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1

Secure Aggregation in Large Scale Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks have been very useful in solving large scale data dissemination problems. In this paper, we consider the case of data gathering which is the inverse of dissemination problem. In particular, we focus on a scenario where an organization or a constellation of organizations is interested in gathering data from large number of nodes spread across the administrative boundaries.

Waseem Ahmad; Ashfaq A. Khokhar

2006-01-01

2

Using overlays to improve network security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we increase our dependency upon networked communication, the incentive to compromise and degrade network performance increases for those who wish to disrupt the flow of information. Attacks that lead to such compromise and degradation can come in a variety of forms, including distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, cutting wires, jamming transmissions, and monitoring/eavesdropping. Users can protect themselves from monitoring by applying cryptographic techniques, and the recent work has explored developing networks that react to DDoS attacks by locating the source(s) of the attack. However, there has been little work that addresses preventing the other kinds of attacks as opposed to reacting to them. Here, we discuss how network overlays can be used to complicate the job of an attacker that wishes to prevent communication. To amplify our point, we focus briefly on a study of preventing DDoS attacks by using overlays.

Keromytis, Angelos D.; Misra, Vishal; Rubenstein, Daniel

2002-07-01

3

Private Security Office Curriculum Framework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prepared by the Florida Department of Education, this 24-page pdf document details the curriculum for the training and education of private security officers. Down to very specific tasks, this document could be useful for educators and administrators working in security or loss prevention training as a ready-to-use guide for course or syllabus creation. Here, visitors will find recommendations for the major concepts students should understand before entering the workforce, laboratory activities to teach those concepts, and the specific skills needed to obtain certification. These skills include recognizing criminal procedures for common crimes, defining a crime scene, and demonstrating firearms skills.

2007-07-14

4

32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section 552...Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weaponsâsecurity. Privately owned arms...secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition but separate from...

2013-07-01

5

Private Circuits: Securing Hardware against Probing Attacks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A paper presented at the 2003 International Cryptology Conference considers the vulnerability of embedded cryptosystems to side channel attacks, which are different from normal security violations because they involve monitoring parts of the hardware system instead of the software. The authors propose the design of private circuits that are resistant to such attacks.

Ishai, Yuval; Sahai, Amit; Wagner, David

2008-02-11

6

Private Security as an Essential Component of Homeland Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis argues that first preventers are not limited to law enforcement and/or intelligence personnel. Private security officers are our true first preventers because they control access to the myriad of facilities we enter and exit every day. They ar...

C. J. Hetherington

2004-01-01

7

Security of practical private randomness generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements on entangled quantum systems necessarily yield outcomes that are intrinsically unpredictable if they violate a Bell inequality. This property can be used to generate certified randomness in a device-independent way, i.e., without making detailed assumptions about the internal working of the quantum devices used to generate the random numbers. Furthermore these numbers are also private; i.e., they appear random not only to the user but also to any adversary that might possess a perfect description of the devices. Since this process requires a small initial random seed to sample the behavior of the quantum devices and to extract uniform randomness from the raw outputs of the devices, one usually speaks of device-independent randomness expansion. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we point out that in most real, practical situations, where the concept of device independence is used as a protection against unintentional flaws or failures of the quantum apparatuses, it is sufficient to show that the generated string is random with respect to an adversary that holds only classical side information; i.e., proving randomness against quantum side information is not necessary. Furthermore, the initial random seed does not need to be private with respect to the adversary, provided that it is generated in a way that is independent from the measured systems. The devices, however, will generate cryptographically secure randomness that cannot be predicted by the adversary, and thus one can, given access to free public randomness, talk about private randomness generation. The theoretical tools to quantify the generated randomness according to these criteria were already introduced in S. Pironio [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature09008 464, 1021 (2010)], but the final results were improperly formulated. The second aim of this paper is to correct this inaccurate formulation and therefore lay out a precise theoretical framework for practical device-independent randomness generation.

Pironio, Stefano; Massar, Serge

2013-01-01

8

Private Security Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Legal Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. Government departments and agencies contributing to combat or stability operations overseas are relying on private firms to perform a wider scope of security services than was previously the case. The use of private security contractors (PSCs) to pro...

J. K. Elsea

2010-01-01

9

Private Security Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Legal Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. Government departments and agencies contributing to combat or stability operations overseas are relying on private firms to perform a wider scope of security services than was previously the case. The use of private security contractors (PSCs) to pro...

J. K. Elsea

2009-01-01

10

Mediated overlay services (MOSES): Network security as a composable service  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, organizations have been shifting focus to their core business competencies, and reducing total cost of ownership (TCO) associated with training and management of their IT infrastructure. In the same motif, organizations are establishing security and survivability frameworks as an integral part of their business strategy so as to provide an acceptable quality-of-service for their clients and employees.

Stelios Sidiroglou; Angelos Stavrou; Angelos D. Keromytis

2007-01-01

11

Medicare privatization and the erosion of retirement security.  

PubMed

This paper describes initiatives to privatize the Medicare program over the last 10 years and the implications of these initiatives for the future of retirement security. Our analysis focuses on the privatization provisions of the Medicare Modernization Act, which is largely designed to benefit the corporate health care sector without containing costs or significantly reducing the threat of rising health care costs to the economic security of current and future retirees. In fact, as designed, the Medicare Modernization Act is likely to increase the threat to retirement security in the years ahead. We conclude with a series of policy alternatives to the neoliberal agenda for the privatization of Medicare. PMID:19024032

Polivka, Larry; Kwak, Jung

2008-01-01

12

Private Security Training. Phase 1: Basic. Instructor Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This basic module on private security training was designed under the direction of the Oklahoma Council on Law Enforcement Education and Training to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. This module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) interpreting the Oklahoma Security Guard and…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

13

76 FR 49650 - Private Security Contractors (PSCs) Operating in Contingency Operations, Combat Operations or...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...available to Private Security Contractors through the GCC Web site. Comment...publication on this same Web site. Areas for...Comment: ``Private Security Functions'' needs...include an Internet Web site, consistent with security considerations...

2011-08-11

14

17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Private resales of securities to institutions. 230.144A Section 230.144A Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

2013-04-01

15

Secure and private search protocols for RFID systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many real world applications, there is a need to search for RFID tagged items. In this paper, we propose a set of protocols\\u000a for secure and private search for tags based on their identities or certain criteria they must satisfy. When RFID enabled\\u000a systems become pervasive in our life, tag search becomes crucial. Surprisingly, the problem of RFID search

Yanjun Zuo

2010-01-01

16

Cryptanalysis of the secure quantum private comparison protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Yang et al [2009 Phys. Scr. 80 065002] presented the first quantum private comparison protocol that involves single photons only. This protocol is very promising in practice. However, in this paper, we analyze the security of the protocol and point out a subtle loophole. It is shown that both Eve and Charlie could obtain Bob's secret by launching a special dense-coding attack. Moreover, details of this attack and its correctness are given, and also two solutions are demonstrated to improve the protocol in order to overcome the fatal flaw.

Liu, Xing-Tong; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing

2013-06-01

17

Civil liability of private security: Enforcer of moral obligations to right legal wrongs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The private security industry in the United States now has approximately twice as many personnel as does the public police.\\u000a Private Security personnel have authority over the liberty, and sometimes the lives, of customers and employees. Often they\\u000a exercise this awesome responsibility with little if any background and training.\\u000a \\u000a In most instances private security personnel are not considered law officers

Richter H. Moore

1987-01-01

18

Identification of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the identification of strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP).There are numerous efforts across t...

2009-01-01

19

THE REGULATION OF MANNED PRIVATE SECURITY: A TRANSNATIONAL SURVEY OF STRUCTURE AND FOCUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to present a summary of transnational data on private secu- rity regulation and a profile of an average statutory regulation 'package'. This data is to be used as reference and comparison material in future research and as basic knowledge in the ongoing debates concerning private security governance. The lack of reliable facts and figures

Jorma Hakala

20

An Overlay Photonic Layer Security Approach Scalable to 100 Gb\\/s  

Microsoft Academic Search

As data rates outpace the capabilities of electronic encryption schemes, photonic layer security may fill the gap in providing a communication security solution at high data rates. In this article we review and highlight the advantages of our proposed optical code-division multiplexed (OCDM)-based photonic layer security (PLS) system based on high-resolution control of the optical phase of tightly spaced phase

Shahab Etemad; Anjali Agarwal; Thomas Banwell; G. Crescenzo; J. Jackel; R. Menendez; P. Toliver

2008-01-01

21

Inter-BSs virtual private network for privacy and security enhanced 60 GHz radio-over-fiber system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel inter-basestations (inter-BSs) based virtual private network (VPN) for the privacy and security enhanced 60 GHz radio-over-fiber (RoF) system using optical code-division multiplexing (OCDM) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. By establishing inter-BSs VPN overlaying the network structure of a 60 GHz RoF system, the express and private paths for the communication of end-users under different BSs can be offered. In order to effectively establish the inter-BSs VPN, the OCDM encoding/decoding technology is employed in the RoF system. In each BS, a 58 GHz millimeter-wave (MMW) is used as the inter-BSs VPN channel, while a 60 GHz MMW is used as the common central station (CS)-BSs communication channel. The optical carriers used for the downlink, uplink and VPN link transmissions are all simultaneously generated in a lightwave-centralized CS, by utilizing four-wave mixing (FWM) effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The obtained results properly verify the feasibility of our proposed configuration of the inter-BSs VPN in the 60 GHz RoF system.

Zhang, Chongfu; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Wei; Qiu, Kun; Li, Changchun; Jiang, Ning

2013-06-01

22

Mobile wireless RSA overlay network as critical infrastructure for national security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents an analysis on the use of wireless sensor networks for safeguarding our critical infrastructures and the management of a disaster for first response emergency scenarios. This analysis is based on a qualitative comparison of the features of a wireless sensor network to a list of requirements defined by The National Security Telecommunications Security Convergence Task Force report

Ramiro Liscano; Emil F. Sadok; Emil M. Petriu

2005-01-01

23

Lighten Encryption Schemes for Secure and Private RFID Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide several concrete implementations of a generic method given by Vaudenay to construct secure privacy-preserving RFID authentication and identification systems. More precisely, we give the first instantiation of the Vaudenay's result by using the IND-CCA secure DHAES cryptosystem. Next we argue that weaker cryptosystems can also be used by recalling the WIPR RFID system and giving a new protocol based on the El Gamal encryption scheme. After that, we introduce a new generic construction based on the use of any IND-CPA secure public key cryptosystem together with a MAC scheme and describe a possibility using the Hash El Gamal cryptosystem. We finally compare all these schemes, both in terms of implementation and security, proving that, nowadays the DHAES and our Hash El Gamal based solutions appear as the most promising schemes.

Canard, Sébastien; Coisel, Iwen; Etrog, Jonathan

24

"i3" Recipients Dash to Secure Private Match  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Winners of the Investing in Innovation (i3) competition scrambled to make a deadline to find private-sector matches for their multimillion-dollar federal awards, meeting the challenge through a mix of cash grants and donations of pricey equipment and services, and by rechanneling previous grants to new purposes. The 49 organizations selected to…

Cavanagh, Sean

2010-01-01

25

Private maritime security company (PMSC) in the Strait of Malacca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, maritime security issues in the Strait of Malacca have been in the limelight. Statistics highlighting the risk of\\u000a piracy faced by shipping in the Strait of Malacca and the possibility of a terrorist attack have led to an enhanced awareness\\u000a of the need for heightened security. The declaration by Lloyd’s Joint War Committee (JWC) of the Strait as a

Noor Apandi Osnin

2006-01-01

26

European Private Security, Corporate Investigation and Military Services: Collective Security, Market Regulation and Structuring the Public Sphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the private security industry and public institutions and agencies is complex and by no means one-way. The industry assists and acts as a substitute for the public sphere, is governed by it, albeit in a partial and uneven manner, whilst restructuring the public sphere in pursuit of commercial advantage at home and abroad. This paper explores aspects

Nicholas Dorn; Michael Levi

2007-01-01

27

Selection, training and retention of an armed private security department.  

PubMed

To arm or not to arm security officers? One hospital which has opted for arming its officers is Cook Children's Healthcare System, Fort Worth, TX, an integrated pediatric healthcare facility with over 4000 employees. Because of its location in a major metropolitan area and based on several factors including demographics, exterior risk assessments and crime statistics, the hospital's Administration and its Risk Manager supported the decision to operate as an armed security force, according to the author. In this article he shares its current program and presents some thoughts and ideas that may benefit others who are considering this important step. PMID:19711796

Hollar, David B

2009-01-01

28

Social Security Numbers: Private Sector Entities Routinely Obtain and Use SSNs, and Laws Limit the Disclosure of This Information.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Social Security number (SSN) is used for a myriad of non-Social Security purposes. Private and public sector entities frequently ask individuals for SSNs in order to conduct their business and sometimes to comply with federal laws. Certain private sec...

2004-01-01

29

The Effectiveness of an Electronic Security Management System in a Privately Owned Apartment Complex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poisson and negative binomial regression methods are used to analyze the monthly time series data to determine the effects of introducing an integrated security management system including closed-circuit television (CCTV), door alarm monitoring, proximity card access, and emergency call boxes to a large privately-owned complex of apartment…

Greenberg, David F.; Roush, Jeffrey B.

2009-01-01

30

SOS: secure overlay services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denial of service (DoS) attacks continue to threaten the reliability of networking systems. Previous approaches for protecting networks from DoS attacks are reactive in that they wait for an attack to be launched before taking appropriate measures to protect the network. This leaves the door open for other attacks that use more sophisticated methods to mask their traffic.We propose an

Angelos D. Keromytis; Vishal Misra; Dan Rubenstein

2002-01-01

31

Implementing Virtual Private Networking for Enabling Lower Cost, More Secure Wide Area Communications at Sandia National Laboratories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Virtual Private Networking is a new communication technology that promises lower cost, more secure wide area communications by leveraging public networks such as the Internet. Sandia National laboratories has embrace the technology for interconnecting rem...

Miller Yonek

2001-01-01

32

Flexolith Overlay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the installation and post-construction evaluation of a thin, lightweight epoxy concrete bridge deck overlay. The subject 'Flexolith' epoxy concrete system was installed by Dural International Corporation on a bridge located on I-82 ne...

K. W. Anderson

1987-01-01

33

Are there positive incentives from privatizing social security? A panel analysis of pension reform in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper estimates the impact of social security reform specifically, the transition from a purely public pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) system to one with private individual retirement accounts on the share of the workforce that contributes to formal retirement security systems. Using a simple model of a segmented labor market, the paper exploits variation in data from a panel of eighteen Latin

TRUMAN G. PACKARD

2002-01-01

34

Command and Control of Private Security Contractors: Are They a Viable Force Option for the Combatant Commander.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

If a Combatant Commander (CCDR) or Joint Force Commander (JFC) were to take command of the approximately 25,000 security contractors in Iraq, a force of such size and capability would prove to be a valuable operational asset. Private Security Contractors ...

S. H. Sherard

2008-01-01

35

Contracting-out in the United Kingdom: a partnership between social security and private pension plans.  

PubMed

Contracting-out was introduced in the United Kingdom in 1978 as part of the arrangements for the State Earnings-Related Pension Scheme (SERPS) in order to avoid duplication with the existing well-developed defined benefit occupational pension plan sector. Members and sponsors of contracted-out schemes were able to save on their social security contributions in recognition of the fact that they were accruing equivalent benefits through an occupational pension plan. Later on this concept was extended to those with individual money purchase pension plans. This article considers a brief history of contracting-out, the principles of contracting-out, some problems associated with contracting-out, the implications of the introduction of stakeholder pensions and State Second Pension, and the latest rebate review and rebate orders. It examines how U.K. pensions policy since 1978 has been based on a partnership between social security and private pension plans. PMID:12503327

Daykin, Chris

2002-01-01

36

Secure Quantum Private Comparison of Equality Based on Asymmetric W State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Liu et al. (Opt. Commun. 284:3160, 2011) proposed a protocol for quantum private comparison of equality (QPCE) based on symmetric W state. However, Li et al. (Eur. Phys. J. D 66:110, 2012) pointed out that there is a flaw of information leak, and they proposed a new protocol based on EPR pairs. While examining these two protocols, we find that there exists a same flaw: the third party (TP) can know the comparison result. In this paper, through introducing and constructing a special class of asymmetric W state, a secure QPCE protocol based on this asymmetric W state is presented. Analysis shows the present protocol can not only effectively avoid the information leak found by Li et al., but also ensure TP would not get any information about the comparison result.

Liu, Wen-Jie; Liu, Chao; Wang, Hai-bin; Liu, Jing-Fa; Wang, Fang; Yuan, Xiao-Min

2014-06-01

37

Implementing Virtual Private Networking for Enabling Lower Cost, More Secure Wide Area Communications at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Virtual Private Networking is a new communications technology that promises lower cost, more secure wide area communications by leveraging public networks such as the Internet. Sandia National Laboratories has embraced the technology for interconnecting remote sites to Sandia's corporate network, and for enabling remote access users for both dial-up and broadband access.

MILLER,MARC M.; YONEK JR.,GEORGE A.

2001-08-01

38

Enabling distributed simulation multilevel security using virtual machine and virtual private network technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing the accuracy of the portrayal of all of the elements of a simulation environment has long been a prime goal of the modeling and simulation community; a goal that has remained far out of reach for many reasons. One of the greatest hurdles facing simulation developers in the effort to increase simulation accuracy is the need to segregate information across the entire simulation environment according to access restrictions in order to insure the integrity, security, and reliability requirements imposed on the data. However, this need for segregation does not mean that those with the highest access permissions should be forced to use multiple computers and displays to integrate the information that they need or that intelligent agents should be restricted in their access to the information that they need in order to adequately assist their human operators. In this paper, we present a potential solution to the problem of integrating and segregating data, which is the use of virtual machine and virtual private network technology in order to maintain segregation of data, control access, and control intercommunication.

Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

2007-04-01

39

Privately Produced General Deterrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we use county data on private security establishments and employment for 1977-92 to test two hypotheses. First, we test whether private security deters crime. Second, we test whether John Lott and David Mustard's estimates of the impact of shall-issue laws on crime are biased because of a lack of controls for private security. We find little evidence

2001-01-01

40

The business of medicine: how to overcome financial obstacles and secure financing for your private practice and ancillary services business.  

PubMed

Doctors across the country who operate private medical practices are facing increasing financial obstacles, namely shrinking income as a result of rising costs and lower reimbursements. In addition, as hospitals have become overburdened many physicians have opened up private surgical centers; magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography and positron emission tomography scanning facilities; pathology labs; colonoscopy/endoscopy suites; lithotripsy centers; and other medical businesses typically performed within the hospital. Moreover, many doctors seek loans to purchase existing practices or for their capital contribution in medical partnerships. The past decade has thus seen a significant increase in the number of doctors taking out small business loans. Indeed, banks view the healthcare industry as a large growth market. This article includes practical information, advice, and resources to help doctors to secure bank financing for their practices, ancillary services business, real estate, and equipment on the best possible market terms. PMID:22920034

Nayor, David

2012-01-01

41

An Automatic Overlay Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for automatically generating an overlay structure for a program, with the goal of reducing the primary storage requirements of that program. Subject to the constraints of intermodule dependences, the algorithm can either find a maximal overlay structure or find an overlay structure that, where possible, restricts the program to a specified amount of primary storage. Results

Ron Cytron; Paul G. Loewner

1986-01-01

42

Training America's Work Force: A Private Sector Base Line and Its Impact on National Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Throughout its history, the United States has remained economically strong and secure through a productive work force powering its industries. Low skill jobs provided high wages and supported a high standard of living. In recent decades, however, foreign ...

S. J. Apple

1993-01-01

43

Social Security privatization and older women: A feminist political economy perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender is a crucial organizing principle in society that profoundly shapes the experience of old age and aging and the distribution of resources to older women. Using a critical feminist perspective, this paper looks at privatization in the context of the state, the capital, and the sex and gender system that conjointly reproduce the dominant institutions that render women, and

Carroll L. Estes

2004-01-01

44

New Mechanisms for End-to-End Security Using IPSec in NAT-Based Private Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 has been considered to extend the IP address space, the NAT protocol is widely used\\u000a as an interim solution. Using the NAT protocol with the end-to-end IPSec resulting a conflict due to the address transition\\u000a operation of the NAT. In this paper, we design two mechanisms which provide the end-to-end security service even

Sung Yong Kim; Jin Wook Shin; Sun Young Sim; Dong-sun Park

2003-01-01

45

Enabling private and public sector organizations as agents of homeland security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homeland security and defense applications seek to reduce the risk of undesirable eventualities across physical space in real-time. With that functional requirement in mind, our work focused on the development of IP based agent telecommunication solutions for heterogeneous sensor / robotic intelligent "Things" that could be deployed across the internet. This paper explains how multi-organization information and device sharing alliances may be formed to enable organizations to act as agents of homeland security (in addition to other uses). Topics include: (i) using location-aware, agent based, real-time information sharing systems to integrate business systems, mobile devices, sensor and actuator based devices and embedded devices used in physical infrastructure assets, equipment and other man-made "Things"; (ii) organization-centric real-time information sharing spaces using on-demand XML schema formatted networks; (iii) object-oriented XML serialization as a methodology for heterogeneous device glue code; (iv) how complex requirements for inter / intra organization information and device ownership and sharing, security and access control, mobility and remote communication service, tailored solution life cycle management, service QoS, service and geographic scalability and the projection of remote physical presence (through sensing and robotics) and remote informational presence (knowledge of what is going elsewhere) can be more easily supported through feature inheritance with a rapid agent system development methodology; (v) how remote object identification and tracking can be supported across large areas; (vi) how agent synergy may be leveraged with analytics to complement heterogeneous device networks.

Glassco, David H. J.; Glassco, Jordan C.

2006-06-01

46

Properties of martensitic overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abrasive wear resistance of martensitic overlays is the function of many variables. The hardness is one of the variables. This fact is raised by the possibility of carbidic phases separating from the austenite in the course the overlay layer cooling and by the possibility of the further martensite disintegration and carbidic phases precipitation. The paper is engaged in the

R. Chot?borský; M. Müller

47

17 CFR 239.34 - Form F-4, for registration of securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...foreign private issuers issued in certain business combination transactions. 239.34...foreign private issuers issued in certain business combination transactions. This form...the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov...

2013-04-01

48

Embeddable Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet round-trip-times (RTTs) exhibit widespread and persistent Triangle Inequality Violations (TIVs). It has been shown that TIVs are a natural consequence of the Internet's routing structure and they degrade the embedding accuracy of any Internet coordinate systems based on RTTs. In this paper, we simulate a coordinate system in a hypothetical overlay environment where RTTs are measured with respect to

Eng Keong Lua; Timothy G. Griffin

2007-01-01

49

Methodology for overlay mark selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that different overlay mark designs will have different responses to process setup conditions. An overlay mark optimized for the 45nm technology node might not be suitable for wafers using 30nm or 20nm process technologies due to changes in lithography and process conditions. As overlay control specifications become tighter and tighter, the process engineer requires metrics beyond precision,

Chin-Chou Kevin Huang; Chao-Tien Healthy Huang; Anna Golotsvan; David Tien; Chui-Fu Chiu; Chun-Yen Huang; Wen-Bin Wu; Chiang-Lin Shih

2011-01-01

50

Methodology for overlay mark selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that different overlay mark designs will have different responses to process setup conditions. An overlay mark optimized for the 45nm technology node might not be suitable for wafers using 30nm or 20nm process technologies due to changes in lithography and process conditions. As overlay control specifications become tighter and tighter, the process engineer requires metrics beyond precision, tool-induced shift (TIS) and TIS variability to determine the optimal target design. In this paper, the authors demonstrate a novel, comprehensive methodology which employs source of variance (SOV) to help engineers select the best overlay marks to meet overlay control requirements.

Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Huang, Chao-Tien Healthy; Golotsvan, Anna; Tien, David; Chiu, Chui-Fu; Huang, Chun-Yen; Wu, Wen-Bin; Shih, Chiang-Lin

2011-03-01

51

Defending P2Ps from Overlay Flooding-based DDoS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flooding-based search mechanism is often used in un- structured P2P systems. Although a flooding-based search mechanism is simple and easy to implement, it is vulnerable to overlay distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. Most pre- vious security techniques protect networks from network-layer DDoS attacks, but cannot be applied to overlay DDoS attacks. Overlay flooding-based DDoS attacks can be more damaging in

Yunhao Liu; Xiaomei Liu; Chen Wang; Li Xiao

2007-01-01

52

The overlay performance optimization based on overlay manager system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the in-line metrology sampling and modeling, the Advanced Process Control (APC) system has been widely used to control the combined effects of process errors. With the shrinking of overlay budgets, the automated optimized overlay management system has already been necessary. To further improve the overlay performance of SMEE SSA600/10A exposure system, the overlay manager system (OMS) is introduced. The Unilith software package developed by SMEE included in the OMS is used for the decomposition and analysis of sampled data. Several kinds of correction methods integrated in the OMS have been designed and have demonstrated effective results in automated overlay control. To balance the overlay performance and the metrology time, the exponential weighting method for sampling is also considered.

Sun, G.; Zhu, J.; Li, S. X.; Mao, F. L.; Duan, L. F.

2012-03-01

53

Electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of cathodic protection to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures has been well established. Application of a durable, skid-resistant electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay would advance the use of cathodic protection for the highway industry. Laboratory studies indicate that electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays using conductive fillers, such as calcined coke breeze, in conjunction with polyester or vinyl ester resins have resistivities of 1 to 10 ohm-cm. Both multiple-layer and premixed mortar-type overlays were made. Shear bond strengths of the conductive overlays to concrete substrates vary from 600 to 1300 psi, with the premixed overlays having bond strengths 50 to 100% higher than the multiple-layer overlays.

Fontana, J. J.; Webster, R. P.

1984-08-01

54

Grid Computing Security Lecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grid Computing Lecture~~Security: secure connection, authentication and authorization, password authentication, symmetric (secret) and asymmetric (public/private) key cyptography, RSA algorithm.

Ferner, Clayton; Wilkinson, Barry

2011-07-05

55

Distributed Semantic Overlay Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semantic Overlay Networks (SONs) have been recently proposed as a way to organize content in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The main objective is to discover peers with similar content and then form thematically focused peer groups. Efficient content retrieval can be performed by having queries selectively forwarded only to relevant groups of peers to the query. As a result, less peers need to be contacted, in order to answer a query. In this context, the challenge is to generate SONs in a decentralized and distributed manner, as the centralized assembly of global information is not feasible. Different approaches for exploiting the generated SONs for content retrieval have been proposed in the literature, which are examined in this chapter, with a particular focus on SON interconnections for efficient search. Several applications, such as P2P document and image retrieval, can be deployed over generated SONs, motivating the need for distributed and truly scalable SON creation. Therefore, recently several research papers focus on SONs as stated in our comprehensive overview of related work in the field of semantic overlay networks. A classification of existing algorithms according to a set of qualitative criteria is also provided. In spite of the rich existing work in the field of SONs, several challenges have not been efficiently addressed yet, therefore, future promising research directions are pointed out and discussed at the end of this chapter.

Doulkeridis, Christos; Vlachou, Akrivi; Nørvåg, Kjetil; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

56

Secure and Robust Overlay Content Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the success of applications spurring the tremendous increase in the volume of data transfer, efficient and reliable content distribution has become a key issue. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has gained popularity as a promising approach to large-scale content distribution due to its benefits including self-organizing, load-balancing, and…

Kang, Hun Jeong

2010-01-01

57

Electrically Conductive Polymer Concrete Overlays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of cathodic protection to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures has been well established. Application of a durable, skid-resistant electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay would advance the use of cathodic prot...

J. J. Fontana R. P. Webster

1984-01-01

58

Electrically Conductive Polymer Concrete Overlays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a built-up, electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay and a premixed, electrically conductive polymer concrete mortar for use on bridge decks and other concrete members, in conjunction with cathodic protection systems, is reporte...

R. P. Webster J. J. Fontana W. Reams

1985-01-01

59

Reliable Communication in Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable point-to-point communication is usually achieved in overlay networks by applying TCP on the end nodes of a connection. This paper presents a hop-by-hop reliability approach that considerably reduces the latency and jitter of reliable connections. Our approach is feasible and beneficial in overlay networks that do not have the scalability and interoperability requirements of the global Internet. The effects

Yair Amir; Claudiu Danilov

2003-01-01

60

Mobile Virtual Private Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

61

Overlay welding irradiated stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overlay technique developed for welding irradiated stainless steel may be important for repair or modification of fusion reactor materials. Helium, present due to (n,alpha) reactions, is known to cause cracking using conventional welding methods. Stainless steel impregnated with 3 to 220 appm helium by decay of tritium was used to develop a welding process that could be used for repair. The result was a gas metal arc weld overlay technique with low-heat input and low-penetration into the helium-containing material. Extensive metallurgical and mechanical testing of this technique demonstrated substantial reduction of helium embrittlement damage. The overlay technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel containing 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking, although greater than for tritium charged and aged material, was minimal compared to conventional welding methods.

Kanne, W. R.; Chandler, G. T.; Nelson, D. Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E. A.

62

Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

Technology & Learning, 2008

2008-01-01

63

New analytical algorithm for overlay accuracy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extension of optical lithography to 2Xnm and beyond is often challenged by overlay control. With reduced overlay measurement error budget in the sub-nm range, conventional Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) data is no longer sufficient. Also there is no sufficient criterion in overlay accuracy. In recent years, numerous authors have reported new method of the accuracy of the overlay metrology: Through focus and through color. Still quantifying uncertainty in overlay measurement is most difficult work in overlay metrology. According to the ITRS roadmap, total overlay budget is getting tighter than former device node as a design rule shrink on each device node. Conventionally, the total overlay budget is defined as the square root of square sum of the following contributions: the scanner overlay performance, wafer process, metrology and mask registration. All components have been supplying sufficiently performance tool to each device nodes, delivering new scanner, new metrology tools, and new mask e-beam writers. Especially the scanner overlay performance was drastically decreased from 9nm in 8x node to 2.5nm in 3x node. The scanner overlay seems to reach the limitation the overlay performance after 3x nod. The importance of the wafer process overlay as a contribution of total wafer overlay became more important. In fact, the wafer process overlay was decreased by 3nm between DRAM 8x node and DRAM 3x node. We develop an analytical algorithm for overlay accuracy. And a concept of nondestructive method is proposed in this paper. For on product layer we discovered the layer has overlay inaccuracy. Also we use find out source of the overlay error though the new technique. In this paper, authors suggest an analytical algorithm for overlay accuracy. And a concept of non-destructive method is proposed in this paper. For on product layers, we discovered it has overlay inaccuracy. Also we use find out source of the overlay error though the new technique. Furthermore total overlay error data is decomposed into two parts: the systematic error and the random error. And we tried to show both error components characteristic, systematic error has a good correlation with residual error by scanner condition, whereas, random error has a good correlation with residual error as going process steps. Furthermore, we demonstrate the practical using case with proposed method that shows the working of the high order method through systematic error. Our results show that to characterize an overlay data that is suitable for use in advanced technology nodes requires much more than just evaluating the conventional metrology metrics of TIS and TMU.

Ham, Boo-Hyun; Yun, Sangho; Kwak, Min-Cheol; Ha, Soon Mok; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Nam, Suk-Woo

2012-03-01

64

32nm overlay improvement capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The industry is facing a major challenge looking forward on the technology roadmap with respect to overlay control. Immersion lithography has established itself as the POR for 45nm and for the next few nodes. As the gap closes between scanner capability and device requirements new methodologies need to be taken into consideration. Double patterning lithography is an approach that's being considered for 32 and below, but it creates very strict demands for overlay performance. The fact that a single layer device will need to be patterned using two sequential single processes creates a strong coupling between the 1st and 2nd exposure. The coupling effect during the double patterning process results in extremely tight tolerances for overlay error and scanner capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to explore a new modeling method to improve lithography performance for the 32nm node. Not necessarily unique for double patterning, but as a general approach to improve overlay performance regardless of which patterning process is implemented. We will achieve this by performing an in depth source of variance analysis of current scanner performance and project the anticipated improvements from our new modeling approach. Since the new modeling approach will involve 2nd and 3rd order corrections we will also provide and analysis that outlines current metrology capabilities and sampling optimizations to further expand the opportunities of an efficient implementation of such approach.

Eichelberger, Brad; Huang, Kevin; O'Brien, Kelly; Tien, David; Tsai, Frank; Minvielle, Anna; Singh, Lovejeet; Schefske, Jeffrey

2008-03-01

65

Fast construction of overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An asynchronous algorithm is described for rapidly constructing an overlay network in a peer-to-peer system where all nodes can in principle communicate with each other directly through an underlying network, but each participating node initially has pointers to only a handful of other participants. The output of the mechanism is a linked list of all participants sorted by their identifiers,

Dana Angluin; James Aspnes; Jiang Chen; Yinghua Wu; Yitong Yin

2005-01-01

66

Social Security: Cato Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Social Security Privatization is a web site developed by the Cato Institute that argues for privatizing Social Security to prevent future insolvency. The Social Security system currently collects more in taxes than benefits paid out, with the excess held in the Trust Fund. But this is expected to change in 2014 when the baby boomers and increased longevity of retirees is likely to result in benefits exceeding taxes collected. By 2031, the Trust Fund is expected to be exhausted. Suggestions for reforming Social Security include minor changes to the eligibility requirement or tax rates, allowing part of Social Security contributions to be invested freely, and totally privatizing Social Security.

67

20nm MOL overlay case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the process nodes continue to shrink, overlay budgets are approaching theoretical performance of the tools. It becomes even more imperative to improve overlay performance in order to maintain the roadmap for advance integrated circuit manufacturing. One of the critical factors in 20nm manufacturing is the overlay performance between the Middle of Line (MOL) and the Poly layer. The margin between these two layers was a process limiter, it was essential that we maintain a very tight overlay control between these layers. Due to various process and metrology related effects, maintaining good overlay control became a challenge. In this paper we describe the various factors affecting overlay performance and the measures taken to mitigate or eliminate said factors to improve overlay performance.

Subramany, Lokesh; Hsieh, Michael; Li, Chen; Koh, Hui Peng; Cho, David; Golotsvan, Anna; Ramanathan, Vidya; Karur Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Yap, Lipkong

2014-04-01

68

Privatizing Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California legislation…

Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

2012-01-01

69

Evaluating diffraction-based overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate diffraction-based overlay (DBO) metrology using two test wafers. The test wafers have different film stacks designed to test the quality of DBO data under a range of film conditions. We present DBO results using traditional empirical approach (eDBO). eDBO relies on linear response of the reflectance with respect to the overlay displacement within a small range. It requires specially designed targets that consist of multiple pads with programmed shifts. It offers convenience of quick recipe setup since there is no need to establish a model. We measure five DBO targets designed with different pitches and programmed shifts. The correlations of five eDBO targets and the correlation of eDBO to image-based overlay are excellent. The targets of 800nm and 600nm pitches have better dynamic precision than targets of 400nm pitch, which agrees with simulated results on signal/noise ratio. 3? of less than 0.1nm is achieved for both wafers using the best configured targets. We further investigate the linearity assumption of eDBO algorithm. Simulation results indicate that as the pitch of DBO targets gets smaller, the nonlinearity error, i.e., the error in the overlay measurement results caused by deviation from ideal linear response, becomes bigger. We propose a nonlinearity correction (NLC) by including higher order terms in the optical response. The new algorithm with NLC improves measurement consistency for DBO targets of same pitch but different programmed shift, due to improved accuracy. The results from targets with different pitches, however, are improved marginally, indicating the presence of other error sources.

Li, Jie; Tan, Asher; Jung, JinWoo; Goelzer, Gary; Smith, Nigel; Hu, Jiangtao; Ham, Boo-Hyun; Kwak, Min-Cheol; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Nam, Suk-Woo

2012-03-01

70

Flutter Analysis of the Shuttle Tile Overlay Repair Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle tile overlay repair concept, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is designed for on-orbit installation over an area of damaged tile to permit safe re-entry. The thin flexible plate is placed over the damaged area and secured to tile at discreet points around its perimeter. A series of flutter analyses were performed to determine if the onset of flutter met the required safety margins. Normal vibration modes of the panel, obtained from a simplified structural analysis of the installed concept, were combined with a series of aerodynamic analyses of increasing levels of fidelity in terms of modeling the flow physics to determine the onset of flutter. Results from these analyses indicate that it is unlikely that the overlay installed at body point 1800 will flutter during re-entry.

Bey, Kim S.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Waters, William A.; Chen, Roger

2007-01-01

71

Privatizing Australia  

SciTech Connect

The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

Burr, M.T.

1995-07-01

72

Privatizing Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools and other government facilities want to see whether privatization of maintenance can provide services as efficiently and at less cost than inhouse workers. Privatization proponents say that everyone will benefit the most if the bidding process involves competition. Offers examples from the Memphis City Schools and the Union Public Schools…

Hounsell, Dan

1996-01-01

73

Bond and Durability of Concrete and Resinous Overlays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were made on portland cement and resinous concrete overlays to determine their suitability as overlays for deteriorated concrete bridge decks. Direct shear strengths of overlays bonded with epoxy, portland cement grout, and latex modified cement gro...

H. L. Furr L. L. Ingram

1971-01-01

74

Internet Traffic Engineering without Full Mesh Overlaying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overlay approach has been widely used by many service providers for traffic engineering in large Internet backbones. In the overlay approach, logical connections are set up between edge nodes to form a full mesh virtual network on top of the physical topology. IP routing is then run over the virtual network. Traffic engineering objectives are achieved through carefully routing

Yufei Wang; Zheng Wang; Leah Zhang

2001-01-01

75

Weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic

B. Levin; J. N. DuPont; A. R. Marder

1993-01-01

76

Coloured Overlays and Their Benefit for Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three studies where children in mainstream schools compared text on white paper with identical text covered in turn by each of 10 differently-colored plastic overlays. Shows consistency with regard to the proportion of children in mainstream education who report beneficial perceptual effects with colored overlays and who demonstrate…

Wilkins, Arnold J.; Lewis, Elizabeth; Smith, Fiona; Rowland, Elizabeth; Tweedie, Wendy

2001-01-01

77

CFDP for Interplanetary Overlay Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol for Interplanetary Overlay Network (CFDP-ION) is an implementation of CFDP that uses IO' s DTN (delay tolerant networking) implementation as its UT (unit-data transfer) layer. Because the DTN protocols effect automatic, reliable transmission via multiple relays, CFDP-ION need only satisfy the requirements for Class 1 ("unacknowledged") CFDP. This keeps the implementation small, but without loss of capability. This innovation minimizes processing resources by using zero-copy objects for file data transmission. It runs without modification in VxWorks, Linux, Solaris, and OS/X. As such, this innovation can be used without modification in both flight and ground systems. Integration with DTN enables the CFDP implementation itself to be very simple; therefore, very small. Use of ION infrastructure minimizes consumption of storage and processing resources while maximizing safety.

Burleigh, Scott C.

2011-01-01

78

The effect of individually-induced processes on image-based overlay and diffraction-based overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, set of wafers with separated processes was prepared and overlay measurement result was compared in two methods; IBO and DBO. Based on the experimental result, theoretical approach of relationship between overlay mark deformation and overlay variation is presented. Moreover, overlay reading simulation was used in verification and prediction of overlay variation due to deformation of overlay mark caused by induced processes. Through this study, understanding of individual process effects on overlay measurement error is given. Additionally, guideline of selecting proper overlay measurement scheme for specific layer is presented.

Oh, SeungHwa; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Seungyoon; Hwang, Chan; Choi, Gilheyun; Kang, Ho-Kyu; Jung, EunSeung

2014-04-01

79

Overlay improvement roadmap: strategies for scanner control and product disposition for 5-nm overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To keep pace with the overall dimensional shrink in the industry, overlay capability must also shrink proportionally. Unsurprisingly, overlay capability < 10 nm is already required for currently nodes in development, and the need for multi-patterned levels has accelerated the overlay roadmap requirements to the order of 5 nm. To achieve this, many improvements need to be implemented in all aspects of overlay measurement, control, and disposition. Given this difficult task, even improvements involving fractions of a nanometer need to be considered. These contributors can be divided into 5 categories: scanner, process, reticle, metrology, and APC. In terms of overlay metrology, the purpose is two-fold: To measure what the actual overlay error is on wafer, and to provide appropriate APC feedback to reduce overlay error for future incoming hardware. We show that with optimized field selection plan, as well as appropriate within-field sampling, both objectives can be met. For metrology field selection, an optimization algorithm has been employed to proportionately sample fields of different scan direction, as well as proportional spatial placement. In addition, intrafield sampling has been chosen to accurately represent overlay inside each field, rather than just at field corners. Regardless, the industry-wide use of multi-exposure patterning schemes has pushed scanner overlay capabilities to their limits. However, it is now clear that scanner contributions may no longer be the majority component in total overlay performance. The ability to control correctable overlay components is paramount to achieving desired performance. In addition, process (non-scanner) contributions to on-product overlay error need to be aggressively tackled, though we show that there also opportunities available in active scanner alignment schemes, where appropriate scanner alignment metrology and correction can reduce residuals on product. In tandem, all these elements need to be in place to achieve the necessary overlay roadmap capability for current development efforts.

Felix, Nelson M.; Gabor, Allen H.; Menon, Vinayan C.; Longo, Peter P.; Halle, Scott D.; Koay, Chiew-Seng; Colburn, Matthew E.

2011-03-01

80

Polishing Your Transparencies: Mounting, Masking, Overlays.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief guide discusses the mounting of overhead transparencies on frames, the types of mounts, the proper masking for presentation, and the use of overlays. Numerous line drawings provide the reader with a helpful visual reference. (RAO)

Jobe, Holly; Cannon, Glenn

81

Bonded Concrete Overlays: Construction and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several bonded concrete overlays have recently been placed on street, highway, and airfield pavements using new equipment and techniques. This report summarizes the current state of the art and industry experience as well as reviewing procedures and perfo...

M. I. Darter E. J. Barenberg

1980-01-01

82

Structured Overlay Network for File Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The file distribution from a source node to n sink nodes along a structured overlay network can be done in time ?(logn). In this paper, we model the problem of finding an optimal overlay network for file distribution as a combinatorial optimization problem, i.e., finding a weighted spanning tree which connects the source node and sink nodes and has the minimum file distribution time. We use an edge-based file distribution protocol, in which after a node receives a file it then transfers the file to its neighbor nodes one after another in a sequential order. We give the formulation of file distribution time, and use it as the objective function. The corresponding combinatorial optimization problem is NP-hard in general. We present a heuristic algorithm which derives an overlay network with file distribution time ?(logn) and show that the derived overlay network is optimal if the file transfer delays between all pairs of nodes are the same.

Fan, Hongbing; Wu, Yu-Liang

83

Solidification of an alloy 625 weld overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temperature range) of an Alloy\\u000a 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr - 1Mo steel by gas metal arc welding was investigated by light and electron optical microscopy,\\u000a electron microprobe, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The overlay deposit was found to terminate solidification\\u000a at ? 1216 C by a?\\/Laves eutectic-type reaction. The

J. N. DuPont

1996-01-01

84

Polymer concrete overlay on SH-51, bridge deck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thin resinous overlay was placed on a sound bridge deck in Oklahoma to evaluate its performance over one year using various physical tests. The evaluation shows how well the overlay protects the reinforcing steel from corrosion due to deicing salts. The steps leading to the construction of the overlay are detailed as well as the actual placing of the overlay. The results of various physical tests are reported for both before and after the overlay.

Borg, T. M.

1982-06-01

85

PRIVATE PROTEST?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines two historically distinct understandings of privacy and their relationship to online protest. Using a contemporary view of privacy, which focuses on information secrecy and disclosure, the author examined the development of ‘private protest’ in which both the identities of protesters and even the number of participants are concealed. Empirically, she traced this by tracking both the percentage

Jennifer Earl

2012-01-01

86

Public Regulation of Private Crime Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whom do we blame for causing crime? Increasingly, Americans blame the management of shopping malls, restaurants, parking facilities, and other quasi-public spaces on private property where many predatory crimes occur. This trend has fed both litigation and legislation regulating private security measures in those loca tions. The two main trends require the disclosure of information on prior crimes and the

Lawrence W. Sherman

1995-01-01

87

Logical Networks: Towards Foundations for Programmable Overlay Networks and Overlay Computing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and discuss foundations for programmable over- lay networks and overlay computing systems. Such overlays are built over a large number of distributed computational individuals, virtually organized in colonies, and ruled by a leader (broker) who is elected or imposed by system administrators. Every individual asks the broker to log in the colony by declaring the resources that can

Luigi Liquori; Michel Cosnard

2007-01-01

88

Solidification of an alloy 625 weld overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temperature range) of an Alloy 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr - 1Mo steel by gas metal arc welding was investigated by light and electron optical microscopy, electron microprobe, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The overlay deposit was found to terminate solidification at ? 1216 °C by a ?/Laves eutectic-type reaction. The Laves phase was highly enriched in Nb, Mo, and Si. The solidification reaction and microsegregation potential of major alloying elements in the overlay deposit are compared to other Nb-bearing Ni base alloys and found to be very similar to those for Alloy 718. Solidification cracks observed in the overlay were attributed to the wide solidification temperature range (?170 °C) and formation of interdendritic ( ?+Laves) constituent. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured volume percent ( ?+Laves) constituent with the Scheil equation by treating the overlay system as a simple ?-Nb “binary” and using an experimentally determined k Nb value from electron microprobe data.

Dupont, J. N.

1996-11-01

89

Solidification of an alloy 625 weld overlay  

SciTech Connect

The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temperature range) of an Alloy 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr-1Mo steel by gas metal arc welding was investigated by light and electron optical microscopy, electron microprobe, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The overlay deposit was found to terminate solidification at {approx}1,216 C by a {gamma}/Laves eutectic-type reaction. The Laves phase was highly enriched in Nb, Mo, and Si. The solidification reaction and microsegregation potential of major alloying elements in the overlay deposit are compared to other Nb-bearing Ni base alloys and found to be very similar to those for Alloy 718. Solidification cracks observed in the overlay were attributed to the wide solidification temperature range ({approx}170 C) and formation of interdendritic ({gamma} + Laves) constituent. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured volume percent ({gamma} + Laves) constituent with the Scheil equation by treating the overlay system as a simple {gamma}-Nb binary and using an experimentally determined k{sub Nb} value from electron microprobe data.

DuPont, J.N. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

1996-11-01

90

Overlay breakdown methodology on immersion scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years a flourishing number of techniques such as High Order Control or mappers have been proposed to improve overlay control. However a sustainable improvement requires sometimes understanding the underlying causes of the overlay limiting factors in order to remove them when possible or at least to keep them under control. Root cause finding for overlay error is a tough task due the very high number of influencing parameters and the interaction of the usage conditions. This paper presents a breakdown methodology to deal with this complexity and to find the contributors of overlay error variation. We use a Partial Least Squares (PLS) algorithm to isolate the key contributors for correctable terms and a field-to-field linear regression technique to highlight the main causes of residuals. We present a study carried out on 45nm CMOS contact-gate overlay over 687 production wafers exposed in an ASML TWINSCAN XT:1700i Immersion scanner. We present the results of the correlations with the 180 process and equipment variables used for this study. For each isolated contributor we propose an explanation of the underlying physical phenomenon and solutions.

Lam, Auguste; Pasqualini, Francois; de Caunes, Jean; Gatefait, Maxime

2010-03-01

91

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

92

Forward-secure signatures with untrusted update  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most forward-secure signature constructions, a program that updates a user's private sign- ing key must have full access to the private key. Unfortunately, these schemes are incompatible with several security architectures including Gnu Privacy Guard (GPG) and S\\/MIME, where the private key is encrypted under a user password as a \\

Xavier Boyen; Hovav Shacham; Emily Shen; Brent Waters

2006-01-01

93

Weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

SciTech Connect

A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-03-03

94

A spectral overlay method for dissimilar materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectral overlay method is applied to examine the stress distribution along the interface between the two different materials. The essential feature of the spectral overlay method is that the high resolution of localized steep gradients can be achieved by overlaying a spectral interpolant on a standard finite element mesh. In order to evaluate this method and compare it with conventional finite element method, a test problem with high gradients in Poisson equation has been devised. The results show that this method is very powerful in capturing the shape of the gradient field and its peak value. Solutions for two problems with interfaces between dissimilar materials are then given to illustrate the effectiveness of this method.

Belytschko, T.; Lu, Y. Y.; Gu, L.

1992-01-01

95

EUV overlay strategy for improving MMO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EUV lithography (EUVL) is the most promising technology to extend the resolution limit, and is expected to be used if the enough source power is delivered and mask defect mitigation method is developed. However, even in that case, the number of EUV steps will be restricted by its high cost, and ArF immersion will still take a major role in the chip manufacturing. Therefore, it is important to check and improve the mix-match overlay (MMO) between EUV and ArF immersion steps. In this paper, we evaluate EUV MMO with ArF immersion system by comparing with dedicated chuck overlay (DCO). The major contributors on MMO are random and field component from overlay analysis. MMO is expected to be below 3nm by applying 18para CPETM(correction per exposure) and RegCTM(Registraion error correction). We consider High oder CPETM need to be developed for further improvement.

Lee, Byoung-Hoon; Lee, Inhwan; Hyun, Yoonsuk; Kim, SeoMin; Lim, Chang-Moon; Kim, Myoung Soo; Park, Sung-ki

2014-04-01

96

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

SciTech Connect

Twelve weld overlay hardfacing alloys have been selected for preliminary erosion testing based on a literature review These alloys have been separated into three major groups: (1) Cobalt containing alloys, (2) Nickel-base alloys, (3) Iron base alloys. These alloys are being applied to carbon steel substrates and will undergo preliminary erosion testing to identify candidates weld overlay alloys for erosion control in CFB boilers. The candidate alloys selected from the preliminary erosion tests will then undergo more detailed evaluations in future research.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-04-18

97

KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

Plesea, Lucian

2007-01-01

98

Investigation of Various Factors Affecting Bond in Bonded Concrete Overlays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bonded concrete overlays (BCO) are rapidly becoming a preferred strategy for Texas highway rehabilitation projects. These overlays have worked well in most areas, but have had occasional problems with debonding and subsequent cracking. The report describe...

D. P. Whitney P. Isis B. F. McCullough D. W. Fowler

1992-01-01

99

Bundle Security Protocol for ION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

2011-01-01

100

Accuracy of diffraction-based and image-based overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no overlay standard in the world. For critical dimension (CD), we may use the VLSI standard or programmed pitch offsets to determine the CD accuracy or CD sensitivity. Programmed overlay offsets can provide relatively accurate sub-nanometer level overlay splits but it is only on a single layer and does not contain layer-to-layer process variations. The splits of scanner magnification can check the trend of overlay sensitivity but it cannot provide the exact value of overlay offsets. Transmission electron microscopes (TEM) can be used as a final overly error verification tool. However, TEM sample preparation for after-development-inspection (ADI) will introduce even more sample distortion errors. Therefore, unlike CD metrology, there is no clean and systematic way to verify the accuracy of overlay metrology. These technical barriers necessitate matching diffraction-based overlay and image-based overlay, especially for sub-nanometer point-to-point matching requirement. In this paper, we compare the correlation of ADI to after-etch-inspection (AEI) by using image-based box-in-box overlay measurement and diffraction-based overlay measurement on the same wafer. The ADI-to-AEI overlay data consistency plays a key role for lithography overlay APC success and AEI overlay should be treated as the final standard for overlay accuracy. We found that process-induced asymmetric profiles of overlay marks will lead to ADI-to-AEI overlay bias. This bias is proportional to the degree of profile asymmetry and different color/wavelength have different sensitivity to this ADI-to-AEI bias. Our experimental results show that the ADI-to-AEI overlay data bias can indeed be significantly improved by selecting the color/wavelength with minimum sensitivity to the asymmetry profile. These results make us believe that overlay metrology recipe setup is quite critical no matter for image-based overlay or diffraction-based overlay. Otherwise, problematic overlay data will be taken into APC feedback loop and lead to wrong overlay correction.

Ke, Chih-Ming; Huang, Guo-Tsai; Huang, Jacky; Lee, Rita

2011-03-01

101

The Choice of Privatization Method and the Financial Performance of Newly Privatized Firms in Transition Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a gap between the theoretical literature which almost unanimously advocates the privatization of enterprises, as part of the solution to the commitment problem in economies in transition, and the empirical evidence regarding the best way to design a privatization program in order to secure an efficient use of resources. This paper contributes to this debate by focusing on

Ranko M. Jelic; Richard Briston; Wolfgang Aussenegg

2003-01-01

102

Awareness and challenges of Internet security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet security is an important issue today. Corporate data are at risk when they are exposed to the Internet. Current technologies provide a number of ways to secure data transmission and storage, including encryption, firewalls, and private networks. This article discusses the awareness of Internet security and challenges faced in both the public and the private sectors.

Steve Hawkins; David C. Yen; David C. Chou

2000-01-01

103

A location-aware peer-to-peer overlay network  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This work describes a novel location-aware, self-organizing, fault-tolerant peer-to-peer (P2P) overlay network, referred to as Laptop. Network locality-aware considerations are a very important metric for designing a P2P overlay network. Several network proximity schemes have been proposed to enhance the routing efficiency of existing DHT-based overlay networks. However, these schemes have some drawbacks such as high overlay network and

Chi-jen Wu; De-kai Liu; Ren-hung Hwang

2007-01-01

104

An Overlay Tree Building Control Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

TBCP is a generic ree Building Control Protocol designedto build overlay spanning trees among participants of a multicast session,without any specific help from the network routers. TBCP therefore fallsinto the general category of protocols and mechanisms often referred toas Application-Level Multicasting. TBCP is an efficient, distributed protocolthat operates with partial knowledge of the group membershipand restricted network topology information. One

Laurent Mathy; Roberto Canonico; David Hutchison

2001-01-01

105

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400C and their erosion resistance and microstructure evaluated. Steady state erosion rates were similar for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625, Iron-Aluminide, 316L SS, and High Chromium Cast Iron) and were considerably lower than the remaining coating evaluated. These coatings had different base (Co, Fe, Ni-base). No correlations were found between room temperature microhardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature, although this criteria is often thought to be an indicator of erosion resistance. It was suggested that the coatings that showed similar erosion rates may have similar mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates at this temperature. During the past quarter, Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were selected for more detailed investigations based upon the preliminary erosion test results. Microhardness tests were performed on eroded samples to determine the size of the work hardened zone and change in coatings hardness due to erosion. The work hardened zone was correlated with erosion resistance of the coatings. Additional Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates.

Levin, B. F.; Dupont, J. N.; Marder, A. R.

1994-01-01

106

Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied.

S. W. Banovic; J. B. DuPont; B. F. Levin; A. R. Marder

1999-01-01

107

Scalability in Adaptive Multi-Metric Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing application requirements have placed heavy emphasis on building overlay networks to efficiently de- liver data to multiple receivers. A key performance chal- lenge is simultaneously achieving adaptivity to changing network conditions and scalability to large numbers of users. In addition, most current algorithms focus on a sin- gle performance metric, such as delay or bandwidth, par- ticular to individual

Adolfo Rodriguez; Dejan Kostic; Amin Vahdat

2004-01-01

108

MIPv6 experimental evaluation using overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial deployment of Mobile IPv6 has been hastened by the concepts of Inte- grated Wireless Networks and Overlay Networks, which are present in the notion of the forthcoming generation of wireless communications. Individual wireless access networks show limitations that can be overcome through the integration of different technologies into a single unified platform (i.e., 4G systems). This paper summarises

Pablo Vidales; Carlos Jesus Bernardos; Ignacio Soto; David N. Cottingham; Javier Baliosian; Jon Crowcroft

2007-01-01

109

Arigatoni: A Simple Programmable Overlay Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

We design a lightweight Overlay Network, called Ari- gatoni, that is suitable to deploy the Global Comput- ing Paradigm over the Internet. Communications over the behavioral units of the model are performed by a simple communication protocol. Basic Global Comput- ers can communicate by first registering to a brokering service and then by mutually asking and oering ser- vices, in

Didier Benza; Michel Cosnard; Luigi Liquori; Marc Vesin

2006-01-01

110

A Dynamic Mechanism for Distributed Optimization of Overlay Multicast Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enhance the performance of overlay multicast networks, the overlay multicast tree should be optimized. This optimization prob- lem is a minimum diameter, degree-limited spanning tree (MDDLST) problem which is known to be NP-Hard. We present a new scheme to optimize an overlay multicast tree dynamically. Our algorithm can adapt the tree structure to the dynamic membership and network situation.

Han Choe; Seongho Cho; Chongkwon Kim

2004-01-01

111

Internet security architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

F ear of security breaches has been a major reason for the business world' s reluctance to embrace the Internet as a viable means of communication . A widely adopted solution consists of physically separating private networks from the rest of Inter net using firewalls. This paper discusses the current cryptographic security measures a vailable for the Internet infrastructure as

Refik Molva

1999-01-01

112

Information Security Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drop in for an Information Security awareness session during the lunch break. In this session, Chandra Gudena will discuss topics such as ways in which you should handle private information securely, effective practices to follow while surfing on the internet, protecting your identity, and how to choose a strong password that you can remember. Also, learn how to spot phishing

Chandragupta Gudena

2008-01-01

113

Determinants of Privatization Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generating government revenue is a common objective in privatization. This paper asks: what determines privatization prices? Pursuing this query helps resolve the current controversies about the bearing of speed and the role for government actions prior to privatization. The data, gathered from primary sources, encompass 361 privatized Mexican companies in 49 four-digit industry codes. The determinants of auction privatization prices

Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes

1996-01-01

114

Privatization and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private

Dash, Neena

2009-01-01

115

Non-linear methods for overlay control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay requirements for DRAM devices are decreasing faster than anticipated. With current methods overlay becomes ever harder to control and therefore novel techniques are needed. This paper will present an alignment based method to address this issue. The use and impact of several non-linear alignment models will be presented. Issues here include the number of alignment marks to use and how to distribute them over the wafer in order to minimize the throughput impact while at the same time providing maximum wafer coverage. Integrating this method into a R2R environment strongly depends on the stability of the process. Advantages and disadvantages of the method will be presented as well as experimental results. Finally some comments will be given on the need and feasibility of wafer by wafer corrections.

Kupers, Michiel; Choi, Dongsub; Habets, Boris; Simons, Geert; Wallerbos, Erik

2007-03-01

116

The Case for Wireless Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless data services, other than those for electronic mail or paging, have thus far been more of a promise than a success.\\u000a We believe that future mobile information systems must be built upon heterogeneous wireless overlay networks, extending traditional wired and internetworked processing “islands” to hosts on the move over coverage areas ranging from\\u000a in-room, in-building, campus, metropolitan, and wide-areas.

Randy H. Katz; Eric A. Brewer

117

Understanding Multiple-tree-based Overlay Multicast  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The two main sources of impairment,in overlay multicast systems are packet losses and node churn. Yet, little is known about their effects on the data distribution performance. In this paper we develop an analytical model,of a large class of peer-to-peer streaming architectures based on decomposition,and non-linear recurrence relations. We analyze the stability properties of these systems using fixed-point analysis.

Gy Orgy D An; Vikt Oria Fodor

118

Vertical Handoffs in Wireless Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We present extensions to a traditional cellular [Ses95] handoff system to handle the simultaneous operation of multiplewireless network interfaces. This new system allows mobile users to roam in a "Wireless Overlay Network"structure consisting of room-size, building-size, and wide-area data networks. In this structure, the user can connectto the wired network through multiple wireless subnets, and offers the best possible

Mark Stemm; Randy H. Katz

1998-01-01

119

Proposal of Constructing PKI on Overlay Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the design of foundation PKI (fPKI), a PKI system constructed on an overlay network for an open source community. fPKI can provide an alter- native PKI system to the current server-client PKI system. The Certificate Authority (CA) system of the fPKI is com- posed of the reputation of each committer, which has been assessed by

Yukio Okada; Hiroaki Hazeyama; Youki Kadobayashi

2007-01-01

120

360 PORT MDA - A Strategy to Improve Port Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our national security and prosperity depend in part on secure and competitive ports. Effective public and private sector collaboration is needed in a world with myriad security challenges and fierce global competition. Although steps have been taken in th...

T. P. Leary

2006-01-01

121

New low-viscosity overlay medium for viral plaque assays  

PubMed Central

Background Plaque assays in cell culture monolayers under solid or semisolid overlay media are commonly used for quantification of viruses and antiviral substances. To overcome the pitfalls of known overlays, we tested suspensions of microcrystalline cellulose Avicel RC/CL™ as overlay media in the plaque and plaque-inhibition assay of influenza viruses. Results Significantly larger plaques were formed under Avicel-containing media, as compared to agar and methylcellulose (MC) overlay media. The plaque size increased with decreasing Avicel concentration, but even very diluted Avicel overlays (0.3%) ensured formation of localized plaques. Due to their low viscosity, Avicel overlays were easier to use than methylcellulose overlays, especially in the 96-well culture plates. Furthermore, Avicel overlay could be applied without prior removal of the virus inoculum thus facilitating the assay and reducing chances of cross-contamination. Using neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate, we demonstrated applicability of the Avicel-based plaque reduction assay for testing of antiviral substances. Conclusion Plaque assay under Avicel-containing overlay media is easier, faster and more sensitive than assays under agar- and methylcellulose overlays. The assay can be readily performed in a 96-well plate format and seems particularly suitable for high-throughput virus titrations, serological studies and experiments on viral drug sensitivity. It may also facilitate work with highly pathogenic agents performed under hampered conditions of bio-safety labs.

Matrosovich, Mikhail; Matrosovich, Tatyana; Garten, Wolfgang; Klenk, Hans-Dieter

2006-01-01

122

Overlay target design and evaluation for SADP process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay performance has been a critical factor for advanced semiconductor manufacturing for years. Over time these requirements become more stringent as design rules shrink. Overlay mark design and selection are the first two steps of overlay control, and it is known that different overlay mark designs will have different responses to process conditions. An overlay mark optimized for traditional process might not be suitable for SADP (self-aligned double patterning) technology due to changes in lithography and etching process conditions. For instance, the traditional BIB (box-in-box) target defined by the core mask becomes a template structure in SADP flow, the pitch and cycle of the overlay mark is further changed after spacer formation and core film removal hence the mark recognition and robustness have been challenging for the subsequent process layers. The comprehensive study on the methodology of overlay mark design and selection is still not available for SADP process. In this paper, various types of overlay marks were designed to comply with the SADP process to get rid of the weaknesses of traditional targets. TMU (total measurement uncertainty) performance was adopted to determine the optimal overlay marks for meeting production overlay control requirements in SADP process flow. The results have suggested the segmented marks outperform to non-segmented marks on image contrast as well as TMU.

Yeh, C. W.; Huang, Chao-Tien H.; Lin, Kengchi; Huang, C. H.; Yang, Elvis; Yang, T. H.; Chen, K. C.; Lu, Chih-Yuan

2012-03-01

123

33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2013-07-01

124

33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2013-07-01

125

Molecular Dynamics study of Pb overlayer on Cu(100)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isothermal-isobaric Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation of a submonolayer Pb film in c(2x2) ordered structure adsorbed on a Cu(100) substrate showed retention of order to high T. The Embedded Atom Method (EAM) calculated the energy of atoms of overlayer and substrate. The time-averaged squared modulus of the two dimensional structure factor for the Pb overlayer measured the order of the overlayer. The results are for increasing T only, and require verification by simulated cooling.

Karimi, M.; Tibbits, P.; Ila, D.; Dalins, I.; Vidali, G.

1991-01-01

126

Scanner grid recipe creation improvement for tighter overlay specifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay specifications are tightening with each lithography technology node. As a result, there is a need to improve overlay control methodologies to make them more robust and less time- or effort-consuming, but without any compromise in quality. Two concepts aimed at improving the creation of scanner grid recipes in order to meet evertightening overlay specifications are proposed in this article. Simulations will prove that these concepts can achieve both goals, namely improving overlay control performance and reducing the time and effort required to do so. While more studies are needed to fine-tune the parameters to employ, the trends presented in this paper clearly show the benefits.

Cotte, Eric; Kathiresan, Hariharasudhan; Ruhm, Matthias; Schulz, Bernd; Schulze, Uwe

2013-10-01

127

Private regulation in European private law  

Microsoft Academic Search

European private regulation pre-existed European Community law and co-exists with it today, giving rise to different forms of complementarity with European legislation. While in the initial stage of jus commune, a stronger role for co-regulation characterized private law, the formation of national legal systems, and in particular the era of codifications, changed the complementarity between public and private law-making. Codifications

Fabrizio Cafaggi

2009-01-01

128

33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED...

2013-07-01

129

Real cell overlay measurement through design based metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recent device nodes, lithography has been struggling to improve its resolution limit. Even though next generation lithography technology is now facing various difficulties, several innovative resolution enhancement technologies, based on 193nm wavelength, were introduced and implemented to keep the trend of device scaling. Scanner makers keep developing state-of-the-art exposure system which guarantees higher productivity and meets a more aggressive overlay specification. "The scaling reduction of the overlay error has been a simple matter of the capability of exposure tools. However, it is clear that the scanner contributions may no longer be the majority component in total overlay performance. The ability to control correctable overlay components is paramount to achieve the desired performance.(2)" In a manufacturing fab, the overlay error, determined by a conventional overlay measurement: by using an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO, often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area of a memory device. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion, caused by etching or CMP, also can be a source of the mismatch. Therefore, the requirement of a direct overlay measurement in the cell pattern gradually increases in the manufacturing field, and also in the development level. In order to overcome the mismatch between conventional overlay measurement and the real placement error of layer to layer in the cell area of a memory device, we suggest an alternative overlay measurement method utilizing by design, based metrology tool. A basic concept of this method is shown in figure1. A CD-SEM measurement of the overlay error between layer 1 and 2 could be the ideal method but it takes too long time to extract a lot of data from wafer level. An E-beam based DBM tool provides high speed to cover the whole wafer with high repeatability. It is enabled by using the design as a reference for overlay measurement and a high speed scan system. In this paper, we have demonstrated that direct overlay measurement in the cell area can distinguish the mismatch exactly, instead of using overlay mark. This experiment was carried out for several critical layer in DRAM and Flash memory, using DBM(Design Based Metrology) tool, NGR2170™.

Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Lee, Taehyeong; Ji, Sunkeun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun

2014-04-01

130

Private and Public Supply of Liquidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a basic yet unresolved question: Do claims on private assets provide sufficient liquidity for an efficient functioning of the productive sector? Or does the State have a role in creating liquidity and regulating it either through adjustments in the stock of government securities or by other means? In our model, firms can meet future liquidity needs in

Bengt Holmstrom; Jean Tirole

1996-01-01

131

Private-Loan Reliance Worries Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At many colleges across the nation, as administrators fret about the effects of a worsening economy, students arriving this fall will get more help securing jobs and more advice on paying for their educations. Some students will even find colleges willing to cut their tuition bills. This article reports that as banks tighten standards for private

Basken, Paul

2008-01-01

132

Private and lossless digital image watermarking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a private and lossless digital image watermarking system. First, to ensure the security of the watermark, the watermark image is scrambled before embedding. And then, Human Visual System (HVS) is employed to further enhance the transparence and the robustness of the watermarking system. Thirdly, the watermark image is compressed as watermarking information and is embedded in the

Li Li; Zhigeng Pan; Shushen Sun; Xuelong Wu

2002-01-01

133

What will homeland security cost?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased spending on security by the public and private sectors in response to September 11 could have important effects on the U.S. economy. Sizable government expenditures, for example, could trigger a rise in the cost of capital and wages and a reduction in investment and employment in the private sector, while large-scale spending by businesses could hamper firm productivity.

Bart Hobijn

2002-01-01

134

Detecting referral and selection bias by the anonymous linkage of practice, hospital and clinic data using Secure and Private Record Linkage (SAPREL): case study from the evaluation of the Improved Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) service  

PubMed Central

Background The evaluation of demonstration sites set up to provide improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT) comprised the study of all people identified as having common mental health problems (CMHP), those referred to the IAPT service, and a sample of attenders studied in-depth. Information technology makes it feasible to link practice, hospital and IAPT clinic data to evaluate the representativeness of these samples. However, researchers do not have permission to browse and link these data without the patients' consent. Objective To demonstrate the use of a mixed deterministic-probabilistic method of secure and private record linkage (SAPREL) - to describe selection bias in subjects chosen for in-depth evaluation. Method We extracted, pseudonymised and used fuzzy logic to link multiple health records without the researcher knowing the patient's identity. The method can be characterised as a three party protocol mainly using deterministic algorithms with dynamic linking strategies; though incorporating some elements of probabilistic linkage. Within the data providers' safe haven we extracted: Demographic data, hospital utilisation and IAPT clinic data; converted post code to index of multiple deprivation (IMD); and identified people with CMHP. We contrasted the age, gender, ethnicity and IMD for the in-depth evaluation sample with people referred to IAPT, use hospital services, and the population as a whole. Results The in IAPT-in-depth group had a mean age of 43.1 years; CI: 41.0 - 45.2 (n = 166); the IAPT-referred 40.2 years; CI: 39.4 - 40.9 (n = 1118); and those with CMHP 43.6 years SEM 0.15. (n = 12210). Whilst around 67% of those with a CMHP were women, compared to 70% of those referred to IAPT, and 75% of those subject to in-depth evaluation (Chi square p < 0.001). The mean IMD score for the in-depth evaluation group was 36.6; CI: 34.2 - 38.9; (n = 166); of those referred to IAPT 38.7; CI: 37.9 - 39.6; (n = 1117); and of people with CMHP 37.6; CI 37.3-37.9; (n = 12143). Conclusions The sample studied in-depth were older, more likely female, and less deprived than people with CMHP, and fewer had recorded ethnic minority status. Anonymous linkage using SAPREL provides insight into the representativeness of a study population and possible adjustment for selection bias.

2011-01-01

135

P3CA: Private Anomaly Detection Across ISP Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of malicious traffic in the Internet would be much easier if ISP networks shared their traffic traces. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art anomaly detection algorithms require detailed traffic information which is considered extremely private by operators. To address this, we propose an algorithm that allows ISPs to cooperatively detect anomalies without requiring them to reveal private traffic information. We leverage secure multiparty

Shishir Nagaraja; Virajith Jalaparti; Matthew Caesar; Nikita Borisov

2011-01-01

136

Quantum Private Comparison Based on Phase Encoding of Single Photons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a scheme for quantum private comparison using phase encoding. The analysis indicates that the scheme is secure, and can prevent some familiar attacks. With the use of error-correcting code (ECC), it achieves a limited fault tolerant quantum private comparison. The scheme is easy to be realized in current experiments.

Li, Yan-Bing; Ma, Ying-Jie; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Yan-shuo

2014-04-01

137

Residual stresses in weld overlay tubes: A finite element study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual stresses and strains in a tube with circumferential weld overlay were analyzed by the finite element (FE) method. The objective of this work was to develop and verify a FE model, to determine the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in the weld overlay tube, and to evaluate the significance of two contributing factors to residual stress: (1) difference

B. Taljat; T. Zacharia; X. L. Wang; J. R. Keiser; Z. Feng; M. J. Jirinec

1997-01-01

138

Calculating the Area of Overlaid Polygons Without Constructing the Overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm and implementation for calculating the areas of overlaid polygons without calculating the overlay itself, is presented. is useful when the sole purpose of overlaying two maps is to find some mass property of the resulting polygons, or for an areal interpolation of data from one map to the other. Finding the areas of all the output polygons is

William Randolph Franklin; Venkateshkumar Sivaswami; David Sun; Mohan Kankanhalli; Chandrasekhar Narayanaswami

1994-01-01

139

Measurement of residual stress in the weld overlay piping components  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general industry, especially in the nuclear industry, welding overlay repair is an important repair method mainly used to rebuild piping systems suffering from intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC).The pipe surface is mechanically ground to obtain a smooth surface after the welding overlay repair. A better understanding of the effect of repair and grinding processes on the residual stresses at the

H.-J. Yen; M. C. C. Lin

1995-01-01

140

Residual stress measurement in 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welding overlay repair (WOR) is commonly employed to rebuild piping systems suffering from intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). To understand the effects of this repair, it is necessary to investigate the distribution of residual stresses in the welding pipe. The overlay welding technique must induce compressive residual stress at the inner surface of the welded pipe to prevent IGSCC. To

Hung-Ju Yen; Mark Ching-Cheng Lin; Lih-Jin Chen

1996-01-01

141

Thermal stress in EML rail-conductor overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an electromagnetic (EM) railgun, a thin, unbonded overlay on the rail conductor develops residual strains as evident from its post-shot curvature. Heating due to the transient EM field and a large thermal gradient due to deposition of a molten layer of armature material contribute to the straining of the overlay. In this paper, the authors solved the one-dimensional coupled

S. Satapathy; C. Persad

2001-01-01

142

A map overlay error model based on boundary geometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An error model for quantifying the magnitudes and variability of errors generated in the areas of polygons during spatial overlay of vector geographic information system layers is presented. Numerical simulation of polygon boundary displacements was used to propagate coordinate errors to spatial overlays. The model departs from most previous error models in that it incorporates spatial dependence of coordinate errors at the scale of the boundary segment. It can be readily adapted to match the scale of error-boundary interactions responsible for error generation on a given overlay. The area of error generated by overlay depends on the sinuosity of polygon boundaries, as well as the magnitude of the coordinate errors on the input layers. Asymmetry in boundary shape has relatively little effect on error generation. Overlay errors are affected by real differences in boundary positions on the input layers, as well as errors in the boundary positions. Real differences between input layers tend to compensate for much of the error generated by coordinate errors. Thus, the area of change measured on an overlay layer produced by the XOR overlay operation will be more accurate if the area of real change depicted on the overlay is large. The model presented here considers these interactions, making it especially useful for estimating errors studies of landscape change over time. ?? 2005 The Ohio State University.

Gaeuman, D.; Symanzik, J.; Schmidt, J. C.

2005-01-01

143

Design of overlays based on pavement condition, roughness, and deflections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and use of a pavement maintenance rating system and the development of two procedures for designing the thickness of overlays are summarized. It is demonstrated that objective rating systems can be used to prioritize pavements scheduled for resurfacing and that the procedures for overlay design based on the existing pavement structure and on traffic loadings are practical.

McGhee, K. H.

1982-01-01

144

Private randomness expansion with untrusted devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Randomness is an important resource for many applications, from gambling to secure communication. However, guaranteeing that the output from a candidate random source could not have been predicted by an outside party is a challenging task, and many supposedly random sources used today provide no such guarantee. Quantum solutions to this problem exist, for example a device which internally sends a photon through a beamsplitter and observes on which side it emerges, but, presently, such solutions require the user to trust the internal workings of the device. Here, we seek to go beyond this limitation by asking whether randomness can be generated using untrusted devices—even ones created by an adversarial agent—while providing a guarantee that no outside party (including the agent) can predict it. Since this is easily seen to be impossible unless the user has an initially private random string, the task we investigate here is private randomness expansion. We introduce a protocol for private randomness expansion with untrusted devices which is designed to take as input an initially private random string and produce as output a longer private random string. We point out that private randomness expansion protocols are generally vulnerable to attacks that can render the initial string partially insecure, even though that string is used only inside a secure laboratory; our protocol is designed to remove this previously unconsidered vulnerability by privacy amplification. We also discuss extensions of our protocol designed to generate an arbitrarily long random string from a finite initially private random string. The security of these protocols against the most general attacks is left as an open question.

Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

2011-03-01

145

The Private Language Argument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the private language argument (PLA)--the argument against the possibility of a private language. Raises questions about the PLA, suggesting there are a number of problems that PLA interpretation generates and fails to resolve. (Author/JL)

Baker, Gordon

1998-01-01

146

A constitutive model for an overlay coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coatings are frequently applied to gas turbine blades and vanes to provide protection against oxidation and corrosion. The results of an experimental and analytical study to develop a constitutive model for an overlay coating is presented. Specimens were machined from a hot isostatically pressed billet of PWA 286. The tests consisted of isothermal stress relaxation cycles with monotonically increasing maximum strain and were conducted at various temperatures. The results were used to calculate the constants for various constitutive models, including the classical, the Walker isotropic, a simplified Walker, and Stowell models. A computerized regression analysis was used to calculate model constants from the data. The best fit was obtained for the Walker model, with the simplified Walker and classical models close behind.

Nissley, D. M.; Swanson, G. A.

1988-01-01

147

A Primer on Privatization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a detailed examination of "contracting," a type of privatization, and is intended to clarify the issues surrounding decisions to privatize public services. Privatization introduces competition among market participants as a means of generating revenue, spurring development of an industry, and/or improving the quality of…

Menell, Seth J.; Phelps, Richard P.

148

Bayesian networks in overlay recipe optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, overlay measurements are characterized by "recipe", which defines both physical parameters such as focus, illumination et cetera, and also the software parameters such as algorithm to be used and regions of interest. Setting up these recipes requires both engineering time and wafer availability on an overlay tool, so reducing these requirements will result in higher tool productivity. One of the significant challenges to automating this process is that the parameters are highly and complexly correlated. At the same time, a high level of traceability and transparency is required in the recipe creation process, so a technique that maintains its decisions in terms of well defined physical parameters is desirable. Running time should be short, given the system (automatic recipe creation) is being implemented to reduce overheads. Finally, a failure of the system to determine acceptable parameters should be obvious, so a certainty metric is also desirable. The complex, nonlinear interactions make solution by an expert system difficult at best, especially in the verification of the resulting decision network. The transparency requirements tend to preclude classical neural networks and similar techniques. Genetic algorithms and other "global minimization" techniques require too much computational power (given system footprint and cost requirements). A Bayesian network, however, provides a solution to these requirements. Such a network, with appropriate priors, can be used during recipe creation / optimization not just to select a good set of parameters, but also to guide the direction of search, by evaluating the network state while only incomplete information is available. As a Bayesian network maintains an estimate of the probability distribution of nodal values, a maximum-entropy approach can be utilized to obtain a working recipe in a minimum or near-minimum number of steps. In this paper we discuss the potential use of a Bayesian network in such a capacity, reducing the amount of engineering intervention. We discuss the benefits of this approach, especially improved repeatability and traceability of the learning process, and quantification of uncertainty in decisions made. We also consider the problems associated with this approach, especially in detailed construction of network topology, validation of the Bayesian network and the recipes it generates, and issues arising from the integration of a Bayesian network with a complex multithreaded application; these primarily relate to maintaining Bayesian network and system architecture integrity.

Binns, Lewis A.; Reynolds, Greg; Rigden, Timothy C.; Watkins, Stephen; Soroka, Andrew

2005-05-01

149

Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., (UL) have jointly established the Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP). The goal of this program is to enhance industrial and national security by providing a nationally recognized method for making informed selection and use decisions when buying security equipment and systems. The SESCP will provide a coordinated structure for private

B. J. Steele; I. I. Papier

1996-01-01

150

Informal security nodes and force capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodal governance theory continues to have a significant impact upon contemporary understandings of the governance of security. Scholars such as Clifford Shearing and Benoit Dupont have used this theory to explain how various state and private sector security organisations interact and form networks of protection. However, security producing entities from the informal sector remain largely undefined. The purpose of this

James Martin

2012-01-01

151

Enumeration of bacteriophages by double agar overlay plaque assay.  

PubMed

The determination of the concentration of infectious phage particles is fundamental to many protocols in phage biology, genetics, and molecular biology. In this chapter the classical overlay protocol is described. PMID:19066811

Kropinski, Andrew M; Mazzocco, Amanda; Waddell, Thomas E; Lingohr, Erika; Johnson, Roger P

2009-01-01

152

Mask contribution to intra-field wafer overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrinking wafer overlay budgets raise the importance of careful characterization and control of the contributing components, a trend accelerated by multi-patterning immersion lithography [1]. Traditionally, the mask contribution to wafer overlay has been estimated from measurement of a relatively small number of standard targets. There are a number of studies on test masks and standard targets of the impact of mask registration on wafer overlay [2],[3]. In this paper, we show the value of a more comprehensive characterization of mask registration on a product mask, across a wide range of spatial frequencies and patterns. The mask measurements will be used to obtain an accurate model to predict mask contribution to wafer overlay and correct for it.

Chou, William; Chang, Hsien-Min; Chen, Chao Yin; Wagner, M.; Roeth, K.-D.; Czerkas, S.; Ferber, M.; Daneshpanah, M.; Laske, F.; Chiang, R.; Klein, S.

2014-04-01

153

Fibre optic sensing using Langmuir-Blodgett thin film overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of optical fiber sensors and devices based upon Langmuir-Blodgett thin film overlays deposited onto side polished optical fibers and onto optical fibers containing long period gratings is described.

James, Stephen W.; Ishaq, Imran; Ashwell, Geoffrey J.; Tatam, Ralph P.

2004-06-01

154

Computing Science: A Flow Sensitive Security Model for Cloud Computing Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Federated cloud systems increase the reliability and reduce the cost of computational support to an organization. The resulting combination of secure private clouds and less secure public clouds impacts on the security requirements of the system. To meet ...

C. Mu M. Koutny W. Zeng

2013-01-01

155

Overlay Text Retrieval From Video Scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.

Manohar, K.; Irfan, S.; Sravani, K.

2013-03-01

156

The Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes the Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator (IONAC) an electronic apparatus, now under development, for relaying data at high rates in spacecraft and interplanetary radio-communication systems utilizing a delay-tolerant networking protocol. The protocol includes provisions for transmission and reception of data in bundles (essentially, messages), transfer of custody of a bundle to a recipient relay station at each step of a relay, and return receipts. Because of limitations on energy resources available for such relays, data rates attainable in a conventional software implementation of the protocol are lower than those needed, at any given reasonable energy-consumption rate. Therefore, a main goal in developing the IONAC is to reduce the energy consumption by an order of magnitude and the data-throughput capability by two orders of magnitude. The IONAC prototype is a field-programmable gate array that serves as a reconfigurable hybrid (hardware/ firmware) system for implementation of the protocol. The prototype can decode 108,000 bundles per second and encode 100,000 bundles per second. It includes a bundle-cache static randomaccess memory that enables maintenance of a throughput of 2.7Gb/s, and an Ethernet convergence layer that supports a duplex throughput of 1Gb/s.

Pang, Jackson; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Clare, Loren P.

2008-01-01

157

Graph Based Analysis of Mesh Overlay Streaming Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies fundamental properties of stream-based content distribution services. We assume the presence of an overlay network (such as those built by P2P systems) with limited degree of connectivity, and we develop a mathematical model that captures the essential features of overlay-based streaming protocols and systems. The methodology is based on stochastic graph theory, and models the streaming system

Damiano Carra; Renato Lo Cigno; Ernst W. Biersack

2007-01-01

158

Mixing materials within zone boundaries using shape overlays  

SciTech Connect

Shape overlays provide a means of statically imposing a physical region containing specified material properties onto a zoned mesh. In the most general case, material interface boundaries are unrelated to mesh zone boundaries, causing zones to contain a mixture of materials, and the mesh itself is not uniform in physical space. We develop and apply an algorithm for shape overlays on nonorthogonal, nonuniform meshes in two dimensions. Examples of shape generation in a multiblock uid dynamics code are shown.

Grandy, J.

1997-04-22

159

Overlay improvements using a real time machine learning algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While semiconductor manufacturing is moving towards the 14nm node using immersion lithography, the overlay requirements are tightened to below 5nm. Next to improvements in the immersion scanner platform, enhancements in the overlay optimization and process control are needed to enable these low overlay numbers. Whereas conventional overlay control methods address wafer and lot variation autonomously with wafer pre exposure alignment metrology and post exposure overlay metrology, we see a need to reduce these variations by correlating more of the TWINSCAN system's sensor data directly to the post exposure YieldStar metrology in time. In this paper we will present the results of a study on applying a real time control algorithm based on machine learning technology. Machine learning methods use context and TWINSCAN system sensor data paired with post exposure YieldStar metrology to recognize generic behavior and train the control system to anticipate on this generic behavior. Specific for this study, the data concerns immersion scanner context, sensor data and on-wafer measured overlay data. By making the link between the scanner data and the wafer data we are able to establish a real time relationship. The result is an inline controller that accounts for small changes in scanner hardware performance in time while picking up subtle lot to lot and wafer to wafer deviations introduced by wafer processing.

Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Kubis, Michael; Henke, Wolfgang; Slotboom, Daan; Hoogenboom, Tom; Mulkens, Jan; Coogans, Martyn; ten Berge, Peter; Verkleij, Dick; van de Mast, Frank

2014-04-01

160

Residual stresses in weld overlay tubes: A finite element study  

SciTech Connect

Residual stresses and strains in a tube with circumferential weld overlay were analyzed by the finite element (FE) method. The objective of this work was to develop and verify a FE model, to determine the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in the weld overlay tube, and to evaluate the significance of two contributing factors to residual stress: (1) difference in material properties between tube and weld material, and (2) thermal gradients in the weld. An axisymmetric FE model was developed to simulate the circumferential two-layer welding process of alloy 625 overlay on SA210 tube. The first layer was modeled as a gas metal arc welding process with filler metal, whereas the autogenous gas tungsten arc welding process was modeled for the second layer. Neutron diffraction technique was used to experimentally determine residual elastic strains in the weld overlay tube. Comparison with the FE results shows overall good agreement. Both the experimental and FE results show high compressive stresses at the inside tube surface and high tensile stresses in the weld overlay. This suggests that weld overlay may be used to relieve tensile or produce compressive stresses at the inside tube surface, which is significant for applications where crack initiation is found at the root pass of the joining weld.

Taljat, B.; Zacharia, T.; Wang, X.L.; Keiser, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Feng, Z. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Jirinec, M.J. [Welding Services, Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

1997-01-03

161

Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with W States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a secure quantum protocol for comparing the equality of information with the help of a semi-honest third party (Trent). Our protocol utilizes the triplet W states, and the single-particle measurement. The technique for preparing W state is mature, which ensures the utility of our protocol. The security of our protocol with respect to both outsider attack and participant attack is discussed. Any information about the private information, the comparison result will not be leaked out, even the third party cannot know these information.

Zhang, Wei-Wei; Li, Dan; Li, Yan-Bing

2014-05-01

162

Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

Burleigh, Scott C.

2011-01-01

163

A Private and Efficient Mobile Payment Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many secure electronic payment protocols have been proposed, most of which are based on public key cryptograph. These protocols,\\u000a however, are not suitable for mobile network due to the limitations of mobile environments, such as limited computation capability\\u000a of mobile devices, limited bandwidth, etc. In this paper, we propose a private and efficient payment protocol for mobile network,\\u000a which only

Changjie Wang; Ho-fung Leung

2005-01-01

164

Dialogue on Private Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior…

Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

2004-01-01

165

Laboring through Privatization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hiring private contractors to manage school support services, such as food, maintenance, and busing, is a growing trend. Companies such as Marriott Corp., ServiceMaster, ARA Services, and Laidlaw Transit report that school business is steadily increasing. Unions staunchly oppose privatization. This article balances advantages and disadvantages,…

Bushweller, Kevin

1994-01-01

166

Privatization and efficiency wages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of privatization is investigated in a shirking model of efficiency wages. Without trade unions, privatization — modeled as a stricter control of employees — lowers wages and raises employment, output, and profits, while effort and productivity effects depend on the employees' risk aversion. However, for a utilitarian monopoly union, facing a company characterized by a constant-elasticity labor-demand schedule,

Laszlo Goerke

1998-01-01

167

Private Speech in Ballet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

Johnston, Dale

2006-01-01

168

Financing Private Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Private schools, which educate about 11 percent of all pupils, provide educational diversity and competition with the public schools. The results often take the forms of educational innovation and progress. Because mounting costs of teacher salaries, educational materials, and teaching aids are currently putting pressure on private school finance,…

Wallace, Anthony

169

Public Values, Private Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

Devins, Neal E.

170

Virtual private networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virtual private network (VPN) can help resolve many of the issues associated with today's private networks. A VPN facilitates an agile IT infrastructure. Global VPNs enable connectivity to all locations anywhere in the world at a fraction of the cost of dedicated links. VPN services enable remote access to the intranet at significantly lower cost, thus enabling support for

R. Venkateswaran

2001-01-01

171

Dialogue on private events  

PubMed Central

In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events.

Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

2004-01-01

172

Alternative security  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

Weston, B.H. (Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States))

1990-01-01

173

Black Students and Private Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of research on blacks in private schools. Describes which black families send children to private schools, and why; availability of financial assistance; black student achievement in private schools; the quality of education offered to blacks at private schools; and the impact of private schooling on students' racial identity.…

Ascher, Carol

1986-01-01

174

Private Military Industry Analysis: Private and Public Companies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the end of the Cold War, the Private Military Industry has skyrocketed. This study gathers, compiles and examines demographic and financial information on 585 private and public companies that operate in the Private Military Industry. The demographi...

I. C. Dunar I. D. Robbins J. L. Mitchell

2007-01-01

175

Performance Impact of Data Compression on Virtual Private Network Transactions (Extended Version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual private networks (VPNs) allow two or more parties to communicate securely over a public network. Using cryptographic algorithms and protocols, VPNs provide security services such as confidentiality, host authentication and data integrity. The computation required to provide adequate security, however, can significantly degrade performance. In this paper, we characterize the extent to which data compression can alleviate this performance

John P. McGregor; Ruby B. Lee

176

Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

177

Investigation on reticle heating effect induced overlay error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As design rule of semiconductor decreases continuously, overlay error control gets more and more important and challenging. It is also true that On Product Overlay (OPO) of leading edge memory device shows unprecedented level of accuracy, owing to the development of precision optics, mechanic stage and alignment system with active compensation method. However, the heating of reticle and lens acts as a dominant detriment against further improvement of overlay. Reticle heating is more critical than lens heating in current advanced scanners because lens heating can be mostly compensated by feed-forward control algorithm. In recent years, the tools and technical ideas for reticle heating control are proposed and thought to reduce the reticle heating effect. Nevertheless, it is not still simple to predict the accurate heating amount and overlay. And it is required to investigate the parameters affecting reticle heating quantitatively. In this paper, the reticle pattern density and exposure dose are considered as the main contributors, and the effects are investigated through experiments. Mask set of various transmittance are prepared by changing pattern density. After exposure with various doses, overlay are measured and analyzed by comparing with reference marks exposed in heating free condition. As a result, it is discovered that even in the case of low dose and high transmittance, reticle heating is hardly avoidable. It is also shown that there is a simple relationship among reticle heating, transmittance and exposure dose. Based on this relationship, the reticle heating is thought to be predicted if the transmittance and dose are fixed.

Lim, Mijung; Kim, Geunhak; Kim, SeoMin; Lee, Byounghoon; Kim, Seokkyun; Lim, Chang-moon; Kim, Myoungsoo; Park, Sungki

2014-04-01

178

Private Ground Water Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... Water Healthy Water Home Share Compartir Private Ground Water Wells Many people in the United States receive ... answers to frequently asked questions about wells . Ground Water and Wells When rain falls, much of it ...

179

Encouraging Private Initiative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monograph for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless was to present ideas for how governments can encourage and support private sector efforts to provide housing for the poor. The monograph explains many specific actions governments in dev...

R. LaNier C. A. Oman S. Reeve

1987-01-01

180

Social Security reform: implications for women.  

PubMed

Despite recent economic gains for women, a substantial gender gap in financial security during old age remains, making women more dependent than men upon Social Security. Social Security plays an important role in providing for women's economic security. The implications for women of several proposed changes in Social Security policy, including the call for the partial privatization of Social Security via the introduction of individual accounts, are analyzed. Many of the proposals would have the effect of asking women, particularly low-income women, to shoulder a disproportionate share of the risks and burdens associated with the changes. PMID:11148830

Williamson, J B; Rix, S E

2000-01-01

181

REIT Going Private Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the recent decade there was a wave of REITs going private, from an average of about three per year to 40 between 2005\\u000a and 2007. Standard corporate finance theory posits that firms go private when there is no longer a positive tradeoff between\\u000a the expected benefits and the costs of being public, and it provides empirical evidence that going

James C. Brau; J. Troy Carpenter; Mauricio Rodriguez; C. F. Sirmans

182

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly progress report, October 1993--December 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in Circulated Fluidized Beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coa...

B. F. Levin J. N. DuPont A. R. Marder

1994-01-01

183

Dynamic Internet Overlay Deployment and Management Using the X-Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X-Bone dynamically deploys and manages Internet overlays to reduce their configuration effort and increase network component sharing. The X-Bone discovers, configures, and monitors network resources to create overlays over existing IP networks. Overlays are useful for deploying overlapping virtual networks on shared infrastructure and for simplifying topology. The X-Bone extends current overlay management by adding dynamic resource discovery, deployment,

Joseph D. Touch

2000-01-01

184

Performance Evaluation and Comparison of Tree and Ring Application-Layer Multicast Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application-layer multicast (ALM) protocols differ in, among other aspects, the topology of the underlying overlay network (e.g., tree, mesh or ring). Therefore, comparing the performance of ALM overlay networks is an important step to- wards assessing the inherent advantages and\\/or limitations of each overlay network topology. In particular, ring-based ALM overlay networks have the advantages of (a) providing a con-

Ahmed Sobeih; Jun Wang; William Yurcik

185

A comparative reliability analysis of computer-generated bitemark overlays.  

PubMed

This study compared the reliability of two methods used to produce computer-generated bitemark overlays with Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA). Scanned images of twelve dental casts were sent to 30 examiners with different experience levels. Examiners were instructed to produce an overlay for each cast image based on the instructions provided for the two techniques. Measurements of the area and the x-y coordinate position of the biting edges of the anterior teeth were obtained using Scion Image software program (Scion Corporation, Frederick, MD) for each overlay. The inter- and intra-reliability assessment of the measurements was performed using an analysis of variance and calculation of reliability coefficients. The assessment of the area measurements showed significant variances seen in the examiner variable for both techniques resulting in low reliability coefficients. Conversely, the results for the positional measurements showed no significant differences in the variances between examiners with exceptionally high reliability coefficients. It was concluded that both techniques were reliable methods to produce bitemark overlays in assessing tooth position. PMID:15818864

McNamee, Anne H; Sweet, David; Pretty, Iain

2005-03-01

186

MACEDON: Methodology for Automatically Creating, Evaluating, and Designing Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, researchers designing and implementing large- scale overlay services employ disparate techniques at each stage in the production cycle: design, implemen- tation, experimentation, and evaluation. As a result, complex and tedious tasks are often duplicated leading to ineectiv e resource use and dicult y in fairly com- paring competing algorithms. In this paper, we present MACEDON, an infrastructure that provides

Adolfo Rodriguez; Charles Edwin Killian; Sooraj Bhat; Dejan Kostic; Amin Vahdat

2004-01-01

187

Modeling of glass?steel overlay and snow load  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the analysis of the spatial prismatic sloped overlay of irregular shape with a spherical surface upon. This bearing steel structure is under a dead?load of a framed glass packet and under snow. Mathematical model of prism and spheroid geometry is developed. Construction geometry of a rectangularly profiled pipe and snow pressure is modelled in finite elements, using

Valentinas Skaržauskas; Valentin Jankovski; Juozas Atko?i?nas

2006-01-01

188

Characterizing Traffic Demand Aware Overlay Routing Network Topologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a traffic demand aware cost model for the creation of overlay routing networks. We investigate the effects on the created network topologies when the traffic demand between nodes is considered. The resulting network topologies often differ dramatically from topologies formed when traffic demand between nodes is not weighed. We found that the global network characteristics were changed as

Benjamin D. McBride; Caterina Scoglio

2007-01-01

189

Styrene-Butadiene Latex Modifiers for Bridge Deck Overlay Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Styrene-butadiene (S/B) latex modified concrete overlays are being used to protect new bridge decks from rapid deicer-borne chloride intrusion and also in bridge deck rehabilitation efforts. The purposes of this research were to evaluate several commercia...

B. H. Chollar K. C. Clear

1978-01-01

190

Semantic overlay network for large-scale spatial information indexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased demand for online services of spatial information poses new challenges to the combined filed of Computer Science and Geographic Information Science. Amongst others, these include fast indexing of spatial data in distributed networks. In this paper we propose a novel semantic overlay network for large-scale multi-dimensional spatial information indexing, called SON_LSII, which has a hybrid structure integrating a semantic quad-tree and Chord ring. The SON_LSII is a small world overlay network that achieves a very competitive trade-off between indexing efficiency and maintenance overhead. To create SON_LSII, we use an effective semantic clustering strategy that considers two aspects, i.e., the semantic of spatial information that peer holds in overlay network and physical network performances. Based on SON_LSII, a mapping method is used to reduce the multi-dimensional features into a single dimension and an efficient indexing algorithm is presented to support complex range queries of the spatial information with a massive number of concurrent users. The results from extensive experiments demonstrate that SON_LSII is superior to existing overlay networks in various respects, including scalability, maintenance, rate of indexing hits, indexing logical hops, and adaptability. Thus, the proposed SON_LSII can be used for large-scale spatial information indexing.

Zou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yue; Cao, Kai; Qu, Tianshan; Wang, Zhongmin

2013-08-01

191

Crosslayer Survivability in Overlay-IP-WDM Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the Internet moves towards a three-layer architecture consisting of overlay networks on top of the IP network layer on top of WDM-based physical networks, incorporating the interaction between and among network layers is crucial for efficient and effective implementation of survivability. This dissertation has four major foci as follows:…

Pacharintanakul, Peera

2010-01-01

192

A hybrid overlay network for video-on-demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-demand video streaming through overlay networks has received much attention recently. While a tree topology is often advocated in such systems, it suffers from discontinuous playback under the highly dynamic Internet environment with frequent node joins and leaves. On the other hand, gossip protocols using random message dissemination, though robust, fail to meet the real-time demands for streaming applications. In

Ming Zhou; Jiangchuan Liu

2005-01-01

193

Incidental Learning of Geospatial Concepts across Grade Levels: Map Overlay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the authors evaluate map overlay, a concept central to geospatial thinking, to determine how it is naively and technically understood, as well as to identify when it is leaner innately. The evaluation is supported by results from studies at three grade levels to show the progression of incidentally learned geospatial knowledge as…

Battersby, Sarah E.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Marsh, Meredith J.

2006-01-01

194

Multicast Overlay Spanning Tree Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an extension to the OLSR unicast routing protocol to support multicast routing in mobile ad hoc networks. The proposed protocol is based on Multicast Overlay Spanning Trees (MOST). The main beneflts of this approach are twofold. Firstly, it im- plies that only nodes interested in taking part in the multicast communi- cation need to participate

Georgios Rodolakis; Amina Meraihi Naimi; Anis Laouiti

2007-01-01

195

Performance of an Unbonded Concrete Overlay on I-74.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Illinois, the typical rehabilitation for a concrete pavement is full-depth patching of the distressed concrete, and overlaying the pavement with 3.25 inches of bituminous concrete. In cases where there are poor joints or extensive durability cracking o...

L. B. Heckel

2002-01-01

196

Experimental determination of the residual stresses in a spiral weld overlay tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron diffraction was used to determine the residual stresses in a spiral weld overlay tube. The specimen was a 2.5 in. OD carbon steel tube covered with a layer of alloy 625 weld overlay. Residual strains in the carbon steel and weld overlay layers were determined using the ferritic (211) and austenitic (311) reflections, respectively. The residual stresses in each

X.-L. Wang; E. A. Payzant; B. Taljat; C. R. Hubbard; J. R. Keiser; M. J. Jirinec

1997-01-01

197

OMNI: An efficient overlay multicast infrastructure for real-time applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider an overlay architecture (called OMNI) where service providers deploy a set of service nodes (called MSNs) in the network to efficiently implement media-streaming applications. These MSNs are organized into an overlay and act as application-layer multicast forwarding entities for a set of clients. We present a decentralized scheme that organizes the MSNs into an appropriate overlay structure that

Suman Banerjee; Christopher Kommareddy; Koushik Kar; Bobby Bhattacharjee; Samir Khuller

2006-01-01

198

Construction of an Efficient Overlay Multicast Infrastructure for Real-time Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider an overlay architecture where service providers deploy a set of service nodes (called MSNs) in the network to efficiently implement media-streaming applications. These MSNs are organized into an overlay and act as application- layer multicast forwarding entities for a set of clients. We present a decentralized scheme that organizes the MSNs into an appropriate overlay structure that is

Suman Banerjee; Christopher Kommareddy; Koushik Kar; Samrat Bhattacharjee; Samir Khuller

2003-01-01

199

vuv synchrotron light as a technique for studying the interface quality and properties of thin overlayers  

SciTech Connect

The measurements presented here show the value of synchrotron light for determining both the electronic structure of overlayers, and the physical nature of the overlayer-substrate interface. A comparison is given between deposited layers and thermally stabilized layers. Estimates are also made of the bonding energy between the overlayer and substrate.

Ruckman, M.W.; Murgai, V.; Strongin, M.

1984-12-01

200

Impact of overlay metrology on design rule tolerance and shrinkability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design rule development for next technology generations depends on the progress in the optical and mechanical properties of steppers and photomasks. For two basic types of design rules: those that define minimum critical dimensions (CD, line and space), and those that define overlay/enclosure (OL) between layers, the shrinkpaths with technology nodes are generally unrelated. The min CD rules are dictated by stepper resolution limits and mask minimum features, the overlay rules - by the respective mechanical tolerances of the printing hardware. However, successful shrinks of design databases to the subsequent technology nodes require that all the design rules be scaled, preferably by the same factor. In this work, we first discuss the impact of the different types of rules on the layout architecture. We then show how one derives OL design rules from alignment tolerances. One method is based on the Lynch numbers (LN), corresponding to the misalignment budget ensuring that the OL yield loss is no more than 0.5% per mask level. However, LN"s are not directly measured in the fab. An alternative method is based on the 3s misregistration error. We demonstrate that these two methods show similar results for several types of masks and steppers. Finally, we show how the trend of overlay tolerance (OL) improvement compares with the trend of min feature size (CD) reduction. The data shows an offset between the OL and the CD trends amounting to 14 nm for the 45 nm technology node. This offset, which we call the overlay tolerance gap, means that enclosure rules would, in general, scale at a slower pace compared to the rules dictated by the linear CD shrink. One should note that the OL tolerance is influenced by matching of reticles and steppers and can be improved by the rework of wafers in line. In summary, we discuss theoretical and manufacturing-related aspects of overlay metrology, to advance design rule shrinks aligned with technology roadmap.

Balasinski, A.; Walker, A. J.

2005-05-01

201

The benefits of privatization.  

PubMed Central

The promise of a universal, comprehensive, publicly funded system of medical care that was the foundation of the Medical Care Act passed in 1966 is no longer possible. Massive government debt, increasing health care costs, a growing and aging population and advances in technology have challenged the system, which can no longer meet the expectations of the public or of the health care professions. A parallel, private system, funded by a not-for-profit, regulated system of insurance coverage affordable for all wage-earners, would relieve the overstressed public system without decreasing the quality of care in that system. Critics of a parallel, private system, who base their arguments on the politics of fear and envy, charge that such a private system would "Americanize" Canadian health care and that the wealthy would be able to buy better, faster care than the rest of the population. But this has not happened in the parallel public and private health care systems in other Western countries or in the public and private education system in Canada. Wealthy Canadians can already buy medical care in the United States, where they spend $1 billion each year, an amount that represents a loss to Canada of 10,000 health care jobs. Parallel-system schemes in other countries have proven that people are driven to a private system by dissatisfaction with the quality of service, which is already suffering in Canada. Denial of choice is unacceptable to many people, particularly since the terms and conditions under which Canadians originally decided to forgo choice in medical care no longer apply.

Dirnfeld, V

1996-01-01

202

The benefits of privatization.  

PubMed

The promise of a universal, comprehensive, publicly funded system of medical care that was the foundation of the Medical Care Act passed in 1966 is no longer possible. Massive government debt, increasing health care costs, a growing and aging population and advances in technology have challenged the system, which can no longer meet the expectations of the public or of the health care professions. A parallel, private system, funded by a not-for-profit, regulated system of insurance coverage affordable for all wage-earners, would relieve the overstressed public system without decreasing the quality of care in that system. Critics of a parallel, private system, who base their arguments on the politics of fear and envy, charge that such a private system would "Americanize" Canadian health care and that the wealthy would be able to buy better, faster care than the rest of the population. But this has not happened in the parallel public and private health care systems in other Western countries or in the public and private education system in Canada. Wealthy Canadians can already buy medical care in the United States, where they spend $1 billion each year, an amount that represents a loss to Canada of 10,000 health care jobs. Parallel-system schemes in other countries have proven that people are driven to a private system by dissatisfaction with the quality of service, which is already suffering in Canada. Denial of choice is unacceptable to many people, particularly since the terms and conditions under which Canadians originally decided to forgo choice in medical care no longer apply. PMID:8752066

Dirnfeld, V

1996-08-15

203

Non-Detrimental Web Application Security Scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web has become a sophisticated platform capable of delivering a broad range of applications. However, its rapid growth has resulted in numerous security problems that current technologies cannot address. Researchers from both academic and private sector are devoting a considerable amount of resources to the development of Web application security scanners (i.e., automated software testing platforms for

Yao-wen Huang; Chung-hung Tsai; D. T. Lee; Sy-yen Kuo

2004-01-01

204

A Concrete Security Treatment of Symmetric Encryption  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study notions and schemes for symmetric (ie. private key) encryption in a concrete security framework. We give four different notions of security against chosen plaintext attack and analyze the concrete complexity of reductions among them, providing both upper and lower bounds, and obtaining tight relations. In this way we classify notions (even though polynomially reducible to each other) as

Mihir Bellare; Anand Desai; E. Jokipii; Phillip Rogaway

1997-01-01

205

Securing electronic commerce: reducing the SSL overhead  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last couple of years have seen a growing momentum toward using the Internet for conducting business. Web-based electronic commerce applications are one of the fastest growing segments of the Internet today. A key enabler for e-commerce applications is the ability to setup secure private channels over a public network. The Secure Sockets Layer protocol provides this capability and is

George Apostolopoulos; V. Peris; Prashant Pradhan; Debanjan Saha

2000-01-01

206

Secure video processing: Problems and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secure signal processing is an emerging technology to enable signal processing tasks in a secure and privacy-preserving fashion. It has attracted a great amount of research attention due to the increasing demand to enable rich functionalities for private data stored online. Desirable functionalities may include search, analysis, clustering, etc. In this paper, we discuss the research issues and challenges in

Wenjun Lu; Avinash Varna; Min Wu

2011-01-01

207

Security Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

De Patta, Joe

2003-01-01

208

Network Security  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course provides an introduction to the principles and practice of network security. Topics include: security threats in networks, principles for providing security mechanisms (cryptography, key management, message authentication), practice of securing systems (PGP, IPsec, SSL), and recent research topics in security.

Xue, Yuan

2009-02-25

209

Salazar on private power  

SciTech Connect

The Philipines power market, considered one of the more mature markets in Asia, continues to expand with economic growth. Independent power producers will find opportunities in the next few years as new additions are required. Currently, the government is encouraging private investment and is awaiting feedback from financiers as it considers eliminating its government guarantee. In a recent interview, the Honorable Mariano S. Salazar, secretary of energy, with the Philippines` Department of Energy, discussed the regulatory structure, encouragement of private power and his country`s capital needs.

Anderson, J.

1995-02-01

210

26 CFR 1.141-3 - Definition of private business use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vending machines, advertising displays, and use for television cameras, but incidental uses may not include output purchases. ...into account under section 141(b)(2)(A) (the private security test); and (iv) No more than 15 percent of the...

2013-04-01

211

Computing Science: On the Privacy of Private Browsing - A Forensic Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Private browsing has been a popular privacy feature built into all mainstream browsers since 2005. However, despite the prevalent use, the security of this feature has received little attention from the research community. To the best of our knowledge, no...

E. Toreini F. Hao K. Satvat M. Forshaw

2013-01-01

212

Student Experiential Opportunities in National Security Careers  

SciTech Connect

This report documents student experiential opportunities in national security careers as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of how experiential opportunities assist students in the selection of a career and a list of opportunities in the private sector and government. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. Workforce development activities will facilitate the hiring of students to work with professionals in both the private and public sectors, as well as assist in preparing a workforce for careers in national security. The goal of workforce development under the NSPP grant is to assess workforce needs in national security and implement strategies to develop the appropriate workforce.

None

2007-12-31

213

Algorithms for provisioning virtual private networks in the hose model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual Private Networks(VPNs) provide customers with predictable and secure network connections over a shared network. The recently proposed hose model for VPNs allows for greater flexibility since it permits traffic to and from a hose endpoint to be arbitrarily distributed to other endpoints. In this paper, we develop novel algorithms for provisioning VPNs in the hose model. We connect VPN

Amit Kumar; Rajeev Rastogi; Abraham Silberschatz; Bülent Yener

2001-01-01

214

Are We Entitled to Confiscate Enemy Private Property?  

Microsoft Academic Search

If, as is commonly assumed, one of the principal functions of law is to insure the security of acquisitions,' one cannot fail to remark how seriously recent events have weakened that function. The provision of article 297 of the Treaty of Versailles, by which private property of ex-enemy nationals has been taken over by several of the Allied governments, sanctioned

Edwin Borchard

1923-01-01

215

Privatization and Educational Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out…

Lieberman, Myron

216

Test Today, Privatize Tomorrow  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the No Child Left Behind (NCLB)-required testing and privatization in public education. The author points out that the NCLB is not a step in the right direction. It is a deeply damaging, mostly ill-intentioned law, and no one genuinely committed to improving public schools (or to advancing the interests of…

Kohn, Alfie

2004-01-01

217

Slouching toward Privatization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past two decades have seen a significant shift in the financial model of American higher education, laying groundwork for a transformation that could reshape people's understanding of the academy. The shift--toward increasing degrees of privatization--is unmistakable and has affected every American college and university to varying extents.…

Dickeson, Robert C.; Figuli, David J.

2007-01-01

218

Public Schools, Private Profits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why private companies and schools doing business with one another may be harmful to students. Problems uncovered from a decade of commercialization in the classroom are discussed as are issues of for-profit companies seeking to take over the operation of public schools, and one attempt to impose legislation to curtail commercialism. (GR)

Kennedy, Mike

2000-01-01

219

The Private Sector Beckons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether from frustration, ambition, or financial necessity, administrators are inclined to say "yes" when private companies come calling. Sometimes superintendents initiate contacts themselves and begin new careers as well-credentialed salespeople or behind-the-scenes think tanks. At the Edison Project, former superintendents work in curriculum…

Ramsey, Krista

1998-01-01

220

Private Victories (Closed Captioned).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program emphasizes that young people can achieve private victories by caring enough about themselves to reject drugs. Students learn that deciding against drugs can influence friends to do the same. The stories focus on a group of high school students...

1994-01-01

221

The Impact of Job Characteristics on Private Prison Staff: Why Management Should Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of private prisons run by corporate security businesses has increased rapidly throughout the past two decades.\\u000a There has been a parallel increase in literature, both pro and con, comparing the efficiency and effectiveness of private\\u000a and public prisons; however, private prison staff has been largely ignored. OLS regression analysis of a survey of 160 employees\\u000a at a Midwestern

Nancy L. Hogan; Eric G. Lambert; Morris Jenkins; Daniel E. Hall

2009-01-01

222

Constraints on short-selling and asset price adjustment to private information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper models effects of short-sale constraints on the speed of adjustment (to private information) of security prices. Constraints eliminate some informative trades, but do not bias prices upward. Prohibiting traders from shorting reduces the adjustment speed of prices to private information, especially to bad news. Non-prohibitive costs can have the reverse effect, but this is unlikely. Implications are developed

Douglas W. Diamond; Robert E. Verrecchia

1987-01-01

223

Comment on the "Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Bell Entangled States"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Liu et al. proposed a quantum private comparison (QPC) based on Bell entangled states (Liu et al. in Commun. Theor. Phys. 57(4): 583, 2012). This paper points out a security loophole in Liu et al.'s protocol, in which the third party can disclose the private information of both users. In addition, an improvement is proposed to avoid the loophole.

Chen, Yu-Ting; Hwang, Tzonelih

2013-10-01

224

A New Method for Generating an Invariant Iris Private Key Based on the Fuzzy Vault System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively

Youn Joo Lee; Kang Ryoung Park; Sung Joo Lee; Kwanghyuk Bae; Jaihie Kim

2008-01-01

225

A comparative study of overlay generation methods in bite mark analysis  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate the best method of overlay generation out of the three methods, i.e., manual, photocopying, and computer assisted method. Materials and Methods: Impressions of maxillary and mandibular arches of 25 individuals participating in the study were made and dental study models were prepared. Overlay production was done by manual, photocopying, and computer assisted methods. Finally, the overlays obtained by each method were compared. Results: Kruskal Wallis ANOVA H test was used for the comparison of manual, photocopying, and computer assisted overlay generation methods. H value being highest in case of computer assisted overlays, thus, making it the best method of overlay generation out of the three methods. Conclusion: We conclude that the method of computer assisted overlay generation is the best among the three methods used in our study.

Khatri, Mihir; Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramanian Vasudevan

2013-01-01

226

AN ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE MEASURING DEVICE FOR DETERMINING THE THICKNESS OF A WELDED MONEL OVERLAY ON CARBON STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and calibration of a device which measures the thickness ; of a welded monel overlay on carbon steel are described. The device measures the ; electrical resistance between two points on the surface of the overlay, which is ; correlated with the overlay thickness. The device provides a measure of the ; average overlay thickness existing in an

Lind

1960-01-01

227

Daylighting design overlays for equidistant sun-path projections  

SciTech Connect

Projections of the Sun's daily and seasonal paths frequently are used to solve building design problems involving site obstructions and shading of fenestration. In the United States, equidistant projections are perhaps the most widely used (compared to other sunpath projections) because of the commercial availability of a complete set of sun-path diagrams for a range of useful latitudes. This paper describes the development of a set of overlays designed for use with sun-path projections to predict illumination on any building surface throughout the year for standard climatological conditions. Illumination is calculated for clear and overcast skies and for direct sunlight using algorithms recommended by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE). Values for illumination incident upon the surface, as well as transmitted through single and double glazing, can be calculated. Similar overlays for solar radiation are being developed.

Selkowitz, S.

1981-08-01

228

Ion beam mixing of titanium overlayers with hydroxyapaptite substrates  

SciTech Connect

The mixing of titanium overlayers with hydroxyapatite (HA) substrates via ion irradiation has been demonstrated. Analysis via secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) indicates an interfacial broadening of titanium and calcium of the implanted sample compared to that of the unimplanted sample. Attendant to the observed ion beam mixing of titanium into the HA, the oxygen signal of the titanium overlayer increases as a result of ion irradiation. It is supposed that this change is evident of diffusion through the metal layer and possibly from titania formation at the free surface and perovskite formation at the film/substrate interface. This possibility is consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Additionally, the force required to separate the film from the substrate increased as a result of ion irradiation, validating the continued study of ion beam processing of Ti/HA systems towards the improvement of long term fixation of implant devices.

Levine, T.E. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Alford, T.L.; Suchicital, C.; Russell, S.; Luptak, K.; Pizziconi, V.; Mayer, J.W. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

1995-01-01

229

Defect formation dynamics during CdTe overlayer growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of atomic-scale defects at multilayer interfaces significantly degrades performance in CdTe-based photovoltaic technologies. The ability to accurately predict and understand defect formation mechanisms during overlayer growth is, therefore, a rational approach for improving the efficiencies of CdTe materials. In this work, we utilize a recently developed CdTe bond-order potential (BOP) to enable accurate molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for predicting defect formation during multilayer growth. A detailed comparison of our MD simulations to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy experiments verifies the accuracy and predictive power of our approach. Our simulations further indicate that island growth can reduce the lattice mismatch induced defects. These results highlight the use of predictive MD simulations to gain new insight into defect reduction in CdTe overlayers, which directly addresses efforts to improve these materials.

Chavez, J. J.; Ward, D. K.; Wong, B. M.; Doty, F. P.; Cruz-Campa, J. L.; Nielson, G. N.; Gupta, V. P.; Zubia, D.; McClure, J.; Zhou, X. W.

2012-06-01

230

Overlay of Arbitrarily Shaped Material Regions onto Hexahedral Meshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Eulerian and ALE hydrodynamics simulations, zones contain a mixture of materials when mesh boundaries do not conform with material boundaries. In problem generation at initial time, three-dimensional regions containing assigned material properties are specified as shapes, with a limited number of parameters describing the volume of the region. In the shape overlay procedure, the mesh is initialized with a background material in each zone, and the background material is replaced with the assigned material within each region. Zones intersecting the surface of the shape become mixed, and the essential requirement is to compute the volume of intersection between the shape and each zone on the mesh. We demonstrate, using meshes containing up to 10^6 nonorthogonal, nonuniform hexahedral zones, that shape overlays are a practical means of accurately and efficiently generating hydrodynamics problems on currently available workstations.

Grandy, Jeffrey

1997-08-01

231

Modeling the dynamical interaction between epidemics on overlay networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epidemics seldom occur as isolated phenomena. Typically, two or more viral agents spread within the same host population and may interact dynamically with each other. We present a general model where two viral agents interact via an immunity mechanism as they propagate simultaneously on two networks connecting the same set of nodes. By exploiting a correspondence between the propagation dynamics and a dynamical process performing progressive network generation, we develop an analytical approach that accurately captures the dynamical interaction between epidemics on overlay networks. The formalism allows for overlay networks with arbitrary joint degree distribution and overlap. To illustrate the versatility of our approach, we consider a hypothetical delayed intervention scenario in which an immunizing agent is disseminated in a host population to hinder the propagation of an undesirable agent (e.g., the spread of preventive information in the context of an emerging infectious disease).

Marceau, Vincent; Noël, Pierre-André; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Dubé, Louis J.

2011-08-01

232

Are Virtualized Overlay Networks Too Much of a Good Thing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Themajorityofrecenthigh-proflleworkinpeer-to-peernet- workshasapproachedtheproblemoflocationbyabstractingoverobject lookup services. Namespace virtualization in the overlay layer provides load balance andprovableboundsonlatency at lowcosts. We contend that namespace virtualization comes at a signiflcant cost for applications that naturally describe their data sets in a hierarchical manner.Opportunitiesforenhancingbrowsing,prefetchingande-cient attribute-based searches are lost. A hierarchy exposes relationships be- tween items near to each other in the topology; virtualization of the namespace

Peter J. Keleher; Bobby Bhattacharjee; Bujor D. Silaghi

2002-01-01

233

Ultrasonic Evaluation of Two Dissimilar Metal Weld Overlay Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe-to-nozzle specimens were implanted with thermal fatigue cracks in the 13% to 90% through-wall depth range. The specimens were ultrasonically evaluated with phased-array probes having center frequencies of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 megahertz (MHz). An Alloy 82\\/182 weld overlay (WOL) was applied and the specimens were ultrasonically re-evaluated for flaw detection and characterization. The

Susan L. Crawford; Anthony D. Cinson; Matthew S. Prowant; Traci L. Moran; Michael T. Anderson

2012-01-01

234

Topologically-Aware Overlay Construction and Server Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of large-scale distributed Internet applications could potentially benefit from some level of knowledge about the relative proximity between its participating host nodes. For example, the perfor- mance of large overlay networks could be improved if the application-level connectivity between the nodes in these networks is congruent with the un- derlying IP-level topology. Similarly, in the case of replicated

Sylvia Ratnasamy; Mark Handley; Richard M. Karp; Scott Shenker

2002-01-01

235

Improving graph-based overlay routing in delay tolerant networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present CGR-EB, a modification of, and extension to, the Contact Graph Routing (CGR) protocol — a forwarding mechanism for interplanetary communication. CGR-EB enables graph-based overlay routing for a variety of networks, including those using vehicular assets as data mules. It improves CGR by storing end-to-end message paths and encoding these paths, and the sub-graphs that spawned them, with the

Edward J. Birrane

2011-01-01

236

Service overlay networks: SLAs, QoS, and bandwidth provisioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We advocate the notion of service overlay network (SON) as an effective means to address some of the issues, in particular, end-to-end quality of service (QoS), plaguing the current Internet, and to facilitate the creation and deployment of value-added Internet services such as VoIP, Video-on-Demand, and other emerging QoS-sensitive services. The SON purchases bandwidth with certain QoS guarantees from the

Zhenhai Duan; Zhi-Li Zhang; Yiwei Thomas Hou

2003-01-01

237

Service Overlay Networks: SLAs, QoS and Bandwidth Provisioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We advocate the notion of service overlay network (SON) as an effective means to address some of the issues, in par- ticular, end-to-end QoS, plaguing the current Internet, and to facilitate the creation and deployment of value-added In- ternet services such as VoIP, Video-on-Demand, and other emerging QoS-sensitive services. A SON purchases band- width with certain QoS guarantees from individual

Zhenhai Duan; Zhi-li Zhang; Yiwei Thomas Hou

2002-01-01

238

Shielding turbine blades from cvitation: Experiments with polymer overlays  

SciTech Connect

Cavitation damage to hydroelectric machinery produces one of the most prevalent maintenance problems at any hydro plant. Damage to the turbine runner blades, draft tube liner and discharge ring, and sometimes even the runner hub can require extensive welding repair. Typically, each unit develops its own cavitation characteristics that continue throughout the life of the machine. The traditional cavitation repair method is to gouge out the damaged material, then refill the void with a stainless steel. This method is costly and time-consuming, may cause blade distortion, and may result in galvanic corrosion when the stainless steel is applied to carbon steel base materials. What's more, this gouging and filling at temperatures between 2,200 and 2.300[degrees]F within a tenth of a square inch may cause residual stresses in the parent material. One strategy for limiting cavitation effects on turbine components is to overlay the original material with a protective layer. This protective coating will absorb the cavitation load, or at least a portion of it, thus limiting further damage to repaired areas. Typically, an overlay consists of a 1/32-inch or 1/16-inch layer of polymer material (either epoxies or ceramics) and a thin adhesive that bonds the polymer to the turbine steel. A cavitation-induced shock (energy) wave propagates through the polymer material and either reflects or transmits into the steel. (The relative acoustic impedances of the two materials determine whether the shock wave travels into the turbine steel or reflects back through the polymer.) For the overlay to be effective, the shock wave must be reflected, attenuated, or dispersed. typical overlay materials do not reflect, attenuate, or disperse the cavitation shock wave. Polycarbonates, with their unique energy dissipation capabilities, are a good candidate for a protective turbine blade coating.

Armentrout, T.B. (Army Corps of Engineers, The Dalles, OR (United States))

1993-05-01

239

Studies of the Si(111) surface with various Al overlayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic structure of the Si(111) surface with Al overlayers has been investigated by the self-consistent pseudopotential method for three different Al chemisorption sites. The geometries are a onefold coordinated covalent site, and two other geometries which correspond to threefold coordinated ionic sites with different Al-Si bond lengths. The electronic energy bands, local densities of states, and charge distributions for

H. I. Zhang; M. Schlüter

1978-01-01

240

ROMA: Reliable Overlay Multicast with Loosely Coupled TCP Connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of architecting a reliable content delivery system across an overlay network using TCP connections as the transport primitive. We first argue that natural designs based on store-and-forward principles that tightly couple TCP connections at intermediate end-systems impose fundamen- tal performance limitations, such as dragging down all transfer rates in the system to the rate of the

Gu.-In. Kwon; John W. Byers

2004-01-01

241

Private Well Water and Fluoride  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Community Water Fluoridation Share Compartir Private Well Water and Fluoride Frequently Asked Questions on fluoride levels ... private wells. How do I know if my water is from a public water system or a ...

242

Security Clearance Process: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions, September 9, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a primer on some of the fundamental aspects of the security clearance process, using a Frequently Asked Questions format. A security clearance is a determination that an individualwhether a direct federal employee or a private contrac...

F. M. Kaiser M. D. Christensen

2013-01-01

243

Multicast Routing in Structured Overlays and Hybrid Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key-based routing has enabled efficient group communication on the application or service middleware layer, stimulated by the need of applications to access multicast. These developments follow a continuous debate about network layer multicast that had lasted for about 30 years history of the Internet. The IP host group model today still faces a strongly divergent state of deployment. In this chapter, we first review the key concepts of multicast and broadcast data distribution on structured overlays. Second, we perform a comprehensive theoretical analysis examining the different distribution trees constructed on top of a key-based routing layer. Characteristic performance measures of the multicast approaches are compared in detail and major structural differences are identified. Overlay multicast overcomes deployment problems on the price of a performance penalty. Hybrid approaches, which dynamically combine multicast in overlay and underlay, adaptively optimize group communication. We discuss current schemes along with its integration in common multicast routing protocols in the third part of this chapter. Finally, we reconsider and enhance approaches to a common API for group communication, which serves the requirements of data distribution and maintenance for multicast and broadcast on a middleware abstraction layer, and in particular facilitates hybrid multicast schemes.

Wählisch, Matthias; Schmidt, Thomas C.

244

Hg binding on Pd binary alloys and overlays  

SciTech Connect

The vast majority of the mercury released from coal combustion is elemental mercury. Noble metals such as Pd, Au, Ag, and Cu have been proposed to capture elemental mercury. Density functional theory calculations are carried out to investigate mercury interactions with Pd binary alloys and overlays in addition to pure Pd, Au, Ag, and Cu surfaces using a projected augmented wave method with the Perdew-Wang generalized 0 gradient approximation. It has been determined that Pd has the highest mercury binding energy in comparison to other noble metals. In addition, Pd is found to be the primary surface atom responsible for improving the interaction of mercury with the surface atoms in both Pd binary alloys and overlays. Deposition of Pd overlays on Au and Ag enhance the reactivity of the surface by shifting the d-states of surface atoms up in energy. Strong mercury binding causes a significant overlap between the s- and p-states of Pd and the d-state of Mercury.

Sasmaz, E.; Aboud, S.; Wilcox, J. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States). School of Earth Science

2009-05-15

245

An Overlapping Structured P2P for REIK Overlay Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

REIK is based on a ring which embedded an inverse Kautz digraph, to enable multi-path P2P routing. It has the constant degree and the logarithmic diameter DHT scheme with constant congestion and Byzantine fault tolerance. However, REIK did not consider the interconnection of many independent smaller networks. In this paper, we propose a new approach to build overlay network, OLS-REIK which is an overlapping structured P2P for REIK overlay network. It is a more flexible interconnecting different REIK network. Peers can belong to several rings, allowing this interconnection. By connecting smaller structured overlay networks in an unstructured way, it provides a cost effective alternative to hierarchical structured P2P systems requiring costly merging. Routing of lookup messages is performed as in REIK within one ring, but a peer belonging to several rings forwards the request to the different rings it belongs to. Furthermore a small number of across point is enough to ensure a high exhaustiveness level.

Liu, Wenjun; Song, Jingjing; Yu, Jiguo

246

Privatized multipurpose reactor initiative  

SciTech Connect

ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) and seven other companies have submitted a plan to the DOE for deploying a multipurpose reactor at the Savannah River Plant. The facility would consume excess plutonium as fuel, irradiate tritium producing targets, and generate electricity. The plan proposes to establish a consortium that would privately finance and own two System 80+ nuclear units and a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility.

Davis, G.A. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

1995-12-31

247

A Private Universe Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Private Universe Teachers Lab enables teachers to practice techniques of identifying student misconceptions and moving toward conceptual change in basic astronomy. This teachers lab contains a survey to identify misconceptions and three in-class activities for grades 4 to 8 that help students gain an understanding of the phases of the Moon. There are teacher discussion forums on planning teaching sequences and learning how to adapt activities to different situations.

Schneps, Matthew; Sadler, Philip

2007-12-12

248

Critical Infrastructure: Assessment of the Department of Homeland Security's Report on the Results of Its Critical Infrastructure Partnership Streamlining Efforts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fundamental component of DHS's efforts to protect and secure our nation's CI is partnerships among public and private stakeholders. Within DHS, NPPD is responsible for working with public and private sector CI partners and leads the coordinated national...

2013-01-01

249

Information Security Awareness On-Line Materials Design with Knowledge Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information Security Awareness, though known as a primary and important issue in the domain of Information Security, CSI computer crime and security survey showed poor security awareness training in public and private sectors. In many studies, the authors have found that the usage of knowledge maps helps the process of learning and conception…

Shaw, Ruey-Shiang; Keh, Huan-Chao; Huang, Nan-Ching; Huang, Tien-Chuan

2011-01-01

250

Overlay control strategy for 45/32nm RD and production ramp up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tight overlay budgets required for 45nm and beyond makes overlay control a very important topic. High order overlay control (HOC) is becoming an essential methodology to remove the immersion induced overlay signatures. However, to implement the high order control into dynamic APC system requires FA infrastructure modification and a stable mass production environment. How to achieve the overlay requirement before the APC-HOC system becomes available is important for RD environment and for product early ramp up phase. In this paper authors would like to demonstrate a field-by-field correction (FxFc) or correction per exposure (CPE) methodology to improve high order overlay signature without changing current APC-linear control system.

Yu, Tuan-Yen; Lin, Jun-Hung; Huang, Yong-Fa; Chen, Chien-Hao; Yu, Chun-Chi; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Huang, Chien-Jen; Tien, David

2010-03-01

251

Sampling strategy: optimization and correction for high-order overlay control for 45nm process node  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tight overlay budgets required for 45nm and beyond make overlay control a very important topic. With the adoption of immersion lithography, the incremental complexity brings much more difficulty to analyzing the source of variation and optimizing the sampling strategy. In this paper, there will be a discussion about how the use of an advanced sampling methodology and strategy can help to overcome this overlay control problem and insure sufficient overlay information to be captured for effective production lot excursion detection as well as rework decision making. There will also be a demonstration of the different correction methodologies to improve overlay control for dual-stage systems in order to maximize the productivity benef its with minimal impact to overlay performance.

Hsueh, Bo Yun; Huang, George K. C.; Yu, Chun-Chi; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Huang, Chien-Jen; Manka, James R.; Tien, David

2009-03-01

252

Innovative fast technique for overlay accuracy estimation using archer self calibration (ASC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As overlay margins shrink for advanced process nodes, a key overlay metrology challenge is finding the measurement conditions which optimize the yield for every device and layer. Ideally, this setup should be found in-line during the lithography measurements step. Moreover, the overlay measurement must have excellent correlation to the device electrical behavior. This requirement makes the measurement conditions selection even more challenging since it requires information about the response of both the metrology target and device to different process variations. In this work a comprehensive solution for overlay metrology accuracy, used by UMC, is described. This solution ranks the different measurement setups by their accuracy, using Qmerit, as reported by the Archer 500. This ranking was verified to match device overlay using electrical tests. Moreover, the use of Archer Self Calibration (ASC) allows further improvement of overlay measurement accuracy.

Hsu, Simon C. C.; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Pai, Yuan Chi; Amit, Eran; Yap, Lipkong; Itzkovich, Tal; Tien, David; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

2014-04-01

253

Development and validation of an improved algorithm for overlaying flexible molecules.  

PubMed

A program for overlaying multiple flexible molecules has been developed. Candidate overlays are generated by a novel fingerprint algorithm, scored on three objective functions (union volume, hydrogen-bond match, and hydrophobic match), and ranked by constrained Pareto ranking. A diverse subset of the best ranked solutions is chosen using an overlay-dissimilarity metric. If necessary, the solutions can be optimised. A multi-objective genetic algorithm can be used to find additional overlays with a given mapping of chemical features but different ligand conformations. The fingerprint algorithm may also be used to produce constrained overlays, in which user-specified chemical groups are forced to be superimposed. The program has been tested on several sets of ligands, for each of which the true overlay is known from protein-ligand crystal structures. Both objective and subjective success criteria indicate that good results are obtained on the majority of these sets. PMID:22538643

Taylor, Robin; Cole, Jason C; Cosgrove, David A; Gardiner, Eleanor J; Gillet, Valerie J; Korb, Oliver

2012-04-01

254

Private sector involvement in civil space remote sensing. Volume 1: Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of private sector developers, users, and interpreters of Earth resources data was conducted in an effort to encourage private investment and participation in remote sensing systems. Results indicate positive interest in participation beyond the current hardware contracting level, however, there is a substantial gap between current market levels and system costs. Issues identified include the selection process for an operating entity, the public/private interface, data collection and access policies, price and profit regulation in a subsidized system, international participation, and the responsibility for research and development. It was agreed that the cost, complexity, and security implications of integrated systems need not be an absolute bar to their private operation.

1979-01-01

255

mTreebone: A Collaborative Tree-Mesh Overlay Network for Multicast Video Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, application-layer overlay networks have been suggested as a promising solution for live video streaming over the Internet. To organize a multicast overlay, a natural structure is a tree, which, however, is known vulnerable to end-hosts dynamics. Data-driven approaches address this problem by employing a mesh structure, which enables data exchanges among multiple neighbors, and thus, greatly improves the overlay

Feng Wang; Yongqiang Xiong; Jiangchuan Liu

2010-01-01

256

Content-Based Peer-to-Peer Network Overlay for Full-Text Federated Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer-to-peer network overlays have mostly been designed to support search over document names, identifiers, or keywords from a small or controlled vocabulary. In this paper we propose a content-based P2P network overlay for full-text federated search over heterogeneous, open-domain contents. Local algorithms are developed to dynamically construct a network overlay with content-based locality and content-based small-world properties. Experimental results using

Jie Lu; Jamie Callan

2007-01-01

257

Mean offset optimization for multi-patterning overlay using Monte Carlo simulation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overlay performance and alignment strategy optimization for a triple patterning (LELELE) were studied based on the Monte Carlo simulation method. The simulated results show that all of the combined or worst case overlay, alignment strategy, mean target of the upper level, and mean tolerance of the lower level are dependent on the means of the lower level. A dynamic mean control method is proposed to be integrated into the APC system to improve the overlay performance.

Wang, Wenhui; Cui, Liping; Sun, Lei; Kim, Ryoung-Han

2014-04-01

258

Secure quantum telephone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum telephone protocol including the dialing process and the talking one is proposed. In the dialing process, with their respective secret keys, the legitimate communicators Alice and Bob can pass the authentication by Charlie acting as a telephone company. In the talking process, Charlie provides the authenticated Alice and Bob with a quantum channel sequence, on which Alice and Bob can communicate with each other directly and privately by virtue of some encoding operations. Different from the insecure classical telephone having been used in our lives, the proposed quantum telephone protocol has asymptotically security and the communicators cannot disavow having used the quantum channels.

Wen, Xiaojun; Liu, Yun; Zhou, Nanrun

2007-07-01

259

Pirates, privateers and the political economy of private violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical accounts of private violence in international relations are often rather under-theorised and under-contextualised. Overall, private violence historically needs to be seen in the context of the relationship between state-building, political economy and violence, rather than through the narrative of states gradually monopolising violence. Pirates and privateers in late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth century Europe were embedded in a broader political economy

Bryan Mabee

2009-01-01

260

Compensating process non-uniformity to improve wafer overlay by RegC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of double and triple patterning tightened the Overlay current nodes' specifications across the industry to levels of 5nm and 3nm respectively. Overlay error is a combination of Intra-field and field-to-field errors. The Intra-field error includes several systematic signatures, such as overlay magnitude differences between X and Y axes, field center vs edge and more. The recent developments in scanner technology improved the intra-field Overlay to high orders. In this work we have quantified the state-of-the-art residual overlay errors and applied the RegC® (registration/overlay control) process, a new solution of deep sub-nanometer pattern shift, to further improve the overlay process control, in addition to the current lithography's state-of-the-art capabilities. As a result we managed to reduce the baseline overlay error by more than one nanometer and reduced systematic intrafield non-uniformities, by removing the 3 sigma difference between X and Y to zero. The combination of intra-field control by RegC® with high order correction per exposure (CPE) by the scanner provides a new era of overlay control required for the 2x and 1x multiple patterning processes.

Leray, Philippe; Cheng, Shaunee; Cohen, Avi; Graitzer, Erez; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Rehtan, Shiran; Wertsman, Nadav

2014-04-01

261

Infrared differential interference contrast microscopy for 3D interconnect overlay metrology.  

PubMed

One of the main challenges for 3D interconnect metrology of bonded wafers is measuring through opaque silicon wafers using conventional optical microscopy. We demonstrate here the use infrared microscopy, enhanced by implementing the differential interference contrast (DIC) technique, to measure the wafer bonding overlay. A pair of two dimensional symmetric overlay marks were processed at both the front and back sides of thinned wafers to evaluate the bonding overlay. A self-developed analysis algorithm and theoretical fitting model was used to map the overlay error between the bonded wafers and the interconnect structures. The measurement accuracy was found to be better than 1.0 micron. PMID:23938801

Ku, Yi-sha; Shyu, Deh-Ming; Lin, Yeou-Sung; Cho, Chia-Hung

2013-08-12

262

Collaborative Policy Making: Vertical Integration in The Homeland Security Enterprise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

President Obama, the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security and other senior federal officials have emphasized that, in order to make our country safe and resilient, all levels of government, non-governmental organizations and the private sector...

K. A. Wolslayer

2011-01-01

263

Secure PVM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user's PVM application, or, optionally, security ca...

T. H. Dunigan N. Venugopal

1996-01-01

264

Security in Full-Force  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When fully developed for NASA, Vanguard Enforcer(TM) software-which emulates the activities of highly technical security system programmers, auditors, and administrators-was among the first intrusion detection programs to restrict human errors from affecting security, and to ensure the integrity of a computer's operating systems, as well as the protection of mission critical resources. Vanguard Enforcer was delivered in 1991 to Johnson Space Center and has been protecting systems and critical data there ever since. In August of 1999, NASA granted Vanguard exclusive rights to commercialize the Enforcer system for the private sector. In return, Vanguard continues to supply NASA with ongoing research, development, and support of Enforcer. The Vanguard Enforcer 4.2 is one of several surveillance technologies that make up the Vanguard Security Solutions line of products. Using a mainframe environment, Enforcer 4.2 achieves previously unattainable levels of automated security management.

2002-01-01

265

Software Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software security is the idea of engineering software so that it continues to function correctly under malicious attack. Most technologists acknowledge this undertaking's importance, but they need some help in understanding how to tackle it. The article aims to provide that help by exploring software security best practices. A central and critical aspect of the computer security problem is a

Gary Mcgraw

2004-01-01

266

Security Locks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions affected--perhaps the…

Hart, Kevin

2010-01-01

267

Characterization of wafer geometry and overlay error on silicon wafers with nonuniform stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Process-induced overlay errors are a growing problem in meeting the ever-tightening overlay requirements for integrated circuit production. Although uniform process-induced stress is easily corrected, nonuniform stress across the wafer is much more problematic, often resulting in noncorrectable overlay errors. Measurements of the wafer geometry of free, unchucked wafers give a powerful method for characterization of such nonuniform stress-induced wafer distortions. Wafer geometry data can be related to in-plane distortion of the wafer pulled flat by an exposure tool vacuum chuck, which in turn relates to overlay error. This paper will explore the relationship between wafer geometry and overlay error by the use of silicon test wafers with deliberate stress variations, i.e., engineered stress monitor (ESM) wafers. A process will be described that allows the creation of ESM wafers with nonuniform stress and includes many thousands of overlay targets for a detailed characterization of each wafer. Because the spatial character of the stress variation is easily changed, ESM wafers constitute a versatile platform for exploring nonuniform stress. We have fabricated ESM wafers of several different types, e.g., wafers where the center area has much higher stress than the outside area. Wafer geometry is measured with an optical metrology tool. After fabrication of the ESM wafers including alignment marks and first level overlay targets etched into the wafer, we expose a second level resist pattern designed to overlay with the etched targets. After resist patterning, relative overlay error is measured using standard optical methods. An innovative metric from the wafer geometry measurements is able to predict the process-induced overlay error. We conclude that appropriate wafer geometry measurements of in-process wafers have strong potential to characterize and reduce process-induced overlay errors.

Brunner, Timothy A.; Menon, Vinayan C.; Wong, Cheuk Wun; Gluschenkov, Oleg; Belyansky, Michael P.; Felix, Nelson M.; Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Vukkadala, Pradeep; Veeraraghavan, Sathish; Sinha, Jaydeep K.

2013-10-01

268

TWRS privatization bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information.

NONE

1996-03-01

269

TWRS privatization bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety.

NONE

1996-02-01

270

Private Sector Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank is perhaps one of the world's premier organizations regarding development opportunities, and they are widely recognized for their work in the developing world. With this latest outing, they have created the Private Sector Development (PSD) Blog, which is designed to be both quirky and opinionated, qualities which are never in short supply as one wanders around the web. Having said that, the site is rather erudite, as it provides intelligent comments on topics that include disaster recovery, foreign direct investment, and corporate governance. New users will want to browse through some of the recent posts, and then perhaps look at the "Categories" section on the left-hand side of the page for future explorations. As might be expected, each post also contains links to external readings from a diverse set of publications, such as the Financial Times and like-minded ventures.

271

Modeling Patterning of Heteroepitaxial Overlayers from Nano to Micron Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin heteroepitaxial overlayers have been proposed as templates to generate stable, self-organized nanostructures at large length scales, with a variety of important technological applications. However, modeling strain-driven self-organization is a formidable challenge due to a large span of length and time scales involved. In this talk, I will present a method for predicting the patterning of ultrathin films on micron length scales with atomic resolution [K.R. Elder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 226102 (2012)]. It is based on the Phase-Field Crystal model, which allows one to reach diffusive time scales for relaxation of the system. We make quantitative predictions for the type of superstructures (stripes, honeycomb, triangular) and length scales of pattern formation of both compressively strained and tensile overlayers on metal-metal systems, including Cu on Ru(0001), Cu on Pd(111), and Ag on Cu(111). Our findings are in excellent agreement with previous experiments and call for future experimental investigations of such systems.

Ala-Nissila, Tapio

2013-03-01

272

Using perspective guidance overlay to improve UAV manual control performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The guidance information that is available to the UAV operator typically suffers from limitations of data update rate and system latency. Even when using a flight director command display, the manual control task is considerably more difficult compared to piloting a manned aircraft. Results from earlier research into perspective guidance displays show that these displays provide performance benefits and suggest a reduction of the negative effects of system latency. The current study has shown that in case of limitations of data update rate and system latency the use of a conformal sensor overlay showing a perspective presentation of the trajectory constraints is consistently superior to the flight director command display. The superiority becomes more pronounced with an increase in data latency and a decrease in update rate. The fact that the perspective pathway overlay as used in this study can be implemented on any graphics system that is capable of rendering a set of 2-D vectors makes it a viable candidate for upgrades to current systems.

Tadema, Jochum; Theunissen, Eric; Koeners, Joris

2007-05-01

273

Coded multiple chirp spread spectrum system and overlay service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An asynchronous spread-spectrum system called coded multiple chirp is proposed, and the possible spread-spectrum overlay over an analog FM-TV signal is investigated by computer simulation. Multiple single-sloped up and down chirps are encoded by a pseudonoise code and decoded by dechirpers (pulse-compression filters) followed by a digital code correlator. The performance of the proposed system, expressed in terms of in probability of bit error and code miss probability, is similar to that of FSK (frequency shift keying) using codewords if sufficient compression gain is used. When chirp is used to overlay an FM-TV channel, two chirp signals with data rate up to 25 kb/s could be overlaid in a 36-MHz satellite transponder without significant mutual interference. Performance estimates for a VSAT (very small aperture terminal) earth station operating at C-band show that a 2.4-m antenna and 300-mW transmitter could send a 2.4-kb/s signal to a large central earth station over an occupied channel.

Kim, Junghwan; Pratt, Timothy; Ha, Tri T.

1988-01-01

274

Lightweight storage and overlay networks for fault tolerance.  

SciTech Connect

The next generation of capability-class, massively parallel processing (MPP) systems is expected to have hundreds of thousands to millions of processors, In such environments, it is critical to have fault-tolerance mechanisms, including checkpoint/restart, that scale with the size of applications and the percentage of the system on which the applications execute. For application-driven, periodic checkpoint operations, the state-of-the-art does not provide a scalable solution. For example, on today's massive-scale systems that execute applications which consume most of the memory of the employed compute nodes, checkpoint operations generate I/O that consumes nearly 80% of the total I/O usage. Motivated by this observation, this project aims to improve I/O performance for application-directed checkpoints through the use of lightweight storage architectures and overlay networks. Lightweight storage provide direct access to underlying storage devices. Overlay networks provide caching and processing capabilities in the compute-node fabric. The combination has potential to signifcantly reduce I/O overhead for large-scale applications. This report describes our combined efforts to model and understand overheads for application-directed checkpoints, as well as implementation and performance analysis of a checkpoint service that uses available compute nodes as a network cache for checkpoint operations.

Oldfield, Ron A.

2010-01-01

275

Homeland Security Airport Security Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This model provides a framework for helping to understand and analyze the airport security problem. By modeling the security process, and identifying the weak points, we were able to make recommendations for possible Federal initiatives through legislativ...

N. F. Schneidewind

2006-01-01

276

Peer-to-Peer Overlays for Real-Time Communication: Security Issues and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer to peer (P2P) networks offer higher robustness against failure, easier configuration and are generally more economical as compared to their client-server counterparts. This has made it reasonable for resource consuming and typically centralized applications like voice over IP (VoIP) and, in general, real-time communication to adapt and exploit the benefits of P2P. Such a migration needs to address a

Dhruv Chopra; Henning Schulzrinne; Enrico Marocco; Emil Ivov

2009-01-01

277

Evaluation of Secure Peer-to-Peer Overlay Routing for Survivable SCADA Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) sys- tems gather and analyze data for real-time control. SCADA systems are used extensively, in applications such as elec- trical power distribution, telecommunications, and energy refining. SCADA systems are obvious targets for cyber- attacks that would seek to disrupt the physical complexities governed by a SCADA system. This paper uses a discrete- event simulation

Jeffrey J. Farris; David M. Nicol

2004-01-01

278

Quantum private comparison protocol with d-dimensional Bell states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a quantum private comparison protocol with Bell states is proposed. In the protocol, two participants can determine the relationship between their secret inputs in size, with the assistance of a semi-trusted third party. The presented protocol can ensure fairness, correctness, and security. Meanwhile, all the particles undergo only a one-way trip, which improves the efficiency and security of the communication. Furthermore, only Bell states are exploited in the implementation of the protocol, and two participants are just required having the ability to perform single particle operations, which make the presented protocol more feasible in technique.

Lin, Song; Sun, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Fen; Yao, Zhi-Qiang

2013-01-01

279

Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks  

PubMed Central

In this article, I discuss the concepts of private stimuli, covert responses, and private events, emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as private. I argue that the role of private stimuli in the control of self-descriptive verbal responses is dependent on a relation (correlation or equivalence relation) with public stimuli, and that responses vary along a continuum of observability. These remarks on private stimuli and covert responses are introductory to an examination of the varying complexity of phenomena described as private. I argue that private events is a verbal response emitted under the control of phenomena of different degrees of complexity, and I interpret these phenomena, based on the principle of selection by consequences. I introduce the notion of inclusiveness to suggest that some phenomena related to privacy are less or more complex as they include relations of a phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and cultural origin.

Tourinho, Emmanuel Zagury

2006-01-01

280

A New Advanced User Authentication and Confidentiality Security Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network & internet security is the burning question of today's world and they are deeply related to each other for secure successful data transmission. Network security approach is totally based on the concept of network security services. In this paper, a new system of network security service is implemented which is more secure than conventional network security services. This technique is mainly deals with two essential network security services, one is user authentication and other is data confidentiality. For user authentication this paper introduces Graphical Username & Voice Password approaches which provides better security than conventional username & password authentication process. In data confidentiality section this paper introduces two layer private key for both message encryption & decryption which is mainly applicable on 8 bit plain text data. This paper also provides the hints of introducing other two network security services (integrity and non-repudiation) as a future work.

Majumder, Sanjay; Chakraborty, Sanjay; Das, Suman

2014-05-01

281

Controlling Person Liability Under Section 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act and Section 15 of the Securities Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Central Bank of Denver v. First Interstate Bank of Denver eliminated federal private securities actions against secondary parties based on aiding and abetting and possibly on conspiracy, respondeat superior and common law agency as well. It is then reasonable to expect more private actions against secondary parties will be based on control person liability,

Lewis D. Lowenfels; Alan R. Bromberg

1997-01-01

282

Foundations of Secure Interactive Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of secure multiparty computation is usually described as follows: each of n players in a network holds a private input x\\u000a i. Together they would like to compute a function F(x\\u000a 1,...,x\\u000a n) without revealing the inputs, even though no particular player can be trusted. Attempts to contrive formal definitions for\\u000a the problem have treated properties of the

Donald Beaver

1991-01-01

283

DO EXOTIC CURRENCIES IMPROVE THE RISK-ADJUSTED PERFORMANCE OF DYNAMIC CURRENCY OVERLAYS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the benefits of additional international diversification into emerging stock markets, from the point of view of a U.S investor. The increase in risk adjusted returns with exotic currencies (compared to a benchmark portfolio of only major currencies investments) is achieved through the use of a currency overlay programme. We assess the impact of the exotic currency overlay

Christian L. Dunis; Natan Levy

2001-01-01

284

Cracking resistance of thin-bonded overlays using fracture test, numerical simulations and early field performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-bonded bituminous overlays are becoming an increasingly popular pavement maintenance treatment, which can be used to restore smoothness, seal and renew the pavement surface and increase skid resistance. Thin-bonded overlays (TBOs) are constructed using a specialised type of paving equipment called a ‘spray paver’. A spray paver combines the operation of applying a tack coat and laying down asphalt concrete

Sarfraz Ahmed; Eshan V. Dave; William G. Buttlar; Marvin K. Exline

2012-01-01

285

Concrete Bridge Deck Overlays in Illinois: Mix Design Experimentation and Investigation of Construction Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of a bridge deck overlay is to extend the life of a structure by providing a durable wearing surface and a barrier against chloride intrusion. The majority of the deck overlays in Illinois' recent past have contained microsilica. Problems asso...

B. A. Pfeifer

1999-01-01

286

Dynamic Topology Configuration in Service Overlay Networks: A Study of Reconfiguration Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The routing infrastructure of the Internet has be- come resistant to fundamental changes and the use of overlay networks has been proposed to provide additional flexibility and control. One of the most prominent configurable components of an overlay network is its topology, which can be dynami- cally reconfigured to accommodate communication requirements that vary over time. In this paper, we

Jinliang Fan; Mostafa H. Ammar

2006-01-01

287

Solid\\/liquid erosion behavior of gas tungsten arc welded TiNi overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process has been widely used in the surface damage reparation of industrial and hydraulic handling components to yield a hardfacing overlay typically composed of nickel based alloys. The pseudoelasticity of TiNi intermetallic alloy provides excellent fatigue resistance and cavitation erosion resistance. GTAW was chosen to yield a TiNi alloy overlay onto AISI 1048 medium

J. R Weng; J. T Chang; K. C Chen; J. L He

2003-01-01

288

Weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Task A: Literature review, progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic

B. Levin; J. N. DuPont; A. R. Marder

1993-01-01

289

The effect of overlay stress on the uniaxial anisotropy of garnet bubble domain films  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the overlay films used for bubble domain propagation circuitry elastic energy is stored. Some of this energy is transferred to the LPE garnet film and because of the magnetoelastic coupling, significant alterations can be caused in the uniaxial anisotropy, Ku. The amount of elastic energy stored in the overlay is typically proportional to the product of the film stress

E. Klokholm; R. Anderson

1976-01-01

290

A new approach for overlay text detection and extraction from complex video scene.  

PubMed

Overlay text brings important semantic clues in video content analysis such as video information retrieval and summarization, since the content of the scene or the editor's intention can be well represented by using inserted text. Most of the previous approaches to extracting overlay text from videos are based on low-level features, such as edge, color, and texture information. However, existing methods experience difficulties in handling texts with various contrasts or inserted in a complex background. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to detect and extract the overlay text from the video scene. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background, a transition map is first generated. Then candidate regions are extracted by a reshaping method and the overlay text regions are determined based on the occurrence of overlay text in each candidate. The detected overlay text regions are localized accurately using the projection of overlay text pixels in the transition map and the text extraction is finally conducted. The proposed method is robust to different character size, position, contrast, and color. It is also language independent. Overlay text region update between frames is also employed to reduce the processing time. Experiments are performed on diverse videos to confirm the efficiency of the proposed method. PMID:19095537

Kim, Wonjun; Kim, Changick

2009-02-01

291

Improving Chinese Internet's Resilience through Degree Rank Based Overlay Relays Placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current interdomain routing protocol (BGP) used in the Internet tends to be restrictive limiting communication between source-destination pairs to one route, which may not fully utilize the potential Internet's connection redundancy. Although overlay routing could utilize redundant communication paths between endpoints to improve reliability and performance of the Internet, the studies of overlay network still suffer two handicaps: (i)

Bin Yuan; Guoqiang Zhang; Yanjun Li; Guoqing Zhang; Zhongcheng Li

2008-01-01

292

Private Funding of the Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workshop, concerning private funding for the arts, resulted from a previous research workshop (Munich, 1983) which had concluded that growth in public sector arts financing in Europe had ceased. A major conclusion of the 1985 workshop was that private funding had entered a high development phase, but participants were encouraged to develop…

Myerscough, John

1987-01-01

293

The ethics of going private  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze some of the ethical dimensions of going private transactions (GPTs), wherein publicly traded firms are taken private. Financial theory suggests that efficiencies may be realized in these transactions such that outside shareholders are made better off. Empirical evidence supports this theory. We therefore argue that GPTs are not inherently exploitive or unethical. The issues of

Douglas A. Houston; John S. Howe

1987-01-01

294

Private Education in Modern China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book uses primary sources and personal experience in the Chinese school system to examine the evolution of non-governmental schools in China between 1895 and 1995. The book gives an overview of private education in pre-modern China, and discusses the growth of modern private schools in the past century as part of the Chinese people's struggle…

Deng, Peng

295

Privatization of airports in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been claimed that Asia lags behind the rest of the world in the privatization of airports. At the same time, the air transport sector has been growing quickly and this has placed enormous pressure on airport infrastructure. This paper reviews the situation and finds that the private sector is involved extensively with new airports and the upgrading of

Paul Hooper

2002-01-01

296

Public Provision of Private Goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government may provide a good that can, if legally permitted, be supplemented by private purchases. Policy is determined by majority rule. Under standard assumptions on preferences, a majority voting equilibrium exists. A regime of positive government provision with no restriction on private supplements is shown to be majority preferred to a regime of either only market provision or only government

Dennis Epple; Richard E. Romano

1996-01-01

297

Private Schools in American Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vital, sometimes controversial contribution of private schools to American education is documented by data gathered from 1976 to 1979. Although the totals reported are estimates because many values had to be statistically imputed, many patterns emerge. The proportion of private schools to all schools has varied only slightly since 1932.…

Nehrt, Roy C.

298

Private Faith and Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Must faith be privatized? Taken at face value, this could seem a curious question, since no one is in a position to "sell off" any religion to private interests, in the way that, for example, British Rail was dismembered. Yet the question is an important one in a contemporary society, characterized as it is by a significant divergence of views…

Trigg, Roger

2008-01-01

299

Integrated production overlay field-by-field control for leading edge technology nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As photolithography will continue with 193nm immersion multiple patterning technologies for the leading edge HVM process node, the production overlay requirement for critical layers in logic devices has almost reached the scanner hardware performance limit. To meet the extreme overlay requirements in HVM production environment, this study investigates a new integrated overlay control concept for leading edge technology nodes that combines the run-to-run (R2R) linear or high order control loop, the periodic field-by-field or correction per exposure (CPE) wafer process signature control loop, and the scanner baseline control loop into a single integrated overlay control path through the fab host APC system. The goal is to meet the fab requirements for overlay performance, lower the cost of ownership, and provide freedom of control methodology. In this paper, a detailed implementation of this concept will be discussed, along with some preliminary results.

Chung, Woong Jae; Tristan, John; Gutjahr, Karsten; Subramany, Lokesh; Li, Chen; Sun, Yulei; Yelverton, Mark; Kim, Young Ki; Kim, Jeong Soo; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Pierson, William; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Riggs, Brent; Jug, Sven; Robinson, John C.; Yap, Lipkong; Ramanathan, Vidya

2014-04-01

300

Innovative techniques for improving overlay accuracy by using DCM (device correlated metrology) targets as reference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay metrology performance as Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), design rule compatibility, device correlation and measurement accuracy are been challenged at 2x nm node and below. Process impact on overlay metrology becoming critical, and techniques to improve measurement accuracy becomes increasingly important. In this paper, we present an innovative methodology for improving overlay accuracy. A propriety quality metric, Qmerit, is used to identify overlay metrology measurement settings with least process impacts and reliable accuracies. Using the quality metric, an innovative calibration method, ASC (Archer Self Calibration) is then used to remove the inaccuracies. Accuracy validation can be achieved by correlation to reference overlay data from another independent metrology source such as CDSEM data collected on DCM (Device Correlated Metrology) hybrid target or electrical testing. Additionally, reference metrology can also be used to verify which measurement conditions are the most accurate. In this paper we bring an example of such use case.

Tzai, Wei-Jhe; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Chen, Howard; Chen, Charlie; Pai, Yuan Chi; Yu, Chun-Chi; Lin, Chia Ching; Itzkovich, Tal; Yap, Lipkong; Amit, Eran; Tien, David; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

2014-04-01

301

The Effect of Attentiveness on Information Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a brief overview of a larger study on the impact of attentiveness, in addition to other factors related\\u000a to the human factors, on information security in both private and government organizations in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the\\u000a initial experiment was to sense the existence of attentiveness in relation to information security; the results were encouraging\\u000a enough

Adeeb M. Alhomoud

2010-01-01

302

How to Keep Your Health Information Private and Secure  

MedlinePLUS

... permanently. When Using Mobile Devices · Research mobile apps – software programs that perform one or more specific functions – ... functions you approve. · Consider installing or using encryption software for your device. Encryption software is now widely ...

303

Lipid adlayer organization mediated by a liquid overlayer.  

PubMed

We report on the formation of a chemically bound 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) monolayer on modified Au and silica surfaces, and changes in the organization of the interfacial lipid layer associated with immersion in aqueous solution. We have studied the interface using steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, water contact angle and optical ellipsometry measurements, and electrochemical methods. Our data reveal that the DMPC adlayer in contact with air forms a relatively well organized interface that mediates the rotational motion of perylene. In the presence of an aqueous overlayer, perylene reorientation becomes more rapid, consistent with a reduction in the organization of the interfacial lipid adlayer. One implication of this finding is that the interfacial adlayer is less than a uniform monolayer, which is confirmed by electrochemical data. Our data underscore the importance of water in mediating the organization of interfacial lipid adlayers. PMID:22995467

Baumler, S M; Blanchard, G J

2012-12-01

304

Pressure reduction with a hospitalized population using a mattress overlay.  

PubMed

Billions of dollars are spent each year on treating pressure ulcers. With healthcare costs climbing and reform the order of the day, it is essential for researchers to identify a device which reduces pressure, is easy to use and is cost effective. This study used a Mini-Tipe pressure sensor to measure pressure readings over the sacral and trochanter areas of 17 subjects identified as being at risk for skin breakdown. Pressures were compared on a standard hospital mattress and an anatomically contoured mattress overlay. There was a 48 percent reduction in mean pressures over the sacral area and a 23 percent reduction over the trochanter. No correlations between pressures and demographic data were identified. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of variables found in an "at risk" population on pressure reduction with various products. PMID:7779234

Suarez, C H; Reynolds, A

1995-01-01

305

AFM dissipation topography of soliton superstructures in adsorbed overlayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the atomic force microscope, the nanoscale force topography of even complex surface superstructures is extracted by the changing vibration frequency of a scanning tip. An alternative dissipation topography with similar or even better contrast has been demonstrated recently by mapping the (x,y) -dependent tip damping but the detailed damping mechanism is still unknown. Here we identify two different tip dissipation mechanisms: local mechanical softness and hysteresis. Motivated by recent data, we describe both of them in a one-dimensional model of Moiré superstructures of incommensurate overlayers. Local softness at “soliton” defects yields a dissipation contrast that can be much larger than the corresponding density or corrugation contrast. At realistically low vibration frequencies, however, a much stronger and more effective dissipation is caused by the tip-induced nonlinear jumping of the soliton, naturally developing bistability and hysteresis. Signatures of this mechanism are proposed for experimental identification.

Negri, Carlotta; Manini, Nicola; Vanossi, Andrea; Santoro, Giuseppe E.; Tosatti, Erio

2010-01-01

306

Private Information and Insurance Rejections  

PubMed Central

Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets.

Hendren, Nathaniel

2013-01-01

307

Future Internet Security Services Enabled by Sharing of Anonymized Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As security monitoring grows more complicated, there is an increased demand for outsourcing these tasks for to Managed Security Service Providers (MSSPs). However, the core problem of sharing private data creates a barrier to the widespread adoption of this business model. In this position paper we propose an anonymization solution that promotes sharing logs with MSSPs while simultaneously protecting privacy.

Jianqing Zhang; Nikita Borisov; William Yurcik; Adam J. Slagell; Matthew Smith

308

Harden Security of High-Risk and Critical Supply Chains  

SciTech Connect

This article focuses on the security risk in the container supply chain. It provides an overview of the technical and policy initiatives that are being implemented by international organizations, governments, and the private sector to enhance security in the container supply chain.

Harrison, Glen [ORNL

2009-01-01

309

Perfectly-Secure Key Distribution for Dynamic Conferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key distribution scheme for dynamic conferences is a method by which initiallyan (off-line) trusted server distributes private individual pieces of informationto a set of users. Later, each member of any group of users of a given size (a dynamicconference) can compute a common secure group key. In this paper westudy the theory and applications of such perfectly secure systems.

Carlo Blundo; Alfredo De Santis; Amir Herzberg Shay Kutten; Ugo Vaccaro

1993-01-01

310

MPC vs. SFE: Perfect Security in a Unified Corruption Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secure function evaluation (SFE) allows a set of players to compute an arbitrary agreed function of their private inputs, even if an adversary may corrupt some of the players. Secure multi-party computation (MPC) is a general- ization allowing to perform an arbitrary on-going (also called reactive or stateful) computation during which players can receive outputs and provide new inputs at

Zuzana Beerliová-trubíniová; Matthias Fitzi; Martin Hirt; Ueli M. Maurer; Vassilis Zikas

2008-01-01

311

Effect of etch pattern transfer on local overlay (OVL) margin in 28nm gate integration.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main process control challenges in logic process integration is the contact to gate overlay. Usual ways for overlay control are run to run corrections (high order process corrections) and scanner control (baseliner control loop) to keep overlay within the very tight ITRS specifications, i.e. 7nm mean+3sigma. It is known that process integration can lead to specific overlay distortion (CMP, thermal treatment etc…) which are usually partly handled by high order process corrections at scanner level. In addition, recently we have shown that etch process can also lead to local overlay distortions, especially at the wafer edge [1]. In this paper we look into another overlay distortion level which can happen during etch processes. We will show that resist cure steps during gate patterning affect lithography defined profiles leading to local pattern shifting. This so called gate shifting has been characterized by etch process partitioning during a typical high-K metal gate patterning with spinon carbon and Si-ARC lithography stack onto a high-K metal gate / poly-silicon / oxide hard mask stack. We will show that modifying the resist-cure / Si-ARC open chemistry strongly contributes to gate shifting reduction by an equivalent of 40% overlay margin reduction.

Ros, Onintza; Gouraud, Pascal; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Gardin, Christian; Ducoté, Julien; Pargon, Erwine

2014-03-01

312

Sequencing Social Security, Pension, and Insurance Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 1995The full benefits of social security reform will not be realized until social pension systems are restructured and downsized, contribution rates lowered, and the scope for private pension funds (voluntary or mandatory) increased. Reform of the insurance sector is also essential because of the close links between pensions and life, disability, and annuity insurance.For both economic and regulatory reasons,

Dimitri Vittas

1999-01-01

313

Efficient and Secure Authentication Protocol for VANET  

Microsoft Academic Search

VANET is very important for improving traffic safety and efficiency. So the messages in VANET must be trustworthy and disseminated very fast. In this paper, an efficient and secure scheme is proposed for VANET messages authentication, group signature is used for the messages from private vehicles and identity-based signature for public vehicles and RSU, further more, it employs batch message-processing

Hui Liu; Hui Li; Zhanxin Ma

2010-01-01

314

Discount Rate Heterogeneity and Social Security Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many countries consider the privatization of existing pay-as-you-go Social Security systems, the option to make participation in the new system voluntary may appeal to policy makers who need to obtain the political support of their workers. A critical issue in evaluating such a reform and its economic consequences is the unobserved heterogeneity in households' preferences for consumption. This paper

Andrew A. Samwick

1997-01-01

315

SCADA Security - Slowly Circling a Disaster Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) networks control much of the industrialised nations production and supply complexes. Various government reports and investigations have highlighted the vulnerability of these systems. Many of these systems are on private networks which are increasingly being connected to systems that are accessible from other networks such as the Internet. SCADA systems have unique security and

Craig Valli; Andrew Woodward

2009-01-01

316

Physical Security  

SciTech Connect

The future of physical security at government facilities and national laboratories is rapidly progressing beyond the cliché of gates, guns and guards, and is quickly being replaced by radars, sensors and cameras. Learn more about INL's security research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2008-01-01

317

Physical Security  

ScienceCinema

The future of physical security at government facilities and national laboratories is rapidly progressing beyond the cliché of gates, guns and guards, and is quickly being replaced by radars, sensors and cameras. Learn more about INL's security research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

318

Information Security  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This security course covers 4 main topics: Cryptography, Access Control, Protocols and Software. The focus is hands-on practice by tackling real-world examples. While not sidestepping the theory, the emphasis is on developing the skills and knowledge that security and information technology students need to face their challenges.

Stamp, Mark

2009-02-17

319

Monitoring process-induced overlay errors through high-resolution wafer geometry measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling overlay errors resulting from wafer processing, such as film deposition, is essential for meeting overlay budgets in future generations of devices. Out-of-plane distortions induced on the wafer due to processing are often monitored through high-resolution wafer geometry measurements. While such wafer geometry measurements provide information about the wafer distortion, mechanics models are required to connect such measurements to overlay errors, which result from in-plane distortions. The aim of this paper is to establish fundamental connections between the out-ofplane distortions that are characterized in wafer geometry measurements and the in-plane distortions on the wafer surface that lead to overlay errors. First, an analytical mechanics model is presented to provide insight into the connection between changes in wafer geometry and overlay. The analytical model demonstrates that the local slope of the change in wafer shape induced by the deposition of a residually stressed film is related to the induced overlay for simple geometries. Finite element modeling is then used to consider realistic wafer geometries and assess correlations between the local slope of the wafer shape change induced by the deposition of a stressed film and overlay. As established previously, overlay errors only result when the stresses in the film are non-uniform, thus the finite element study considers wafers with several different nonuniform residual stress distributions. Correlation between overlay and a metric based on a corrected wafer slope map is examined. The results of the modeling and simulations are discussed and compared to recently published experimental results.

Turner, K. T.; Vukkadala, P.; Veeraraghavan, S.; Sinha, J. K.

2014-04-01

320

Using intrafield high-order correction to achieve overlay requirement beyond sub-40nm node  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay requirements for semiconductor devices are getting more demanding as the design rule shrinks. According to ITRS expectation[1], on product overlay budget is less than 8nm for the DRAM 40nm technology node. In order to meet this requirement, all overlay error sources have to be analyzed and controlled which include systematic, random, even intrafield high order errors. In this paper, we studied the possibility of achieving <7nm overlay control in mass production by using CPE, Correction Per Exposure mode, and Intra-field high order correction (i-HOPC). CPE is one of the functions in GridMapper package, which is a method to apply correction for each exposure to compensate both systematic and random overlay errors. If the intra-field overlay shows a non-linear fingerprint, e.g. due to either wafer processing or reticle pattern placement errors, the intra-field High Order Process Correction(iHOPC) provided by ASML can be used to compensate for this error . We performed the experiments on an immersion tool which has the GridMapper functionality. In our experiment, the previous layer was exposed on a dry machine. The wet to dry matching represent a more realistic scanner usage in the fab enviroment. Thus, the results contained the additional contribution of immersion-to-dry matched machine overlay. Our test result shows that the overlay can be improved by 70%, and the mean+3sigma of full wafer measurement can achieve near the range of 6 to 5nm. In this paper we also discuss the capability of implementation of CPE in the mass production environment since CPE requires additional wafer mearurement to create the proper overlay correction.

Huang, Chun Yen; Chue, Chuei Fu; Liu, An-Hsiung; Wu, Wen Bin; Shih, Chiang Lin; Chiou, Tsann-Bim; Lee, Juno; Chen, Owen; Chen, Alek

2009-03-01

321

Inviting In the Private Sector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report concerns efforts to fight global corruption. One part of the unfinished agenda in the international fight against corruption is how to invite in the private sector. After all, corruption does not just involve government. Business people and la...

R. Klitgaard

2002-01-01

322

Prosthodontic management of worn dentition in pediatric patient with complete overlay dentures: a case report.  

PubMed

Overlay complete dentures are simple, reversible and economical treatment modality for patients with congenital or acquired disorders that severely affect the tooth development. It satisfies both the esthetic and functional demands where the extraction of teeth is not generally indicated. In pediatric patients, the overlay dentures establish a relatively stable occlusion that improves patient's tolerance to the future treatment procedures for worn dentition. This clinical report highlights the imperative need of appropriate treatment strategy and application of maxillary and mandibular overlay dentures in a pediatric patient who suffered from congenitally mutilated and worn dentition. PMID:23236577

Kumar, Prince; Rastogi, Jyoti; Jain, Chandni; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

2012-11-01

323

Prosthodontic management of worn dentition in pediatric patient with complete overlay dentures: a case report  

PubMed Central

Overlay complete dentures are simple, reversible and economical treatment modality for patients with congenital or acquired disorders that severely affect the tooth development. It satisfies both the esthetic and functional demands where the extraction of teeth is not generally indicated. In pediatric patients, the overlay dentures establish a relatively stable occlusion that improves patient's tolerance to the future treatment procedures for worn dentition. This clinical report highlights the imperative need of appropriate treatment strategy and application of maxillary and mandibular overlay dentures in a pediatric patient who suffered from congenitally mutilated and worn dentition.

Rastogi, Jyoti; Jain, Chandni; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

2012-01-01

324

The performances of different overlay mark types at 65nm node on 300-mm wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing factories have measured overlay with conventional "box-in-box" (BiB) or "frame-in-frame" (FiF) structures for many years. Since UMC played as a roll of world class IC foundry service provider, tighter and tighter alignment accuracy specs need to be achieved from generation to generation to meet any kind of customers' requirement, especially according to International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) 2003 METROLOGY section1. The process noises resulting from dishing, overlay mark damaging by chemical mechanism polishing (CMP), and the variation of film thickness during deposition are factors which can be very problematic in mark alignment. For example, the conventional "box-in-box" overlay marks could be damaged easily by CMP, because the less local pattern density and wide feature width of the box induce either dishing or asymmetric damages for the measurement targets, which will make the overlay measurement varied and difficult. After Advanced Imaging Metrology (AIM) overlay targets was introduced by KLA-Tencor, studies in the past shown AIM was more robust in overlay metrology than conventional FiF or BiB targets. In this study, the applications of AIM overlay marks under different process conditions will be discussed and compared with the conventional overlay targets. To evaluate the overlay mark performance against process variation on 65nm technology node in 300-mm wafer, three critical layers were chosen in this study. These three layers were Poly, Contact, and Cu-Metal. The overlay targets used for performance comparison were BiB and Non-Segmented AIM (NS AIM) marks. We compared the overlay mark performance on two main areas. The first one was total measurement uncertainty (TMU)3 related items that include Tool Induced Shift (TIS) variability, precision, and matching. The other area is the target robustness against process variations. Based on the present study AIM mark demonstrated an equal or better performance in the TMU related items under our process conditions. However, when non-optimized tungsten CMP was introduced in the tungsten contact process, due to the dense grating line structure design, we found that AIM mark was much more robust than BiB overlay target.

Tseng, H. T.; Lin, Ling-Chieh; Huang, I. H.; Lin, Benjamin S.; Huang, Chin-Chou K.; Huang, Chien-Jen

2005-05-01

325

Secure end-to-end mobile payment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a secure end-to-end mobile payment system that allows performing secure end-to-end payment transaction using mobile devices. This system does not apply public key encryption as other existing systems, only message digests and private key cryptographic techniques are used which helps reduce computations for all relevant parties but still ensures all criteria of end-to-end security property. With this

T. N. T. Nguyen; P. Shum; E. H. Chua

2005-01-01

326

Secure Information Flow and Pointer Confinement in a Java-like Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a sequential object-oriented language with pointers and mutable state, private fields and class- based visibility, dynamic binding and inheritance, recur- sive classes, casts and type tests, and recursive methods. Programs are annotated with security levels, constrained by security typing rules. A noninterference theorem shows how the rules ensure pointer confinement and secure infor- mation flow.

Anindya Banerjee; David A. Naumann

2002-01-01

327

CASSIS - Computer-based Academy for Security and Safety in Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information technologies and society are highly interwoven nowadays, but in both, the private and business sector, users are often not aware of security issues or lack proper security skills. The branch of information technology security is growing constantly but attacks against the vocational sector as well as the personal sector still cause great losses each day. Considering that the end-user

Gernot Goluch; Andreas Ekelhart; Stefan Fenz; Stefan Jakoubi; Bernhard Riedl; Simon Tjoa

2007-01-01

328

SECURITY PATTERNS AND SECURITY STANDARDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security should be a mandatory feature of any distributed business application. Nevertheless we can observe that we are far away from an acceptable security level: the same errors are made over and over again. Typical examples are buffer overflows or default passwords. Whereas there are mechanical aids to detect cod-ing errors, there is no such a thing for design errors,

Markus Schumacher

2003-01-01

329

Secure Objectives for School Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

Dalton-Noblitt, April

2012-01-01

330

Security Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeastern State University at Tahlequah introduces security personnel to a vast collection of recourses appropriate for almost any situation. Among their valuable list of legal and expert guidelines are suggestions for working with people with special needs, fire, airport security, terrorism, floods, loss prevention, mountain rescue, safety, and workplace violence. The advice on searching and monitoring is particularly tactful yet thorough. This comprehensive and diverse collection would enable anyone to protect a home, office space, or larger institution, and will even improve the skills of security personnel with years of experience.

Eveskracht, Charles L.

2007-07-13

331

Crosstie Overlay Slow-Wave Structure for Broadbrand Traveling-Wave Type Electro-Optical Modulators,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, a new crosstie overlay slow-wave structure is proposed for wideband traveling-wave type optical modulators. The simultaneous matching of phase velocity and impedance has been successfully achieved through the numerical analysis of the slow-...

H.-Y. Lee T. H. Wang T. Itoh

1988-01-01

332

In-depth overlay contribution analysis of a poly-layer reticle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wafer overlay is one of the key challenges for lithography in semiconductor device manufacturing, this becomes increasingly challenging following the shrinking of the device node. Some of Low k1 techniques, such as Double Exposure add additional burden to the overlay margin because on most critical layers the pattern is created based on exposures of 2 critical masks. Besides impact on overlay performance, any displacement between those two exposures leads to a significant impact on space CD uniformity performance as well. Mask registration is considered a major contributor to within-field wafer overlay. We investigated in-die registration performance on a critical poly-layer reticle in-depth, applying adaptive metrology rules, We used Thin-Plate-Splinefit (TPS) and Fourier analysis techniques for data analysis. Several systematic error components were observed, demonstrating the value of higher sampling to control mask registration performance.

Laske, Frank; Whittey, J.; Roeth, K.-D.; McCormack, J.; Adam, D.; Bender, J.; Berglund, C. N.; Takac, M.; Chou, Seurien

2010-03-01

333

Interface effect for EPES sampling depth for overlayer/substrate systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We found that the interface effects for the sampling depth of elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) for the overlayer/substrate system, first noticed by Zommer and Jablonski for the Rh/Al and Au/Ni systems, differ profoundly in their magnitude and dependence on the overlayer thickness when the overlayer and substrate materials are swapped. Monte Carlo calculations performed for the Al/Rh and Ni/Au systems show that their sampling depths, in contrary to the Rh/Al and Au/Ni, can be substantially greater than those of the elements constituting the respective system. The magnitude of the interface effect increases with the energy of the primary electron beam. It is interesting to mention that the sampling depth can be equivocal for a system with overlayer.

Zommer, L.

2006-10-01

334

Development of an Improved Overlay Design Procedure for the State of Alaska. Volume 2. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The state of Alaska is currently developing a pavement management system for their road system. An important input to the system is the determination of flexible overlays based on the structural adequacy of the existing pavement. An improved procedure tha...

M. Yapp R. G. Hicks B. Connor

1987-01-01

335

Development of an Improved Overlay Design Procedure for the State of Alaska. Volume 1. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The state of Alaska is currently developing a pavement management system for their road system. An important input to the system is the determination of flexible overlays based on the structural adequacy of the existing pavement. An improved procedure tha...

M. Yapp R. G. Hicks B. Connor

1987-01-01

336

Characterisation of hydrocarbonaceous overlayers important in metal-catalysed selective hydrogenation reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrogenation of alkynes to alkenes over supported metal catalysts is an important industrial process and it has been shown that hydrocarbonaceous overlayers are important in controlling selectivity profiles of metal-catalysed hydrogenation reactions. As a model system, we have selected propyne hydrogenation over a commercial Pd(5%)/Al2O3 catalyst. Inelastic neutron scattering studies show that the C–H stretching mode ranges from 2850 to 3063 cm?1, indicating the mostly aliphatic nature of the overlayer and this is supported by the quantification of the carbon and hydrogen on the surface. There is also a population of strongly hydrogen-bonded hydroxyls, their presence would indicate that the overlayer probably contains some oxygen functionality. There is little evidence for any olefinic or aromatic species. This is distinctly different from the hydrogen-poor overlayers that are deposited on Ni/Al2O3 catalysts during methane reforming.

Lennon, David; Warringham, Robbie; Guidi, Tatiana; Parker, Stewart F.

2013-12-01

337

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1993--March 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve weld overlay hardfacing alloys have been selected for preliminary erosion testing based on a literature review These alloys have been separated into three major groups: (1) Cobalt containing alloys, (2) Nickel-base alloys, (3) Iron base alloys. The...

B. F. Levin J. N. Dupont A. R. Marder

1993-01-01

338

Bond Characteristics of Overlays Placed over Bridge Decks Sealed with HMWM or Epoxy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reported research examines the bond strength between overlays placed over bridge decks which are sealed with epoxy resin or high molecular weight methacrylate (HMWM) sealers. The study involved field and laboraotry experimental testing of cores under ...

B. M. Shahrooz A. J. Gillum J. Cole A. Turer

1998-01-01

339

Student Housing: Is It Time To Privatize?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the issue of university-owned and managed student housing and how to decide whether to shift to privatization. How privatization works, identification of current and future student housing needs, the cost of privatization, and issues to consider when privatization is pursued are examined. (GR)

Yeatts, G. Dewey

2001-01-01

340

The "Decline" of Private Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No topic in private higher education study has attracted as great attention globally as has growth. This is appropriate as private growth has soared to nearly a third of the world's total higher education enrolment. But while private growth continues to be the dominant trend, important declines in private shares have emerged. These must be…

Levy, Daniel C.

2013-01-01

341

How To Pick a Perfect Private School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers consumer information for parents who are considering enrolling their child in a private school. Beginning with a descriptive overview of private schools, the guide discusses advantages of private schools, how to finance a private school education, and how to determine a child's educational needs. The book offers criteria for…

Unger, Harlow G.

342

An Analysis of Private School Closings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We add to the small literature on private school supply by exploring exits of K-12 private schools. We find that the closure of private schools is not an infrequent event and use national survey data from the National Center for Education Statistics to study closures of private schools. We assume that the probability of an exit is a function of…

Pandey, Lakshmi; Sjoquist, David L.; Walker, Mary Beth

2009-01-01

343

VCSELs with nematic and cholesteric liquid crystal overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study theoretically the spectral and polarization threshold characteristics of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with nematic and cholesteric liquid crystal overlay: LC-VCSELs. In the first case, we demonstrate the possibility of selecting between two orthogonal directions of linear polarization (LP) of the fundamental mode (x or y LP) by choosing appropriate NLC length and to achieve strong polarization discrimination: threshold gain difference as large as several times the threshold gain. We also demonstrate an active control of light polarization by electro-optically tuning the LC director and show that either polarization switching between x and y LP modes or continuous change of the LP direction is possible. For cholesteric LC-VCSEL we show that it becomes a coupled system with different spectral, threshold and polarization characteristics than the ones of the stand-alone VCSEL. Due to the existence of a band gap for circularly polarized light in the liquid crystal, lasing occurs in almost circularly polarized modes at the LC side.

Panajotov, K.; Dems, M.; Belmonte, C.; Thienpont, H.; Xie, Y.; Beeckman, J.; Neyts, K.

2013-03-01

344

Deployable Overlay Network for Defense against Distributed SYN Flood Attacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers have recently become more serious. Most of them are SYN flood attacks, since the malicious attackers can easily exploit the TCP specification to generate traffic making public servers unavailable. We need a defense method which can protect legitimate traffic so that end users can connect the target servers during such attacks. In this paper, we propose a new framework, in which all of the TCP connections to the victim servers from a domain are maintained at the gateways of the domain (i. e., near the clients). We call the nodes maintaining the TCP connection defense nodes. The defense nodes check whether arriving packets are legitimate or not by maintaining the TCP connection. That is, the defense nodes delegate reply packets to the received connection request packets and identify the legitimate packets by checking whether the clients reply to the reply packets. Then, only identified traffic are relayed via overlay networks. As a result, by deploying the defense nodes at the gateways of a domain, the legitimate packets from the domain are relayed apart from other packets including attack packets and protected. Our simulation results show that our method can protect legitimate traffic from the domain deploying our method. We also describe the deployment scenario of our defense mechanism.

Ohsita, Yuichi; Ata, Shingo; Murata, Masayuki

345

Ultrasonic Evaluation of Two Dissimilar Metal Weld Overlay Specimens  

SciTech Connect

Two dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe-to-nozzle specimens were implanted with thermal fatigue cracks in the 13% to 90% through-wall depth range. The specimens were ultrasonically evaluated with phased-array probes having center frequencies of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 megahertz (MHz). An Alloy 82/182 weld overlay (WOL) was applied and the specimens were ultrasonically re-evaluated for flaw detection and characterization. The Post-WOL flaw depths were approximately 10% to 56% through-wall. This study has shown the effectiveness of ultrasonic examinations of Alloy 82/182 overlaid DMW specimens. Phased-array probes with center frequency in the 0.8- to 1.0-MHz range provide a strong coherent signal but the greater ultrasonic wavelength and larger beam spot size prevent the reliable detection of small flaws. These small flaws had nominal through-wall depths of less than 15% and length in the 50-60 mm (2-2.4 in.) range. Flaws in the 19% and greater through-wall depth range were readily detected with all four probes. At the higher frequencies, the reflected signals are less coherent but still provide adequate signal for flaw detection and characterization. A single inspection at 2.0 MHz could provide adequate detection and sizing information but a supplemental inspection at 1.0 or 1.5 MHz is recommended.

Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

2012-06-30

346

Energy Security  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson plan on US energy security and independence. Teaches different ways to reduce American dependence on foreign sources of energy, focusing on the plans offered by both Democratic and Republican politicians.

Institute, Levin

347

Tree-Based Analysis of Mesh Overlays for Peer-to-Peer Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesh-based P2P streaming approaches have been recently proposed as an interesting alternative to tree-based approaches. However,\\u000a many properties of mesh overlays remain little understood as they are difficult to study due to the lack of a predefined structure.\\u000a In this paper we show that when data is streamed through mesh overlays, it follows tree-based diffusion patterns and thereby\\u000a mesh-based streaming

Bartosz Biskupski; Marc Schiely; Pascal Felber; René Meier

2008-01-01

348

Contribution-aware overlay optimization for mesh-based live streaming system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesh-based peer-to-peer (P2P) streaming has proven to be a robust and scalable way for delivering live video streams over the Internet. In this paper, we study how to optimize overlay in a contribution aware manner. We have designed a suite of protocols to construct and optimize the overlay. Our core idea is to promote nodes with larger contribution closer to

Hao Chen; Chao Liu; Dejian Ye

2009-01-01

349

Residual stress determination in a dissimilar weld overlay pipe by neutron diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of

Wanchuck Woo; Vyacheslav Em; Camden R. Hubbard; Ho-Jin Lee; Kwang Soo Park

2011-01-01

350

Residual stress determination in an overlay dissimilar welded pipe by neutron diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of

Wan Chuck Woo; Vyacheslav Em; Camden R Hubbard; Ho-Jin Lee; Kwang Soo Park

2011-01-01

351

Structure analysis of Ag overlayers on Si(111) by low-energy Li + ion scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structures of various Ag overlayers on the Si(111) surface have been analyzed by impact-collision ion scattering spectroscopy (ICISS) using a beam of Li + ions of ? 1 keV. The Ag overlayers include (i) Ag crystallites deposited at room temperature, (ii) Ag atoms at the Si(111)-(?3×?3)Ag surface, (iii) Ag atoms at the Si(111)-(3×1)Ag surface, and (iv) a (111) epitaxial film of Ag with a thickness of ? 20 Å.

Aono, M.; Souda, R.; Oshima, C.; Ishizawa, Y.

1986-03-01

352

VegaNet: A peer-to-peer overlay network for mobile social applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of social relationships, cellular phones and their contacts construct a social network by nature. In this paper, we propose VegaNet, a peer-to-peer overlay network enhancing the performance and reliability of DHT routing using social links. The nodes in VegaNet are identified by the users' social identity, and it is structured by underlying DHT overlay exploiting social identities

Joonhyun Bae; Seunghun Lee; Sangwook Kim

2009-01-01

353

QoS-Aware Voice-Over-IP Conferencing Service using Composable Service Overlay Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Internet evolves into a service delivery infrastructure, IP telephony has become feasible and will be expected to meet the toll quality of traditional telephone service. In this paper, we present Venus, a novel VoIP conferencing system with quality-of-service (QoS) management. Venus is con- structed as an application-level service overlay network, where each overlay node provides voice mixing service as

Xiaohui Guy; Zon-Yin Shaez; Rong N. Chang; Klara Nahrstedt

354

Understanding the Impact of Overlay Topologies on Peer-to-Peer Worm Propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing popularity of peer-to-peer (P2P) systems provides an ideal venue for worm propagation. As a kind of topological worms, the propagation of P2P worms is tightly related with the overlay topology of the P2P system. Therefore, understanding the relationship between the P2P worm propagation and the overlay topologies is very important. In this paper, through simulation, incorporated with classical

Xiaofeng Nie; Yuewu Wang; Jiwu Jing; Qi Liu

2008-01-01

355

Structural study of the submonolayer phases of potassium overlayers on Ni(100)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-energy electron-diffraction measurements from potassium overlayers on Ni(100) indicate that there are several submonolayer phases for K\\/Ni(100) below room temperature. Two commensurate solid phases are formed: a c(4×2) at coverage =0.25 and a (21 05\\/3) phase at a coverage of 0.30. In the coverage range 0.25-0.32, the overlayer undergoes a uniaxial compression, with the potassium adatoms remaining commensurate in the

David Fisher; Renee D. Diehl

1992-01-01

356

SkipNet: A Scalable Overlay Network with Practical Locality Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalable overlay networks such as Chord, CAN, Pastry, and Tapestry have recently emerged as flex- ible infrastructure for building large peer-to-peer sys- tems. In practice, such systems have two disadvantages: They provide no control over where data is stored and no guarantee that routing paths remain within an ad- ministrative domain whenever possible. SkipNet is a scalable overlay network that

Nicholas J. A. Harvey; Michael B. Jones; Stefan Saroiu; Marvin Theimer; Alec Wolman

2003-01-01

357

A Dynamic Skip List-Based Overlay for On-Demand Media Streaming with VCR Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media distribution through application-layer overlay networks has received considerable attention re- cently, owing to its flexible and readily deployable nature. On-demand streaming with asynchronous requests, and in general, with VCR-like interactions, nevertheless remains a challenging task in overlay networks. In this paper, we in- troduce the Dynamic Skip List (DSL), a novel randomized and distributed structure with inherent ability to

Dan Wang; Jiangchuan Liu

2008-01-01

358

On cooperative and efficient overlay network evolution based on a group selection pattern.  

PubMed

In overlay networks, the interplay between network structure and dynamics remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we study dynamic coevolution between individual rational strategies (cooperative or defect) and the overlay network structure, that is, the interaction between peer's local rational behaviors and the emergence of the whole network structure. We propose an evolutionary game theory (EGT)-based overlay topology evolution scheme to drive a given overlay into the small-world structure (high global network efficiency and average clustering coefficient). Our contributions are the following threefold: From the viewpoint of peers' local interactions, we explicitly consider the peer's rational behavior and introduce a link-formation game to characterize the social dilemma of forming links in an overlay network. Furthermore, in the evolutionary link-formation phase, we adopt a simple economic process: Each peer keeps one link to a cooperative neighbor in its neighborhood, which can slightly speed up the convergence of cooperation and increase network efficiency; from the viewpoint of the whole network structure, our simulation results show that the EGT-based scheme can drive an arbitrary overlay network into a fully cooperative and efficient small-world structure. Moreover, we compare our scheme with a search-based economic model of network formation and illustrate that our scheme can achieve the experimental and analytical results in the latter model. In addition, we also graphically illustrate the final overlay network structure; finally, based on the group selection model and evolutionary set theory, we theoretically obtain the approximate threshold of cost and draw the conclusion that the small value of the average degree and the large number of the total peers in an overlay network facilitate the evolution of cooperation. PMID:20199937

Wang, Yufeng; Nakao, Akihiro

2010-06-01

359

On cooperative and efficient overlay network evolution based on a group selection pattern.  

PubMed

In overlay networks, the interplay between network structure and dynamics remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we study dynamic coevolution between individual rational strategies (cooperative or defect) and the overlay network structure, that is, the interaction between peer's local rational behaviors and the emergence of the whole network structure. We propose an evolutionary game theory (EGT)-based overlay topology evolution scheme to drive a given overlay into the small-world structure (high global network efficiency and average clustering coefficient). Our contributions are the following threefold: From the viewpoint of peers' local interactions, we explicitly consider the peer's rational behavior and introduce a link-formation game to characterize the social dilemma of forming links in an overlay network. Furthermore, in the evolutionary link-formation phase, we adopt a simple economic process: Each peer keeps one link to a cooperative neighbor in its neighborhood, which can slightly speed up the convergence of cooperation and increase network efficiency; from the viewpoint of the whole network structure, our simulation results show that the EGT-based scheme can drive an arbitrary overlay network into a fully cooperative and efficient small-world structure. Moreover, we compare our scheme with a search-based economic model of network formation and illustrate that our scheme can achieve the experimental and analytical results in the latter model. In addition, we also graphically illustrate the final overlay network structure; finally, based on the group selection model and evolutionary set theory, we theoretically obtain the approximate threshold of cost and draw the conclusion that the small value of the average degree and the large number of the total peers in an overlay network facilitate the evolution of cooperation. PMID:19726264

Nakao, Akihiro; Wang, Yufeng

2010-04-01

360

As privatization of libraries continues, some grow concerned  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

San Joaquin County to consider privatizing librarieshttp://www.lodinews.com/news/article_14f6af7a-9175-549a-bb11-bb28778d8252.htmlShould public libraries be put in private hands?http://www.scpr.org/programs/patt-morrison/2010/09/27/privatization-of-libraries/Library Systems & Serviceshttp://www.lssi.com/Carnegie Libraries: The Future Made Brighthttp://www.nps.gov/history/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/50carnegie/50carnegie.htmBoston Athenaeumhttp://www.bostonathenaeum.org/Public-private partnerships in cities are nothing new, and many cities and political units have had experiences with partial or complete privatization of various services over the years. A recent wrinkle in this process is raising eyebrows across the country, as a number of public libraries in cities with struggling economies have been taken over by the Library Systems & Services (LSSI) company. Recently, the company was approached with and accepted an offer to run the libraries in the city of Santa Clarita, California for $4 million, a city that is relatively healthy economically. The company claims that they are able to reign in costs, and in an interview with the New York Times, their chief executive, Frank A. Pezzanite, noted, "A lot of libraries are atrocious. Their policies are all about job security. That is why the profession is nervous about us." Obviously, there are many people who are incensed by Pezzanite's comments and his approach to management, and a number of library employees are quite upset about the terms of the company's contract. Others believe that libraries are a public service that is too important to be handed over to a private, profit-driven company. It remains to be seen whether this trend will continue, but for now the number of libraries managed by LSSI constitute the country's fifth-largest library system.The first link will take users to an article from this Monday's New York Times about this recent library privatization in California. The second link leads to a recent piece in the Lodi News-Sentinel about the proposed privatization of libraries in San Joaquin County. Moving on, the third link leads to a conversation about the privatization of public libraries recently featured on Southern California Public Radio. The fourth link whisks users away to the homepage of LSSI. The fifth link leads to a lovely set of educational resources about the Carnegie libraries in the United States, courtesy of the National Park Service's Teaching with Historic Places Lesson Plans program. The final link leads to the homepage of the Boston Athenaeum, which is a different type of membership library entirely, founded in 1807.

Grinnell, Max

2010-10-01

361

Analysis of overlay errors induced by exposure energy in negative tone development process for photolithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Negative tone development (NTD) process with positive resist and organic solvent-based developer enhances image contrast and uses a light-field mask to make same feature in opposition to positive tone development (PTD). Due to extremely high transmission rate of a light-field mask, absorption of exposure energy on a mask becomes imperceptible. However, the exposure energy transmitted through the mask influences not only lens heating but also wafer heating. Overlay budget by wafer heating becomes a considerable amount in NTD process. In this paper, to clarify overlay change induced by wafer heating in NTD process, four different levels of exposure energy are applied and the overlay errors are deteriorated by increasing energy. Due to wafer heating, the remarkable correlation between Y-overlay errors and scanning direction are observed. Especially, Ty, RK8, and RK12 have mostly considerable correlation with scanning direction. In NTD process, to avoid this phenomenon, exposure energy has to be minimized. In case scanning direction dependency in overlay is not prevented by minimization of exposure energy, fingerprint correction in wafer field is able to reduce this overlay error.

Kim, Young Ha; Kim, Jang-Sun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Cho, Byeong-Ok; Choi, Jinphil; Kang, Young Seog; Ha, Hunhwan

2014-03-01

362

Assessment and prediction of drying shrinkage cracking in bonded mortar overlays  

SciTech Connect

Restrained drying shrinkage cracking was investigated on composite beams consisting of substrate concrete and bonded mortar overlays, and compared to the performance of the same mortars when subjected to the ring test. Stress development and cracking in the composite specimens were analytically modeled and predicted based on the measurement of relevant time-dependent material properties such as drying shrinkage, elastic modulus, tensile relaxation and tensile strength. Overlay cracking in the composite beams could be very well predicted with the analytical model. The ring test provided a useful qualitative comparison of the cracking performance of the mortars. The duration of curing was found to only have a minor influence on crack development. This was ascribed to the fact that prolonged curing has a beneficial effect on tensile strength at the onset of stress development, but is in the same time not beneficial to the values of tensile relaxation and elastic modulus. -- Highlights: •Parameter study on material characteristics influencing overlay cracking. •Analytical model gives good quantitative indication of overlay cracking. •Ring test presents good qualitative indication of overlay cracking. •Curing duration has little effect on overlay cracking.

Beushausen, Hans, E-mail: hans.beushausen@uct.ac.za; Chilwesa, Masuzyo

2013-11-15

363

Small private key MQPKS on an embedded microprocessor.  

PubMed

Multivariate quadratic (MQ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key MQ scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing MQ on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key MQ scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

2014-01-01

364

Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor  

PubMed Central

Multivariate quadratic ( ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012.

Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

2014-01-01

365

By Private Arrangement? Safeguarding the Welfare of Private Foster Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key characteristic of debates on caring for children has been the distinction made between the public and the private or formal and informal sector of care. In particular, the impact on adult relationships of the material, emotional and moral dimensions of this division has been highlighted. What are the implications for children, however, of…

Bostock, Lisa

2004-01-01

366

Public Schools, Private Markets: A Reporter's Guide to Privatization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More and more, private for-profit and non-profit organizations are involved in schools. No longer limited to support services like transportation and food services, companies are providing tutoring, directing classroom instruction and managing public and charter schools. School reform has raised the stakes for schools and students, asking for…

Elliott, Scott

2005-01-01

367

WebAssistant Private 2004  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Web Assistant Private 2004 gives users the ability to archive all websites of note offline, something that will come in handy for those looking to peruse any number of websites when they are unavailable to connect to the Internet. Some of the features of the application include a hierarchical archive structure that represents a mirror of every website, topic-specific archiving of webpages, and the filtration of unwanted material from each site. This version of Web Assistant Private 2004 is compatible with all systems running Windows 95 and higher.

368

A Social Infrastructure for Hometown Security: Advancing the Homeland Security Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States, through a concerted national effort that galvanizes the strengths and capabilities of Federal, State, local, and Tribal governments; the private and non- profit sectors; and regions, communities, and individual citizens - along with our partners in the international community - will work to achieve a secure Homeland that sustains our way of life as a free, prosperous,

Robert Bach; David J. Kaufman

369

Investigation of Parameters Affecting the Interface Bonding of Thin Concrete Overlays Due to Vehicular Vibration. Effects of Vehicular Vibration on Debonding and Delamination of Concrete Overlays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research is a further study of parameters affecting the interface bonding of thin concrete overlays. The specimens were tested in the flexural mode, while in the previous study, the direct shear test was applied to the specimens. The parameters inves...

J. S. Makahaube S. Nazarian D. B. Rozendal

1993-01-01

370

Second Line of Defense Virtual Private Network Guidance for Deployed and New CAS Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the importance of remote access via virtual private network (VPN) for the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Central Alarm System (CAS) sites, the requirements for maintaining secure channels while using VPN and implementation requirements for current and future sites.

Singh, Surya V.; Thronas, Aaron I.

2010-01-01

371

Implementation of a computerized cardiovascular information system in a private hospital setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The use of clinical databases improves quality of care, reduces operating costs, helps secure managed care contracts, and assists in clinical research. Because of the large physician input required to maintain these systems, private institutions have often found them difficult to implement. At LDS Hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah, we developed a cardiovascular information system (LDS-CIS) patterned after

Gregory S. Taylor; Joseph B. Muhlestein; Galen S. Wagner; Tami L. Bair; Patty Li; Jeffrey L. Anderson

1998-01-01

372

Private Education in Chile under the Military Regime (1973-1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the development of private education in Chile since the military coup of 1973, in the context of the military regime's neoconservative political and ideological aims. Despite these professed aims, copious evidence is presented to suggest that the need of an authoritarian state to maintain "national security" by suppressing all…

Magendzo, Abraham; And Others

373

Public-Private Manpower Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book deals with the question of identifying the optimal mix between public and private programs and provides some guides concerning the appropriate role of government in the manpower area. There is a need for public manpower programs which give some long range direction to manpower policies and which give continuing emphasis to the…

Weber, Arnold R., Ed.; And Others

374

Private Supply of Fiat Money  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of whether private money is viable in the absence of any external control is an old one. We address it in an economy with decentralized trade and information where a self-interested agent, the bank, has the monopoly over the provision of fiat money and is not limited on how much it can issue over time. The assumption of

Luis Araujo; Braz Camargoz

375

Trusteeship in the Private College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The function of trustees is discussed, based on in-depth interviews with trustees and presidents of 10 private liberal arts colleges. After a brief overview of the trustee mandate and role and of recent attempts to redefine that role, major models of campus governance are summarized. In considering how boards diminish the presidency, attention is…

Wood, Miriam Mason

376

What Can We Learn Privately?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning problems form an important category of com- putational tasks that generalizes many of the computations researchers apply to large real-life data sets. We ask: what concept classes can be learned privately, namely, by an al- gorithm whose output does not depend too heavily on any one input or specific training example? More precisely, we investigate learning algorithms that satisfydifferential

Shiva Prasad Kasiviswanathan; Homin K. Lee; Kobbi Nissim; Sofya Raskhodnikova; Adam Smith

2008-01-01

377

Michigan School Privatization Survey 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From April 25 through June 30, 2007, the Mackinac Center for Public Policy conducted its fifth survey of the privatization of bus, food and janitorial services among Michigan's 552 conventional public school districts. All Michigan school districts responded. In 2007, the Mackinac Center also conducted a nationwide survey of state education…

Smith, Daniel J.; LaFaive, Michael D.

2007-01-01

378

View from a Private School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counters Jonathan Kozol's concerns about educational vouchers, insisting that $2,500 could buy a quality private school education in Montgomery, Alabama. Critiques other voucher articles in the November 1992 "Educational Leadership" issue by challenging Alex Molnar's common school system concept and Arnold Fege's substitution of societal consensus…

Doyle, Tom

1993-01-01

379

Public vs. Private (and beyond)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different types of schools make for different experiences. Pros and cons abound, whether one teaches at a public, private, magnet, or charter school. Although it's certainly true that some individual schools may offer better environments for music education than others, no type of school is categorically the "best." Still, it can be instructive to…

Poliniak, Susan

2012-01-01

380

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Research is presently being conducted to develop a criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in Circulated Fluidized Beds. Initially, eleven weld overlay alloys were selected for erosion testing based upon a literature review. All eleven coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400 C and their erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. In addition, the microstructure of each coating was characterized before and after the erosion tests. No correlations were found between room temperature hardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature. It was suggested that weld overlays mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates may contributed to their erosion resistance. During the previous two quarters the microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples in order to determine the size of the work hardened zone and the change in the coatings hardness due to erosion. As a result of these measurements it was established that one group of coatings deformed plastically, while another did not. In addition, the measurements of the weld overlays microhardness at 400 C were made. The coatings microhardness at 400 C was plotted versus their volume erosion rates. During the last quarter, erosion tests were performed for Inconel-625, 316L SS, and Iron-Aluminide wrought alloys in order to compare their erosion behavior with similar weld overlays. The results of microhardness profile measurements for all weld overlay coatings were analyzed. The factors that contribute to the erosion resistance of the coatings that deformed plastically are discussed in this progress report.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1994-10-26

381

Characterization and mitigation of overlay error on silicon wafers with nonuniform stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Process-induced overlay errors are a growing problem in meeting the ever-tightening overlay requirements for integrated circuit production. While uniform process-induced stress is easily corrected, non-uniform stress across the wafer is much more problematic, often resulting in non-correctable overlay errors. Measurements of the wafer geometry of free, unchucked wafers give a powerful method for characterization of such non-uniform stress. We will describe a Patterned Wafer Geometry (PWG) tool, which uses optical methods to measure the geometry of in-process wafers. PWG data can be related to In-Plane Distortion (IPD) of the wafer through the PIR (Predicted IPD Residual) metric. This paper will explore the relationship between the PIR data and measured overlay data on Engineered Stress Monitor (ESM) wafers containing various designed stress variations. The process used to fabricate ESM wafers is quite versatile and can mimic many different stress variation signatures. For this study, ESM wafers were built with strong across-wafer stress variation and another ESM wafer set was built with strong intrafield stress variation. IPD was extensively characterized in two different ways: using standard overlay error metrology and using PWG metrology. Strong correlation is observed between these two independent sets of data, indicating that the PIR metric is able to clearly see wafer distortions. We have taken another step forward by using PIR data from the PWG tool to correct process-induced overlay error by feedforward to the exposure tool, a novel method that we call PWG-FF. We conclude that appropriate wafer geometry measurements of in-process wafers have strong potential to characterize and reduce process-induced overlay errors.

Brunner, T.; Menon, V.; Wong, C.; Felix, N.; Pike, M.; Gluschenkov, O.; Belyansky, M.; Vukkadala, P.; Veeraraghavan, S.; Klein, S.; Hoo, C. H.; Sinha, J.

2014-03-01

382

Early age behavior of bonded concrete overlays due to shrinkage and thermal changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental measurements and numerical analyses were performed to investigate the early age behavior of bonded concrete overlays. Drying shrinkage, relative humidity, and thermal changes inside the overlay concrete were measured to define shrinkage and thermal gradients. Tensile bond strength was measured by a modified split tensile test and used for failure criterion in numerical modeling. Physical laboratory tests were performed to measure crack-mouth opening displacements (CMOD) and debonding length (DL) in bonded overlays. Swelling in substrate concrete was observed and found to be dependent upon w/c ratio. Numerical analysis and classical elasticity analysis were performed to evaluate the stress distribution and strain field. A two-dimensional finite element was used to compute CMOD and DL, and results were in agreement with physical experimental measurements. From the analysis, it was found that greater overlay thickness increases stress at the top surface and interface of the overlay. A three-dimensional finite element analysis and physical laboratory measurement showed that debonding initiates at the corner of the interface and propagates into the inside and the middle of the interface. The classical elasticity solution confirmed the importance of substrate restraint. The results of this study provide recommendations for field practice. A design guide was developed to predict cracking tendency in bonded concrete overlay at early age. The design guide, implemented as an EXCEL spreadsheet, is a practical tool for pavement engineers. The design guide calculates surface stresses and interfacial debonding stress due to shrinkage and thermal changes at early age. An engineer can use the design guide to study the interaction of material properties, environmental conditions, structural restraints, and overlay geometry.

Shin, Hak-Chul

2000-10-01

383

Simultaneous overlay and CD measurement for double patterning: scatterometry and RCWA approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As optical lithography advances to 32 nm technology node and beyond, double patterning technology (DPT) has emerged as an attractive solution to circumvent the fundamental optical limitations. DPT poses unique demands on critical dimension (CD) uniformity and overlay control, making the tolerance decrease much faster than the rate at which critical dimension shrinks. This, in turn, makes metrology even more challenging. In the past, multi-pad diffractionbased overlay (DBO) using empirical approach has been shown to be an effective approach to measure overlay error associated with double patterning [1]. In this method, registration errors for double patterning were extracted from specially designed diffraction targets (three or four pads for each direction); CD variation is assumed negligible within each group of adjacent pads and not addressed in the measurement. In another paper, encouraging results were reported with a first attempt at simultaneously extracting overlay and CD parameters using scatterometry [2]. In this work, we apply scatterometry with a rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) approach to characterize two double-patterning processes: litho-etch-litho-etch (LELE) and litho-freeze-litho-etch (LFLE). The advantage of performing rigorous modeling is to reduce the number of pads within each measurement target, thus reducing space requirement and improving throughput, and simultaneously extract CD and overlay information. This method measures overlay errors and CDs by fitting the optical signals with spectra calculated from a model of the targets. Good correlation is obtained between the results from this method and that of several reference techniques, including empirical multi-pad DBO, CD-SEM, and IBO. We also perform total measurement uncertainty (TMU) analysis to evaluate the overall performance. We demonstrate that scatterometry provides a promising solution to meet the challenging overlay metrology requirement in DPT.

Li, Jie; Liu, Zhuan; Rabello, Silvio; Dasari, Prasad; Kritsun, Oleg; Volkman, Catherine; Park, Jungchul; Singh, Lovejeet

2009-03-01

384

Property as a Human Need: a moral basis for private property ownership in the work of Hannah Arendt and Simone Weil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Maslow's hierarchy of human needs as a starting point, this paper explores the possibility of a non-liberal democratic defence of private property - specifically in the work of Hannah Arendt and Simone Weil. The author ultimately seeks a moral basis for private property ownership that is capable of taking into account both the psychological need for security and belonging,

Bridget Cotter

2010-01-01

385

Cyber security threat management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation discuss about the cyber security threat management. This paper presents the security standards and the general framework on creating and enforcing detailed control system security policy.

K. Kawano

2005-01-01

386

49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.201 Security of the secured area. (a) Each airport operator required to have a security...least one secured area. (b) Each airport operator required to establish a...

2013-10-01

387

Rehabilitation of Portland Cement Concrete Pavements With Thin Asphalt-Rubber Open Graded Friction Course Overlays In Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) has designed and constructed many large- scale Asphalt-Rubber (A-R) overlay projects on heavily used highways and Interstates in climatically diverse regions within the state to rehabilitate the aging highway system. One overlay design used by ADOT is called an asphalt-rubber asphalt concrete friction course (AR- ACFC). This overlay is also known as an open

Douglas D. Carlson

388

75 FR 80350 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized; Miscellaneous Amendments; Correction AGENCY: Office of...

2010-12-22

389

Status of Educational Efforts in National Security Workforce  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the status of educational efforts for the preparation of a national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This report includes an assessment of the current educational situation for the national security workforce.

None

2008-03-31

390

Embedding and retrieving private metadata in electrocardiograms.  

PubMed

Due to the recent explosion of 'identity theft' cases, the safeguarding of private data has been the focus of many scientific efforts. Medical data contain a number of sensitive attributes, whose access the rightful owner would ideally like to disclose only to authorized personnel. One way of providing limited access to sensitive data is through means of encryption. In this work we follow a different path, by proposing the fusion of the sensitive metadata within the medical data. Our work is focused on medical time-series signals and in particular on Electrocardiograms (ECG). We present techniques that allow the embedding and retrieval of sensitive numerical data, such as the patient's social security number or birth date, within the medical signal. The proposed technique not only allows the effective hiding of the sensitive metadata within the signal itself, but it additionally provides a way of authenticating the data ownership or providing assurances about the origin of the data. Our methodology builds upon watermarking notions, and presents the following desirable characteristics: (a) it does not distort important ECG characteristics, which are essential for proper medical diagnosis, (b) it allows not only the embedding but also the efficient retrieval of the embedded data, (c) it provides resilience and fault tolerance by employing multistage watermarks (both robust and fragile). Our experiments on real ECG data indicate the viability of the proposed scheme. PMID:19697691

Kozat, Suleyman S; Vlachos, Michail; Lucchese, Claudio; Van Herle, Helga; Yu, Philip S

2009-08-01

391

Impact of Capitation Payment: The Social Security Scheme of Thailand. Major Applied Research Working Paper 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1990, Thailand introduced a Social Security Scheme (SSS), a compulsory social insurance scheme that covers formal sector private employees. The SSS contracts with hospitals (main contractors, MCs) at a capitation rate to cover all services SSS benefici...

W. C. Yip S. Supakankunti J. Sriratanaban W. S. Janjaroen S. Pongpanich

2001-01-01

392

For Your Phone Only: Custom Protocols for Efficient Secure Function Evaluation on Mobile Devices (Preprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mobile applications increasingly require users to surrender private or context-sensitive information, such as GPS location or social networking data. To facilitate user privacy when using these applications, Secure Function Evaluation (SFE) could be used ...

C. Amrutkar H. Carter I. Dacosta P. Traynor

2012-01-01

393

Security Verification of Secure MANET Routing Protocols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Secure mobile ad hoc network (MANET) routing protocols are not tested thoroughly against their security properties. Previous research focuses on verifying secure, reactive, accumulation-based routing protocols. An improved methodology and framework for se...

M. F. Steele

2012-01-01

394

Internet security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. In this paper, the author gives an overview to the Internet users with basic and advanced computing skills, about the current Internet security threats, when connecting internal networks or computers to the Internet. This explains about attackers, and the main types of Internet threats like breaching secret data, unauthorized access, denial of service, as well as

N. Issa

2004-01-01

395

Security Cameras  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the real world example of security cameras, this lesson has students explore properties of polygons. Using this example, students will be able to discover a formula as related to polygons. An activity sheet and student questions are included. This material is intended for students from grades 9-12 and should require 1 class period to complete.

2010-12-16

396

Agarose overlay selectively improves macrocolony formation and radiosensitivity assessment in primary fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: Primary fibroblasts are not suitable for in vitro macrocolony assay due to their inability to form distinct colonies. Here we present a modification of agarose overlay that yielded extensive improvement in their colony formation and assessment of radiosensitivity. Materials and methods: Macrocolony formation was assessed in primary human fibroblasts VH10 and HDFn with or without overlay using 0.5% agarose in growth medium at 24 h post-seeding. Malignant human cell lines (A549, U87) and transformed non-malignant fibroblasts (AA8 hamster, MRC5 human) were used for comparison. Results: Agarose overlay caused significant improvement marked by early appearance (one week) of distinct colonies with high cell density and multifold higher plating efficiency than conventional macrocolony assay in VH10 and HDFn human fibroblasts. Compared to conventional assay or feeder cell supplementation, agarose overlay resulted in broader cell morphology due to improved adherence, and yielded more compact colonies. Gamma-radiation dose-response survival curves could be successfully generated for both fibroblast cell lines using this method, which yielded no such effects in the transformed/malignant cell lines tested. Conclusion: This easy and inexpensive 'agarose overlay technique' significantly and selectively improves the fibroblast plating efficiency, thus considerably reducing time and effort to greatly benefit the survival studies on primary fibroblasts. PMID:24527670

Chandna, Sudhir; Dagur, Raghubendra Singh; Mathur, Ankit; Natarajan, Adayapalam Tyagarajan; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats; Haghdoost, Siamak

2014-05-01

397

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1994--March 1994  

SciTech Connect

The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterwalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1994-04-21

398

Private Schools and Private School Teachers: Final Report of the 1985-86 Private School Study. Contractor Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report updates information on private schools and provides nationally representative data on private school teachers. Two separate questionnaires were administered, one collecting information on school characteristics from administrators in a nationally representative sample of 1,174 private schools, and the second collecting information from…

Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.

399

NASA and Public-Private Partnerships  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews ways to build public-private partnerships with NASA, and the many efforts that Ames Research Center is engaged in in building partnerships with private businesses, not profit organizations and universities.

Martin, Gary L.

2010-01-01

400

Privatization and the Globalization of Energy Markets  

EIA Publications

Discusses recent efforts at privatization in petroleum, electricity, and coal, as well as the impetus that privatization has provided in fostering the evolution of the multinational and multidimensional energy company.

Kevin Lillis

1996-10-01

401

Private Military Industry: Economic Analysis, Uses & Considerations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Different customers in different ages have used private military members as part of their military operations. After the Cold War era, a new form of Private Military Industry emerged. Companies serving in both military support and offensive operations and...

E. Sokmen

2007-01-01

402

Outsourcing and Privatization: Proceed with Caution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense expects significant savings from its current and planned outsourcing and privatization efforts as private contractors proclaim their ability to produce goods more economically. However, critics have questioned whether outsourcing...

E. Tulenko

2002-01-01

403

Education and the Private Finance Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

Griggs, Clive

2010-01-01

404

Private School Universe Survey: 1999-2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents universe data on private schools, teachers, and students by school size, school level, religious orientation, geographic region, community type, and program emphasis. Data are from the National Center for Education Statistics Private School Survey. (Author/SLD)

Broughman, Stephen P.; Colaciello, Lenore A.

2001-01-01

405

Investigation on synchronization of the offset printing process for fine patterning and precision overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offset printing processes are promising candidates for producing printed electronics due to their capacity for fine patterning and suitability for mass production. To print high-resolution patterns with good overlay using offset printing, the velocities of two contact surfaces, which ink is transferred between, should be synchronized perfectly. However, an exact velocity of the contact surfaces is unknown due to several imperfections, including tolerances, blanket swelling, and velocity ripple, which prevents the system from being operated in the synchronized condition. In this paper, a novel method of measurement based on the sticking model of friction force was proposed to determine the best synchronized condition, i.e., the condition in which the rate of synchronization error is minimized. It was verified by experiment that the friction force can accurately represent the rate of synchronization error. Based on the measurement results of the synchronization error, the allowable margin of synchronization error when printing high-resolution patterns was investigated experimentally using reverse offset printing. There is a region where the patterning performance is unchanged even though the synchronization error is varied, and this may be viewed as indirect evidence that printability performance is secured when there is no slip at the contact interface. To understand what happens at the contact surfaces during ink transfer, the deformation model of the blanket's surface was developed. The model estimates how much deformation on the blanket's surface can be borne by the synchronization error when there is no slip at the contact interface. In addition, the model shows that the synchronization error results in scale variation in the machine direction (MD), which means that the printing registration in the MD can be adjusted actively by controlling the synchronization if there is a sufficient margin of synchronization error to guarantee printability. The effect of synchronization on the printing registration was verified experimentally using gravure offset printing. The variations in synchronization result in the differences in the MD scale, and the measured MD scale matches exactly with the modeled MD scale.

Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Eonseok; Kim, Hyunchang; Choi, Young-Man; Lee, Seunghyun; Kim, Inyoung; Yoon, Dukkyun; Jo, Jeongdai; Kim, Bongmin; Lee, Taik-Min

2014-06-01

406

Insecurity of quantum secure computations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It had been widely claimed that quantum mechanics can protect private information during public decision in, for example, the so-called two-party secure computation. If this were the case, quantum smart-cards, storing confidential information accessible only to a proper reader, could prevent fake teller machines from learning the PIN (personal identification number) from the customers' input. Although such optimism has been challenged by the recent surprising discovery of the insecurity of the so-called quantum bit commitment, the security of quantum two-party computation itself remains unaddressed. Here I answer this question directly by showing that all one-sided two-party computations (which allow only one of the two parties to learn the result) are necessarily insecure. As corollaries to my results, quantum one-way oblivious password identification and the so-called quantum one-out-of-two oblivious transfer are impossible. I also construct a class of functions that cannot be computed securely in any two-sided two-party computation. Nevertheless, quantum cryptography remains useful in key distribution and can still provide partial security in ``quantum money'' proposed by Wiesner.

Lo, Hoi-Kwong

1997-08-01

407

Private Manned Space Plane Unveiled  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 18, 2003, an historic event in space travel was marked by the unveiling of the first private manned spacecraft and launch platform (called SpaceShipOne and White Knight, respectively). Already constructed and in the test flight stage of its development, the project was hidden from the public in order to reveal a finished product rather than just schematics. The news article describes the in-flight demonstration of White Knight and the systems testing of SpaceShipOne. Scaled Composites, the private company that developed the spacecraft, gives data sheets and photos on its homepage. A detailed list of frequently asked questions addresses many issues regarding the project and its implications.

Bonne, Jon.

2003-01-01

408

Private Mineral Project - Part 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this semester-long private mineral project, students become experts on one mineral. They write a paper about their mineral and use key information about it to publish a web page. Information should include provenance, physical properties, composition, recent related literature, photos of samples, optical properties, x-ray pattern, crystallography, economic value, atomic structure, other closely related minerals, associated myths, and a complete list of references based on GSA format.

Perkins, Dexter

409

Food security vs. nutrition security.  

PubMed

This article presents the status of food security versus nutrition security in India. Food security is defined as the availability and the access of food to all people; whereas nutrition security demands the intake of a wide range of foods which provides the essential needed nutrients. It is estimated that the average dietary intake in India is 2280 calories. In 9 major states, the average was less than 2400 calories, suggesting poverty. In a 1988-90 survey, only 10% of the children, and about 50% of the adults, were considered to have a normal nutritional status. The rest suffered from different levels of Chronic Energy Deficiency. In addition, contradictions have also developed within policies in India that seek to address these issues. Recognizing that agriculture is the key to poverty eradication, India recently drafted the Agriculture Policy. The Policy focuses on rain-fed farming, unemployment, and malnutrition in rural areas, revitalizing the cooperatives, and increasing the involvement of nongovernmental organizations. However, there are certain issues of concern in the Policy with the most damaging aspect seen in the promotion of existing inequalities in the rural sector. PMID:12295422

Venugopal, K R

1999-01-01

410

Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

Fengqiao, Yan

2009-01-01

411

Privatizing Discretion: “Rehabilitating” Treatment in Community Corrections  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, private sector involvement in punishment has been vigorously renewed and expanded. In documenting the growth of this trend, the literature has focused on normative issues related to privately operated prisons. Noticeably missing from the privatization debate is discussion of community corrections. This article seeks to fill this void by examining a rapidly growing trend in community

Karol Lucken

1997-01-01

412

An Alternative Instrument for Private School Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical studies estimating the effect of private school competition on student outcomes commonly use the share of Catholics in the local population as an instrument for private school competition. I show that this is not a valid instrument since it is endogenous to private school competition and suggest using instead the local share of Catholics…

Cohen-Zada, D.

2009-01-01

413

Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

Beamer, Sarah A.

2011-01-01

414

On chaos synchronization and secure communication.  

PubMed

Chaos synchronization, in particular isochronal synchronization of two chaotic trajectories to each other, may be used to build a means of secure communication over a public channel. In this paper, we give an overview of coupling schemes of Bernoulli units deduced from chaotic laser systems, different ways to transmit information by chaos synchronization and the advantage of bidirectional over unidirectional coupling with respect to secure communication. We present the protocol for using dynamical private commutative filters for tap-proof transmission of information that maps the task of a passive attacker to the class of non-deterministic polynomial time-complete problems. PMID:20008407

Kinzel, W; Englert, A; Kanter, I

2010-01-28

415

Study of behaviors of aluminum overlayers deposited on uranium via AES, EELS, and XPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum overlayers on uranium were prepared by sputtering at room temperature in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. The growth mode of aluminum overlayers and behaviors of the Al/U interface reaction were studied in situ by auger electron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results suggested that the interdiffusion took place at the Al/U interface during the initial stage of deposition. The U4f spectra of the Al/U interface showed strong correlation satellites at binding energies of 380.4 and 392.7 eV and plasma loss features at 404.2 eV, respectively. The interactions between aluminum and uranium yielded the intermetallic compound of UAlx, inducing the shift to a low binding energy for Al2p peaks. The results indicated that aluminum overlayers were formed on the uranium by sputtering in an island growth mode.

Liu, Kezhao; Luo, Lizhu; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Jiangrong; Xiao, Hong; Hong, Zhanglian; Yang, Hui

2013-04-01

416

Weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Task A: Literature review, progress report  

SciTech Connect

A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-03-03

417

Residual stress determination in an overlay dissimilar welded pipe by neutron diffraction  

SciTech Connect

Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of nuclear power reactors. Two neutron diffractometers with different spatial resolutions have been utilized on the identical specimen for comparison. The macroscopic 'stress-free' lattice spacing (d{sub o}) was also obtained from both using a 2-mm width comb-like coupon. The results show significant changes in residual stresses from tension (300-400 MPa) to compression (-600 MPa) through the thickness of the dissimilar weld overlay pipe specimen.

Woo, Wan Chuck [ORNL; Em, Vyacheslav [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Lee, Ho-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Park, Kwang Soo [Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction

2011-01-01

418

40-Gb/s FSK modulated WDM-PON with variable-rate multicast overlay.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a novel conjugate-driven frequency shift keying (FSK) modulated wavelength division multiplexing passive network (WDM-PON) with variable-rate multicast services. Optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is adopted for multicast overlay services with different rate requirements. A differential detection is used for the demodulation of FSK signal, which can eliminate the crosstalk from the OFDM signal. A total 40-Gb/s FSK point to point (P2P) signal and 6.3-Gb/s OFDM overlay with three kinds of variable-rate multicast services are experimentally demonstrated. A physical-layer adaptive identification is proposed for the variable-rate multicast services. After 25 km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission, the power penalties of FSK P2P signal and OFDM multicast overlay are 1.3 dB and 1.7 dB respectively. PMID:21716492

Xin, Xiangjun; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Yu, Jianjun

2011-06-20

419

Effects of indium and tin overlayers on the photoluminescence spectrum of mercuric iodide  

SciTech Connect

Mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2} ) crystals with semitransparent metal overlayers of indium and tin were characterized using low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PL spectra were found to differ for points beneath the thin metal overlayers and points that were masked off during each deposition. The photoluminescence data were compared with PL measurements taken on HgI{sub 2} photodetectors with indium-tin-oxide (ITO) entrance electrodes. The similarities of the spectra for the HgI{sub 2} samples with In, Sn, and ITO conducting overlayers indicate that the regions in the ITO-contacted photodetectors with relatively poor photoresponses are associated with the interaction of indium or tin with the mercuric iodide substrate.

James, R.B. (Advanced Materials Research Division, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (USA)); Bao, X.J.; Schlesinger, T.E. (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (USA)); Ortale, C.; Cheng, A.Y. (EG G Energy Measurements, Inc., Santa Barbara Operations, Goleta, California 93116 (USA))

1990-03-01

420

Threshold analysis of the susceptible-infected-susceptible model on overlay networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on overlay networks in which n multiple sets of links interconnect among the same nodes. By using the microscopic Markov-chain approximation (MMA) approach, we establish the conditions of epidemic outbreak for two kinds of spreading mechanisms in such an overlay network: the concatenation case and the switching case. When a uniform infection rate is set in all the subnetworks, we find the epidemic threshold for the switching case is just n times as large as that of concatenation case. We also find that the overlay network with a uniform infection rate can be considered as an equivalent (in the sense of epidemic dynamics and epidemic threshold) weighted network. To be specific, the concatenation case corresponds to the integer weighted network, while the switching case corresponds to the fractional weighted network. Interestingly, the time-varying unweighted network can be mapped into the static weighted network. Our analytic results exhibit good agreement with numerical simulations.

Wu, Qingchu; Zhang, Haifeng; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu

2014-07-01

421

Intermittent-contact scanning capacitance microscopy imaging and modeling for overlay metrology  

SciTech Connect

Overlay measurements of the relative alignment between sequential layers are one of the most critical issues for integrated circuit (IC) lithography. We have implemented on an AFM platform a new intermittent-contact scanning capacitance microscopy (IC-SCM) mode that is sensitive to the tip proximity to an IC interconnect, thus making it possible to image conductive structures buried under planarized dielectric layers. Such measurements can be used to measure IC metal-to-resist lithography overlay. The AFM conductive cantilever probe oscillating in a vertical plane was driven at frequency {omega}, below resonance. By measuring the tip-to-sample capacitance, the SCM signal is obtained as the difference in capacitance, {delta}C({omega}), at the amplitude extremes. Imaging of metallization structures was obtained with a bars-in-bars aluminum structure embedded in a planarized dielectric layer 1 {mu}m thick. We have also modeled, with a two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic field simulator, IC-SCM overlay data of a metallization structure buried under a planarized dielectric having a patterned photoresist layer deposited on it. This structure, which simulates the metal-to-resist overlay between sequential IC levels, allows characterization of the technique sensitivity. The capacitance profile across identical size electrically isolated or grounded metal lines embedded in a dielectric was shown to be different. The floating line shows capacitance enhancement at the line edges, with a minimum at the line center. The grounded line shows a single capacitance maximum located at the line center, with no edge enhancement. For identical line dimensions, the capacitance is significantly larger for grounded lines making them easier to image. A nonlinear regression algorithm was developed to extract line center and overlay parameters with approximately 3 nm resolution at the 95% confidence level, showing the potential of this technique for sub-micrometer critical dimension metrology. Symmetric test structures contribute to facilitate overlay data extraction.

Mayo, S.; Kopanski, J. J.; Guthrie, W. F. [Semiconductor Electronics Division, Statistical Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-0001 (United States)

1998-11-24

422

Public and Private Sector Discount Rates in Public-Private Partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether public sector projects should be discounted at a lower rate than private sector projects is highly contentious. This paper assesses the appropriate private and public sector discount rates in the context of public private partnerships. It shows that there are powerful arguments for using a higher rate to discount private projects than public sector projects and that failure to

Paul A. Grout

2003-01-01

423

The Private Prison Debate: A Look into the Efficiency of Private Prisons vs. Public Prisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resurgence of private prisons during the 1980s has caused a lot of debate. If a private firm can run a prison more efficiently than the government, the government should allow privatization. Factors such as cost, quality of service, competition and liability must be examined in order to determine whether a private prison is more efficient than a public prison.

Megan Swanson

424

Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate aim of activities and interventions aimed at guaranteeing food security is to arrive at a healthy and well-nourished\\u000a population that can take on, to the maximum of its capacities, the development of its own community, area or country. In these\\u000a efforts, agriculture, in its role as food producer, plays a crucial role. (Sufficient quality) food should be available

R. P. Roetter; H. VAN KEULEN

2007-01-01

425

Computer security  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A strong factor in the early development of computers was security – the computations that motivated their development, such\\u000a as decrypting intercepted messages, generating gunnery tables, and developing weapons, had military applications. But the\\u000a computers themselves were so big and so few that they were relatively easy to protect simply by limiting physical access to\\u000a them to their programmers

Carl E. Landwehr

2001-01-01

426

Security seal  

DOEpatents

Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

Gobeli, Garth W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

427

Development of a New Geospatial Data Sharing/overlay System for Land Environmental Studies - Ceres GAIA -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new geospatial data sharing/overlay system, CEReS Gaia, has developed. The purpose of the system development is to promote land surface environmental studies. The system has developed to meet the requirements by academic users who wish easy data analysis by using his/her own data with existing other data. The system has the following features; a) internationally unlimited expansion of servers, b) multi-language capability (currently, only English), c) free access without user registration, d) data upload/download by registered users, e) capability to overlay user's data on other registered data, f) option of open or selective data distribution.

Tateishi, R.; Sri Sumantyo, J. T.; Miyazaki, A.; Sumitani, H.

2012-07-01

428

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1993--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Twelve weld overlay hardfacing alloys have been selected for preliminary erosion testing based on a literature review These alloys have been separated into three major groups: (1) Cobalt containing alloys, (2) Nickel-base alloys, (3) Iron base alloys. These alloys are being applied to carbon steel substrates and will undergo preliminary erosion testing to identify candidates weld overlay alloys for erosion control in CFB boilers. The candidate alloys selected from the preliminary erosion tests will then undergo more detailed evaluations in future research.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-04-18

429

A Spatial Overlay Ranking Method for a Geospatial Search of Text Objects  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earth-science researchers need the capability to find relevant information by location and topic. Conventional geographic techniques that simply check whether polygons intersect can efficiently achieve a high recall on location, but can not achieve precision for ranking results in likely order of importance to the reader. A spatial overlay ranking based upon how well an object's footprint matches the search area provides a more effective way to spatially search a collection of reports, and avoids many of the problems associated with an 'in/out' (True/False) boolean search. Moreover, spatial overlay ranking appears to work well even when spatial extent is defined only by a simple bounding box.

Lanfear, Kenneth J.

2006-01-01

430

Internet Security: An Intrusion-Tolerance Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet has become essential to most enterprises and many private individuals. However, both the network and computer systems connected to it are still too vulnerable and attacks are becoming evermore frequent. To face this situation, traditional security techniques are insufficient and fault-tolerance techniques are becoming increasingly cost-effective. Nevertheless,intrusions are very special faults, and this has to be taken into

YVES DESWARTE; DAVID POWELL

2006-01-01

431

TWRS privatization phase 1 master site plan  

SciTech Connect

The DOE-RL is pursuing a new business strategy of hiring private contractors for treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. This strategy is called `privatization` and includes design, permitting, construction, operation and deactivation of facilities for tank waste treatment. The TWRS Privatization Infrastructure Project consists of several sub-projects which will provide key services needed to support the privatization mission. This master site plan presently describes all pertinent aspects of the site and identifies all planned provisions for site development, utilities and other site services. It is a baseline document which will be revised as privatization proceeds through design, construction and start-up.

Parazin, R.J.

1996-09-30

432

Privatize It: Outsourcing and Privatization in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As costs continue to rise while appropriations to institutions of higher education are declining, colleges and universities\\u000a are increasingly turning to the private sector as a means to diversify revenue sources, reduce costs, improve efficiency,\\u000a and maintain quality education. From academic year 2007–2008 to academic year 2008–2009, tuition and fees increased 6.4% at\\u000a public 4-year institutions (in-state tuition) and 5.9%

Carrie B. Kerekes

433

Teaching secure software engineering: Writing secure code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Writing secure code is critical because a large fraction of security incidents result from flaws in the code. In order to effectively teaching knowledge of secure software engineering we have developed a course module titled “Introduction to Writing Secure Code”. This paper presents the content of this module and reports our teaching experiences. This module has been successfully taught in

Huiming Yu; Nadia Jones; Gina Bullock; Xiaohong Yuan Yuan

2011-01-01

434

Privatization and the globalization of energy markets  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

NONE

1996-10-01

435

Along-Track Deflection of the Vertical from Seasat: GEBCO (General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans) Overlays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To provide easy access to the large number of Seasat altimeter observations, the National Geodetic Survey has produced overlays for the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO). Each of the 32 overlays displays along-track deflection of the vertica...

D. T. Sandwell

1984-01-01

436

National Security Technology Incubator Evaluation Process  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process by which the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) will be evaluated. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the components, steps, and measures of the proposed evaluation process. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. An effective evaluation process of the NSTI is an important step as it can provide qualitative and quantitative information on incubator performance over a given period. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The mission of the NSTI is to identify, incubate, and accelerate technologies with national security applications at various stages of development by providing hands-on mentoring and business assistance to small businesses and emerging or growing companies. To achieve success for both incubator businesses and the NSTI program, an evaluation process is essential to effectively measure results and implement corrective processes in the incubation design if needed. The evaluation process design will collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data through performance evaluation system.

None

2007-12-31

437

National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

None

2007-12-31

438

A new method for generating an invariant iris private key based on the fuzzy vault system.  

PubMed

Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment. PMID:18784013

Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie

2008-10-01

439

User-friendly and certificate-free grid security infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certificate-based public key infrastructures are currently widely used in computational grids to support security services.\\u000a From a user’s perspective, however, certificate acquisition is time-consuming and public\\/private key management is non-trivial.\\u000a In this paper, we propose a security infrastructure for grid applications, in which users are authenticated using passwords.\\u000a Our infrastructure allows a user to perform single sign-on based only on

Jason Crampton; Hoon Wei Lim; Kenneth G. Paterson; Geraint Price

2011-01-01

440

Statistical security for Social Security.  

PubMed

The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts. PMID:22592944

Soneji, Samir; King, Gary

2012-08-01

441

Bidding with Securities: Auctions and Security Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study security-bid auctions in which bidders compete for an asset by bidding with securities whose payments are contingent on the asset's realized value. In formal security-bid auctions, the seller restricts the security design to an ordered set and uses a standard auction format (e.g., first- or second-price). In informal settings, bidders offer arbitrary securities and the seller chooses the

Peter M. DeMarzo; Ilan Kremer; Andrzej Skrzypacz

2005-01-01

442

On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification  

SciTech Connect

In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Frankel, Y. [CertCo LLC, New York, NY (United States); Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-04-01

443

TWRS privatization bibliography. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is it intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. This bibliography is organized by subject area. The subjects covered are: waste characterization; pre-treatment; high-level waste immobilization; low-level waste immobilization; low-level waste melter test program; performance assessment; general; and safety.

NONE

1996-04-01

444

76 FR 8946 - Security Ratings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 3235-AK18 Security Ratings AGENCY: Securities and Exchange...ever, rate the securities of small entities...further note most security ratings are obtained...fixed income securities with comparable maturity and security...

2011-02-16

445

76 FR 46603 - Security Ratings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 3235-AK18 Security Ratings AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission...first being sent to security holders). 2. Securities Act Rules 138, 139...investment grade securities. An asset-backed security is an...

2011-08-03

446

Nuclear security  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

Dingell, J.D.

1991-02-01

447

International Security  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the US Department of State's Office of International Information Programs (OIIP), formerly the USIA, this site is among the four US Policy topics covered in depth on the OIIP site. It contains a special Response to Terrorism section that presents relevant official policy texts, photo galleries, key documents, and in-focus topics such as Investigation, US Muslim Community, and Economic Issues. Other features of the International Security site include several other Issues in Focus (i.e., Arms Control and Non-Proliferation), Regions in Focus, Links to other organizations and agencies, as well as to the Electronic Journal of the Department of State, U.S. Foreign Policy Agenda.

2001-01-01

448

A new approach to plane-sweep overlay: topological structuring and line-segment classification  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An integrated approach to spatial overlay was developed with the objective of creating a single function that can perform most of the tasks now assigned to discrete functions in current systems. Two important components of this system are a unique method for topological structuring, and a method for attribute propagation and line-segment classification. -Author

Van Roessel, J. W.

1991-01-01

449

The Effect of Coloured Overlays on Reading Ability in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abnormalities of colour perception in children with autistic spectrum disorders have been widely reported anecdotally. However, there is little empirical data linking difficulties in colour perception with academic achievement. The Wilkins Rate of Reading Test was administered with and without "Intuitive Coloured Overlays" to 19 children with…

Ludlow, Amanda K.; Wilkins, Arnold J.; Heaton, Pam

2006-01-01

450

Global flow control for wide area overlay networks: a cost-benefit approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a flow control protocol for multi-sender multi-group multicast and unicast in wide area overlay networks. The protocol is analytically grounded and achieves real world goals, such as simplicity, fairness and minimal resource usage. Flows are regulated based on the \\

Yair Amir; Baruch Awerbuch; Claudiu Danilov; Jonathan Stanton

2002-01-01

451

Welding overlay analysis of dissimilar metal weld cracking of feedwater nozzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspection of the weld between the feedwater nozzle and the safe end at one Taiwan BWR showed axial indications in the Alloy 182 weld. The indication was sufficiently deep that continued operation could not be justified considering the crack growth for one cycle. A weld overlay was decided to implement for restoring the structural margin. This study reviews the cracking

Y. L. Tsai; Li. H. Wang; T. W. Fan; Sam Ranganath; C. K. Wang; C. P. Chou

2010-01-01

452

The effects of spacing between garnet film and Permalloy overlay circuit in magnetic bubble devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental test set for magnetic bubble devices has been constructed in which the spacing between the garnet film and the Permalloy overlay is variable. The experimental uncertainty in spacing is approximatelypm.15mum, and spacings as small as.5mum have been attained. Bias margin data are presented which were taken at 1 Hz on a 20 micron period chevron circuit as a

Yu-Ssu Chen; T. Nelson

1972-01-01

453

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly progress report, October 1993--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in Circulated Fluidized Beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400C and their erosion resistance and microstructure evaluated. Steady state erosion rates were similar for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625, Iron-Aluminide, 316L SS, and High Chromium Cast Iron) and were considerably lower than the remaining coating evaluated. These coatings had different base (Co, Fe, Ni-base). No correlations were found between room temperature microhardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature, although this criteria is often thought to be an indicator of erosion resistance. It was suggested that the coatings that showed similar erosion rates may have similar mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates at this temperature. During the past quarter, Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were selected for more detailed investigations based upon the preliminary erosion test results. Microhardness tests were performed on eroded samples to determine the size of the work hardened zone and change in coatings hardness due to erosion. The work hardened zone was to correlated with erosion resistance of the coatings. Additional Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates.

Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1994-01-20

454

Local reactivity of metal overlayers: Density functional theory calculations of Pd on Au  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local reactivity of Pd overlayers supported by Au has been studied by calculating atomic hydrogen and CO adsorption energies as a microscopic probe. The calculations are based on density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. The binding energies show a maximum on two Pd layers on Au, both for the (100) and (111) surfaces. We have furthermore analyzed

Ata Roudgar; Axel Groß

2003-01-01

455

Problems with using overlay mapping for planning and their implications for geographic information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the planning process, maps of natural factors are often superimposed in order to identify areas which are suitable or unsuitable for a particular type of resource management. Overlay maps may also be used to identify analysis areas for predictive modeling of resource productivity and ecological response to management. Current interest in applying computer-assisted mapping technology to making

Robert G. Bailey

1988-01-01

456

Direct Determination of Relaxation Parameter from Leed Intensity Patterns with the Single Overlayer Relaxed Structure Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the analytical formulae for Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) intensity patterns in the layer doubling method, we have shown that the relaxation parameter for single overlayer relaxed structure can be solved. Although it is difficult to obtain analytically, numerical method based on linear approximation successfully retrieves the parameter value for simulated pseudo-experimental data. This method uses the intensity pattern

S. Mukhopadhyay; T. K. Ballabh

1999-01-01

457

Assessing the Crossdisciplinarity of Technology-Enhanced Learning with Science Overlay Maps and Diversity Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the assessment of the crossdisciplinarity of technology-enhanced learning (TEL). Based on a general discussion of the concept interdisciplinarity and a summary of the discussion in the field, two empirical methods from scientometrics are introduced and applied. Science overlay maps and the Rao-Stirling diversity index are…

Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

2014-01-01

458

Disbond detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors in RC structures strengthened with FRP composite overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability of embedded piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) to perform in-situ nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for structural health monitoring (SHM) of reinforced concrete (RC) structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite overlays is explored. First, the disbond detection method were developed on coupon specimens consisting of concrete blocks covered with an FRP composite layer. It was found that the presence of a disbond crack drastically changes the electromechanical (E/M) impedance spectrum measured at the PWAS terminals. The spectral changes depend on the distance between the PWAS and the crack tip. Second, large scale experiments were conducted on a RC beam strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite overlay. The beam was subject to an accelerated fatigue load regime in a three-point bending configuration up to a total of 807,415 cycles. During these fatigue tests, the CFRP overlay experienced disbonding beginning at about 500,000 cycles. The PWAS were able to detect the disbonding before it could be reliably seen by visual inspection. Good correlation between the PWAS readings and the position and extent of disbond damage was observed. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of PWAS technology for SHM of RC structures strengthened with FRP composite overlays.

Giurgiutiu, Victor; Harries, Kent; Petrou, Michael; Bost, Joel; Quattlebaum, Josh B.

2003-12-01

459

LESSONS FOR THE DESIGN OF POLYGON OVERLAY PROCESSING FROM THE ODYSSEY WHIRLPOOL ALGORITHM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ODYSSEY system included a processor to perform polygon overlay and related functions of planar enforcement. The existence of this algorithm was reported in a number of publications as the work progressed (White, 1978; Chrisman, 1979; Dougenik, 1979; Lab for Computer Graphics, 1983), but the details of the actual algorithm and data structures were not reported for institutional reasons (Chrisman,

Nicholas R. Chrisman; James A. Dougenik; Denis White

1992-01-01

460

Development of the Asphalt Institute's Deflection Method for Designing Asphalt Concrete Overlays for Asphalt Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Throughout the world there are a number of overlay design procedures for the strengthening of existing pavements. These procedures are based on local environment and it is difficult to extrapolate them to new areas and to new materials. Very few, if any, ...

R. I. Kingham

1969-01-01

461

An Implicit Cluster-based Overlay Multicast Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobility patterns of mobile ad hoc networks lead to update multicast routing information based on network multicasting. Thus, many control messages are likely to be generated, and bandwidth of wireless media and limited battery power of mobile nodes are inefficiently consumed. To improve the shortcomings, overlay multicast protocols on application layer has been proposed; however, some of them have another

Younghwan Choi; Euisin Lee; Donghun Lee; Fucai Yu; Sang-Ha Kim

2007-01-01

462

Advanced modeling strategies to improve overlay control for 32-nm lithography processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay control is gaining more attention in recent years as technology moves into the 32nm era. Strict overlay requirements are being driven not only by the process node but also the process techniques required to meet the design requirements. Double patterning lithography and spacer pitch splitting techniques are driving innovative thinking with respect to overlay control. As lithographers push the current capabilities of their 193nm immersion exposure tools they are utilizing newly enabled control 'knobs'. 'Knobs' are defined as the adjustment points that add new degrees of freedom for lithographers to control the scanner. Expanded control is required as current scanner capabilities are at best marginal in meeting the performance requirements to support the ever demanding process nodes. This abstract is an extension of the SPIE 2008 paper in which we performed thorough sources of variance analysis to provide insight as to the benefits of utilizing high order scanner control knobs [1]. The extension this year is to expand the modeling strategies and to validate the benefit through carefully designed experiments. The expanded modeling characterization will explore not only high order correction capabilities but also characterize the use of field by field corrections as a means to improve the overlay performance of the latest generation of immersion lithography tools. We will explore various correction strategies for both grid and field modeling using KT AnalyzerTM.

Minvielle, Anna; Singh, Lovejeet; Schefske, Jeffrey; Reiss, Joerg; Kent, Eric; Manchester, Terry; Eichelberger, Brad; O'Brien, Kelly; Manka, Jim; Robinson, John C.; Tien, David

2009-03-01

463

Restoring a Damaged 16-Year -Old Insulating Polymer Concrete Dike Overlay: Repair Materials and Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program was to design and formulate organic polymer-based material systems suitable for repairing and restoring the overlay panels of insulating lightweight polymer concrete (ILPC) from the concrete floor and slope wall of a dike at ...

T. Sugama

2006-01-01

464

Optimizations for Locality-Aware Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present several optimizations aimed at improving the object location performance of locality-aware structured peer-to-peer overlays. We present simulation results that demonstrate the effectiveness of these optimizations in Tapestry, and discuss their usage of the overall storage re- sources of the system.

Jeremy Stribling; Kirsten Hildrum; John D. Kubiatowicz

2003-01-01

465

Higher supply chain security with lower cost: Lessons from total quality management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supply chain security has become a major concern to the private and public sector, after the disastrous event of September 11, 2001. Prior to September 11, 2001, supply chain security concerns were related to controlling theft and reducing contraband such as illegal drugs, illegal immigrants, and export of stolen goods. But after September 11, 2001, the threat of terrorist attacks

Hau L. Lee; Seungjin Whang

2005-01-01

466

Linux Security Module Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer security is a chronic and growing prob- lem, even for Linux, as evidenced by the seem- ingly endless stream of software security vulnera- bilities. Security research has produced numerous access control mechanisms that help improve sys- tem security; however, there is little concensus on the best solution. Many powerful security systems have been implemented as research prototypes or highly

Chris Wright; Crispin Cowan; James Morris; Stephen Smalley; Greg Kroah-Hartman

467

Web application security engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrating security throughout the life cycle can improve overall Web application security. With a detailed review of the steps involved in applying security-specific activities throughout the software development life cycle, the author walks practitioners through effective, efficient application design, development, and testing. With this article, the author shares a way to improve Web application security by integrating security throughout the

J. D. Meier

2006-01-01

468

Security for grids  

SciTech Connect

Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

2005-08-14

469

Constructing a secure HIPACS with structured reporting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The specification of security features of the DICOM (digital imaging and communication in medicine) standard is not clear where encryption and decryption are concerned. In the age of digital medicine, a growing need for secure transfer and storage of patient data is obvious. In medical science, the design of a PACS (picture archiving and communication system) is essential for storing digital images. This paper describes an alternative method of integrating encryption as a DICOM- conform mechanism in a PACS and via a DICOM-conform directory service in a HIS (hospital information system)/RIS (radiological information system). It is useful to integrate these systems in order to be able to merge existing patient data with DICOM images. The DICOM supplement SR (structured reporting) is used for encryption and as an interface- specification for databases. SR also allows the definition of private coding schemes. It is possible to integrate security in a PACS by using one, private, coding scheme for encryption and a different coding scheme for decryption. The interface to the databases is a directory service that uses its attributes to store orders from databases and which retrieves orders for the databases. This method makes the construction of a secure HIPACS (hospital integrated picture archiving system) possible.

Vorwerk, Lutz; Losemann, Frank; Engel, Thomas; Meinel, Christoph

2000-05-01

470

Perfectly-Secure Key Distribution for Dynamic Conferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key distribution scheme for dynamic conferences is a method by which initially an (off-line) trusted server distributes private individ- ual pieces of information to a set of users. Later any group of users of a given size (a dynamic conference) is able to compute a common secure key. In this paper we study the theory and applications of such

Carlo Blundo; Alfredo De Santis; Amir Herzberg; Shay Kutten; Ugo Vaccaro; Moti Yung

1992-01-01

471

Young Australians' privacy, security and trust in internet banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generations X and Y (18-40 years old) in Australia see Internet banking as more private, more secure and more trustworthy than older Australians. They use Internet banking more than older Australians as they see Internet banking as a convenient way to bank. Generations X and Y also have greater confidence in their own digital expertise. Like other users of Internet

Supriya Singh; Clive Morley

2009-01-01

472

Protecting the Privacy and Security of Your Health Information  

MedlinePLUS

... have access to your information. Learn About Your Security Be Responsible While Federal law can protect your health information, you should also use common sense to make sure that private information doesn’t become public. If you access your health records online, make ...

473

Securing context-aware applications using environment roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the future, a largely invisible and ubiquitous computing infrastructure will assist people with a variety of activities in the home and at work. The applications that will be deployed in such systems will create and manipulate private information and will provide access to a variety of other resources. Securing such applications is challenging for a number of reasons. Unlike

Michael J. Covington; Wende Long; Srividhya Srinivasan; Anind K. Dev; Mustaque Ahamad

2001-01-01

474

Two Dimensional Array Based Overlay Network for Balancing Load of Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper.

Faruq Ibn Ibrahimy, Abdullah; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibn Ibrahimy, Muhammad

2013-12-01

475

47 CFR Procedures - Private Coast Stations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Private Coast Stations Procedures Special Procedures Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS...MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Public Coast Stations...

2010-10-01

476

Soviet Conceptions of 'Security'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This memorandum explores how Soviet leaders perceive their country's 'security.' The author contends that the dominant Soviet image of security requirements is not markedly different from perceptions that US leaders have of America's security requirements...

R. H. Donaldson

1980-01-01

477

Airport Security System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An airport security system includes a scanner scanning and time stamping an article of identification of an individual passing into a secure terminal area. The system further includes security cameras generating respective video signals of overlapping zon...

G. Orlas

2005-01-01

478

Security Analysis of DTN Architecture and Bundle Protocol Specification for Space-Based Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) Architecture (Request for Comment, RFC-4838) and Bundle Protocol Specification, RFC-5050, have been proposed for space and terrestrial networks. Additional security specifications have been provided via the Bundle Security Specification (currently a work in progress as an Internet Research Task Force internet-draft) and, for link-layer protocols applicable to Space networks, the Licklider Transport Protocol Security Extensions. This document provides a security analysis of the current DTN RFCs and proposed security related internet drafts with a focus on space-based communication networks, which is a rather restricted subset of DTN networks. Note, the original focus and motivation of DTN work was for the Interplanetary Internet . This document does not address general store-and-forward network overlays, just the current work being done by the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Internetworking Services Area (SIS) - DTN working group under the DTN and Bundle umbrellas. However, much of the analysis is relevant to general store-and-forward overlays.

Ivancic, William D.

2009-01-01

479

Maritime Security: Fighting Piracy in the Gulf of Aden and Beyond (Heritage Special Report, Number 59, June 24, 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Heritage Foundation's Maritime Security Working Group -- composed of representatives from academia, the private sector, research institutions, and government -- produces cutting-edge policy recommendations for making the seas safer for the United Stat...

J. J. Carafano M. E. Andersen R. Weitz

2009-01-01

480

USGS to accept private funds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the federal government's largest earth science research agency, is now authorized to accept contributions from private sources and to collaborate with such sources in projects that support the agency's scientific research and its development of technology and data systems.Before the USGS can accept outside contributions, however, the proposed project must be deemed to be in the public interest and must be deemed compatible with the basic USGS mission. Among the responsibilities of the USGS, are assessing the nation's land, water, energy, and mineral resources and developing methods to define and mitigate hazards associated with earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. Details on criteria and procedures for making contributions and entering into collaborative projects are outlined in the June 2 Federal Register.

481

From Secure Memories to Smart Card Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Non-volatile memory is essential in most embedded security applications. It will store the key and other sensitive materials\\u000a for cryptographic and security applications. In this chapter, first an overview is given of current flash memory architectures.\\u000a Next the standard security features which form the basis of so-called secure memories are described in more detail. Smart\\u000a cards are a typical embedded

Helena Handschuh; Elena Trichina

2010-01-01

482

An efficient forward-secure group certificate digital signature scheme to enhance EMR authentication process.  

PubMed

The frequently used digital signature algorithms, such as RSA and the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA), lack forward-secure function. The result is that, when private keys are renewed, trustworthiness is lost. In other words, electronic medical records (EMRs) signed by revoked private keys are no longer trusted. This significant security threat stands in the way of EMR adoption. This paper proposes an efficient forward-secure group certificate digital signature scheme that is based on Shamir's (t,n) threshold scheme and Schnorr's digital signature scheme to ensure trustworthiness is maintained when private keys are renewed and to increase the efficiency of EMRs' authentication processes in terms of number of certificates, number of keys, forward-secure ability and searching time. PMID:24652661

Yu, Yao-Chang; Hou, Ting-Wei

2014-05-01

483

Information Security Course: Software  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Material covering Software: Flaws and malware, buffer overflows, viruses and worms, software reverse engineering, digital rights management, secure software development, and operating systems security

Segura, Eduardo

2007-04-16

484

Private Eyes and Public Order: Policing and Surveillance in the Suppression of Animal Rights Activists in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how policing, security, and intelligence agencies have networked with private agents in a campaign targeting Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC) in Canada. SHAC is a network of autonomous groups that coordinate an international campaign to disrupt the animal testing corporation, Huntingdon Life Sciences. Unlike in the USA and the UK, where SHAC groups have been targeted by

Kevin Walby; Jeffrey Monaghan

2011-01-01

485

The Effects of September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on Public and Private Information Infrastructures: A Preliminary Assessment of Lessons Learned.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of the September 11 attacks on public and private information infrastructures. Topics include the role of information technology in future homeland security initiatives; continuity and recovery plans; decentralization of operations; and the development of system redundancies to eliminate single…

Seifert, Jeffrey W.

2002-01-01

486

Mitigating Cyber-Threats Through Public-Private Partnerships: Low Cost Governance with High-Impact Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realization that cyber threats can cause the same devastation to a country as physical security risks has taken the long route towards acceptance. Governments and businesses have thrown the glove of responsibility back and forth on numerous occasions, with government agencies citing the need for private enterprise to take up the mantle, and Business returning the gesture by proposing

David M Cook

2010-01-01

487

Secure Broadcasting Using the Secure Lock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss secure broadcasting, effected by means of a secure lock, on broadcast channels, such as satellite, radio, etc. This lock is implemented by using the Chinese Remainder theorem (CRT). The secure lock offers the following advantages: only one copy of the ciphertext is sent; the deciphering operation is efficient; and the number of secret keys held by each

Guang-huei Chiou; Wen-tsuen Chen

1989-01-01

488

Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory.  

PubMed

Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI). In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States. PMID:23599904

Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; West, Andrew J; Romero-Lauro, Gonzalo; Nauman, Kevin; Carter, Alexis B; Balis, Ulysses J; Tuthill, Mark J; Pantanowitz, Liron

2013-01-01

489

Private Challenges to Public Dominance: The Resurgence of Private Education in the Pearl River Delta.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the policy context in which private education has emerged in post-Mao China. Uses three case studies of private schools/colleges to explore how intellectuals and educators in the Pearl River Delta (Guangdong province) have persevered to assert their academic independence, offer a new agenda for education, and redefine the private-public…

Mok, Ka-Ho

1997-01-01

490

The Face of Private Tutoring in Russia: Evidence from Online Marketing by Private Tutors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Private tutoring is a common and worldwide phenomenon. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date research on private tutoring compared with that on institutional one-to-one teaching, which could be explained by challenges associated with data collection. This article proposes using publicly available online advertisements of private tutors as a…

Kozar, Olga

2013-01-01

491

Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Personnel Security Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report assesses the effectiveness and efficiency of the Department of Homeland Securitys personnel security programs. At the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, the Office of Security was given oversight of component personnel security p...

2009-01-01

492

Another look at the strategic petroleum reserve: Should its oil holdings be privatized?  

SciTech Connect

The sharp increases in crude oil prices in the 1970`s unleashed a gusher of economic and policy analyses concerning energy security. A consensus emerged concerning the desirability of building and using a large stock of oil to cushion the effects of a sudden loss of oil supply. The author examines the validity of this large stock of oil considering changes in the oil market and whether the oil holdings of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve should be privatized. 12 refs.

Blumstein, C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Komor, P. [E Source, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)] [E Source, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

493

Fault-Tolerate Quantum Private Comparison Based on GHZ States and ECC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are some quantum private comparison (QPC) schemes proposed previously. In this paper we study these QPC protocols in non-ideal scenario and find that they are not secure there. For resolving the problem, we propose a QPC scheme which could be performed in practical scenario. By the use of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and error-correcting code (ECC), the scheme has the capability of fault-tolerate.

Li, Yan-Bing; Wang, Tian-Yin; Chen, Hui-Yan; Li, Meng-Dong; Yang, Ya-Tao

2013-08-01

494

Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.  

PubMed Central

Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.

Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

2005-01-01

495

The Economics of the Major Private Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major public and private universities need substantial amounts of additional income to meet rapidly rising operating costs. After World War II, total educational and general expenditures in all universities went up from less than $1 billion in 1945-46 to more than $7 billion in 1963-64. Some private university operating deficits indicate that…

Bowen, William G.

496

Review of "America's Private Public Schools"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report from the Thomas B. Fordham Institute, "America's Private Public Schools," has received considerable attention and includes some controversial recommendations. The report's authors suggest the existence of what they term "private public schools," and they argue that the existence of these "exclusive" public schools justifies the…

Yun, John T.

2010-01-01

497

Public Private Partnerships and Public Procurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

ublic Private Partnerships (PPPs) rarely get good press, and public opinion is quick to condemn a PPP that does not succeed as a failure of the concept itself. Perhaps it is because, as Tony Harris, one of the staunchest critics of PPPs, once observed '… good news stories receive little attention in public … . The private infrastructure projects which

Darrin Grimsey; Mervyn Lewis

2007-01-01

498

Private Schools Opt for Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The common standards are not just for public schools. With all but four states having adopted them since 2010, districts have little choice but to implement the Common Core State Standards. But many private schools are also making the transition. Many Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and other private schools have adopted at least portions of the…

Robelen, Erik W.

2012-01-01

499

Strange Bedfellows? Reaffirming Rehabilitation and Prison Privatization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Private prisons are here to stay irrespective of empirical findings for or against their existence in the corrections industry. It is necessary, therefore, to step back and consider them on a broader level to assess how they can benefit current penological practice. It will be argued that prison privatization creates an opportunity to reassess the…

Wright, Kevin A.

2010-01-01

500

Private and government consumption with liquidity constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic theory predicts that liquidity constraints and substitutability or complementarity between private and government consumption result in excess sensitivity of private consumption to income and government consumption, respectively. Using annual data, we estimate these excess sensitivity parameters for each of 54 countries and show that they not only have sensible values but are also correlated with several variables in ways

Georgios Karras

1996-01-01