deposition patterns of immunolabeled PrPSc, H-type BSE isolate was inoculated intracerebrally into cattle. H-type BSE was successfully transmitted to 3 calves, with incubation periods between 500 and 600 days. Moderate to severe spongiform changes were detected in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem. H-type BSE was characterized by the presence of PrP-immunopositive amyloid plaques in the white matter of the cerebrum, basal ganglia, and thalamus. Moreover, intraglial-type immunolabeled PrPSc was prominent throughout the brain. Stellate-type immunolabeled PrPSc was conspicuous in the gray matter of the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus, but not in the brainstem. In addition, PrPSc accumulation was detected in the peripheral nervous tissues, such as trigeminal ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, optic nerve, retina, and neurohypophysis. Cattle are susceptible to H-type BSE with a shorter incubation period, showing distinct and distinguishable phenotypes of PrPSc accumulation. PMID:21699704

  7. Genetic Diversity in the Prion Protein Gene (PRNP) of Domestic Cattle and Water Buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    UCHIDA, Leo; HERIYANTO, Agus; THONGCHAI, Chalermchaikit; HANH, Tran Thi; HORIUCHI, Motohiro; ISHIHARA, Kanako; TAMURA, Yutaka; MURAMATSU, Yasukazu

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT There has been an accumulation of information on frequencies of insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms within the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) and on the number of octapeptide repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region of bovine PRNP related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility. We investigated the frequencies of 23-bp indel polymorphism in the promoter region (23indel) and 12-bp indel polymorphism in intron 1 region (12indel), octapeptide repeat polymorphisms and SNPs in the bovine PRNP of cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. The frequency of the deletion allele in the 23indel site was significantly low in cattle of Indonesia and Thailand and water buffaloes. The deletion allele frequency in the 12indel site was significantly low in all of the cattle and buffaloes categorized in each subgroup. In both indel sites, the deletion allele has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to classical BSE. In some Indonesian local cattle breeds, the frequency of the allele with 5 octapeptide repeats was significantly high despite the fact that the allele with 6 octapeptide repeats has been reported to be most frequent in many breeds of cattle. Four SNPs observed in Indonesian local cattle have not been reported for domestic cattle. This study provided information on PRNP of livestock in these Southeast Asian countries. PMID:24705506

  8. Effects of nutrition and genotype on prion protein (PrPC) gene expression in the fetal and maternal sheep placenta.

    PubMed

    Evoniuk, J M; Johnson, M L; Borowicz, P P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A; Reynolds, L P; Taylor, J B; Stoltenow, C L; O'Rourke, K I; Redmer, D A

    2008-05-01

    For placental transmission of scrapie to occur, the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) must be converted to an abnormal infectious form known as PrPSc. PrPC genotype influences susceptibility to contracting scrapie, but we still do not understand whether genotype or expression levels of PrPC are important in transmission of scrapie. Some evidence exists that nutrition affects expression levels of PrPC. Thus, we evaluated the effects of genotype and nutrition on PrPC mRNA and protein expression in adolescent ewes fed at control (100% of National Research Council [NRC] requirements) or restricted (60% of NRC) levels of diet intake during two periods of pregnancy (days 50-90 and days 90-130)]. Gravid uteri (n=50) from singleton pregnancies were collected at day 130, and placentomes were either separated into caruncular (CAR; maternal) or cotyledonary (COT; fetal) placenta and snap-frozen for PrPC mRNA expression or perfusion fixed for PrPC protein expression. PrPC genotypes were determined (codons 136 and 171) using SNP assay. There were no genotype effects on PrPC mRNA expression in CAR or on PrPC protein expression in either CAR or COT, but PrPC mRNA expression in COT was greater (P<0.02) when codon 136 was homozygous for alanine. Some PrPC protein-positive cells were found in the epithelium of CAR, but most were found in trophoblast binucleate and mononucleate cells of COT. In CAR, from days 90 to 130, PrPC protein abundance was greater (P=0.003) in diet-restricted ewes than in control ewes, but was less uniformly distributed (P<0.007). Additionally, in COT, from days 90 to 130, PrPC protein was less uniformly distributed (P<0.01) in diet-restricted ewes. The localized increase in PrPC protein expression, found in ewes diet-restricted late in pregnancy, may suggest a protective role for PrPC in placental biology. Further study is needed to evaluate whether nutrition, PrPC genotype, and PrPC expression levels influence placental transmission of scrapie. PMID:18358531

  9. Species-barrier-independent prion replication in apparently resistant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Andrew F.; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jackie; Desbruslais, Melanie; Lantos, Peter L.; Collinge, John

    2000-08-01

    Transmission of prions between mammalian species is thought to be limited by a "species barrier," which depends on differences in the primary structure of prion proteins in the infecting inoculum and the host. Here we demonstrate that a strain of hamster prions thought to be nonpathogenic for conventional mice leads to prion replication to high levels in such mice but without causing clinical disease. Prions pathogenic in both mice and hamsters are produced. These results demonstrate the existence of subclinical forms of prion infection with important public health implications, both with respect to iatrogenic transmission from apparently healthy humans and dietary exposure to cattle and other species exposed to bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions. Current definitions of the species barrier, which have been based on clinical end-points, need to be fundamentally reassessed.

  10. Mass spectrometric methods for protein sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Biemann, K.

    1986-11-01

    The potential usefulness of mass spectroscopy (MS) for the determination of amino acid sequence of peptides is reviewed. Included in the historical review are discussions of recombinant DNA techniques, fast atom bombardment, (FABMS), combined DNA sequencing and FABMS, and recent advances in direct MS sequencing of proteins.

  11. The Structure of Human Prions: From Biology to Structural Models — Considerations and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Morantes, Claudia Y.; Wille, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases are a family of transmissible, progressive, and uniformly fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. Although cross-species transmissions of prions are usually limited by an apparent “species barrier”, the spread of a prion disease to humans by ingestion of contaminated food, or via other routes of exposure, indicates that animal prions can pose a significant public health risk. The infectious agent responsible for the transmission of prion diseases is a misfolded conformer of the prion protein, PrPSc, a pathogenic isoform of the host-encoded, cellular prion protein, PrPC. The detailed mechanisms of prion conversion and replication, as well as the high-resolution structure of PrPSc, are unknown. This review will discuss the general background related to prion biology and assess the structural models proposed to date, while highlighting the experimental challenges of elucidating the structure of PrPSc. PMID:25333467

  12. Squalestatin alters the intracellular trafficking of a neurotoxic prion peptide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rona Wilson; Clive Bate; Ronald Boshuizen; Alun Williams; James Brewer

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurotoxic peptides derived from the protease-resistant core of the prion protein are used to model the pathogenesis of prion diseases. The current study characterised the ingestion, internalization and intracellular trafficking of a neurotoxic peptide containing amino acids 105–132 of the murine prion protein (MoPrP105-132) in neuroblastoma cells and primary cortical neurons. RESULTS: Fluorescence microscopy and cell fractionation techniques showed

  13. Therapies for human prion diseases

    PubMed Central

    Panegyres, Peter K; Armari, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The pathological foundation of human prion diseases is a result of the conversion of the physiological form of prion protein (PrPc) to the pathological protease resistance form PrPres. Most patients with prion disease have unknown reasons for this conversion and the subsequent development of a devastating neurodegenerative disorder. The conversion of PrPc to PrPres, with resultant propagation and accumulation results in neuronal death and amyloidogenesis. However, with increasing understanding of neurodegenerative processes it appears that protein-misfolding and subsequent propagation of these rouge proteins, is a generic phenomenon shared with diseases caused by tau, ?-synucleins and ?-amyloid proteins. Consequently, effective anti-prion agents may have wider implications. A number of therapeutic approaches include polyanionic, polycyclic drugs such as pentosan polysulfate (PPS), which prevent the conversion of PrPc to PrPres and might also sequester and down-regulate PrPres. Polyanionic compounds might also help to clear PrPres. Treatments aimed at the laminin receptor, which is an important accessory molecule in the conversion of PrPc to PrPres – neuroprotection, immunotherapy, siRNA and antisense approaches have provided some experimental promise. PMID:24093082

  14. Specificity of the J-protein Sis1 in the propagation of 3 yeast prions

    E-print Network

    Craig, Elizabeth A

    complexes upon Sis1 depletion. We sug- gest that a common set of molecular chaperones, the J-protein Sis1 reliant on the function of molecular chaperones, proteins that normally function to prevent protein and the J-protein (Hsp40):Hsp70 chaperone machinery, with its associ- ated nucleotide exchange factors (3

  15. Ataxia in prion protein (PrP)-deficient mice is associated with upregulation of the novel PrP-like protein doppel 1 1 Edited by P. E. Wright

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C Moore; Inyoul Y Lee; Gregory L Silverman; Paul M Harrison; Robert Strome; Cornelia Heinrich; Amila Karunaratne; Stephen H Pasternak; M. Azhar Chishti; Yan Liang; Peter Mastrangelo; Kai Wang; Arian F. A Smit; Shigeru Katamine; George A Carlson; Fred E Cohen; David W Melton; Patrick Tremblay; Leroy E Hood; David Westaway

    1999-01-01

    The novel locus Prnd is 16 kb downstream of the mouse prion protein (PrP) gene Prnp and encodes a 179 residue PrP-like protein designated doppel (Dpl). Prnd generates major transcripts of 1.7 and 2.7 kb as well as some unusual chimeric transcripts generated by intergenic splicing with Prnp. Like PrP, Dpl mRNA is expressed during embryogenesis but, in contrast to

  16. Predicting Coiled Coils from Protein Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei Lupas; Marc van Dyke; Jeff Stock

    1991-01-01

    The probability that a residue in a protein is part of a coiled-coil structure was assessed by comparison of its flanking sequences with sequences of known coiled-coil proteins. This method was used to delineate coiled-coil domains in otherwise globular proteins, such as the leucine zipper domains in transcriptional regulators, and to predict regions of discontinuity within coiled-coil structures, such as

  17. Epigenetic Dominance of Prion Conformers

    PubMed Central

    Saijo, Eri; Kang, Hae-Eun; Bian, Jifeng; Bowling, Kristi G.; Browning, Shawn;