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1

What Makes a Protein Sequence a Prion?  

PubMed Central

Typical amyloid diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's were thought to exclusively result from de novo aggregation, but recently it was shown that amyloids formed in one cell can cross-seed aggregation in other cells, following a prion-like mechanism. Despite the large experimental effort devoted to understanding the phenomenon of prion transmissibility, it is still poorly understood how this property is encoded in the primary sequence. In many cases, prion structural conversion is driven by the presence of relatively large glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) enriched segments. Several studies suggest that it is the amino acid composition of these regions rather than their specific sequence that accounts for their priogenicity. However, our analysis indicates that it is instead the presence and potency of specific short amyloid-prone sequences that occur within intrinsically disordered Q/N-rich regions that determine their prion behaviour, modulated by the structural and compositional context. This provides a basis for the accurate identification and evaluation of prion candidate sequences in proteomes in the context of a unified framework for amyloid formation and prion propagation. PMID:25569335

Sabate, Raimon; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost; Ventura, Salvador

2015-01-01

2

What makes a protein sequence a prion?  

PubMed

Typical amyloid diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's were thought to exclusively result from de novo aggregation, but recently it was shown that amyloids formed in one cell can cross-seed aggregation in other cells, following a prion-like mechanism. Despite the large experimental effort devoted to understanding the phenomenon of prion transmissibility, it is still poorly understood how this property is encoded in the primary sequence. In many cases, prion structural conversion is driven by the presence of relatively large glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) enriched segments. Several studies suggest that it is the amino acid composition of these regions rather than their specific sequence that accounts for their priogenicity. However, our analysis indicates that it is instead the presence and potency of specific short amyloid-prone sequences that occur within intrinsically disordered Q/N-rich regions that determine their prion behaviour, modulated by the structural and compositional context. This provides a basis for the accurate identification and evaluation of prion candidate sequences in proteomes in the context of a unified framework for amyloid formation and prion propagation. PMID:25569335

Sabate, Raimon; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost; Ventura, Salvador

2015-01-01

3

Sequence analysis of the prion protein gene in Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa).  

PubMed

Prion diseases are a group of human and animal neurodegenerative conditions, which are caused by the deposition of an abnormal isoform prion protein (PrPSc) encoded by a single copy prion protein gene (Prnp). In sheep, genetic variations of Prnp were found to be associated with the incubation period, susceptibility, and species barrier to the scrapie disease. We investigated the sequence and polymorphisms of the prion protein gene of Mongolian gazelles (gPrnp). gPrnp gene sequence analysis of blood samples from 26 Mongolian gazelles showed high identity within species. The gPrnp gene was closely related to the Prnp genes of Thomson’s gazelle, blackbuck, and cattle with 100, 100, and 98.5% identity, respectively, whereas the gPrnp gene with a deletion was closely related to the Prnp genes of wildebeest, Western roe deer, and sheep with 99.3, 99.3, and 98.9% identity, respectively. Polymorphisms of the open reading frame of Prnp as amino acid substitutions were detected at codons 119(N --> S), 143(S --> G) or 160(Y --> H), 172(V --> A), 182(N --> S) and 221(V --> A). There was also deletion of one octapeptide repeat at the N-terminal octapeptide repeat region. The polymorphisms of gPrnp will assist the study of prion disease pathogenesis, resistance, and cross species transmission. PMID:19579063

Wang, Yiqin; Qin, Zhenkui; Bao, Yonggan; Qiao, Junwen; Yang, Lifeng; Zhao, Deming

2009-10-01

4

Quantum dots and prion proteins  

PubMed Central

A diagnostics of infectious diseases can be done by the immunologic methods or by the amplification of nucleic acid specific to contagious agent using polymerase chain reaction. However, in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the infectious agent, prion protein (PrPSc), has the same sequence of nucleic acids as a naturally occurring protein. The other issue with the diagnosing based on the PrPSc detection is that the pathological form of prion protein is abundant only at late stages of the disease in a brain. Therefore, the diagnostics of prion protein caused diseases represent a sort of challenges as that hosts can incubate infectious prion proteins for many months or even years. Therefore, new in vivo assays for detection of prion proteins and for diagnosis of their relation to neurodegenerative diseases are summarized. Their applicability and future prospects in this field are discussed with particular aim at using quantum dots as fluorescent labels. PMID:24055838

Sobrova, Pavlina; Blazkova, Iva; Chomoucka, Jana; Drbohlavova, Jana; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Kopel, Pavel; Hubalek, Jaromir; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

2013-01-01

5

A systematic survey identifies prions and illuminates sequence features of prionogenic proteins  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Prions are proteins that convert between structurally and functionally distinct states, one or more of which is transmissible. In yeast, this ability allows them to act as non-Mendelian elements of phenotypic inheritance. To further our understanding of prion biology, we conducted a bioinformatic proteome-wide survey for prionogenic proteins in S. cerevisiae, followed by experimental investigations of 100 prion candidates. We found an unexpected amino acid bias in aggregation-prone candidates and discovered that 19 of these could also form prions. At least one of these prion proteins, Mot3, produces a bona fide prion in its natural context that increases population-level phenotypic heterogeneity. The self-perpetuating states of these proteins present a vast source of heritable phenotypic variation that increases the adaptability of yeast populations to diverse environments. PMID:19345193

Alberti, Simon; Halfmann, Randal; King, Oliver; Kapila, Atul; Lindquist, Susan

2009-01-01

6

Prion protein structural features indicate possible relations to signal peptidases  

E-print Network

Hypothesis Prion protein structural features indicate possible relations to signal peptidases Rudi are believed to be caused by an oligomeric isoform, PrP , of the cellular prion protein, PrPg . One of the key prion protein; Signal peptidase; Three-dimensional structure; Sequence similarity 1. Introduction Prions

Wider, Gerhard

7

Aptamers against prion proteins and prions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative and infectious disorders of humans and animals, characterized by structural transition\\u000a of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPc) into the aberrantly folded pathologic isoform PrPSc. RNA, DNA or peptide aptamers are classes of molecules which can be selected from complex combinatorial libraries for high\\u000a affinity and specific binding to prion proteins and which might therefore

Sabine Gilch; Hermann M. Schätzl

2009-01-01

8

A Systematic Survey Identifies Prions and Illuminates Sequence Features of Prionogenic Proteins  

E-print Network

Prions are proteins that convert between structurally and functionally distinct states, one or more of which is transmissible. In yeast, this ability allows them to act as non-Mendelian elements of phenotypic inheritance. ...

Kapila, Atul

9

Prions, protein homeostasis, and phenotypic diversity  

E-print Network

Prions are fascinating but often misunderstood protein aggregation phenomena. The traditional association of the mammalian prion protein with disease has overshadowed a potentially more interesting attribute of prions: ...

Lindquist, Susan

10

Conformation-dependent epitopes recognized by prion protein antibodies probed using mutational scanning and deep sequencing.  

PubMed

Prion diseases are caused by a structural rearrangement of the cellular prion protein, PrP(C), into a disease-associated conformation, PrP(Sc), which may be distinguished from one another using conformation-specific antibodies. We used mutational scanning by cell-surface display to screen 1341 PrP single point mutants for attenuated interaction with four anti-PrP antibodies, including several with conformational specificity. Single-molecule real-time gene sequencing was used to quantify enrichment of mutants, returning 26,000 high-quality full-length reads for each screened population on average. Relative enrichment of mutants correlated to the magnitude of the change in binding affinity. Mutations that diminished binding of the antibody ICSM18 represented the core of contact residues in the published crystal structure of its complex. A similarly located binding site was identified for D18, comprising discontinuous residues in helix 1 of PrP, brought into close proximity to one another only when the alpha helix is intact. The specificity of these antibodies for the normal form of PrP likely arises from loss of this conformational feature after conversion to the disease-associated form. Intriguingly, 6H4 binding was found to depend on interaction with the same residues, among others, suggesting that its ability to recognize both forms of PrP depends on a structural rearrangement of the antigen. The application of mutational scanning and deep sequencing provides residue-level resolution of positions in the protein-protein interaction interface that are critical for binding, as well as a quantitative measure of the impact of mutations on binding affinity. PMID:25451031

Doolan, Kyle M; Colby, David W

2015-01-30

11

Discriminant analysis of prion sequences for prediction of susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases, including ovine scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), human kuru and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), originate from a conformational change of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) into abnormal protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc). There is concern regarding these prion diseases because of the possibility of their zoonotic infections across species. Mutations and polymorphisms of prion sequences may influence prion-disease susceptibility through the modified expression and conformation of proteins. Rapid determination of susceptibility based on prion-sequence polymorphism information without complex structural and molecular biological analyses may be possible. Information regarding the effects of mutations and polymorphisms on prion-disease susceptibility was collected based on previous studies to classify the susceptibilities of sequences, whereas the BLOSUM62 scoring matrix and the position-specific scoring matrix were utilised to determine the distance of target sequences. The k-nearest neighbour analysis was validated with cross-validation methods. The results indicated that the number of polymorphisms did not influence prion-disease susceptibility, and three and four k-objects showed the best accuracy in identifying the susceptible group. Although sequences with negative polymorphisms showed relatively high accuracy for determination, polymorphisms may still not be an appropriate factor for estimating variation in susceptibility. Discriminant analysis of prion sequences with scoring matrices was attempted as a possible means of determining susceptibility to prion diseases. Further research is required to improve the utility of this method. PMID:24113272

Lee, Ji-Hae; Bae, Se-Eun; Jung, Sunghoon; Ahn, Insung; Son, Hyeon Seok

2013-01-01

12

Recombinant Human Prion Protein Inhibits Prion Propagation in vitro  

E-print Network

Recombinant Human Prion Protein Inhibits Prion Propagation in vitro Jue Yuan1,3 *, Yi-An Zhan1, Ohio, USA, 3 National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, Case Western Reserve University), Cairo, Egypt. Prion diseases are associated with the conformational conversion of the cellular prion

13

Prion protein and aging  

PubMed Central

The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been widely investigated ever since its conformational isoform, the prion (or PrPSc), was identified as the etiological agent of prion disorders. The high homology shared by the PrPC-encoding gene among mammals, its high turnover rate and expression in every tissue strongly suggest that PrPC may possess key physiological functions. Therefore, defining PrPC roles, properties and fate in the physiology of mammalian cells would be fundamental to understand its pathological involvement in prion diseases. Since the incidence of these neurodegenerative disorders is enhanced in aging, understanding PrPC functions in this life phase may be of crucial importance. Indeed, a large body of evidence suggests that PrPC plays a neuroprotective and antioxidant role. Moreover, it has been suggested that PrPC is involved in Alzheimer disease, another neurodegenerative pathology that develops predominantly in the aging population. In prion diseases, PrPC function is likely lost upon protein aggregation occurring in the course of the disease. Additionally, the aging process may alter PrPC biochemical properties, thus influencing its propensity to convert into PrPSc. Both phenomena may contribute to the disease development and progression. In Alzheimer disease, PrPC has a controversial role because its presence seems to mediate ?-amyloid toxicity, while its down-regulation correlates with neuronal death. The role of PrPC in aging has been investigated from different perspectives, often leading to contrasting results. The putative protein functions in aging have been studied in relation to memory, behavior and myelin maintenance. In aging mice, PrPC changes in subcellular localization and post-translational modifications have been explored in an attempt to relate them to different protein roles and propensity to convert into PrPSc. Here we provide an overview of the most relevant studies attempting to delineate PrPC functions and fate in aging. PMID:25364751

Gasperini, Lisa; Legname, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

14

Recombinant Human Prion Protein Inhibits Prion Propagation in vitro  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases are associated with the conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the pathological scrapie isoform (PrPSc) in the brain. Both the in vivo and in vitro conversion of PrPC into PrPSc is significantly inhibited by differences in amino acid sequence between the two molecules. Using protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), we now report that the recombinant full-length human PrP (rHuPrP23-231) (that is unglycosylated and lacks the glycophosphatidylinositol anchor) is a strong inhibitor of human prion propagation. Furthermore, rHuPrP23-231 also inhibits mouse prion propagation in a scrapie-infected mouse cell line. Notably, it binds to PrPSc, but not PrPC, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of recombinant PrP results from blocking the interaction of brain PrPC with PrPSc. Our findings suggest a new avenue for treating prion diseases, in which a patient's own unglycosylated and anchorless PrP is used to inhibit PrPSc propagation without inducing immune response side effects. PMID:24105336

Yuan, Jue; Zhan, Yi-An; Abskharon, Romany; Xiao, Xiangzhu; Martinez, Manuel Camacho; Zhou, Xiaochen; Kneale, Geoff; Mikol, Jacqueline; Lehmann, Sylvain; Surewicz, Witold K.; Castilla, Joaquín; Steyaert, Jan; Zhang, Shulin; Kong, Qingzhong; Petersen, Robert B.; Wohlkonig, Alexandre; Zou, Wen-Quan

2013-01-01

15

Prions  

PubMed Central

Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases by an entirely novel mechanism. Prion diseases may present as genetic, infectious, or sporadic disorders, all of which involve modification of the prion protein (PrP). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), scrapie of sheep, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) of humans are among the most notable prion diseases. Prions are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid and seem to be composed exclusively of a modified protein (PrPSc). The normal, cellular PrP (PrPC) is converted into PrPSc through a posttranslational process during which it acquires a high ?-sheet content. The species of a particular prion is encoded by the sequence of the chromosomal PrP gene of the mammals in which it last replicated. In contrast to pathogens carrying a nucleic acid genome, prions appear to encipher strain-specific properties in the tertiary structure of PrPSc. Transgenetic studies argue that PrPSc acts as a template upon which PrPC is refolded into a nascent PrPSc molecule through a process facilitated by another protein. Miniprions generated in transgenic mice expressing PrP, in which nearly half of the residues were deleted, exhibit unique biological properties and should facilitate structural studies of PrPSc. While knowledge about prions has profound implications for studies of the structural plasticity of proteins, investigations of prion diseases suggest that new strategies for the prevention and treatment of these disorders may also find application in the more common degenerative diseases. PMID:9811807

Prusiner, Stanley B.

1998-01-01

16

Prion Protein Misfolding and Disease  

PubMed Central

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases) are a rare group of invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and other mammals. TSEs are protein misfolding diseases that involve the accumulation of an abnormally aggregated form of the normal host prion protein. They are unique among protein misfolding disorders in that they are transmissible and have different strains of infectious agent that are associated with unique phenotypes in vivo. A wealth of biological and biophysical evidence now suggests that the molecular basis for prion diseases may be encoded by protein conformation. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the existing structural information for prion protein within the context of what is known about the biology of prion disease. PMID:19157856

Moore, Roger A.; Taubner, Lara M.; Priola, Suzette A.

2009-01-01

17

Ultrasensitive detection of scrapie prion protein using seeded conversion of recombinant prion protein  

E-print Network

Ultrasensitive detection of scrapie prion protein using seeded conversion of recombinant prion A Onwubiko1, Suzette A Priola1 & Byron Caughey1 The scrapie prion protein isoform, PrPSc, is a prion-associated marker that seeds the conformational conversion and polymerization of normal protease-sensitive prion

Cai, Long

18

Sequence specificity and fidelity of prion transmission in yeast.  

PubMed

Amyloid formation is a widespread feature of various proteins. It is associated with both important diseases (including infectious mammalian prions) and biologically positive functions, and provides a basis for structural "templating" and protein-based epigenetic inheritance (for example, in the case of yeast prions). Amyloid templating is characterized by a high level of sequence specificity and conformational fidelity. Even slight variations in sequence may produce a strong barrier for prion transmission. Yeast models provide useful insight into a mechanism of amyloid specificity and fidelity. Accumulating evidence indicates that cross-species prion transmission is controlled by the identity of short sequences (specificity stretches) rather than by the overall level of sequence identity. Location of the specificity stretches determines the location and/or size of the cross-? amyloid region that controls patterns of prion variants. In some cases of cross-species prion transmission, fidelity of variant reproduction is impaired, leading to the formation of new structural variants. We propose that such a variant switch may occur due to choice of the alternatively located secondary specificity stretches, when interaction between the primary stretches is impaired due to sequence divergence. PMID:21439395

Bruce, Kathryn L; Chernoff, Yury O

2011-07-01

19

Prions, protein homeostasis, and phenotypic diversity  

E-print Network

Prions, protein homeostasis, and phenotypic diversity Randal Halfmann1,3 , Simon Alberti1 and Susan, USA Prions are fascinating but often misunderstood protein aggregation phenomena. The traditional association of the mammalian prion protein with disease has over- shadowed a potentially more interesting

Lindquist, Susan

20

Mammalian prions: tolerance to sequence changes-how far?  

PubMed

Upon prion infection, abnormal prion protein (PrP (Sc) ) self-perpetuate by conformational conversion of ?-helix-rich PrP (C) into ? sheet enriched form, leading to formation and deposition of PrP (Sc) aggregates in affected brains. However the process remains poorly understood at the molecular level and the regions of PrP critical for conversion are still debated. Minimal amino acid substitutions can impair prion replication at many places in PrP. Conversely, we recently showed that bona fide prions could be generated after introduction of eight and up to 16 additional amino acids in the H2-H3 inter-helix loop of PrP. Prion replication also accommodated the insertions of an octapeptide at different places in the last turns of H2. This reverse genetic approach reveals an unexpected tolerance of prions to substantial sequence changes in the protease-resistant part which is associated with infectivity. It also demonstrates that conversion does not require the presence of a specific sequence in the middle of the H2-H3 area. We discuss the implications of our findings according to different structural models proposed for PrP (Sc) and questioned the postulated existence of an N- or C-terminal prion domain in the protease-resistant region. PMID:23232499

Salamat, Muhammad Khalid; Munoz-Montesino, Carola; Moudjou, Mohammed; Rezaei, Human; Laude, Hubert; Béringue, Vincent; Dron, Michel

2013-01-01

21

Prions: The Chemistry of Infectious Proteins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A prion is pathological protein that causes a set of rare fatal neurological diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). TSE diseases occur in humans, sheep, goats, deer, elk, mink, cows and other mammals. A prion and the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) have the same primar...

22

B lymphocyte-restricted expression of prion protein does not enable prion replication in prion protein knockout mice  

PubMed Central

Prion replication in spleen and neuroinvasion after i.p. inoculation of mice is impaired in forms of immunodeficiency where mature B lymphocytes are lacking. In spleens of wild-type mice, infectivity is associated with B and T lymphocytes and stroma but not with circulating lymphocytes. We generated transgenic prion protein knockout mice overexpressing prion protein in B lymphocytes and found that they failed to accumulate prions in spleen after i.p. inoculation. We conclude that splenic B lymphocytes are not prion-replication competent and that they acquire prions from other cells, most likely follicular dendritic cells with which they closely associate and whose maturation depends on them. PMID:11274428

Montrasio, Fabio; Cozzio, Antonio; Flechsig, Eckhard; Rossi, Daniela; Klein, Michael A.; Rülicke, Thomas; Raeber, Alex J.; Vosshenrich, Christian A. J.; Proft, Juliane; Aguzzi, Adriano; Weissmann, Charles

2001-01-01

23

B lymphocyte-restricted expression of prion protein does not enable prion replication in prion protein knockout mice.  

PubMed

Prion replication in spleen and neuroinvasion after i.p. inoculation of mice is impaired in forms of immunodeficiency where mature B lymphocytes are lacking. In spleens of wild-type mice, infectivity is associated with B and T lymphocytes and stroma but not with circulating lymphocytes. We generated transgenic prion protein knockout mice overexpressing prion protein in B lymphocytes and found that they failed to accumulate prions in spleen after i.p. inoculation. We conclude that splenic B lymphocytes are not prion-replication competent and that they acquire prions from other cells, most likely follicular dendritic cells with which they closely associate and whose maturation depends on them. PMID:11274428

Montrasio, F; Cozzio, A; Flechsig, E; Rossi, D; Klein, M A; Rülicke, T; Raeber, A J; Vosshenrich, C A; Proft, J; Aguzzi, A; Weissmann, C

2001-03-27

24

Signal Transduction Through Prion Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular prion protein PrPc is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell-surface protein whose biological function is unclear. We used the murine 1C11 neuronal differentiation model to search for PrPc-dependent signal transduction through antibody-mediated cross-linking. A caveolin-1-dependent coupling of PrPc to the tyrosine kinase Fyn was observed. Clathrin might also contribute to this coupling. The ability of the 1C11 cell line to trigger

S. Mouillet-Richard; M. Ermonval; C. Chebassier; J. L. Laplanche; S. Lehmann; J. M. Launay; O. Kellermann

2000-01-01

25

Discovering putative prion sequences in complete proteomes using probabilistic representations of Q/N-rich domains  

PubMed Central

Background Prion proteins conform a special class among amyloids due to their ability to transmit aggregative folds. Prions are known to act as infectious agents in neurodegenerative diseases in animals, or as key elements in transcription and translation processes in yeast. It has been suggested that prions contain specific sequential domains with distinctive amino acid composition and physicochemical properties that allow them to control the switch between soluble and ?-sheet aggregated states. Those prion-forming domains are low complexity segments enriched in glutamine/asparagine and depleted in charged residues and prolines. Different predictive methods have been developed to discover novel prions by either assessing the compositional bias of these stretches or estimating the propensity of protein sequences to form amyloid aggregates. However, the available algorithms hitherto lack a thorough statistical calibration against large sequence databases, which makes them unable to accurately predict prions without retrieving a large number of false positives. Results Here we present a computational strategy to predict putative prion-forming proteins in complete proteomes using probabilistic representations of prionogenic glutamine/asparagine rich regions. After benchmarking our predictive model against large sets of non-prionic sequences, we were able to filter out known prions with high precision and accuracy, generating prediction sets with few false positives. The algorithm was used to scan all the proteomes annotated in public databases for the presence of putative prion proteins. We analyzed the presence of putative prion proteins in all taxa, from viruses and archaea to plants and higher eukaryotes, and found that most organisms encode evolutionarily unrelated proteins with susceptibility to behave as prions. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first wide-ranging study aiming to predict prion domains in complete proteomes. Approaches of this kind could be of great importance to identify potential targets for further experimental testing and to try to reach a deeper understanding of prions’ functional and regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23663289

2013-01-01

26

?-Cleavage of cellular prion protein  

PubMed Central

The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is subjected to various processing under physiological and pathological conditions, of which the ?-cleavage within the central hydrophobic domain not only disrupts a region critical for both PrP toxicity and PrPC to PrPSc conversion but also produces the N1 fragment that is neuroprotective and the C1 fragment that enhances the pro-apoptotic effect of staurosporine in one report and inhibits prion in another. The proteases responsible for the ?-cleavage of PrPC are controversial. The effect of ADAM10, ADAM17, and ADAM9 on N1 secretion clearly indicates their involvement in the ?-cleavage of PrPC, but there has been no report of direct PrPC ?-cleavage activity with any of the three ADAMs in a purified protein form. We demonstrated that, in muscle cells, ADAM8 is the primary protease for the ?-cleavage of PrPC, but another unidentified protease(s) must also play a minor role. We also found that PrPC regulates ADAM8 expression, suggesting that a close examination on the relationships between PrPC and its processing enzymes may reveal novel roles and underlying mechanisms for PrPC in non-prion diseases such as asthma and cancer. PMID:23052041

Liang, Jingjing; Kong, Qingzhong

2012-01-01

27

Continuum of prion protein structures enciphers a multitude of prion isolate-specified phenotypes  

E-print Network

Continuum of prion protein structures enciphers a multitude of prion isolate-specified phenotypes) On passaging synthetic prions, two isolates emerged with incubation times differing by nearly 100 days. Using to denature 50% of disease-causing prion protein (PrPSc) molecules, denoted as the [Gdn HCl]1/2 value

Mayfield, John

28

COOH-terminal sequence of the cellular prion protein directs subcellular trafficking and controls conversion into the scrapie isoform.  

PubMed

Efficient formation of scrapie isoform of prion protein (PrP(Sc)) requires targeting PrP(Sc) by glycophosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchors to caveolae-like domains (CLDs). Redirecting the cellular isoform of prion protein (PrP(C)) to clathrin-coated pits by creating chimeric PrP molecules with four different COOH-terminal transmembrane domains prevented the formation of PrP(Sc). To determine if these COOH-terminal transmembrane segments prevented PrP(C) from refolding into PrP(Sc) by altering the structure of the polypeptide, we fused the 28-aa COOH termini from the Qa protein. Two COOH-terminal Qa segments differing by a single residue direct the transmembrane protein to clathrin-coated pits or the GPI form to CLDs; PrP(Sc) was formed from GPI-anchored PrP(C) but not from transmembrane PrP(C). Our findings argue that PrP(Sc) formation is restricted to a specific subcellular compartment and as such, it is likely to involve auxiliary macromolecules found within CLDs. PMID:9122195

Kaneko, K; Vey, M; Scott, M; Pilkuhn, S; Cohen, F E; Prusiner, S B

1997-03-18

29

Thermodynamics of Model Prions and its Implications for the Problem of Prion Protein Folding  

E-print Network

Thermodynamics of Model Prions and its Implications for the Problem of Prion Protein Folding Paul M University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco CA 94143, USA Prion disease is caused by the propagation of a particle containing PrPSc , a misfolded form of the normal cellular prion

Chan, Hue Sun

30

Production of cattle lacking prion protein  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prion diseases are caused by propagation of misfolded forms of the normal cellular prion protein PrP**C, such as PrP**BSE in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and PrP**CJD in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. Disruption of PrP**C expression in mice, a species that does not na...

31

Yeast prion architecture explains how proteins can be genes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prions (infectious proteins) transmit information without an accompanying DNA or RNA. Most yeast prions are self-propagating amyloids that inactivate a normally functional protein. A single protein can become any of several prion variants, with different manifestations due to different amyloid structures. We showed that the yeast prion amyloids of Ure2p, Sup35p and Rnq1p are folded in-register parallel beta sheets using solid state NMR dipolar recoupling experiments, mass-per-filament-length measurements, and filament diameter measurements. The extent of beta sheet structure, measured by chemical shifts in solid-state NMR and acquired protease-resistance on amyloid formation, combined with the measured filament diameters, imply that the beta sheets must be folded along the long axis of the filament. We speculate that prion variants of a single protein sequence differ in the location of these folds. Favorable interactions between identical side chains must hold these structures in-register. The same interactions must guide an unstructured monomer joining the end of a filament to assume the same conformation as molecules already in the filament, with the turns at the same locations. In this way, a protein can template its own conformation, in analogy to the ability of a DNA molecule to template its sequence by specific base-pairing.

Wickner, Reed

2013-03-01

32

Prions  

PubMed Central

The discovery of infectious proteins, denoted prions, was unexpected. After much debate over the chemical basis of heredity, resolution of this issue began with the discovery that DNA, not protein, from pneumococcus was capable of genetically transforming bacteria (Avery et al. 1944). Four decades later, the discovery that a protein could mimic viral and bacterial pathogens with respect to the transmission of some nervous system diseases (Prusiner 1982) met with great resistance. Overwhelming evidence now shows that Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) and related disorders are caused by prions. The prion diseases are characterized by neurodegeneration and lethality. In mammals, prions reproduce by recruiting the normal, cellular isoform of the prion protein (PrPC) and stimulating its conversion into the disease-causing isoform (PrPSc). PrPC and PrPSc have distinct conformations: PrPC is rich in ?-helical content and has little ?-sheet structure, whereas PrPSc has less ?-helical content and is rich in ?-sheet structure (Pan et al. 1993). The conformational conversion of PrPC to PrPSc is the fundamental event underlying prion diseases. In this article, we provide an introduction to prions and the diseases they cause. PMID:21421910

Colby, David W.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

2011-01-01

33

Regional Mapping of Prion Proteins in Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scrapie is characterized by the accumulation of a protease-resistant isoform of the prion protein PrPSc. Limited proteolysis and chaotropes were used to map the distribution of PrPSc in cryostat sections of scrapie-infected brain blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes, designated histoblots. Proteolysis was omitted in order to map the cellular isoform of the prion protein (PrP^C) in uninfected brains. Compared with immunohistochemistry,

Albert Taraboulos; Klaus Jendroska; Dan Serban; Shu-Lian Yang; Stephen J. Dearmond

1992-01-01

34

The effects of prion protein expression on metal metabolism.  

PubMed

The prion protein is a glycoprotein that binds metals such as copper and manganese. When converted to a proteinase resistant isoform it is associated with prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Although, the co-ordination and metal affinity of the prion protein has been well studied, the association of the protein with cellular metal metabolism has been less well investigated. We used transgenic manipulation of prion protein expression and other recombinant techniques to alter expression of known copper binding proteins to investigate the role of the prion protein in copper metabolism. We found that changing the expression of the prion protein alters proteins associated with copper uptake, storage and export from the cell. In addition, alteration in the expression of superoxide dismutases increased prion protein expression dramatically. Reducing copper in the diet decreased expression of the prion protein in the brain while increased dietary manganese dramatically increased the protein's expression. Cellular prion infection also increased the expression of metal transporting proteins and increased cellular manganese concentrations. Overall our results show a close link between cellular resistance to oxidative stress and also copper metabolism. These findings are in line with previous data suggesting that the prion protein is an antioxidant and associated with copper uptake into cells. The disturbance to copper metabolism, as a result of altered prion protein expression clearly demonstrates the important role of the prion protein in copper metabolism. The implication is that prion protein expression has a homeostatic role in copper metabolism. PMID:19233277

Kralovicova, Silvia; Fontaine, Sarah N; Alderton, Alexandra; Alderman, Julia; Ragnarsdottir, K Vala; Collins, Steven J; Brown, David R

2009-06-01

35

Propagation of prion strains through specific conformers of the prion protein.  

PubMed

Two prion strains with identical incubation periods in mice exhibited distinct incubation periods and different neuropathological profiles upon serial transmission to transgenic mice expressing chimeric Syrian hamster/mouse (MH2M) prion protein (PrP) genes [Tg(MH2M) mice] and subsequent transmission to Syrian hamsters. After transmission to Syrian hamsters, the Me7 strain was indistinguishable from the previously established Syrian hamster strain Sc237, despite having been derived from an independent ancestral source. This apparent convergence suggests that prion diversity may be limited. The Me7 mouse strain could also be transmitted directly to Syrian hamsters, but when derived in this way, its properties were distinct from those of Me7 passaged through Tg(MH2M) mice. The Me7 strain did not appear permanently altered in either case, since the original incubation period could be restored by effectively reversing the series of passages. Prion diversity enciphered in the conformation of the scrapie isoform of PrP (PrP(Sc)) (G. C. Telling et al., Science 274:2079-2082, 1996) seems to be limited by the sequence of the PrP substrates serially converted into PrP(Sc), while prions are propagated through interactions between the cellular and scrapie isoforms of PrP. PMID:9371560

Scott, M R; Groth, D; Tatzelt, J; Torchia, M; Tremblay, P; DeArmond, S J; Prusiner, S B

1997-12-01

36

Polymorphisms and variants in the prion protein sequence of European moose (Alces alces), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) in Scandinavia.  

PubMed

The prion protein (PrP) sequence of European moose, reindeer, roe deer and fallow deer in Scandinavia has high homology to the PrP sequence of North American cervids. Variants in the European moose PrP sequence were found at amino acid position 109 as K or Q. The 109Q variant is unique in the PrP sequence of vertebrates. During the 1980s a wasting syndrome in Swedish moose, Moose Wasting Syndrome (MWS), was described. SNP analysis demonstrated a difference in the observed genotype proportions of the heterozygous Q/K and homozygous Q/Q variants in the MWS animals compared with the healthy animals. In MWS moose the allele frequencies for 109K and 109Q were 0.73 and 0.27, respectively, and for healthy animals 0.69 and 0.31. Both alleles were seen as heterozygotes and homozygotes. In reindeer, PrP sequence variation was demonstrated at codon 176 as D or N and codon 225 as S or Y. The PrP sequences in roe deer and fallow deer were identical with published GenBank sequences. PMID:22441661

Wik, Lotta; Mikko, Sofia; Klingeborn, Mikael; Stéen, Margareta; Simonsson, Magnus; Linné, Tommy

2012-07-01

37

Role of microglia and host prion protein in neurotoxicity of a prion protein fragment  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE prion protein PrPc is a glycoprotein of unknown function1 normally found in neurons2 and glia3. It is involved in diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease4. PrPSc, an altered isoform of PrPc that is associated with disease, shows greater protease resistance and is part of the infectious agent, the prion5,6. Prion diseases are characterized by

David R. Brown; Bernhard Schmidt; Hans A. Kretzschmar

1996-01-01

38

N-terminally tagged prion protein supports prion propagation in transgenic mice.  

PubMed

The eight amino acid sequence, Asp-Tyr-Lys-Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Lys, representing the FLAG peptide, was inserted after codons 22 or 88 of the mouse (Mo) prion protein (PrP) gene. Inclusion of the FLAG sequence at these locations interfered neither with the cellular processing of PrPC nor its conversion into PrPSc. Inclusion of the FLAG epitope at residue 22 but not at residue 88 facilitated immunodetection of tagged PrP by anti-FLAG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Inoculation of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing N-terminally tagged MoPrP with Mo prions resulted in abbreviated incubation times, indicating that the FLAG sequence was not deleterious to prion propagation. Immunopurification of FLAG-tagged MoPrPC in the brains of Tg mice was achieved using the calcium-dependent anti-FLAG M1 mAb and non-denaturing procedures. Although the function of PrPC remains unknown, our studies demonstrate that some modifications of PrPC do not inhibit the one biological activity that can be measured, i.e., conversion into PrPSc. Tagged PrP molecules may prove useful in the development of improved assays for prions as well as structural studies of the PrP isoforms. PMID:9098892

Telling, G C; Tremblay, P; Torchia, M; Dearmond, S J; Cohen, F E; Prusiner, S B

1997-04-01

39

Structural studies of the scrapie prion protein by electron crystallography  

E-print Network

Structural studies of the scrapie prion protein by electron crystallography Holger Wille* , Melissa. Prusiner, December 27, 2001 Because the insolubility of the scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) has frustrated to characterize the structure of two infectious variants of the prion protein. Isomor- phous two

Agard, David

40

Conformational variations in an infectious protein determine prion strain differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A remarkable feature of prion biology is the strain phenomenon wherein prion particles apparently composed of the same protein lead to phenotypically distinct transmissible states. To reconcile the existence of strains with the `protein-only' hypothesis of prion transmission, it has been proposed that a single protein can misfold into multiple distinct infectious forms, one for each different strain. Several studies

Motomasa Tanaka; Peter Chien; Nariman Naber; Roger Cooke; Jonathan S. Weissman

2004-01-01

41

Original Research Communication Prion Protein Expression and Functional Importance in  

E-print Network

1 1 Original Research Communication Prion Protein Expression and Functional Importance illustrations: 7 Color illustrations: 2 (online 2) Page 1 of 48 Antioxidants&RedoxSignaling PrionProtein prion protein (PrPC ), a GPI-anchored glycoprotein, which we reported to be highly expressed in human

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

Cyclic Amplification of Prion Protein Misfolding  

PubMed Central

Protein Misfolfing Cyclic amplification (PMCA) is a technique that take advantage of the nucleation-dependent prion replication process to accelerate the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc in the test tube. PMCA uses ultrasound waves to fragment the PrPSc polymers, increasing the amount of seeds present in the infected sample without affecting their ability to act as conversion nucleus. Over the past 5 years PMCA has became an invaluable technique to study diverse aspects of prions. The PMCA technology has been used by several groups to understand the molecular mechanism of prion replication, the cellular factors involved in prion propagation, the intriguing phenomena of prion strains and species barriers, to detect PrPSc in tissues and biological fluids and to screen for inhibitors against prion replication. In this article we describe a detailed protocol of the PMCA technique, highlighting some of the important technical aspects to obtain a successful and reproducible application of the technology. PMID:22528092

Barria, Marcelo A; Gonzalez-Romero, Dennisse; Soto, Claudio

2014-01-01

43

Polymerization of murine recombinant prion protein in nucleic acid solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Recombinant prion protein has been used earlier to understand the structural properties of cellular prion protein PrPC and to understand conformational change of PrPC to its isoform, PrPSc which is believed to be responsible for the prion disease. Here we report that murine recombinant prion protein, MoPrPC polymerizes in the presence of nucleic acid. The aggregation process and the properties

P. K. Nandi; E. Leclerc

1999-01-01

44

Multiple folding pathways for heterologously expressed human prion protein  

E-print Network

Multiple folding pathways for heterologously expressed human prion protein Graham S. Jackson , Anthony R. Clarke a , John Collinge aY * a Prion Disease Group, Department of Neurogenetics, Imperial-conformation in free solution. The data we present here shows that the human prion protein can exist in multiple

Hosszu, Laszlo

45

Manganese Enhances Prion Protein Survival in Model Soils and Increases Prion Infectivity to Cells  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases are considered to be transmissible. The existence of sporadic forms of prion diseases such as scrapie implies an environmental source for the infectious agent. This would suggest that under certain conditions the prion protein, the accepted agent of transmission, can survive in the environment. We have developed a novel technique to extract the prion protein from soil matrices. Previous studies have suggested that environmental manganese is a possible risk factor for prion diseases. We have shown that exposure to manganese is a soil matrix causes a dramatic increase in prion protein survival (?10 fold) over a two year period. We have also shown that manganese increases infectivity of mouse passaged scrapie to culture cells by 2 logs. These results clearly verify that manganese is a risk factor for both the survival of the infectious agent in the environment and its transmissibility. PMID:19844576

Davies, Paul; Brown, David R.

2009-01-01

46

Prion biology problem space: Mad cows, itchy sheep and protein structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prions are infectious protein particles associated with various neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals. This problem space introduces basic skills in protein structure and sequence exploration that can be used to analyze some unusual properties of prions, and develop testable hypotheses that can be explored through these tools. Students will be challenged to use a systems-biology approach to link structure, evolution and function of proteins.

Sebrenka Robic (Agnes Scott College; Biology)

2004-06-20

47

Prion biology problem space: Mad cows, itchy sheep and protein structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prions are infectious protein particles associated with various neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals. This problem space introduces basic skills in protein structure and sequence exploration that can be used to analyze some unusual properties of prions, and develop testable hypotheses that can be explored through these tools. Students will be challenged to use a systems-biology approach to link structure, evolution and function of proteins.

Sebrenka Robic (Agnes Scott College; )

2004-06-12

48

Copper Binding to the N-Terminal Tandem Repeat Regions of Mammalian and Avian Prion Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian prion protein (PrP) is a normal cellular protein (PrPc) which through post-translational modification produces the infectious prion protein (PrPsc). We have shown, using mass spectrometry, that synthetic peptides containing three or four copies of an octapeptide repeat sequence (PHGGGWGQ), found in a highly conserved N-terminal domain of PrP, preferentially bind copper over other metals. Peptides from the analogous region

M. P. Hornshaw; J. R. Mcdermott; J. M. Candy

1995-01-01

49

Lipopolysaccharide induced conversion of recombinant prion protein.  

PubMed

The conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to the ?-rich infectious isoform PrP(Sc) is considered a critical and central feature in prion pathology. Although PrP(Sc) is the critical component of the infectious agent, as proposed in the "protein-only" prion hypothesis, cellular components have been identified as important cofactors in triggering and enhancing the conversion of PrP(C) to proteinase K resistant PrP(Sc). A number of in vitro systems using various chemical and/or physical agents such as guanidine hydrochloride, urea, SDS, high temperature, and low pH, have been developed that cause PrP(C) conversion, their amplification, and amyloid fibril formation often under non-physiological conditions. In our ongoing efforts to look for endogenous and exogenous chemical mediators that might initiate, influence, or result in the natural conversion of PrP(C) to PrP(Sc), we discovered that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacterial membranes interacts with recombinant prion proteins and induces conversion to an isoform richer in ? sheet at near physiological conditions as long as the LPS concentration remains above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). More significant was the LPS mediated conversion that was observed even at sub-molar ratios of LPS to recombinant ShPrP (90-232). PMID:24819168

Saleem, Fozia; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Ladner, Carol L; Perez-Pineiro, Rolando; Ametaj, Burim N; Wishart, David S

2014-01-01

50

Role of Prion Protein Aggregation in Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

In several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson, Alzheimer’s, Huntington, and prion diseases, the deposition of aggregated misfolded proteins is believed to be responsible for the neurotoxicity that characterizes these diseases. Prion protein (PrP), the protein responsible of prion diseases, has been deeply studied for the peculiar feature of its misfolded oligomers that are able to propagate within affected brains, inducing the conversion of the natively folded PrP into the pathological conformation. In this review, we summarize the available experimental evidence concerning the relationship between aggregation status of misfolded PrP and neuronal death in the course of prion diseases. In particular, we describe the main findings resulting from the use of different synthetic (mainly PrP106-126) and recombinant PrP-derived peptides, as far as mechanisms of aggregation and amyloid formation, and how these different spatial conformations can affect neuronal death. In particular, most data support the involvement of non-fibrillar oligomers rather than actual amyloid fibers as the determinant of neuronal death. PMID:22942726

Corsaro, Alessandro; Thellung, Stefano; Villa, Valentina; Nizzari, Mario; Florio, Tullio

2012-01-01

51

Manganese binding to the prion protein.  

PubMed

There is considerable evidence that the prion protein binds copper. However, there have also been suggestions that prion protein (PrP) binds manganese. We used isothermal titration calorimetry to identify the manganese binding sites in wild-type mouse PrP. The protein showed two manganese binding sites with affinities that would bind manganese at concentrations of 63 and 200 mum at pH 5.5. This indicates that PrP binds manganese with affinity similar to other known manganese-binding proteins. Further study indicated that the main manganese binding site is associated with His-95 in the so-called "fifth site" normally associated with copper binding. Additionally, it was shown that occupancy by copper does not prevent manganese binding. Under these conditions, manganese binding resulted in an altered conformation of PrP, displacement of copper, and altered redox chemistry of the metal-protein complex. Cyclic voltammetric measurements suggested a complex redox chemistry involving manganese bound to PrP, whereas copper-bound PrP was able to undergo fully reversible electron cycling. Additionally, manganese binding to PrP converted it to a form able to catalyze aggregation of metal-free PrP. These results further support the notion that manganese binding could cause a conformation change in PrP and trigger changes in the protein similar to those associated with prion disease. PMID:18332141

Brazier, Marcus W; Davies, Paul; Player, Esmie; Marken, Frank; Viles, John H; Brown, David R

2008-05-01

52

Prion proteins: evolution and preservation of secondary structure.  

PubMed

Prions cause a variety of neurodegenerative disorders that seem to result from a conformational change in the prion protein (PrP). Thirty-two PrP sequences have been subjected to phylogenetic analysis followed by reconstruction of the most probable evolutionary spectrum of amino acid replacements. The replacement rates suggest that the protein does not seem to be very conservative, but in the course of evolution amino acids have only been substituted within the elements of the secondary structure by those with very similar physico-chemical properties. Analysis of the full spectrum of single-step amino acid substitutions in human PrP using secondary structure prediction algorithms shows an over-representation of substitutions that tend to destabilize alpha-helices. PMID:9276441

Kuznetsov, I B; Morozov, P S; Matushkin, Y G

1997-08-01

53

Knocked-out and still walking: prion protein-deficient cattle are resistant to prion disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are caused by the propagation of a misfolded form (PrP**d) of the normal cellular prion protein, PrP**c. Disruption of PrP**c expression in the mouse results in resistance to PrP-propagation and disease. However, the impa...

54

Evolutionary Implications of Metal Binding Features in Different Species’ Prion Protein: An Inorganic Point of View  

PubMed Central

Prion disorders are a group of fatal neurodegenerative conditions of mammals. The key molecular event in the pathogenesis of such diseases is the conformational conversion of prion protein, PrPC, into a misfolded form rich in ?-sheet structure, PrPSc, but the detailed mechanistic aspects of prion protein conversion remain enigmatic. There is uncertainty on the precise physiological function of PrPC in healthy individuals. Several evidences support the notion of its role in copper homeostasis. PrPC binds Cu2+ mainly through a domain composed by four to five repeats of eight amino acids. In addition to mammals, PrP homologues have also been identified in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. The globular domain of protein is retained in the different species, suggesting that the protein carries out an essential common function. However, the comparison of amino acid sequences indicates that prion protein has evolved differently in each vertebrate class. The primary sequences are strongly conserved in each group, but these exhibit a low similarity with those of mammals. The N-terminal domain of different prions shows tandem amino acid repeats with an increasing amount of histidine residues going from amphibians to mammals. The difference in the sequence affects the number of copper binding sites, the affinity and the coordination environment of metal ions, suggesting that the involvement of prion in metal homeostasis may be a specific characteristic of mammalian prion protein. In this review, we describe the similarities and the differences in the metal binding of different species’ prion protein, as revealed by studies carried out on the entire protein and related peptide fragments. PMID:24970230

La Mendola, Diego; Rizzarelli, Enrico

2014-01-01

55

Neurotoxicity of a prion protein fragment  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a sialoglycoprotein of Mr 33-35K that is expressed predominantly in neurons1-3. In transmissible and genetic neurodegenerative disorders such as scrapie of sheep, spongiform encephalopathy of cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob or Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker diseases of humans4,5, PrPc is converted into an altered form (termed PrPSc) which is distinguishable from its normal homologue by its relative resistance to

Gianluigi Forloni; Nadia Angeretti; Roberto Chiesa; Enrico Monzani; Mario Salmona; Orso Bugiani; Fabrizio Tagliavini

1993-01-01

56

Association of prion protein genotype and scrapie prion protein type with cellular prion protein charge isoform profiles in cerebrospinal fluid of humans with sporadic or familial prion diseases.  

PubMed

The present study investigates whether posttranslational modifications of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of humans with prion diseases are associated with methionine (M) and/or valine (V) polymorphism at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), scrapie prion protein (PrP(Sc)) type in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), or PRNP mutations in familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD/E200K), and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). We performed comparative 2-dimensional immunoblotting of PrP(C) charge isoforms in CSF samples from cohorts of diseased and control donors. Mean levels of total PrP(C) were significantly lower in the CSF from fCJD patients than from those with sCJD or FFI. Of the 12 most abundant PrP(C) isoforms in the examined CSF, one (IF12) was relatively decreased in (1) sCJD with VV (vs. MM or MV) at PRNP codon 129; (2) in sCJD with PrP(Sc) type 2 (vs. PrP(Sc) type 1); and (3) in FFI versus sCJD or fCJD. Furthermore, truncated PrP(C) species were detected in sCJD and control samples without discernible differences. Finally, serine 43 of PrP(C) in the CSF and brain tissue from CJD patients showed more pronounced phosphorylation than in control donors. PMID:24360565

Schmitz, Matthias; Lüllmann, Katharina; Zafar, Saima; Ebert, Elisabeth; Wohlhage, Marie; Oikonomou, Panteleimon; Schlomm, Markus; Mitrova, Eva; Beekes, Michael; Zerr, Inga

2014-05-01

57

Subtyping of human cellular prion proteins and their differential solubility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human form of a prion disorder is the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. A hallmark of the disease is the accumulation of misfolded prion proteins (PrPSc), which exist as heterogeneous subtypes. PrPSc is formed by protein conversion from the host-encoded cellular prion (PrPC), which is expressed and modified to various isoforms. Little is known about variation in PrPC; however, it is assumed

Thorsten Kuczius; Janet Wohlers; Helge Karch; Martin H. Groschup

2011-01-01

58

Mapping the prion protein using recombinant antibodies.  

PubMed

The fundamental event in prion disease is thought to be the posttranslational conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) into a pathogenic isoform (PrPSc). The occurrence of PrPC on the cell surface and PrPSc in amyloid plaques in situ or in aggregates following purification complicates the study of the molecular events that underlie the disease process. Monoclonal antibodies are highly sensitive probes of protein conformation which can be used under these conditions. Here, we report the rescue of a diverse panel of 19 PrP-specific recombinant monoclonal antibodies from phage display libraries prepared from PrP deficient (Prnp0/0) mice immunized with infectious prions either in the form of rods or PrP 27-30 dispersed into liposomes. The antibodies recognize a number of distinct linear and discontinuous epitopes that are presented to a varying degree on different PrP preparations. The epitope reactivity of the recombinant PrP(90-231) molecule was almost indistinguishable from that of PrPC on the cell surface, validating the importance of detailed structural studies on the recombinant molecule. Only one epitope region at the C terminus of PrP was well presented on both PrPC and PrPSc, while epitopes associated with most of the antibodies in the panel were present on PrPC but absent from PrPSc. PMID:9765500

Williamson, R A; Peretz, D; Pinilla, C; Ball, H; Bastidas, R B; Rozenshteyn, R; Houghten, R A; Prusiner, S B; Burton, D R

1998-11-01

59

Sialylation of Prion Protein Controls the Rate of Prion Amplification, the Cross-Species Barrier, the Ratio of PrPSc Glycoform and Prion Infectivity  

PubMed Central

The central event underlying prion diseases involves conformational change of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrPC) into the disease-associated, transmissible form (PrPSc). PrPC is a sialoglycoprotein that contains two conserved N-glycosylation sites. Among the key parameters that control prion replication identified over the years are amino acid sequence of host PrPC and the strain-specific structure of PrPSc. The current work highlights the previously unappreciated role of sialylation of PrPC glycans in prion pathogenesis, including its role in controlling prion replication rate, infectivity, cross-species barrier and PrPSc glycoform ratio. The current study demonstrates that undersialylated PrPC is selected during prion amplification in Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCAb) at the expense of oversialylated PrPC. As a result, PMCAb-derived PrPSc was less sialylated than brain-derived PrPSc. A decrease in PrPSc sialylation correlated with a drop in infectivity of PMCAb-derived material. Nevertheless, enzymatic de-sialylation of PrPC using sialidase was found to increase the rate of PrPSc amplification in PMCAb from 10- to 10,000-fold in a strain-dependent manner. Moreover, de-sialylation of PrPC reduced or eliminated a species barrier of for prion amplification in PMCAb. These results suggest that the negative charge of sialic acid controls the energy barrier of homologous and heterologous prion replication. Surprisingly, the sialylation status of PrPC was also found to control PrPSc glycoform ratio. A decrease in PrPC sialylation levels resulted in a higher percentage of the diglycosylated glycoform in PrPSc. 2D analysis of charge distribution revealed that the sialylation status of brain-derived PrPC differed from that of spleen-derived PrPC. Knocking out lysosomal sialidase Neu1 did not change the sialylation status of brain-derived PrPC, suggesting that Neu1 is not responsible for desialylation of PrPC. The current work highlights previously unappreciated role of PrPC sialylation in prion diseases and opens multiple new research directions, including development of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:25211026

Katorcha, Elizaveta; Makarava, Natallia; Savtchenko, Regina; d?Azzo, Alessandra; Baskakov, Ilia V.

2014-01-01

60

Scrapie prion protein accumulation by scrapie-infected neuroblastoma cells abrogated by exposure to a prion protein antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of susceptible neuroblastoma N2a cells to mouse scrapie prions leads to infection, as evidenced by the continued presence of the scrapie form of the prion protein (PrPSc) and infectivity after 300 or more cell doublings. We find that exposure to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) or to the monoclonal anti-prion protein (PrP) antibody 6H4 not only prevents infection of susceptible

Masato Enari; Eckhard Flechsig; Charles Weissmann

2001-01-01

61

Ultraviolet-ozone treatment reduces levels of disease-associated prion protein and prion infectivity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by novel infectious agents referred to as prions. Prions appear to be composed primarily, if not exclusively, of a misfolded isoform of the cellular prion protein. TSE infectivity is remarkably stable and can resist many aggressive decontamination procedures, increasing human, livestock and wildlife exposure to TSEs. Findings. We tested the hypothesis that UV-ozone treatment reduces levels of the pathogenic prion protein and inactivates the infectious agent. We found that UV-ozone treatment decreased the carbon and prion protein content in infected brain homogenate to levels undetectable by dry-ashing carbon analysis or immunoblotting, respectively. After 8 weeks of ashing, UV-ozone treatment reduced the infectious titer of treated material by a factor of at least 105. A small amount of infectivity, however, persisted despite UV-ozone treatment. When bound to either montmorillonite clay or quartz surfaces, PrPTSE was still susceptible to degradation by UV-ozone. Conclusion. Our findings strongly suggest that UV-ozone treatment can degrade pathogenic prion protein and inactivate prions, even when the agent is associated with surfaces. Using larger UV-ozone doses or combining UV-ozone treatment with other decontaminant methods may allow the sterilization of TSE-contaminated materials. ?? 2009 Aiken et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Johnson, C.J.; Gilbert, P.; McKenzie, D.; Pedersen, J.A.; Aiken, J.M.

2009-01-01

62

Molecular mechanism of prion protein oligomerization at atomic resolution.  

PubMed

Prion protein oligomerization: Despite the crucial role of oligomers during prion protein (PrP) pathogenesis the molecular mechanism of their formation has remained largely elusive. A 2D time-resolved NMR study which made it possible to characterize the oligomerization kinetics with unprecedented site-specificity is reported. PMID:23934741

Schlepckow, Kai; Schwalbe, Harald

2013-09-16

63

Spontaneous Neurodegeneration in Transgenic Mice with Mutant Prion Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic mice were created to assess genetic linkage between Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome and a leucine substitution at codon 102 of the human prion protein gene. Spontaneous neurologic disease with spongiform degeneration and gliosis similar to that in mouse scrapie developed at a mean age of 166 days in 35 mice expressing mouse prion protein with the leucine substitution. Thus, many of

Karen K. Hsiao; Michael Scott; Dallas Foster; Darlene F. Groth; Stephen J. Dearmond

1990-01-01

64

Prion Protein Misfolding, Strains, and Neurotoxicity: An Update from Studies on Mammalian Prions  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and other mammalian species. The central event in TSE pathogenesis is the conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein, PrPC, into the aggregate, ?-sheet rich, amyloidogenic form, PrPSc. Increasing evidence indicates that distinct PrPSc conformers, forming distinct ordered aggregates, can encipher the phenotypic TSE variants related to prion strains. Prion strains are TSE isolates that, after inoculation into syngenic hosts, cause disease with distinct characteristics, such as incubation period, pattern of PrPSc distribution, and regional severity of histopathological changes in the brain. In analogy with other amyloid forming proteins, PrPSc toxicity is thought to derive from the existence of various intermediate structures prior to the amyloid fiber formation and/or their specific interaction with membranes. The latter appears particularly relevant for the pathogenesis of TSEs associated with GPI-anchored PrPSc, which involves major cellular membrane distortions in neurons. In this review, we update the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying three fundamental aspects of the basic biology of prions such as the putative mechanism of prion protein conversion to the pathogenic form PrPSc and its propagation, the molecular basis of prion strains, and the mechanism of induced neurotoxicity by PrPSc aggregates. PMID:24454379

Poggiolini, Ilaria; Parchi, Piero

2013-01-01

65

Prion protein induced signaling cascades in monocytes  

SciTech Connect

Prion proteins play a central role in transmission and pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}), whose physiological function remains elusive, is anchored to the surface of a variety of cell types including neurons and cells of the lymphoreticular system. In this study, we investigated the response of a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line to exposure with PrP{sup C} fusion proteins synthesized with a human Fc-tag. PrP{sup C} fusion proteins showed an attachment to the surface of monocyte/macrophages in nanomolar concentrations. This was accompanied by an increase of cellular tyrosine phosphorylation as a result of activated signaling pathways. Detailed investigations exhibited activation of downstream pathways through a stimulation with PrP fusion proteins, which include phosphorylation of ERK{sub 1,2} and Akt kinase. Macrophages opsonize and present antigenic structures, contact lymphocytes, and deliver cytokines. The findings reported here may become the basis of understanding the molecular function of PrP{sup C} in monocytes and macrophages.

Krebs, Bjarne [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Muenchen (Germany); Dorner-Ciossek, Cornelia [CNS Research III, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Biberach/Riss (Germany); Schmalzbauer, Ruediger [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Vassallo, Neville [Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Herms, Jochen [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Kretzschmar, Hans A. [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: Hans.Kretzschmar@med.uni-muenchen.de

2006-02-03

66

Peptide sequences converting polyglutamine into a prion in yeast.  

PubMed

Amyloids are ordered protein aggregates composed of cross-? sheet structures. Amyloids include prions, defined as infectious proteins, which are responsible for mammalian transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and fungal prions. Although the conventional view is that typical amyloids are associated with nontransmissible mammalian neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, increasing evidence suggests that the boundary between transmissible and nontransmissible amyloids is ambiguous. To clarify the mechanism underlying the difference in transmissibility, we investigated the dynamics and the properties of polyglutamine (polyQ) amyloids in yeast cells, in which the polyQ aggregates are not transmissible but can be converted into transmissible amyloids. We found that polyQ had an increased tendency to form aggregates compared to the yeast prion Sup35. In addition, we screened dozens of peptides that converted the nontransmissible polyQ to transmissible aggregates when they flanked the polyQ stretch, and also investigated their cellular dynamics aiming to understand the mechanism of transmission. PMID:25406629

Odani, Wataru; Urata, Kazuhiro; Okuda, Momoko; Okuma, Shunsuke; Koyama, Hiroko; Pack, Chan-Gi; Fujiwara, Kei; Nojima, Tatsuya; Kinjo, Masataka; Kawai-Noma, Shigeko; Taguchi, Hideki

2015-02-01

67

Context Dependent Neuroprotective Properties of Prion Protein (Prp)  

E-print Network

Although it has been known for more than twenty years that an aberrant conformation of the prion protein (PrP) is the causative agent in prion diseases, the role of PrP in normal biology is undetermined. Numerous studies ...

Steele, Andrew D.

68

Computational Studies of the Structural Stability of Rabbit Prion Protein Compared to Human and Mouse Prion Proteins  

E-print Network

Prion diseases are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals. The neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, Gerstmann-Str$\\ddot{a}$ussler-Scheinker syndrome, Fatal Familial Insomnia, Kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (or 'mad-cow' disease) and chronic wasting disease in cattle belong to prion diseases. By now there have not been some effective therapeutic approaches to treat all these prion diseases. Dogs, rabbits and horses were reported to be resistant to prion diseases. By the end of year 2010 all the NMR structures of dog, rabbit and horse prion proteins (X-ray for rabbits too) had been finished to release into protein data bank. Thus, at this moment it is very worth studying the NMR and X-ray molecular structures of horse, dog and rabbit prion proteins to obtain insights into their immunity prion diseases. The author found that dog and horse prion proteins have sta...

Zhang, Jiapu

2011-01-01

69

SSCP analysis and sequencing of the human prion protein gene (PRNP) detects two different 24 bp deletions in an atypical Alzheimer`s disease family  

SciTech Connect

Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is a progressive, degenerative neurological disorder of the central nervous system. AD is the fourth leading cause of death in elderly persons 65 years or older in Western industrialized societies. The etiology of AD is unknown, but clinical, pathological, epidemiological, and molecular investigations suggest it is etiologically heterogeneous. Mutations in the amyloid protein are rare and segregate with the disease in a few early-onset familial AD (FAD) families. Similarities between AD and the unconventional viral (UCV) diseases, and between the amyloid and prion proteins, implicate the human prion protein gene (PRNP) as another candidate gene. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was used to screen for mutations at this locus in 82 AD patients from 54 families (30 FAD), vs. 39 age-matched controls. A 24-bp deletion around codon 68 that codes for one of five Gly-Pro rich octarepeats was identified in two affected sibs and one offspring of one late-onset FAD family. Two other affected sibs, three unaffected sibs, and three offspring from this family, in addition to one sporadic AD patient and three age-matched controls, were heterozygous for another octarepeat deletion located around codon 82. Two of the four affected sibs had features of PD, including one who was autopsy-verified AD and PD. Although these deletions were found infrequently in other AD patients and controls, they appear to be a rare polymorphism that is segregating in this FAD family. It does not appear that mutations at the PRNP locus are frequently associated with AD in this population. 54 refs., 4 figs.

Perry, R.T.; Go, R.C.P.; Harrell, L.E.; Acton, R.T. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

1995-02-27

70

Molecular Cloning of a Candidate Chicken Prion Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractions enriched for acetylcholine receptor-inducing activity from chicken brain were found to contain a protein that was ≈30% homologous with mammalian prion proteins [Harris, D. A., Falls, D. L., Johnson, F. A. & Fischbach, G. D. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 7664-7668]. To extend these observations, we recovered genomic clones encoding a putative chicken prion protein (PrP). Like

Jean-Marc Gabriel; Bruno Oesch; Hans Kretzschmar; Michael Scott

1992-01-01

71

REFINEMENT OF UNDER-DETERMINED LOOPS OF HUMAN PRION PROTEIN BY  

E-print Network

REFINEMENT OF UNDER-DETERMINED LOOPS OF HUMAN PRION PROTEIN BY DATABASE-DERIVED DISTANCE: http://www.ima.umn.edu #12;Refinement of Under-Determined Loops of Human Prion Protein by Database Computational simulations of the conversion from the normal cellular prion (PrPc ) to the scrapie prion (Pr

72

Cellular prion protein in ovine milk.  

PubMed

Cellular prion protein, PrP(C), is essential for the development of prion diseases where it is considered to be a substrate for the formation of the disease-associated conformer, PrP(Sc). In sheep, PrP(C) is abundant in neuronal tissue and is also found at lower concentrations in a range of non-neuronal tissues, including mammary gland. Here, we demonstrate the presence of soluble PrP(C) in the non-cellular, non-lipid fraction of clarified ovine milk. Compared with brain-derived PrP(C), ovine milk PrP(C) displays an increased electrophoretic mobility. Ovine milk PrP(C) is mainly present as three species that differ in the extent of their N-linked glycosylation, with glycoform profiles varying among animals. Similar PrP(C) species are also present in fresh and commercial homogenised/pasteurised bovine milk, with additional N-terminal PrP(C) fragments detectable in ruminant milk and commercial milk products. PMID:17174270

Maddison, Ben C; Whitelam, Garry C; Gough, Kevin C

2007-02-01

73

Evidence for Protein X Binding to a Discontinuous Epitope on the Cellular Prion Protein during Scrapie Prion Propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the transmission of human (Hu) prions to transgenic (Tg) mice suggested that another molecule provisionally designated protein X participates in the formation of nascent scrapie isoform of prion protein (PrPSc). We report the identification of the site at which protein X binds to the cellular isoform of PrP (PrPC) using scrapie-infected mouse (Mo) neuroblastoma cells transfected with chimeric

Kiyotoshi Kaneko; Laurence Zulianello; Michael Scott; Carol M. Cooper; Andrew C. Wallace; Thomas L. James; Fred E. Cohen

1997-01-01

74

Mammalian prions  

PubMed Central

Upon prion infection, abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) self-perpetuate by conformational conversion of ?-helix-rich PrPC into ? sheet enriched form, leading to formation and deposition of PrPSc aggregates in affected brains. However the process remains poorly understood at the molecular level and the regions of PrP critical for conversion are still debated. Minimal amino acid substitutions can impair prion replication at many places in PrP. Conversely, we recently showed that bona fide prions could be generated after introduction of eight and up to 16 additional amino acids in the H2-H3 inter-helix loop of PrP. Prion replication also accommodated the insertions of an octapeptide at different places in the last turns of H2. This reverse genetic approach reveals an unexpected tolerance of prions to substantial sequence changes in the protease-resistant part which is associated with infectivity. It also demonstrates that conversion does not require the presence of a specific sequence in the middle of the H2-H3 area. We discuss the implications of our findings according to different structural models proposed for PrPSc and questioned the postulated existence of an N- or C-terminal prion domain in the protease-resistant region. PMID:23232499

Salamat, Muhammad Khalid; Munoz-Montesino, Carola; Moudjou, Mohammed; Rezaei, Human; Laude, Hubert; Béringue, Vincent; Dron, Michel

2013-01-01

75

Prevalence of lymphoreticular prion protein accumulation in UK tissue samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to provide an estimate of the number of individuals in the UK who may be incubating variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and at risk of causing iatrogenic spread of the disease. Lymphoreticular accumulation of prion protein is a consistent feature of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob at autopsy and has also been demonstrated in the pre-clinical phase. Immunohistochemical accumulation of prion protein

David A Hilton; Azra C Ghani; Lisa Conyers; Philip Edwards; Linda McCardle; Diane Ritchie; Mark Penney; Doha Hegazy; James W Ironside

2004-01-01

76

Normal host prion protein necessary for scrapie-induced neurotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACCUMULATION of the prion protein PrPSc, a pathological and protease-resistant isoform of the normal host protein PrPc, is a feature of prion disease such as scrapie1,2. It is still unknown whether scrapie pathology comes about by neurotoxicity of PrPSc, acute depletion of PrPc, or some other mechanism. Here we investigate this question by grafting neural tissue overexpressing PrPc into the

Sebastian Brandner; Stefan Isenmann; Alex Raeber; Marek Fischer; Andreas Sailer; Yasushi Kobayashi; Silvia Marino; Charles Weissmann; Adriano Aguzzi

1996-01-01

77

Identification of two prion protein regions that modify scrapie incubation time.  

PubMed

A series of prion transmission experiments was performed in transgenic (Tg) mice expressing either wild-type, chimeric, or truncated prion protein (PrP) molecules. Following inoculation with Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) murine prions, scrapie incubation times for Tg(MoPrP)4053, Tg(MHM2)294/Prnp(0/0), and Tg(MoPrP, Delta23-88)9949/Prnp(0/0) mice were approximately 50, 120, and 160 days, respectively. Similar scrapie incubation times were obtained after inoculation of these lines of Tg mice with either MHM2(MHM2(RML)) or MoPrP(Delta23-88)(RML) prions, excluding the possibility that sequence-dependent transmission barriers could account for the observed differences. Tg(MHM2)294/Prnp(0/0) mice displayed prolonged scrapie incubation times with four different strains of murine prions. These data provide evidence that the N terminus of MoPrP and the chimeric region of MHM2 PrP (residues 108 through 111) both influence the inherent efficiency of prion propagation. PMID:11152514

Supattapone, S; Muramoto, T; Legname, G; Mehlhorn, I; Cohen, F E; DeArmond, S J; Prusiner, S B; Scott, M R

2001-02-01

78

Persistence of pathogenic prion protein during simulated wastewater treatment processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP TSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Prions are highly resistant to degradation and to many disinfection procedures suggesting that, if prions enter wastewater treatment systems through sewers and/or septic systems (e.g., from slaughterhouses, necropsy laboratories, rural meat processors, private game dressing) or through leachate from landfills that have received TSE-contaminated material, prions could survive conventional wastewater treatment Here, we report the results of experiments examining the partitioning and persistence of PrPTSE during simulated wastewater treatment processes including activated and mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. Incubation with activated sludge did not result in significant PrPTSE degradation. PrPTSE and prion infectivity partitioned strongly to activated sludge solids and are expected to enter biosolids treatment processes. A large fraction of PrPTSE survived simulated mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. The small reduction in recoverable PrPTSE after 20-d anaerobic sludge digestion appeared attributable to a combination of declining extractability with time and microbial degradation. Our results suggest that if prions were to enter municipal wastewater treatment systems, most would partition to activated sludge solids, survive mesophilic anaerobic digestion, and be present in treated biosolids. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

Hinckley, G.T.; Johnson, C.J.; Jacobson, K.H.; Bartholomay, C.; Mcmahon, K.D.; McKenzie, D.; Aiken, J.M.; Pedersen, J.A.

2008-01-01

79

Infectious Prion Protein Alters Manganese Transport and Neurotoxicity in a Cell Culture Model of Prion Disease  

PubMed Central

Protein misfolding and aggregation are considered key features of many neurodegenerative diseases, but biochemical mechanisms underlying protein misfolding and the propagation of protein aggregates are not well understood. Prion disease is a classical neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the misfolding of endogenously expressed normal cellular prion protein (PrPC). Although the exact function of PrPC has not been fully elucidated, studies have suggested that it can function as a metal binding protein. Interestingly, increased brain manganese (Mn) levels have been reported in various prion diseases indicating divalent metals also may play a role in the disease process. Recently, we reported that PrPC protects against Mn-induced cytotoxicity in a neural cell culture model. To further understand the role of Mn in prion diseases, we examined Mn neurotoxicity in an infectious cell culture model of prion disease. Our results show CAD5 scrapie-infected cells were more resistant to Mn neurotoxicity as compared to uninfected cells (EC50 = 428.8 ?M for CAD5 infected cells vs. 211.6 ?M for uninfected cells). Additionally, treatment with 300 ?M Mn in persistently infected CAD5 cells showed a reduction in mitochondrial impairment, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation when compared to uninfected cells. Scrapie-infected cells also showed significantly reduced Mn uptake as measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and altered expression of metal transporting proteins DMT1 and transferrin. Together, our data indicate that conversion of PrP to the pathogenic isoform enhances its ability to regulate Mn homeostasis, and suggest that understanding the interaction of metals with disease-specific proteins may provide further insight to protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21871919

Martin, Dustin P.; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Witte, Travis; Houk, Robert; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

2011-01-01

80

Developmental expression of the prion protein gene in glial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replication of prions is dependent on the presence of the host protein PrPc. During the course of disease, PrPc is converted into an abnormal isoform, PrPsc, which accumulates in the brain. Attempts to identify the cell type(s) in which prion replication and PrP conversion occur have reached conflicting results. Although PrP mRNA is present in high amounts in neurons throughout

Markus Moser; Raymond J Colello; Uwe Pott; Bruno Oesch

1995-01-01

81

The yeast prion protein Ure2: Structure, function and folding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Ure2 functions as a regulator of nitrogen metabolism and as a glutathione-dependent peroxidase. Ure2 also has the characteristics of a prion, in that it can undergo a heritable conformational change to an aggregated state; the prion form of Ure2 loses the regulatory function, but the enzymatic function appears to be maintained. A number of factors are

Hui-Yong Lian; Yi Jiang; Hong Zhang; Gary W. Jones; Sarah Perrett

2006-01-01

82

Manganese Upregulates Cellular Prion Protein and Contributes to Altered Stabilization and Proteolysis: Relevance to Role of Metals in Pathogenesis of Prion Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases resulting from misfolding of normal cellular prion (PrP**C) into an abnormal form of scrapie prion (PrP**Sc). The cellular mechanisms underlying the misfolding of PrP**C are not well understood. Since cellular prion proteins harbor divalent metal b...

83

Molecular Features of the Copper Binding Sites in the Octarepeat Domain of the Prion Protein  

E-print Network

Molecular Features of the Copper Binding Sites in the Octarepeat Domain of the Prion Protein Colin evidence suggests that the prion protein (PrP) is a copper binding protein. The N-terminal region of human units that may facilitate molecular recognition between prion proteins, thereby suggesting a mechanism

Scott, William

84

Prion Diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prion diseases comprise a set of rare fatal neurological diseases found in humans and other mammals. A prion is a protein capable of converting a normal cellular protein (PrPC) into a prion and thereby propagating an infection. A prion and PrPC differ solely in their conformation. There are differen...

85

Low Copper and High Manganese Levels in Prion Protein Plaques  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system. PMID:23435237

Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecht, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.; McKenzie, Debbie

2013-01-01

86

Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

2013-01-01

87

Identification of candidate proteins binding to prion protein.  

PubMed

Prion diseases are disorders of protein conformation that produce neurodegeneration in humans and animals. Studies of transgenic (Tg) mice indicate that a factor designated protein X is involved in the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the scrapie isoform (PrPSc); protein X appears to interact with PrPC but not with PrPSc. To search for PrPC binding proteins, we fused PrP with alkaline phosphatase (AP) to produce a soluble, secreted probe. PrP-AP was used to screen a lambdagt11 mouse brain cDNA library, and six clones were isolated. Four cDNAs are novel while two clones are fragments of Nrf2 (NF-E2 related factor 2) transcription factor and Aplp1 (amyloid precursor-like protein 1). The observation that PrP binds to a member of the APP (amyloid precursor protein) gene family is intriguing, in light of possible relevance to Alzheimer's disease. Four of the isolated clones are expressed preferentially in the mouse brain and encode a similar motif. PMID:9173930

Yehiely, F; Bamborough, P; Da Costa, M; Perry, B J; Thinakaran, G; Cohen, F E; Carlson, G A; Prusiner, S B

1997-01-01

88

Thermodynamic Characterization of the Unfolding of the Prion Protein Roumita Moulick and Jayant B. Udgaonkar*  

E-print Network

Thermodynamic Characterization of the Unfolding of the Prion Protein Roumita Moulick and Jayant B ABSTRACT The prion protein appears to be unusually susceptible to conformational change, and unlike nearly of the mouse prion protein (moPrP), the full-length moPrP (23­231) and the structured C-terminal domain, mo

89

Electrostatics in the stability and misfolding of the prion protein: salt bridges, self energy, and  

E-print Network

Electrostatics in the stability and misfolding of the prion protein: salt bridges, self energy and mutants of the prion protein. Salt bridges and self energies play key roles in stabilizing secondary and tertiary struc- tural elements of the prion protein. The total electrostatic potential energy of each

Plotkin, Steven S.

90

Location and properties of metal-binding sites on the human prion protein  

E-print Network

Location and properties of metal-binding sites on the human prion protein Graham S. Jackson*, Ian Collinge* *Medical Research Council Prion Unit, Department of Neurogenetics, Imperial College School for the prion protein, evidence for binding at affinities character- istic of authentic metal-binding proteins

Hosszu, Laszlo

91

Early Intermediate in Human Prion Protein Folding As Evidenced by Ultrarapid Mixing Experiments  

E-print Network

Early Intermediate in Human Prion Protein Folding As Evidenced by Ultrarapid Mixing ExperimentsPC -to-PrPSc conversion is to elucidate the folding pathway(s) of the prion protein. On the basis of stopped-flow measurements, we recently proposed that the prion protein folds via a transient intermediate

Roder, Heinrich

92

NMR structures of three single-residue variants of the human prion protein  

E-print Network

NMR structures of three single-residue variants of the human prion protein Luigi Calzolai single-amino acid variants of the C-terminal domain of the human prion protein, hPrP(121 ``protein X,'' and it is related to the species barrier for transmission of prion diseases. As expected

Riek, Roland

93

Cytoplasmic expression of mouse prion protein causes severe toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

To test if Caenorhabditis elegans could be established as a model organism for prion study, we created transgenic C. elegans expressing the cytosolic form of the mouse prion protein, MoPrP(23-231), which lacks the N-terminal signal sequence and the C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinisotol (GPI) anchor site. We report here that transgenic worms expressing MoPrP(23-231)-CFP exhibited a wide range of distinct phenotypes: from normal growth and development, reduced mobility and development delay, complete paralysis and development arrest, to embryonic lethality. Similar levels of MoPrP(23-231)-CFP were produced in animals exhibiting these distinct phenotypes, suggesting that MoPrP(23-231)-CFP might have misfolded into distinct toxic species. In combining with the observation that mutations in PrP that affect prion pathogenesis also affect the toxic phenotypes in C. elegans, we conclude that the prion protein-folding mechanism is similar in mammals and C. elegans. Thus, C. elegans can be a useful model organism for prion research. PMID:18519028

Park, Kyung-Won; Li, Liming

2008-08-01

94

Mutation of the prion protein gene at codon 208 in familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.  

PubMed

Four point mutations and one insertion within the prion protein (PrP) gene have been tightly linked to the development of inherited prion disease. We developed a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis system that allowed us to screen the entire open reading frame of the PrP gene. Using this system, we found a new mutation of the PrP gene in a patient with pathologically confirmed Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and a negative family history for dementia. DNA sequencing revealed an adenine substitution for guanine at the second position of codon 208, which results in the nonconservative substitution of histidine for arginine. The same PrP mutation was identified in another younger member of the pedigree but was not present in more than 200 alleles tested. Such findings suggest that the frequency of inherited prion disease might be higher than ascertained by clinical history alone. PMID:8909447

Mastrianni, J A; Iannicola, C; Myers, R M; DeArmond, S; Prusiner, S B

1996-11-01

95

Prion protein NMR structure from tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) shows that the beta2-alpha2 loop is modulated by long-range sequence effects.  

PubMed

NMR structures are presented for the recombinant construct of residues 121-230 from the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) prion protein (PrP) twPrP(121-230) and for the variant mouse PrPs mPrP[Y225A,Y226A](121-231) and mPrP[V166A](121-231) at 20 degrees C and pH 4.5. All three proteins exhibit the same global architecture as seen in other recombinant PrP(C)s (cellular isoforms of PrP) and shown to prevail in natural bovine PrP(C). Special interest was focused on a loop that connects the beta2-strand with helix alpha2 in the PrP(C) fold, since there are indications from in vivo experiments that this local structural feature affects the susceptibility of transgenic mice to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. This beta2-alpha2 loop and helix alpha3 form a solvent-accessible contiguous epitope, which has been proposed to be the recognition area for a hypothetical chaperone, the "protein X". This hypothetical chaperone would affect the conversion of PrP(C) into the disease-related scrapie form (PrP(Sc)) by moderating intermolecular interactions related to the transmission barrier of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies between different species. In contrast to mPrP(121-231) and most other mammalian PrP(C)s, the beta2-alpha2 loop is well defined at 20 degrees C in tammar wallaby PrP and in the two aforementioned variants of mPrP, showing that long-range interactions with helix alpha3 can have an overriding influence on the structural definition of the beta2-alpha2 loop. Further NMR studies with two variant mPrPs, mPrP[Y225A](121-231) and mPrP[Y226A](121-231), showed that these interactions are dominantly mediated by close contacts between residues 166 and 225. The results of the present study then lead to the intriguing indication that well-defined long-range intramolecular interactions could act as regulators of the functional specificity of PrP(C). PMID:19393664

Christen, Barbara; Hornemann, Simone; Damberger, Fred F; Wüthrich, Kurt

2009-06-26

96

Direct Observation of Protein Folding, Aggregation, and a Prion-like Conformational Conversion*  

E-print Network

Direct Observation of Protein Folding, Aggregation, and a Prion-like Conformational Conversion to -sheets precedes aggregation of proteins implicated in many diseases, including Alzheimer and prion, S. B. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 95, 13363­ 13383) to account for prion infectivity

Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

97

N Resonance assignment of parts of the HET-s prion protein in its amyloid form  

E-print Network

Article 13 C, 15 N Resonance assignment of parts of the HET-s prion protein in its amyloid form: amyloid, HET-s, prions, solid-state NMR Abstract The partial 15 N and 13 C solid-state NMR resonance assignment of the HET-s prion protein fragment 218­ 289 in its amyloid form is presented. It is based

Riek, Roland

98

Surface charge of polyoxometalates modulates polymerization of the scrapie prion protein  

E-print Network

Surface charge of polyoxometalates modulates polymerization of the scrapie prion protein Holger 31, 2008 (sent for review October 13, 2008) Prions are composed solely of an alternatively folded isoform of the prion protein (PrP), designated PrPSc. N-terminally truncated PrPSc, denoted PrP 27

99

Prions in Saccharomyces and Podospora spp.: Protein-Based Inheritance  

PubMed Central

Genetic evidence showed two non-Mendelian genetic elements of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, called [URE3] and [PSI], to be prions of Ure2p and Sup35p, respectively. [URE3] makes cells derepressed for nitrogen catabolism, while [PSI] elevates the efficiency of weak suppressor tRNAs. The same approach led to identification of the non-Mendelian element [Het-s] of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, as a prion of the het-s protein. The prion form of the het-s protein is required for heterokaryon incompatibility, a normal fungal function, suggesting that other normal cellular functions may be controlled by prions. [URE3] and [PSI] involve a self-propagating aggregation of Ure2p and Sup35p, respectively. In vitro, Ure2p and Sup35p form amyloid, a filamentous protein structure, high in ?-sheet with a characteristic green birefringent staining by the dye Congo Red. Amyloid deposits are a cardinal feature of Alzheimer’s disease, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and many other diseases. The prion domain of Ure2p consists of Asn-rich residues 1 to 80, but two nonoverlapping fragments of the molecule can, when overproduced, induce the de nova appearance of [URE3]. The prion domain of Sup35 consists of residues 1 to 114, also rich in Asn and Gln residues. While runs of Asn and Gln are important for [URE3] and [PSI], no such structures are found in PrP or the Het-s protein. Either elevated or depressed levels of the chaperone Hsp104 interfere with propagation of [PSI]. Both [URE3] and [PSI] are cured by growth of cells in millimolar guanidine HCl. [URE3] is also cured by overexpression of fragments of Ure2p or fusion proteins including parts of Ure2p. PMID:10585968

Wickner, Reed B.; Taylor, Kimberly L.; Edskes, Herman K.; Maddelein, Marie-Lise; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Roberts, B. Tibor

1999-01-01

100

Prion Protein Repeat Expansion Results in Increased Aggregation and Reveals Phenotypic Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders dependent on the prion protein PrP. Expansion of the oligopeptide repeats (ORE) found in PrP is associated with inherited prion diseases. Patients with ORE frequently harbor PrP aggregates, but other factors may contribute to pathology, as they often present with unexplained phenotypic variability. We created chimeric yeast-mammalian prion proteins to examine the influence

Elizabeth M. H. Tank; David A. Harris; Amar A. Desai; Heather L. True

2007-01-01

101

Concentration of disease-associated prion protein with silicon dioxide.  

PubMed

Reagents that can precipitate the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) are vital for the development of high sensitivity tests to detect low levels of this disease marker in biological material. Here, a range of minerals are shown to precipitate both ovine cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) and ovine scrapie PrP(Sc). The precipitation of prion protein with silicon dioxide is unaffected by PrP(Sc) strain or host species and the method can be used to precipitate bovine BSE. This method can reliably concentrate protease-resistant ovine PrP(Sc) (PrP(res)) derived from 1.69 microg of brain protein from a clinically infected animal diluted into either 50 ml of buffer or 15 ml of plasma. The introduction of a SiO(2) precipitation step into the immunological detection of PrP(res) increased detection sensitivity by over 1,500-fold. Minerals such as SiO(2) are readily available, low cost reagents with generic application to the concentration of diseases-associated prion proteins. PMID:19058035

Rees, Helen C; Maddison, Ben C; Owen, Jonathan P; Whitelam, Garry C; Gough, Kevin C

2009-03-01

102

PRIONS: PATHOLOGICAL PROTEINS AT THE INTERFACE OF OIL AND WATER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prions are infectious proteins that cause of a set of rare fatal neurological diseases referred to as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). TSE diseases occur in humans, sheep, goats, deer, elk, mink, cows and other mammals. This presentation will include an historical review of the scie...

103

NMR solution structure of the human prion protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NMR structures of the recombinant human prion protein, hPrP(23-230), and two C-terminal fragments, hPrP(90-230) and hPrP(121-230), include a globular domain extending from residues 125-228, for which a detailed structure was obtained, and an N-terminal flexibly disordered \\

Ralph Zahn; Aizhuo Liu; Thorsten Lührs; Roland Riek; Christine von Schroetter; Francisco López García; Martin Billeter; Luigi Calzolai; Gerhard Wider; Kurt Wüthrich

2000-01-01

104

Folding kinetics of the human prion protein probed by temperature jump  

E-print Network

Folding kinetics of the human prion protein probed by temperature jump Tanya Harta , Laszlo L. P. Clarkea,1 aMedical Research Council Prion Unit, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG) Temperature-jump perturbation was used to examine the relax- ation kinetics of folding of the human prion

Hosszu, Laszlo

105

Prion induction involves an ancient system for the sequestration of aggregated proteins and heritable  

E-print Network

Prion induction involves an ancient system for the sequestration of aggregated proteins and heritable changes in prion fragmentation Jens Tyedmersa,b , Sebastian Treuscha,c , Jijun Donga , J. Michael (sent for review December 16, 2009) When the translation termination factor Sup35 adopts the prion state

Lindquist, Susan

106

Evidence for protein X binding to a discontinuous epitope on the cellular prion protein during scrapie prion propagation.  

PubMed

Studies on the transmission of human (Hu) prions to transgenic (Tg) mice suggested that another molecule provisionally designated protein X participates in the formation of nascent scrapie isoform of prion protein (PrPSc). We report the identification of the site at which protein X binds to the cellular isoform of PrP (PrPC) using scrapie-infected mouse (Mo) neuroblastoma cells transfected with chimeric Hu/MoPrP genes even though protein X has not yet been isolated. Substitution of a Hu residue at position 214 or 218 prevented PrPSc formation. The side chains of these residues protrude from the same surface of the C-terminal alpha-helix and form a discontinuous epitope with residues 167 and 171 in an adjacent loop. Substitution of a basic residue at positions 167, 171, or 218 also prevented PrPSc formation: at a mechanistic level, these mutant PrPs appear to act as "dominant negatives" by binding protein X and rendering it unavailable for prion propagation. Our findings seem to explain the protective effects of basic polymorphic residues in PrP of humans and sheep and suggest therapeutic and prophylactic approaches to prion diseases. PMID:9294164

Kaneko, K; Zulianello, L; Scott, M; Cooper, C M; Wallace, A C; James, T L; Cohen, F E; Prusiner, S B

1997-09-16

107

Factors affecting interactions between prion protein isoforms.  

PubMed

Interactions between normal, protease-sensitive prion protein (PrP-sen or PrP(C)) and its protease-resistant isoform (PrP-res or PrP(Sc)) are critical in transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases. To investigate the propagation of PrP-res between cells we tested whether PrP-res in scrapie brain microsomes can induce the conversion of PrP-sen to PrP-res if the PrP-sen is bound to uninfected raft membranes. Surprisingly, no conversion was observed unless the microsomal and raft membranes were fused or PrP-sen was released from raft membranes. These results suggest that the propagation of infection between cells requires transfer of PrP-res into the membranes of the recipient cell. To assess potential cofactors in PrP conversion, we used cell-free PrP conversion assays to show that heparan sulphate can stimulate PrP-res formation, supporting the idea that endogenous sulphated glycosaminoglycans can act as important cofactors or modulators of PrP-res formation in vivo. In an effort to develop therapeutics, the antimalarial drug quinacrine was identified as an inhibitor of PrP-res formation in scrapie-infected cell cultures. Confirmation of the latter result by others has led to the initiation of human clinical trials as a treatment for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. PrP-res formation can also be inhibited using a variety of other types of small molecule, specific synthetic PrP peptides, and an antiserum directed at the C-terminus of PrP-sen. The latter results help to localize the sites of interaction between PrP-sen and PrP-res. Disruption of those interactions with antibodies or peptidomimetic drugs may be an attractive therapeutic strategy. The likelihood that PrP-res inhibitors can rid TSE-infected tissues of PrP-res would presumably be enhanced if PrP-res formation were reversible. However, our attempts to measure dissociation of PrP-sen from PrP-res have failed under non-denaturing conditions. Finally, we have attempted to induce the spontaneous conversion of PrP-sen into PrP-res using low concentrations of detergents. A conformational conversion from alpha-helical monomers into high-beta-sheet aggregates and fibrils was induced by low concentrations of the detergent sarkosyl; however, the aggregates had neither infectivity nor the characteristic protease-resistance ofPrP-res. PMID:12196138

Caughey, B; Baron, G S

2002-08-01

108

The Landscape of the Prion Protein's Structural Response to Mutation Revealed by Principal Component Analysis of Multiple NMR Ensembles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prion Proteins (PrP) are among a small number of proteins for which large numbers of NMR ensembles have been resolved for sequence mutants and diverse species. Here, we perform a comprehensive principle components analysis (PCA) on the tertiary structures of PrP globular proteins to discern PrP subdomains that exhibit conformational change in response to point mutations and clade-specific evolutionary sequence

Deena M. A. Gendoo; Paul M. Harrison

2012-01-01

109

Guanidine hydrochloride extraction and detection of prion proteins in mouse and hamster prion diseases by ELISA.  

PubMed

Current detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) relies on the proteolytic generation of a protease-resistant core from the scrapie isoform of prion protein (PrP(Sc)) followed by immunoblotting. This process is non-quantitative, time-consuming, and technically demanding. Recently, an alternative in vitro test for TSE based on the differential extraction of brain homogenates using guanidine hydrochloride followed by DELFIA (Dissociation Enhanced Lanthanide FluoroImmunoAssay) has been developed. In the present study, this approach was adopted using a panel of anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in conventional sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to investigate hamster and two distinct strains of mouse prion diseases. Although PrP species were present in both soluble and insoluble fractions from normal as well as TSE samples, only the PrP species in the insoluble fractions from the latter samples were protease-resistant. In addition, certain anti-PrP MAb pairs could distinguish the PrP species in infected brains from those in the normal samples. The ability to differentiate disease-associated PrP isoforms without proteinase K digestion could serve as a panacea for developing a reliable and rapid diagnostic test for prion diseases. PMID:12635145

Kang, Shin-Chung; Li, Ruliang; Wang, Chuanping; Pan, Tao; Liu, Tong; Rubenstein, Richard; Barnard, Geoff; Wong, Boon-Seng; Sy, Man-Sun

2003-04-01

110

Dominant-negative inhibition of prion formation diminished by deletion mutagenesis of the prion protein.  

PubMed

Polymorphic basic residues near the C terminus of the prion protein (PrP) in humans and sheep appear to protect against prion disease. In heterozygotes, inhibition of prion formation appears to be dominant negative and has been simulated in cultured cells persistently infected with scrapie prions. The results of nuclear magnetic resonance and mutagenesis studies indicate that specific substitutions at the C-terminal residues 167, 171, 214, and 218 of PrP(C) act as dominant-negative, inhibitors of PrP(Sc) formation (K. Kaneko et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:10069-10074, 1997). Trafficking of substituted PrP(C) to caveaola-like domains or rafts by the glycolipid anchor was required for the dominant-negative phenotype; interestingly, amino acid replacements at multiple sites were less effective than single-residue substitutions. To elucidate which domains of PrP(C) are responsible for dominant-negative inhibition of PrP(Sc) formation, we analyzed whether N-terminally truncated PrP(Q218K) molecules exhibited dominant-negative effects in the conversion of full-length PrP(C) to PrP(Sc). We found that the C-terminal domain of PrP is not sufficient to impede the conversion of the full-length PrP(C) molecule and that N-terminally truncated molecules (with residues 23 to 88 and 23 to 120 deleted) have reduced dominant-negative activity. Whether the N-terminal region of PrP acts by stabilizing the C-terminal domain of the molecule or by modulating the binding of PrP(C) to an auxiliary molecule that participates in PrP(Sc) formation remains to be established. PMID:10756050

Zulianello, L; Kaneko, K; Scott, M; Erpel, S; Han, D; Cohen, F E; Prusiner, S B

2000-05-01

111

Electrostatics in the Stability and Misfolding of the Prion Protein: Salt Bridges, Self-Energy, and Solvation  

E-print Network

Using a recently developed mesoscopic theory of protein dielectrics, we have calculated the salt bridge energies, total residue electrostatic potential energies, and transfer energies into a low dielectric amyloid-like phase for 12 species and mutants of the prion protein. Salt bridges and self energies play key roles in stabilizing secondary and tertiary structural elements of the prion protein. The total electrostatic potential energy of each residue was found to be invariably stabilizing. Residues frequently found to be mutated in familial prion disease were among those with the largest electrostatic energies. The large barrier to charged group desolvation imposes regional constraints on involvement of the prion protein in an amyloid aggregate, resulting in an electrostatic amyloid recruitment pro?le that favours regions of sequence between alpha helix 1 and beta strand 2, the middles of helices 2 and 3, and the region N-terminal to alpha helix 1. We found that the stabilization due to salt bridges is minimal among the proteins studied for disease-susceptible human mutants of prion protein.

Will Guest; Neil R. Cashman; Steven S. Plotkin

2010-04-09

112

Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

113

CELL BIOLOGY: Sowing the Protein Seeds of Prion Propagation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Ever since Prusiner first proposed his radical "protein-only" hypothesis to explain how certain infectious proteins (prions) are transmitted from one mammal to another in the absence of DNA or RNA, scientists have been trying to prove him right (or wrong). The study of mammalian prions, such as those causing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep and mad cow disease in cattle, has been slow to yield answers. However, as Tuite discusses in his Perspective, the Sup35p and Ure2p proteins of yeast that exist in both normal and infectious forms are providing evidence that the "protein-only" hypothesis may be right (Sparrer et al.).

Mick F. Tuite (University of Kent; Department of Biosciences)

2000-07-28

114

Quaternary Structure of Pathological Prion Protein as a Determining Factor of Strain-Specific Prion Replication Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Prions are proteinaceous infectious agents responsible for fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans. They are essentially composed of PrPSc, an aggregated, misfolded conformer of the ubiquitously expressed host-encoded prion protein (PrPC). Stable variations in PrPSc conformation are assumed to encode the phenotypically tangible prion strains diversity. However the direct contribution of PrPSc quaternary structure to the strain biological information remains mostly unknown. Applying a sedimentation velocity fractionation technique to a panel of ovine prion strains, classified as fast and slow according to their incubation time in ovine PrP transgenic mice, has previously led to the observation that the relationship between prion infectivity and PrPSc quaternary structure was not univocal. For the fast strains specifically, infectivity sedimented slowly and segregated from the bulk of proteinase-K resistant PrPSc. To carefully separate the respective contributions of size and density to this hydrodynamic behavior, we performed sedimentation at the equilibrium and varied the solubilization conditions. The density profile of prion infectivity and proteinase-K resistant PrPSc tended to overlap whatever the strain, fast or slow, leaving only size as the main responsible factor for the specific velocity properties of the fast strain most infectious component. We further show that this velocity-isolable population of discrete assemblies perfectly resists limited proteolysis and that its templating activity, as assessed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification outcompetes by several orders of magnitude that of the bulk of larger size PrPSc aggregates. Together, the tight correlation between small size, conversion efficiency and duration of disease establishes PrPSc quaternary structure as a determining factor of prion replication dynamics. For certain strains, a subset of PrP assemblies appears to be the best template for prion replication. This has important implications for fundamental studies on prions. PMID:24130496

Chapuis, Jérôme; Sibille, Pierre; Herzog, Laetitia; Reine, Fabienne; Jaumain, Emilie; Laude, Hubert; Rezaei, Human; Béringue, Vincent

2013-01-01

115

Gingerol prevents prion protein-mediated neuronal toxicity by regulating HIF prolyl hydroxylase 2 and prion protein  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases are a family of progressive neurodegenerative disorders, which are fatal in the majority of cases and affect both humans and domestic animals. Prion protein (PrP) (106–126) retains the neurotoxic properties of the entire pathological PrPsc and it is generally used as a reasonable model to study the mechanisms responsible for prion diseases. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? is involved in the gingerol-mediated protection of neuronal cells. HIF mediates cellular adaptations to low oxygen. Prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (PHD2) is an oxygen sensor that hydroxylates the HIF-?-subunit, promoting its proteasomal degradation under normoxic conditions. Thus, in the present study we wished to determine whether gingerol inhibits the catalytic activity of PHD2 and prevents HIF-1? protein proteasomal degradation, thereby preventing the occurrence of PrP (106–126)-induced neuronal apoptosis. We used the pharmacological inhibition of PHD2 by dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) or deferoxamine (DFO) and the genetic inhibition of HIF-1? by HIF-1? small interfering RNA (siRNA) to block the effects of gingerol against PrP (106–126)-induced neurotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that gingerol prevented PrP (106–126)-induced neuronal apoptosis by upregulating HIF-1? and inhibiting the catalytic activity of PHD2 under normoxic conditions. Moreover, the protective effects of gingerol against PrP (106–126)-induced neuronal apoptosis were associated with the upregulation of the expression of cellular prion protein (PrPc). In conclusion, our results indicate that gingerol has therapeutic potential for use in the treatment or prevention of prion diseases, and its inhibitory effects on the catalytic activity of PHD2 may be of clinical benefit. PMID:25231392

PARK, YANG-GYU; PARK, SANG-YOUEL

2014-01-01

116

Functional Diversification of Hsp40: Distinct J-Protein Functional Requirements for Two Prions Allow for Chaperone-Dependent Prion Selection  

PubMed Central

Yeast prions are heritable amyloid aggregates of functional yeast proteins; their propagation to subsequent cell generations is dependent upon fragmentation of prion protein aggregates by molecular chaperone proteins. Mounting evidence indicates the J-protein Sis1 may act as an amyloid specificity factor, recognizing prion and other amyloid aggregates and enabling Ssa and Hsp104 to act in prion fragmentation. Chaperone interactions with prions, however, can be affected by variations in amyloid-core structure resulting in distinct prion variants or ‘strains’. Our genetic analysis revealed that Sis1 domain requirements by distinct variants of [PSI+] are strongly dependent upon overall variant stability. Notably, multiple strong [PSI+] variants can be maintained by a minimal construct of Sis1 consisting of only the J-domain and glycine/phenylalanine-rich (G/F) region that was previously shown to be sufficient for cell viability and [RNQ+] prion propagation. In contrast, weak [PSI+] variants are lost under the same conditions but maintained by the expression of an Sis1 construct that lacks only the G/F region and cannot support [RNQ+] propagation, revealing mutually exclusive requirements for Sis1 function between these two prions. Prion loss is not due to [PSI+]-dependent toxicity or dependent upon a particular yeast genetic background. These observations necessitate that Sis1 must have at least two distinct functional roles that individual prions differentially require for propagation and which are localized to the glycine-rich domains of the Sis1. Based on these distinctions, Sis1 plasmid-shuffling in a [PSI+]/[RNQ+] strain permitted J-protein-dependent prion selection for either prion. We also found that, despite an initial report to the contrary, the human homolog of Sis1, Hdj1, is capable of [PSI+] prion propagation in place of Sis1. This conservation of function is also prion-variant dependent, indicating that only one of the two Sis1-prion functions may have been maintained in eukaryotic chaperone evolution. PMID:25058638

Patel, Milan J.; Sporn, Zachary A.; Hines, Justin K.

2014-01-01

117

BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation  

PubMed Central

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of cattle and was first detected in 1986 in the United Kingdom. It is the most likely cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. The origin of BSE remains an enigma. Here we report an H-type BSE case associated with the novel mutation E211K within the prion protein gene (Prnp). Sequence analysis revealed that the animal with H-type BSE was heterozygous at Prnp nucleotides 631 through 633. An identical pathogenic mutation at the homologous codon position (E200K) in the human Prnp has been described as the most common cause of genetic CJD. This finding represents the first report of a confirmed case of BSE with a potential pathogenic mutation within the bovine Prnp gene. A recent epidemiological study revealed that the K211 allele was not detected in 6062 cattle from commercial beef processing plants and 42 cattle breeds, indicating an extremely low prevalence of the E211K variant (less than 1 in 2000) in cattle. PMID:18787697

Richt, Jürgen A.; Hall, S. Mark

2008-01-01

118

Resistance to chronic wasting disease in transgenic mice expressing a naturally occurring allelic variant of deer prion protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prion protein (PrP) is a required factor for susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion diseases. In transgenic mice, expression of prion protein (PrP) from another species often confers susceptibility to prion disease from that donor species. For example, expression of deer or elk PrP in transgenic mice has induced susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD), the prion disease of

Kimberly Meade-White; Brent Race; Matthew Trifilo; Alex Bossers; Cynthia Favara; Rachel Lacasse; Michael Miller; Elizabeth Williams; Michael Oldstone; Richard Race; Bruce Chesebro

2007-01-01

119

Prion protein: structural features and related toxicity.  

PubMed

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, is a group of infectious neurodegenerative disorders. The conformational conversion from cellular form (PrP(C)) to disease-causing isoform (PrP(Sc)) is considered to be the most important and remarkable event in these diseases, while accumulation of PrP(Sc) is thought to be the main reason for cell death, inflammation and spongiform degeneration observed in infected individuals. Although these rare but unique neurodegenerative disorders have attracted much attention, there are still many questions that remain to be answered. Knowledge of the scrapie agent structures and the toxic species may have significance for understanding the causes of the diseases, and could be helpful for rational design of novel therapeutic and diagnostic methods. In this review, we summarized the available experimental evidence concerning the relationship among the structural features, aggregation status of misfolded PrP and related neurotoxicity in the course of prion diseases development. In particular, most data supports the idea that the smaller oligomeric PrP(Sc) aggregates, rather than the mature amyloid fibers, exhibit the highest toxicity to the host. PMID:23615535

Hu, Ping Ping; Huang, Cheng Zhi

2013-06-01

120

Structural requirements for efficient prion protein conversion: cofactors may promote a conversion-competent structure for PrP(C).  

PubMed

To understand why cross-species infection of prion disease often results in inefficient transmission and reduced protein conversion, most research has focused on defining the effect of variations in PrP primary structures, including sequence compatibility of substrate and seed. By contrast, little research has been aimed at investigating structural differences between different variants of PrP(C) and secondary structural requirements for efficient conversion. This is despite a clear role for molecular chaperones in formation of prions in non-mammalian systems, indicating the importance of secondary/tertiary structure during the conversion process. Recent data from our laboratory on the cellular location of disease-specific prion cofactors supports the critical role of specific secondary structural motifs and the stability of these motifs in determining the efficiency of disease-specific prion protein conversion. In this paper we summarize our recent results and build on the hypothesis previously suggested by Wuthrich and colleagues, that stability of certain regions of the prion protein is crucial for protein conversion to abnormal isoforms in vivo. It is suggested that one role for molecular cofactors in the conversion process is to stabilize PrP(C) structure in a form that is amenable for conversion to PrP(Sc). PMID:20864807

Gill, Andrew C; Agarwal, Sonya; Pinheiro, Teresa J T; Graham, James F

2010-01-01

121

Molecular dynamics simulation of temperature induced unfolding of animal prion protein.  

PubMed

To elucidate the structural stability and the unfolding dynamics of the animal prion protein, the temperature induced structural evolution of turtle prion protein (tPrPc) and bank vole prion protein (bvPrPc) have been performed with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The unfolding behaviors of secondary structures showed that the ?-helix was more stable than ?-sheet. Extension and disruption of ?-sheet commonly appeared in the temperature induced unfolding process. The conversion of ?-helix to ?-helix occurred more readily at the elevating temperature. Furthermore, it was suggested in this work that the unfolding of prion protein could be regulated by the temperature. PMID:23925513

Chen, Xin; Duan, Danhui; Zhu, Shuyan; Zhang, Jinglai

2013-10-01

122

Fragmentation and dimerization of copper-loaded prion protein by copper-catalysed oxidation  

PubMed Central

Prion protein consists of an N-terminal domain containing a series of octapeptide repeats with the consensus sequence PHGGGWGQ and a C-terminal domain composed of three ?-helices and two short ?-strands. Several studies have shown that the N-terminal domain binds five Cu2+ ions. In the present study, we have investigated copper-catalysed oxidation of a recombinant mouse prion protein, PrP23–231. The copper-loaded PrP23–231 was found to be carbonylated by incubation with dopamine. Besides the formation of carbonyls, a cross-linked species with the dimeric size and C-terminally truncated species were generated. These reactions were retarded in the presence of Cu+- and Cu2+-specific copper chelators, catalase, and SOD (superoxide dismutase), but not in the presence of various bivalent metal ions. Together, these results indicate that the copper bound to prion protein undergoes catalytic cycling in the presence of catecholamines and causes the oxidation of the protein. PMID:15554874

Shiraishi, Noriyuki; Inai, Yoko; Bi, Wenxiang; Nishikimi, Morimitsu

2004-01-01

123

Copper and the Prion Protein: Methods, Structures, Function, and Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) arise from conversion of the membrane-bound prion protein from PrPC to PrPSc. Examples of the TSEs include mad cow disease, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk, scrapie in goats and sheep, and kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Although the precise function of PrPC in healthy tissues is not known, recent research demonstrates that it binds Cu(II) in an unusual and highly conserved region of the protein termed the octarepeat domain. This review describes recent connections between copper and PrPC, with an emphasis on the electron paramagnetic resonance elucidation of the specific copper-binding sites, insights into PrPC function, and emerging connections between copper and prion disease.

Millhauser, Glenn L.

2007-05-01

124

Transition-metal prion protein attachment: Competition with copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prion protein, PrP, is a protein capable of binding copper ions in multiple modes depending on their concentration. Misfolded PrP is implicated in a group of neurodegenerative diseases, which include ``mad cow disease'' and its human form, variant Creutzfeld-Jacob disease. An increasing amount of evidence suggests that attachment of non-copper metal ions to PrP triggers transformations to abnormal forms similar to those observed in prion diseases. In this work, we use hybrid Kohn-Sham/orbital-free density functional theory simulations to investigate copper replacement by other transition metals that bind to PrP, including zinc, iron and manganese. We consider all known copper binding modes in the N-terminal domain of PrP. Our calculations identify modes most susceptible to copper replacement and reveal metals that can successfully compete with copper for attachment to PrP.

Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

2012-02-01

125

Prion protein expression in senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prion protein (PrPC) is a glycolipid-anchored cell membrane sialoglycoprotein that localises in presynaptic membranes. Since synapses are vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease (AD), the present study examines PrPC expression in senile plaques, one of the major structural abnormalities in AD, by single- and double-labelling immunohistochemistry. Punctate PrPC immunoreactivity is found in diffuse plaques, whereas isolated large coarse PrPC-positive granules reminiscent of

I. Ferrer; R. Blanco; M. Carmona; B. Puig; R. Ribera; M. J. Rey; T. Ribalta

2001-01-01

126

Molecular Dynamics Simulations on the Oligomer-Formation Process of the GNNQQNY Peptide from Yeast Prion Protein Sup35  

E-print Network

Prion Protein Sup35 Zhuqing Zhang, Hao Chen, Hongjun Bai, and Luhua Lai Beijing National Laboratory prion-like protein Sup35 as a model system, for which a detailed atomic structure of the fibril formed

Luhua, Lai

127

A Variational Model for Oligomer-Formation Process of GNNQQNY Peptide from Yeast Prion Protein Sup35  

E-print Network

A Variational Model for Oligomer-Formation Process of GNNQQNY Peptide from Yeast Prion Protein Sup, the peptide GNNQQNY from yeast prion protein Sup35. By examining the free energy surface, we identified

Zhang, Yang

128

Prion Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern history of the prion diseases is one of novel microbes, anthropological intrigue, and food safety mishaps. The\\u000a prion diseases, also called the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that can be\\u000a sporadic, inherited, or acquired. These multiple origins are unique among human disease. The basis of all prion diseases is\\u000a the misfolding of the host prion protein

Qingzhong Kong; Richard A. Bessen

129

Characterizing affinity epitopes between prion protein and ?-amyloid using an epitope mapping immunoassay  

PubMed Central

Cellular prion protein, a membrane protein, is expressed in all mammals. Prion protein is also found in human blood as an anchorless protein, and this protein form is one of the many potential sources of misfolded prion protein replication during transmission. Many studies have suggested that ?-amyloid1–42 oligomer causes neurotoxicity associated with Alzheimer's disease, which is mediated by the prion protein that acts as a receptor and regulates the hippocampal potentiation. The prevention of the binding of these proteins has been proposed as a possible preventative treatment for Alzheimer's disease; therefore, a greater understanding of the binding hot-spots between the two molecules is necessary. In this study, the epitope mapping immunoassay was employed to characterize binding epitopes within the prion protein and complementary epitopes in ?-amyloid. Residues 23–39 and 93–119 in the prion protein were involved in binding to ?-amyloid1–40 and 1–42, and monomers of this protein interacted with prion protein residues 93–113 and 123–166. Furthermore, ?-amyloid antibodies against the C-terminus detected bound ?-amyloid1–42 at residues 23–40, 104–122 and 159–175. ?-Amyloid epitopes necessary for the interaction with prion protein were not determined. In conclusion, charged clusters and hydrophobic regions of the prion protein were involved in binding to ?-amyloid1–40 and 1–42. The 3D structure appears to be necessary for ?-amyloid to interact with prion protein. In the future, these binding sites may be utilized for 3D structure modeling, as well as for the pharmaceutical intervention of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23907583

Kang, Mino; Kim, Su Yeon; An, Seong Soo A; Ju, Young Ran

2013-01-01

130

Dissection of Conformational Conversion Events during Prion Amyloid Fibril  

E-print Network

Dissection of Conformational Conversion Events during Prion Amyloid Fibril Formation Using Hydrogen A molecular understanding of prion diseases requires an understanding of the mechanism of amyloid fibril formation by the prion protein. In particular, it is necessary to define the sequence of the structural

131

NMR structure of the bovine prion protein Francisco Lo pez Garcia, Ralph Zahn, Roland Riek, and Kurt Wu thrich*  

E-print Network

NMR structure of the bovine prion protein Francisco Lo´ pez Garci´a, Ralph Zahn, Roland Riek structures of the recombinant 217-residue polypeptide chain of the mature bovine prion protein, bPrP(23 there are characteristic local differences relative to the confor- mations of the murine and Syrian hamster prion proteins

Riek, Roland

132

The tip of the iceberg: RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains in neurodegenerative disease  

E-print Network

Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã? The tip of the iceberg: RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains of the iceberg: RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains in neurodegenerative disease, Brain Research (2012 MANUSCRIPT ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 1 The tip of the iceberg: RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains

Shorter, James

133

Sensitive detection of pathological prion protein by cyclic amplification of protein misfolding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prions are the infectious agents responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The principal component of prions is the glycoprotein PrPSc, which is a conformationally modified isoform of a normal cell-surface protein called PrPC (ref. 1). During the time between infection and the appearance of the clinical symptoms, minute amounts of PrPSc replicate by conversion of host PrPC, generating large amounts of

Gabriela P. Saborio; Bruno Permanne; Claudio Soto

2001-01-01

134

Prion-like transmission of protein aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases are commonly associated with the accumulation of intracellular or extracellular protein aggregates. Recent studies suggest that these aggregates are capable of crossing cellular membranes and can directly contribute to the propagation of neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis. We propose that, once initiated, neuropathological changes might spread in a ‘prion-like’ manner and that disease progression is associated with the intercellular transfer of pathogenic proteins. The transfer of naked infectious particles between cells could therefore be a target for new disease-modifying therapies. PMID:20308987

Brundin, Patrik; Melki, Ronald; Kopito, Ron

2010-01-01

135

Visual detection of prion protein based on color complementarity principle.  

PubMed

Two complementary colors mixed in a proper proportion will produce a neutral color in the color theory. A novel colorimetric method on basis of the color complementarity principle has been well-established to detect recombinant prion protein (rPrP). We found that a colorless solution appeared after mixing orange CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with green-blue malachite green (MG) because of color complementarity. After the addition of rPrP into the mixed solution, the color changed from colorless to green-blue because rPrP could induce the aggregation of QDs, rapidly. And it could be observed by naked eyes. Based on this phenomenon, we developed a simple assay for visual detection of rPrP. At the same time, we obtained excellent correlation between absorption and concentrations of rPrP from 1 nmol L(-1) to 78 nmol L(-1) with the limit of detection of 0.3 nmol L(-1) (3?). Moreover, it can be applied to determine rPrP in human serum successfully. Importantly, this assay possesses the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, sensitivity, and selectivity, and shows the potential in the clinical diagnostic test of early prion disease and provides the possibility of preventing the spread of prion diseases. PMID:23827372

Liang, Liping; Long, Yijuan; Zhang, Haijie; Wang, Qinlong; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Rui; Teng, Ping; Wang, Xiliang; Zheng, Huzhi

2013-12-15

136

Activation and repression of prion protein expression by key regions of intron 1.  

PubMed

Expression of the prion protein is necessary for infection with prion diseases. Altered expression levels may play an important role in susceptibility to infection. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate prion protein expression is of great importance. It was previously shown that expression of the prion protein is to some degree regulated by an alternative promoter within intron 1. Studies using GFP and luciferase reporter systems were undertaken to determine key sites for the repression and activation of expression of the prion protein driven by intron 1. We identified a region within intron 1 sufficient to drive prion protein expression. Our findings highlight two potential repressor regions. Both regions have binding sites for the known repressor Hes-1. Hes-1 overexpression caused a dramatic decrease in PrP protein expression. Additionally, we have identified Atox-1 as a transcription factor that upregulates prion protein expression. These findings clearly indicate that intron 1 plays a key role in regulation of prion protein expression levels. PMID:19756378

Wright, Josephine A; McHugh, Patrick C; Stockbridge, Mark; Lane, Samantha; Kralovicova, Silvia; Brown, David R

2009-12-01

137

A comparative analysis of rapid methods for purification and refolding of recombinant bovine prion protein  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterially-produced recombinant prion protein (rPrP) is a frequently used model system for the study of the properties of wild-type and mutant prion proteins by biochemical and biophysical approaches. A range of approaches have been developed for the purification and refolding of untagged, overexpr...

138

Identification of scrapie prion protein-specific mRNA in scrapie-infected and uninfected brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date no nucleic acid has been found in the purified infectious agent which causes the spongiform encephalopathy known as scrapie. In an attempt to identify a unique scrapie virus-associated messenger RNA in tissues of infected animals, we have synthesized an oligonucleotide probe complementary to the mRNA sequence corresponding to the amino-acid sequence of the prion protein, PrP27-30 (ref. 1).

Bruce Chesebro; Richard Race; Kathy Wehrly; Jane Nishio; Marshall Bloom; David Lechner; Sven Bergstrom; Ken Robbins; Leonard Mayer; Jerry M. Keith; Claude Garon; Ashley Haase

1985-01-01

139

Prion proteins in subpopulations of white blood cells from patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent cases of prion transmission in humans following transfusions using blood donated by patients with asymptomatic variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) implicate the presence of prion infectivity in peripheral blood. In this study, we examined the levels of the normal, cellular prion protein (PrPC), and the disease-causing isoform (PrPSc) in subpopulations of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) from patients with sporadic

Ed M Choi; Michael D Geschwind; Camille Deering; Kristen Pomeroy; Amy Kuo; Bruce L Miller; Jiri G Safar; SB Prusiner

2009-01-01

140

Distinct Stability States of Disease-Associated Human Prion Protein Identified by Conformation-Dependent Immunoassay?  

PubMed Central

The phenotypic and strain-related properties of human prion diseases are, according to the prion hypothesis, proposed to reside in the physicochemical properties of the conformationally altered, disease-associated isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc), which accumulates in the brains of patients suffering from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and related conditions, such as Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease. Molecular strain typing of human prion diseases has focused extensively on differences in the fragment size and glycosylation site occupancy of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) in conjunction with the presence of mutations and polymorphisms in the prion protein gene (PRNP). Here we report the results of employing an alternative strategy that specifically addresses the conformational stability of PrPSc and that has been used previously to characterize animal prion strains transmitted to rodents. The results show that there are at least two distinct conformation stability states in human prion diseases, neither of which appears to correlate fully with the PrPres type, as judged by fragment size or glycosylation, the PRNP codon 129 status, or the presence or absence of mutations in PRNP. These results suggest that conformational stability represents a further dimension to a complete description of potentially phenotype-related properties of PrPSc in human prion diseases. PMID:20844046

Choi, Young Pyo; Peden, Alexander H.; Gröner, Albrecht; Ironside, James W.; Head, Mark W.

2010-01-01

141

Species barrier in prion diseases: a kinetic interpretation based on the conformational adaptation of the prion protein.  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases are thought to result from the conformational change of the normal cellular prion protein to a pathogenic protease-resistant isoform. However, brain extracts not containing the protease-resistant isoform of the prion protein can be infectious following interspecies transmission. The 'protein-only' hypothesis of pathogenesis is extended to provide possible explanations which could be interpreted in terms of a different infectious agent. It is proposed that normal cellular protein (PrPC) may be transformed into a form (PrP*) that is conformationally distinct from the host-specific abnormal isoform (PrPSc). In infection from a heterologous donor, the dimeric forms of heterologous PrPSc, which may catalyse the formation of host PrP* from PrPC, host PrP* and host PrPSc are all considered to be capable of catalysing, to some extent, the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc. However, depending on the species involved, PrP* may, or may not, be pathogenic, and may, or may not, be sensitive to proteolysis. It is shown, by numerical integration of the differential rate equations derived from this model, that a strain may be stabilized after two or three passages through a different species and that transmission might occur in the absence of detectable protease-resistant prion protein. The natural transmission of scrapie to cattle is discussed in relation to the model. PMID:9729459

Kellershohn, N; Laurent, M

1998-01-01

142

Genetics of prions.  

PubMed

Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of invariably fatal, neurodegenerative diseases by an entirely novel mechanism. Prion diseases may present as genetic, infectious, or sporadic disorders, all of which involve modification of the prion protein (PrP). The human prion disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) generally presents as a progressive dementia, whereas scrapie of sheep and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are manifest as ataxic illnesses. Prions are devoid of nucleic acid and seem to be composed exclusively of a modified isoform of PrP designated PrPSc. The normal, cellular PrP designated PrPC is converted into PrPSc through a process whereby some of its alpha-helical structure is converted into beta-sheet. The species of a particular prion is encoded by the sequence of the chromosomal PrP gene of the mammals in which it last replicated. In contrast to pathogens with a nucleic acid genome, prions encipher strain-specific properties in the tertiary structure of PrPSc. Transgenetic studies argue that PrPSc acts as a template upon which PrPC is refolded into a nascent PrPSc molecule through a process facilitated by another protein. PMID:9442893

Prusiner, S B; Scott, M R

1997-01-01

143

Expression of unglycosylated mutated prion protein facilitates PrP(Sc) formation in neuroblastoma cells infected with different prion strains.  

PubMed

Prion replication involves conversion of the normal, host-encoded prion protein PrP(C), which is a sialoglycoprotein bound to the plasma membrane by a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor, into a pathogenic isoform, PrP(Sc). In earlier studies, tunicamycin prevented glycosylation of PrP(C) in scrapie-infected mouse neuroblastoma (ScN2a) cells but it was still expressed on the cell surface and converted into PrP(Sc); mutation of PrP(C) at glycosylation consensus sites (T182A, T198A) produced low steady-state levels of PrP that were insufficient to propagate prions in transgenic mice. By mutating asparagines to glutamines at the consensus sites, we obtained expression of unglycosylated, epitope-tagged MHM2PrP(N180Q,N196Q), which was converted into PrP(Sc) in ScN2a cells. Cultures of uninfected neuroblastoma (N2a) cells transiently expressing mutated PrP were exposed to brain homogenates prepared from mice infected with the RML, Me7 or 301V prion strains. In each case, mutated PrP was converted into PrP(Sc) as judged by Western blotting. These findings raise the possibility that the N2a cell line can support replication of different strains of prions. PMID:10993946

Korth, C; Kaneko, K; Prusiner, S B

2000-10-01

144

The tip of the iceberg: RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains in neurodegenerative disease  

E-print Network

Review The tip of the iceberg: RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains in neurodegenerative January 2012 Prions are self-templating protein conformers that are naturally transmitted between individ- uals and promote phenotypic change. In yeast, prion-encoded phenotypes can be beneficial, neutral

Shorter, James

145

The Residue 129 Polymorphism in Human Prion Protein Does Not Confer Susceptibility to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease by Altering the  

E-print Network

The Residue 129 Polymorphism in Human Prion Protein Does Not Confer Susceptibility to Creutzfeldt¶ From the Medical Research Council Prion Unit, Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute10 2TN, United Kingdom There are two common forms of prion protein (PrP) in humans, with either

Hosszu, Laszlo

146

Interactions between wild-type and mutant prion proteins modulate neurodegeneration in transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Transgenic mice overexpressing approximately eightfold the mouse (Mo) prion protein (PrP) gene carrying the P102L mutation of GSS developed neurodegeneration between 150 and 300 days of age, while controls expressing the wild-type MoPrP-A transgene at the same level remained healthy. Mice overexpressing the wild-type MoPrP-A transgene were highly susceptible to inoculated mouse prions, exhibiting abbreviated scrapie incubation times of 45 days. After crossing the mutant transgene onto a null (Prnp 0/0) background, the resulting Tg(MoPrP-P101L)Prnp 0/0 mice displayed a highly synchronous onset of illness at 145 days of age, which was shortened to 85 days upon breeding to homozygosity for the transgene array. Besides occasional PrP plaques and modest spongiform degeneration, Tg(MoPrP-P101L) mice suffered from a myopathy and a peripheral neuropathy. Disruption of the wild-type MoPrP gene increased the number of PrP plaques and the severity of spongiform degeneration. Brain extracts prepared from spontaneously ill transgenic mice transmitted disease to Tg196/Prnp 0/0 mice, expressing low levels of the mutant transgene. Our results demonstrate that the presence of wild-type PrP genes, the level of PrP transgene expression, and the sequence of the transgene can profoundly modify experimental prion disease. PMID:8698234

Telling, G C; Haga, T; Torchia, M; Tremblay, P; DeArmond, S J; Prusiner, S B

1996-07-15

147

Prion protein inhibits microtubule assembly by inducing tubulin oligomerization  

SciTech Connect

A growing body of evidence points to an association of prion protein (PrP) with microtubular cytoskeleton. Recently, direct binding of PrP to tubulin has also been found. In this work, using standard light scattering measurements, sedimentation experiments, and electron microscopy, we show for First time the effect of a direct interaction between these proteins on tubulin polymerization. We demonstrate that full-length recombinant PrP induces a rapid increase in the turbidity of tubulin diluted below the critical concentration for microtubule assembly. This effect requires magnesium ions and is weakened by NaCl. Moreover, the PrP-induced light scattering structures of tubulin are cold-stable. In preparations of diluted tubulin incubated with PrP, electron microscopy revealed the presence of {approx}50 nm disc-shaped structures not reported so far. These unique tubulin oligomers may form large aggregates. The effect of PrP is more pronounced under the conditions promoting microtubule formation. In these tubulin samples, PrP induces formation of the above oligomers associated with short protofilaments and sheets of protofilaments into aggregates. Noticeably, this is accompanied by a significant reduction of the number and length of microtubules. Hence, we postulate that prion protein may act as an inhibitor of microtubule assembly by inducing formation of stable tubulin oligomers.

Nieznanski, Krzysztof [Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Department of Muscle Biochemistry, Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: k.nieznanski@nencki.gov.pl; Podlubnaya, Zoya A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Laboratory of Structure and Function of Muscle Proteins, Pushchino (Russian Federation); Pushchino State University, Pushchino (Russian Federation); Nieznanska, Hanna [Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Department of Muscle Biochemistry, Warsaw (Poland)

2006-10-13

148

Physical studies of conformational plasticity in a recombinant prion protein.  

PubMed

PrP(Sc) is known to be the major, if not the only, component of the infectious prion. Limited proteolysis of PrP(Sc) produces an N-terminally truncated polypeptide of about 142 residues, designated PrP 27-30. Recently, a recombinant protein (rPrP) of 142 residues corresponding to the Syrian hamster PrP 27-30 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified (Mehlhorn et al., 1996). rPrP has been refolded into both alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures as well as various intermediates in aqueous buffers. The beta-sheet state and two pH-dependent alpha-helical states were characterized by CD and NMR. The alpha-helical conformation occurred only after the formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond, whereas the beta-sheet form was accessible either with or without the disulfide. Of the different alpha-helical forms studied, only those refolded in the pH range 5-8 were substantially soluble at physiological pH, exhibiting similar conformations and monomeric analytical sedimentation profiles throughout the above pH range. Furthermore, refolded alpha-rPrP showed NMR chemical shift dispersion typical of proteins with native conformations, although 2D NMR indicated large segments of conformational flexibility. It displayed a cooperative thermal denaturation transition; at elevated temperatures, it converted rapidly and irreversibly to the thermodynamically more stable beta-sheet form. Unfolding of alpha-rPrP by GdnHCl revealed a two-phase transition with a relatively stable folding intermediate at 2 M GdnHCl. The deltaG values were estimated to be 1.9 +/- 0.4 kcal/mol for the first phase and 6.5 +/- 1.2 kcal/mol for the second, consistent with a folding core surrounded by significant segments of flexible conformation. By NMR, alpha-rPrP(acid) isolated at pH 2 without refolding exhibited heterogeneous line widths, consistent with an acid-denatured molten globular state. We conclude that to the extent that rPrP constitutes a relevant folding domain of PrP(C), the various conformations exhibited by rPrP suggest that the PrP sequence may be intrinsically plastic in its conformations; indeed, portions of PrP(C) may possess a relatively open conformation which makes it susceptible to conversion into PrP(Sc) under appropriate conditions. PMID:9132005

Zhang, H; Stockel, J; Mehlhorn, I; Groth, D; Baldwin, M A; Prusiner, S B; James, T L; Cohen, F E

1997-03-25

149

Prion protein expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells using a glutamine synthetase selection and amplification system.  

PubMed

Syrian hamster prion protein (PrPC) and a truncated Syrian hamster prion protein lacking the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor C-terminal signal sequence (GPI-) were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells using a glutamine synthetase selection and amplification system. The CHO cell clones expressing the GPI- PrP secreted the majority of the protein into the media, whereas most of the PrP produced by clones expressing the full-length protein with the GPI anchor was located on the cell surface, as demonstrated by its release upon treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC). A cell clone that expressed the highest levels of full length PrP was subcloned to obtain clone 30C3-1. PrP from clone 30C3-1 was shown to be sensitive to proteolysis by proteinase K and to react with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies that recognize native PrPC. The recombinant PrP migrated as a diffuse band of 19-40 kDa but removal of the N-linked oligosaccharides with peptide N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) revealed three protein species of 19, 17 and 15 kDa. The 19 kDa band corresponding to deglycosylated full-length PrP was quantified and found to be expressed at a level approximately 14-fold higher than that of PrPC found in Syrian hamster brain. PMID:9543009

Blochberger, T C; Cooper, C; Peretz, D; Tatzelt, J; Griffith, O H; Baldwin, M A; Prusiner, S B

1997-12-01

150

Decrypting Prion Protein Conversion into a ?-Rich Conformer by Molecular Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the formation of ?-rich oligomers and the accumulation of amyloid fibrillar deposits in the central nervous system. Understanding the conversion of the cellular prion protein into its ?-rich polymeric conformers is fundamental to tackling the early stages of the development of prion diseases. In this paper, we have identified unfolding and refolding steps critical to the conversion into a ?-rich conformer for different constructs of the ovine prion protein by molecular dynamics simulations. By combining our results with in vitro experiments, we show that the folded C-terminus of the ovine prion protein is able to recurrently undergo a drastic conformational change by displacement of the H1 helix, uncovering of the H2H3 domain, and formation of persistent ?-sheets between H2 and H3 residues. The observed ?-sheets refold toward the C-terminus exposing what we call a “bending region” comprising residues 204–214. This is strikingly coincident with the region harboring mutations determining the fate of the prion oligomerization process. The ?-rich intermediate is used here for the construction of a putative model for the assembly into an oligomeric aggregate. The results presented here confirm the importance of the H2H3 domain for prion oligomer formation and therefore its potential use as molecular target in the design of novel prion inhibitors. PMID:23700393

2013-01-01

151

Sulforaphane-induced autophagy flux prevents prion protein-mediated neurotoxicity through AMPK pathway.  

PubMed

Prion diseases are neurodegenerative and infectious disorders that involve accumulation of misfolded scrapie prion protein, and which are characterized by spongiform degeneration. Autophagy, a major homeostatic process responsible for the degradation of cytoplasmic components, has garnered attention as the potential target for neurodegenerative diseases such as prion disease. We focused on protective effects of sulforaphane found in cruciferous vegetables on prion-mediated neurotoxicity and the mechanism of sulforaphane related to autophagy. In human neuroblastoma cells, sulforaphane protected prion protein (PrP) (106-126)-mediated neurotoxicity and increased autophagy flux marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II protein levels, following a decrease of p62 protein level. Pharmacological and genetical inhibition of autophagy by 3MA, wortmannin and knockdown of autophagy-related 5 (ATG5) led to block the effect of sulforaphane against PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore we demonstrated that both sulforaphane-induced autophagy and protective effect of sulforaphane against PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity are dependent on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. The present results indicated that sulforaphane of cruciferous vegetables enhanced autophagy flux led to the protection effects against prion-mediated neurotoxicity, which was regulated by AMPK signaling pathways in human neuron cells. Our data also suggest that sulforaphane has a potential value as a therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disease including prion diseases. PMID:25130556

Lee, J-H; Jeong, J-K; Park, S-Y

2014-10-10

152

CRISPR-Cas9-Based Knockout of the Prion Protein and Its Effect on the Proteome  

PubMed Central

The molecular function of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) and the mechanism by which it may contribute to neurotoxicity in prion diseases and Alzheimer's disease are only partially understood. Mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells and, more recently, C2C12 myocytes and myotubes have emerged as popular models for investigating the cellular biology of PrP. Mouse epithelial NMuMG cells might become attractive models for studying the possible involvement of PrP in a morphogenetic program underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions. Here we describe the generation of PrP knockout clones from these cell lines using CRISPR-Cas9 knockout technology. More specifically, knockout clones were generated with two separate guide RNAs targeting recognition sites on opposite strands within the first hundred nucleotides of the Prnp coding sequence. Several PrP knockout clones were isolated and genomic insertions and deletions near the CRISPR-target sites were characterized. Subsequently, deep quantitative global proteome analyses that recorded the relative abundance of>3000 proteins (data deposited to ProteomeXchange Consortium) were undertaken to begin to characterize the molecular consequences of PrP deficiency. The levels of ?120 proteins were shown to reproducibly correlate with the presence or absence of PrP, with most of these proteins belonging to extracellular components, cell junctions or the cytoskeleton. PMID:25490046

Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; MacIsaac, Sarah; Kim, Jin Kyu; Gunawardana, C . Geeth; Wang, Hansen; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

2014-01-01

153

An N-terminal Polybasic Domain and Cell Surface Localization Are Required for Mutant Prion Protein Toxicity*S  

E-print Network

An N-terminal Polybasic Domain and Cell Surface Localization Are Required for Mutant Prion Protein that alterations in the normal physiological activity of PrPC contribute to prion-induced neurotoxicityPSc . Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopa- thies comprise a group of fatal

Huettner, James E.

154

Prions in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The concept of a prion as an infectious self-propagating protein isoform was initially proposed to explain certain mammalian diseases. It is now clear that yeast also has heritable elements transmitted via protein. Indeed, the “protein only” model of prion transmission was first proven using a yeast prion. Typically, known prions are ordered cross-? aggregates (amyloids). Recently, there has been an explosion in the number of recognized prions in yeast. Yeast continues to lead the way in understanding cellular control of prion propagation, prion structure, mechanisms of de novo prion formation, specificity of prion transmission, and the biological roles of prions. This review summarizes what has been learned from yeast prions. PMID:22879407

Liebman, Susan W.; Chernoff, Yury O.

2012-01-01

155

NMR structure of the mouse prion protein domain PrP(121-231)  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE 'protein only' hypothesis1 states that a modified form of normal prion protein triggers infectious neurodegenerative diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans2-4. Prion proteins are thought to exist in two different conformations5: the 'benign' PrPC form, and the infectious 'scrapie form', PrPSc. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of PrPC is essential for understanding

Roland Riek; Simone Hornemann; Gerhard Wider; Martin Billeter; Rudi Glockshuber; Kurt Wüthrich

1996-01-01

156

Prion protein insertional mutations increase aggregation propensity but not fiber stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Mutations in the PRNPgene account for ~15% of all prion disease cases. Little is understood about the mechanism of how some of these mutations\\u000a in PRNPcause the protein to aggregate into amyloid fibers or cause disease. We have taken advantage of a chimeric protein system\\u000a to study the oligopeptide repeat domain (ORD) expansions of the prion protein, PrP, and their

Tejas Kalastavadi; Heather L True

2008-01-01

157

A sequencing strategy for identifying variation throughout the prion gene of BSE-affected cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cattle prion gene (PRNP) polymorphisms have been associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility. We developed a method for sequencing bovine PRNP through all exons, introns and part of the promoter (25.2 kb) that accounts for known variation. The method can be used to detect...

158

Definable Equilibrium States in the Folding of Human Prion Protein Laszlo L. P. Hosszu,*,, Mark A. Wells,, Graham S. Jackson, Samantha Jones, Mark Batchelor,  

E-print Network

Definable Equilibrium States in the Folding of Human Prion Protein Laszlo L. P. Hosszu,*,,§ Mark A,§ Jonathan P. Waltho,§ and John Collinge MRC Prion Unit and National Prion Clinic, Institute of Neurology: The role of conformational intermediates in the conversion of prion protein from its normal cellular form

Hosszu, Laszlo

159

Amyloid fibrils of human prion protein are spun and woven from morphologically disordered aggregates  

PubMed Central

Propagation and infectivity of prions in human prionopathies are likely associated with conversion of the mainly a-helical human prion protein, HuPrP, into an aggregated form with amyloid-like properties. Previous reports on efficient conversion of recombinant HuPrP have used mild to harsh denaturing conditions to generate amyloid fibrils in vitro. Herein we report on the in vitro conversion of four forms of truncated HuPrP (sequences 90–231 and 121–231 with and without an N-terminal hexa histidine tag) into amyloid-like fibrils within a few hours by using a protocol (phosphate buffered saline solutions at neutral pH with intense agitation) close to physiological conditions. The conversion process monitored by thioflavin T, ThT, revealed a three stage process with lag, growth and equilibrium phases. Seeding with preformed fibrils shortened the lag phase demonstrating the classic nucleated polymerization mechanism for the reaction. Interestingly, comparing thioflavin T kinetics with solubility and turbidity kinetics it was found that the protein initially formed non- thioflavionophilic, morphologically disordered aggregates that over time matured into amyloid fibrils. By transmission electron microscopy and by fluorescence microscopy of aggregates stained with luminescent conjugated polythiophenes (LCPs); we demonstrated that HuPrP undergoes a conformational conversion where spun and woven fibrils protruded from morphologically disordered aggregates. The initial aggregation functioned as a kinetic trap that decelerated nucleation into a fibrillation competent nucleus, but at the same time without aggregation there was no onset of amyloid fibril formation. The agitation, which was necessary for fibril formation to be induced, transiently exposes the protein to the air-water interface suggests a hitherto largely unexplored denaturing environment for prion conversion. PMID:19923901

Almstedt, Karin; Nyström, Sofie; Peter, K; Nilsson, R

2009-01-01

160

PrionScan: an online database of predicted prion domains in complete proteomes  

PubMed Central

Background Prions are a particular type of amyloids related to a large variety of important processes in cells, but also responsible for serious diseases in mammals and humans. The number of experimentally characterized prions is still low and corresponds to a handful of examples in microorganisms and mammals. Prion aggregation is mediated by specific protein domains with a remarkable compositional bias towards glutamine/asparagine and against charged residues and prolines. These compositional features have been used to predict new prion proteins in the genomes of different organisms. Despite these efforts, there are only a few available data sources containing prion predictions at a genomic scale. Description Here we present PrionScan, a new database of predicted prion-like domains in complete proteomes. We have previously developed a predictive methodology to identify and score prionogenic stretches in protein sequences. In the present work, we exploit this approach to scan all the protein sequences in public databases and compile a repository containing relevant information of proteins bearing prion-like domains. The database is updated regularly alongside UniprotKB and in its present version contains approximately 28000 predictions in proteins from different functional categories in more than 3200 organisms from all the taxonomic subdivisions. PrionScan can be used in two different ways: database query and analysis of protein sequences submitted by the users. In the first mode, simple queries allow to retrieve a detailed description of the properties of a defined protein. Queries can also be combined to generate more complex and specific searching patterns. In the second mode, users can submit and analyze their own sequences. Conclusions It is expected that this database would provide relevant insights on prion functions and regulation from a genome-wide perspective, allowing researches performing cross-species prion biology studies. Our database might also be useful for guiding experimentalists in the identification of new candidates for further experimental characterization. PMID:24498877

2014-01-01

161

Context-dependent perturbation of neural systems in transgenic mice expressing a cytosolic prion protein  

E-print Network

We analyzed the relationship between pathogenic protein expression and perturbations to brain anatomy and physiology in a genetic model of prion disease. In this model, the mouse line 1D4, neuropathology is promoted by ...

Lindquist, Susan

162

Conversion of a yeast prion protein to an infectious form in bacteria  

E-print Network

Prions are infectious, self-propagating protein aggregates that have been identified in evolutionarily divergent members of the eukaryotic domain of life. Nevertheless, it is not yet known whether prokaryotes can support ...

Lindquist, Susan

163

Functional implications of multistage copper binding to the prion protein  

PubMed Central

The prion protein (PrP) is responsible for a group of neurodegenerative diseases called the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The normal function of PrP has not yet been discovered, but indirect evidence suggests a linkage to its ability to bind copper. In this article, low-copper-concentration bindings of Cu2+ to PrP are investigated by using a recently developed hybrid density functional theory (DFT)/DFT method. It is found that at the lowest copper concentrations, the binding site consists of 4 histidine residues coordinating the copper through ? imidazole nitrogens. At higher concentrations, 2 histidines are involved in the binding, one of them in the axial position. These results are in good agreement with existing experimental data. Comparison of free energies for all modes of coordination shows that when enough copper is available, the binding sites will spontaneously rearrange to accommodate more copper ions, despite the fact that binding energy per copper ion decreases with concentration. These findings support the hypothesis that PrP acts as a copper buffer in vivo, protecting other proteins from the attachment of copper ions. Using large-scale classical molecular dynamics, we also probe the structure of full-length copper-bound PrP, including its unfolded N-terminal domain. The results show that copper attachment leads to rearrangement of the structure of the Cu-bonded octarepeat region and to development of turns in areas separating copper-bound residues. These turns make the flexible N-terminal domain more rigid and thus more resistant to misfolding. The last result suggests that copper binding plays a beneficial role in the initial stages of prion diseases. PMID:19561303

Hodak, Miroslav; Chisnell, Robin; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, J.

2009-01-01

164

Prion Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prion Links, provided by Eiso AB of the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Groningen (Netherlands), contains 39 diverse links related to prion diseases and research. Although prion research has been going on for over 25 years, the scientific and medical communities have only recently acknowledged the existence of prions and there remains serious debate over their role in a variety of neurological diseases. The name "prion" is derived from "proteinaceous infectious particles," and was coined by Dr. Stanley Prusiner, who discovered the agents and who recently received the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work. Prions are thought to be the first transmissible and heritable disease-causing agents that lack DNA and RNA. They are composed solely of protein and appear to be the cause of such diseases as kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, and bovine spongiform encephalopathies, mad cow disease, and scrapie in sheep and goats.

Ab, Eiso.

1996-01-01

165

Prion Protein-Specific Antibodies-Development, Modes of Action and Therapeutics Application  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases or Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) are lethal neurodegenerative disorders involving the misfolding of the host encoded cellular prion protein, PrPC. This physiological form of the protein is expressed throughout the body, and it reaches the highest levels in the central nervous system where the pathology occurs. The conversion into the pathogenic isoform denoted as prion or PrPSc is the key event in prion disorders. Prominent candidates for the treatment of prion diseases are antibodies and their derivatives. Anti-PrPC antibodies are able to clear PrPSc from cell culture of infected cells. Furthermore, application of anti-PrPC antibodies suppresses prion replication in experimental animal models. Major drawbacks of immunotherapy are immune tolerance, the risks of neurotoxic side effects, limited ability of compounds to cross the blood-brain barrier and their unfavorable pharmacokinetic. The focus of this review is to recapitulate the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms for antibody mediated anti-prion activity. Although relevant for designing immunotherapeutic tools, the characterization of key antibody parameters shaping the molecular mechanism of the PrPC to PrPSc conversion remains elusive. Moreover, this review illustrates the various attempts towards the development of anti-PrP antibody compounds and discusses therapeutic candidates that modulate PrP expression. PMID:25275428

Rovis, Tihana Lenac; Legname, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

166

POLYMORPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF THE PRION PROTEIN (PRNP) GENE IN SCRAPIE-INFECTED SHEEP FLOCKS IN WHICH EMBRYO TRANSFER WAS USED TO CIRCUMVENT THE TRANSMISSIONS OF SCRAPIE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genetic sequence of the ovine prion protein (PrP) gene between codons 102 and 175, with emphasis on ovine PrP gene codons 136 and 171, was determined in scrapie-exposed Suffolk embryo donors and in offspring from those donors that had been transferred to scrapie-free recipient ewes. The most com...

167

Chimeric elk/mouse prion proteins in transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk is a highly communicable neurodegenerative disorder caused by prions. Investigations of CWD are hampered by slow bioassays in transgenic (Tg) mice. Towards the development of Tg mice that will be more susceptible to CWD prions, we created a series of chimeric elk/mouse transgenes that encode the N terminus of elk PrP (ElkPrP) up to residue Y168 and the C terminus of mouse PrP (MoPrP) beyond residue 169 (mouse numbering), designated Elk3M(SNIVVK). Between codons 169 and 219, six residues distinguish ElkPrP from MoPrP: N169S, T173N, V183I, I202V, I214V and R219K. Using chimeric elk/mouse PrP constructs, we generated 12 Tg mouse lines and determined incubation times after intracerebral inoculation with the mouse-passaged RML scrapie or Elk1P CWD prions. Unexpectedly, one Tg mouse line expressing Elk3M(SNIVVK) exhibited incubation times of <70 days when inoculated with RML prions; a second line had incubation times of <90 days. In contrast, mice expressing full-length ElkPrP had incubation periods of >250 days for RML prions. Tg(Elk3M,SNIVVK) mice were less susceptible to CWD prions than Tg(ElkPrP) mice. Changing three C-terminal mouse residues (202, 214 and 219) to those of elk doubled the incubation time for mouse RML prions and rendered the mice resistant to Elk1P CWD prions. Mutating an additional two residues from mouse to elk at codons 169 and 173 increased the incubation times for mouse prions to >300 days, but made the mice susceptible to CWD prions. Our findings highlight the role of C-terminal residues in PrP that control the susceptibility and replication of prions. PMID:23100369

Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Johnson, Natrina L.; DeArmond, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

168

Comparative Analysis of the Human and Chicken Prion Protein Copper Binding Regions at pH 6.5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experimental evidence supports the hypothe- sis that prion proteins (PrPs) are involved in the Cu(II) metabolism. Moreover, the copper binding region has been implicated in transmissible spongiform encepha- lopathies, which are caused by the infectious isoform of prion proteins (PrPSc). In contrast to mammalian PrP, avian prion proteins have a considerably different N- terminal copper binding region and, most

Lars Redecke; Wolfram Meyer-Klaucke; Mirjam Koker; Joachim Clos; Dessislava Georgieva; Nicolay Genov; Hartmut Echner; Hubert Kalbacher; Markus Perbandt; Reinhard Bredehorst; Wolfgang Voelter; Christian Betzel

2005-01-01

169

Synthesis and trafficking of prion proteins in cultured cells.  

PubMed Central

Scrapie prions are composed largely, if not entirely, of the scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) that is encoded by a chromosomal gene. Scrapie-infected mouse neuroblastoma (ScN2a) and hamster brain (ScHaB) cells synthesize PrPSc from the normal PrP isoform (PrPC) or a precursor through a posttranslational process. In pulse-chase radiolabeling experiments, we found that presence of brefeldin A (BFA) during both the pulse and the chase periods prevented the synthesis of PrPSc. Removal of BFA after the chase permitted synthesis of PrPSc to resume. BFA also blocked the export of nascent PrPC to the cell surface but did not alter the distribution of intracellular deposits of PrPSc. Under the same conditions, BFA caused the redistribution of the Golgi marker MG160 into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Using monensin as an inhibitor of mid-Golgi glycosylation, we determined that PrP traverses the mid-Golgi stack before acquiring protease resistance. About 1 h after the formation of PrPSc, its N-terminus was removed by a proteolytic process that was inhibited by ammonium chloride, chloroquine, and monensin, arguing that this is a lysosomal event. These results suggest that the ER is not competent for the synthesis of PrPSc and that the synthesis of PrPSc occurs during the transit of PrP between the mid-Golgi stack and lysosomes. Presumably, the endocytic pathway features in the synthesis of PrPSc. Images PMID:1356522

Taraboulos, A; Raeber, A J; Borchelt, D R; Serban, D; Prusiner, S B

1992-01-01

170

Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Structural Stability of Wild-type HORSE PRION PROTEIN  

E-print Network

Prion diseases {\\it (e.g. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), variant CJD (vCJD), Gerstmann-Str$\\ddot{\\text{a}}$ussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI) and Kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or `mad-cow' disease) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cattles)} are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals. However, by now there have not been some effective therapeutic approaches or medications to treat all these prion diseases. Rabbits, dogs, and horses are the only mammalian species reported to be resistant to infection from prion diseases isolated from other species. Recently, the $\\beta$2--$\\alpha$2 loop has been reported to contribute to their protein structural stabilities. The author has found that rabbit prion protein has a strong salt bridge ASP177-ARG163 (like a taut bow string) keeping this loop linked. This paper confirms that this salt bridge also contributes to the structural stability of ...

Zhang, Jiapu

2011-01-01

171

Human tonsil-derived follicular dendritic-like cells are refractory to human prion infection in vitro and traffic disease-associated prion protein to lysosomes.  

PubMed

The molecular mechanisms involved in human cellular susceptibility to prion infection remain poorly defined. This is due, in part, to the absence of any well characterized and relevant cultured human cells susceptible to infection with human prions, such as those involved in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, prion replication is thought to occur first in the lymphoreticular system and then spread into the brain. We have, therefore, examined the susceptibility of a human tonsil-derived follicular dendritic cell-like cell line (HK) to prion infection. HK cells were found to display a readily detectable, time-dependent increase in cell-associated abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE)) when exposed to medium spiked with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease brain homogenate, resulting in a coarse granular perinuclear PrP(TSE) staining pattern. Despite their high level of cellular prion protein expression, HK cells failed to support infection, as judged by longer term maintenance of PrP(TSE) accumulation. Colocalization studies revealed that exposure of HK cells to brain homogenate resulted in increased numbers of detectable lysosomes and that these structures immunostained intensely for PrP(TSE) after exposure to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease brain homogenate. Our data suggest that human follicular dendritic-like cells and perhaps other human cell types are able to avoid prion infection by efficient lysosomal degradation of PrP(TSE). PMID:24183781

Krejciova, Zuzana; De Sousa, Paul; Manson, Jean; Ironside, James W; Head, Mark W

2014-01-01

172

Altered circadian activity rhythms and sleep in mice devoid of prion protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE is a wealth of data supporting a central role for the prion protein (PrP) in the neurodegenerative prion diseases of both humans and other species1, yet the normal function of PrP, which is expressed at the cell surface of neurons and glial cells2,3, is unknown. It has been speculated that neuropathology may be due to loss of normal function

I. Tobler; S. E. Gaus; T. Deboer; P. Achermann; M. Fischer; T. Rülicke; M. Moser; B. Oesch; P. A. McBride; J. C. Manson

1996-01-01

173

Following the aggregation of human prion protein on Au(111) surface in real-time.  

PubMed

Aggregations of human prion protein (23-231) were monitored by atomic force microscopy in real-time under pH 4. Prion dimers and trimers were determined as the basic units by AFM images and simulated structures. Aggregates aligned with the herringbone structures of an Au(111) reconstructed surface via Au-S bonds as the first layer, while the second layer was formed by non-covalent interactions. PMID:25535923

Wang, Bin; Guo, Cunlan; Lou, Zhichao; Xu, Bingqian

2015-02-01

174

N-terminal peptides from unprocessed prion proteins enter cells by macropinocytosis  

SciTech Connect

A peptide derived from the N-terminus of the unprocessed bovine prion protein (bPrPp), incorporating the hydrophobic signal sequence (residues 1-24) and a basic domain (KKRPKP, residues 25-30), internalizes into mammalian cells, even when coupled to a sizeable cargo, and therefore functions as a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP). Confocal microscopy and co-localization studies indicate that the internalization of bPrPp is mainly through macropinocytosis, a fluid-phase endocytosis process, initiated by binding to cell-surface proteoglycans. Electron microscopy studies show internalized bPrPp-DNA-gold complexes residing in endosomal vesicles. bPrPp induces expression of a complexed luciferase-encoding DNA plasmid, demonstrating the peptide's ability to transport the cargo across the endosomal membrane and into the cytosol and nucleus. The novel CPP activity of the unprocessed N-terminal domain of PrP could be important for the retrotranslocation of partly processed PrP and for PrP trafficking inside or between cells, with implications for the infectivity associated with prion diseases.

Magzoub, Mazin [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University (Sweden); Sandgren, Staffan [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section for Oncology, Lund University (Sweden); Lundberg, Pontus [Department of Neurochemistry, Stockholm University (Sweden); Oglecka, Kamila [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University (Sweden); Lilja, Johanna [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section for Oncology, Lund University (Sweden); Wittrup, Anders [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section for Oncology, Lund University (Sweden); Goeran Eriksson, L.E. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University (Sweden); Langel, Ulo [Department of Neurochemistry, Stockholm University (Sweden); Belting, Mattias [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section for Oncology, Lund University (Sweden)]. E-mail: mattias.belting@med.lu.se; Graeslund, Astrid [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University (Sweden)]. E-mail: astrid@dbb.su.se

2006-09-22

175

Copper attachment to a non-octarepeat site in prion protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prion protein, PrP, plays a causative role in several neurodegenerative diseases, including mad cow disease in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The PrP is known to efficiently bind copper ions and this ability has been linked to its function. PrP contains up to six binding sites, four of which are located in the so-called octarepeat region and are now well known. The binding sites outside this region are still largely undetermined, despite evidence of their relevance to prion diseases. Using a hybrid DFT/DFT, which combines Kohn-Sham DFT with orbital-free DFT to achieve accurate and efficient description of solvent effects in ab initio calculations, we have investigated copper attachment to the sequence GGGTH, which represents the copper binding site located at His96. We have considered both NNNN and NNNO types of copper coordination, as suggested by experiments. Our calculations have determined the geometry of copper attachment site and its energetics. Comparison to the already known binding sites provides insight into the process of copper uptake in PrP.

Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

2010-03-01

176

Origins and evolution of the HET-s prion-forming protein: searching for other amyloid-forming solenoids.  

PubMed

The HET-s prion-forming domain from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina is gaining considerable interest since it yielded the first well-defined atomic structure of a functional amyloid fibril. This structure has been identified as a left-handed beta solenoid with a triangular hydrophobic core. To delineate the origins of the HET-s prion-forming protein and to discover other amyloid-forming proteins, we searched for all homologs of the HET-s protein in a database of protein domains and fungal genomes, using a combined application of HMM, psi-blast and pGenThreader techniques, and performed a comparative evolutionary analysis of the N-terminal alpha-helical domain and the C-terminal prion-forming domain of HET-s. By assessing the tandem evolution of both domains, we observed that the prion-forming domain is restricted to Sordariomycetes, with a marginal additional sequence homolog in Arthroderma otae as a likely case of horizontal transfer. This suggests innovation and rapid evolution of the solenoid fold in the Sordariomycetes clade. In contrast, the N-terminal domain evolves at a slower rate (in Sordariomycetes) and spans many diverse clades of fungi. We performed a full three-dimensional protein threading analysis on all identified HET-s homologs against the HET-s solenoid fold, and present detailed structural annotations for identified structural homologs to the prion-forming domain. An analysis of the physicochemical characteristics in our set of structural models indicates that the HET-s solenoid shape can be readily adopted in these homologs, but that they are all less optimized for fibril formation than the P. anserina HET-s sequence itself, due chiefly to the presence of fewer asparagine ladders and salt bridges. Our combined structural and evolutionary analysis suggests that the HET-s shape has "limited scope" for amyloidosis across the wider protein universe, compared to the 'generic' left-handed beta helix. We discuss the implications of our findings on future identification of amyloid-forming proteins sharing the solenoid fold. PMID:22096554

Gendoo, Deena M A; Harrison, Paul M

2011-01-01

177

DIFFERENTIAL ROLE OF PRION PROTEIN IN OXIDATIVE STRESS- AND ER STRESS-INDUCED APOPTOTIC SIGNALING IN NEURAL CELLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although prion protein is abundantly expressed in the CNS, its biological function has not yet been established. To determine the role of prion protein in oxidative stress and protein processing, we compared the effects of H2O2 and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducers brefeldin A and tuni...

178

Combined copper/zinc attachment to prion protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Misfolding of prion protein (PrP) is responsible for diseases such as ``mad-cow disease'' in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jacob in humans. Extensive experimental investigation has established that this protein strongly interacts with copper ions, and this ability has been linked to its still unknown function. Attachment of other metal ions (zinc, iron, manganese) have been demonstrated as well, but none of them could outcompete copper. Recent finding, however, indicates that at intermediate concentrations both copper and zinc ions can attach to the PrP at the octarepeat region, which contains high affinity metal binding sites. Based on this evidence, we have performed density functional theory simulations to investigate the combined Cu/Zn attachment. We consider all previously reported binding modes of copper at the octarepeat region and examine a possibility simultaneous Cu/Zn attachment. We find that this can indeed occur for only one of the known binding sites, when copper changes its coordination mode to allow for attachment of zinc ion. The implications of the simultaneous attachment on neural function remain to be explored.

Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

2013-03-01

179

NMR characterization of the full-length recombinant murine prion protein, mPrP(23–231)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recombinant murine prion protein, mPrP(23–231), was expressed in E. coli with uniform 15N-labeling. NMR experiments showed that the previously determined globular three-dimensional structure of the C-terminal domain mPrP(121–231) is preserved in the intact protein, and that the N-terminal polypeptide segment 23–120 is flexibly disordered. This structural information is based on nearly complete sequence-specific assignments for the backbone amide nitrogens,

Roland Riek; Simone Hornemann; Gerhard Wider; Rudi Glockshuber; Kurt Wüthrich

1997-01-01

180

Sensitive electrical detection of human prion proteins using field effect transistor biosensor with dual-ligand binding amplification.  

PubMed

Simple and accurate detection of prion proteins in biological samples is of utmost importance in recent years. In this study, we developed a label-free electrical detection-based field effect transistor (FET) biosensor using thiamine as a probe molecule for a non-invasive and specific test of human prion protein detection. We found that thiamine-immobilized FETs can be used to observe the prion protein oligomer, and might be a significant test for the early diagnosis of prion-related diseases. The thiamine-immobilized FET was also demonstrated for the detection of prion proteins in blood serum without any complex pre-treatments. Furthermore, we designed a dual-ligand binding approach by the addition of metal ions as a second ligand to bind with the adsorbed prion protein on the thiamine-immobilized surface. When the prion attached to metal ions, the additional positive charge was induced on the gate surface of the FET. This approach was capable of amplifying the magnitude of the FET response and of enhancing the sensitivity of the FET biosensor. Detection of prion proteins has achieved the required concentration for clinical diagnosis in blood serum, which is less than 2nM. In summary, this FET biosensor was successfully applied to prion detection and proved useful as a simple, fast, sensitive and low-cost method towards a mass-scale and routine blood screening-based test. PMID:25175745

Wustoni, Shofarul; Hideshima, Sho; Kuroiwa, Shigeki; Nakanishi, Takuya; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Mori, Yasuro; Osaka, Tetsuya

2015-05-15

181

Prion protein selectively binds copper(II) ions.  

PubMed

The infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) is derived from cellular PrP (PrPC) in a conversion reaction involving a dramatic reorganization of secondary and tertiary structure. While our understanding of the pathogenic role of PrPSc has grown, the normal physiologic function of PrPC still remains unclear. Using recombinant Syrian hamster prion protein [SHaPrP(29-231)], we investigated metal ions as possible ligands of PrP. Near-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) indicates that the conformation of SHaPrP(29-231) resembles PrPC purified from hamster brain. Here we demonstrate by CD and tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence spectroscopy that copper induces changes to the tertiary structure of SHaPrP(29-231). Binding of copper quenches the Trp fluorescence emission significantly, shifts the emission spectrum to shorter wavelengths, and also induces changes in the near-UV CD spectrum of SHaPrP(29-231). The binding sites are highly specific for Cu2+, as indicated by the lack of a change in Trp fluorescence emission with Ca2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. Binding of Cu2+ also promotes the conformational shift from a predominantly alpha-helical to a beta-sheet structure. Equilibrium dialysis experiments indicate a binding stoichiometry of approximately 2 copper molecules per PrP molecule at physiologically relevant concentrations, and pH titration of Cu2+ binding suggests a role for histidine as a chelating ligand. NMR spectroscopy has recently demonstrated that the octarepeats (PHGGGWGQ) in SHaPrP(29-231) lack secondary or tertiary structure in the absence of Cu2+. Our results suggest that each Cu2+ binds to a structure defined by two octarepeats (PHGGGWGQ) with one histidine and perhaps one glycine carbonyl chelating the ion. We propose that the binding of two copper ions to four octarepeats induces a more defined structure to this region. PMID:9585530

Stöckel, J; Safar, J; Wallace, A C; Cohen, F E; Prusiner, S B

1998-05-19

182

Normal Cellular Prion Protein Protects against Manganese-induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptotic Cell Death  

PubMed Central

The normal prion protein is abundantly expressed in the CNS, but its biological function remains unclear. The prion protein has octapeptide repeat regions that bind to several divalent metals, suggesting that the prion proteins may alter the toxic effect of environmental neurotoxic metals. In the present study, we systematically examined whether prion protein modifies the neurotoxicity of manganese (Mn) by comparing the effect of Mn on mouse neural cells expressing prion protein (PrPC -cells) and prion-knockout (PrPKO -cells). Exposure to Mn (10 ?M-1 mM) for 24 hr produced a dose-dependent cytotoxic response in both PrPC -cells and PrPKO -cells. Interestingly, PrPC -cells (EC50 117.6?M) were more resistant to Mn-induced cytotoxicity, as compared to PrPKO -cells (EC50 59.9?M), suggesting a protective role for PrPC against Mn neurotoxicity. Analysis of intracellular Mn levels showed less Mn accumulation in PrPC -cells as compared to PrPKO -cells. Furthermore, Mn-induced mitochondrial depolarization and ROS generation were significantly attenuated in PrPC -cells as compared to PrPKO -cells. Measurement of antioxidant status revealed similar basal levels of glutathione (GSH) in PrPC -cells and PrPKO -cells; however, Mn treatment caused greater depletion of GSH in PrPKO -cells. Mn-induced mitochondrial depolarization and ROS production were followed by time- and dose-dependent activation of the apoptotic cell death cascade involving caspase-9 and -3. Notably, DNA fragmentation induced by both Mn treatment and oxidative stress-inducer hydrogen peroxide (100?M) was significantly suppressed in PrPC -cells as compared to PrPKO -cells. Together, these results demonstrate that prion protein interferes with divalent metal Mn uptake and protects against Mn-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death. PMID:17483122

Choi, Christopher J.; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Saetveit, Nathan J.; Houk, Robert. S.; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

2012-01-01

183

Prion Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prion Diseases is one of a set of lecture notes for Virology 335 by Shaun Heaphy of Leicester University (UK). It contains detailed information on its topic, along with selected links. Although prion research has been going on for over 25 years, the scientific and medical communities have only recently acknowledged the existence of prions and there remains serious debate over their role in a variety of neurological diseases. The name "prion" is derived from "proteinaceous infectious particles," and was coined by Dr. Stanley Prusiner, who discovered the agents and who recently received the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work. Prions are thought to be the first transmissible and heritable disease-causing agents that lack DNA and RNA. They are composed solely of protein and appear to be the cause of such diseases as kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, and bovine spongiform encephalopathies, mad cow disease, and scrapie in sheep and goats.

Heaphy, Shaun.

1997-01-01

184

CRYPTIC PEPTIDES OF THE KRINGLE DOMAINS PREFERENTIALLY BIND TO DISEASE-ASSOCIATED PRION PROTEIN  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of a misfolded form (PrPSc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the brains of affected individuals. The conversion of PrPC to PrPSc is thought to involve a change in protein conformation from a normal, primarily ?-helical structure into a ?-sheet conformer. Few proteins have been identified that differentially interact with the two forms of PrP. It has been reported that plasminogen binds to PrPSc from a variety of prion phenotypes. We have examined potential motifs within the kringle region that may be responsible for binding to PrP. We synthesized 12–15-mer peptides that contain small, repetitive stretches of amino acid residues found within the kringle domains of plasminogen. These synthetic peptides were found to capture PrPSc from the brain homogenates of bovine spongiform encephalopathy affected cattle, chronic wasting disease affected elk, experimental scrapie of hamsters and that of subjects affected by Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, without binding to PrPC in unaffected controls. Therefore, we have identified critical peptide motifs that may be important for protein-protein interactions in prion disease pathogenesis. The ability of these synthetic peptides to bind preferentially to PrPSc suggests a potential application in the diagnosis of prion diseases. PMID:19221431

Hatcher, Kristen; Zheng, Jian; Chen, Shu G.

2009-01-01

185

Self-assembly of recombinant prion protein of 106 residues.  

PubMed

The central event in the pathogenesis of prion diseases is a profound conformational change of the prion protein (PrP) from an alpha-helical (PrP(C)) to a beta-sheet-rich isoform (PrP(Sc)). The elucidation of the mechanism of conformational transition has been complicated by the challenge of collecting high-resolution biophysical data on the relatively insoluble aggregation-prone PrP(Sc) isoform. In an attempt to facilitate the structural analysis of PrP(Sc), a redacted chimeric mouse-hamster PrP of 106 amino acids (MHM2 PrP106) with two deletions (Delta23-88 and Delta141-176) was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. PrP106 retains the ability to support PrP(Sc) formation in transgenic mice, implying that it contains all regions of PrP that are necessary for the conformational transition into the pathogenic isoform [Supattapone, S., et al. (1999) Cell 96, 869-878]. Unstructured at low concentrations, recombinant unglycosylated PrP106 (rPrP106) undergoes a concentration-dependent conformational transition to a beta-sheet-rich form. Following the conformational transition, rPrP106 possesses properties similar to those of PrP(Sc)106, such as high beta-sheet content, defined tertiary structure, resistance to limited digestion by proteinase K, and high thermodynamic stability. In GdnHCl-induced denaturation studies, a single cooperative conformational transition between the unstructured monomer and the assembled beta-oligomer was observed. After proteinase K digestion, the oligomers retain an intact core with unusually high beta-sheet content (>80%). Using mass spectrometry, we discovered that the region of residues 134-215 of rPrP106 is protected from proteinase K digestion and possesses a solvent-independent propensity to adopt a beta-sheet-rich conformation. In contrast to the PrP(Sc)106 purified from the brains of neurologically impaired animals, multimeric beta-rPrP106 remains soluble, providing opportunities for detailed structural studies. PMID:10704232

Baskakov, I V; Aagaard, C; Mehlhorn, I; Wille, H; Groth, D; Baldwin, M A; Prusiner, S B; Cohen, F E

2000-03-14

186

Regulation of Embryonic Cell Adhesion by the Prion Protein  

PubMed Central

Prion proteins (PrPs) are key players in fatal neurodegenerative disorders, yet their physiological functions remain unclear, as PrP knockout mice develop rather normally. We report a strong PrP loss-of-function phenotype in zebrafish embryos, characterized by the loss of embryonic cell adhesion and arrested gastrulation. Zebrafish and mouse PrP mRNAs can partially rescue this knockdown phenotype, indicating conserved PrP functions. Using zebrafish, mouse, and Drosophila cells, we show that PrP: (1) mediates Ca+2-independent homophilic cell adhesion and signaling; and (2) modulates Ca+2-dependent cell adhesion by regulating the delivery of E-cadherin to the plasma membrane. In vivo time-lapse analyses reveal that the arrested gastrulation in PrP knockdown embryos is due to deficient morphogenetic cell movements, which rely on E-cadherin–based adhesion. Cell-transplantation experiments indicate that the regulation of embryonic cell adhesion by PrP is cell-autonomous. Moreover, we find that the local accumulation of PrP at cell contact sites is concomitant with the activation of Src-related kinases, the recruitment of reggie/flotillin microdomains, and the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, consistent with a role of PrP in the modulation of cell adhesion via signaling. Altogether, our data uncover evolutionarily conserved roles of PrP in cell communication, which ultimately impinge on the stability of adherens cell junctions during embryonic development. PMID:19278297

Schrock, Yvonne; Geiss, Corinna; Luncz, Lydia; Thomanetz, Venus; Stuermer, Claudia A. O

2009-01-01

187

The prion protein family: a view from the placenta  

PubMed Central

Based on its developmental pattern of expression, early studies suggested the implication of the mammalian Prion protein PrP, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ubiquitously expressed and evolutionary conserved glycoprotein encoded by the Prnp gene, in early embryogenesis. However, gene invalidation in several species did not result in obvious developmental abnormalities and it was only recently that it was associated in mice with intra-uterine growth retardation and placental dysfunction. A proposed explanation for this lack of easily detectable developmental-related phenotype is the existence in the genome of one or more gene (s) able to compensate for the absence of PrP. Indeed, two other members of the Prnp gene family have been recently described, Doppel and Shadoo, and the consequences of their invalidation alongside that of PrP tested in mice. No embryonic defect was observed in mice depleted for Doppel and PrP. Interestingly, the co-invalidation of PrP and Shadoo in two independent studies led to apparently conflicting observations, with no apparent consequences in one report and the observation of a developmental defect of the ectoplacental cone that leads to early embryonic lethality in the other. This short review aims at summarizing these recent, apparently conflicting data highlighting the related biological questions and associated implications in terms of animal and human health. PMID:25364742

Makzhami, Samira; Passet, Bruno; Halliez, Sophie; Castille, Johan; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katayoun; Duchesne, Amandine; Vilotte, Marthe; Laude, Hubert; Mouillet-Richard, Sophie; Béringue, Vincent; Vaiman, Daniel; Vilotte, Jean-Luc

2014-01-01

188

Conformational diversity in prion protein variants influences intermolecular ?-sheet formation  

PubMed Central

A conformational transition of normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) to its pathogenic form (PrPSc) is believed to be a central event in the transmission of the devastating neurological diseases known as spongiform encephalopathies. The common methionine/valine polymorphism at residue 129 in the PrP influences disease susceptibility and phenotype. We report here seven crystal structures of human PrP variants: three of wild-type (WT) PrP containing V129, and four of the familial variants D178N and F198S, containing either M129 or V129. Comparison of these structures with each other and with previously published WT PrP structures containing M129 revealed that only WT PrPs were found to crystallize as domain-swapped dimers or closed monomers; the four mutant PrPs crystallized as non-swapped dimers. Three of the four mutant PrPs aligned to form intermolecular ?-sheets. Several regions of structural variability were identified, and analysis of their conformations provides an explanation for the structural features, which can influence the formation and conformation of intermolecular ?-sheets involving the M/V129 polymorphic residue. PMID:19927125

Lee, Seungjoo; Antony, Lizamma; Hartmann, Rune; Knaus, Karen J; Surewicz, Krystyna; Surewicz, Witold K; Yee, Vivien C

2010-01-01

189

Flexibility damps macromolecular crowding effects on protein folding dynamics: Application to the murine prion protein (121-231)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of protein folding kinetics is applied to study the combined effects of protein flexibility and macromolecular crowding on protein folding rate and stability. It is found that the increase in stability and folding rate promoted by macromolecular crowding is damped for proteins with highly flexible native structures. The model is applied to the folding dynamics of the murine prion protein (121-231). It is found that the high flexibility of the native isoform of the murine prion protein (121-231) reduces the effects of macromolecular crowding on its folding dynamics. The relevance of these findings for the pathogenic mechanism are discussed.

Bergasa-Caceres, Fernando; Rabitz, Herschel A.

2014-01-01

190

Hydrolysis of the Amyloid Prion Protein and Nonpathogenic Meat and Bone Meal by Anaerobic Thermophilic Prokaryotes and Streptomyces Subspecies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are caused by accumulation of highly resistant misfolded amyloid prion protein PrPres and can be initiated by penetration of such pathogen molecules from infected tissue to intact organism. Decontamination of animal meal containing amyloid prion protein is proposed thanks to the use of proteolytic enzymes secreted by thermophilic bacteria Thermo- anaerobacter, Thermosipho, and Thermococcus subsp. and mesophilic

Kirill Tsiroulnikov; Human Rezai; Elisaveta Bonch-Osmolovskaya; Peter Nedkov; Adriana Gousterova; Valérie Cueff; Anne Godfroy; Georges Barbier; François Métro; Jean-Marc Chobert; Pascal Clayette; Dominique Dormont; Jeanne Grosclaude; Thomas Haertlé

2004-01-01

191

Fatal Familial Insomnia and Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Different Prion Proteins Determined by a DNA Polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatal familial insomnia and a subtype of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, two clinically and pathologically distinct diseases, are linked to the same mutation at codon 178 (Asp-178 --> Asn) but segregate with different genotypes determined by this mutation and the methionine-valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the prion protein gene. The abnormal isoforms of the prion protein in these two diseases were

Lucia Monari; Shu G. Chen; Paul Brown; Piero Parchi; Robert B. Petersen; Jacqueline Mikol; Franscoise Gray; Pietro Cortelli; Pasquale Montagna; Bernardino Ghetti; Lev G. Goldfarb; D. Carleton Gajdusek; Elio Lugaresi; Pierluigi Gambetti; Lucila Autilio-Gambetti

1994-01-01

192

Prion protein accumulation in the spinal cords of patients with sporadic and growth hormone associated Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immunohistological study of the spinal cord in 20 cases of sporadic and 4 iatrogenic (growth hormone) cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) disease patients was performed to detect the presence of disease specific prion protein using a number of different antisera. Prion protein was present in all the growth hormone recipients and in 11 of the 20 sporadic CJD cases. Plaque-like

I. A. Goodbrand; J. W. Ironside; D. Nicolson; J. E. Bell

1995-01-01

193

Cellular prion protein and NMDA receptor modulation: protecting against excitotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Although it is well established that misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the ?-sheet-rich, aggregated scrapie conformation (PrPSc) causes a variety of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), the physiological roles of PrPC are still incompletely understood. There is accumulating evidence describing the roles of PrPC in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Recently, we identified a functional regulation of NMDA receptors by PrPC that involves formation of a physical protein complex between these proteins. Excessive NMDA receptor activity during conditions such as ischemia mediates enhanced Ca2+ entry into cells and contributes to excitotoxic neuronal death. In addition, NMDA receptors and/or PrPC play critical roles in neuroinflammation and glial cell toxicity. Inhibition of NMDA receptor activity protects against PrPSc-induced neuronal death. Moreover, in mice lacking PrPC, infarct size is increased after focal cerebral ischemia, and absence of PrPC increases susceptibility of neurons to NMDA receptor-dependent death. Recently, PrPC was found to be a receptor for oligomeric beta-amyloid (A?) peptides, suggesting a role for PrPC in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our recent findings suggest that A? peptides enhance NMDA receptor current by perturbing the normal copper- and PrPC-dependent regulation of these receptors. Here, we review evidence highlighting a role for PrPC in preventing NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity and inflammation. There is a need for more detailed molecular characterization of PrPC-mediated regulation of NMDA receptors, such as determining which NMDA receptor subunits mediate pathogenic effects upon loss of PrPC-mediated regulation and identifying PrPC binding site(s) on the receptor. This knowledge will allow development of novel therapeutic interventions for not only TSEs, but also for AD and other neurodegenerative disorders involving dysfunction of PrPC. PMID:25364752

Black, Stefanie A. G.; Stys, Peter K.; Zamponi, Gerald W.; Tsutsui, Shigeki

2014-01-01

194

Local structural plasticity of the prion protein. Analysis of NMR relaxation dynamics.  

PubMed

A template-assisted conformational change of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) from a predominantly helical structure to an amyloid-type structure with a higher proportion of beta-sheet is thought to be the causative factor in prion diseases. Since flexibility of the polypeptide is likely to contribute to the ability of PrP(C) to undergo the conformational change that leads to the infective state, we have undertaken a comprehensive examination of the dynamics of two recombinant Syrian hamster PrP fragments, PrP(29-231) and PrP(90-231), using (15)N NMR relaxation measurements. The molecular motions of these PrP fragments have been studied in solution using (15)N longitudinal (T(1)) and transverse relaxation (T(2)) measurements as well as [(1)H]-(15)N nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE). These data have been analyzed using both reduced spectral density mapping and the Lipari-Szabo model free formalism. The relaxation properties of the common regions of PrP(29-231) and PrP(90-231) are very similar; both have a relatively inflexible globular domain (residues 128-227) with a highly flexible and largely unstructured N-terminal domain. Residues 29-89 of PrP(29-231), which include the copper-binding octarepeat sequences, are also highly flexible. Analysis of the spectral densities at each residue indicates that even within the structured core of PrP(C), a markedly diverse range of motions is observed, consistent with the inherent plasticity of the protein. The central portions of helices B and C form a relatively rigid core, which is stabilized by the presence of an interhelix disulfide bond. Of the remainder of the globular domain, the parts that are not in direct contact with the rigid region, including helix A, are more flexible. Most significantly, slow conformational fluctuations on a millisecond to microsecond time scale are observed for the small beta-sheet. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the infectious, scrapie form of the protein PrP(Sc) could contain a helical core consisting of helices B and C, similar in structure to the cellular form PrP(C). Our results indicate that residues 90-140, which are required for prion infectivity, are relatively flexible in PrP(C), consistent with a lowered thermodynamic barrier to a template-assisted conformational change to the infectious beta-sheet-rich scrapie isoform. PMID:11258885

Viles, J H; Donne, D; Kroon, G; Prusiner, S B; Cohen, F E; Dyson, H J; Wright, P E

2001-03-01

195

SIRP? polymorphisms, but not the prion protein, control phagocytosis of apoptotic cells  

PubMed Central

Prnp?/? mice lack the prion protein PrPC and are resistant to prion infections, but variable phenotypes have been reported in Prnp?/? mice and the physiological function of PrPC remains poorly understood. Here we examined a cell-autonomous phenotype, inhibition of macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, previously reported in Prnp?/? mice. Using formal genetic, genomic, and immunological analyses, we found that the regulation of phagocytosis previously ascribed to PrPC is instead controlled by a linked locus encoding the signal regulatory protein ? (Sirpa). These findings indicate that control of phagocytosis was previously misattributed to the prion protein and illustrate the requirement for stringent approaches to eliminate confounding effects of flanking genes in studies modeling human disease in gene-targeted mice. The plethora of seemingly unrelated functions attributed to PrPC suggests that additional phenotypes reported in Prnp?/? mice may actually relate to Sirpa or other genetic confounders. PMID:24145514

Nuvolone, Mario; Kana, Veronika; Hutter, Gregor; Sakata, Daiji; Mortin-Toth, Steven M.; Russo, Giancarlo

2013-01-01

196

Monitoring prion protein expression in complex biological samples by SERS for diagnostic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) allows a new insight into the analysis of cell physiology. In this work, the difficulty of producing suitable substrates that, besides permitting the amplification of the Raman signal, do not interact with the biological material causing alteration, has been overcome by a combined method of hydrothermal green synthesis and thermal annealing. The SERS analysis of the cell membrane has been performed with special attention to the cellular prion protein PrPC. In addition, SERS has also been used to reveal the prion protein-Cu(II) interaction in four different cell models (B104, SH-SY5Y, GN11, HeLa), expressing PrPC at different levels. A significant implication of the current work consists of the intriguing possibility of revealing and quantifying prion protein expression in complex biological samples by a cheap SERS-based method, replacing the expensive and time-consuming immuno-assay systems commonly employed.

Manno, D.; Filippo, E.; Fiore, R.; Serra, A.; Urso, E.; Rizzello, A.; Maffia, M.

2010-04-01

197

Prevalence of the prion protein gene E211K variant in U.S. cattle  

PubMed Central

Background In 2006, an atypical U.S. case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was discovered in Alabama and later reported to be polymorphic for glutamate (E) and lysine (K) codons at position 211 in the bovine prion protein gene (Prnp) coding sequence. A bovine E211K mutation is important because it is analogous to the most common pathogenic mutation in humans (E200K) which causes hereditary Creutzfeldt – Jakob disease, an autosomal dominant form of prion disease. The present report describes a high-throughput matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry assay for scoring the Prnp E211K variant and its use to determine an upper limit for the K211 allele frequency in U.S. cattle. Results The K211 allele was not detected in 6062 cattle, including those from five commercial beef processing plants (3892 carcasses) and 2170 registered cattle from 42 breeds. Multiple nearby polymorphisms in Prnp coding sequence of 1456 diverse purebred cattle (42 breeds) did not interfere with scoring E211 or K211 alleles. Based on these results, the upper bounds for prevalence of the E211K variant was estimated to be extremely low, less than 1 in 2000 cattle (Bayesian analysis based on 95% quantile of the posterior distribution with a uniform prior). Conclusion No groups or breeds of U.S. cattle are presently known to harbor the Prnp K211 allele. Because a carrier was not detected, the number of additional atypical BSE cases with K211 will also be vanishingly low. PMID:18625065

Heaton, Michael P; Keele, John W; Harhay, Gregory P; Richt, Jürgen A; Koohmaraie, Mohammad; Wheeler, Tommy L; Shackelford, Steven D; Casas, Eduardo; King, D Andy; Sonstegard, Tad S; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Neibergs, Holly L; Chase, Chad C; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S; Smith, Timothy PL; Clawson, Michael L; Laegreid, William W

2008-01-01

198

Neuroimmunoendocrine regulation of the prion protein in neutrophils.  

PubMed

The prion protein (PrP(C)) is a cell surface protein expressed mainly in the nervous system. In addition to the role of its abnormal conformer in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, normal PrP(C) may be implicated in other degenerative conditions often associated with inflammation. PrP(C) is also present in cells of hematopoietic origin, including T cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages, and it has been shown to modulate their functions. Here, we investigated the impact of inflammation and stress on the expression and function of PrP(C) in neutrophils, a cell type critically involved in both acute and chronic inflammation. We found that systemic injection of LPS induced transcription and translation of PrP(C) in mouse neutrophils. Up-regulation of PrP(C) was dependent on the serum content of TGF-? and glucocorticoids (GC), which, in turn, are contingent on the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to systemic inflammation. GC and TGF-?, either alone or in combination, directly up-regulated PrP(C) in neutrophils, and accordingly, the blockade of GC receptors in vivo curtailed the LPS-induced increase in the content of PrP(C). Moreover, GC also mediated up-regulation of PrP(C) in neutrophils following noninflammatory restraint stress. Finally, neutrophils with up-regulated PrP(C) presented enhanced peroxide-dependent cytotoxicity to endothelial cells. The data demonstrate a novel interplay of the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems upon both the expression and function of PrP(C) in neutrophils, which may have a broad impact upon the physiology and pathology of various organs and systems. PMID:22910907

Mariante, Rafael M; Nóbrega, Alberto; Martins, Rodrigo A P; Areal, Rômulo B; Bellio, Maria; Linden, Rafael

2012-10-12

199

Molecular dynamics studies on the NMR and X-ray structures of rabbit prion proteins.  

PubMed

Prion diseases, traditionally referred to as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species, manifesting as scrapie in sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad-cow disease) in cattle, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, and kulu in humans, etc. These neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions (PrP(Sc)), and the conversion of PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) is believed to involve conformational change from a predominantly ?-helical protein to one rich in ?-sheet structure. Such a conformational change may be amenable to study by molecular dynamics (MD) techniques. For rabbits, classical studies show that they have a low susceptibility to be infected by PrP(Sc), but recently it was reported that rabbit prions can be generated through saPMCA (serial automated Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification) in vitro and the rabbit prion is infectious and transmissible. In this paper, we first do a detailed survey on the research advances of rabbit prion protein (RaPrP) and then we perform MD simulations on the NMR and X-ray molecular structures of rabbit prion protein wild-type and mutants. The survey shows to us that rabbits were not challenged directly in vivo with other known prion strains and the saPMCA result did not pass the test of the known BSE strain of cattle. Thus, we might still look rabbits as a prion resistant species. MD results indicate that the three ?-helices of the wild-type are stable under the neutral pH environment (but under low pH environment the three ?-helices have been unfolded into ?-sheets), and the three ?-helices of the mutants (I214V and S173N) are unfolded into rich ?-sheet structures under the same pH environment. In addition, we found an interesting result that the salt bridges such as ASP201-ARG155, ASP177-ARG163 contribute greatly to the structural stability of RaPrP. PMID:24184221

Zhang, Jiapu; Zhang, Yuanli

2014-02-01

200

Investigating the Spreading and Toxicity of Prion-like Proteins Using the Metazoan Model Organism C. elegans.  

PubMed

Prions are unconventional self-propagating proteinaceous particles, devoid of any coding nucleic acid. These proteinaceous seeds serve as templates for the conversion and replication of their benign cellular isoform. Accumulating evidence suggests that many protein aggregates can act as self-propagating templates and corrupt the folding of cognate proteins. Although aggregates can be functional under certain circumstances, this process often leads to the disruption of the cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis), eventually leading to devastating diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The exact mechanisms of prion propagation and cell-to-cell spreading of protein aggregates are still subjects of intense investigation. To further this knowledge, recently a new metazoan model in Caenorhabditis elegans, for expression of the prion domain of the cytosolic yeast prion protein Sup35 has been established. This prion model offers several advantages, as it allows direct monitoring of the fluorescently tagged prion domain in living animals and ease of genetic approaches. Described here are methods to study prion-like behavior of protein aggregates and to identify modifiers of prion-induced toxicity using C. elegans. PMID:25591151

Nussbaum-Krammer, Carmen I; Neto, Mário F; Brielmann, Renée M; Pedersen, Jesper S; Morimoto, Richard I

2015-01-01

201

Familial spongiform encephalopathy associated with a novel prion protein gene mutation.  

PubMed

Human prion diseases include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Stráussler-Scheinker disease, fatal familial insomnia, and kuru. Each of these diseases has a specific clinical presentation while spongiform encephalopathy, neuronal loss, and gliosis are their neuropathological hallmarks. We studied a Brazilian family with an autosomal dominant form of dementia. Nine members of the family were affected by a dementia with frontotemporal clinical features, with a mean age at onset of 44.8 +/- 3.8 years and a mean duration of symptoms of 4.2 +/- 2.4 years. Neuropathological examination of 3 patients showed severe spongiform change and neuronal loss in the deep cortical layers and in the putamen, but minimal gliosis in the most severely affected areas. The putamen and cerebellum, but not other areas of the affected brain, displayed prion protein immunoreactivity. A novel prion protein gene mutation causing a nonconservative substitution at codon 183 was identified in 2 neuropathologically confirmed affected individuals (mother and son). The mutation was transmitted in a mendelian fashion to 12 members of the family. Therefore, we identified a novel prion disease variant characterized by an early onset and long duration of the symptoms, severe spongiform change with minimal gliosis, associated with a prion protein gene mutation at codon 183. PMID:9266722

Nitrini, R; Rosemberg, S; Passos-Bueno, M R; da Silva, L S; Iughetti, P; Papadopoulos, M; Carrilho, P M; Caramelli, P; Albrecht, S; Zatz, M; LeBlanc, A

1997-08-01

202

Stress-dependent proteolytic processing of the actin assembly protein Lsb1 modulates a yeast prion.  

PubMed

Yeast prions are self-propagating amyloid-like aggregates of Q/N-rich protein that confer heritable traits and provide a model of mammalian amyloidoses. [PSI(+)] is a prion isoform of the translation termination factor Sup35. Propagation of [PSI(+)] during cell division under normal conditions and during the recovery from damaging environmental stress depends on cellular chaperones and is influenced by ubiquitin proteolysis and the actin cytoskeleton. The paralogous yeast proteins Lsb1 and Lsb2 bind the actin assembly protein Las17 (a yeast homolog of human Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) and participate in the endocytic pathway. Lsb2 was shown to modulate maintenance of [PSI(+)] during and after heat shock. Here, we demonstrate that Lsb1 also regulates maintenance of the Sup35 prion during and after heat shock. These data point to the involvement of Lsb proteins in the partitioning of protein aggregates in stressed cells. Lsb1 abundance and cycling between actin patches, endoplasmic reticulum, and cytosol is regulated by the Guided Entry of Tail-anchored proteins pathway and Rsp5-dependent ubiquitination. Heat shock-induced proteolytic processing of Lsb1 is crucial for prion maintenance during stress. Our findings identify Lsb1 as another component of a tightly regulated pathway controlling protein aggregation in changing environments. PMID:25143386

Ali, Moiez; Chernova, Tatiana A; Newnam, Gary P; Yin, Luming; Shanks, John; Karpova, Tatiana S; Lee, Andrew; Laur, Oskar; Subramanian, Sindhu; Kim, Dami; McNally, James G; Seyfried, Nicholas T; Chernoff, Yury O; Wilkinson, Keith D

2014-10-01

203

Immunologically Induced, Complement-Dependent Up-Regulation of the Prion Protein in the Mouse Spleen: Follicular Dendritic Cells Versus Capsule and Trabeculae1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of the prion protein (PrP) in the follicular dendritic cell network of germinal centers in the spleen is critical for the splenic propagation of the causative agent of prion diseases. However, a physiological role of the prion protein in the periphery remains elusive. To investigate the role and function of PrP expression in the lymphoid system we treated

Marius Lotscher; Mike Recher; Lukas Hunziker; Michael A. Klein

204

NMR solution structure of the human prion protein Ralph Zahn, Aizhuo Liu*, Thorsten Lu hrs, Roland Riek, Christine von Schroetter, Francisco Lo pez Garcia, Martin Billeter  

E-print Network

NMR solution structure of the human prion protein Ralph Zahn, Aizhuo Liu*, Thorsten Lu¨ hrs, Roland The NMR structures of the recombinant human prion protein, hPrP(23­230), and two C-terminal fragments, h compared with the previously reported structures of the murine and Syrian hamster prion pro- teins

Wider, Gerhard

205

Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling 20 (2001) 169182 Flexibility of the murine prion protein and its Asp178Asn mutant  

E-print Network

Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling 20 (2001) 169­182 Flexibility of the murine prion,segregatewithspecificpointmutationsoftheprionprotein.Ithasbeenproposedthatthepathologically relevant Asp178Asn (D178N) mutation might destabilize the structure of the prion protein because-terminal domain of the murine prion protein and the D178N mutant were performed to investigate this hypothesis

Caflisch, Amedeo

206

Detecting and discriminating among pathogenic protein conformers(prions), using mass spectrometry-based and antibody-based approaches(Abstract)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A set of fatal neurological diseases that includes scrapie and chronic wasting disease (CWD) are caused by a pathological protein referred to as a prion (PrPSc). A prion propagates an infection by converting a normal cellular protein (PrPC) into a prion. Unlike viral, bacterial, or fungal pathogens,...

207

A comparative molecular dynamics study on thermostability of human and chicken prion proteins  

SciTech Connect

To compare the thermostabilities of human and chicken normal cellular prion proteins (HuPrP{sup C} and CkPrP{sup C}), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for both proteins at an ensemble level (10 parallel simulations at 400 K and 5 parallel simulations at 300 K as a control). It is found that the thermostability of HuPrP{sup C} is comparable with that of CkPrP{sup C}, which implicates that the non-occurrence of prion diseases in non-mammals cannot be completely attributed to the thermodynamic properties of non-mammalian PrP{sup C}.

Ji, Hong-Fang [Shandong Provincial Research Center for Bioinformatic Engineering and Technique, Center for Advanced Study, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Zhang, Hong-Yu [Shandong Provincial Research Center for Bioinformatic Engineering and Technique, Center for Advanced Study, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)]. E-mail: zhanghy@sdut.edu.cn

2007-08-03

208

Deficiency of prion protein induces impaired autophagic flux in neurons  

PubMed Central

Normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) is highly expressed in the central nervous system. The Zürich I Prnp-deficient mouse strain did not show an abnormal phenotype in initial studies, however, in later studies, deficits in exploratory behavior and short- and long-term memory have been revealed. In the present study, numerous autophagic vacuoles were found in neurons from Zürich I Prnp-deficient mice. The autophagic accumulation in the soma of cortical neurons in Zürich I Prnp-deficient mice was observed as early as 3 months of age, and in the hippocampal neurons at 6 months of age. Specifically, there is accumulation of electron dense pigments associated with autophagy in the neurons of Zürich I Prnp-deficient mice. Furthermore, autophagic accumulations were observed as early as 3 months of age in the CA3 region of hippocampal and cerebral cortical neuropils. The autophagic vacuoles increased with age in the hippocampus of Zürich I Prnp-deficient mice at a faster rate and to a greater extent than in normal C57BL/6J mice, whereas the cortex exhibited high levels that were maintained from 3 months old in Zürich I Prnp-deficient mice. The pigmented autophagic accumulation is due to the incompletely digested material from autophagic vacuoles. Furthermore, a deficiency in PrPC may disrupt the autophagic flux by inhibiting autophagosome-lysosomal fusion. Overall, our results provide insight into the protective role of PrPC in neurons, which may play a role in normal behavior and other brain functions. PMID:25202268

Shin, Hae-Young; Park, Jeong-Ho; Carp, Richard I.; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Kim, Yong-Sun

2014-01-01

209

High-level expression and characterization of a purified 142-residue polypeptide of the prion protein.  

PubMed

The major, and possible only, component of the infectious prion is the scrapie prion protein (PrPSc); the protease resistant core of PrPSc is PrP 27-30, a protein of approximately 142 amino acids. PrPSc is derived from the cellular PrP isoform (PrPC) by a post-transliatonal process in which a profound conformational change occurs. Syrian hamster (SHa) PrP genes of varying length ranging from the N- and C- terminally truncated 90-228 up to the full-length mature protein 23-231 were inserted into various secretion and intracellular expression vectors that were transformed into Escherichia coli deficient for proteases. Maximum expression was obtained for a truncated SHaPrP containing residues 90-231, which correspond to the sequence of PrP 27-30; disruption of the bacteria using a microfluidizer produced the highest yields of this protein designated rPrP. After solubilization of rPrP in 8 M GdnHC1, it was purified by size exclusion chromatography and reversed phase chromatography. During purification the recovery was approximately 50%, and from each liter of E. coli culture, approximately 50 mg of purified rPrP was obtained. Expression of the longer species containing the basic N-terminal region was less successful and was not pursued further. The primary structure of rPrP was verified by Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry, and secondary structure determined by circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. When rPrP was purified under reducing conditions, it had a high beta-sheet content and relatively low solubility similar to PrPSc, particularly at pH values > 7. Refolding of rPrP by oxidation to form a disulfide bond between the two Cys residues of this polypeptide produced a soluble protein with a high alpha-helical content similar to PrPC. These multiple conformations of rPrP are reminiscent of the structural plurality that characterizes the naturally occurring PrP isoforms. The high levels of purified rPrP which can now be obtained should facilitate determination of the multiple tertiary structures that Prp can adopt. PMID:8611544

Mehlhorn, I; Groth, D; Stöckel, J; Moffat, B; Reilly, D; Yansura, D; Willett, W S; Baldwin, M; Fletterick, R; Cohen, F E; Vandlen, R; Henner, D; Prusiner, S B

1996-04-30

210

Baicalein prevents human prion protein-induced neuronal cell death by regulating JNK activation.  

PubMed

Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal isoform of the protease-insensitive isoform (PrPSc) of prion protein. Human prion protein fragment 106?126 [PrP (106?126)] contains most of the pathological characteristics associated with PrPSc. Although a number of compounds have been identified to inhibit PrP accumulation or dissolve fibrils and aggregates in vitro, there is currenlty no treatment available for these progressive neurodegenerative diseases. Baicalein, the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis) Georgi (known as Huang-qin in traditional Chinese medicine) has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects on neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of baicalein on the development of prion diseases using SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells in vitro. We found that baicalein protected the cells against PrP?induced neuronal cell death by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction using ROS detection assay and MTP assay. We demonstrated that baicalein treatment regulated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by using western blot analysis and Annexin V assay. Our data suggest that baicalein has potential for use as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases, including prion diseases. PMID:25435015

Moon, Ji-Hong; Park, Sang-Youel

2015-02-01

211

Prion protein-coated magnetic beads: Synthesis, characterization and development of a new ligands screening method.  

PubMed

Prion diseases are characterized by protein aggregation and neurodegeneration. Conversion of the native prion protein (PrP(C)) into the abnormal scrapie PrP isoform (PrP(Sc)), which undergoes aggregation and can eventually form amyloid fibrils, is a critical step leading to the characteristic path morphological hallmark of these diseases. However, the mechanism of conversion remains unclear. It is known that ligands can act as cofactors or inhibitors in the conversion mechanism of PrP(C) into PrP(Sc). Within this context, herein, we describe the immobilization of PrP(C) onto the surface of magnetic beads and the morphological characterization of PrP(C)-coated beads by fluorescence confocal microscopy. PrP(C)-coated magnetic beads were used to identify ligands from a mixture of compounds, which were monitored by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. This affinity-based method allowed the isolation of the anti-prion compound quinacrine, an inhibitor of PrP aggregation. The results indicate that this approach can be applied to not only "fish" for anti-prion compounds from complex matrixes, but also to screening for and identify possible cellular cofactors involved in the deflagration of prion diseases. PMID:25576041

de Moraes, Marcela Cristina; Santos, Juliana Bosco; Dos Anjos, Daniel Meira; Rangel, Luciana Pereira; Vieira, Tuane Cristine Ramos Gonçalves; Moaddel, Ruin; da Silva, Jerson Lima

2015-01-30

212

Pathogenic prion protein is degraded by a manganese oxide mineral found in soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prions, the aetiological agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, exhibit extreme resistance to degradation. Soil can retain prion infectivity in the environment for years. Reactive soil components may, however, contribute to the inactivation of prions in soil. Members of the birnessite family of manganese oxides (MnO2) rank among the strongest natural oxidants in soils. Here, we report the abiotic degradation of pathogenic prion protein (PrPTSE) by a synthetic analogue of naturally occurring birnessite minerals. Aqueous MnO2 suspensions degraded the PrPTSE as evidenced by decreased immunoreactivity and diminished ability to seed protein misfolding cyclic amplification reactions. Birnessite-mediated PrPTSE degradation increased as a solution's pH decreased, consistent with the pH-dependence of the redox potential of MnO2. Exposure to 5.6 mg MnO2 ml-1 (PrPTSE:MnO2=1 : 110) decreased PrPTSE levels by ???4 orders of magnitude. Manganese oxides may contribute to prion degradation in soil environments rich in these minerals. ?? 2009 SGM.

Russo, F.; Johnson, C.J.; McKenzie, D.; Aiken, J.M.; Pedersen, J.A.

2009-01-01

213

Selective vulnerability to neurodegenerative disease: the curious case of Prion Protein  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underlying the selective targeting of specific brain regions by different neurodegenerative diseases is one of the most intriguing mysteries in medicine. For example, it is known that Alzheimer’s disease primarily affects parts of the brain that play a role in memory, whereas Parkinson’s disease predominantly affects parts of the brain that are involved in body movement. However, the reasons that other brain regions remain unaffected in these diseases are unknown. A better understanding of the phenomenon of selective vulnerability is required for the development of targeted therapeutic approaches that specifically protect affected neurons, thereby altering the disease course and preventing its progression. Prion diseases are a fascinating group of neurodegenerative diseases because they exhibit a wide phenotypic spectrum caused by different sequence perturbations in a single protein. The possible ways that mutations affecting this protein can cause several distinct neurodegenerative diseases are explored in this Review to highlight the complexity underlying selective vulnerability. The premise of this article is that selective vulnerability is determined by the interaction of specific protein conformers and region-specific microenvironments harboring unique combinations of subcellular components such as metals, chaperones and protein translation machinery. Given the abundance of potential contributory factors in the neurodegenerative process, a better understanding of how these factors interact will provide invaluable insight into disease mechanisms to guide therapeutic discovery. PMID:24396151

Jackson, Walker S.

2014-01-01

214

Ligand Binding and Hydration in Protein Misfolding: Insights from Studies of Prion and p53 Tumor Suppressor Proteins  

PubMed Central

Protein misfolding has been implicated in a large number of diseases termed protein- folding disorders (PFDs), which include Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, familial amyloid polyneuropathy, Huntington’s disease, and type II diabetes. In these diseases, large quantities of incorrectly folded proteins undergo aggregation, destroying brain cells and other tissues. The interplay between ligand binding and hydration is an important component of the formation of misfolded protein species. Hydration drives various biological processes, including protein folding, ligand binding, macromolecular assembly, enzyme kinetics, and signal transduction. The changes in hydration and packing, both when proteins fold correctly or when folding goes wrong, leading to PFDs, are examined through several biochemical, biophysical, and structural approaches. Although in many cases the binding of a ligand such as a nucleic acid helps to prevent misfolding and aggregation, there are several examples in which ligands induce misfolding and assembly into amyloids. This occurs simply because the formation of structured aggregates (such as protofibrillar and fibrillar amyloids) involves decreases in hydration, formation of a hydrogen-bond network in the secondary structure, and burying of nonpolar amino acid residues, processes that also occur in the normal folding landscape. In this Account, we describe the present knowledge of the folding and misfolding of different proteins, with a detailed emphasis on mammalian prion protein (PrP) and tumoral suppressor protein p53; we also explore how ligand binding and hydration together influence the fate of the proteins. Anfinsen’s paradigm that the structure of a protein is determined by its amino acid sequence is to some extent contradicted by the observation that there are two isoforms of the prion protein with the same sequence: the cellular and the misfolded isoform. The cellular isoform of PrP has a disordered N-terminal domain and a highly flexible, not-well-packed C-terminal domain, which might account for its significant hydration. When PrP binds to biological molecules, such as glycosaminoglycans and nucleic acids, the disordered segments appear to fold and become less hydrated. Formation of the PrP?nucleic acid complex seems to accelerate the conversion of the cellular form of the protein into the disease-causing isoform. For p53, binding to some ligands, including nucleic acids, would prevent misfolding of the protein. Recently, several groups have begun to analyze the folding?misfolding of the individual domains of p53, but several questions remain unanswered. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the productive and incorrect folding pathways of these proteins in normal physiological states and in human disease, such as prion disorders and cancer. These studies are shown to lay the groundwork for the development of new drugs. PMID:19817406

2009-01-01

215

Shaking Alone Induces De Novo Conversion of Recombinant Prion Proteins to ?-Sheet Rich Oligomers and Fibrils  

PubMed Central

The formation of ?-sheet rich prion oligomers and fibrils from native prion protein (PrP) is thought to be a key step in the development of prion diseases. Many methods are available to convert recombinant prion protein into ?-sheet rich fibrils using various chemical denaturants (urea, SDS, GdnHCl), high temperature, phospholipids, or mildly acidic conditions (pH 4). Many of these methods also require shaking or another form of agitation to complete the conversion process. We have identified that shaking alone causes the conversion of recombinant PrP to ?-sheet rich oligomers and fibrils at near physiological pH (pH 5.5 to pH 6.2) and temperature. This conversion does not require any denaturant, detergent, or any other chemical cofactor. Interestingly, this conversion does not occur when the water-air interface is eliminated in the shaken sample. We have analyzed shaking-induced conversion using circular dichroism, resolution enhanced native acidic gel electrophoresis (RENAGE), electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thioflavin T fluorescence and proteinase K resistance. Our results show that shaking causes the formation of ?-sheet rich oligomers with a population distribution ranging from octamers to dodecamers and that further shaking causes a transition to ?-sheet fibrils. In addition, we show that shaking-induced conversion occurs for a wide range of full-length and truncated constructs of mouse, hamster and cervid prion proteins. We propose that this method of conversion provides a robust, reproducible and easily accessible model for scrapie-like amyloid formation, allowing the generation of milligram quantities of physiologically stable ?-sheet rich oligomers and fibrils. These results may also have interesting implications regarding our understanding of prion conversion and propagation both within the brain and via techniques such as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) and quaking induced conversion (QuIC). PMID:24892647

Ladner-Keay, Carol L.; Griffith, Bethany J.; Wishart, David S.

2014-01-01

216

Absence of Association between Codon 129 and 219 Polymorphisms of the Prion Protein Gene and Vascular Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) are known to cause a strong susceptibility to the occurrence of prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and might be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders. However, an association between PRNP polymorphisms and vascular dementia (VaD) has not been reported thus far. Objective: To investigate whether the PRNP polymorphisms are associated with an

Byung-Hoon Jeong; Hae-Ri Na; Jae-Chun Bae; Kyung-Hee Lee; Yun-Jung Lee; Nam-Ho Kim; Joon-Ho Song; Richard I. Carp; Yong-Sun Kim

2007-01-01

217

Disease-associated prion protein in neural and lymphoid tissues of mink (Mustela vison) inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a prion disorder of farmed raised mink. As with the other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the disorder is associated with accumulation of the misfolded prion protein in the brain and an invariably fatal outcome. TME outbreaks have been rare but...

218

MANGANESE UPREGULATES CELLULAR PRION PROTEINS AND INHIBITS THE RATE OF PROTEINASE-K DEPENDENT LIMITED PROTEOLYSIS IN NEURONAL CELLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The key event in the pathogenesis of prion diseases is the conversion of normal cellular prion proteins (PrP**c) to the proteinase K (PK) resistant, abnormal form (PrP**sc); however, the cellular mechanisms underlying the conversion remain enigmatic. Binding of divalent cations such as copper to th...

219

Clinical features in prion protein-deficient and wild-type cattle inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are caused by the propagation of a misfolded form (PrP**d) of the normal cellular prion protein, PrP**c. Recently, we have reported the generation and characterization of PrP**C-deficient cattle (PrP-/-) produced by a seq...

220

Inactivation of Template-Directed Misfolding of Infectious Prion Protein by Ozone  

PubMed Central

Misfolded prions (PrPSc) are well known for their resistance to conventional decontamination processes. The potential risk of contamination of the water environment, as a result of disposal of specified risk materials (SRM), has raised public concerns. Ozone is commonly utilized in the water industry for inactivation of microbial contaminants and was tested in this study for its ability to inactivate prions (263K hamster scrapie = PrPSc). Treatment variables included initial ozone dose (7.6 to 25.7 mg/liter), contact time (5 s and 5 min), temperature (4°C and 20°C), and pH (pH 4.4, 6.0, and 8.0). Exposure of dilute suspensions of the infected 263K hamster brain homogenates (IBH) (0.01%) to ozone resulted in the in vitro destruction of the templating properties of PrPSc, as measured by the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) assay. The highest levels of prion inactivation (?4 log10) were observed with ozone doses of 13.0 mg/liter, at pH 4.4 and 20°C, resulting in a CT (the product of residual ozone concentration and contact time) value as low as 0.59 mg · liter?1 min. A comparison of ozone CT requirements among various pathogens suggests that prions are more susceptible to ozone degradation than some model bacteria and protozoa and that ozone treatment may be an effective solution for inactivating prions in water and wastewater. PMID:22138993

Ding, Ning; Price, Luke M.; Braithwaite, Shannon L.; Balachandran, Aru; Belosevic, Miodrag

2012-01-01

221

Requirements for mutant and wild-type prion protein misfolding in vitro.  

PubMed

Misfolding of the prion protein (PrP) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of infectious, sporadic, and inherited prion diseases. Here we use a chemically defined prion propagation system to study misfolding of the pathogenic PrP mutant D177N in vitro. This mutation causes PrP to misfold spontaneously in the absence of cofactor molecules in a process dependent on time, temperature, pH, and intermittent sonication. Spontaneously misfolded mutant PrP is able to template its unique conformation onto wild-type PrP substrate in a process that requires a phospholipid activity distinct from that required for the propagation of infectious prions. Similar results were obtained with a second pathogenic PrP mutant, E199K, but not with the polymorphic substitution M128V. Moreover, wild-type PrP inhibits mutant PrP misfolding in a dose-dependent manner, and cofactor molecules can antagonize this effect. These studies suggest that interactions between mutant PrP, wild-type PrP, and other cellular factors may control the rate of PrP misfolding in inherited prion diseases. PMID:25584902

Noble, Geoffrey P; Walsh, Daniel J; Miller, Michael B; Jackson, Walker S; Supattapone, Surachai

2015-02-10

222

Detection of the GPI-anchorless prion protein fragment PrP226* in human brain  

PubMed Central

Background The accumulation of the misfolded forms of cellular prion protein, i.e. prions (PrPSc), in the brain is one of the crucial characteristics of fatal neurodegenerative disorders, called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Cellular prion protein is normally linked to the cell surface by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. There is accumulating evidence that the GPI-anchorless prion protein may act as an accelerator of formation and propagation of prions. In the TSE affected human brain we have previously discovered a novel GPI-anchorless prion protein fragment, named PrP226*, which ends with the tyrosine 226. This fragment can be labeled specifically by the monoclonal antibody V5B2. Methods We developed a DELFIA based assay for quick and sensitive detection of the PrP226* fragment in human brain tissue homogenates. By calculating the ratio between the signals of native (N) and denatured (D) samples applied to the assay we were able to observe significant difference between 24 TSE affected brains and 10 control brains. The presence of PrP226* in brain tissue was confirmed by western blot. Results Our results demonstrate that PrP226* is present in small quantities in healthy human brain, whereas in degenerated brain it accumulates in prion aggregates, proportionally to PrPSc. Samples with high D/N ratio generally comprised more proteinase K resistant PrP, while no correlation was found between the quantity of PrP226* and standard classification of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Conclusions In the present study we show that the PrP226* fragment accumulates in prion aggregates and after being released from them by a denaturation procedure, could serve as a proteinase K digestion independent biomarker for human TSEs. The PrP226* assay described in this paper offers a tool to follow and study this unique anchorless PrP fragment in various parts of human brain and possibly also in other tissues and body fluids. PMID:24063733

2013-01-01

223

Heterogeneity of the Abnormal Prion Protein (PrPSc) of the Chandler Scrapie Strain  

PubMed Central

The pathological prion protein, PrPSc, displays various sizes of aggregates. In this study, we investigated the conformation, aggregation stability and proteinase K (PK)-sensitivity of small and large PrPSc aggregates of mouse-adapted prion strains. We showed that small PrPSc aggregates, previously thought to be PK-sensitive, are resistant to PK digestion. Furthermore, we showed that small PrPSc aggregates of the Chandler scrapie strain have greater resistance to PK digestion and aggregation-denaturation than large PrPSc aggregates of this strain. We conclude that this strain consists of heterogeneous PrPSc. PMID:25436883

Kasai, Kazuo; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Masujin, Kentaro; Imamura, Morikazu; Mohri, Shirou; Yokoyama, Takashi

2013-01-01

224

Prion Protein M129V Polymorphism Affects Retrieval-Related Brain Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prion protein Met129Val polymorphism has recently been related to human long-term memory with carriers of either the 129[superscript MM] or the 129[superscript MV] genotype recalling 17% more words than 129[superscript VV] carriers at 24 h following learning. Here, we sampled genotype differences in retrieval-related brain activity at 30 min…

Buchmann, Andreas; Mondadori, Christian R. A.; Hanggi, Jurgen; Aerni, Amanda; Vrticka, Pascal; Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M.; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Henke, Katharina

2008-01-01

225

Efficient Conversion of Normal Prion Protein (PrP) by Abnormal Hamster PrP Is Determined by Homology at Amino Acid Residue 155  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, disease is closely associated with the conversion of the normal proteinase K-sensitive host prion protein (PrP-sen) to the abnormal proteinase K-resistant form (PrP-res). Amino acid sequence homology between PrP-res and PrP-sen is important in the formation of new PrP-res and thus in the efficient transmission of infectivity across species barriers. It was previously shown that

SUZETTE A. PRIOLA; JOELLE CHABRY; KAMAN CHAN

2001-01-01

226

Prion propagation in mice expressing human and chimeric PrP transgenes implicates the interaction of cellular PrP with another protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic (Tg) mice expressing human (Hu) and chimeric prion protein (PrP) genes were inoculated with brain extracts from humans with inherited or sporadic prion disease to investigate the mechanism by which PrPc is transformed into PrPSc. Although Tg(HuPrP) mice expressed high levels of HuPrPc, they were resistant to human prions. They became susceptible to human prions upon ablation of the

Glenn C. Telling; Michael Scott; James Mastrianni; Ruth Gabizon; Marilyn Torchia; Fred E. Cohen; Stephen J. DeArmond

1995-01-01

227

Assessing Proteinase K Resistance of Fish Prion Proteins in a Scrapie-Infected Mouse Neuroblastoma Cell Line  

PubMed Central

The key event in prion pathogenesis is the structural conversion of the normal cellular protein, PrPC, into an aberrant and partially proteinase K resistant isoform, PrPSc. Since the minimum requirement for a prion disease phenotype is the expression of endogenous PrP in the host, species carrying orthologue prion genes, such as fish, could in theory support prion pathogenesis. Our previous work has demonstrated the development of abnormal protein deposition in sea bream brain, following oral challenge of the fish with natural prion infectious material. In this study, we used a prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma cell line for the expression of three different mature fish PrP proteins and the evaluation of the resistance of the exogenously expressed proteins to proteinase K treatment (PK), as an indicator of a possible prion conversion. No evidence of resistance to PK was detected for any of the studied recombinant proteins. Although not indicative of an absolute inability of the fish PrPs to structurally convert to pathogenic isoforms, the absence of PK-resistance may be due to supramolecular and conformational differences between the mammalian and piscine PrPs. PMID:25402173

Salta, Evgenia; Kanata, Eirini; Ouzounis, Christos A.; Gilch, Sabine; Schätzl, Hermann; Sklaviadis, Theodoros

2014-01-01

228

Development of techniques in magnetic resonance and structural studies of the prion protein  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance is the most powerful analytical tool used by chemists today. Its applications range from determining structures of large biomolecules to imaging of human brains. Nevertheless, magnetic resonance remains a relatively young field, in which many techniques are currently being developed that have broad applications. In this dissertation, two new techniques are presented, one that enables the determination of torsion angles in solid-state peptides and proteins, and another that involves imaging of heterogenous materials at ultra-low magnetic fields. In addition, structural studies of the prion protein via solid-state NMR are described. More specifically, work is presented in which the dependence of chemical shifts on local molecular structure is used to predict chemical shift tensors in solid-state peptides with theoretical ab initio surfaces. These predictions are then used to determine the backbone dihedral angles in peptides. This method utilizes the theoretical chemicalshift tensors and experimentally determined chemical-shift anisotropies (CSAs) to predict the backbone and side chain torsion angles in alanine, leucine, and valine residues. Additionally, structural studies of prion protein fragments are described in which conformationally-dependent chemical-shift measurements were made to gain insight into the structural differences between the various conformational states of the prion protein. These studies are of biological and pathological interest since conformational changes in the prion protein are believed to cause prion diseases. Finally, an ultra-low field magnetic resonance imaging technique is described that enables imaging and characterization of heterogeneous and porous media. The notion of imaging gases at ultra-low fields would appear to be very difficult due to the prohibitively low polarization and spin densities as well as the low sensitivities of conventional Faraday coil detectors. However, Chapter 5 describes how gas imaging at ultra-low fields is realized by incorporating the high sensitivities of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with the high polarizations attainable through optica11y pumping {sup 129}Xe gas.

Bitter, Hans-Marcus L.

2000-07-01

229

N-terminal domain of prion protein directs its oligomeric association.  

PubMed

The self-association of prion protein (PrP) is a critical step in the pathology of prion diseases. It is increasingly recognized that small non-fibrillar ?-sheet-rich oligomers of PrP may be of crucial importance in the prion disease process. Here, we characterize the structure of a well defined ?-sheet-rich oligomer, containing ?12 PrP molecules, and often enclosing a central cavity, formed using full-length recombinant PrP. The N-terminal region of prion protein (residues 23-90) is required for the formation of this distinct oligomer; a truncated form comprising residues 91-231 forms a broad distribution of aggregated species. No infectivity or toxicity was found using cell and animal model systems. This study demonstrates that examination of the full repertoire of conformers and assembly states that can be accessed by PrP under specific experimental conditions should ideally be done using the full-length protein. PMID:25074940

Trevitt, Clare R; Hosszu, Laszlo L P; Batchelor, Mark; Panico, Silvia; Terry, Cassandra; Nicoll, Andrew J; Risse, Emmanuel; Taylor, William A; Sandberg, Malin K; Al-Doujaily, Huda; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Saibil, Helen R; Scott, David J; Collinge, John; Waltho, Jonathan P; Clarke, Anthony R

2014-09-12

230

N-terminal Domain of Prion Protein Directs Its Oligomeric Association*  

PubMed Central

The self-association of prion protein (PrP) is a critical step in the pathology of prion diseases. It is increasingly recognized that small non-fibrillar ?-sheet-rich oligomers of PrP may be of crucial importance in the prion disease process. Here, we characterize the structure of a well defined ?-sheet-rich oligomer, containing ?12 PrP molecules, and often enclosing a central cavity, formed using full-length recombinant PrP. The N-terminal region of prion protein (residues 23–90) is required for the formation of this distinct oligomer; a truncated form comprising residues 91–231 forms a broad distribution of aggregated species. No infectivity or toxicity was found using cell and animal model systems. This study demonstrates that examination of the full repertoire of conformers and assembly states that can be accessed by PrP under specific experimental conditions should ideally be done using the full-length protein. PMID:25074940

Trevitt, Clare R.; Hosszu, Laszlo L. P.; Batchelor, Mark; Panico, Silvia; Terry, Cassandra; Nicoll, Andrew J.; Risse, Emmanuel; Taylor, William A.; Sandberg, Malin K.; Al-Doujaily, Huda; Linehan, Jacqueline M.; Saibil, Helen R.; Scott, David J.; Collinge, John; Waltho, Jonathan P.; Clarke, Anthony R.

2014-01-01

231

Translation of the Prion Protein mRNA Is Robust in Astrocytes but Does Not Amplify during Reactive Astrocytosis in the Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases induce neurodegeneration in specific brain areas for undetermined reasons. A thorough understanding of the localization of the disease-causing molecule, the prion protein (PrP), could inform on this issue but previous studies have generated conflicting conclusions. One of the more intriguing disagreements is whether PrP is synthesized by astrocytes. We developed a knock-in reporter mouse line in which the coding sequence of the PrP expressing gene (Prnp), was replaced with that for green fluorescent protein (GFP). Native GFP fluorescence intensity varied between and within brain regions. GFP was present in astrocytes but did not increase during reactive gliosis induced by scrapie prion infection. Therefore, reactive gliosis associated with prion diseases does not cause an acceleration of local PrP production. In addition to aiding in Prnp gene activity studies, this reporter mouse line will likely prove useful for analysis of chimeric animals produced by stem cell and tissue transplantation experiments. PMID:24752288

Jackson, Walker S.; Krost, Clemens; Borkowski, Andrew W.; Kaczmarczyk, Lech

2014-01-01

232

Linkage of prion protein and scrapie incubation time genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single gene (Prn-i) that affects scrapie incubation period in mice has been identified. I\\/LnJ mice have a very long incubation period after inoculation of scrapie prions (200-385 days) and NZW\\/LacJ mice have a short one (113 +\\/- 2.8 days). (NZW X I\\/Ln)F1 hybrid mice had incubation times of 223 +\\/- 2.8 days indicating longer incubation times were dominant. Incubation

G A Carlson; D T Kingsbury; P A Goodman; S Coleman; S T Marshall; S DeArmond; D Westaway; S B Prusiner

1986-01-01

233

Prion protein interactions and TSE infections in cell culture models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process by which transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents, or prions, infect cells is unknown. There are also\\u000a no effective treatments available for TSE diseases. Studies of cultured cells persistently infected with TSE agents have greatly\\u000a contributed to understanding these and many other aspects of TSE disease. New cell lines have been developed to increase the\\u000a repertoire of TSE strains

Gerald S. Baron

234

Recombinant scrapie-like prion protein of 106 amino acids is soluble.  

PubMed

The N terminus of the scrapie isoform of prion protein (PrPSc) can be truncated without loss of scrapie infectivity and, correspondingly, the truncation of the N terminus of the cellular isoform, PrPC, still permits conversion into PrPSc. To assess whether additional segments of the PrP molecule can be deleted, we previously removed regions of putative secondary structure in PrPC; in the present study we found that deletion of each of the four predicted helices prevented PrPSc formation, as did deletion of the stop transfer effector region and the C178A mutation. Removal of a 36-residue loop between helices 2 and 3 did not prevent formation of protease-resistant PrP; the resulting scrapie-like protein, designated PrPSc106, contained 106 residues after cleavage of an N-terminal signal peptide and a C-terminal sequence for glycolipid anchor addition. Addition of the detergent Sarkosyl to cell lysates solubilized PrPSc106, which retained resistance to digestion by proteinase K. These results suggest that all the regions of proposed secondary structure in PrP are required for PrPSc formation, as is the disulfide bond stabilizing helices 3 and 4. The discovery of PrPSc106 should facilitate structural studies of PrPSc, investigations of the mechanism of PrPSc formation, and the production of PrPSc-specific antibodies. PMID:8986833

Muramoto, T; Scott, M; Cohen, F E; Prusiner, S B

1996-12-24

235

The neutral sphingomyelinase pathway regulates packaging of the prion protein into exosomes.  

PubMed

Prion diseases are a group of transmissible, fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with the misfolding of the host-encoded prion protein, PrP(C), into a disease-associated form, PrP(Sc). The transmissible prion agent is principally formed of PrP(Sc) itself and is associated with extracellular vesicles known as exosomes. Exosomes are released from cells both in vitro and in vivo, and have been proposed as a mechanism by which prions spread intercellularly. The biogenesis of exosomes occurs within the endosomal system, through formation of intraluminal vesicles (ILVs), which are subsequently released from cells as exosomes. ILV formation is known to be regulated by the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, although an alternative neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) pathway has been suggested to also regulate this process. Here, we investigate a role for the nSMase pathway in exosome biogenesis and packaging of PrP into these vesicles. Inhibition of the nSMase pathway using GW4869 revealed a role for the nSMase pathway in both exosome formation and PrP packaging. In agreement, targeted knockdown of nSMase1 and nSMase2 in mouse neurons using lentivirus-mediated RNAi also decreases exosome release, demonstrating the nSMase pathway regulates the biogenesis and release of exosomes. We also demonstrate that PrP(C) packaging is dependent on nSMase2, whereas the packaging of disease-associated PrP(Sc) into exosomes occurs independently of nSMase2. These findings provide further insight into prion transmission and identify a pathway which directly assists exosome-mediated transmission of prions. PMID:25505180

Guo, Belinda B; Bellingham, Shayne A; Hill, Andrew F

2015-02-01

236

Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Structural Stability of Wild-Type Rabbit Prion Protein: Surface Electrostatic Charge Distributions  

E-print Network

Prion diseases cover a large range of neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals, which are invariably fatal and highly infectious. By now there have not been some effective therapeutic approaches or medications to treat all prion diseases. Fortunately, numerous experimental experiences have showed that rabbits are resistant to infection from prion diseases isolated from other species, and recently the molecular structures of rabbit prion protein and its mutants were released into protein data bank. Prion diseases are "protein structural conformational" diseases. Thus, in order to reveal some secrets of prion diseases, it is amenable to study rabbits by techniques of the molecular structure and its dynamics. Wen et al. (PLoS One 5(10) e13273 (2010), Journal of Biological Chemistry 285(41) 31682-31693 (2010)) reported the surface of NMR RaPrPC(124-228) molecular snapshot has a large land of continuous positive charge distribution, which contributes to the structural stability of rabbit prion protein. Thi...

Zhang, Jiapu

2011-01-01

237

Normal levels of the antiprion proteins Btn2 and Cur1 cure most newly formed [URE3] prion variants.  

PubMed

[URE3] is an amyloid prion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ure2p, a regulator of nitrogen catabolism. Overproduction of Btn2p, involved in late endosome to Golgi protein transport, or its paralog Cur1p, cures [URE3]. Btn2p, in curing, is colocalized with Ure2p in a single locus, suggesting sequestration of Ure2p amyloid filaments. We find that most [URE3] variants generated in a btn2 cur1 double mutant are cured by restoring normal levels of Btn2p and Cur1p, with both proteins needed for efficient curing. The [URE3] variants cured by normal levels of Btn2p and Cur1p all have low seed number, again suggesting a seed sequestration mechanism. Hsp42 overproduction also cures [URE3], and Hsp42p aids Btn2 overproduction curing. Cur1p is needed for Hsp42 overproduction curing of [URE3], but neither Btn2p nor Cur1p is needed for overproduction curing by the other. Although hsp42? strains stably propagate [URE3-1], hsp26? destabilizes this prion. Thus, Btn2p and Cur1p are antiprion system components at their normal levels, acting with Hsp42. Btn2p is related in sequence to human Hook proteins, involved in aggresome formation and other transport activities. PMID:24938787

Wickner, Reed B; Bezsonov, Evgeny; Bateman, David A

2014-07-01

238

Transgenic models of prion disease.  

PubMed

There is growing concern that bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) may have passed from cattle to humans, resulting in approximately 70 cases of an atypical, variant CJD (vCJD) in teenagers and young adults. We report here that transgenic (Tg) mice expressing full-length bovine (Bo) PrP serially propagate BSE prions and that there is no species barrier for transmission from cattle to Tg(BoPrP) mice. Surprisingly, these same mice were also highly susceptible to vCJD and natural sheep scrapie. The incubation times (approximately 250 d), neuropathology, and PrP(Sc) isoforms in Tg(BoPrP) mice inoculated with vCJD and BSE brain extracts were indistinguishable and differed dramatically from those seen in these mice injected with natural scrapie. In efforts to identify PrP sequences required for prion formation, we found that a redacted prion protein of only 106 amino acids (PrP106) containing two large deletions supported prion propagation. In Tg(PrP106) mice, an artificial transmission barrier for the passage of full-length mouse prions was diminished by the coexpression of full-length wt MoPrP(C), suggesting that wt MoPrP acts in trans to accelerate the replication of "miniprions" containing PrP(Sc)106. Following a single passage (approximately 300 d) in Tg(PrP106) mice, the miniprions efficiently transmitted disease to Tg(PrP106) mice after only approximately 66 days. Our findings with Tg(BoPrP) mice provide compelling evidence that prions from cattle with BSE have infected humans and caused fatal neurodegeneration, the unique features of miniprions offer new insights into the mechanism of prion replication, and the trans-acting effects of full-length PrP coexpression suggest a new approach to the development of even more efficient animal models for prion diseases. PMID:11214913

Scott, M R; Supattapone, S; Nguyen, H O; DeArmond, S J; Prusiner, S B

2000-01-01

239

Identification of Misfolded Proteins in Body Fluids for the Diagnosis of Prion Diseases  

PubMed Central

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or prion diseases are fatal rare neurodegenerative disorders affecting man and animals and caused by a transmissible infectious agent. TSE diseases are characterized by spongiform brain lesions with neuronal loss and the abnormal deposition in the CNS, and to less extent in other tissues, of an insoluble and protease resistant form of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), named PrPTSE. In man, TSE diseases affect usually people over 60 years of age with no evident disease-associated risk factors. In some cases, however, TSE diseases are unequivocally linked to infectious episodes related to the use of prion-contaminated medicines, medical devices, or meat products as in the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Clinical signs occur months or years after infection, and during this silent period PrPTSE, the only reliable marker of infection, is not easily measurable in blood or other accessible tissues or body fluids causing public health concerns. To overcome the limit of PrPTSE detection, several highly sensitive assays have been developed, but attempts to apply these techniques to blood of infected hosts have been unsuccessful or not yet validated. An update on the latest advances for the detection of misfolded prion protein in body fluids is provided. PMID:24027585

Pocchiari, Maurizio

2013-01-01

240

Distinct prion proteins in short and long scrapie incubation period mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Prn-i gene, controlling scrapie incubation period, is linked to or congruent with the murine prion protein (PrP) gene, Prn-p. In prototypic mouse strains with long (l\\/Ln) and short (NZW) incubation periods, Prn-p transcription is initiated at similar multiple sites. The predicted NZW and l\\/Ln PrP proteins differ at codons 108 and 189. Codon 189, highly conserved in mammals, lies

D Westaway; P A Goodman; C A Mirenda; M P McKinley; G A Carlson; S B Prusiner

1987-01-01

241

In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies  

PubMed Central

Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; BHS) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of CWD in cervids. No TSEs have been documented in BHS, but the susceptibility of this species to TSEs remains unknown. Results We acquired a library of BHS tissues and found no evidence of preexisting TSEs in these animals. The prion protein gene (Prnp) in all BHS in our library was identical to scrapie-susceptible domestic sheep (A136R154Q171 genotype). Using an in vitro prion protein conversion assay, which has been previously used to assess TSE species barriers and, in our study appears to recollect known species barriers in mice, we assessed the potential transmissibility of TSEs to BHS. As expected based upon Prnp genotype, we observed BHS prion protein conversion by classical scrapie agent and evidence for a species barrier between transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BHS. Interestingly, our data suggest that the species barrier of BHS to white-tailed deer or wapiti CWD agents is likely low. We also used protein misfolding cyclic amplification to confirm that CWD, but not TME, can template prion protein misfolding in A136R154Q171 genotype sheep. Conclusions Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including animal studies, is warranted. The lack of reported TSEs in BHS may be attributable to other host factors or a lack of TSE surveillance in this species. PMID:23938169

2013-01-01

242

Unique structural properties associated with mouse prion ?105–125 protein  

PubMed Central

Murine prion protein deleted for residues 105–125 is intrinsically neurotoxic and mediates a TSE-like phenotype in transgenic mice. Equivalent and overlapping deletions were expressed in E.coli, purified and analyzed. Among mutants spanning the region 95–135, a construct lacking solely residues 105–125 had distinct properties when compared with the full-length prion protein 23–231 or other deletions. This distinction was also apparent followed expression in eukaryotic cells. Unlike the full-length protein, all deletion mutants failed to bind to synthetic membranes in vitro. These data suggest a novel structure for the 105–125 deleted variant that may relate to its biological properties. PMID:23764837

Patel, Avnish; Vasiljevic, Snezana; Jones, Ian M.

2013-01-01

243

Cross-talk between prion protein and quadruplex-forming nucleic acids: a dynamic complex formation  

PubMed Central

Prion protein (PrP) is involved in lethal neurodegenerative diseases, and many issues remain unclear about its physio-pathological role. Quadruplex-forming nucleic acids (NAs) have been found to specifically bind to both PrP cellular and pathological isoforms. To clarify the relevance of these interactions, thermodynamic, kinetic and structural studies have been performed, using isothermal titration calorimetry, surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism methodologies. Three quadruplex-forming sequences, d(TGGGGT), r(GGAGGAGGAGGA), d(GGAGGAGGAGGA), and various forms of PrP were selected for this study. Our results showed that these quadruplexes exhibit a high affinity and specificity toward PrP, with KD values within the range 62÷630 nM, and a weaker affinity toward a PrP-? oligomer, which mimics the pathological isoform. We demonstrated that the NA quadruplex architecture is the structural determinant for the recognition by both PrP isoforms. Furthermore, we spotted both PrP N-terminal and C-terminal domains as the binding regions involved in the interaction with DNA/RNAs, using several PrP truncated forms. Interestingly, a reciprocally induced structure loss was observed upon PrP–NA interaction. Our results allowed to surmise a quadruplex unwinding-activity of PrP, that may have a feedback in vivo. PMID:23104426

Cavaliere, Paola; Pagano, Bruno; Granata, Vincenzo; Prigent, Stephanie; Rezaei, Human; Giancola, Concetta; Zagari, Adriana

2013-01-01

244

Prion proteins in subpopulations of white blood cells from patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  

PubMed Central

Recent cases of prion transmission in humans following transfusions using blood donated by asymptomatic variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) patients implicate the presence of prion infectivity in peripheral blood. In this study, we examined the levels of the normal, cellular prion protein (PrPC) and the disease-causing isoform (PrPSc) in subpopulations of circulating white blood cells (WBC) from sporadic (s) CJD patients, age-matched neurological controls and healthy donors. Though widely distributed, the highest levels of PrPC were found in a subpopulation of T lymphocytes: ~12,000 PrPC molecules were found per CD4+CD45RA-CD62L- effector memory T helper cell. While platelets expressed low levels of PrPC on their surface, their high abundance in circulation resulted in the majority of PrPC being platelet associated. Using quantitative FACS analysis, we found that neither WBC composition nor the amount of cell-surface PrPC molecules was altered in patients dying of sCJD. Eight different WBC fraction types from the peripheral blood of sCJD patients were assessed for PrPSc. We were unable to find any evidence for PrPSc in purified granulocytes, monocytes, B cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, NK cells, non-classical ??T cells, or platelets. If human WBCs harbor prion infectivity in sCJD patients, then the levels are likely to be low. PMID:19434060

Choi, Ed M.; Geschwind, Michael D.; Deering, Camille; Pomeroy, Kristen; Kuo, Amy; Miller, Bruce L.; Safar, Jiri G.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

2009-01-01

245

Efficient Uptake and Dissemination of Scrapie Prion Protein by Astrocytes and Fibroblasts from Adult Hamster Brain  

PubMed Central

Prion infections target neurons and lead to neuronal loss. However, the role of non-neuronal cells in the initiation and spread of infection throughout the brain remains unclear despite the fact these cells can also propagate prion infectivity. To evaluate how different brain cells process scrapie prion protein (PrPres) during acute infection, we exposed neuron-enriched and non-neuronal cell cultures from adult hamster brain to fluorescently-labeled purified PrPres and followed the cultures by live cell confocal imaging over time. Non-neuronal cells present in both types of cultures, specifically astrocytes and fibroblasts, internalized PrPres more efficiently than neurons. PrPres was trafficked to late endosomal/lysosomal compartments and rapidly transported throughout the cell bodies and processes of all cell types, including contacts between astrocytes and neurons. These observations suggest that astrocytes and meningeal fibroblasts play an as yet unappreciated role in prion infections via efficient uptake and dissemination of PrPres. PMID:25635871

Hollister, Jason R.; Lee, Kil Sun; Dorward, David W.; Baron, Gerald S.

2015-01-01

246

A survey and a molecular dynamics study on the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins  

E-print Network

Prion diseases are invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals. Unlike most other amyloid forming neurodegenerative diseases, these can be highly infectious. Prion diseases occur in a variety of species. They include the fatal human neurodegenerative diseases Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI), Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), Kuru, the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or 'mad-cow' disease) in cattle, the chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep and goats, etc. Transmission across the species barrier to humans, especially in the case of BSE in Europe, CWD in North America, and variant CJDs (vCJDs) in young people of UK, is a major public health concern. Fortunately, scientists reported that the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins (PrP) controls the formation of diseased prions. This article gives a detailed survey on PrP hydrophobic region and does molecular dynamics studies of human PrP(110-136...

Zhang, Jiapu

2014-01-01

247

Efficient uptake and dissemination of scrapie prion protein by astrocytes and fibroblasts from adult hamster brain.  

PubMed

Prion infections target neurons and lead to neuronal loss. However, the role of non-neuronal cells in the initiation and spread of infection throughout the brain remains unclear despite the fact these cells can also propagate prion infectivity. To evaluate how different brain cells process scrapie prion protein (PrPres) during acute infection, we exposed neuron-enriched and non-neuronal cell cultures from adult hamster brain to fluorescently-labeled purified PrPres and followed the cultures by live cell confocal imaging over time. Non-neuronal cells present in both types of cultures, specifically astrocytes and fibroblasts, internalized PrPres more efficiently than neurons. PrPres was trafficked to late endosomal/lysosomal compartments and rapidly transported throughout the cell bodies and processes of all cell types, including contacts between astrocytes and neurons. These observations suggest that astrocytes and meningeal fibroblasts play an as yet unappreciated role in prion infections via efficient uptake and dissemination of PrPres. PMID:25635871

Hollister, Jason R; Lee, Kil Sun; Dorward, David W; Baron, Gerald S

2015-01-01

248

Copper binding to the prion protein: structural implications of four identical cooperative binding sites.  

PubMed

Evidence is growing to support a functional role for the prion protein (PrP) in copper metabolism. Copper ions appear to bind to the protein in a highly conserved octapeptide repeat region (sequence PHGGGWGQ) near the N terminus. To delineate the site and mode of binding of Cu(II) to the PrP, the copper-binding properties of peptides of varying lengths corresponding to 2-, 3-, and 4-octarepeat sequences have been probed by using various spectroscopic techniques. A two-octarepeat peptide binds a single Cu(II) ion with Kd approximately 6 microM whereas a four-octarepeat peptide cooperatively binds four Cu(II) ions. Circular dichroism spectra indicate a distinctive structuring of the octarepeat region on Cu(II) binding. Visible absorption, visible circular dichroism, and electron spin resonance spectra suggest that the coordination sphere of the copper is identical for 2, 3, or 4 octarepeats, consisting of a square-planar geometry with three nitrogen ligands and one oxygen ligand. Consistent with the pH dependence of Cu(II) binding, proton NMR spectroscopy indicates that the histidine residues in each octarepeat are coordinated to the Cu(II) ion. Our working model for the structure of the complex shows the histidine residues in successive octarepeats bridged between two copper ions, with both the Nepsilon2 and Ndelta1 imidazole nitrogen of each histidine residue coordinated and the remaining coordination sites occupied by a backbone amide nitrogen and a water molecule. This arrangement accounts for the cooperative nature of complex formation and for the apparent evolutionary requirement for four octarepeats in the PrP. PMID:10051591

Viles, J H; Cohen, F E; Prusiner, S B; Goodin, D B; Wright, P E; Dyson, H J

1999-03-01

249

Folding of prion protein to its native alpha-helical conformation is under kinetic control.  

PubMed

The recombinant mouse prion protein (MoPrP) can be folded either to a monomeric alpha-helical or oligomeric beta-sheet-rich isoform. By using circular dichroism spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography, we show that the beta-rich isoform of MoPrP is thermodynamically more stable than the native alpha-helical isoform. The conformational transition from the alpha-helical to beta-rich isoform is separated by a large energetic barrier that is associated with unfolding and with a higher order kinetic process related to oligomerization. Under partially denaturing acidic conditions, MoPrP avoids the kinetic trap posed by the alpha-helical isoform and folds directly to the thermodynamically more stable beta-rich isoform. Our data demonstrate that the folding of the prion protein to its native alpha-helical monomeric conformation is under kinetic control. PMID:11306559

Baskakov, I V; Legname, G; Prusiner, S B; Cohen, F E

2001-06-01

250

In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including animal studies, is warranted. The lack of reported TSEs in BHS may be attributable to other host factors or a lack of TSE surveillance in this species.

Johnson, Christopher J.; Morawski, A.R.; Carlson, C.M.; Chang, H.

2013-01-01

251

?-Helical to ?-Helical Conformation Change in the C-Terminal of the Mammalian Prion Protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ all-atom structure-based models with mixed basis contact maps to explore whether there are any significant geometric or energetic constraints limiting conjectured conformational transitions between the alpha-helical (?H) and the left handed beta helical (LHBH) conformations for the C-terminal (residues 166-226) of the mammalian prion protein. The LHBH structure has been proposed to describe infectious oligomers and one class of in vitro grown fibrils, as well as possibly self- templating the conversion of normal cellular prion protein to the infectious form. Our results confirm that the kinetics of the conformation change are not strongely limited by large scale geometry modification and there exists an overall preference for the LHBH conformation.

Singh, Jesse; Whitford, Paul; Hayre, Natha; Cox, Daniel; Onuchic, José.

2011-03-01

252

Protein Transmission, Seeding and Degradation: Key Steps for ?-Synuclein Prion-Like Propagation  

PubMed Central

Converging lines of evidence suggest that cell-to-cell transmission and the self-propagation of pathogenic amyloidogenic proteins play a central role in the initiation and the progression of several neurodegenerative disorders. This "prion-like" hypothesis has been recently reported for ?-synuclein, a presynaptic protein implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and related disorders. This review summarizes recent findings on ?-synuclein prion-like propagation, focusing on its transmission, seeding and degradation and discusses some key questions that remain to be explored. Understanding how ?-synuclein exits cells and propagates from one brain region to another will lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of PD, aiming at slowing or stopping the disease progression.

Ximerakis, Methodios; Vekrellis, Kostas

2014-01-01

253

Spongiform encephalopathy in siblings with no evidence of protease-resistant prion protein or a mutation in the prion protein gene.  

PubMed

We discuss relevant aspects in two siblings with a neurodegenerative process of unclear aetiology who developed progressive dementia with global aphasia and hyperoral behaviour at the ages of 39 and 46 years and who died 6 and 5 years after disease onset. The cases were reported to the National Reference Center for TSE Surveillance in Göttingen, Germany. Detailed clinical examinations, CSF, blood samples, and copies of the important diagnostic tests (magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalogram, laboratory tests) were obtained. Further neuropathological and genetic analyses were performed. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging of both siblings showed prominent changes in signal intensity, especially in the left medial temporal cortex, but also the hippocampal formation. Neuropathological examination revealed spongiform changes, neuronal loss, and astrocytic gliosis, which are typical in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. However, no prion protein deposits were detectable by immunohistochemical analysis, Western blot, or PET blot, though abundant tau protein deposits were observed. A mutation in the coding region of the prion protein genes of both siblings was excluded. A detailed search of the literature revealed no other cases with a similar clinical and neuropathological appearance. While the disease aetiology remains unclear, the findings point to a neurodegenerative process and most likely a genetic disease. PMID:23546304

Varges, Daniela; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Wemheuer, Wiebke M; Damman, Insa; Schmitz, Matthias; Cramm, Maria; Kallenberg, Kai; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Elkenani, Manar; Markwort, Susanne; Faist, Michael; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Windl, Otto; Zerr, Inga

2013-07-01

254

Inactivation of template-directed misfolding of infectious prion protein by ozone.  

PubMed

Misfolded prions (PrP(Sc)) are well known for their resistance to conventional decontamination processes. The potential risk of contamination of the water environment, as a result of disposal of specified risk materials (SRM), has raised public concerns. Ozone is commonly utilized in the water industry for inactivation of microbial contaminants and was tested in this study for its ability to inactivate prions (263K hamster scrapie = PrP(Sc)). Treatment variables included initial ozone dose (7.6 to 25.7 mg/liter), contact time (5 s and 5 min), temperature (4°C and 20°C), and pH (pH 4.4, 6.0, and 8.0). Exposure of dilute suspensions of the infected 263K hamster brain homogenates (IBH) (0.01%) to ozone resulted in the in vitro destruction of the templating properties of PrP(Sc), as measured by the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) assay. The highest levels of prion inactivation (?4 log(10)) were observed with ozone doses of 13.0 mg/liter, at pH 4.4 and 20°C, resulting in a CT (the product of residual ozone concentration and contact time) value as low as 0.59 mg · liter(-1) min. A comparison of ozone CT requirements among various pathogens suggests that prions are more susceptible to ozone degradation than some model bacteria and protozoa and that ozone treatment may be an effective solution for inactivating prions in water and wastewater. PMID:22138993

Ding, Ning; Neumann, Norman F; Price, Luke M; Braithwaite, Shannon L; Balachandran, Aru; Belosevic, Miodrag; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal

2012-02-01

255

The POM monoclonals: a comprehensive set of antibodies to non-overlapping prion protein epitopes.  

PubMed

PrP(Sc), a misfolded and aggregated form of the cellular prion protein PrP(C), is the only defined constituent of the transmissible agent causing prion diseases. Expression of PrP(C) in the host organism is necessary for prion replication and for prion neurotoxicity. Understanding prion diseases necessitates detailed structural insights into PrP(C) and PrP(Sc). Towards this goal, we have developed a comprehensive collection of monoclonal antibodies denoted POM1 to POM19 and directed against many different epitopes of mouse PrP(C). Three epitopes are located within the N-terminal octarepeat region, one is situated within the central unstructured region, and four epitopes are discontinuous within the globular C-proximal domain of PrP(C). Some of these antibodies recognize epitopes that are resilient to protease digestion in PrP(Sc). Other antibodies immunoprecipitate PrP(C), but not PrP(Sc). A third group was found to immunoprecipitate both PrP isoforms. Some of the latter antibodies could be blocked with epitope-mimicking peptides, and incubation with an excess of these peptides allowed for immunochromatography of PrP(C) and PrP(Sc). Amino-proximal antibodies were found to react with repetitive PrP(C) epitopes, thereby vastly increasing their avidity. We have also created functional single-chain miniantibodies from selected POMs, which retained the binding characteristics despite their low molecular mass. The POM collection, thus, represents a unique set of reagents allowing for studies with a variety of techniques, including western blotting, ELISA, immunoprecipitation, conformation-dependent immunoassays, and plasmon surface plasmon resonance-based assays. PMID:19060956

Polymenidou, Magdalini; Moos, Rita; Scott, Mike; Sigurdson, Christina; Shi, Yong-Zhong; Yajima, Bill; Hafner-Bratkovic, Iva; Jerala, Roman; Hornemann, Simone; Wuthrich, Kurt; Bellon, Anne; Vey, Martin; Garen, Graciela; James, Michael N G; Kav, Nat; Aguzzi, Adriano

2008-01-01

256

Molecular dynamics studies on the NMR structures of rabbit prion protein wild type and mutants: surface electrostatic charge distributions.  

PubMed

Prion diseases are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species such as sheep and goats, cattle, deer and elk, and humans. But for rabbits, studies have shown that they have a low susceptibility to be infected by prion diseases. This paper does molecular dynamics (MD) studies of rabbit NMR structures (of the wild type and its two mutants of two surface residues), in order to understand the specific mechanism of rabbit prion proteins (RaPrP(C)). Protein surface electrostatic charge distributions are specially focused to analyze the MD trajectories. This paper can conclude that surface electrostatic charge distributions indeed contribute to the structural stability of wild-type RaPrP(C); this may be useful for the medicinal treatment of prion diseases. PMID:25105226

Zhang, Jiapu; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yuanli

2014-08-01

257

Prion induction involves an ancient system for the sequestration of aggregated proteins and heritable changes in prion fragmentation  

E-print Network

When the translation termination factor Sup35 adopts the prion state, [PSI+], the read-through of stop codons increases, uncovering hidden genetic variation and giving rise to new, often beneficial, phenotypes. Evidence ...

Tyedmers, Jens

258

Induced Prion Protein Controls Immune-Activated Retroviruses in the Mouse Spleen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The prion protein (PrP) is crucially involved in transmissiblespongiform encephalopathies(TSE), but neither its exact role in disease nor its physiological function are known. Here we show for mice, using histological, immunochemical and PCR-based methods, that stimulation of innate resistance was followed by appearance of numerous endogenous,retroviruses and ensuing PrP up-regulation in germinal centers of the spleen. Subsequently, the activated

Marius Lötscher; Mike Recher; Karl S. Lang; Alexander Navarini; Lukas Hunziker; Roger Santimaria; Markus Glatzel; Petra Schwarz; Jürg Böni; Rolf M. Zinkernagel; Derya Unutmaz

2007-01-01

259

Subcellular Colocalization of the Cellular and Scrapie Prion Proteins in Caveolae-Like Membranous Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of transgenetic studies argue that the scrapie isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) interacts with the substrate cellular PrP (PrPC) during conversion into nascent PrPSc. While PrPSc appears to accumulate primarily in lysosomes, caveolae-like domains (CLDs) have been suggested to be the site where PrPC is converted into PrPSc. We report herein that CLDs isolated from scrapie-infected neuroblastoma (ScN2a)

Martin Vey; Susanne Pilkuhn; Holger Wille; Randal Nixon; Stephen J. Dearmond; Eric J. Smart; Richard G. W. Anderson; Albert Taraboulos

1996-01-01

260

Absolute Quantification of Prion Protein (90-231) Using Stable Isotope-Labeled Chymotryptic Peptide Standards in a LC-MRM AQUA Workflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial evidence indicates that the disease-associated conformer of the prion protein (PrPTSE) constitutes the etiologic agent in prion diseases. These diseases affect multiple mammalian species. PrPTSE has the ability to convert the conformation of the normal prion protein (PrPC) into a ?-sheet rich form resistant to proteinase K digestion. Common immunological techniques lack the sensitivity to detect PrPTSE at subfemtomole levels, whereas animal bioassays, cell culture, and in vitro conversion assays offer higher sensitivity but lack the high-throughput the immunological assays offer. Mass spectrometry is an attractive alternative to the above assays as it offers high-throughput, direct measurement of a protein's signature peptide, often with subfemtomole sensitivities. Although a liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MRM) method has been reported for PrPTSE, the chemical composition and lack of amino acid sequence conservation of the signature peptide may compromise its accuracy and make it difficult to apply to multiple species. Here, we demonstrate that an alternative protease (chymotrypsin) can produce signature peptides suitable for a LC-MRM absolute quantification (AQUA) experiment. The new method offers several advantages, including: (1) a chymotryptic signature peptide lacking chemically active residues (Cys, Met) that can confound assay accuracy; (2) low attomole limits of detection and quantitation (LOD and LOQ); and (3) a signature peptide retaining the same amino acid sequence across most mammals naturally susceptible to prion infection as well as important laboratory models. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the use of a non-tryptic peptide in a LC-MRM AQUA workflow.

Sturm, Robert; Sheynkman, Gloria; Booth, Clarissa; Smith, Lloyd M.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Li, Lingjun

2012-09-01

261

Cellular prion protein electron microscopy: attempts\\/limits and clues to a synaptic trait. Implications in neurodegeneration process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prion diseases are caused by an infectious agent constituted by a rogue protein called prion (PrPSc) of neuronal origin (PrPc) and are exemplified by Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle. Considerable\\u000a efforts have been made to understand the cerebral damage caused by these diseases but a clear comprehensive view cannot be\\u000a achieved without defining the neurophysiological

Jean-Guy Fournier

2008-01-01

262

A solid-phase assay for identification of modulators of prion protein interactions.  

PubMed

The progression of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is characterized in part by accumulation of a proteinase K-resistant form of the prion protein, which has been converted from the endogenous, proteinase K-sensitive form. This conversion reaction provides a target for possible anti-TSE strategies. We have adapted a cell-free conversion reaction to a high-throughput, solid-phase format that can be used to screen possible therapeutic compounds for inhibitory activity or to illuminate inhibition and conversion mechanisms. The solid-phase assay was compatible with reactions performed under a variety of conditions. Using this assay, we report that phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate, a known modulator of conversion, inhibited conversion by interfering with binding between the protease-sensitive and the protease-resistant forms of the prion protein. A biotinylated form of the protease-sensitive prion protein was successfully converted to the protease-resistant isoform in the solid-phase assay, indicating that biotinylation provides a nonisotopic labeling strategy for large-scale screens. PMID:14622959

Maxson, Laura; Wong, Caíne; Herrmann, Lynn M; Caughey, Byron; Baron, Gerald S

2003-12-01

263

The role of the 132–160 region in prion protein conformational transitions  

PubMed Central

The native conformation of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC) is metastable. As a result of a post-translational event, PrPC can convert to the scrapie form (PrPSc), which emerges as the essential constituent of infectious prions. Despite thorough research, the mechanism underlying this conformational transition remains unknown. However, several studies have highlighted the importance of the N-terminal region spanning residues 90–154 in PrP folding. In order to understand why PrP folds into two different conformational states exhibiting distinct secondary and tertiary structure, and to gain insight into the involvement of this particular region in PrP transconformation, we studied the pressure-induced unfolding/ refolding of recombinant Syrian hamster PrP expanding from residues 90–231, and compared it with heat unfolding. By using two intrinsic fluorescent variants of this protein (Y150W and F141W), conformational changes confined to the 132–160 segment were monitored. Multiple conformational states of the Trp variants, characterized by their spectroscopic properties (fluorescence and UV absorbance in the fourth derivative mode), were achieved by tuning the experimental conditions of pressure and temperature. Further insight into unexplored conformational states of the prion protein, likely to mimic the in vivo structural change, was obtained from pressure-assisted cold unfolding. Furthermore, salt-induced conformational changes suggested a structural stabilizing role of Tyr150 and Phe141 residues, slowing down the conversion to a ?-sheet form. PMID:15772306

Torrent, Joan; Alvarez-Martinez, Maria Teresa; Liautard, Jean-Pierre; Balny, Claude; Lange, Reinhard

2005-01-01

264

Functional role of Tia1/Pub1 and Sup35 prion domains: directing protein synthesis machinery to the tubulin cytoskeleton.  

PubMed

Tia1/Pub1 is a stress granule component carrying a Q/N-rich prion domain. We provide direct evidence that Tia1 forms a prion in yeast. Moreover, Tia1/Pub1 acts cooperatively with release factor Sup35/eRF3 to establish a two-protein self-propagating state. This two-protein prion driven by the Q/N-rich prion domains of Sup35 and Tia1/Pub1 can be visualized as distinctive line structures along tubulin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, we find that tubulin-associated complex containing Pub1 and Sup35 oligomers normally exists in yeast, and its assembly depends on prion domains of Pub1 and Sup35. This Sup35/Pub1 complex, which also contains TUB1 mRNA and components of translation machinery, is important for the integrity of the tubulin cytoskeleton: PUB1 disruption and Sup35 depletion from the complex lead to cytoskeletal defects. We propose that the complex is implicated in protein synthesis at the site of microtubule assembly. Thus our study identifies the role for prion domains in the assembly of multiprotein complexes. PMID:24981173

Li, Xiang; Rayman, Joseph B; Kandel, Eric R; Derkatch, Irina L

2014-07-17

265

Integrity of Helix 2-Helix 3 Domain of the PrP Protein Is Not Mandatory for Prion Replication*  

PubMed Central

The process of prion conversion is not yet well understood at the molecular level. The regions critical for the conformational change of PrP remain mostly debated and the extent of sequence change acceptable for prion conversion is poorly documented. To achieve progress on these issues, we applied a reverse genetic approach using the Rov cell system. This allowed us to test the susceptibility of a number of insertion mutants to conversion into prion in the absence of wild-type PrP molecules. We were able to propagate several prions with 8 to 16 extra amino acids, including a polyglycine stretch and His or FLAG tags, inserted in the middle of the protease-resistant fragment. These results demonstrate the possibility to increase the length of the loop between helices H2 and H3 up to 4-fold, without preventing prion replication. They also indicate that this loop probably remains unstructured in PrPSc. We also showed that bona fide prions can be produced following insertion of octapeptides in the two C-terminal turns of H2. These insertions do not interfere with the overall fold of the H2-H3 domain indicating that the highly conserved sequence of the terminal part of H2 is not critical for the conversion. Altogether these data showed that the amplitude of modifications acceptable for prion conversion in the core of the globular domain of PrP is much greater than one might have assumed. These observations should help to refine structural models of PrPSc and elucidate the conformational changes underlying prions generation. PMID:22511770

Salamat, Khalid; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Herzog, Laetitia; Jaumain, Emilie; Béringue, Vincent; Rezaei, Human; Pastore, Annalisa; Laude, Hubert; Dron, Michel

2012-01-01

266

Integrity of helix 2-helix 3 domain of the PrP protein is not mandatory for prion replication.  

PubMed

The process of prion conversion is not yet well understood at the molecular level. The regions critical for the conformational change of PrP remain mostly debated and the extent of sequence change acceptable for prion conversion is poorly documented. To achieve progress on these issues, we applied a reverse genetic approach using the Rov cell system. This allowed us to test the susceptibility of a number of insertion mutants to conversion into prion in the absence of wild-type PrP molecules. We were able to propagate several prions with 8 to 16 extra amino acids, including a polyglycine stretch and His or FLAG tags, inserted in the middle of the protease-resistant fragment. These results demonstrate the possibility to increase the length of the loop between helices H2 and H3 up to 4-fold, without preventing prion replication. They also indicate that this loop probably remains unstructured in PrP(Sc). We also showed that bona fide prions can be produced following insertion of octapeptides in the two C-terminal turns of H2. These insertions do not interfere with the overall fold of the H2-H3 domain indicating that the highly conserved sequence of the terminal part of H2 is not critical for the conversion. Altogether these data showed that the amplitude of modifications acceptable for prion conversion in the core of the globular domain of PrP is much greater than one might have assumed. These observations should help to refine structural models of PrP(Sc) and elucidate the conformational changes underlying prions generation. PMID:22511770

Salamat, Khalid; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Herzog, Laetitia; Jaumain, Emilie; Béringue, Vincent; Rezaei, Human; Pastore, Annalisa; Laude, Hubert; Dron, Michel

2012-06-01

267

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of prion protein bound to the Fab fragment of the POM1 antibody  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases are neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the con­version of the cellular prion protein PrPc to the pathogenic isoform PrPsc. Several antibodies are known to interact with the cellular prion protein and to inhibit this transition. An antibody Fab fragment, Fab POM1, was produced that recognizes a structural motif of the C-terminal domain of mouse prion protein. To study the mechanism by which Fab POM1 recognizes and binds the prion molecule, the complex between Fab POM1 and the C-terminal domain of mouse prion (residues 120–232) was prepared and crystallized. Crystals of this binary complex belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.68, b = 106.9, c = 76.25?Å, ? = 95.6°. PMID:22102029

Baral, Pravas Kumar; Wieland, Barbara; Swayampakula, Mridula; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Aguzzi, Adriano; Kav, Nat N. V.; James, Michael N. G.

2011-01-01

268

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of prion protein bound to the Fab fragment of the POM1 antibody.  

PubMed

Prion diseases are neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the conversion of the cellular prion protein PrP(c) to the pathogenic isoform PrP(sc). Several antibodies are known to interact with the cellular prion protein and to inhibit this transition. An antibody Fab fragment, Fab POM1, was produced that recognizes a structural motif of the C-terminal domain of mouse prion protein. To study the mechanism by which Fab POM1 recognizes and binds the prion molecule, the complex between Fab POM1 and the C-terminal domain of mouse prion (residues 120-232) was prepared and crystallized. Crystals of this binary complex belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.68, b = 106.9, c = 76.25 Å, ? = 95.6°. PMID:22102029

Baral, Pravas Kumar; Wieland, Barbara; Swayampakula, Mridula; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Aguzzi, Adriano; Kav, Nat N V; James, Michael N G

2011-10-01

269

Transcriptomic Analysis Brings New Insight into the Biological Role of the Prion Protein during Mouse Embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

The biological function of the Prion protein remains largely unknown but recent data revealed its implication in early zebrafish and mammalian embryogenesis. To gain further insight into its biological function, comparative transcriptomic analysis between FVB/N and FVB/N Prnp knockout mice was performed at early embryonic stages. RNAseq analysis revealed the differential expression of 73 and 263 genes at E6.5 and E7.5, respectively. The related metabolic pathways identified in this analysis partially overlap with those described in PrP1 and PrP2 knockdown zebrafish embryos and prion-infected mammalian brains and emphasize a potentially important role for the PrP family genes in early developmental processes. PMID:21858045

Khalifé, Manal; Young, Rachel; Passet, Bruno; Halliez, Sophie; Vilotte, Marthe; Jaffrezic, Florence; Marthey, Sylvain; Béringue, Vincent; Vaiman, Daniel; Le Provost, Fabienne; Laude, Hubert; Vilotte, Jean-Luc

2011-01-01

270

Transcriptomic analysis brings new insight into the biological role of the prion protein during mouse embryogenesis.  

PubMed

The biological function of the Prion protein remains largely unknown but recent data revealed its implication in early zebrafish and mammalian embryogenesis. To gain further insight into its biological function, comparative transcriptomic analysis between FVB/N and FVB/N Prnp knockout mice was performed at early embryonic stages. RNAseq analysis revealed the differential expression of 73 and 263 genes at E6.5 and E7.5, respectively. The related metabolic pathways identified in this analysis partially overlap with those described in PrP1 and PrP2 knockdown zebrafish embryos and prion-infected mammalian brains and emphasize a potentially important role for the PrP family genes in early developmental processes. PMID:21858045

Khalifé, Manal; Young, Rachel; Passet, Bruno; Halliez, Sophie; Vilotte, Marthe; Jaffrezic, Florence; Marthey, Sylvain; Béringue, Vincent; Vaiman, Daniel; Le Provost, Fabienne; Laude, Hubert; Vilotte, Jean-Luc

2011-01-01

271

Ultrastructural studies on scrapie prion protein crystals obtained from reverse micellar solutions.  

PubMed Central

The structural transition from the cellular prion protein (PrPC) that is rich in alpha-helices to the pathological form (PrPSc) that has a high beta-sheet content seems to be the fundamental event underlying the prion diseases. Determination of the structure of PrPSc and the N-terminally truncated PrP 27-30 has been complicated by their insolubility. Here we report the solubilization of PrP 27-30 through a system of reverse micelles that yields monomeric and dimeric PrP. Although solubilization of PrP 27-30 was not accompanied by any recognizable change in secondary structure as measured by FTIR spectroscopy, it did result in a loss of prion infectivity. The formation of small two- and three-dimensional crystals upon exposure to uranyl salts argues that soluble PrP 27-30 possesses considerable tertiary structure. The crystals of PrP 27-30 grown from reverse micellar solutions suggest a novel crystallization mechanism that might be applicable for other membrane proteins. A variety of different crystal lattices diffracted up to 1.85 nm by electron microscopy. Despite the lack of measurable biological activity, the structure of PrP 27-30 in these crystals may provide insight into the structural transition that occurs during PrPSc formation. PMID:9916037

Wille, H; Prusiner, S B

1999-01-01

272

Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein (hop): beyond interactions with chaperones and prion proteins.  

PubMed

The Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein (Hop), also known as stress-inducible protein 1 (STI1), has received considerable attention for diverse cellular functions in both healthy and diseased states. There is extensive evidence that intracellular Hop is a co-chaperone of the major chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90, playing an important role in the productive folding of Hsp90 client proteins. Consequently, Hop is implicated in a number of key signalling pathways, including aberrant pathways leading to cancer. However, Hop is also secreted and it is now well established that Hop also serves as a receptor for the prion protein, PrP(C). The intracellular and extracellular forms of Hop most likely represent two different isoforms, although the molecular determinants of these divergent functions are yet to be identified. There is also a growing body of research that reports the involvement of Hop in cellular activities that appear independent of either chaperones or PrP(C). While Hop has been shown to have various cellular functions, its biological function remains elusive. However, recent knockout studies in mammals suggest that Hop has an important role in embryonic development. This review provides a critical overview of the latest molecular, cellular and biological research on Hop, critically evaluating its function in healthy systems and how this function is adapted in diseases states. PMID:25487016

Baindur-Hudson, Swati; Edkins, Adrienne L; Blatch, Gregory L

2015-01-01

273

Motomasa Tanaka Recent progress in prion biology  

E-print Network

Motomasa Tanaka RIKEN BSI Recent progress in prion biology Abstract Proteins often misfold is the prion strain phenomenon, in which prion particles apparently composed of the same protein lead to phenotypically distinct heritable states. In this lecture, I will review recent progress in prion biology

Fukai, Tomoki

274

Binding of neural cell adhesion molecules (N-CAMs) to the cellular prion protein.  

PubMed

To identify molecular interaction partners of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), we sought to apply an in situ crosslinking method that maintains the microenvironment of PrP(C). Mild formaldehyde crosslinking of mouse neuroblastoma cells (N2a) that are susceptible to prion infection revealed the presence of PrP(C) in high molecular mass (HMM) protein complexes of 200 to 225 kDa. LC/MS/MS analysis identified three murine splice-variants of the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) in the complexes, which isolate with caveolae-like domains (CLDs). Enzymatic removal of N-linked sugar moieties did not disrupt the complexes, arguing that the interaction of PrP with N-CAM occurs through amino acid side-chains. Additionally, similar levels of PrP/N-CAM complexes were found in N2a and prion-infected N2a (ScN2a) cells. With the use of an N-CAM-specific peptide library, the PrP-binding site was determined to comprise beta-strands C and C' within the two consecutive fibronectin type III (FNIII) modules found in proximity of the membrane-attachment site of N-CAM. As revealed by in situ crosslinking of PrP deletion mutants, the PrP face of the binding site is formed by the N terminus, helix A (residues 144-154) and the adjacent loop region of PrP. N-CAM-deficient (N-CAM(-/-)) mice that were intracerebrally challenged with scrapie prions succumbed to disease with a mean incubation period of 122 (+/-4.1, SEM) days, arguing that N-CAM is not involved in PrP(Sc) replication. Our findings raise the possibility that N-CAM may join with PrP(C) in carrying out some as yet unidentified physiologic cellular function. PMID:11743735

Schmitt-Ulms, G; Legname, G; Baldwin, M A; Ball, H L; Bradon, N; Bosque, P J; Crossin, K L; Edelman, G M; DeArmond, S J; Cohen, F E; Prusiner, S B

2001-12-14

275

A simple quantitative model of macromolecular crowding effects on protein folding: Application to the murine prion protein(121-231)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of protein folding kinetics is applied to study the effects of macromolecular crowding on protein folding rate and stability. Macromolecular crowding is found to promote a decrease of the entropic cost of folding of proteins that produces an increase of both the stability and the folding rate. The acceleration of the folding rate due to macromolecular crowding is shown to be a topology-dependent effect. The model is applied to the folding dynamics of the murine prion protein (121-231). The differential effect of macromolecular crowding as a function of protein topology suffices to make non-native configurations relatively more accessible.

Bergasa-Caceres, Fernando; Rabitz, Herschel A.

2013-06-01

276

Biophysical and morphological studies on the dual interaction of non-octarepeat prion protein peptides with copper and nucleic acids.  

PubMed

Conversion of prion protein (PrP) to an altered conformer, the scrapie PrP (PrP(Sc)), is a critical step in the development of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Both Cu(II) and nucleic acid molecules have been implicated in this conversion. Full-length PrP can bind up to six copper ions; four Cu(II) binding sites are located in the octarepeat domain (residues 60-91), and His-96 and His-111 coordinate two additional copper ions. Experimental evidence shows that PrP binds different molecules, resulting in diverse cellular signaling events. However, there is little information about the interaction of macromolecular ligands with Cu(II)-bound PrP. Both RNA and DNA sequences can bind PrP, and this interaction results in reciprocal conformational changes. Here, we investigated the interaction of Cu(II) and nucleic acids with amyloidogenic non-octarepeat PrP peptide models (comprising human PrP residues 106-126 and hamster PrP residues 109-149) that retain His-111 as the copper-anchoring residue. The effect of Cu(II) and DNA or RNA sequences in the aggregation, conformation, and toxicity of PrP domains was investigated at low and neutral pH. Circular dichroism and EPR spectroscopy data indicate that interaction of the PrP peptides with Cu(II) and DNA occurs at pH 7. This dual interaction induces conformational changes in the peptides, modulating their aggregation, and affecting the morphology of the aggregated species, resulting in different cytotoxic effects. These results provide new insights into the role of Cu(II) and nucleic acid sequences in the structural conversion and aggregation of PrP, which are both critical events related to prion pathogenesis. PMID:24557708

Chaves, Juliana A P; Sanchez-López, Carolina; Gomes, Mariana P B; Sisnande, Tháyna; Macedo, Bruno; de Oliveira, Vanessa End; Braga, Carolina A C; Rangel, Luciana P; Silva, Jerson L; Quintanar, Liliana; Cordeiro, Yraima

2014-08-01

277

Dopamine induces the accumulation of insoluble prion protein and affects autophagic flux  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of protein aggregates is a histopathological hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases, but in most cases the aggregation occurs without defined mutations or clinical histories, suggesting that certain endogenous metabolites can promote aggregation of specific proteins. One example that supports this hypothesis is dopamine and its metabolites. Dopamine metabolism generates several oxidative metabolites that induce aggregation of ?-synuclein, and represents the main etiology of Parkinson's diseases. Because dopamine and its metabolites are unstable and can be highly reactive, we investigated whether these molecules can also affect other proteins that are prone to aggregate, such as cellular prion protein (PrPC). In this study, we showed that dopamine treatment of neuronal cells reduced the number of viable cells and increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as demonstrated in previous studies. Overall PrPC expression level was not altered by dopamine treatment, but its unglycosylated form was consistently reduced at 100 ?M of dopamine. At the same concentration, the level of phosphorylated mTOR and 4EBP1 was also reduced. Moreover, dopamine treatment decreased the solubility of PrPC, and increased its accumulation in autophagosomal compartments with concomitant induction of LC3-II and p62/SQSTM1 levels. In vitro oxidation of dopamine promoted formation of high-order oligomers of recombinant prion protein. These results suggest that dopamine metabolites alter the conformation of PrPC, which in turn is sorted to degradation pathway, causing autophagosome overload and attenuation of protein synthesis. Accumulation of PrPC aggregates is an important feature of prion diseases. Thus, this study brings new insight into the dopamine metabolism as a source of endogenous metabolites capable of altering PrPC solubility and its subcellular localization.

da Luz, Marcio H. M.; Peres, Italo T.; Santos, Tiago G.; Martins, Vilma R.; Icimoto, Marcelo Y.; Lee, Kil S.

2015-01-01

278

Disinfectants and Prions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prions are novel pathogens that are believed to be composed solely of protein. They are capable of converting a normal cellular protein into the infectious isoform and thereby propagating an infection. Prion infections are characterized by a long asymptomatic incubation period followed by a relative...

279

Stability of the ?-structure in prion protein: A molecular dynamics study based on polarized force field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conformational changes of the antiparallel ?-sheet in normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) of rat, bovine, and human are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations in both neutral and acidic environment. Using a recently developed simulation method based on an on-the-fly polarized protein-specific charge (PPC) update scheme during the simulation process, we evaluate and compare the cross-species performances of the ?-sheet during the early stage transition from the PrPC to its mutant configuration. Through this study, we observe the growth of the ?-sheet structure in all species studied with the extent of elongation in ?-sheet being different across the three species.

Xu, Zhijun; Lazim, Raudah; Mei, Ye; Zhang, Dawei

2012-06-01

280

Combined Pharmacological Induction of Hsp70 Suppresses Prion Protein Neurotoxicity in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases are rare and aggressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by the accumulation of misfolded, toxic conformations of the prion protein (PrP). Therapeutic strategies directed at reducing the levels of PrP offer the best chance of delaying or halting disease progression. The challenge, though, is to define pharmacologic targets that result in reduced PrP levels. We previously reported that expression of wild type hamster PrP in flies induces progressive locomotor dysfunction and accumulation of pathogenic PrP conformations, while co-expression of human Hsp70 delayed these changes. To validate the therapeutic potential of Hsp70, we treated flies with drugs known to induce Hsp70 expression, including the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-DMAG and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Although the individual treatment with these compounds produced no significant benefits, their combination significantly increased the level of inducible Hsp70, decreased the level of total PrP, reduced the accumulation of pathogenic PrP conformers, and improved locomotor activity. Thus, the combined action of two pharmacological activators of Hsp70 with distinct targets results in sustained high levels of inducible Hsp70 with improved behavioral output. These findings can have important therapeutic applications for the devastating prion diseases and other related proteinopathies. PMID:24523910

Zhang, Yan; Casas-Tinto, Sergio; Rincon-Limas, Diego E.; Fernandez-Funez, Pedro

2014-01-01

281

Prion Protein and Shadoo Are Involved in Overlapping Embryonic Pathways and Trophoblastic Development  

PubMed Central

The potential requirement of either the Prion or Shadoo protein for early mouse embryogenesis was recently suggested. However, the current data did not allow to precise the developmental process that was affected in the absence of both proteins and that led to the observed early lethal phenotype. In the present study, using various Prnp transgenic mouse lines and lentiviral vectors expressing shRNAs that target the Shadoo-encoding mRNA, we further demonstrate the specific requirement of at least one of these two PrP-related proteins at early developmental stages. Histological analysis reveals developmental defect of the ectoplacental cone and important hemorrhage surrounding the Prnp-knockout-Sprn-knockdown E7.5 embryos. By restricting the RNA interference to the trophoblastic cell lineages, the observed lethal phenotype could be attributed to the sole role of these proteins in this trophectoderm-derived compartment. RNAseq analysis performed on early embryos of various Prnp and Sprn genotypes indicated that the simultaneous down-regulation of these two proteins affects cell-adhesion and inflammatory pathways as well as the expression of ectoplacental-specific genes. Overall, our data provide biological clues in favor of a crucial and complementary embryonic role of the prion protein family in Eutherians and emphasizes the need to further evaluate its implication in normal and pathological human placenta biology. PMID:22860039

Makhzami, Samira; Vilotte, Marthe; Jaffrezic, Florence; Halliez, Sophie; Bouet, Stéphan; Marthey, Sylvain; Khalifé, Manal; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Colette; Béringue, Vincent; Le Provost, Fabienne; Laude, Hubert; Vilotte, Jean-Luc

2012-01-01

282

The toxicity of antiprion antibodies is mediated by the flexible tail of the prion protein.  

PubMed

Prion infections cause lethal neurodegeneration. This process requires the cellular prion protein (PrP(C); ref. 1), which contains a globular domain hinged to a long amino-proximal flexible tail. Here we describe rapid neurotoxicity in mice and cerebellar organotypic cultured slices exposed to ligands targeting the ?1 and ?3 helices of the PrP(C) globular domain. Ligands included seven distinct monoclonal antibodies, monovalent Fab1 fragments and recombinant single-chain variable fragment miniantibodies. Similar to prion infections, the toxicity of globular domain ligands required neuronal PrP(C), was exacerbated by PrP(C) overexpression, was associated with calpain activation and was antagonized by calpain inhibitors. Neurodegeneration was accompanied by a burst of reactive oxygen species, and was suppressed by antioxidants. Furthermore, genetic ablation of the superoxide-producing enzyme NOX2 (also known as CYBB) protected mice from globular domain ligand toxicity. We also found that neurotoxicity was prevented by deletions of the octapeptide repeats within the flexible tail. These deletions did not appreciably compromise globular domain antibody binding, suggesting that the flexible tail is required to transmit toxic signals that originate from the globular domain and trigger oxidative stress and calpain activation. Supporting this view, various octapeptide ligands were not only innocuous to both cerebellar organotypic cultured slices and mice, but also prevented the toxicity of globular domain ligands while not interfering with their binding. We conclude that PrP(C) consists of two functionally distinct modules, with the globular domain and the flexible tail exerting regulatory and executive functions, respectively. Octapeptide ligands also prolonged the life of mice expressing the toxic PrP(C) mutant, PrP(?94-134), indicating that the flexible tail mediates toxicity in two distinct PrP(C)-related conditions. Flexible tail-mediated toxicity may conceivably play a role in further prion pathologies, such as familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans bearing supernumerary octapeptides. PMID:23903654

Sonati, Tiziana; Reimann, Regina R; Falsig, Jeppe; Baral, Pravas Kumar; O'Connor, Tracy; Hornemann, Simone; Yaganoglu, Sine; Li, Bei; Herrmann, Uli S; Wieland, Barbara; Swayampakula, Mridula; Rahman, Muhammad Hafizur; Das, Dipankar; Kav, Nat; Riek, Roland; Liberski, Pawel P; James, Michael N G; Aguzzi, Adriano

2013-09-01

283

Prions, From Structure to Epigenetics and Neuronal Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prions are a unique type of protein that can misfold and convert other proteins to the same shape. The well-characterized yeast prion [PSI+] is formed from an inactive amyloid fiber conformation of the translation-termination factor, Sup35. This altered conformation is passed from mother cells to daughters, acting as a template to perpetuate the prion state and providing a mechanism of protein-based inheritance. We employed a variety of methods to determine the structure of Sup35 amyloid fibrils. First, using fluorescent tags and cross-linking we identified specific segments of the protein monomer that form intermolecular contacts in a ``Head-to-Head,'' ``Tail-to-Tail'' fashion while a central region forms intramolecular contacts. Then, using peptide arrays we mapped the region responsible for the prion transmission barrier between two different yeast species. We have also used optical tweezers to reveal that the non-covalent intermolecular contacts between monomers are unusually strong, and maintain fibril integrity even under forces that partially unfold individual monomers and extend fibril length. Based on the handful of known yeast prion proteins we predicted sequences that could be responsible for prion-like amyloid folding. Our screen identified 19 new candidate prions, whose protein-folding properties and diverse cellular functions we have characterized using a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques. Prion-driven phenotypic diversity increases under stress, and can be amplified by the dynamic maturation of prion-initiating states. These qualities allow prions to act as ``bet-hedging'' devices that facilitate the adaptation of yeast to stressful environments, and might speed the evolution of new traits. Together with Kandel and Si, we have also found that a regulatory protein that plays an important role in synaptic plasticity behaves as a prion in yeast. Cytoplasmic polyAdenylation element binding protein, CPEB, maintains synapses by promoting the local translation of mRNAs. We postulate that the self-perpetuating folding of the prion domain acts as a molecular memory. Thus yeast prions have provided evidence for the surprising possibility that amyloid protein folds can serve as the basis for memory and inheritance.

Lindquist, Susan

2012-02-01

284

Can copper binding to the prion protein generate a misfolded form of the protein?  

PubMed

The native prion protein (PrP) has a two domain structure, with a globular folded alpha-helical C-terminal domain and a flexible extended N-terminal region. The latter can selectively bind Cu(2+) via four His residues in the octarepeat (OR) region, as well as two sites (His96 and His111) outside this region. In the disease state, the folded C-terminal domain of PrP undergoes a conformational change, forming amorphous aggregates high in beta-sheet content. Cu(2+) bound to the ORs can be redox active and has been shown to induce cleavage within the OR region, a process requiring conserved Trp residues. Using computational modeling, we have observed that electron transfer from Trp residues to copper can be favorable. These models also reveal that an indole-based radical cation or Cu(+) can initiate reactions leading to protein backbone cleavage. We have also demonstrated, by molecular dynamics simulations, that Cu(2+) binding to the His96 and His111 residues in the remaining PrP N-terminal fragment can induce localized beta-sheet structure, allowing us to suggest a potential mechanism for the initiation of beta-sheet misfolding in the C-terminal domain by Cu(2+). PMID:19140013

Pushie, M Jake; Rauk, Arvi; Jirik, Frank R; Vogel, Hans J

2009-02-01

285

Prion formation correlates with activation of translation-regulating protein 4E-BP and neuronal transcription factor Elk1.  

PubMed

Cellular mechanisms play a role in conversion of the normal prion protein PrP(C) to the disease-associated protein PrP(Sc). The cells provide not only PrP(C), but also still largely undefined factors required for efficient prion replication. Previously, we have observed that interference with ERK and p38-JNK MAP kinase pathways has opposing effects on the formation of prions indicating that the process is regulated by a balance in intracellualar signaling pathways. In order to obtain a "flow-chart" of such pathways, we here studied the activation of MEK/ERK and mTORC1 downstream targets in relation to PrP(Sc) accumulation in GT1-1 cells infected with the RML or 22L prion strains. We show that inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin causes a reduction of PrP(Sc) accumulation at similar low levels as seen when the interaction between the translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G downstream mTORC1 is inhibited using 4EGI-1. No effect is seen following the inhibition of molecules (S6K1 and Mnk1) that links MEK/ERK signaling to mTORC1-mediated control of translation. Instead, stimulation (high [KCl] or [serum]) or inhibition (MEK-inhibitor) of prion formation is associated with increased or decreased phosphorylation of the neuronal transcription factor Elk1, respectively. This study shows that prion formation can be modulated by translational initiating factors, and suggests that MEK/ERK signaling plays a role in the conversion of PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) via an Elk1-mediated transcriptional control. Altogether, our studies indicate that prion protein conversion is under the control of intracellular signals, which hypothetically, under certain conditions may elicit irreversible responses leading to progressive neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23742760

Allard, Elin K; Grujic, Mirjana; Fisone, Gilberto; Kristensson, Krister

2013-10-01

286

A method to assess compositional bias in biological sequences and its application to prion-like glutamine\\/asparagine-rich domains in eukaryotic proteomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have derived a novel method to assess compositional biases in biological sequences, which is based on finding the lowest-probability subsequences for a given residue-type set. As a case study, the distribution of prion-like glutamine\\/asparagine-rich ((Q+N)-rich) domains (which are linked to amyloidogenesis) was assessed for budding and fission yeasts and four other eukaryotes. We find more than 170 prion-like (Q+N)-rich

Paul M Harrison; Mark Gerstein

2003-01-01

287

Generation and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies to Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) prion protein.  

PubMed

We report the production and characterisation of three monoclonal antibodies to the prion protein (PrP) of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a piscine protein with characteristic structural features common to mammalian prion protein. All of the antibodies were used to detect PrP in ELISA, Western blot and by immunohistochemistry. The antibodies showed specificity for certain genera of the Salmonidae, binding to PrP of Rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) but not to that from Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Using the immunoreagents in Western blots, we demonstrated that O. mykiss PrP protein is a 64 kDa protein present in brain, spinal chord and optic nerve. PrP was not detected in a range of peripheral tissues: eye, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, kidney, spleen, muscle and skin. Furthermore, PrP could be detected in all brain regions studied: optic lobe, cerebrum/olfactory lobe, cerebellum, hypothalamus/pituitary and medulla oblongata and was widespread within these tissues as determined by immunohistochemistry. These immunoreagents provide specific tools to study the biology of Rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon PrP and any possible transmissible spongiform encephalopathy-like disease of these economically important fish species. PMID:16225888

Maddison, B C; Patel, S; James, R F; Conlon, H E; Oidtmann, B; Baier, M; Whitelam, G C; Gough, K C

2005-11-30

288

Copper-induced structural propensities of the amyloidogenic region of human prion protein.  

PubMed

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are associated with the misfolding of the cellular Prion Protein (PrP(C)) to an abnormal protein isoform, called scrapie prion protein (PrP(Sc)). The structural rearrangement of the fragment of N-terminal domain of the protein spanning residues 91-127 is critical for the observed structural transition. The amyloidogenic domain of the protein encloses two copper-binding sites corresponding to His-96 and His-111 residues that act as anchors for metal ion binding. Previous studies have shown that Cu(II) sequestration by both sites may modulate the peptide's tendency to aggregation as it inflicts the hairpin-like structure that stabilizes the transition states leading to ?-sheet formation. On the other hand, since both His sites differ in their ability to Cu(II) sequestration, with His-111 as a preferred binding site, we found it interesting to test the role of Cu(II) coordination to this single site on the structural properties of amyloidogenic domain. The obtained results reveal that copper binding to His-111 site imposes precise backbone bending and weakens the natural tendency of apo peptide to ?-sheet formation. PMID:24737041

Migliorini, Caterina; Sinicropi, Adalgisa; Kozlowski, Henryk; Luczkowski, Marek; Valensin, Daniela

2014-06-01

289

Role of ADAMs in the ectodomain shedding and conformational conversion of the prion protein.  

PubMed

The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is essential for the pathogenesis and transmission of prion diseases. PrP(C) is bound to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, although a secreted, soluble form has also been identified. Previously we reported that PrP(C) is subject to ectodomain shedding from the membrane by zinc metalloproteinases with a similar inhibition profile to those involved in shedding the amyloid precursor protein. Here we have used gain-of-function (overexpression) and loss-of-function (small interfering RNA knockdown) experiments in cells to identify the ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases) involved in the ectodomain shedding of PrP(C). These experiments revealed that ADAM9 and ADAM10, but not ADAM17, are involved in the shedding of PrP(C) and that ADAM9 exerts its effect on PrP(C) shedding via ADAM10. Using dominant negative, catalytically inactive mutants, we show that the catalytic activity of ADAM9 is required for its effect on ADAM10. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that ADAM10, but not ADAM9, cleaved PrP between Gly(228) and Arg(229), three residues away from the site of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment. The shedding of another membrane protein, the amyloid precursor protein beta-secretase BACE1, by ADAM9 is also mediated via ADAM10. Furthermore, we show that pharmacological inhibition of PrP(C) shedding or activation of both PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) shedding by ADAM10 overexpression in scrapie-infected neuroblastoma N2a cells does not alter the formation of proteinase K-resistant PrP(Sc). Collectively, these data indicate that although PrP(C) can be shed through the action of ADAM family members, modulation of PrP(C) or PrP(Sc) ectodomain shedding does not regulate prion conversion. PMID:19564338

Taylor, David R; Parkin, Edward T; Cocklin, Sarah L; Ault, James R; Ashcroft, Alison E; Turner, Anthony J; Hooper, Nigel M

2009-08-21

290

Interaction between a recombinant prion protein and organo-mineral complexes as evidenced by CPMAS 13C-NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prion proteins (PrP) are the main responsible for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE). The TSE etiological agent is a misfolded form of the normal cellular prion protein. The amyloidal aggregates accumulated in the brain of infected animals and mainly composed of PrPSc exhibit resistance to protease attack and many conventional inactivating procedures. The prion protein diseases cause an environmental issue because the environment and in particular the soil compartment can be contaminated and then become a potential reservoir and diffuser of TSEs infectivity as a consequence of (i) accidental dispersion from storage plants of meat and bone meal, (ii) incorporation of contaminated material in fertilizers, (iii) possible natural contamination of pasture soils by grazing herds, and (v) burial of carcasses. The environmental problem can be even more relevant because very low amounts of PrPSc are able to propagate the disease. Several studies evidenced that infectious prion protein remains active in soils for years. Contaminated soils result, thus, a possible critical route of TSE transmission in wild animals. Soil can also protect prion protein toward degradation processes due to the presence of humic substances and inorganic components such as clays. Mineral and organic colloids and the more common association between clay minerals and humic substances can contribute to the adsorption/entrapment of molecules and macromolecules. The polymerization of organic monomeric humic precursors occurring in soil in the presence of oxidative enzymes or manganese and iron oxides, is considered one of the most important processes contributing to the formation of humic substances. The process is very fast and produces a population of polymeric products of different molecular structures, sizes, shapes and complexity. Other molecules and possibly biomacromolecules such as proteins may be involved. The aim of the present work was to study by CPMAS 13C-NMR the interactions between a non pathogenic ovine recombinant prion protein and a model soil system represented by a manganese oxide in the form of birnessite (?-MnO2), coated with a polymerized catechol. To better understand the effect of the polymerization process, PrP was added to the birnessite-cathecol system either before or after the polymerization processes. The NMR spectra of the prion protein interacting directly with birnessite revealed disappearance of the signals due to the paramagnetic nature of manganese oxide or abiotic degradation. Conversely, the signal pattern of the protein re-appeared as it is mixed to the soil-like system either during or after the catechol polymerization process. Results suggested that the possible interactions of the prion protein on soil systems can be mediated by natural organic matter. However, deeper studies on more complex real soil systems are needed to definitely confirm such hypothesis.

Russo, F.; Scotti, R.; Gianfreda, L.; Conte, P.; Rao, M. A.

2009-04-01

291

Immobilized prion protein undergoes spontaneous rearrangement to a conformation having features in common with the infectious form.  

PubMed

It is hypothesized that infectious prions are generated as the cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(C)) undergoes pronounced conformational change under the direction of an infectious PrP(Sc) template. Conversion to the infectious conformer is particularly associated with major structural rearrangement in the central portion of the protein (residues 90-120), which has an extended flexible structure in the PrP(C) isoform. Using a panel of recombinant antibodies reactive with different parts of PrP, we show that equivalent major structural rearrangements occur spontaneously in this region of PrP immobilized on a surface. In contrast, regions more towards the termini of the protein remain relatively unaltered. The rearrangements occur even under conditions where individual PrP molecules should not contact one another. The propensity of specific unstructured regions of PrP to spontaneously undergo large and potentially deleterious conformational changes may have important implications for prion biology. PMID:11285219

Leclerc, E; Peretz, D; Ball, H; Sakurai, H; Legname, G; Serban, A; Prusiner, S B; Burton, D R; Williamson, R A

2001-04-01

292

Conservation of a portion of the S. cerevisiae Ure2p prion domain that interacts with the full-length protein  

PubMed Central

The [URE3] prion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a self-propagating inactive amyloid form of the Ure2 protein. Ure2p residues 1–65 constitute the prion domain, and the remaining C-terminal portion regulates nitrogen catabolism. We have examined the URE2 genes of wild-type isolates of S. cerevisiae and those of several pathogenic yeasts and a filamentous fungus. We find that the normal function of the S. cerevisiae Ure2p in nitrogen regulation is fully complemented by the Ure2p of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida kefyr, Candida maltosa, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Saccharomyces paradoxus, all of which have high homology in the C-terminal nitrogen regulation domain. However, there is considerable divergence of their N-terminal domains from that of Ure2p of S. cerevisiae. [URE3Sc] showed efficient transmission into S. cerevisiae ure2? cells if expressing a Ure2p of species within Saccharomyces. However, [URE3Sc] did not seed self-propagating inactivation of the Ure2p's from the other yeasts. When overexpressed as a fusion with green fluorescent protein, residues 5–47 of the S. cerevisiae prion domain are necessary for curing the [URE3] prion. Residues 11–39 are necessary for an inactivating interaction with the full-length Ure2p. A nearly identical region is highly conserved among many of the yeasts examined in this study, despite the wide divergence of sequences found in other parts of the N-terminal domains. PMID:12177423

Edskes, Herman K.; Wickner, Reed B.

2002-01-01

293

Behavioral abnormalities in prion protein knockout mice and the potential relevance of PrPc for the cytoskeleton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a highly conserved protein, which is anchored to the outer surface of the plasma membrane. Even though its physiological function has already been investigated in different cell or mouse models where PrPC expression is either up-regulated or depleted, its exact p...

294

Loss of N-terminal Acetylation Suppresses A Prion Phenotype By Modulating Global Protein Folding  

PubMed Central

N-terminal acetylation is among the most ubiquitous of protein modifications in eukaryotes. While loss of N-terminal acetylation is associated with many abnormalities, the molecular basis of these effects is known for only a few cases, where acetylation of single factors has been linked to binding avidity or metabolic stability. In contrast, the impact of N-terminal acetylation for the majority of the proteome, and its combinatorial contributions to phenotypes, are unknown. Here, by studying the yeast prion [PSI+], an amyloid of the Sup35 protein, we show that loss of N-terminal acetylation promotes general protein misfolding, a redeployment of chaperones to these substrates, and a corresponding stress response. These proteostasis changes, combined with the decreased stability of unacetylated Sup35 amyloid, reduce the size of prion aggregates and reverse their phenotypic consequences. Thus, loss of N-terminal acetylation, and its previously unanticipated role in protein biogenesis, globally resculpts the proteome to create a unique phenotype. PMID:25023910

Holmes, William M.; Mannakee, Brian K.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Serio, Tricia R.

2014-01-01

295

Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens.  

PubMed

The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE) inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE). Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE)-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE) and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted. PMID:21589935

Johnson, Christopher J; Bennett, James P; Biro, Steven M; Duque-Velasquez, Juan Camilo; Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bessen, Richard A; Rocke, Tonie E

2011-01-01

296

Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE) inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE). Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE)-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE) and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J.C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

2011-01-01

297

Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

2011-01-01

298

Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

2011-01-01

299

Biochem. J. (2006) 399, 435444 (Printed in Great Britain) doi:10.1042/BJ20060458 435 A reassessment of copper(II) binding in the full-length prion protein  

E-print Network

A reassessment of copper(II) binding in the full-length prion protein Mark A. WELLS*, Graham S. JACKSON, Samantha, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, U.K., and MRC Prion Unit, Department of Neurodegenerative Disease previously that the unfolded N-terminal domain of the prion protein can bind up to six Cu2+ ions in vitro

Hosszu, Laszlo

300

A Review on the Salt Bridge Between ASP177 and ARG163 of Wild-Type Rabbit Prion Protein  

E-print Network

Prion diseases are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species such as sheep and goats, cattle, deer, elks, humans and mice etc., but rabbits have a low susceptibility to be infected by prion diseases with respect to other species. The stability of rabbit prion protein is due to its highly ordered beta2-alpha2 loop [PLoS One 5 (10) e13273 (2010); Journal of Biological Chemistry 285 (41) 31682-31693 (2010)] and a helix-capping motif within this loop [PLoS One 8 (5) e63047 (2013)]. The beta2-alpha2 loop has been a focus in prion studies. For this loop we found a salt bridge linkage ASP177-ARG163 (O-N) [Journal of Theoretical Biology 342 (7 February 2014) 70-82 (2014)]. Some scientists said on the 2FJ3.pdb NMR file of the rabbit prion protein, the distance of ASP177-ARG163 (O-N) gives the salt bridge of about 10 angstroms which is nearly null in terms of energy thus think our result is wrong. This opinion is clearly wrong simply due to the 3O7...

Zhang, Jiapu

2014-01-01

301

Copper binding to octarepeat peptides of the prion protein monitored by mass spectrometry.  

PubMed Central

Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to measure the binding of Cu2+ ions to synthetic peptides corresponding to sections of the sequence of the mature prion protein (PrP). ESI-MS demonstrates that Cu2+ is unique among divalent metal ions in binding to PrP and defines the location of the major Cu2+ binding site as the octarepeat region in the N-terminal domain, containing multiple copies of the repeat ProHisGlyGlyGlyTrpGlyGln. The stoichiometries of the complexes measured directly by ESI-MS are pH dependent: a peptide containing four octarepeats chelates two Cu2+ ions at pH 6 but four at pH 7.4. At the higher pH, the binding of multiple Cu2+ ions occurs with a high degree of cooperativity for peptides C-terminally extended to incorporate a fifth histidine. Dissociation constants for each Cu2+ ion binding to the octarepeat peptides, reported here for the first time, are mostly in the low micromolar range; for the addition of the third and fourth Cu2+ ions to the extended peptides at pH 7.4, K(D)'s are <100 nM. N-terminal acetylation of the peptides caused some reduction in the stoichiometry of binding at both pH's. Cu2+ also binds to a peptide corresponding to the extreme N-terminus of PrP that precedes the octarepeats, arguing that this region of the sequence may also make a contribution to the Cu2+ complexation. Although the structure of the four-octarepeat peptide is not affected by pH changes in the absence of Cu2+, as judged by circular dichroism, Cu2+ binding induces a modest change at pH 6 and a major structural perturbation at pH 7.4. It is possible that PrP functions as a Cu2+ transporter by binding Cu2+ ions from the extracellular medium under physiologic conditions and then releasing some or all of this metal upon exposure to acidic pH in endosomes or secondary lysosomes. PMID:10716185

Whittal, R. M.; Ball, H. L.; Cohen, F. E.; Burlingame, A. L.; Prusiner, S. B.; Baldwin, M. A.

2000-01-01

302

Single-particle tracking of quantum dot-conjugated prion proteins inside yeast cells  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} We develop a method to track a quantum dot-conjugated protein in yeast cells. {yields} We incorporate the conjugated quantum dot proteins into yeast spheroplasts. {yields} We track the motions by conventional or 3D tracking microscopy. -- Abstract: Yeast is a model eukaryote with a variety of biological resources. Here we developed a method to track a quantum dot (QD)-conjugated protein in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We chemically conjugated QDs with the yeast prion Sup35, incorporated them into yeast spheroplasts, and tracked the motions by conventional two-dimensional or three-dimensional tracking microscopy. The method paves the way toward the individual tracking of proteins of interest inside living yeast cells.

Tsuji, Toshikazu; Kawai-Noma, Shigeko [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B56, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B56, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Pack, Chan-Gi [Cellular Informatics Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Cellular Informatics Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Terajima, Hideki [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B56, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B56, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Yajima, Junichiro; Nishizaka, Takayuki [Department of Physics, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan); Kinjo, Masataka [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Dynamics, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Dynamics, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Taguchi, Hideki, E-mail: taguchi@bio.titech.ac.jp [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B56, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B56, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan)

2011-02-25

303

Solid-state NMR studies of the prion protein H1 fragment.  

PubMed

Conformational changes in the prion protein (PrP) seem to be responsible for prion diseases. We have used conformation-dependent chemical-shift measurements and rotational-resonance distance measurements to analyze the conformation of solid-state peptides lacking long-range order, corresponding to a region of PrP designated H1. This region is predicted to undergo a transformation of secondary structure in generating the infectious form of the protein. Solid-state NMR spectra of specifically 13C-enriched samples of H1, residues 109-122 (MKHMAGAAAAGAVV) of Syrian hamster PrP, have been acquired under cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning conditions. Samples lyophilized from 50% acetonitrile/50% water show chemical shifts characteristic of a beta-sheet conformation in the region corresponding to residues 112-121, whereas samples lyophilized from hexafluoroisopropanol display shifts indicative of alpha-helical secondary structure in the region corresponding to residues 113-117. Complete conversion to the helical conformation was not observed and conversion from alpha-helix back to beta-sheet, as inferred from the solid-state NMR spectra, occurred when samples were exposed to water. Rotational-resonance experiments were performed on seven doubly 13C-labeled H1 samples dried from water. Measured distances suggest that the peptide is in an extended, possibly beta-strand, conformation. These results are consistent with the experimental observation that PrP can exist in different conformational states and with structural predictions based on biological data and theoretical modeling that suggest that H1 may play a key role in the conformational transition involved in the development of prion diseases. PMID:8844854

Heller, J; Kolbert, A C; Larsen, R; Ernst, M; Bekker, T; Baldwin, M; Prusiner, S B; Pines, A; Wemmer, D E

1996-08-01

304

Solid-state NMR studies of the prion protein H1 fragment.  

PubMed Central

Conformational changes in the prion protein (PrP) seem to be responsible for prion diseases. We have used conformation-dependent chemical-shift measurements and rotational-resonance distance measurements to analyze the conformation of solid-state peptides lacking long-range order, corresponding to a region of PrP designated H1. This region is predicted to undergo a transformation of secondary structure in generating the infectious form of the protein. Solid-state NMR spectra of specifically 13C-enriched samples of H1, residues 109-122 (MKHMAGAAAAGAVV) of Syrian hamster PrP, have been acquired under cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning conditions. Samples lyophilized from 50% acetonitrile/50% water show chemical shifts characteristic of a beta-sheet conformation in the region corresponding to residues 112-121, whereas samples lyophilized from hexafluoroisopropanol display shifts indicative of alpha-helical secondary structure in the region corresponding to residues 113-117. Complete conversion to the helical conformation was not observed and conversion from alpha-helix back to beta-sheet, as inferred from the solid-state NMR spectra, occurred when samples were exposed to water. Rotational-resonance experiments were performed on seven doubly 13C-labeled H1 samples dried from water. Measured distances suggest that the peptide is in an extended, possibly beta-strand, conformation. These results are consistent with the experimental observation that PrP can exist in different conformational states and with structural predictions based on biological data and theoretical modeling that suggest that H1 may play a key role in the conformational transition involved in the development of prion diseases. PMID:8844854

Heller, J.; Kolbert, A. C.; Larsen, R.; Ernst, M.; Bekker, T.; Baldwin, M.; Prusiner, S. B.; Pines, A.; Wemmer, D. E.

1996-01-01

305

Prion recognition elements govern nucleation, strain specificity and species  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Prion recognition elements govern nucleation, strain specificity and species barriers Peter M. Tessier1 & Susan Lindquist2 Prions are proteins that can switch to self-perpetuating, infectious conformations. The abilities of prions to replicate, form structurally distinct strains

Lindquist, Susan

306

Prion Protein-Specific Antibodies that Detect Multiple TSE Agents with High Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the generation, characterisation and potential applications of a panel of novel anti-prion protein monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The mAbs were generated by immunising PRNP null mice, using a variety of regimes, with a truncated form of recombinant ovine prion protein spanning residues 94–233. Epitopes of specific antibodies were mapped using solid-phase Pepscan analysis and clustered to four distinct regions within the PrP molecule. We have demonstrated the utility of these antibodies by use of Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in tissues from a range of different species affected by transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). In comparative tests against extensively-used and widely-published, commercially available antibodies, similar or improved results can be obtained using these new mAbs, specifically in terms of sensitivity of detection. Since many of these antibodies recognise native PrPC, they could also be applied to a broad range of immunoassays such as flow cytometry, DELFIA analysis or immunoprecipitation. We are using these reagents to increase our understanding of TSE pathogenesis and for use in potential diagnostic screening assays. PMID:24608105

McCutcheon, Sandra; Langeveld, Jan P. M.; Tan, Boon Chin; Gill, Andrew C.; de Wolf, Christopher; Martin, Stuart; Gonzalez, Lorenzo; Alibhai, James; Blanco, A. Richard Alejo; Campbell, Lauren; Hunter, Nora; Houston, E. Fiona

2014-01-01

307

Inhibition of protease-resistant prion protein formation by porphyrins and phthalocyanines  

PubMed Central

A central aspect of pathogenesis in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases is the conversion of normal protease-sensitive prion protein (PrP-sen) to the abnormal protease-resistant form, PrP-res. Here we identify porphyrins and phthalocyanines as inhibitors of PrP-res accumulation. The most potent of these tetrapyrroles had IC50 values of 0.5–1 ?M in scrapie-infected mouse neuroblastoma (ScNB) cell cultures. Inhibition was observed without effects on protein biosynthesis in general or PrP-sen biosynthesis in particular. Tetrapyrroles also inhibited PrP-res formation in a cell-free reaction composed predominantly of hamster PrP-res and PrP-sen. Inhibitors were found among phthalocyanines, deuteroporphyrins IX, and meso-substituted porphines; examples included compounds containing anionic, neutral protic, and cationic peripheral substituents and various metals. We conclude that certain tetrapyrroles specifically inhibit the conversion of PrP-sen to PrP-res without apparent cytotoxic effects. The inhibition observed in the cell-free conversion reaction suggests that the mechanism involved direct interactions of the tetrapyrrole with PrP-res and/or PrP-sen. These findings introduce a new class of inhibitors of PrP-res formation that represents a potential source of therapeutic agents for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. PMID:9770449

Caughey, Winslow S.; Raymond, Lynne D.; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Caughey, Byron

1998-01-01

308

Proteolysis of abnormal prion protein with a thermostable protease from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1.  

PubMed

The abnormal prion protein (scrapie-associated prion protein, PrP(Sc)) is considered to be included in the group of infectious agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Since PrP(Sc) is highly resistant to normal sterilization procedures, the decontamination of PrP(Sc) is a significant public health issue. In the present study, a hyperthermostable protease, Tk-subtilisin, was used to degrade PrP(Sc). Although PrP(Sc) is known to be resistant toward proteolytic enzymes, Tk-subtilisin was able to degrade PrP(Sc) under extreme conditions. The level of PrP(Sc) in brain homogenates was found to decrease significantly in vitro following Tk-subtilisin treatment at 100 °C, whereas some protease-resistant fractions remain after proteinase K treatment. Rather small amounts of Tk-subtilisin (0.3 U) were required to degrade PrP(Sc) at 100 °C and pH 8.0. In addition, Tk-subtilisin was observed to degrade PrP(Sc) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate or other industrial surfactants. Although several proteases degrading PrP(Sc) have been reported, practical decontamination procedures using enzymes are not available. This report aims to provide basic information for the practical use of a proteolytic enzyme for PrP(Sc) degradation. PMID:23880875

Koga, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shun-ichi; Sakudo, Akikazu; Tobiume, Minoru; Aranishi, Mutsuo; Hirata, Azumi; Takano, Kazufumi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Kanaya, Shigenori

2014-03-01

309

Conformational detection of prion protein with biarsenical labeling and FlAsH fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

Prion diseases are associated with the misfolding of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) into a disease associated form (PrP{sup Sc}). Recombinant PrP can be refolded into either an {alpha}-helical rich conformation ({alpha}-PrP) resembling PrP{sup C} or a {beta}-sheet rich, protease resistant form similar to PrP{sup Sc}. Here, we generated tetracysteine tagged recombinant PrP, folded this into {alpha}- or {beta}-PrP and determined the levels of FlAsH fluorescence. Insertion of the tetracysteine tag at three different sites within the 91-111 epitope readily distinguished {beta}-PrP from {alpha}-PrP upon FlAsH labeling. Labelling of tetracysteine tagged PrP in the {alpha}-helical form showed minimal fluorescence, whereas labeling of tagged PrP in the {beta}-sheet form showed high fluorescence indicating that this region is exposed upon conversion. This highlights a region of PrP that can be implicated in the development of diagnostics and is a novel, protease free mechanism for distinguishing PrP{sup Sc} from PrP{sup C}. This technique may also be applied to any protein that undergoes conformational change and/or misfolding such as those involved in other neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases.

Coleman, Bradley M. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Nisbet, Rebecca M.; Han, Sen [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Pathology and Mental Health Research Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Cappai, Roberto [Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Pathology and Mental Health Research Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Hatters, Danny M. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Pathology and Mental Health Research Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Hill, Andrew F. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Pathology and Mental Health Research Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: a.hill@unimelb.edu.au

2009-03-13

310

Comparison of the local structural stabilities of mammalian prion protein (PrP) by fragment molecular orbital calculations  

PubMed Central

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a member of the prion diseases, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder suspected to be caused by a malfunction of prion protein (PrP). Although BSE prions have been reported to be transmitted to a wide range of animal species, dogs and hamsters are known to be BSE-resistant animals. Analysis of canine and hamster PrP could elucidate the molecular mechanisms supporting the species barriers to BSE prion transmission. The structural stability of 6 mammalian PrPs, including human, cattle, mouse, hamster, dog and cat, was analyzed. We then evaluated intramolecular interactions in PrP by fragment molecular orbital (FMO) calculations. Despite similar backbone structures, the PrP side-chain orientations differed among the animal species examined. The pair interaction energies between secondary structural elements in the PrPs varied considerably, indicating that the local structural stabilities of PrP varied among the different animal species. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that different local structural stability exists in bovine PrP compared with the PrP of other animal species examined. The results of the present study suggest that differences in local structural stabilities between canine and bovine PrP link diversity in susceptibility to BSE prion infection. PMID:23232497

Hasegawa, Koji; Mohri, Shirou; Yokoyama, Takashi

2013-01-01

311

Prion Protein Misfolding Affects Calcium Homeostasis and Sensitizes Cells to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress  

PubMed Central

Prion-related disorders (PrDs) are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive neuronal impairment as well as the accumulation of an abnormally folded and protease resistant form of the cellular prion protein, termed PrPRES. Altered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is associated with the occurrence of neurodegeneration in sporadic, infectious and familial forms of PrDs. The ER operates as a major intracellular calcium store, playing a crucial role in pathological events related to neuronal dysfunction and death. Here we investigated the possible impact of PrP misfolding on ER calcium homeostasis in infectious and familial models of PrDs. Neuro2A cells chronically infected with scrapie prions showed decreased ER-calcium content that correlated with a stronger upregulation of UPR-inducible chaperones, and a higher sensitivity to ER stress-induced cell death. Overexpression of the calcium pump SERCA stimulated calcium release and increased the neurotoxicity observed after exposure of cells to brain-derived infectious PrPRES. Furthermore, expression of PrP mutants that cause hereditary Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or fatal familial insomnia led to accumulation of PrPRES and their partial retention at the ER, associated with a drastic decrease of ER calcium content and higher susceptibility to ER stress. Finally, similar results were observed when a transmembrane form of PrP was expressed, which is proposed as a neurotoxic intermediate. Our results suggest that alterations in calcium homeostasis and increased susceptibility to ER stress are common pathological features of both infectious and familial PrD models. PMID:21209925

Torres, Mauricio; Castillo, Karen; Armisén, Ricardo; Stutzin, Andrés; Soto, Claudio; Hetz, Claudio

2010-01-01

312

Neuronal low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 binds and endocytoses prion fibrils via receptor cluster 4  

PubMed Central

For infectious prion protein (designated PrPSc) to act as a template to convert normal cellular protein (PrPC) to its distinctive pathogenic conformation, the two forms of prion protein (PrP) must interact closely. The neuronal receptor that rapidly endocytoses PrPC is the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). We show here that on sensory neurons LRP1 is also the receptor that binds and rapidly endocytoses smaller oligomeric forms of infectious prion fibrils, and recombinant PrP fibrils. Although LRP1 binds two molecules of most ligands independently to its receptor clusters 2 and 4, PrPC and PrPSc fibrils bind only to receptor cluster 4. PrPSc fibrils out-compete PrPC for internalization. When endocytosed, PrPSc fibrils are routed to lysosomes, rather than recycled to the cell surface with PrPC. Thus, although LRP1 binds both forms of PrP, it traffics them to separate fates within sensory neurons. The binding of both to ligand cluster 4 should enable genetic modification of PrP binding without disrupting other roles of LRP1 essential to neuronal viability and function, thereby enabling in vivo analysis of the role of this interaction in controlling both prion and LRP1 biology. PMID:20048341

Jen, Angela; Parkyn, Celia J.; Mootoosamy, Roy C.; Ford, Melanie J.; Warley, Alice; Liu, Qiang; Bu, Guojun; Baskakov, Ilia V.; Moestrup, Søren; McGuinness, Lindsay; Emptage, Nigel; Morris, Roger J.

2010-01-01

313

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE OF ELK AND DEER AND CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SCRAPIE PRION PROTEIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with, and possibly caused by, accumulation of a neurotoxic, misfolded isoform, termed PrP-d, of a normal cellular protein, PrP-c. Primary amino acid differences and secondary conformati...

314

Association between genotypes at codon 171 and 136 of the prion protein gene and production traits in market lambs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of small ruminants for which infection is genetically controlled by commonly occurring polymorphisms in the gene encoding the normal prion protein precursor gene Prnp. Selection of sheep with the Prnp allele encoding arginine at codon 171 is rema...

315

Prion Protein is Expressed on Long-term Repopulating Hematopoietic Stem Cells and is Necessary for their Self-renewal  

E-print Network

We show that the prion protein (PrP) is expressed on the surface of bone marrow cell populations enriched in long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells. Affinity purification of the PrP-positive and PrP-negative ...

Lodish, Harvey F.

316

Similar Signature of the Prion Protein in Natural Sheep Scrapie and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy-Linked Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that specific molecular features could characterize the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP res) detected in animal species as well as in humans infected by the infectious agent strain that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Studies of glycoform patterns in such diseases in French cattle and cheetahs, as well as in mice infected by isolates from both species,

THIERRY G. M. BARON; JEAN-YVES MADEC; DIDIER CALAVAS

1999-01-01

317

Novel epitopes identified by Anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies produced following immunization of Prnp0/0 Balb/cJ mice with purified scrapie prions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prions, or infectious proteins, cause a class of uniformly fatal neurodegenerative diseases. Prions are composed solely of an aberrantly folded isoform(PrPSc)of a normal cellular protein (PrPC). Shared sequence identity of PrPSc with PrPC has limited the detection sensitivity of immunochemical assay...

318

Structural studies on the folded domain of the human prion protein bound to the Fab fragment of the antibody POM1.  

PubMed

Prion diseases are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the conversion of the cellular prion protein PrP(c) into a pathogenic isoform PrP(sc). Passive immunization with antiprion monoclonal antibodies can arrest the progression of prion diseases. Here, the crystal structure of the Fab fragment of an antiprion monoclonal antibody, POM1, in complex with human prion protein (huPrP(c)) has been determined to 2.4 Å resolution. The prion epitope of POM1 is in close proximity to the epitope recognized by the purportedly therapeutic antibody fragment ICSM18 Fab in complex with huPrP(c). POM1 Fab forms a 1:1 complex with huPrP(c) and the measured K(d) of 4.5 × 10(-7) M reveals moderately strong binding between them. Structural comparisons have been made among three prion-antibody complexes: POM1 Fab-huPrP(c), ICSM18 Fab-huPrP(c) and VRQ14 Fab-ovPrP(c). The prion epitopes recognized by ICSM18 Fab and VRQ14 Fab are adjacent to a prion glycosylation site, indicating possible steric hindrance and/or an altered binding mode to the glycosylated prion protein in vivo. However, both of the glycosylation sites on huPrP(c) are positioned away from the POM1 Fab binding epitope; thus, the binding mode observed in this crystal structure and the binding affinity measured for this antibody are most likely to be the same as those for the native prion protein in vivo. PMID:23090399

Baral, Pravas Kumar; Wieland, Barbara; Swayampakula, Mridula; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Rahman, Muhammad Hafiz; Kav, Nat N V; Aguzzi, Adriano; James, Michael N G

2012-11-01

319

Amyloidogenic properties of the prion protein fragment PrP(185–208): Comparison with Alzheimer’s peptide A?(1–28), influence of heparin and cell toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyloid fibrils are a hallmark of Alzheimer’s and prion diseases. In both pathologies fibrils are found associated to glycosaminoglycans, modulators of the aggregation process. Amyloid peptides and proteins with very poor sequence homologies originate very similar aggregates. This implies the possible existence of a common formation mechanism. A homologous structural motif has recently been described for the Alzheimer’s peptide A?(1–28)

Marta Cortijo-Arellano; Jovita Ponce; Núria Durany; Josep Cladera

2008-01-01

320

Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein and Prion Protein Have a Conserved Interaction Affecting Cell Adhesion and CNS Development  

PubMed Central

Genetic and biochemical mechanisms linking onset or progression of Alzheimer Disease and prion diseases have been lacking and/or controversial, and their etiologies are often considered independent. Here we document a novel, conserved and specific genetic interaction between the proteins that underlie these diseases, amyloid-? precursor protein and prion protein, APP and PRP, respectively. Knockdown of APP and/or PRNP homologs in the zebrafish (appa, appb, prp1, and prp2) produces a dose-dependent phenotype characterized by systemic morphological defects, reduced cell adhesion and CNS cell death. This genetic interaction is surprisingly exclusive in that prp1 genetically interacts with zebrafish appa, but not with appb, and the zebrafish paralog prp2 fails to interact with appa. Intriguingly, appa & appb are largely redundant in early zebrafish development yet their abilities to rescue CNS cell death are differentially contingent on prp1 abundance. Delivery of human APP or mouse Prnp mRNAs rescue the phenotypes observed in app-prp-depleted zebrafish, highlighting the conserved nature of this interaction. Immunoprecipitation revealed that human APP and PrPC proteins can have a physical interaction. Our study reports a unique in vivo interdependence between APP and PRP loss-of-function, detailing a biochemical interaction that considerably expands the hypothesized roles of PRP in Alzheimer Disease. PMID:23236467

Wang, Hao; Daude, Nathalie; Wohlgemuth, Serene; Shi, Beipei; Allison, W. Ted

2012-01-01

321

Amyloid beta precursor protein and prion protein have a conserved interaction affecting cell adhesion and CNS development.  

PubMed

Genetic and biochemical mechanisms linking onset or progression of Alzheimer Disease and prion diseases have been lacking and/or controversial, and their etiologies are often considered independent. Here we document a novel, conserved and specific genetic interaction between the proteins that underlie these diseases, amyloid-? precursor protein and prion protein, APP and PRP, respectively. Knockdown of APP and/or PRNP homologs in the zebrafish (appa, appb, prp1, and prp2) produces a dose-dependent phenotype characterized by systemic morphological defects, reduced cell adhesion and CNS cell death. This genetic interaction is surprisingly exclusive in that prp1 genetically interacts with zebrafish appa, but not with appb, and the zebrafish paralog prp2 fails to interact with appa. Intriguingly, appa & appb are largely redundant in early zebrafish development yet their abilities to rescue CNS cell death are differentially contingent on prp1 abundance. Delivery of human APP or mouse Prnp mRNAs rescue the phenotypes observed in app-prp-depleted zebrafish, highlighting the conserved nature of this interaction. Immunoprecipitation revealed that human APP and PrP(C) proteins can have a physical interaction. Our study reports a unique in vivo interdependence between APP and PRP loss-of-function, detailing a biochemical interaction that considerably expands the hypothesized roles of PRP in Alzheimer Disease. PMID:23236467

Kaiser, Darcy M; Acharya, Moulinath; Leighton, Patricia L A; Wang, Hao; Daude, Nathalie; Wohlgemuth, Serene; Shi, Beipei; Allison, W Ted

2012-01-01

322

Prion Protein Participates in the Protection of Mice from Lipopolysaccharide Infection by Regulating the Inflammatory Process.  

PubMed

Despite the overwhelming evidence of the involvement of prion protein (PrP) in prion disease pathogenesis, the normal functions of this cell surface glycoprotein remain unclear. Previously, we showed that PrP may have a dual regulatory role by regulating the opposite poles of pro-inflammation and anti-inflammation as well as tissue repair in activated microglia. In the present work, we compared the mRNA expression of inflammation-related cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, NOS2, and IL-10) and IL-4-related alternative activation markers (Arg1 and Mrc1) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in the brain and spleen and examined peripheral leukocyte recovery and LPS-induced mortality in PrP knockout mice (PrP(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. During the acute phase, WT mice exhibited higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the brain and spleen than in PrP(-/-) mice, while PrP(-/-) mice sustained higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lower levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, Arg1, and Mrc1 during the later phase. PrP(-/-) mice also exhibited a slower peripheral leukocyte recovery process and higher mortality in response to LPS-induced septic shock. These results suggest that the PrP may participate in the protection of mice from LPS infection by regulating the process of inflammatory response. PMID:24838383

Liu, Jin; Zhao, Deming; Liu, Chunfa; Ding, Tianjian; Yang, Lifeng; Yin, Xiaomin; Zhou, Xiangmei

2014-05-20

323

Separate mechanisms act concurrently to shed and release the prion protein from the cell  

PubMed Central

The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is attached to the cell membrane via its glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor and is constitutively shed into the extracellular space. Here, three different mechanisms are presented that concurrently shed PrPC from the cell. The fast ?-cleavage released a N-terminal fragment (N1) into the medium and the extreme C-terminal cleavage shed soluble full-length (FL-S) PrP and C-terminally cleaved (C1-S) fragments outside the cell. Also, a slow exosomal release of full-length (FL) and C1-fragment (C1) was demonstrated. The three separate mechanisms acting simultaneously, but with different kinetics, have to be taken into consideration when elucidating functional roles of PrPC and also when processing of PrPC is considered as a target for intervention in prion diseases. Further, in this study it was shown that metalloprotease inhibitors affected the extreme C-terminal cleavage and shedding of PrPC. The metalloprotease inhibitors did not influence the ?-cleavage or the exosomal release. Taken together, these results are important for understanding the different mechanisms acting in parallel in the shedding and cleavage of PrPC. PMID:23093798

Wik, Lotta; Klingeborn, Mikael; Willander, Hanna; Linné, Tommy

2012-01-01

324

Is the presence of abnormal prion protein in the renal glomeruli of feline species presenting with FSE authentic?  

PubMed

In a recent paper written by Hilbe et al (BMC vet res, 2009), the nature and specificity of the prion protein deposition in the kidney of feline species affected with feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) were clearly considered doubtful. This article was brought to our attention because we published several years ago an immunodetection of abnormal prion protein in the kidney of a cheetah affected with FSE. At this time we were convinced of its specificity but without having all the possibilities to demonstrate it. As previously published by another group, the presence of abnormal prion protein in some renal glomeruli in domestic cats affected with FSE is indeed generally considered as doubtful mainly because of low intensity detected in this organ and because control kidneys from safe animals present also a weak prion immunolabelling. Here we come back on these studies and thought it would be helpful to relay our last data to the readers of BMC Vet res for future reference on this subject.Here we come back on our material as it is possible to study and demonstrate the specificity of prion immunodetection using the PET-Blot method (Paraffin Embedded Tissue--Blot). It is admitted that this method allows detecting the Proteinase K (PK) resistant form of the abnormal prion protein (PrPres) without any confusion with unspecific immunoreaction. We re-analysed the kidney tissue versus adrenal gland and brain samples from the same cheetah affected with TSE using this PET-Blot method. The PET-Blot analysis revealed specific PrPres detection within the brain, adrenal gland and some glomeruli of the kidney, with a complete identicalness compared to our previous detection using immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, these new data enable us to confirm with assurance the presence of specific abnormal prion protein in the adrenal gland and in the kidney of the cheetah affected with FSE. It also emphasizes the usefulness for the re-examination of any available tissue blocks with the PET-Blot method as a sensitive complementary tool in case of doubtful PrP IHC results. PMID:20684771

Lezmi, Stéphane; Baron, Thierry G M; Bencsik, Anna A

2010-01-01

325

Non-targeted Identification of Prions and Amyloid-forming Proteins from Yeast and Mammalian Cells*  

PubMed Central

The formation of amyloid aggregates is implicated both as a primary cause of cellular degeneration in multiple human diseases and as a functional mechanism for providing extraordinary strength to large protein assemblies. The recent identification and characterization of several amyloid proteins from diverse organisms argues that the amyloid phenomenon is widespread in nature. Yet identifying new amyloid-forming proteins usually requires a priori knowledge of specific candidates. Amyloid fibers can resist heat, pressure, proteolysis, and denaturation by reagents such as urea or sodium dodecyl sulfate. Here we show that these properties can be exploited to identify naturally occurring amyloid-forming proteins directly from cell lysates. This proteomic-based approach utilizes a novel purification of amyloid aggregates followed by identification by mass spectrometry without the requirement for special genetic tools. We have validated this technique by blind identification of three amyloid-based yeast prions from laboratory and wild strains and disease-related polyglutamine proteins expressed in both yeast and mammalian cells. Furthermore, we found that polyglutamine aggregates specifically recruit some stress granule components, revealing a possible mechanism of toxicity. Therefore, core amyloid-forming proteins as well as strongly associated proteins can be identified directly from cells of diverse origin. PMID:23926098

Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Pripuzova, Natalia; Burnett, Barrington G.; Shewmaker, Frank

2013-01-01

326

Opposing Role of Prion Protein in Oxidative Stress- and ER Stress-induced Apoptotic Signaling  

PubMed Central

Although the prion protein is abundantly expressed in the CNS, its biological functions remain unclear. To determine the endogenous function of the cellular prion protein (PrPc), we compared the effects of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducers on apoptotic signaling in PrPc-expressing and PrPko-knockout neural cells. H2O2, brefeldin-A (BFA) and tunicamycin (TUN) induced increases in caspase-9 and caspase-3, PKC? proteolytic activation, and DNA fragmentation in PrPc and PrPko cells. Interestingly, ER stress-induced activation of caspases, PKC?, and apoptosis were significantly exacerbated in PrPc cells, whereas H2O2-induced proapoptotic changes were suppressed in PrPc compared to PrPko cells. Additionally, caspases-12 and -8 were activated only in BFA and TUN treatments. Inhibitors of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PKC? significantly blocked H2O2-, BFA- and TUN-induced apoptosis, whereas the caspase-8 inhibitor attenuated only BFA- and TUN-induced cell death, and the antioxidant MnTBAP blocked only H2O2-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of the kinase inactive PKC?K376R or the cleavage site-resistant PKC?D327A mutants suppressed both ER- and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Thus, PrPc plays a proapoptotic role during ER stress, and an anti-apoptotic role during oxidative stress-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that cellular PrPc enhances the susceptibility of neural cells to impairment of protein processing and trafficking, but decreases the vulnerability to oxidative insults, and that PKC? is a key downstream mediator of cellular stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. PMID:18835352

Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Choi, Christopher J; Martin, Dustin P; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Richt, Jüergen A.; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

2008-01-01

327

Both Met(109) and Met(112) are Utilized for Cu(II) Coordination to the Amyloidogenic Fragment of the Human Prion Protein  

SciTech Connect

The prion protein is a ubiquitous neuronal membrane protein. Misfolding of the prion protein has been implicated in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases). It has been demonstrated that the human prion protein (PrP) is capable of coordinating at least five Cu{sup II} ions under physiological conditions; four copper binding sites can be found in the octarepeat domain between residues 61 and 91, while another copper binding site can be found in the unstructured 'amyloidogenic' domain between residues 91 and 126 PrP(91-126). Herein we expand upon a previous study (J. Shearer, P. Soh, Inorg. Chem. 46 (2007) 710-719) where we demonstrated that the physiologically relevant high affinity Cu{sup II} coordination site within PrP(91-126) is found between residues 106 and 114. It was shown that Cu{sup II} is contained within a square planar (N/O){sub 3}S coordination environment with one His imidazole ligand (H(111)) and one Met thioether ligand (either M(109) or M(112)). The identity of the Met thioether ligand was not identified in that study. In this study we perform a detailed investigation of the Cu{sup II} coordination environment within the PrP fragment containing residues 106-114 (PrP(106-114)) involving optical, X-ray absorption, EPR, and fluorescence spectroscopies in conjunction with electronic structure calculations. By using derivatives of PrP(106-114) with systematic Met {yields} Ile 'mutations' we show that the Cu{sup II} coordination environment within PrP(106-114) is actually comprised of a mixture of two major species; one CuII(N/O){sub 3}S center with the M(109) thioether coordinated to Cu{sup II} and another Cu{sup II}(N/O){sub 3}S center with the M(112) thioether coordinated to Cu{sup II}. Furthermore, deletion of one or more Met residues from the primary sequence of PrP(106-114) both reduces the Cu{sup II} affinity of the peptide by two to seven fold, and renders the resulting Cu{sup II} metallopeptides redox inactive. The biological implications of these findings are discussed.

Shearer, J.; Soh, P; Lentz, S

2008-01-01

328

The cellular prion protein (PrP) selectively binds to Bcl2 in the yeast two-hybrid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bcl-2 can rescue neurons from death and might, therefore, exert its action by associating with neuron-specific proteins. Using LexA-Bcl-2 as bait, we find that the cellular prion protein (PrP) interacts with Bcl-2, but not Bax, in the yeast two-hybrid system. Since the PrP gene has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, this preliminary observation suggests a potential pathogenic mechanism for these

Cornelia Kurschner; James I. Morgan

1995-01-01

329

360 DOUBLE KNOCKOUT OF GOAT MYOSTATIN AND PRION PROTEIN GENE USING CLUSTERED REGULARLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEAT (CRISPR)/Cas9 SYSTEMS.  

PubMed

Myostatin (MSTN) acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. Inhibition of MSTN expression may be applied to enhance animal growth performance in livestock production. Prion protein (PrPc) is associated directly with the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies occurring in variety of species including human, cattle, sheep, goats and deer. Prion protein-deficient livestock may be a useful model for prion research and producing animal conferring potential disease resistance. The goal of this study was to generate MSTN/PrPc double knockout goat by using CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 system. We generated 2 CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids targeting MSTN and PrPc genes, respectively. The CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids targeting each gene were respectively transfected into goat fibroblasts, and the efficiency of gene modification was determined at Day 3 using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. The RFLP assay showed that CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids targeting MSTN and PrPc induced precise gene mutations with efficiency of 59 and 70%, respectively. Single cell-derived colonies were further isolated by limiting dilution after co-transfection of 2 CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids targeting MSTN and PrPc. The RFLP assay and DNA sequence analysis indicated that 9 out of 45 colonies (20%) carried simultaneous disruption of both target genes. Moreover, 5 of 9 mutant colonies (55%) had mutations in all 4 alleles of 2 genes. These double-gene knockout fibroblast cells will be used as nuclear donors for developing double knockout goat deficient in MSTN and PrPc. The CRISPR/Cas9 system represents a highly effective and facile platform for multiplex editing of large animal genomes, which can be broadly applied to both biomedical and agricultural applications. PMID:25472408

Hu, S; Yang, M; Polejaeva, I

2014-12-01

330

The prion protein is critical for DNA repair and cell survival after genotoxic stress.  

PubMed

The prion protein (PrP) is highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed, suggesting that it plays an important physiological function. However, despite decades of investigation, this role remains elusive. Here, by using animal and cellular models, we unveil a key role of PrP in the DNA damage response. Exposure of neurons to a genotoxic stress activates PRNP transcription leading to an increased amount of PrP in the nucleus where it interacts with APE1, the major mammalian endonuclease essential for base excision repair, and stimulates its activity. Preventing the induction of PRNP results in accumulation of abasic sites in DNA and impairs cell survival after genotoxic treatment. Brains from Prnp(-/-) mice display a reduced APE1 activity and a defect in the repair of induced DNA damage in vivo. Thus, PrP is required to maintain genomic stability in response to genotoxic stresses. PMID:25539913

Bravard, Anne; Auvré, Frédéric; Fantini, Damiano; Bernardino-Sgherri, Jacqueline; Sissoëff, Ludmilla; Daynac, Mathieu; Xu, Zhou; Etienne, Olivier; Dehen, Capucine; Comoy, Emmanuel; Boussin, François D; Tell, Gianluca; Deslys, Jean-Philippe; Radicella, J Pablo

2015-01-30

331

Reduced response of splenocytes after mitogen-stimulation in the prion protein (PrP) gene-deficient mouse: PrPLP\\/Doppel production and cerebral degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splenocytes of wild-type (Prnp+\\/+) and prion protein gene-deficient (Prnp?\\/?) mice were treated with various activation stimuli such as T cell mitogen concanavalin A (ConA), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)+ionomycin (Io), or B cell mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cellular prion protein (PrPC) expression was enhanced following ConA stimulation, but not PMA+Io or LPS in Prnp+\\/+ splenocytes. Rikn Prnp?\\/? splenocytes elicited lower cell proliferations

Chi-Kyeong Kim; Yuko Hirose; Akikazu Sakudo; Natsumi Takeyama; Chung-Boo Kang; Yojiro Taniuchi; Yoshitsugu Matsumoto; Shigeyoshi Itohara; Suehiro Sakaguchi; Takashi. Onodera

2007-01-01

332

Assessing the Role of Oxidized Methionine at Position 213 in the Formation of Prions in Hamsters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prions are infectious proteins that are able to recruit a normal cellular prion protein and convert it into a prion. The mechanism of this conversion is unknown. Detailed mass spectrometric analysis of the normal cellular prion protein and a corresponding prion has shown they possess identical post-...

333

Roles of the cellular prion protein in the regulation of cell-cell junctions and barrier function  

PubMed Central

The cellular prion protein was historically characterized owing to its misfolding in prion disease. Although its physiological role remains incompletely understood, PrPC has emerged as an evolutionary conserved, multifaceted protein involved in a wide-range of biological processes. PrPC is a GPI-anchored protein targeted to the plasma membrane, in raft microdomains, where its interaction with a repertoire of binding partners, which differ depending on cell models, mediates its functions. Among identified PrPC partners are cell adhesion molecules. This review will focus on the multiple implications of PrPC in cell adhesion processes, mainly the regulation of cell-cell junctions in epithelial and endothelial cells and the consequences on barrier properties. We will show how recent findings argue for a role of PrPC in the recruitment of signaling molecules, which in turn control the targeting or the stability of adhesion complexes at the plasma membrane. PMID:24665391

Petit, Constance S.V.; Besnier, Laura; Morel, Etienne; Rousset, Monique; Thenet, Sophie

2013-01-01

334

Reversible Conversion of Monomeric Human Prion  

E-print Network

Reversible Conversion of Monomeric Human Prion Protein Between Native and Fibrilogenic J. P. Waltho,2 A. R. Clarke,1,4 J. Collinge1 * Prion propagation involves the conversion of cellular prion protein (PrPC ) into a disease-specific isomer, PrPSc , shifting from a predominantly -helical

Hosszu, Laszlo

335

Zinc Drives a Tertiary Fold in the Prion Protein with Familial Disease Mutation Sites at the Interface  

PubMed Central

The cellular prion protein PrPC consists of two domains – a flexible N-terminal domain, which participates in copper and zinc regulation, and a largely helical C-terminal domain that converts to ?-sheet in the course of prion disease. These two domains are thought to be fully independent and non-interacting. Compelling cellular and biophysical studies, however, suggest a higher order structure that is relevant to both PrPC function, as well as misfolding in disease. Here we identify a novel Zn2+ driven N-terminal – C-terminal tertiary interaction in PrPC. The C-terminal surface participating in this interaction carries the majority of the point mutations that confer familial prion disease. Investigation of mutant PrPs finds a systematic relationship between the type of mutation and the apparent strength of this newly identified domain structure. The novel structural features identified here suggest new mechanisms by which physiologic metal ions trigger PrPC trafficking and control prion disease. PMID:23290724

Spevacek, Ann R.; Evans, Eric G. B.; Miller, Jillian L.; Meyer, Heidi C.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Millhauser, Glenn L.

2012-01-01

336

How Does Domain Replacement Affect Fibril Formation of the Rabbit/Human Prion Proteins  

PubMed Central

Background It is known that in vivo human prion protein (PrP) have the tendency to form fibril deposits and are associated with infectious fatal prion diseases, while the rabbit PrP does not readily form fibrils and is unlikely to cause prion diseases. Although we have previously demonstrated that amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and macromolecular crowding has different effects on fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs, we do not know which domains of PrPs cause such differences. In this study, we have constructed two PrP chimeras, rabbit chimera and human chimera, and investigated how domain replacement affects fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs. Methodology/Principal Findings As revealed by thioflavin T binding assays and Sarkosyl-soluble SDS-PAGE, the presence of a strong crowding agent dramatically promotes fibril formation of both chimeras. As evidenced by circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and proteinase K digestion assays, amyloid fibrils formed by human chimera have secondary structures and proteinase K-resistant features similar to those formed by the human PrP. However, amyloid fibrils formed by rabbit chimera have proteinase K-resistant features and secondary structures in crowded physiological environments different from those formed by the rabbit PrP, and secondary structures in dilute solutions similar to the rabbit PrP. The results from transmission electron microscopy show that macromolecular crowding caused human chimera but not rabbit chimera to form short fibrils and non-fibrillar particles. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate for the first time that the domains beyond PrP-H2H3 (?-strand 1, ?-helix 1, and ?-strand 2) have a remarkable effect on fibrillization of the rabbit PrP but almost no effect on the human PrP. Our findings can help to explain why amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and why macromolecular crowding has different effects on fibrillization of PrPs from different species. PMID:25401497

Yan, Xu; Huang, Jun-Jie; Zhou, Zheng; Chen, Jie; Liang, Yi

2014-01-01

337

Establishing homologies in protein sequences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer-based statistical techniques used to determine homologies between proteins occurring in different species are reviewed. The technique is based on comparison of two protein sequences, either by relating all segments of a given length in one sequence to all segments of the second or by finding the best alignment of the two sequences. Approaches discussed include selection using printed tabulations, identification of very similar sequences, and computer searches of a database. The use of the SEARCH, RELATE, and ALIGN programs (Dayhoff, 1979) is explained; sample data are presented in graphs, diagrams, and tables and the construction of scoring matrices is considered.

Dayhoff, M. O.; Barker, W. C.; Hunt, L. T.

1983-01-01

338

Melatonin-mediated ?-catenin activation protects neuron cells against prion protein-induced neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

Activation of ?-catenin in neurons regulates mitochondrial function and protects against protein misfolding disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Melatonin, a natural secretory product of the pineal gland, exerts neuroprotective effects through the activation of ?-catenin. In this study, melatonin increased ?-catenin protein expression and activation in human neuroblastoma cell lines SH-SY5Y cells. Melatonin also inhibited PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity and the inhibition attenuated by treatment of ?-catenin inhibitor ICG-001. Activation of ?-catenin blocked PrP (106-126)-mediated downregulation of anti-apoptotic protein survivin and Bcl-2. Reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, translocation of Bax, and cytochrome c release which induced by PrP (106-126) treatment were inhibited by ?-catenin activation, which contributed to prevented PrP (106-126)-induced neuronal cell death. In conclusion, ?-catenin activation by melatonin prevented PrP (106-126)-induced neuronal cell death through regulating anti-apoptotic proteins and mitochondrial pathways. These results also suggest the therapeutic value of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in prion-related disorders as influenced by melatonin. PMID:25251028

Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Lee, Ju-Hee; Moon, Ji-Hong; Lee, You-Jin; Park, Sang-Youel

2014-11-01

339

Zebrafish Prion Protein PrP2 Controls Collective Migration Process during Lateral Line Sensory System Development.  

PubMed

Prion protein is involved in severe neurodegenerative disorders but its physiological role is still in debate due to an absence of major developmental defects in knockout mice. Previous reports in zebrafish indicate that the two prion genes, PrP1 and PrP2, are both involved in several steps of embryonic development thus providing a unique route to discover prion protein function. Here we investigate the role of PrP2 during development of a mechano-sensory system, the posterior lateral line, using morpholino knockdown and PrP2 targeted inactivation. We confirm the efficiency of the translation blocking morpholino at the protein level. Development of the posterior lateral line is altered in PrP2 morphants, including nerve axonal outgrowth and primordium migration defects. Reduced neuromast deposition was observed in PrP2 morphants as well as in PrP2-/- mutants. Rosette formation defects were observed in PrP2 morphants, strongly suggesting an abnormal primordium organization and reflecting loss of cell cohesion during migration of the primordium. In addition, the adherens junction proteins, E-cadherin and ß-catenin, were mis-localized after reduction of PrP2 expression and thus contribute to the primordium disorganization. Consequently, hair cell differentiation and number were affected and this resulted in reduced functional neuromasts. At later developmental stages, myelination of the posterior lateral line nerve was altered. Altogether, our study reports an essential role of PrP2 in collective migration process of the primordium and in neuromast formation, further implicating a role for prion protein in cell adhesion. PMID:25436888

Huc-Brandt, Sylvaine; Hieu, Nelson; Imberdis, Thibaut; Cubedo, Nicolas; Silhol, Michelle; Leighton, Patricia L A; Domaschke, Thomas; Allison, W Ted; Perrier, Véronique; Rossel, Mireille

2014-01-01

340

Zebrafish Prion Protein PrP2 Controls Collective Migration Process during Lateral Line Sensory System Development  

PubMed Central

Prion protein is involved in severe neurodegenerative disorders but its physiological role is still in debate due to an absence of major developmental defects in knockout mice. Previous reports in zebrafish indicate that the two prion genes, PrP1 and PrP2, are both involved in several steps of embryonic development thus providing a unique route to discover prion protein function. Here we investigate the role of PrP2 during development of a mechano-sensory system, the posterior lateral line, using morpholino knockdown and PrP2 targeted inactivation. We confirm the efficiency of the translation blocking morpholino at the protein level. Development of the posterior lateral line is altered in PrP2 morphants, including nerve axonal outgrowth and primordium migration defects. Reduced neuromast deposition was observed in PrP2 morphants as well as in PrP2?/? mutants. Rosette formation defects were observed in PrP2 morphants, strongly suggesting an abnormal primordium organization and reflecting loss of cell cohesion during migration of the primordium. In addition, the adherens junction proteins, E-cadherin and ß-catenin, were mis-localized after reduction of PrP2 expression and thus contribute to the primordium disorganization. Consequently, hair cell differentiation and number were affected and this resulted in reduced functional neuromasts. At later developmental stages, myelination of the posterior lateral line nerve was altered. Altogether, our study reports an essential role of PrP2 in collective migration process of the primordium and in neuromast formation, further implicating a role for prion protein in cell adhesion. PMID:25436888

Huc-Brandt, Sylvaine; Hieu, Nelson; Imberdis, Thibaut; Cubedo, Nicolas; Silhol, Michelle; Leighton, Patricia L. A.; Domaschke, Thomas; Allison, W. Ted; Perrier, Véronique; Rossel, Mireille

2014-01-01

341

Neutron reflectometry studies define prion protein N-terminal peptide membrane binding.  

PubMed

The prion protein (PrP), widely recognized to misfold into the causative agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, has previously been shown to bind to lipid membranes with binding influenced by both membrane composition and pH. Aside from the misfolding events associated with prion pathogenesis, PrP can undergo various posttranslational modifications, including internal cleavage events. Alpha- and beta-cleavage of PrP produces two N-terminal fragments, N1 and N2, respectively, which interact specifically with negatively charged phospholipids at low pH. Our previous work probing N1 and N2 interactions with supported bilayers raised the possibility that the peptides could insert deeply with minimal disruption. In the current study we aimed to refine the binding parameters of these peptides with lipid bilayers. To this end, we used neutron reflectometry to define the structural details of this interaction in combination with quartz crystal microbalance interrogation. Neutron reflectometry confirmed that peptides equivalent to N1 and N2 insert into the interstitial space between the phospholipid headgroups but do not penetrate into the acyl tail region. In accord with our previous studies, interaction was stronger for the N1 fragment than for the N2, with more peptide bound per lipid. Neutron reflectometry analysis also detected lengthening of the lipid acyl tails, with a concurrent decrease in lipid area. This was most evident for the N1 peptide and suggests an induction of increased lipid order in the absence of phase transition. These observations stand in clear contrast to the findings of analogous studies of Ab and ?-synuclein and thereby support the possibility of a functional role for such N-terminal fragment-membrane interactions. PMID:25418300

Le Brun, Anton P; Haigh, Cathryn L; Drew, Simon C; James, Michael; Boland, Martin P; Collins, Steven J

2014-11-18

342

Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in a Korean population.  

PubMed

Human prion protein gene (PRNP) has been considered to be involved in the susceptibility of humans to prion diseases. Polymorphisms of methionine (Met)/valine (Val) at codon 129 and of glutamic acid (Glu)/lysine (Lys) at codon 219 are thought to play an important role in susceptibility to sporadic, iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Although the genotype distribution of polymorphisms in PRNP open reading frame (ORF) has been reported in many European populations, among Asian groups, it has been reported only in the Japanese population. We examined the PRNP polymorphisms in 529 healthy Koreans. We observed that genotype frequencies at codon 129 was 94.33% Met/Met, 5.48% Met/Val, and 0.19% Val/Val with an allele frequency of 0.971:0.029 Met:Val, and that genotype frequencies at codon 219 was 92.06% Glu/Glu, 7.94% Glu/Lys, and 0% Lys/Lys with an allele frequency of 0.96:0.04 Glu:Lys. The frequencies of the Glu/Glu genotype ( chi(2)=10.075, P=0.0015) and of the Glu allele ( chi(2)=9.486, P=0.0021) at codon 219 were significantly higher in the Korean population than the Japanese population. In addition, the genotype frequency of heterozygotes (12.7%) at codons 129 or/and 219 was significantly lower in Koreans than in people from Great Britain ( chi(2)=89.52, P<0.0001). The deletion rate of one octarepeat (R2 deletion) was 0.38%, with 99.62% undeleted homozygotes and 0% deleted homozygote. To our knowledge, the R2 octarepeat deletion has never been found in people from countries other than Korea. The data of PRNP polymorphism at codon 219 suggest that Koreans may be more sensitive to sporadic CJD than the Japanese population. PMID:15148589

Jeong, Byung-Hoon; Nam, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Yun-Jung; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Jang, Myoung-Kuk; Carp, Richard I; Lee, Ho-Dong; Ju, Young-Ran; Ahn Jo, Sangmee; Park, Keun-Yong; Kim, Yong-Sun

2004-01-01

343

Processing and Degradation of Exogenous Prion Protein by CD11c+ Myeloid Dendritic Cells In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune system plays an important role in facilitating the spread of prion infections from the periphery to the central nervous system. CD11c myeloid dendritic cells (DC) could, due to their subepithelial location and their migratory capacity, be early targets for prion infection and contribute to the spread of infection. In order to analyze mechanisms by which these cells may

Katarina M. Luhr; Robert P. A. Wallin; Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren; Peter Low; Albert Taraboulos; Krister Kristensson

2002-01-01

344

Mass Spectrometric Detection of Attomole Amounts of the Prion Protein by nanoLC-MS-MS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantitation of prions in biological samples other than brain or spinal cord is an extremely important and challenging analytical problem. Prions are the cause of several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animal and humans known as Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs). At present there...

345

Modulation of serotonergic receptor signaling and cross-talk by prion protein.  

PubMed

The inducible serotonergic 1C115-HT cell line expresses a defined set of serotonergic receptors of the 5-HT2B, 5-HT1B/D, and 5-HT2A subtypes, which sustain a regulation of serotonergic associated functions through G-protein-dependent signaling. 1C115-HT cells have been instrumental to assign a signaling function to the cellular prion protein PrPC. Here, we establish that antibody-mediated ligation of PrPC concomitant to agonist stimulation of 5-HT receptors modulates the couplings of all three serotonergic receptors present on 1C115-HT cells. Specific impacts of PrP antibodies were monitored depending on the receptor and pathway considered. PrPC ligation selectively cancels the 5-HT2A-PLC response, decreases the 5-HT1B/D negative coupling to adenylate cyclase, and potentiates the 5-HT2B-PLA2 coupling. As a result, PrPC ligation disturbs the functional interactions occurring between the signaling pathways of the three receptor subtypes. In 1C115-HT cells, antagonizing cross-talks arising from 5-HT2B and 5-HT2A receptors control the 5-HT1B/D function. PrPC ligation reinforces the negative regulation exerted by 5-HT2B on 5-HT1B/D receptors. On the other hand it abrogates the blocking action of 5-HT2A on the regulatory loop linking 5-HT1B/D receptors. We propose that the ligation of PrPC affects the potency or dynamics of G-protein activation by agonist-bound serotonergic receptors. Finally, the PrPC-dependent modulation of 5-HT receptor couplings is restricted to 1C115-HT cells expressing a complete serotonergic phenotype. It critically involves a PrPC-caveolin platform implemented on the neurites of 1C115-HT cells during differentiation. Our findings define PrPC as a modulator of 5-HT receptor coupling to G-proteins and thereby as a protagonist contributing to the homeostasis of serotonergic neurons. They provide a foundation for uncovering the impact of prion infection on serotonergic functions. PMID:15590675

Mouillet-Richard, Sophie; Pietri, Mathéa; Schneider, Benoît; Vidal, Catherine; Mutel, Vincent; Launay, Jean-Marie; Kellermann, Odile

2005-02-11

346

Different allelic effects of the codons 136 and 171 of the prion protein gene in sheep with natural scrapie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scrapie is a transmissible degenerative disease of the central nervous system occurring naturally in sheep. It belongs to the group ofprion diseases also affecting man in which an abnormal isoform of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP) accumulating in the brain is responsible for neuronal death. Three main polymorphisms have been described in the sheep PrP gene, at positions 136, 154

C. Clouscard; P. Beaudry; J. M. Elsen; D. Milan; M. Dussaucy; C. Bounneau; F. Schelcher; J. Chatelain; J. M. Launay; J. L. Laplanche

1995-01-01

347

Prion Protein-Deficient Cells Show Altered Response to Oxidative Stress Due to Decreased SOD1 Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular function of the prion protein (PrPC), a cell surface glycoprotein expressed in neurones and astrocytes, has not been elucidated. Cell culture experiments reveal that cerebellar cells lacking PrPCare more sensitive to oxidative stress and undergo cell death more readily than wild-type cells. This effect is reversible by treatment with vitamin E.In vivostudies show that the activity of Cu\\/Zn

David R. Brown; Walter J. Schulz-Schaeffer; Bernhard Schmidt; Hans A. Kretzschmar

1997-01-01

348

Characterization and polyanion-binding properties of purified recombinant prion protein.  

PubMed Central

Certain polysulphated polyanions have been shown to have prophylactic effects on the progression of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy disease, presumably because they bind to prion protein (PrP). Until now, the difficulty of obtaining large quantities of native PrP has precluded detailed studies of these interactions. We have over-expressed murine recombinant PrP (recPrP), lacking its glycophosphoinositol membrane anchor, in modified mammalian cells. Milligram quantities of secreted, soluble and partially glycosylated protein were purified under non-denaturing conditions and the identities of mature-length aglycosyl recPrP and two cleavage fragments were determined by electrospray MS. Binding was assessed by surface plasmon resonance techniques using both direct and competitive ligand-binding approaches. recPrP binding to immobilized polyanions was enhanced by divalent metal ions. Polyanion binding was strong and showed complex association and dissociation kinetics that were consistent with ligand-directed recPrP aggregation. The differences in the binding strengths of recPrP to pentosan polysulphate and to other sulphated polyanions were found to parallel their in vivo anti-scrapie and in vitro anti-scrapie-specific PrP formation potencies. When recPrP was immobilized by capture on metal-ion chelates it was found, contrary to expectation, that the addition of polyanions promoted the dissociation of the protein. PMID:10477271

Brimacombe, D B; Bennett, A D; Wusteman, F S; Gill, A C; Dann, J C; Bostock, C J

1999-01-01

349

Characterization of a specific interaction between ADAM23 and cellular prion protein.  

PubMed

ADAMs are transmembrane proteins implicated in several biological functions, including cytokine and growth factor shedding, fertilization, muscle and nervous system development. Here, we show for the first time that ADAM23, which is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system, co-localizes with cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) at plasma membrane of mouse hippocampal neurons and neuroblastoma cells. Co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assay showed a physical interaction between ADAM23 and both recombinant and endogenous PrP(C). Glycosylation seems to be not relevant to the observed interaction since both ADAM23 and PrP(C) recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria or extracted from eukaryotic cells treated with tunicamycin are still able to bind each other. In vitro binding assays also suggested that the disintegrin domain of ADAM23 is able to interact directly with PrP(C). Taken together, these findings point out PrP(C) as a novel molecular partner for ADAM23 in the nervous systems. PMID:19477226

Costa, Michele D M; Paludo, Katia S; Klassen, Giseli; Lopes, Marilene H; Mercadante, Adriana F; Martins, Vilma R; Camargo, Anamaria A; Nakao, Lia S; Zanata, Silvio M

2009-09-11

350

Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution  

SciTech Connect

This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

Pearson, W.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

1995-12-31

351

Prion Protein Is a Key Determinant of Alcohol Sensitivity through the Modulation of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prion protein (PrP) is absolutely required for the development of prion diseases; nevertheless, its physiological functions in the central nervous system remain elusive. Using a combination of behavioral, electrophysiological and biochemical approaches in transgenic mouse models, we provide strong evidence for a crucial role of PrP in alcohol sensitivity. Indeed, PrP knock out (PrP?\\/?) mice presented a greater sensitivity

Agnès Petit-Paitel; Baptiste Ménard; Alice Guyon; Vincent Béringue; Jean-Louis Nahon; Nicole Zsürger; Joëlle Chabry

2012-01-01

352

Use of Proteinase K Nonspecific Digestion for Selective and Comprehensive Identification of Interpeptide Cross-links: Application to Prion Proteins*  

PubMed Central

Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry is a rapidly developing technique for structural proteomics. Cross-linked proteins are usually digested with trypsin to generate cross-linked peptides, which are then analyzed by mass spectrometry. The most informative cross-links, the interpeptide cross-links, are often large in size, because they consist of two peptides that are connected by a cross-linker. In addition, trypsin targets the same residues as amino-reactive cross-linkers, and cleavage will not occur at these cross-linker-modified residues. This produces high molecular weight cross-linked peptides, which complicates their mass spectrometric analysis and identification. In this paper, we examine a nonspecific protease, proteinase K, as an alternative to trypsin for cross-linking studies. Initial tests on a model peptide that was digested by proteinase K resulted in a “family” of related cross-linked peptides, all of which contained the same cross-linking sites, thus providing additional verification of the cross-linking results, as was previously noted for other post-translational modification studies. The procedure was next applied to the native (PrPC) and oligomeric form of prion protein (PrP?). Using proteinase K, the affinity-purifiable CID-cleavable and isotopically coded cross-linker cyanurbiotindipropionylsuccinimide and MALDI-MS cross-links were found for all of the possible cross-linking sites. After digestion with proteinase K, we obtained a mass distribution of the cross-linked peptides that is very suitable for MALDI-MS analysis. Using this new method, we were able to detect over 60 interpeptide cross-links in the native PrPC and PrP? prion protein. The set of cross-links for the native form was used as distance constraints in developing a model of the native prion protein structure, which includes the 90–124-amino acid N-terminal portion of the protein. Several cross-links were unique to each form of the prion protein, including a Lys185–Lys220 cross-link, which is unique to the PrP? and thus may be indicative of the conformational change involved in the formation of prion protein oligomers. PMID:22438564

Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V.; Serpa, Jason J.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Berjanskii, Mark; Suriyamongkol, Bow P.; Wishart, David S.; Borchers, Christoph H.

2012-01-01

353

Prions and Prion-Like Pathogens in Neurodegenerative Disorders  

PubMed Central

Prions are unique elements in biology, being able to transmit biological information from one organism to another in the absence of nucleic acids. They have been identified as self-replicating proteinaceous agents responsible for the onset of rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorders—known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases—which affect humans and other animal species. More recently, it has been proposed that other proteins associated with common neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, can self-replicate like prions, thus sustaining the spread of neurotoxic entities throughout the nervous system. Here, we review findings that have contributed to expand the prion concept, and discuss if the involved toxic species can be considered bona fide prions, including the capacity to infect other organisms, or whether these pathogenic aggregates share with prions only the capability to self-replicate. PMID:25437612

Peggion, Caterina; Sorgato, Maria Catia; Bertoli, Alessandro

2014-01-01

354

Prion strain discrimination using luminescent conjugated polymers  

E-print Network

Prion strain discrimination using luminescent conjugated polymers Christina J Sigurdson1,6, K Peter of prions may reflect conformational variability of PrPSc, a disease-associated, aggregated variant of the cellular prion protein, PrPC. Here we used luminescent conjugated polymers (LCPs), which emit conformation

Cai, Long

355

Original article Prion gene (PRNP) haplotype variation  

E-print Network

Original article Prion gene (PRNP) haplotype variation in United States goat breeds (Open Access not examined before at PRNP. scrapie / goat / polymorphism / resistance / prion 1. INTRODUCTION Scrapie that encodes prion protein have been associated with differential resistance and susceptibility to scrapie

Boyer, Edmond

356

Environmental Sources of Scrapie Prions ?  

PubMed Central

Ovine scrapie and cervine chronic wasting disease show considerable horizontal transmission. Here we report that a scrapie-affected sheep farm has a widespread environmental contamination with prions. Prions were amplified by protein-misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) from seven of nine environmental swab samples taken, including those from metal, plastic, and wooden surfaces. Sheep had been removed from the areas from which the swabs were taken up to 20 days prior to sampling, indicating that prions persist for at least that long. These data implicate inanimate objects as environmental reservoirs for prion infectivity that are likely to contribute to facile disease transmission. PMID:20739536

Maddison, Ben C.; Baker, Claire A.; Terry, Linda A.; Bellworthy, Susan J.; Thorne, Leigh; Rees, Helen C.; Gough, Kevin C.

2010-01-01

357

A glycolipid-anchored prion protein is endocytosed via clathrin-coated pits  

PubMed Central

The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a glycolipid-anchored, cell surface protein of unknown function, a posttranslationally modified isoform of which PrPSc is involved in the pathogenesis of Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease, scrapie, and other spongiform encephalopathies. We have shown previously that chPrP, a chicken homologue of mammalian PrPC, constitutively cycles between the cell surface and an endocytic compartment, with a transit time of approximately 60 min in cultured neuroblastoma cells. We now report that endocytosis of chPrP is mediated by clathrin-coated pits. Immunogold labeling of neuroblastoma cells demonstrates that the concentration of chPrP within 0.05 microns of coated pits is 3-5 times higher than over other areas of the plasma membrane. Moreover, gold particles can be seen within coated vesicles and deeply invaginated coated pits that are in the process of pinching off from the plasma membrane. ChPrP is also localized to coated pits in primary cultures of neurons and glia, and is found in coated vesicles purified from chicken brain. Finally, internalization of chPrP is reduced by 70% after neuroblastoma cells are incubated in hypertonic medium, a treatment that inhibits endocytosis by disrupting clathrin lattices. Caveolae, plasmalemmal invaginations in which several other glycolipid-anchored proteins are concentrated, are not seen in neuroblastoma cells analyzed by thin-section or deep-etch electron microscopy. Moreover, these cells do not express detectable levels of caveolin, a caveolar coat protein. Since chPrP lacks a cytoplasmic domain that could interact directly with the intracellular components of clathrin-coated pits, we propose that the polypeptide chain of chPrP associates with the extracellular domain of a transmembrane protein that contains a coated pit internalization signal. PMID:7911471

1994-01-01

358

Double replacement gene targeting for the production of a series of mouse strains with different prion protein gene alterations  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a double replacement gene targeting strategy which enables the production of a series of mouse strains bearing different subtle alterations to endogenous genes. This is a two-step process in which a region of the gene of interest is first replaced with a selectable marker to produce an inactivated allele, which is then re-targeted with a second vector to reconstruct the inactivated allele, concomitantly introducing an engineered mutation. Five independent embryonic stem cell lines have been produced bearing different targeted alterations to the prion protein gene, including one which raises the level of expression. We have constructed mice bearing the codon 101 proline to leucine substitution linked to the human familial prion disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome. We anticipate that this procedure will have applications to the study of human inherited diseases and the development of therapies. 43 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Moore, R.C.; Redhead, N.J.; Selfridge, J. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); and others

1995-09-01

359

Redox behaviors of the neurotoxic portion in human prion protein, HuPrP(106-126)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peptide fragment of human prion protein, HuPrP(106-126), has been reported to mimic the pathological features underlying prion diseases. Although the actual neurotoxic mechanism of HuPrP(106-126) has not been elucidated, several hypotheses has been proposed based on the role for copper. In this study, to understand the toxic function of HuPrP(106-126) from a viewpoint of electrochemical competence, we investigated redox properties of copper ion complexes with four different binding motifs of a model of HuPrP(106-126) based on density functional theory calculations. We found that the HuPrP(106-126)-derived models exhibited diverse redox activities that depended on copper-binding conformations.

Yamamoto, Norifumi; Kuwata, Kazuo

2010-09-01

360

Clinical features of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with V180I mutation in the prion protein gene  

PubMed Central

Objectives Genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) due to V180I mutation in the prion protein gene (PRNP) is of great interest because of the differences from sporadic CJD and other genetic prion diseases in terms of clinical features, as well as pathological and biochemical findings. However, few systematic observations about the clinical features in patients with this unique mutation have been published. Therefore, the goal of this study was to relate this mutation to other forms of CJD from a clinical perspective. Design We analysed clinical symptoms, prion protein genetics, biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and MRI of patients. Participants 186 Japanese patients with the V180I mutation in PRNP. Results Our results indicate that the V180I mutation caused CJD at an older age, with a slower progression and a lower possibility of developing myoclonus, cerebellar, pyramidal signs and visual disturbance compared with classical sporadic CJD with methionine homozygosity at codon 129 of PRNP. Cognitive impairment was the major symptom. Diffuse hyperintensity of the cerebral cortex in diffusion-weighted MRI might be helpful for diagnosis. Owing to the low positivity of PrPSc in the CSF, genetic analysis was often required for a differential diagnosis from slowly progressive dementia. Conclusions We conclude that the V180I mutation in PRNP produces a late-developing and slow-developing, less severe form of CJD, whose lesions are uniquely distributed compared with sporadic and other genetic forms of CJD. PMID:24838726

Qina, Temu; Sanjo, Nobuo; Hizume, Masaki; Higuma, Maya; Tomita, Makoto; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Satoh, Katsuya; Nozaki, Ichiro; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Murayama, Shigeo; Murai, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

2014-01-01

361

Ovine reference materials and assays for prion genetic testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetic predisposition to scrapie in sheep is associated with several variations in the peptide sequence of the prion protein gene (PRNP). DNA-based tests for scoring PRNP codons are essential tools for eradicating scrapie and for evaluating rare alleles for increased resistance to disease. In addition to those associated with scrapie, there are dozens more PRNP polymorphisms that may occur

Michael P Heaton; Kreg A Leymaster; Theodore S Kalbfleisch; Brad A Freking; Timothy PL Smith; Michael L Clawson; William W Laegreid

2010-01-01

362

Ovine Reference Materials and Assays for Prion Genetic Testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Genetic predisposition to scrapie in sheep is associated with variation in the peptide sequence of the ovine prion protein encoded by Prnp. Codon variants implicated in scrapie susceptibility or disease progression include those at amino acid positions 112, 136, 141, 154, and 171. Nin...

363

Prion Problem Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem space introduces basic skills in protein structure exploration, utilizing prions -- relatively small proteins that display dramatically alternate conformations for similar primary structures. We will learn to search databases for protein structures, explore the Cn3D software, and propose questions that may be answered with these tools.

Stephen Everse (University of Vermont College of Medicine; Biochemistry)

2005-12-16

364

Molecular biology and pathogenesis of prion diseases.  

PubMed

Prions cause a group of human and animal neurodegenerative diseases, which are now classified together because their etiology and pathogenesis, involve modification of the prion protein (PrP). Prion diseases are manifest as infectious, genetic and sporadic disorders. These diseases can be transmitted among mammals by the infectious particle designated 'prion'. Despite intensive searches over the past three decades, no nucleic acid has been found within prions, yet a modified isoform of the host-encoded PrP designated PrPSc is essential for infectivity. In fact, considerable experimental data argue that prions are composed exclusively of PrPSc. Earlier terms used to describe the prion diseases include transmissible encephalopathies, spongiform encephalopathies and slow virus diseases. The human prion disorders include kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jackob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). PMID:9009832

Prusiner, S B

1996-12-01

365

Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance  

SciTech Connect

In prion inheritance and transmission, strains are phenotypic variants encoded by protein 'conformations'. However, it is unclear how a protein conformation can be stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms. Here we describe new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins, which offer two structural mechanisms for the encoding of prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packing arrangements (polymorphs) of {beta}-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct {beta}-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring conformations capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of protein-encoded information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of nucleic acid-encoded information into microbial strains, including sequence specificity and recognition by noncovalent bonds.

Wiltzius, Jed J.W.; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B.; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David; (Cornell); (HHMI)

2009-12-01

366

Plasma soluble prion protein, a potential biomarker for sport-related concussions: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion is a significant health concern to athletes with potential long-term consequences. The diagnosis of sport concussion and return to sport decision making is one of the greatest challenges facing health care clinicians working in sports. Blood biomarkers have recently demonstrated their potential in assisting the detection of brain injury particularly, in those cases with no obvious physical injury. We have recently discovered plasma soluble cellular prion protein (PrPC) as a potential reliable biomarker for blast induced TBI (bTBI) in a rodent animal model. In order to explore the application of this novel TBI biomarker to sport-related concussion, we conducted a pilot study at the University of Saskatchewan (U of S) by recruiting athlete and non-athlete 18 to 30 year-old students. Using a modified quantitative ELISA method, we first established normal values for the plasma soluble PrPC in male and female students. The measured plasma soluble PrPC in confirmed concussion cases demonstrated a significant elevation of this analyte in post-concussion samples. Data collected from our pilot study indicates that the plasma soluble PrPC is a potential biomarker for sport-related concussion, which may be further developed into a clinical diagnostic tool to assist clinicians in the assessment of sport concussion and return-to-play decision making. PMID:25643046

Pham, Nam; Akonasu, Hungbo; Shishkin, Rhonda; Taghibiglou, Changiz

2015-01-01

367

Overcoming barriers and thresholds – signaling of oligomeric A? through the prion protein to Fyn  

PubMed Central

Evidence has been mounting for an involvement of the prion protein (PrP) in a molecular pathway assumed to play a critical role in the etiology of Alzheimer disease. A currently popular model sees oligomeric amyloid ? (oA?) peptides bind directly to PrP to emanate a signal that causes activation of the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase Fyn, an essential player in a cascade of events that ultimately leads to NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity and hyper-phosphorylation of tau. The model does not reveal, however, how extracellular binding of oA? to PrP is communicated across the plasma membrane barrier to affect activation of Fyn. A scenario whereby PrP may adapt a transmembrane topology to affect Fyn activation in the absence of additional partners is currently not supported by evidence. A survey of known candidate PrP interactors leads to a small number of molecules that are known to acquire a transmembrane topology and understood to contribute to Fyn activation. Because multiple signaling pathways converge onto Fyn, a realistic model needs to take into account a reality of Fyn acting as a hub that integrates signals from multiple inhibitory and activating effectors. To clarify the role of PrP in oA?-dependent excitotoxicity, future studies may need to incorporate experimental designs that can probe the contributions of Fyn modulator pathways and rely on analogous readouts, rather than threshold effects, known to underlie excitotoxic signaling. PMID:23856335

2013-01-01

368

Characterizing antiprion compounds based on their binding properties to prion proteins: Implications as medical chaperones  

PubMed Central

A variety of antiprion compounds have been reported that are effective in ex vivo and in vivo treatment experiments. However, the molecular mechanisms for most of these compounds remain unknown. Here we classified antiprion mechanisms into four categories: I, specific conformational stabilization; II, nonspecific stabilization; III, aggregation; and IV, interaction with molecules other than PrPC. To characterize antiprion compounds based on this classification, we determined their binding affinities to PrPC using surface plasmon resonance and their binding sites on PrPC using NMR spectroscopy. GN8 and GJP49 bound specifically to the hot spot in PrPC, and acted as “medical chaperones” to stabilize the native conformation. Thus, mechanisms I was predominant. In contrast, quinacrine and epigallocathechin bound to PrPC rather nonspecifically; these may stabilize the PrPC conformation nonspecifically including the interference with the intermolecular interaction following mechanism II. Congo red and pentosan polysulfate bound to PrPC and caused aggregation and precipitation of PrPC, thus reducing the effective concentration of prion protein. Thus, mechanism III was appropriate. Finally, CP-60, an edarabone derivative, did not bind to PrPC. Thus these were classified into mechanism IV. However, their antiprion activities were not confirmed in the GT + FK system, whose details remain to be elucidated. This proposed antiprion mechanisms of diverse antiprion compounds could help to elucidate their antiprion activities and facilitate effective antiprion drug discovery. PMID:23081827

Kamatari, Yuji O; Hayano, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Kei-ichi; Hosokawa-Muto, Junji; Kuwata, Kazuo

2013-01-01

369

Immunohistochemical detection of prion protein in lymphoid tissues of sheep with natural scrapie.  

PubMed Central

The scrapie-associated form of the prion protein (PrPSc) accumulates in the brain and lymphoid tissues of sheep with scrapie. In order to assess whether detecting PrPSc in lymphoid tissue could be used as a diagnostic test for scrapie, we studied the localization and distribution of PrPSc in various lymphoid tissues collected at necropsy from 55 sheep with clinical scrapie. Samples collected from the spleen, palatine tonsil, ileum, and five different lymph nodes were immunohistochemically stained for PrPSc. PrPSc was found to be deposited in a reticular pattern in the center of both primary and secondary lymphoid follicles. In addition, granules of PrPSc were seen in the cytoplasm in macrophages associated with the lymphoid follicles. In 54 (98%) of the 55 scrapie-affected sheep, PrPSc was detected in the spleen, retropharyngeal lymph node, mesenteric lymph node, and the palatine tonsil. However, only in the palatine tonsils was PrPSc present in a consistently high percentage of the lymphoid follicles. PrP was not detected in any of the lymphoid tissues of 12 sheep that had no neurohistopathological signs of a scrapie infection. We conclude that the tonsils are the best-suited lymphoid tissue to be biopsied for the detection of PrPSc in the diagnosis of clinical scrapie in living sheep. PMID:8727908

van Keulen, L J; Schreuder, B E; Meloen, R H; Mooij-Harkes, G; Vromans, M E; Langeveld, J P

1996-01-01

370

Immunohistochemical detection of prion protein in lymphoid tissues of sheep with natural scrapie.  

PubMed

The scrapie-associated form of the prion protein (PrPSc) accumulates in the brain and lymphoid tissues of sheep with scrapie. In order to assess whether detecting PrPSc in lymphoid tissue could be used as a diagnostic test for scrapie, we studied the localization and distribution of PrPSc in various lymphoid tissues collected at necropsy from 55 sheep with clinical scrapie. Samples collected from the spleen, palatine tonsil, ileum, and five different lymph nodes were immunohistochemically stained for PrPSc. PrPSc was found to be deposited in a reticular pattern in the center of both primary and secondary lymphoid follicles. In addition, granules of PrPSc were seen in the cytoplasm in macrophages associated with the lymphoid follicles. In 54 (98%) of the 55 scrapie-affected sheep, PrPSc was detected in the spleen, retropharyngeal lymph node, mesenteric lymph node, and the palatine tonsil. However, only in the palatine tonsils was PrPSc present in a consistently high percentage of the lymphoid follicles. PrP was not detected in any of the lymphoid tissues of 12 sheep that had no neurohistopathological signs of a scrapie infection. We conclude that the tonsils are the best-suited lymphoid tissue to be biopsied for the detection of PrPSc in the diagnosis of clinical scrapie in living sheep. PMID:8727908

van Keulen, L J; Schreuder, B E; Meloen, R H; Mooij-Harkes, G; Vromans, M E; Langeveld, J P

1996-05-01

371

Plasma Soluble Prion Protein, a Potential Biomarker for Sport-Related Concussions: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion is a significant health concern to athletes with potential long-term consequences. The diagnosis of sport concussion and return to sport decision making is one of the greatest challenges facing health care clinicians working in sports. Blood biomarkers have recently demonstrated their potential in assisting the detection of brain injury particularly, in those cases with no obvious physical injury. We have recently discovered plasma soluble cellular prion protein (PrPC) as a potential reliable biomarker for blast induced TBI (bTBI) in a rodent animal model. In order to explore the application of this novel TBI biomarker to sport-related concussion, we conducted a pilot study at the University of Saskatchewan (U of S) by recruiting athlete and non-athlete 18 to 30 year-old students. Using a modified quantitative ELISA method, we first established normal values for the plasma soluble PrPC in male and female students. The measured plasma soluble PrPC in confirmed concussion cases demonstrated a significant elevation of this analyte in post-concussion samples. Data collected from our pilot study indicates that the plasma soluble PrPC is a potential biomarker for sport-related concussion, which may be further developed into a clinical diagnostic tool to assist clinicians in the assessment of sport concussion and return-to-play decision making. PMID:25643046

Pham, Nam; Akonasu, Hungbo; Shishkin, Rhonda; Taghibiglou, Changiz

2015-01-01

372

Deconvoluting the Cu2+ binding modes of full-length prion protein.  

PubMed

The prion protein (PrP) is a cell-surface Cu(2+)-binding glycoprotein that when misfolded is responsible for a number of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Full-length PrP-(23-231) and constructs in which the octarepeat region has been removed, or His(95) and His(110) is replaced by alanine residues, have been used to elucidate the order and mode of Cu(2+) coordination to PrP-(23-231). We have built on our understanding of the appearance of visible CD spectra and EPR for various PrP fragments to characterize Cu(2+) coordination to full-length PrP. At physiological pH, Cu(2+) initially binds to full-length PrP in the amyloidogenic region between the octarepeats and the structured domain at His(95) and His(110). Only subsequent Cu(2+) ions bind to single histidine residues within the octarepeat region. Ni(2+) ions are used to further probe metal binding and, like Cu(2+), Ni(2+) will bind individually to His(95) and His(110), involving preceding main chain amides. Competitive chelators are used to determine the affinity of the first mole equivalent of Cu(2+) bound to full-length PrP; this approach places the affinity in the nanomolar range. The affinity and number of Cu(2+) binding sites support the suggestion that PrP could act as a sacrificial quencher of free radicals generated by copper redox cycling. PMID:18042548

Klewpatinond, Mark; Davies, Paul; Bowen, Suzanne; Brown, David R; Viles, John H

2008-01-25

373

Recruitment of cellular prion protein to mitochondrial raft-like microdomains contributes to apoptosis execution  

PubMed Central

We examined the possibility that cellular prion protein (PrPC) plays a role in the receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway. We first found that CD95/Fas triggering induced a redistribution of PrPC to the mitochondria of T lymphoblastoid CEM cells via a mechanism that brings into play microtubular network integrity and function. In particular, we demonstrated that PrPC was redistributed to raft-like microdomains at the mitochondrial membrane, as well as at endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria–associated membranes. Our in vitro experiments also demonstrated that, although PrPC had such an effect on mitochondria, it induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release only after a contained rise of calcium concentration. Finally, the involvement of PrPC in apoptosis execution was also analyzed in PrPC-small interfering RNA–transfected cells, which were found to be significantly less susceptible to CD95/Fas–induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that PrPC might play a role in the complex multimolecular signaling associated with CD95/Fas receptor–mediated apoptosis. PMID:22031292

Mattei, Vincenzo; Matarrese, Paola; Garofalo, Tina; Tinari, Antonella; Gambardella, Lucrezia; Ciarlo, Laura; Manganelli, Valeria; Tasciotti, Vincenzo; Misasi, Roberta; Malorni, Walter; Sorice, Maurizio

2011-01-01

374

Copper attachment to prion protein at a non-octarepeat site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prion protein (PrP) plays a causative role in a group of neurodegenerative diseases, which include "mad cow disease" or its human form variant Creutzfeld-Jacob disease. Normal function of PrP remains unknown, but it is now well established that PrP can efficiently bind copper ions and this ability has been linked to its function. The primary binding sites are located in the so-called octarepeat region located between residues 60-91. While these are by now well characterized, the sites located outside these region remain mostly undetermined. In this work, we investigate the properties of Cu binding site located at His 111 using recently developed hybrid Kohn-Sham/orbital-free density functional simulations. Experimental data indicate that copper is coordinated by either four nitrogens or three nitrogens and one oxygen. We investigate both possibilities, comparing their energetics and attachment geometries. Similarities and differences with other binding sites and implications for PrP function will also be discussed.

Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

2011-03-01

375

Conformational diversity in prion protein variants influences intermolecular [beta]-sheet formation  

SciTech Connect

A conformational transition of normal cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) to its pathogenic form (PrP{sup Sc}) is believed to be a central event in the transmission of the devastating neurological diseases known as spongiform encephalopathies. The common methionine/valine polymorphism at residue 129 in the PrP influences disease susceptibility and phenotype. We report here seven crystal structures of human PrP variants: three of wild-type (WT) PrP containing V129, and four of the familial variants D178N and F198S, containing either M129 or V129. Comparison of these structures with each other and with previously published WT PrP structures containing M129 revealed that only WT PrPs were found to crystallize as domain-swapped dimers or closed monomers; the four mutant PrPs crystallized as non-swapped dimers. Three of the four mutant PrPs aligned to form intermolecular {beta}-sheets. Several regions of structural variability were identified, and analysis of their conformations provides an explanation for the structural features, which can influence the formation and conformation of intermolecular {beta}-sheets involving the M/V129 polymorphic residue.

Lee, Seungjoo; Antony, Lizamma; Hartmann, Rune; Knaus, Karen J.; Surewicz, Krystyna; Surewicz, Witold K.; Yee, Vivien C. (Case Western); (Cleveland Clinic)

2010-04-19

376

Mutation and polymorphism of the prion protein gene in Libyan Jews with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)  

SciTech Connect

The inherited prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders which are not only genetic but also transmissible. More than a dozen mutations in the prion protein gene that result in nonconservative amino acid substitutions segregate with the inherited prion diseases including familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In Israel, the incidence of CJD is about 1 case/10[sup 4] Libyan Jews. A Lys[sub 200] substitution segregates with CJD and is reported here to be genetically linked to CJD with a lod score of >4.8. Some healthy elderly Lys[sub 200] carriers > age 65 years were identified, suggesting the possibility of incomplete penetrance. In contrast, no linkage was found between the development of familial CJD and a polymorphism encoding either Met[sub 129] or Val[sub 129]. All Libyan Jewish CJD patients with the Lys[sub 200] mutation encode a Met[sub 129] on the mutant allele. Homozygosity for Met[sub 129] did not correlate with age at disease onset or the duration of illness. The frequency of the Met[sub 129] allele was higher in the affected pedigrees than in a control population of Libyan Jews. The frequency of the Met[sub 129] and Val[sub 129] alleles in the control Libyan population was similar to that found in the general Caucasian population. The identification of three Libyan Jews homozygous for the Lys[sub 200] mutation suggests frequent intrafamilial marriages, a custom documented by genealogical investigations. 26 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Gabizon, R.; Rosenmann, H.; Meiner, Z.; Kahana, I. (Hadassah Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Kahana, E. (Barzilai Medical Center, Ashkelon (Israel)); Shugart, Y.; Ott, J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Prusiner, S.B. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))

1993-10-01

377

Subcellular colocalization of the cellular and scrapie prion proteins in caveolae-like membranous domains.  

PubMed

Results of transgenetic studies argue that the scrapie isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) interacts with the substrate cellular PrP (PrPC) during conversion into nascent PrPSc. While PrPSc appears to accumulate primarily in lysosomes, caveolae-like domains (CLDs) have been suggested to be the site where PrPC is converted into PrPSc. We report herein that CLDs isolated from scrapie-infected neuroblastoma (ScN2a) cells contain PrPC and PrPSc. After lysis of ScN2a cells in ice-cold Triton X-100, both PrP isoforms and an N-terminally truncated form of PrPC (PrPC-II) were found concentrated in detergent-insoluble complexes resembling CLDs that were isolated by flotation in sucrose gradients. Similar results were obtained when CLDs were purified from plasma membranes by sonication and gradient centrifugation; with this procedure no detergents are used, which minimizes artifacts that might arise from redistribution of proteins among subcellular fractions. The caveolar markers ganglioside GM1 and H-ras were found concentrated in the CLD fractions. When plasma membrane proteins were labeled with the impermeant reagent sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin, both PrPC and PrPSc were found biotinylated in CLD fractions. Similar results on the colocalization of PrPC and PrPSc were obtained when CLDs were isolated from Syrian hamster brains. Our findings demonstrate that both PrPC and PrPSc are present in CLDs and, thus, support the hypothesis that the PrPSc formation occurs within this subcellular compartment. PMID:8962161

Vey, M; Pilkuhn, S; Wille, H; Nixon, R; DeArmond, S J; Smart, E J; Anderson, R G; Taraboulos, A; Prusiner, S B

1996-12-10

378

Prion protein-mediated toxicity of amyloid-? oligomers requires lipid rafts and the transmembrane LRP1.  

PubMed

Soluble oligomers of the amyloid-? (A?) peptide cause neurotoxicity, synaptic dysfunction, and memory impairments that underlie Alzheimer disease (AD). The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) was recently identified as a high affinity neuronal receptor for A? oligomers. We report that fibrillar A? oligomers recognized by the OC antibody, which have been shown to correlate with the onset and severity of AD, bind preferentially to cells and neurons expressing PrP(C). The binding of A? oligomers to cell surface PrP(C), as well as their downstream activation of Fyn kinase, was dependent on the integrity of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. In SH-SY5Y cells, fluorescence microscopy and co-localization with subcellular markers revealed that the A? oligomers co-internalized with PrP(C), accumulated in endosomes, and subsequently trafficked to lysosomes. The cell surface binding, internalization, and downstream toxicity of A? oligomers was dependent on the transmembrane low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1). The binding of A? oligomers to cell surface PrP(C) impaired its ability to inhibit the activity of the ?-secretase BACE1, which cleaves the amyloid precursor protein to produce A?. The green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and the red wine extract resveratrol both remodeled the fibrillar conformation of A? oligomers. The resulting nonfibrillar oligomers displayed significantly reduced binding to PrP(C)-expressing cells and were no longer cytotoxic. These data indicate that soluble, fibrillar A? oligomers bind to PrP(C) in a conformation-dependent manner and require the integrity of lipid rafts and the transmembrane LRP1 for their cytotoxicity, thus revealing potential targets to alleviate the neurotoxic properties of A? oligomers in AD. PMID:23386614

Rushworth, Jo V; Griffiths, Heledd H; Watt, Nicole T; Hooper, Nigel M

2013-03-29

379

Neurodegeneration in humans caused by prions.  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases include kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease, and fatal familial insomnia of humans as well as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy of animals. For many years, the prion diseases were thought to be caused by viruses despite evidence to the contrary. The unique characteristic common to all of these disorders, whether sporadic, dominantly inherited, or acquired by infection, is that they involve aberrant metabolism of the prion protein. In many cases, the cellular prion protein is converted into the scrapie variant by a process after translation that involves a conformational change. Often the human prion diseases are transmissible experimentally to animals, and all of the inherited prion diseases segregate with prion protein gene mutations. Images PMID:7975565

Prusiner, S B

1994-01-01

380

Spectral clustering of protein sequences  

PubMed Central

An important problem in genomics is automatically clustering homologous proteins when only sequence information is available. Most methods for clustering proteins are local, and are based on simply thresholding a measure related to sequence distance. We first show how locality limits the performance of such methods by analysing the distribution of distances between protein sequences. We then present a global method based on spectral clustering and provide theoretical justification of why it will have a remarkable improvement over local methods. We extensively tested our method and compared its performance with other local methods on several subsets of the SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins) database, a gold standard for protein structure classification. We consistently observed that, the number of clusters that we obtain for a given set of proteins is close to the number of superfamilies in that set; there are fewer singletons; and the method correctly groups most remote homologs. In our experiments, the quality of the clusters as quantified by a measure that combines sensitivity and specificity was consistently better [on average, improvements were 84% over hierarchical clustering, 34% over Connected Component Analysis (CCA) (similar to GeneRAGE) and 72% over another global method, TribeMCL]. PMID:16547200

Paccanaro, Alberto; Casbon, James A.; Saqi, Mansoor A. S.

2006-01-01

381

Prions: Generation and Spread Versus Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the aggregation of misfolded proteins in the brain. Among these disorders are the prion diseases, which are transmissible, and in which the misfolded proteins (“prions”) are also the infectious agent. Increasingly, it appears that misfolded proteins in Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and the tauopathies also propagate in a “prion-like” manner. However, the association between prion formation, spread, and neurotoxicity is not clear. Recently, we showed that in prion disease, protein misfolding leads to neurodegeneration through dysregulation of generic proteostatic mechanisms, specifically, the unfolded protein response. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of the unfolded protein response was neuroprotective despite continuing prion replication, hence dissociating this from neurotoxicity. The data have clear implications for treatment across the spectrum of these disorders, targeting pathogenic processes downstream of protein misfolding. PMID:24860100

Halliday, Mark; Radford, Helois; Mallucci, Giovanna R.

2014-01-01

382

Effects of the A117V mutation on the folding and aggregation of palindromic sequences (PrP113-120) in prion: insights from replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

The palindromic region AGAAAAGA (PrP113-120) in prion is highly amyloidogenic and very critical in the structural conversion of cellular prion protein to its pathogenetic form. In this region, there is an important point mutation A117V, which is closely related to the occurrence of Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Syndrome. However, the detailed knowledge about the effects of the A117V mutation on the folding and aggregation of the palindromic sequences is still lacking. To investigate the impacts of A117V mutation on the earliest steps along the PrP113-120 aggregation pathway, replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of the monomer, 2- and 4-peptide systems of PrP113-120 and its A117V mutant were carried out. The simulations of monomers indicate that both WT and the A117V mutated PrP113-120 are mostly random coils with helical structures transiently populated. Differently, the A117V mutation enhances the intrinsic disorder of PrP113-120. The simulations of 2- and 4-peptide systems of the two species show that the A117V mutation increases the sheet contents and the populations of oligomers, which may be attributed to the enhancement of inter-peptide backbone hydrogen bonding interactions and side chain hydrophobic interactions. Overall, the study provides structural insights into the impacts of the A117V mutation on the folding and assembly of the palindromic sequences, which might be helpful to elucidate the mechanism underlying prion disease and the origin of the Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Syndrome. PMID:25483828

Ning, Lulu; Wang, Qianqian; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

2015-01-20

383

Transmission and detection of prions in feces.  

PubMed

In chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids and in scrapie in sheep, prions appear to be transmitted horizontally. Oral exposure to prion-tainted blood, urine, saliva, and feces has been suggested as the mode of transmission of CWD and scrapie among herbivores susceptible to these prion diseases. To explore the transmission of prions through feces, uninoculated Syrian hamsters (SHas) were cohabitated with or exposed to the bedding of SHas orally infected with Sc237 prions. Incubation times of 140 days and a rate of prion infection of 80%-100% among exposed animals suggested transmission by feces, probably via coprophagy. We measured the disease-causing isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in feces by use of the conformation-dependent immunoassay, and we titrated the irradiated feces intracerebrally in transgenic mice that overexpressed SHa prion protein (SHaPrP). Fecal samples collected from infected SHas in the first 7 days after oral challenge harbored 60 ng/g PrP(Sc) and prion titers of approximately 10(6.6) ID(50)/g. Excretion of infectious prions continued at lower levels throughout the asymptomatic phase of the incubation period, most likely by the shedding of prions from infected Peyer patches. Our findings suggest that horizontal transmission of disease among herbivores may occur through the consumption of feces or foodstuff tainted with prions from feces of CWD-infected cervids and scrapie-infected sheep. PMID:18505383

Safar, Jiri G; Lessard, Pierre; Tamgüney, Gültekin; Freyman, Yevgeniy; Deering, Camille; Letessier, Frederic; Dearmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

2008-07-01

384

Assessing the role of Hsp70 in prion propagation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

E-print Network

??The term Prion (Proteinaceous infectious) was first described by Stanley Prusiner in 1982. Prions are infectious proteins and are responsible for many neurodegenerative diseases, collectively… (more)

Cusack, Sarah

385

Spontaneous generation of prion infectivity in fatal familial insomnia knock-in mice  

E-print Network

A crucial tenet of the prion hypothesis is that misfolding of the prion protein (PrP) induced by mutations associated with familial prion disease is, in an otherwise normal mammalian brain, sufficient to generate the ...

Faas, Henryk

386

Defining the Conformational Features of Anchorless, Poorly Neuroinvasive Prions  

PubMed Central

Infectious prions cause diverse clinical signs and form an extraordinary range of structures, from amorphous aggregates to fibrils. How the conformation of a prion dictates the disease phenotype remains unclear. Mice expressing GPI-anchorless or GPI-anchored prion protein exposed to the same infectious prion develop fibrillar or nonfibrillar aggregates, respectively, and show a striking divergence in the disease pathogenesis. To better understand how a prion's physical properties govern the pathogenesis, infectious anchorless prions were passaged in mice expressing anchorless prion protein and the resulting prions were biochemically characterized. Serial passage of anchorless prions led to a significant decrease in the incubation period to terminal disease and altered the biochemical properties, consistent with a transmission barrier effect. After an intraperitoneal exposure, anchorless prions were only weakly neuroinvasive, as prion plaques rarely occurred in the brain yet were abundant in extracerebral sites such as heart and adipose tissue. Anchorless prions consistently showed very high stability in chaotropes or when heated in SDS, and were highly resistant to enzyme digestion. Consistent with the results in mice, anchorless prions from a human patient were also highly stable in chaotropes. These findings reveal that anchorless prions consist of fibrillar and highly stable conformers. The additional finding from our group and others that both anchorless and anchored prion fibrils are poorly neuroinvasive strengthens the hypothesis that a fibrillar prion structure impedes efficient CNS invasion. PMID:23637596

Bett, Cyrus; Kurt, Tim D.; Lucero, Melanie; Trejo, Margarita; Rozemuller, Annemieke J.; Kong, Qingzhong; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Masliah, Eliezer; Oldstone, Michael B.; Sigurdson, Christina J.

2013-01-01

387

Defining the conformational features of anchorless, poorly neuroinvasive prions.  

PubMed

Infectious prions cause diverse clinical signs and form an extraordinary range of structures, from amorphous aggregates to fibrils. How the conformation of a prion dictates the disease phenotype remains unclear. Mice expressing GPI-anchorless or GPI-anchored prion protein exposed to the same infectious prion develop fibrillar or nonfibrillar aggregates, respectively, and show a striking divergence in the disease pathogenesis. To better understand how a prion's physical properties govern the pathogenesis, infectious anchorless prions were passaged in mice expressing anchorless prion protein and the resulting prions were biochemically characterized. Serial passage of anchorless prions led to a significant decrease in the incubation period to terminal disease and altered the biochemical properties, consistent with a transmission barrier effect. After an intraperitoneal exposure, anchorless prions were only weakly neuroinvasive, as prion plaques rarely occurred in the brain yet were abundant in extracerebral sites such as heart and adipose tissue. Anchorless prions consistently showed very high stability in chaotropes or when heated in SDS, and were highly resistant to enzyme digestion. Consistent with the results in mice, anchorless prions from a human patient were also highly stable in chaotropes. These findings reveal that anchorless prions consist of fibrillar and highly stable conformers. The additional finding from our group and others that both anchorless and anchored prion fibrils are poorly neuroinvasive strengthens the hypothesis that a fibrillar prion structure impedes efficient CNS invasion. PMID:23637596

Bett, Cyrus; Kurt, Tim D; Lucero, Melanie; Trejo, Margarita; Rozemuller, Annemieke J; Kong, Qingzhong; Nilsson, K Peter R; Masliah, Eliezer; Oldstone, Michael B; Sigurdson, Christina J

2013-01-01

388

Thermal stability and conformational transitions of scrapie amyloid (prion) protein correlate with infectivity.  

PubMed Central

The scrapie amyloid (prion) protein (PrP27-30) is the protease-resistant core of a larger precursor (PrPSc) and a component of the infectious scrapie agent; the potential to form amyloid is a result of posttranslational event or conformational abnormality. The conformation, heat stability, and solvent-induced conformational transitions of PrP27-30 were studied in the solid state in films by CD spectroscopy and correlated with the infectivity of rehydrated and equilibrated films. The exposure of PrP27-30 in films to 60 degrees C, 100 degrees C, and 132 degrees C for 30 min did not change the beta-sheet secondary structure; the infectivity slightly diminished at 132 degrees C and correlated with a decreased solubility of PrP27-30 in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), probably due to cross-linking. Exposing PrP27-30 films to formic acid (FA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), trifluoroethanol (TFE), hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP), and SDS transformed the amide CD band, diminished the mean residue ellipticity of aromatic bands, and inactivated scrapie infectivity. The convex constraint algorithm (CAA) deconvolution of the CD spectra of the solvent-exposed and rehydrated solid state PrP27-30 identified five common spectral components. The loss of infectivity quantitatively correlated with a decreasing proportion of native, beta-pleated sheet-like secondary structure component, an increasing amount of alpha-helical component, and an increasingly disordered tertiary structure. The results demonstrate the unusual thermal stability of the beta-sheet secondary structure of PrP27-30 protein in the solid state. The conformational perturbations of PrP27-30 parallel the changes in infectivity and suggest that the beta-sheet structure plays a key role in the physical stability of scrapie amyloid and in the ability to propagate and replicate scrapie. PMID:7905316

Safar, J.; Roller, P. P.; Gajdusek, D. C.; Gibbs, C. J.

1993-01-01

389

Modeling Amyloid-Beta as Homogeneous Dodecamers and in Complex with Cellular Prion Protein  

PubMed Central

Soluble amyloid beta (A?) peptide has been linked to the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. A variety of soluble oligomers have been observed to be toxic, ranging from dimers to protofibrils. No tertiary structure has been identified as a single biologically relevant form, though many models are comprised of highly ordered ?-sheets. Evidence exists for much less ordered toxic oligomers. The mechanism of toxicity remains highly debated and probably involves multiple pathways. Interaction of A? oligomers with the N-terminus of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrPc) has recently been proposed. The intrinsically disordered nature of this protein and the highly polymorphic nature of A? oligomers make structural resolution of the complex exceptionally challenging. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are performed for dodecameric assemblies of A? comprised of monomers having a single, short antiparallel ?-hairpin at the C-terminus. The resulting models, devoid of any intermolecular hydrogen bonds, are shown to correlate well with experimental data and are found to be quite stable within the hydrophobic core, whereas the ?-helical N-termini transform to a random coil state. This indicates that highly ordered assemblies are not required for stability and less ordered oligomers are a viable component in the population of soluble oligomers. In addition, a tentative model is proposed for the association of A? dimers with a double deletion mutant of the intrinsically disordered N-terminus of PrPc. This may be useful as a conceptual working model for the binding of higher order oligomers and in the design of further experiments. PMID:23145167

Gallion, Steven L.

2012-01-01

390

Genetic predictions of prion disease susceptibility in carnivore species based on variability of the prion gene coding region.  

PubMed

Mammalian species vary widely in their apparent susceptibility to prion diseases. For example, several felid species developed prion disease (feline spongiform encephalopathy or FSE) during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom, whereas no canine BSE cases were detected. Whether either of these or other groups of carnivore species can contract other prion diseases (e.g. chronic wasting disease or CWD) remains an open question. Variation in the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C)) largely explains observed disease susceptibility patterns within ruminant species, and may explain interspecies differences in susceptibility as well. We sequenced and compared the open reading frame of the PRNP gene encoding PrP(C) protein from 609 animal samples comprising 29 species from 22 genera of the Order Carnivora; amongst these samples were 15 FSE cases. Our analysis revealed that FSE cases did not encode an identifiable disease-associated PrP polymorphism. However, all canid PrPs contained aspartic acid or glutamic acid at codon 163 which we propose provides a genetic basis for observed susceptibility differences between canids and felids. Among other carnivores studied, wolverine (Gulo gulo) and pine marten (Martes martes) were the only non-canid species to also express PrP-Asp163, which may impact on their prion diseases susceptibility. Populations of black bear (Ursus americanus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) from Colorado showed little genetic variation in the PrP protein and no variants likely to be highly resistant to prions in general, suggesting that strain differences between BSE and CWD prions also may contribute to the limited apparent host range of the latter. PMID:23236380

Stewart, Paula; Campbell, Lauren; Skogtvedt, Susan; Griffin, Karen A; Arnemo, Jon M; Tryland, Morten; Girling, Simon; Miller, Michael W; Tranulis, Michael A; Goldmann, Wilfred

2012-01-01

391

Molecular characterization, phylogenetic relationships, and developmental expression patterns of prion genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

Prion diseases are characterized by the accumulation of a pathogenic misfolded form of a prion protein (PrP) encoded by the Prnp gene in humans. In the present study in zebrafish, two transcripts and the corresponding genes encoding prion proteins, PrP1 and PrP2, related to human PrP have been characterized with a relatively divergent deduced amino acid sequence, but a well preserved overall organization of structural prion protein motifs. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis performed during embryonic and larval development showed a high level of PrP1 mRNA spatially restricted to the anterior floor-plate of the central nervous system and in ganglia. Transcripts of prp2 were detected in embryonic cells from the mid-blastula transition to the end of the segmentation period. From 24 h postfertilization up to larval stages, prp2 transcripts were localized in distinct anatomical structures, including a major expression in the brain, eye, kidney, lateral line neuromasts, liver, heart, pectoral fins and posterior intestine. The observed differential developmental expression patterns of the two long PrP forms, prp1 and prp2, and the short PrP form prp3, a more divergent prion-related gene previously identified in zebrafish, should contribute to understanding of the phylogenetic and functional relationships of duplicated prion gene forms in the fish genome. Together, the complex history of prion-related genes, reflected in the deduced structural features, conserved amino acid sequence and repeat motifs of the corresponding proteins, and the presence of differential developmental expression patterns suggest possible acquisition or loss of prion protein functions during vertebrate evolution. PMID:15654888

Cotto, Emmanuelle; André, Michèle; Forgue, Jean; Fleury, Hervé J; Babin, Patrick J

2005-01-01

392

Charge Neutralization of the Central Lysine Cluster in Prion Protein (PrP) Promotes PrPSc-like Folding of Recombinant PrP Amyloids.  

PubMed

The structure of the infectious form of prion protein, PrP(Sc), remains unclear. Most pure recombinant prion protein (PrP) amyloids generated in vitro are not infectious and lack the extent of the protease-resistant core and solvent exclusion of infectious PrP(Sc), especially within residues ?90-160. Polyanionic cofactors can enhance infectivity and PrP(Sc)-like characteristics of such fibrils, but the mechanism of this enhancement is unknown. In considering structural models of PrP(Sc) multimers, we identified an obstacle to tight packing that might be overcome with polyanionic cofactors, namely, electrostatic repulsion between four closely spaced cationic lysines within a central lysine cluster of residues 101-110. For example, in our parallel in-register intermolecular ?-sheet model of PrP(Sc), not only would these lysines be clustered within the 101-110 region of the primary sequence, but they would have intermolecular spacings of only ?4.8 Å between stacked ?-strands. We have now performed molecular dynamics simulations predicting that neutralization of the charges on these lysine residues would allow more stable parallel in-register packing in this region. We also show empirically that substitution of these clustered lysine residues with alanines or asparagines results in recombinant PrP amyloid fibrils with extended proteinase-K resistant ?-sheet cores and infrared spectra that are more reminiscent of bona fide PrP(Sc). These findings indicate that charge neutralization at the central lysine cluster is critical for the folding and tight packing of N-proximal residues within PrP amyloid fibrils. This charge neutralization may be a key aspect of the mechanism by which anionic cofactors promote PrP(Sc) formation. PMID:25416779

Groveman, Bradley R; Kraus, Allison; Raymond, Lynne D; Dolan, Michael A; Anson, Kelsie J; Dorward, David W; Caughey, Byron

2015-01-01

393

Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces PRNP prion protein gene expression in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction High prion protein (PrP) levels are associated with breast, colon and gastric cancer resistance to treatment and with a poor prognosis for the patients. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism(s) regulating human PrP gene (PRNP) expression in cancers. Because endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with solid tumors, we investigated a possible regulation of PRNP gene expression by ER stress. Methods Published microarray databases of breast cancer tissues and breast carcinoma cell lines were analyzed for PrP mRNA and ER stress marker immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) levels. Breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMA) were immunostained for BiP and PrP. Breast carcinoma MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HS578T and HCC1500 cells were treated with three different ER stressors - Brefeldin A, Tunicamycin, Thapsigargin - and levels of PrP mRNA or protein assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. A human PRNP promoter-luciferase reporter was used to assess transcriptional activation by ER stressors. Site-directed mutagenesis identified the ER stress response elements (ERSE). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses were done to identify the ER stress-mediated transcriptional regulators. The role of cleaved activating transcription factor 6? (?ATF6?) and spliced X-box protein-1 (sXBP1) in PRNP gene expression was assessed with over-expression or silencing techniques. The role of PrP protection against ER stress was assessed with PrP siRNA and by using Prnp null cell lines. Results We find that mRNA levels of BiP correlated with PrP transcript levels in breast cancer tissues and breast carcinoma cell lines. PrP mRNA levels were enriched in the basal subtype and were associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Higher PrP and BiP levels correlated with increasing tumor grade in TMA. ER stress was a positive regulator of PRNP gene transcription in MCF-7 cells and luciferase reporter assays identified one ER stress response element (ERSE) conserved among primates and rodents and three primate-specific ERSEs that regulated PRNP gene expression. Among the various transactivators of the ER stress-regulated unfolded protein response (UPR), ATF6? and XBP1 transactivated PRNP gene expression, but the ability of these varied in different cell types. Functionally, PrP delayed ER stress-induced cell death. Conclusions These results establish PRNP as a novel ER stress-regulated gene that could increase survival in breast cancers. PMID:23497519

2013-01-01

394

Prions of Fungi: Inherited Structures and Biological Roles  

PubMed Central

PREFACE The term 'prion' means an infectious protein that does not need an accompanying nucleic acid. There are six fungal prions, including four self-propagating amyloids and two enzymes that are necessary to activate their inactive precursors. Here we explore the scope of the prion phenomenon, the biological and evolutionary roles of prions, the structural basis of the amyloid prions, and the prominent role of chaperones (proteins that affect the folding of other proteins) and other cellular components in prion generation and propagation. PMID:17632572

Wickner, Reed B.; Edskes, Herman K.; Shewmaker, Frank; Nakayashiki, Toru

2008-01-01

395

The prion diseases.  

PubMed

The human prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative maladies that may present as sporadic, genetic, or infectious illnesses. The sporadic form is called Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) while the inherited disorders are called familial (f) CJD, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). Prions are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid and seem to be composed exclusively of a modified protein (PrPSc). The normal, cellular PrP (PrPC) is converted into PrPSc through a posttranslational process during which it acquires a high beta-sheet content. In fCJD, GSS, and FFI, mutations in the PrP gene located on the short arm of chromosome 20 are the cause of disease. Considerable evidence argues that the prion diseases are disorders of protein conformation. PMID:9669700

Prusiner, S B

1998-07-01

396

Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation Specifies the Organ Tropism of Prions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prions typically accumulate in nervous and lymphoid tissues. Because proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells are required for lymphoid prion replication, we tested whether inflammatory conditions affect prion pathogenesis. We administered prions to mice with five inflammatory diseases of the kidney, pancreas, or liver. In all cases, chronic lymphocytic inflammation enabled prion accumulation in otherwise prion-free organs. Inflammatory foci consistently correlated with lymphotoxin up-regulation and ectopic induction of FDC-M1+ cells expressing the normal cellular prion protein PrPC. By contrast, inflamed organs of mice lacking lymphotoxin-? or its receptor did not accumulate the abnormal isoform PrPSc, nor did they display infectivity upon prion inoculation. By expanding the tissue distribution of prions, chronic inflammatory conditions may act as modifiers of natural and iatrogenic prion transmission.

Heikenwalder, Mathias; Zeller, Nicolas; Seeger, Harald; Prinz, Marco; Klöhn, Peter-Christian; Schwarz, Petra; Ruddle, Nancy H.; Weissmann, Charles; Aguzzi, Adriano

2005-02-01

397

Evidence that bank vole PrP is a universal acceptor for prions.  

PubMed

Bank voles are uniquely susceptible to a wide range of prion strains isolated from many different species. To determine if this enhanced susceptibility to interspecies prion transmission is encoded within the sequence of the bank vole prion protein (BVPrP), we inoculated Tg(M109) and Tg(I109) mice, which express BVPrP containing either methionine or isoleucine at polymorphic codon 109, with 16 prion isolates from 8 different species: humans, cattle, elk, sheep, guinea pigs, hamsters, mice, and meadow voles. Efficient disease transmission was observed in both Tg(M109) and Tg(I109) mice. For instance, inoculation of the most common human prion strain, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) subtype MM1, into Tg(M109) mice gave incubation periods of ?200 days that were shortened slightly on second passage. Chronic wasting disease prions exhibited an incubation time of ?250 days, which shortened to ?150 days upon second passage in Tg(M109) mice. Unexpectedly, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant CJD prions caused rapid neurological dysfunction in Tg(M109) mice upon second passage, with incubation periods of 64 and 40 days, respectively. Despite the rapid incubation periods, other strain-specified properties of many prion isolates--including the size of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc, the pattern of cerebral PrPSc deposition, and the conformational stability--were remarkably conserved upon serial passage in Tg(M109) mice. Our results demonstrate that expression of BVPrP is sufficient to engender enhanced susceptibility to a diverse range of prion isolates, suggesting that BVPrP may be a universal acceptor for prions. PMID:24699458

Watts, Joel C; Giles, Kurt; Patel, Smita; Oehler, Abby; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

2014-04-01

398

Evidence That Bank Vole PrP Is a Universal Acceptor for Prions  

PubMed Central

Bank voles are uniquely susceptible to a wide range of prion strains isolated from many different species. To determine if this enhanced susceptibility to interspecies prion transmission is encoded within the sequence of the bank vole prion protein (BVPrP), we inoculated Tg(M109) and Tg(I109) mice, which express BVPrP containing either methionine or isoleucine at polymorphic codon 109, with 16 prion isolates from 8 different species: humans, cattle, elk, sheep, guinea pigs, hamsters, mice, and meadow voles. Efficient disease transmission was observed in both Tg(M109) and Tg(I109) mice. For instance, inoculation of the most common human prion strain, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) subtype MM1, into Tg(M109) mice gave incubation periods of ?200 days that were shortened slightly on second passage. Chronic wasting disease prions exhibited an incubation time of ?250 days, which shortened to ?150 days upon second passage in Tg(M109) mice. Unexpectedly, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant CJD prions caused rapid neurological dysfunction in Tg(M109) mice upon second passage, with incubation periods of 64 and 40 days, respectively. Despite the rapid incubation periods, other strain-specified properties of many prion isolates—including the size of proteinase K–resistant PrPSc, the pattern of cerebral PrPSc deposition, and the conformational stability—were remarkably conserved upon serial passage in Tg(M109) mice. Our results demonstrate that expression of BVPrP is sufficient to engender enhanced susceptibility to a diverse range of prion isolates, suggesting that BVPrP may be a universal acceptor for prions. PMID:24699458

Watts, Joel C.; Giles, Kurt; Patel, Smita; Oehler, Abby; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

2014-01-01

399

Effect of electrostatics on aggregation of prion protein Sup35 peptide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-assembly of misfolded proteins into ordered fibrillar structures is a fundamental property of a wide range of proteins and peptides. This property is also linked with the development of various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Environmental conditions modulate the misfolding and aggregation processes. We used a peptide, CGNNQQNY, from yeast prion protein Sup35, as a model system to address effects of environmental conditions on aggregate formation. The GNNQQNY peptide self-assembles in fibrils with structural features that are similar to amyloidogenic proteins. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay were employed to follow the aggregation process at various pHs and ionic strengths. We also used single molecule AFM force spectroscopy to probe interactions between the peptides under various conditions. The ThT fluorescence data showed that the peptide aggregates fast at pH values approaching the peptide isoelectric point (pI = 5.3) and the kinetics is 10 times slower at acidic pH (pH 2.0), suggesting that electrostatic interactions contribute to the peptide self-assembly into aggregates. This hypothesis was tested by experiments performed at low (11 mM) and high (150 mM) ionic strengths. Indeed, the aggregation lag time measured at pH 2 at low ionic strength (11 mM) is 195 h, whereas the lag time decreases ˜5 times when the ionic strength is increased to 150 mM. At conditions close to the pI value, pH 5.6, the aggregation lag time is 12 ± 6 h under low ionic strength, and there is minimal change to the lag time at 150 mM NaCl. The ionic strength also influences the morphology of aggregates visualized with AFM. In pH 2.0 and at high ionic strength, the aggregates are twofold taller than those formed at low ionic strength. In parallel, AFM force spectroscopy studies revealed minimal contribution of electrostatics to dissociation of transient peptide dimers.

Portillo, Alexander M.; Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V.; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.

2012-04-01

400

Detection of prion protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease using protein misfolding cyclic amplification.  

PubMed

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been examined as a possible source for preclinical diagnosis of prion diseases in hamsters and sheep. The present report describes the detection of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in the CSF of elk and evaluates its usefulness as an antemortem test for CWD. The CSF from 6 captive and 31 free-ranging adult elk was collected at necropsy and evaluated for the presence of the abnormal isoform of the prion protein that has been associated with CWD (PrP(CWD)) via protein misfolding cyclic amplification. Additionally, the obex from each animal was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Four out of 6 captive animals were CWD-positive and euthanized due to signs of terminal CWD. The remaining 2 were CWD negative. None of the 31 free-range animals showed overt signs of CWD, but 12 out of 31 tested positive for CWD by IHC. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification detected PrP(CWD) from 3 of the 4 captive animals showing clinical signs of CWD and none of the nonclinical animals that were CWD positive by IHC. The data suggests that CWD prions can be detected in the CSF of elk, but only relatively late in the course of the disease. PMID:22621952

Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Tom; Powers, Jenny G; Telling, Glenn C; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Zabel, Mark D

2012-07-01

401

Increase of intracellular free Ca2+ in microglia activated by prion protein fragment.  

PubMed

A synthetic peptide consisting of amino acid residues 106 to 126 of the human prion protein (PrPc) that forms fibrils in vitro is toxic to cultured neurons. We have previously shown that the neurotoxic effect of this peptide is related to microglia activation (Brown et al., 1996a). For closer insight into this process of activation, we investigated the effect of the peptide on the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cultured microglia using Fura-2. Cultured microglia from wild-type as well as from PrPc gene-ablated mice (Prn-p0/0) responded to exposure to PrP106-126 with an increase in intracellular free calcium within 30 min. We observed two types of responses. Both in wild-type and Prn-p0/0 mice about half of the tested cells presented a small and often transient calcium increase after peptide application which was found to be independent of the extracellular calcium concentration. However, a further 33% of wild-type cells showed a strong and often permanent calcium increase depending on the extracellular calcium concentration, which was only rarely observed in Prn-p0/0 cells. To determine whether the response depended on the activation state of the microglia, we also examined LPS-treated activated microglia. The character of the calcium response remained unchanged, but significantly fewer cells responded. Our findings demonstrate the earliest reaction of microglia to a PrP fragment known to date. PMID:9336239

Herms, J W; Madlung, A; Brown, D R; Kretzschmar, H A

1997-10-01

402

Structural aspects of Congo red as an inhibitor of protease-resistant prion protein formation.  

PubMed

Congo red (CR) has been shown to inhibit the accumulation in scrapie-infected cells of prion protein (PrP) in the abnormal protease-resistant form (PrP-res). However, it was not clear if this effect was due to a direct interaction of CR with either PrP-res or its protease-sensitive precursor (PrP-sen) or to a less direct effect on living cells. Here we show that CR inhibits PrP-res formation in a simple cell-free reaction composed predominantly of purified PrP-res and PrP-sen. Structurally modified CR analogues were also compared in both the cell-free conversion reaction and scrapie-infected neuroblastoma cells. Methylation of the central phenyl groups at the 2,2' positions diminished the inhibitory potency by > or = 10-fold. In contrast, there was little effect of 3,3' methylation of the phenyls, deletion of one phenyl, or addition of an amido group between the phenyls. The relative activities of these compounds were well correlated in both cellular and acellular systems. Molecular modeling indicated that CR and 3,3'-methyl-CR have little rotational restriction about the biphenyl bond and can readily adopt a planar conformation, as can phenyl-CR and amido-CR. In contrast, 2,2'-methyl-CR is restricted to a nonplanar conformation of the biphenyl group. Thus, planarity and/or torsional mobility of the central phenyl rings of CR and its analogues is probably important for inhibition of PrP-res formation. On the other hand, variations in the intersulfonate distance in these molecules had little effect on PrP-res inhibition. These results indicated a high degree of structural specificity in the inhibition of PrP-res formation by CR and related compounds. PMID:9832153

Demaimay, R; Harper, J; Gordon, H; Weaver, D; Chesebro, B; Caughey, B

1998-12-01

403

Scrapie-associated prion protein in the gastrointestinal tract of sheep with natural scrapie.  

PubMed

The scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc), which is closely associated with scrapie infectivity, accumulates in the brain and lymphoid tissues of sheep with natural scrapie. The most probable portal of entry of the scrapie agent in sheep is the alimentary tract; little attention, however, has been paid to the gastro-intestinal tract in scrapie research. In this study, we examined the presence and distribution of PrPSc within the gastro-intestinal tract of sheep with natural scrapie and scrapie-negative sheep. It was found that PrPSc accumulated in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of all scrapie-infected sheep but not in scrapie-negative sheep. The distribution of PrPSc within the ENS was then studied along the entire gastro-intestinal tract in seven scrapie-infected sheep carrying various PrP genotypes. In sheep with the highest genetically determined susceptibility to scrapie, PrPSc was detected in the ENS from the oesophagus to the rectum. In sheep with a lower genetic susceptibility to scrapie, PrPSc was present in the ENS of the forestomachs, small intestine and large intestine but not in the oesophagus. In a scrapie-negative sheep with a PrP genotype associated with scrapie resistance, no PrPSc was seen in the ENS at any site along the gastro-intestinal tract. The presence of PrPSc within the ENS of scrapie-infected sheep indicates a possible role of the ENS in the pathogenesis of natural scrapie as a portal of entry to the central nervous system. PMID:10373293

van Keulen, L J; Schreuder, B E; Vromans, M E; Langeveld, J P; Smits, M A

1999-07-01

404

Immunohistochemical detection and localization of prion protein in brain tissue of sheep with natural scrapie.  

PubMed

A converted form of the normal cellular prion protein (PrP) accumulates in the brains of sheep with scrapie. We describe an immunohistochemical method for identifying scrapie-associated PrP (PrPSc) in periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde-fixed brain tissue, which provides adequate preservation of tissue morphology. After pretreatment of tissue sections with formic acid and hydrated autoclaving, we located PrPSc in the brains of 50 sheep with natural scrapie by use of antipeptide antisera raised against ovine PrP. No PrP was seen in 20 sheep without histopathologic signs of scrapie. PrPSc that did not stain for amyloid was present in the cytoplasm and at the cell membrane of both neurons and astrocytes. Large amounts of PrPSc were seen at the cell membrane of neurons in the medulla oblongata and pons, whereas PrPSc accumulated at the cell membrane of astrocytes of the glial limitans in all brain regions. PrPSc that stained for amyloid was located in the walls of blood vessels and perivascularly in the brains of 32 (64%) of 50 sheep, mainly in the thalamus and never in the pons or medulla oblongata. No apparent topographic relationship existed between PrPSc that stained for amyloid and PrPSc accumulation associated with neurons or astrocytes. In all scrapie-affected sheep, PrPSc was present in brain regions with vacuolation, but it could also be detected in regions with minimal or no vacuolation. We conclude that the immunohistochemical detection of PrP can be an important confirmative test in scrapie diagnosis. PMID:7604497

van Keulen, L J; Schreuder, B E; Meloen, R H; Poelen-van den Berg, M; Mooij-Harkes, G; Vromans, M E; Langeveld, J P

1995-05-01

405

The evidence of associations between prion protein genotype and production, reproduction, and health traits in sheep.  

PubMed

The EU Commission issued a regulation in 2003, which requires all member states to implement a breeding programme for resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in sheep by selecting for specific alleles of the prion protein (PrP) gene. A key concern with regard to this regulation was that the intensive selection programmes, designed to increase resistance to scrapie, may have a negative impact on a range of other economically important production, reproduction, and disease traits in sheep. Such problems could arise for a number of reasons. Firstly, a number of breeds have a low frequency of the resistant PrP allele. Secondly, there may be a negative association between the resistant allele and animal performance. Thirdly, selection for scrapie resistance may reduce the rate of improvement towards current breeding goals. The evidence concerning the relationship between PrP genotype and reproduction, production, and disease traits is the subject of this review. We conclude that there is no evidence for a negative association between PrP genotype and reproduction traits (e.g. litter size), lamb performance traits (e.g. growth rate, conformation, carcass composition) or milk production. There is, however, a distinct paucity of information on the relationship between the PrP gene and disease traits. In this context it is noted that there are a number of genes located on chromosome 13, in close proximity to the PrP gene, that are involved in intracellular cell signalling, apoptosis, phagocytosis, and immune function. Thus further direct studies of key disease traits associated with sheep production systems are warranted. PMID:18284907

Sweeney, Torres; Hanrahan, John P

2008-01-01

406

Assessing the Susceptibility of Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Deer Prion Protein to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Several transgenic mouse models have been developed which facilitate the transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids and allow prion strain discrimination. The present study was designed to assess the susceptibility of the prototypic mouse line, Tg(CerPrP)1536+/?, to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions, which have the ability to overcome species barriers. Tg(CerPrP)1536+/? mice challenged with red deer-adapted BSE resulted in 90% to 100% attack rates, and BSE from cattle failed to transmit, indicating agent adaptation in the deer. PMID:24257620

Vickery, Christopher M.; Lockey, Richard; Holder, Thomas M.; Thorne, Leigh; Beck, Katy E.; Wilson, Christina; Denyer, Margaret; Sheehan, John; Marsh, Sarah; Webb, Paul R.; Dexter, Ian; Norman, Angela; Popescu, Emma; Schneider, Amanda; Holden, Paul; Griffiths, Peter C.; Plater, Jane M.; Dagleish, Mark P.; Martin, Stuart; Telling, Glenn C.; Simmons, Marion M.

2014-01-01

407

Statistical Mechanics of Prion Diseases  

SciTech Connect

We present a two-dimensional, lattice based, protein-level statistical mechanical model for prion diseases (e.g., mad cow disease) with concomitant prion protein misfolding and aggregation. Our studies lead us to the hypothesis that the observed broad incubation time distribution in epidemiological data reflect fluctuation dominated growth seeded by a few nanometer scale aggregates, while much narrower incubation time distributions for innoculated lab animals arise from statistical self-averaging. We model ''species barriers'' to prion infection and assess a related treatment protocol.

Slepoy, A.; Singh, R. R. P.; Pazmandi, F.; Kulkarni, R. V.; Cox, D. L.

2001-07-30