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1

Using overlays to improve network security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we increase our dependency upon networked communication, the incentive to compromise and degrade network performance increases for those who wish to disrupt the flow of information. Attacks that lead to such compromise and degradation can come in a variety of forms, including distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, cutting wires, jamming transmissions, and monitoring/eavesdropping. Users can protect themselves from monitoring by applying cryptographic techniques, and the recent work has explored developing networks that react to DDoS attacks by locating the source(s) of the attack. However, there has been little work that addresses preventing the other kinds of attacks as opposed to reacting to them. Here, we discuss how network overlays can be used to complicate the job of an attacker that wishes to prevent communication. To amplify our point, we focus briefly on a study of preventing DDoS attacks by using overlays.

Keromytis, Angelos D.; Misra, Vishal; Rubenstein, Daniel

2002-07-01

2

Social Security private accounts: a risky proposition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ongoing debate over Social Security, private accounts have been recommended as one part of the resolution of the funding difficulties the system faces in coming years. This article discusses what private accounts can and cannot do for individuals who choose to use them and for future Social Security deficits. ; Under current proposals, private accounts would give account

Gerald P. Dwyer Jr.

2005-01-01

3

The Public Surveillance Functions of Private Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with arguably the most pervasive body of watchers in society, private security personnel. Set in the context of the ra pid post-war expansion of both mass private property and private security, the contention of the paper is that the inter-dependency between these two industries is key to understanding the significance of surveillance as a form of

Alison Wakefield

2005-01-01

4

Terrorism, Airport Security, and the Private Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

September 11, 2001, led to renewed emphasis on airport security in the United States. Before the tragedy, government policy led to a suboptimal level of security. The fundamental problem was not simply the use of private security firms, but rather the reliance on airline financing and poor Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight. After 9\\/11 a federalized security system was put

Paul Seidenstat

2004-01-01

5

Security Intelligence Networks and the Transformation of Contract Private Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the transformation of contract private security and security intelligence networks by drawing on results of a 2003 survey of contract security firms in Ontario, Canada. Comparing these results with a 1976 survey by Shearing et al. reveals a dramatic increase in the intelligence gathering and sharing capacities of contract security firms. This increased capacity can be put

Randy Lippert; Daniel OConnor

2006-01-01

6

Private Clouds: Secure Managed Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuously evolving state of information technology and network infrastructure has created a thriving market for Managed Services (MS). More and more public sector and private companies operate in mixed-mode with internally deployed but externally hosted IT applications and resources. As a result, Managed Service Providers (MSPs) are assuming operational IT responsibility for the enterprise while the customer maintains management

Enuma Orakwue

2010-01-01

7

Handle with Care: Private Security Companies in  

Microsoft Academic Search

increasingly focused on the role of PSCs in providing security in conflict and post-conflict settings. The international debate surrounding the engagement of private security provid- ers is becoming increasingly important in Timor-Leste, where two developments have influenced the local discussion. Firstly, the number of PSCs operating in Timor-Leste has increased since independence. Secondly, the government is considering legislation author- izing

Sarah Parker; Timor-Leste Sarah Parker

8

Privatizing Social Security: the Chilean experience.  

PubMed

In 1981, Chile introduced a new approach to social insurance, a system of individual capitalization accounts financed solely by the employee. This new privatized system was an improvement over Chile's failing pay-as-you-go arrangement. As many countries worldwide are facing financial problems with their social security system, they are now looking to the Chilean model in trying to find solutions. This article describes the conditions that led to the new system, the transition, and details of the new privatized system. PMID:8994293

Kritzer, B E

1996-01-01

9

Private Security Companies and Civil Wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private security companies (PSCs) have experienced explosive growth since 2001, growth that has been matched only by the consequent explosion in academic attention probing their influence. It is not hard to discover that PSCs and their employees constituted the second-largest member of the US-led Coalition of the Willing during the invasion of Iraq in 2003;1 that this represented a 10-fold

Sarah Percy

2009-01-01

10

Social Security privatization in Latin America.  

PubMed

The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for women and lower earners than for men and higher earners; A minimum required rate of return among the pension fund management companies (in most of these countries) that has resulted in similarity among the companies and the consequent lack of meaningful choice; and High administrative fees in most of these countries, which reduce the individual's effective rate of return. To what extent these issues can be mitigated or resolved in the future is not yet clear. In general, a definitive assessment of the Chilean model and its Latin American variations will not be possible until a cohort of retirees has spent most of its career under the new system. PMID:11131978

Kritzer, B E

2000-01-01

11

Private Security and Democracy: Lessons from the US in Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguments about the importance of democracy for international behavior assume that states rely on military organizations rather than “hired guns.” With the growth of the private security market this assumption no longer holds true. Focusing on the United States, we use original data to compare the impacts of using private military\\/security forces and military forces on attributes identified as endemic

Deborah Avant; Lee Sigelman

2010-01-01

12

Private security and the policing of quasi-public space  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a growing recognition amongst academics that the provision of policing in industrialised countries is becoming increasingly ‘pluralised’ or ‘fragmented’. The most significant manifestation of this has been research illustrating the growing role of private security in policing ‘mass private property’ including environments such as shopping malls, airports, leisure facilities, etc. Such locations are generally private although freely

Mark Button

2003-01-01

13

Scalable P2P Overlays of Very Small Constant Degree: An Emerging Security Threat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has been adopted by Internet-based malware as a fault tolerant and scalable communication medium for self-organization and survival. It has been shown that malicious P2P networks would be nearly impossible to uncover if they operated in a stealth mode, that is, using only a small constant number of fixed overlay connections per node for communication. While overlay networks of a small constant maximal degree are generally considered to be unscalable, we argue in this paper that it is possible to design them to be scalable, efficient and robust. This is an important finding from a security point of view: we show that stealth mode P2P malware that is very difficult to discover with state-of-the-art methods is a plausible threat. In this paper we discuss algorithms and theoretical results that support the scalability of stealth mode overlays, and we present realistic simulations using an event based implementation of a proof-of-concept system. Besides P2P botnets, our results are also applicable in scenarios where relying on a large number of overlay connections per node is not feasible because of cost or the limited number of communication channels available.

Jelasity, Márk; Bilicki, Vilmos

14

Challenging international law: a dilemma of private security companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the end of the Cold War, there has been a marked increase in the sale of military services by private security companies (PSCs).1 These companies sell anything from combat support for government military operations to military training and assistance, logistical support and more conventional security protection services. They have undertaken operations in countries as diverse as Sierra Leone, Croatia,

Christopher Kinsey

2005-01-01

15

Social security reform: Does partial privatization make sense for China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the year 2025, one quarter of the world's population over age 60 will be living in China, a nation in the process of partially privatizing its social security system. This article presents a brief history of social security policy in China, describes the current scheme, presents an analysis of the pros and cons of this scheme, and asks why

John B. Williamson; Catherine Deitelbaum

2005-01-01

16

Private Security Training. Phase 1: Basic. Instructor Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This basic module on private security training was designed under the direction of the Oklahoma Council on Law Enforcement Education and Training to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. This module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) interpreting the Oklahoma Security Guard and…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

17

Tasks facing Korea's private security business, and its prospects for the 2000's  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis forecasts changes in both the domestic and overseas public security circumstances, and analyzes the status of Korea's private security, discussing Korea's private security tasks and prospects for the 2000's, based on the results of problem analysis. Korea's private security business began in the early 60's, and has independently developed since the Security Services Act was established in 1977.

Youn Keun Lee

1995-01-01

18

Secure electronic markets for private information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advances in the collec- tion, storage and analysis of data have increased the ease with which businesses can make prof- itable use of information about individuals. Some of this information is private and individuals are simultaneously becoming more aware of the value of the information and how the loss of control over this information impacts their personal privacy. As

Robert S. Garfinkel; Manuel Nunez; Daniel O. Rice

2006-01-01

19

Would Privatizing Social Security Raise Economic Welfare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A funded social security retirement program would imply a larger capital stock and a higher level of real income than an unfunded program that provides the same level of benefits. The transition from an unfunded program to a funded program that does not reduce the benefits of existing retirees or the present value of the benefit entitlements of existing employees

Martin Feldstein

1995-01-01

20

U.S. Government's Employment of Private Security Companies Abroad.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq have facilitated a 206% increase in the U.S. use of Private Security Companies (PSCs), with the number growing to more than 28,000 personnel as of March 31, 2011. These increases have fueled the PSC industry wo...

E. Shearer

2012-01-01

21

Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.230502 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.

Olejnik, Lukasz

2011-08-01

22

Web Security for Access of Private Information via the Internet  

PubMed Central

Authentication, authorization, accounting, and encryption are goals of security strategies for web information being accessed that is private. The definition of these terms is as follows: • Authentication - validation that the individual (or system) is who they say they are • Authorization - validation that the individual (or system) accessing information is authorized to do so • Accounting - records are kept of what is accessed • Encryption - use of a ‘scrambling’ algorithm such that the information can pass securely across the public Internet without being intelligible; information is specifically ‘unscrambled’ or deencrypted at the receiving end Many tools can be used to meet these goals. The degree to which the goals are met is determined by how we use these tools. Methodologies similar to TSEC[1] and ITSEC[2] can be used to determine the appropriate level of protection for a particular web application. This poster describes a set of effective strategies for web application security and the level of protection each strategy provides.

Anderson, Lynn; Rauscher, Richard; Lee, H.

2001-01-01

23

On the Effectiveness of Secure Overlay Forwarding Systems under Intelligent Distributed DoS Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In the framework of a set of clients communicating with a critical server over the Internet, a recent approach to protect communication,from Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks involves the usage of overlay systems. SOS, MAYDAY and I3 are such systems. The overlay system serves as an intermediate forwarding system between the clients and the server, where the systems

Xun Wang; Sriram Chellappan; Phillip Boyer; Dong Xuan

2006-01-01

24

Cryptanalysis of the secure quantum private comparison protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Yang et al [2009 Phys. Scr. 80 065002] presented the first quantum private comparison protocol that involves single photons only. This protocol is very promising in practice. However, in this paper, we analyze the security of the protocol and point out a subtle loophole. It is shown that both Eve and Charlie could obtain Bob's secret by launching a special dense-coding attack. Moreover, details of this attack and its correctness are given, and also two solutions are demonstrated to improve the protocol in order to overcome the fatal flaw.

Liu, Xing-Tong; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing

2013-06-01

25

Experimental Extraction of Secure Correlations from a Noisy Private State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report experimental generation of a noisy entangled four-photon state that exhibits a separation between the secure key contents and distillable entanglement, a hallmark feature of the recently established quantum theory of private states. The privacy analysis, based on the full tomographic reconstruction of the prepared state, is utilized in a proof-of-principle key generation. The inferiority of distillation-based strategies to extract the key is exposed by an implementation of an entanglement distillation protocol for the produced state.

Dobek, K.; Karpi?ski, M.; Demkowicz-Dobrza?ski, R.; Banaszek, K.; Horodecki, P.

2011-01-01

26

Experimental extraction of secure correlations from a noisy private state.  

PubMed

We report experimental generation of a noisy entangled four-photon state that exhibits a separation between the secure key contents and distillable entanglement, a hallmark feature of the recently established quantum theory of private states. The privacy analysis, based on the full tomographic reconstruction of the prepared state, is utilized in a proof-of-principle key generation. The inferiority of distillation-based strategies to extract the key is exposed by an implementation of an entanglement distillation protocol for the produced state. PMID:21405261

Dobek, K; Karpi?ski, M; Demkowicz-Dobrza?ski, R; Banaszek, K; Horodecki, P

2011-01-18

27

Private Security Infrastructure Abroad: Criminal-Terrorist Agendas and the Operational Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Graham Turbiville's paper on private security organizations within today's operational and security environment is important as we consider the current conflict as viewed through an irregular warfare prism. Within the irregular warfare framework, the popu...

J. G. Turbiville

2007-01-01

28

Private Security Contractors in the Debate about Darfur: Reflecting and Reinforcing Neo-Liberal Governmentality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the loud presence of private security contractors in the evolving and buoyant discussion surrounding Darfur. Relying primarily on statements by security contractors and industry lobby organizations, this article suggests that neo-liberal governmentality has bolstered the expert status of security contractors in the discussions surrounding Darfur. Both in Darfur and more widely, neo-liberal governmentality tends to `depoliticize' security

Anna Leander; Rens van Munster

2007-01-01

29

A Comparative Study on the Regulation of Private Security in the United States and South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of private security has been remarkable in recent years. Although the growth of private security has been filling the gap of the police, it also brought a number of problems such as concerns over the quality of persons working in the industry and poor standards of operation. However, very few researches have been found with regard to the

Chang Moo Lee

2008-01-01

30

Network Programmability for VPN Overlay Construction and Bandwidth Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability and security concerns have increased demand for Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). Ideally, a VPN service should\\u000a offer autonomous overlay networks with guaranteed bandwidth allocations over a shared network. Network providers seek an automated\\u000a VPN creation and management process, while users of a VPN would greatly benefit from secure control over the handling of their\\u000a traffic. Currently, network infrastructure does

Bushar Yousef; Doan B. Hoang; Glynn Rogers

2004-01-01

31

Implementation of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development  

SciTech Connect

This report documents implementation strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. This report details some of the efforts that have been implemented to leverage public and private resources, as well as implementation strategies to further leverage public and private resources.

None

2009-04-01

32

The Social Security Program and the Private Sector Alternative: Lessons from History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Used historical evidence to analyze how private sector benefits worked in the past in light of the debate surrounding the Social Security benefits and the federal deficit. Among conclusions reached are that the private sector failed to provide adequate protection for older citizens, and that benefits were inequitably distributed on basis of…

Quadagno, Jill

1987-01-01

33

New holographic overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a new type of holographic overlay, FLASHPRINT, which may be used in both security and packaging applications. Unlike the more common embossed holograms currently used, FLASHPRINT leads to reduced set-up costs and offers a simpler process. This reduces the long lead times characteristic of the existing technology and requires the customer to provide only two-dimensional artwork. The overlay material contains a covert 2-D image. The image may be switched on or off by simply tilting the overlay in a light source. The overlay is replayed in the 'on' position to reveal the encoded security message as a highly saturated gold colored image. This effect is operable for a wide range of lighting conditions and viewing geometries. In the 'off' position the overlay is substantially transparent. These features make the visual effect of the overlay attractive to incorporate into product design. They may be laminated over complex printed artwork such as labels and security passes without masking the printed message. When switched 'on' the image appears both sharp and more than seven times brighter than white paper. The image remains sharp and clear even in less favorable lighting conditions. Although the technique offers a low set-up cost for the customer, through its simplicity, it remains as technically demanding and difficult to counterfeit as any holographic process.

Hopwood, Anthony I.

1991-10-01

34

Would a Privatized Social Security System Really Pay a Higher Rate of Return?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many advocates of social security privatization argue that rates of return under a defined contribution individual account system would be much higher for all than they are under the current social security system. This claim is false. The mistake comes from ignoring accrued benefits already promised based on past payroll taxes, and from underestimating the riskiness of stock investments. Confusion

Olivia S. Mitchell; Stephen P. Zeldes

1998-01-01

35

A prefix space partitioning approach to scalable peer gateway discovery in secure virtual private networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual private networks (VPNs) are the used by enterprises to secure sensitive traffic going over public network infrastructure like the Internet. In VPNs, geographically separated networks belonging to the same community of interest (COI) are connected through virtual links (security associations) between VPN gateways. VPN gateways authenticate traffic, encrypt packets, and decrypt packets so that only encrypted packets from VPN

Bharat Doshi

2005-01-01

36

Identification of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the identification of strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP).There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. The leveraging of dollars serves many purposes. These include increasing the amount of training that can be delivered and therefore increasing the number of people reached, increasing the number and quality of public/private partnerships, and increasing the number of businesses that are involved in the training of their future workforce.

None

2009-02-01

37

The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995: Rebalancing Litigation Risks and Rewards for Class Action Plaintiffs, Defendants and Lawyers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following extensive hearings, Congress became persuaded that speculative securities class action suits were undermining the integrity and fairness of the private securities litigation system. Congress responded by enacting the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The Reform Act increases the litigation risks for plaintiffs and their class action counsel while reducing the risks and costs for defendants. This rebalancing

Richard M. Phillips; Gilbert C. Miller

1996-01-01

38

Contingency Contract Management: DOD Needs to Develop and Finalize Background Screening and Other Standards for Private Security Contractors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Currently in Iraq, there are thousands of private security contractor (PSC) personnel supporting DOD and State, many of whom are foreign nationals. Congressional concerns about the selection, training, equipping, and conduct of personnel performing privat...

2009-01-01

39

Methods of Integrating Social Security with Private Pension Plans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the reasons for considering integration of Social Security benefits into the company pension plan and the approaches to and methods of integration, and how they apply to various types of plans. (Editor/TA)|

Burke, Paul E.

1977-01-01

40

Electronic Markets for Private Information: Economic and Security Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advances in the collection, storage and analysis of data have increased the ease with which busi- nesses can make profitable use of information about individ- uals. Some of this information is private and individuals are simultaneously becoming more aware of its value and con- cerned about losing control of it. As a partial solution to these concerns a model

Robert S. Garfinkel; Manuel Nunez; Daniel Rice

2006-01-01

41

European Private Security, Corporate Investigation and Military Services: Collective Security, Market Regulation and Structuring the Public Sphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the private security industry and public institutions and agencies is complex and by no means one-way. The industry assists and acts as a substitute for the public sphere, is governed by it, albeit in a partial and uneven manner, whilst restructuring the public sphere in pursuit of commercial advantage at home and abroad. This paper explores aspects

Nicholas Dorn; Michael Levi

2007-01-01

42

Selection, training and retention of an armed private security department.  

PubMed

To arm or not to arm security officers? One hospital which has opted for arming its officers is Cook Children's Healthcare System, Fort Worth, TX, an integrated pediatric healthcare facility with over 4000 employees. Because of its location in a major metropolitan area and based on several factors including demographics, exterior risk assessments and crime statistics, the hospital's Administration and its Risk Manager supported the decision to operate as an armed security force, according to the author. In this article he shares its current program and presents some thoughts and ideas that may benefit others who are considering this important step. PMID:19711796

Hollar, David B

2009-01-01

43

Social Security, Private Transfers and Voting Behaviour: the Italian case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the political sustainability of the current Italian welfare state - in particular of the social security system. Previous studies - see D'Amato and Galasso (2002) for a politico-economic analysis based on a large calibrated model of the Italian economy - suggest that the demographic dynamic of population aging will lead to a larger size of the social

Agar Brugiavini; Jose Ignacio; Conde Ruiz; Vincenzo Galasso

44

Improving Practical Performance on Secure and Private Collaborative Linear Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although information sharing in supply chain management dramatically reduces costs, parties are reluctant to do so, mainly due to fear of information leakage. Solutions based on secure multi-party computation guarantee privacy and correctness, at an extra communication and computation cost. Efficiency is a major concern for practical solutions. The best known solution with public indexes selection is due to Li

Rafael Deitos; Florian Kerschbaum

2009-01-01

45

How Hispanics in the U.S. Fare Under the Privatization of Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The privatization of Social Security will harm Hispanics in the United States. Hispanics benefit greatly from the current system of Social Security because it helps people with the following characteristics: those who have (1) lower-than-average income, (2) higher incidence of disability, (3) more children per family, and (4) longer-than-average life expectancies. Unlike other ethnic\\/racial groups, Hispanics have all four of

Avery Blank

2012-01-01

46

Deterrence from self-protection measures in the ‘market model’ of crime: dynamic panel data estimates from employment in private security occupations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private individuals and entities invest in a wide variety of market-provisioned self-protection devices or services to mitigate their probability of victimization to crime. However, evaluating the effect of such private security measures remains understudied in the economics of crime literature. Unlike most previous studies, the present analysis considers four separate measures of private security: security guards, detectives and investigators, security

Paul R. Zimmerman

2010-01-01

47

Social Security Numbers: Private Sector Entities Routinely Obtain and Use SSNs, and Laws Limit the Disclosure of This Information.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Social Security number (SSN) is used for a myriad of non-Social Security purposes. Private and public sector entities frequently ask individuals for SSNs in order to conduct their business and sometimes to comply with federal laws. Certain private sec...

2004-01-01

48

The Legal Liability of a Private Security Guard Company for the Criminal Acts of Third Parties: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circumstances in which a private security guard com pany will be held monetarily liable to victims of criminal acts by third parties are examined. The standard of care imposed upon private security companies by general legal principles throughout the United States is identified as well as those classes of persons to whom such a duty is owed. Several common-law

Jonathan D. Schiller; Gary K. Harris

1988-01-01

49

The Role of Public and Private Mitigation for Homeland Security Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary focus of the research has been on measuring the benefits of homeland security policies and assessing the willingness of the public (private citizens) to undertake mitigating or averting action to avoid terrorist attacks or lessen the consequences of an attack. We tested the use of stated-preference surveys to collect data on willingness to pay (WTP) for improvements in

Kerry Smith; Carol Mansfield

2010-01-01

50

The Role of Tenure Security and Private Time Preference in Neotropical Deforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. A survey of 209 Chimane Amerin- dian lzouseholds in 18 villages in the Bolivian rainforest was done to examine the role of tenure security and private time preference on the clear- ance of old-growthforest. Results of Tobit regres- sions suggest that conjict with abutters was asso- ciated with more deforestation, but the average impatiencethe household heads was associated with

Ricardo Godoy; Marc Jacobson; Joel De Castro; Vianca Aliaga; Julio Romero; Allison Davis

2007-01-01

51

The Effectiveness of an Electronic Security Management System in a Privately Owned Apartment Complex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Poisson and negative binomial regression methods are used to analyze the monthly time series data to determine the effects of introducing an integrated security management system including closed-circuit television (CCTV), door alarm monitoring, proximity card access, and emergency call boxes to a large privately-owned complex of apartment…

Greenberg, David F.; Roush, Jeffrey B.

2009-01-01

52

Borrowing to Save: A Critique of Recent Proposals to Partially Privatize Social Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concern over Social Security's forecasted long-run deficit is occurring at a time when the program has a short-term surplus. One proposed strategy to address this forecasted deficit is to allow the investment of a portion of payroll taxes into private savings accounts (PSAs). The author analyzes recent proposals for PSAs and concludes that PSAs…

Dattalo, Patrick

2007-01-01

53

Bidirectional quantum secure communication based on a shared private Bell state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a secure bidirectional quantum communication protocol, which is based on a shared private quantum entangled channel, the highlight of our protocol is that the drawback “information leakage” is eliminated. Our protocol is similar but more efficient than a bidirectional quantum communication based on QKD & OTP (One-time pad).

Shi, Guo-Fang; Xi, Xiao-Qiang; Tian, Xiu-Lao; Yue, Rui-Hong

2009-06-01

54

SOS: secure overlay services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denial of service (DoS) attacks continue to threaten the reliability of networking systems. Previous approaches for protecting networks from DoS attacks are reactive in that they wait for an attack to be launched before taking appropriate measures to protect the network. This leaves the door open for other attacks that use more sophisticated methods to mask their traffic.We propose an

Angelos D. Keromytis; Vishal Misra; Dan Rubenstein

2002-01-01

55

A tainted trade? Moral ambivalence and legitimation work in the private security industry.  

PubMed

The private security industry is often represented - and typically represents itself - as an expanding business, confident of its place in the world and sure of its ability to meet a rising demand for security. But closer inspection of the ways in which industry players talk about its past, present and future suggests that this self-promotion is accompanied by unease about the industry's condition and legitimacy. In this paper, we analyse the self-understandings of those who sell security - as revealed in interviews conducted with key industry players and in a range of trade materials - in order to highlight and dissect the constitutive elements of this ambivalence. This analysis begins by describing the reputational problems that are currently thought to beset the industry and the underlying fears about its status and worth that these difficulties disclose. We then examine how security players seek to legitimate the industry using various narratives of professionalization. Four such narratives are identified - regulation, education, association and borrowing - each of which seeks to justify private security and enhance the industry's social worth. What is striking about these legitimation claims is that they tend not to justify the selling of security in market terms. In conclusion we ask why this is the case and argue that market justifications are 'closed-off' by a moral ambivalence that attaches to an industry trading in products which cannot guarantee to deliver the condition that its consumers crave. PMID:21631459

Thumala, Angélica; Goold, Benjamin; Loader, Ian

2011-06-01

56

Tax Incentives for Private Life Annuities and the Social Security Reform: Effects on Consumption and on Adverse Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a two-period model with uncertainty about life expectancy, we analyze several measures that are typically included in a social security reform: tax incentives for private life annuities, a cut in the social security benefits, and an increase in the social security tax. First, we look at the demand side and study the effects on old-age provision for a given

Susanne Pech

2004-01-01

57

Linear-Complexity Private Set Intersection Protocols Secure in Malicious Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Private Set Intersection (PSI) protocols allow one party (“client”) to compute an intersection of its input set with that\\u000a of another party (“server”), such that the client learns nothing other than the set intersection and the server learns nothing\\u000a beyond client input size. Prior work yielded a range of PSI protocols secure under different cryptographic assumptions. Protocols\\u000a operating in the

Emiliano De Cristofaro; Jihye Kim; Gene Tsudik

2010-01-01

58

Implementing Virtual Private Networking for Enabling Lower Cost, More Secure Wide Area Communications at Sandia National Laboratories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Virtual Private Networking is a new communication technology that promises lower cost, more secure wide area communications by leveraging public networks such as the Internet. Sandia National laboratories has embrace the technology for interconnecting rem...

Miller Yonek

2001-01-01

59

The welfare state, pensions, privatization: the case of Social Security in the United States.  

PubMed

In all high-income nations, the welfare state is under challenge, with particular concern voiced about the burden of retirement pensions on the public fisc and on younger workers. The strongest drive against social insurance is taking place in the United States, which has less of it than other nations and appears to be in the best position to meet future entitlement claims. In this article, the author examines the liabilities that the U.S. Social Security system is likely to incur over the next 35 years and finds that there is little danger that the system will fall into insolvency. Privatizing Social Security is not necessary to assure the integrity of future pension benefits. Furthermore, the cost-benefit ratio of privatization appears to be unfavorable, as borne out by the mandatory private pension plan in effect in Chile. Some wealthy nations will face greater demographic strains than the United States, but all need to retain the welfare state as a foundation for future changes in the world of work. PMID:9031009

Du Boff, R B

1997-01-01

60

On the Association Between SROs, Private Security Guards, Use-of-Force Capabilities, and Violent Crime in Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although school crime and the use of security measures to combat school crime has been the focus of a number of prior empirical studies, there is substantially less information known about the relationship between school resource officers (SROs) and private security guards in schools and school crime. Using data from the 2006 School Survey on Crime and Safety, this study

Jon Maskaly; Christopher M. Donner; Jennifer Lanterman; Wesley G. Jennings

2011-01-01

61

The Economic Consequences of Private Information Acquisition in a Model where Employees are Compensated with Tradable Securities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tradable securities continue to be a popular compensation vehicle, yet there is tremendous regulatory discussion on the need to prevent employees from being able to gain from trading such securities by using their private information. This paper attempts to analytically capture the SEC notion of insider trading where a manager has material non-public information prior to trading his equity claims.

Ashraf Jaffer

62

The Proliferation of Private Security Agencies in South Africa and its Concomitant Effect on Crime Prevention and Crime Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private security industry is a growing phenomenon in South Africa, similar to the rest of the emerging global markets. This paper outlines the nature of the security industry in South Africa and examines various issues relating to regulation and licensing of this industry as well as its role in crime prevention.

Kris Pillay

2006-01-01

63

Patient's perception of health information security: The case of selected public and private hospitals in Addis Ababa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information security in health sector is getting growing attention. In this connection, patient's perception about different aspects of health sector is worth considering. In this research, attempt has been made to assess and analyze patient's perception of health information security at some selected public and private hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Quantitative research approach using questionnaire as an instrument was

Tibebe Tesema; Dawn Medlin; Ajith Abraham

2010-01-01

64

Overlay accuracy fundamentals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to < 0.5nm, it becomes crucial to include also systematic error contributions which affect the accuracy of the metrology. Here we discuss fundamental aspects of overlay accuracy and a methodology to improve accuracy significantly. We identify overlay mark imperfections and their interaction with the metrology technology, as the main source of overlay inaccuracy. The most important type of mark imperfection is mark asymmetry. Overlay mark asymmetry leads to a geometrical ambiguity in the definition of overlay, which can be ~1nm or less. It is shown theoretically and in simulations that the metrology may enhance the effect of overlay mark asymmetry significantly and lead to metrology inaccuracy ~10nm, much larger than the geometrical ambiguity. The analysis is carried out for two different overlay metrology technologies: Imaging overlay and DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

2012-03-01

65

Reducing the Threat of Terrorism through Knowledge Sharing in a Virtual Environment Between Law Enforcement and the Private Security Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each day approximately 6,800 members of the private security workforce are deployed across Kansas City to provide protection services at venues, many of which have been identified as being critical infrastructure and/or key resources. While these guards a...

J. P. Gallagher

2008-01-01

66

An Automatic Overlay Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for automatically generating an overlay structure for a program, with the goal of reducing the primary storage requirements of that program. Subject to the constraints of intermodule dependences, the algorithm can either find a maximal overlay structure or find an overlay structure that, where possible, restricts the program to a specified amount of primary storage. Results

Ron Cytron; Paul G. Loewner

1986-01-01

67

A Leakage-Resilient and Forward-Secure Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol for Private Personal Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A private-personal area network (P-PAN) is the very user-centric and basis component of personal networks. However, the current security mechanism is not robust against leakage of stored secrets that can happen when a mobile node (device) is compromised, lost or stolen. This results in unauthorized accesses to other devices and services. For that, this paper introduces a leakage-resilient and forward

SeongHan Shin; Mohamed Imine; Hanane Fathi; Kazukuni Kobara; Neeli R. Prasad; Hideki Imai

2006-01-01

68

26 CFR 1.141-4 - Private security or payment test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...indirectly, by a user of proceeds of the...private business user. (6) Allocation...a new industrial park (such as sidewalks...within the industrial park who benefit from...agreement not to challenge or seek deferral...that are not private users. Payments...

2010-04-01

69

Characteristics of and determinants of the density of contributions in a Private Social Security System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates previously unresearched issues pertaining to the well-known Chilean innovations in Social Security. Previous empirical studies of the Chilean system used aggregate and macro data, without attention to individual heterogeneity. This study uses new household survey data, linked with Social Security records for over 20 years, to analyze selected reform issues related to social security coverage and the

Alberto Arenas de Mesa; Jere Behrman; David Bravo

2001-01-01

70

Partial Privatization of Social Security: Assessing Its Effect on Women, Minorities, and Lower-Income Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once viewed as the “third rail” of politics, Social Security appears to be moving inexorably toward reform. In his 1998 State of the Union address, President Clinton proclaimed strengthening Social Security a high priority and called for bipartisan forums on Social Security reform to be held throughout the United States. Similarly, following the 1998 November elections, congressional leaders expressed commitment

Kathryn L. Moore

2000-01-01

71

Implementing declarative overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks are used today in a variety of distributed systems ranging from file-sharing and storage systems to communication infrastructures. However, designing, building and adapting these overlays to the intended application and the target environment is a difficult and time consuming process.To ease the development and the deployment of such overlay networks we have implemented P2, a system that uses

Boon Thau Loo; Tyson Condie; Joseph M. Hellerstein; Petros Maniatis; Timothy Roscoe; Ion Stoica

2005-01-01

72

The business of medicine: how to overcome financial obstacles and secure financing for your private practice and ancillary services business.  

PubMed

Doctors across the country who operate private medical practices are facing increasing financial obstacles, namely shrinking income as a result of rising costs and lower reimbursements. In addition, as hospitals have become overburdened many physicians have opened up private surgical centers; magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography and positron emission tomography scanning facilities; pathology labs; colonoscopy/endoscopy suites; lithotripsy centers; and other medical businesses typically performed within the hospital. Moreover, many doctors seek loans to purchase existing practices or for their capital contribution in medical partnerships. The past decade has thus seen a significant increase in the number of doctors taking out small business loans. Indeed, banks view the healthcare industry as a large growth market. This article includes practical information, advice, and resources to help doctors to secure bank financing for their practices, ancillary services business, real estate, and equipment on the best possible market terms. PMID:22920034

Nayor, David

73

The application of nuclear and national security safeguard strategies to the insider threat in the private sector  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the insider threat in commercial enterprises represents multi-billion dollar losses on an annual basis. While much of this experience is in low value, theft-related shrinkage, there are a growing number of organizations where the loss or compromise of critical assets or interruption of vital systems cannot be tolerated. In very real ways, the survival of the organization may turn on the hostile acts of knowledgeable insiders. The nuclear and National security information operations environments represents a baseline of experience from which the corporate world can draw for cost-effective, alternative approaches to this threat. However, it is equally clear that there are a variety of subtle and obvious constraints imposed by the private sector's mission, service delivery, lifestyle and cost-benefit requirements which dictate careful planning and user involvement in safeguards development and application. Where protection of our National security assets are grounded in a consequence-driven set of policies and standards, the private sector is often subject to the lack of a similar (but directly analogous) policy foundation.

Campbell, G.K. (Campbell and Co., Centerville, MA (US))

1991-01-01

74

Overlay Weaver: An overlay construction toolkit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A layered model of structured overlays has been proposed and it enabled devel- opment of a routing layer independently of higher-level services such as DHT and multicast. The routing layer has to include other part than a routing algorithm, which is essential for routing. It is routing process, which is common to various routing algorithms and can be decoupled from

Kazuyuki Shudo; Yoshio Tanaka; Satoshi Sekiguchi

2008-01-01

75

Fortress Australia? (In)security and private governance in a gated residential estate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part of a broader trend towards all-inclusive master planned developments, gated residential estates are an intensely private form of residential development with a degree of securitisation. Gated residential estates have been the topic of intense debate in urban planning and policy circles and the target of fierce criticism for potential exclusionary outcomes as fearful residents lock themselves away from the

Therese Kenna

2010-01-01

76

In Sickness, Health, and Cyberspace: Protecting the Security of Electronic Private Health Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic processing of health information provides considerable benefits to patients and health care providers while at the same time creating serious risks to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data. The Internet provides a conduit for rapid and uncontrolled dispersion and trafficking of illicitly obtained private health information, with far-reaching consequences to unsuspecting victims. To address such threats

Sharona Hoffman; Andy Podgurski

2007-01-01

77

A New Type of Network Security Protocol Using Hybrid Encryption in Virtual Private Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today wireless communications is acting as a major role in networks. Through year-end 2006, the employee's ability to install unmanaged access points will result is more than 50% of enterprises exposing sensitive information through the wireless virtual private networks (VPN). It enables you to send the data between two computers across a shared or public network in a manner that

E. Ramaraj; S. Karthikeyan

2006-01-01

78

Network Security Vulnerabilities and Personal Privacy Issues in Healthcare Information Systems: A case study in a private hospital in Turkey.  

PubMed

Healthcare industry has become widely dependent on information technology and internet as it moves from paper to electronic records. Healthcare Information System has to provide a high quality service to patients and a productive knowledge share between healthcare staff by means of patient data. With the internet being commonly used across hospitals, healthcare industry got its own share from cyber threats like other industries in the world. The challenge is allowing knowledge transfer to hospital staff while still ensuring compliance with security mandates. Working in collaboration with a private hospital in Turkey; this study aims to reveal the essential elements of a 21st century business continuity plan for hospitals while presenting the security vulnerabilities in the current hospital information systems and personal privacy auditing standards proposed by regulations and laws. We will survey the accreditation criteria in Turkey and counterparts in US and EU. We will also interview with medical staff in the hospital to understand the needs for personal privacy and the technical staff to perceive the technical requirements in terms of network security configuration and deployment. As hospitals are adopting electronic transactions, it should be considered a must to protect these electronic health records in terms of personal privacy aspects. PMID:23823398

Namo?lu, Nihan; Ulgen, Yekta

2013-01-01

79

Multicast Overlay Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Peer-to-Peer Overlay networks enabling an end-end application level-multicast service have drawn enormous attention. This paper proposes a self- organized -Multicast Overlay Network (-MON) that enables an efficient end-end application level multicast. The -MON is organized into MON- Clusters, where delta is the maximum physical number of hops between any two end-nodes in each MON-Cluster. Thus, end-users accessing from different

Khaled Ragab

2007-01-01

80

Securing Private Property: The Relative Importance of Formal versus Informal Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development literature examines the relationships between secure, well-defined property rights institutions and economic growth. However, this research fails to identify the specific channels through which property rights impact an economy. This paper is a first step towards unbundling the black box of property rights institutions. I decouple this institution into its formal and informal components and empirically determine the significance

Claudia R. Williamson

81

Bridging the Gap in Port Security; Network Centric Theory Applied to Public/Private Collaboration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Achieving awareness in the maritime domain, including intelligence and information sharing at all levels of government is a key to our maritime security. Better awareness of what is out there leads to better unity of effort in maritime planning and operat...

C. L. Wright

2007-01-01

82

Junior must pay: pricing the implicit put in privatizing Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Proposals that a portion of the Social Security Trust Fund assets be invested in equities entail the possibility that a severe decline in equity prices will render the Fund’s assets insufficient to provide the currently mandated level of benefits. In this event, existing taxpayers may be compelled to act as insurers of last resort. The cost to taxpayers of

George M. Constantinides; John B. Donaldson; Rajnish Mehra

2005-01-01

83

A Secure Group Communication Framework in Private Personal Area Networks (P-PANs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the next promising generation networks is personal networks where a user can make ad-hoc networks with his\\/her personal devices. However, the present security mechanism does not consider at all what happens whenever a mobile node (device) is compromised, lost or stolen. Since a user may hold many different types of devices, the leakage of stored secrets sometimes results

SeongHan Shin; Hanane Fathi; Kazukuni Kobara; Hideki Imai

2007-01-01

84

Enabling private and public sector organizations as agents of homeland security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeland security and defense applications seek to reduce the risk of undesirable eventualities across physical space in real-time. With that functional requirement in mind, our work focused on the development of IP based agent telecommunication solutions for heterogeneous sensor \\/ robotic intelligent \\

David H. J. Glassco; Jordan C. Glassco

2006-01-01

85

A New Approach to Secure Aggregation of Private Data in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many applications require the privacy of the sampled data while they travel from the source sensor nodes to data collecting device, say data sink. Providing an efficient data aggregation scheme with preserving data privacy is a challenging problem in the research of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Although the secure data aggregation in WSNs has been well studied in the recent

Rabindra Bista; Kyoung-Jin Jo; Jae-Woo Chang

2009-01-01

86

Data Security Lapses in Developed Societies: Public and Private Sector Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of twenty five million (25) child-benefit records was disclosed on 20th November 2007 to the House of Commons. The scale of the security lapse at the Treasury's tax agency, affected almost half the British population. Two computer discs containing the names, addresses and dates of birth of nine and a half (9.5) million parents and fifteen and a

Anthony J Rodrigues

87

Enabling private and public sector organizations as agents of homeland security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homeland security and defense applications seek to reduce the risk of undesirable eventualities across physical space in real-time. With that functional requirement in mind, our work focused on the development of IP based agent telecommunication solutions for heterogeneous sensor / robotic intelligent "Things" that could be deployed across the internet. This paper explains how multi-organization information and device sharing alliances may be formed to enable organizations to act as agents of homeland security (in addition to other uses). Topics include: (i) using location-aware, agent based, real-time information sharing systems to integrate business systems, mobile devices, sensor and actuator based devices and embedded devices used in physical infrastructure assets, equipment and other man-made "Things" (ii) organization-centric real-time information sharing spaces using on-demand XML schema formatted networks; (iii) object-oriented XML serialization as a methodology for heterogeneous device glue code; (iv) how complex requirements for inter / intra organization information and device ownership and sharing, security and access control, mobility and remote communication service, tailored solution life cycle management, service QoS, service and geographic scalability and the projection of remote physical presence (through sensing and robotics) and remote informational presence (knowledge of what is going elsewhere) can be more easily supported through feature inheritance with a rapid agent system development methodology; (v) how remote object identification and tracking can be supported across large areas; (vi) how agent synergy may be leveraged with analytics to complement heterogeneous device networks.

Glassco, David H. J.; Glassco, Jordan C.

2006-06-01

88

Methodology for overlay mark selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that different overlay mark designs will have different responses to process setup conditions. An overlay mark optimized for the 45nm technology node might not be suitable for wafers using 30nm or 20nm process technologies due to changes in lithography and process conditions. As overlay control specifications become tighter and tighter, the process engineer requires metrics beyond precision, tool-induced shift (TIS) and TIS variability to determine the optimal target design. In this paper, the authors demonstrate a novel, comprehensive methodology which employs source of variance (SOV) to help engineers select the best overlay marks to meet overlay control requirements.

Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Huang, Chao-Tien Healthy; Golotsvan, Anna; Tien, David; Chiu, Chui-Fu; Huang, Chun-Yen; Wu, Wen-Bin; Shih, Chiang-Lin

2011-03-01

89

Media delivery and media service overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimedia communication and streaming media services will become mainstream network infrastructure applications in the coming decade. However, there are many challenges that must be overcome. These challenges include the Internet"s limited ability to handle real-time, low-latency media streams, the need for media security, and an uncertainty of the killer app. The nature of these challenges lends itself to enabling technology innovations in the media delivery and media processing space. Specifically, we envision an overlay infrastructure that supports networked media services that couple media delivery with in-network media processing. The media overlay should be programmable to allow rapid deployment of new applications and services and manageable so as to support the evolving requirements of the resulting usage models. Furthermore, the media overlay should allow for the delivery of protected media content for applications that have security requirements. A properly architected infrastructure can enable real-time multimedia communication and streaming media services in light of the inherent challenges.

Wee, Susie

2005-03-01

90

Defending P2Ps from Overlay Flooding-based DDoS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flooding-based search mechanism is often used in un- structured P2P systems. Although a flooding-based search mechanism is simple and easy to implement, it is vulnerable to overlay distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. Most pre- vious security techniques protect networks from network-layer DDoS attacks, but cannot be applied to overlay DDoS attacks. Overlay flooding-based DDoS attacks can be more damaging in

Yunhao Liu; Xiaomei Liu; Chen Wang; Li Xiao

2007-01-01

91

Electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of cathodic protection to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures has been well established. Application of a durable, skid-resistant electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay would advance the use of cathodic protection for the highway industry. Laboratory studies indicate that electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays using conductive fillers, such as calcined coke breeze, in conjunction with polyester or vinyl ester resins have resistivities of 1 to 10 ohm-cm. Both multiple-layer and premixed mortar-type overlays were made. Shear bond strengths of the conductive overlays to concrete substrates vary from 600 to 1300 psi, with the premixed overlays having bond strengths 50 to 100% higher than the multiple-layer overlays.

Fontana, J. J.; Webster, R. P.

1984-08-01

92

Electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays  

SciTech Connect

The use of cathodic protection to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures has been well established. Application of a durable, skid-resistant electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay would advance the use of cathodic protection for the highway industry. Laboratory studies indicate that electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays using conductive fillers, such as calcined coke breeze, in conjunction with polyester or vinyl ester resins have resistivities of 1 to 10 ohm-cm. Both multiple-layer and premixed mortar-type overlays have been made. Shear bond strengths of the conductive overlays to concrete substrates vary from 600 to 1300 psi, with the premixed overlays having bond strengths 50 to 100% higher than the multiple-layer overlays.

Fontana, J.J.; Webster, R.P.

1984-08-01

93

Evaluation of the Cargill Safelane Surface Overlay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recent development in polymer concrete overlays is the Cargill SafeLane surface overlay (SafeLane overlay). The 3/8-in-thick overlay is constructed with epoxy and broadcast aggregates, as are typical multiple-layer epoxy overlays that are used to provid...

D. S. Roosevelt D. W. Mokarem E. D. Izeppi G. W. Flintsch M. M. Sprinkel

2009-01-01

94

Secure and Robust Overlay Content Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the success of applications spurring the tremendous increase in the volume of data transfer, efficient and reliable content distribution has become a key issue. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has gained popularity as a promising approach to large-scale content distribution due to its benefits including self-organizing, load-balancing, and…

Kang, Hun Jeong

2010-01-01

95

Grid Computing Security Lecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grid Computing Lecture~~Security: secure connection, authentication and authorization, password authentication, symmetric (secret) and asymmetric (public/private) key cyptography, RSA algorithm.

Ferner, Clayton; Wilkinson, Barry

2011-07-05

96

Defending against eclipse attacks on overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks are widely used to deploy functionality at edge nodes without changing network routers. Each node in an overlay network maintains pointers to a set of neighbor nodes. These pointers are used both to maintain the overlay and to implement application functionality, for example, to locate content stored by overlay nodes. If an attacker controls a large fraction of

Atul Singh; Miguel Castro; Peter Druschel; Antony I. T. Rowstron

2004-01-01

97

Strategies of Conflict in Coexisting Streaming Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In multimedia applications such as IPTV, it is nat- ural to accommodate multiple coexisting peer-to-peer streaming overlays, corresponding to channels of programming. With coex- isting streaming overlays, one wonders how these overlays may ef- ficiently share the available upload bandwidth on peers, in order to satisfy the required streaming rate in each overlay, as well as to minimize streaming costs.

Chuan Wu; Baochun Li

2007-01-01

98

Overlay similarity: a new overlay index for metrology tool and scanner overlay fingerprint methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For different CD metrologies like average CD from CD SEM and optical CD (OCD) from scatterometry, CD point-to-point R2 has been well adopted as the CD correlation index. For different overlay metrologies like image-based box-in-box overlay and scatterometry-based overlay, we propose the cosine similarity as the correlation index of overlay. The cosine similarity is a measure of similarity between two vectors of n dimensions by finding the cosine of the angle between them, often used to compare documents in text mining. It has been widely used in web and document search engines and can be used as the similarity index of overlay tool-to-tool matching and scanner tool-to-tool or day-to-day fingerprint. In this paper, we demonstrate that the cosine similarity has a very high sensitivity to the overly tool performance. We compared the similarities of three generations (A1, A2, A3) of the overlay tools of venders A and B and found that after target re-training and TIS correction on each tool A1 similarity to A3 can be improved from 0.9837 to 0.9951. Overlay point-to-point matching with A3 vs. A1 can be reduced from 4.8 to 2.1 nm. The tool precision similarities, i.e. tool self best similarity, for A1, A2, A3 and B are 0.9986, 0.9990, 0.9995, and 0.9994 respectively. From this table, we demonstrate that we can use old-generation overlay tool with suitable hardware maintenance, to match to the latest-generation overlay tool.

Ke, Chih-Ming; Kao, Ching-Pin; Wang, Yu-Hsi; Hu, Jimmy; Chang, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Ya-Jung; Yen, Anthony; Lin, Burn J.

2009-03-01

99

Reflection Cracking in Bituminous Overlays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nine different treatments to the pavement were included in the design of an Interstate project in Colorado in anticipation of finding a method of reducing or eliminating reflection cracking through bituminous overlays. Each treatment is represented by two...

D. E. Donnelly P. J. McCabe H. N. Swanson

1976-01-01

100

Private Pensions: Participants Need Information on the Risks of Investing in Employer Securities and the Benefits of Diversification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The financial collapse of the Enron Corporation and other large firms and the effects on workers and retirees has raised questions about retirement funds being invested in employer securities and the laws governing such investments. Enrons plan participan...

2002-01-01

101

Public/Private Partnerships with Hazardous Material Motor Carriers: Creating Incentives to Increase Security through Assessed Risk (STAR).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On September 11, 2001, terrorists used commercial airliners as weapons of terror inside the United States, and America's approach to security was forever changed. While commercial airliners were the weapons of choice on that day, the 9/11 Commission recog...

A. E. Colsky

2008-01-01

102

Overlay welding irradiated stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overlay technique developed for welding irradiated stainless steel may be important for repair or modification of fusion reactor materials. Helium, present due to (n,alpha) reactions, is known to cause cracking using conventional welding methods. Stainless steel impregnated with 3 to 220 appm helium by decay of tritium was used to develop a welding process that could be used for repair. The result was a gas metal arc weld overlay technique with low-heat input and low-penetration into the helium-containing material. Extensive metallurgical and mechanical testing of this technique demonstrated substantial reduction of helium embrittlement damage. The overlay technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel containing 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking, although greater than for tritium charged and aged material, was minimal compared to conventional welding methods.

Kanne, W. R.; Chandler, G. T.; Nelson, D. Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E. A.

103

Coloured overlays, text, and texture.  

PubMed

In four studies children were asked to read aloud a passage of randomly ordered common words with and without a coloured sheet of plastic (overlay) placed upon the page. The children's rate of reading increased with the overlay, for some children more than for others. The children were also asked to undertake a test of texture segmentation in which targets consisting of a structured texture had to be distinguished from within a random background texture. The texture segmentation was improved when the overlay was used, again for some children more than for others. The improvement in texture segmentation was, in general, correlated with the improvement in rate of reading. Slower readers were generally poorer at texture segmentation. The implications for reading, for texture segmentation, and for clinical tests of vision are discussed. PMID:10664760

Wilkins, A; Lewis, E

1999-01-01

104

Overlay welding irradiated stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

An overlay technique developed for welding irradiated stainless steel may be important for repair or modification of fusion reactor materials. Helium, present due to n,{alpha} reactions, is known to cause cracking using conventional welding methods. Stainless steel impregnated with 3 to 220 appm helium by decay of tritium was used to develop a welding process that could be used for repair. The result was a gas metal arc weld overlay technique with low-heat input and low-penetration into the helium-containing material. Extensive metallurgical and mechanical testing of this technique demonstrated substantial reduction of helium embrittlement damage. The overlay technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel containing 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking, although greater than for tritium charged and aged material, was minimal compared to conventional welding methods.

Kanne, W.R.; Chandler, G.T.; Nelson, D.Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

1993-08-01

105

Overlay metrology at the crossroads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of new techniques such as double patterning will reduce overlay process tolerance much faster than the rate at which critical feature dimensions are shrinking. In order to control such processes measurements with uncertainties under 0.4nm are desirable today and will become essential within the next few years. This very small error budget leads to questions about the capability of the imaging technology used in overlay tools today and to evaluation of potential replacement techniques. In this paper we will show that while imaging technology is in principle capable of meeting this requirement, the real uncertainty in overlay within devices falls well short of the levels needed. A proper comparison between techniques needs to focus on all of the possible sources of error, and especially those that cannot be simply reduced by calibration or by repeating measurements. On that basis there are more significant problems than the relative capability of different measurement techniques. We will discuss a method by which overlay within the device area can be controlled to the required tolerance.

Smith, Nigel P.; Binns, Lewis A.; Plambeck, Albert; Heidrich, Kevin

2008-04-01

106

32nm overlay improvement capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The industry is facing a major challenge looking forward on the technology roadmap with respect to overlay control. Immersion lithography has established itself as the POR for 45nm and for the next few nodes. As the gap closes between scanner capability and device requirements new methodologies need to be taken into consideration. Double patterning lithography is an approach that's being considered for 32 and below, but it creates very strict demands for overlay performance. The fact that a single layer device will need to be patterned using two sequential single processes creates a strong coupling between the 1st and 2nd exposure. The coupling effect during the double patterning process results in extremely tight tolerances for overlay error and scanner capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to explore a new modeling method to improve lithography performance for the 32nm node. Not necessarily unique for double patterning, but as a general approach to improve overlay performance regardless of which patterning process is implemented. We will achieve this by performing an in depth source of variance analysis of current scanner performance and project the anticipated improvements from our new modeling approach. Since the new modeling approach will involve 2nd and 3rd order corrections we will also provide and analysis that outlines current metrology capabilities and sampling optimizations to further expand the opportunities of an efficient implementation of such approach.

Eichelberger, Brad; Huang, Kevin; O'Brien, Kelly; Tien, David; Tsai, Frank; Minvielle, Anna; Singh, Lovejeet; Schefske, Jeffrey

2008-03-01

107

Quality indicators of image-based overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for indicating the image quality of overlay measurement is proposed in this paper. Due to the constraint of the overlay control tolerance, the overlay metrology requirement has become very stringent. Current indicators such as the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) are insufficient to guarantee a good overlay measurement. This paper describes two quality indicators, the contrast index (CI) and the asymmetry index (AI). The CI is a crucial quality indicator that affects the overlay accuracy greatly. The AI, based on an imaging process with modified cross-correlation operation, shows alignment mark robustness in both the x and the y directions. For determination of the best recipe, the box-in-box overlay marks are measured to obtain the images with different conditions. The conventional TMU indicators are used first to sieve out the better choices. Then the CI and AI can help to judge whether the overlay results are reliable and can be applied to monitoring of process variations.

Chen, Yen-Liang; Huang, Jacky; Lee, Rita; Wang, Chen-Ming; Ke, Chih-Ming; Gau, Tsai-Sheng

2012-03-01

108

Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

Technology & Learning, 2008

2008-01-01

109

On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers  

SciTech Connect

Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Guok, Chin; Jackson, Keith; Kissel, Ezra; Swany, D. Martin; Agarwal, Deborah

2009-10-12

110

Evaluating diffraction-based overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate diffraction-based overlay (DBO) metrology using two test wafers. The test wafers have different film stacks designed to test the quality of DBO data under a range of film conditions. We present DBO results using traditional empirical approach (eDBO). eDBO relies on linear response of the reflectance with respect to the overlay displacement within a small range. It requires specially designed targets that consist of multiple pads with programmed shifts. It offers convenience of quick recipe setup since there is no need to establish a model. We measure five DBO targets designed with different pitches and programmed shifts. The correlations of five eDBO targets and the correlation of eDBO to image-based overlay are excellent. The targets of 800nm and 600nm pitches have better dynamic precision than targets of 400nm pitch, which agrees with simulated results on signal/noise ratio. 3? of less than 0.1nm is achieved for both wafers using the best configured targets. We further investigate the linearity assumption of eDBO algorithm. Simulation results indicate that as the pitch of DBO targets gets smaller, the nonlinearity error, i.e., the error in the overlay measurement results caused by deviation from ideal linear response, becomes bigger. We propose a nonlinearity correction (NLC) by including higher order terms in the optical response. The new algorithm with NLC improves measurement consistency for DBO targets of same pitch but different programmed shift, due to improved accuracy. The results from targets with different pitches, however, are improved marginally, indicating the presence of other error sources.

Li, Jie; Tan, Asher; Jung, JinWoo; Goelzer, Gary; Smith, Nigel; Hu, Jiangtao; Ham, Boo-Hyun; Kwak, Min-Cheol; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Nam, Suk-Woo

2012-03-01

111

Private Virtual Infrastructure: A Model for Trustworthy Utility Cloud Computing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Private Virtual Infrastructure is a security architecture for cloud computing which uses a new trust model to share the responsibility of security in cloud computing between the service provider and client, decreasing the risk exposure to both. Private Vi...

A. T. Sherman D. S. Phatak F. J. Krautheim

2010-01-01

112

Overlay metrology for double patterning processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The double patterning (DPT) process is foreseen by the industry to be the main solution for the 32 nm technology node and even beyond. Meanwhile process compatibility has to be maintained and the performance of overlay metrology has to improve. To achieve this for Image Based Overlay (IBO), usually the optics of overlay tools are improved. It was also demonstrated that these requirements are achievable with a Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) technique named SCOLTM [1]. In addition, we believe that overlay measurements with respect to a reference grid are required to achieve the required overlay control [2]. This induces at least a three-fold increase in the number of measurements (2 for double patterned layers to the reference grid and 1 between the double patterned layers). The requirements of process compatibility, enhanced performance and large number of measurements make the choice of overlay metrology for DPT very challenging. In this work we use different flavors of the standard overlay metrology technique (IBO) as well as the new technique (SCOL) to address these three requirements. The compatibility of the corresponding overlay targets with double patterning processes (Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE); Litho-Freeze-Litho-Etch (LFLE), Spacer defined) is tested. The process impact on different target types is discussed (CD bias LELE, Contrast for LFLE). We compare the standard imaging overlay metrology with non-standard imaging techniques dedicated to double patterning processes (multilayer imaging targets allowing one overlay target instead of three, very small imaging targets). In addition to standard designs already discussed [1], we investigate SCOL target designs specific to double patterning processes. The feedback to the scanner is determined using the different techniques. The final overlay results obtained are compared accordingly. We conclude with the pros and cons of each technique and suggest the optimal metrology strategy for overlay control in double patterning processes.

Leray, Philippe; Cheng, Shaunee; Laidler, David; Kandel, Daniel; Adel, Mike; Dinu, Berta; Polli, Marco; Vasconi, Mauro; Salski, Bartlomiej

2009-03-01

113

Race conditions in coexisting overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— By allowing end hosts to make,independent,routing decisions at the application level, different overlay networks may unintentionally,interfere with each other. This paper,describes how,multiple,similar or dissimilar overlay,networks,could ex- perience race conditions, resulting in oscillations (in both route selection and network,load) and cascading reactions. We pinpoint the causes for synchronization,and derive an analytic formulation for the synchronization,probability,of two overlays. Our model indicates

Ram Keralapura; Chen-nee Chuah; Nina Taft; Gianluca Iannaccone

2008-01-01

114

Overlay multi-hop FEC scheme for video streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks offer promising capabilities for video streaming, due to their support for application-layer processing at the overlay forwarding nodes. In this paper, we focus on the problem of providing lightweight support at selected intermediate overlay forwarding nodes to achieve increased error resilience on a single overlay path for video streaming. We propose a novel overlay multi-hop forward error correction

Yufeng Shan; Ivan V. Bajic; Shivkumar Kalyanaraman; John W. Woods

2005-01-01

115

Optimal sampling strategies for sub-100-nm overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay control is a critical requirement of the lithographic process, and the challenge will be even greater with 0.18- micron technology, where the overlay budget is expected to shrink to 70 nm. Control of overlay is often achieved by modifying the stepping parameters to remove any correctable overlay errors. The estimated value of these parameters depends on the overlay error

Bharath Rangarajan; Michael K. Templeton; Luigi Capodieci; Ramkumar Subramanian; Alec Scranton

1998-01-01

116

Coloured Overlays and Their Benefit for Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents three studies where children in mainstream schools compared text on white paper with identical text covered in turn by each of 10 differently-colored plastic overlays. Shows consistency with regard to the proportion of children in mainstream education who report beneficial perceptual effects with colored overlays and who demonstrate…

Wilkins, Arnold J.; Lewis, Elizabeth; Smith, Fiona; Rowland, Elizabeth; Tweedie, Wendy

2001-01-01

117

Overlay accuracy with respect to device scaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay metrology performance is usually reported as repeatability, matching between tools or optics aberrations distorting the measurement (Tool induced shift or TIS). Over the last few years, improvement of these metrics by the tool suppliers has been impressive. But, what about accuracy? Using different target types, we have already reported small differences in the mean value as well as fingerprint [1]. These differences make the correctables questionable. Which target is correct and therefore which translation, scaling etc. values should be fed back to the scanner? In this paper we investigate the sources of these differences, using several approaches. First, we measure the response of different targets to offsets programmed in a test vehicle. Second, we check the response of the same overlay targets to overlay errors programmed into the scanner. We compare overlay target designs; what is the contribution of the size of the features that make up the target? We use different overlay measurement techniques; is DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay) more accurate than IBO (Image Based Overlay)? We measure overlay on several stacks; what is the stack contribution to inaccuracy? In conclusion, we offer an explanation for the observed differences and propose a solution to reduce them.

Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee

2012-03-01

118

Overlays for plain jointed concrete pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the construction and performance of 4 concrete and 16 asphalt overlay test sections after nine years of traffic. The test sections were placed on I-85 which carries a substantial number of heavy trucks to determine what treatments and overlay type and thickness would give acceptable performance. The concrete overlay sections were placed in 1975 and consisted of 3 inch, 4 1/2 inch, and 6 inch CRC and 6 inch jointed PCC with 15 ft. and 30 ft. joint spacing. The asphalt sections were placed in 1976 with the variables being overlay thickness of 2 inches, 4 inches, and 6 inches and the placement of two geotextiles and strips of a waterproofing membrane for each overlay thickness. An Arkansas base test section was also included in the experiment.

Gulden, W.; Brown, D.

1984-09-01

119

Privatizing Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California legislation…

Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

2012-01-01

120

77 FR 15566 - Private Transfer Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency...encumbered by certain types of private transfer fee covenants and in certain related securities...encumbered by certain private transfer fees. To allow full public participation...

2012-03-16

121

76 FR 6702 - Private Transfer Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency...encumbered by certain types of private transfer fee covenants and in certain related securities...proposed rule would except private transfer fees paid to homeowner associations,...

2011-02-08

122

Diffraction based overlay re-assessed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, numerous authors have reported the advantages of Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) over Image Based Overlay (IBO), mainly by comparison of metrology figures of merit such as TIS and TMU. Some have even gone as far as to say that DBO is the only viable overlay metrology technique for advanced technology nodes; 22nm and beyond. Typically the only reported drawback of DBO is the size of the required targets. This severely limits its effective use, when all critical layers of a product, including double patterned layers need to be measured, and in-die overlay measurements are required. In this paper we ask whether target size is the only limitation to the adoption of DBO for overlay characterization and control, or are there other metrics, which need to be considered. For example, overlay accuracy with respect to scanner baseline or on-product process overlay control? In this work, we critically re-assess the strengths and weaknesses of DBO for the applications of scanner baseline and on-product process layer overlay control. A comprehensive comparison is made to IBO. For on product process layer control we compare the performance on critical process layers; Gate, Contact and Metal. In particularly we focus on the response of the scanner to the corrections determined by each metrology technique for each process layer, as a measure of the accuracy. Our results show that to characterize an overlay metrology technique that is suitable for use in advanced technology nodes requires much more than just evaluating the conventional metrology metrics of TIS and TMU.

Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; D'Havé, Koen; Cheng, Shaunee

2011-03-01

123

A comparison of advanced overlay technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extension of optical lithography to 22nm and beyond by Double Patterning Technology is often challenged by CDU and overlay control. With reduced overlay measurement error budgets in the sub-nm range, relying on traditional Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) estimates alone is no longer sufficient. In this paper we will report scatterometry overlay measurements data from a set of twelve test wafers, using four different target designs. The TMU of these measurements is under 0.4nm, within the process control requirements for the 22nm node. Comparing the measurement differences between DBO targets (using empirical and model based analysis) and with image-based overlay data indicates the presence of systematic and random measurement errors that exceeds the TMU estimate.

Dasari, Prasad; Smith, Nigel; Goelzer, Gary; Liu, Zhuan; Li, Jie; Tan, Asher; Koh, Chin Hwee

2010-03-01

124

Diffraction based overlay metrology for ?-carbon applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications that require overlay measurement between layers separated by absorbing interlayer films (such as ?- carbon) pose significant challenges for sub-50nm processes. In this paper scatterometry methods are investigated as an alternative to meet these stringent overlay metrology requirements. In this article, a spectroscopic Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) measurement technique is used where registration errors are extracted from specially designed diffraction targets. DBO measurements are performed on detailed set of wafers with varying ?-carbon (ACL) thicknesses. The correlation in overlay values between wafers with varying ACL thicknesses will be discussed. The total measurement uncertainty (TMU) requirements for these layers are discussed and the DBO TMU results from sub-50nm samples are reviewed.

Saravanan, Chandra Saru; Tan, Asher; Dasari, Prasad; Goelzer, Gary; Smith, Nigel; Woo, Seouk-Hoon; Shin, Jang Ho; Kang, Hyun Jae; Kim, Ho Chul

2008-04-01

125

Secure personal network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Personal Networks (PNs) have been focused in supporting the user's business and private activities without jeopardizing privacy and security of the users and their data. The support in business and private activities will take place through the user's own personal network consisting of a core Personal Area Network (PAN) extended with clusters of remote devices which could be private,

Puri N. Anggraeni; Neeli R. Prasad; R. Prasad

2008-01-01

126

Solidification of an alloy 625 weld overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temperature range) of an Alloy\\u000a 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr - 1Mo steel by gas metal arc welding was investigated by light and electron optical microscopy,\\u000a electron microprobe, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The overlay deposit was found to terminate solidification\\u000a at ? 1216 C by a?\\/Laves eutectic-type reaction. The

J. N. DuPont

1996-01-01

127

Core level photoemission of iodine overlayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the core level binding energies of chemisorbed iodine on Fe(110) and Fe(100). A decrease of 0.6 eV in the binding energies of the iodine core levels is observed with the increasing coverage of the chemisorbed iodine overlayer. This change in core level binding energies with coverage is compared with the results for iodine overlayers on other transition metal

P. A. Dowben; Y. J. Kime; D. Mueller; T. N. Rhodin

1988-01-01

128

Proposals to Restructure Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses five proposed changes in Social Security: indexing the normal retirement age to life expectancy (as Sweden is doing); investing part of the trust funds in private securities; partial privatization (as has been proposed by Senators Kerrey and Simpson, Sweden is doing and Mexico has done); replacing Social Security by individually mandated savings (as was done in Chile

Peter A. Diamond

1996-01-01

129

Nuclear privatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the

Jeffs

1995-01-01

130

Private authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequently, communication between two principals reveals their identities and presence to third parties. These privacy breaches can occur even if security protocols are in use; indeed, they may even be caused by security protocols. However, with some care, security protocols can provide authentication for principals that wish to communicate while protecting them from monitoring by third parties. We discuss the

Mart??n Abadi; Cédric Fournet

2004-01-01

131

National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this effort was to coordinate research and development activities throughout private industry, academic laboratories, and private research laboratories to support the development of a national strategy for securing cyberspace. The approac...

K. T. Schwalm

2006-01-01

132

Solidification of an alloy 625 weld overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temperature range) of an Alloy 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr - 1Mo steel by gas metal arc welding was investigated by light and electron optical microscopy, electron microprobe, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The overlay deposit was found to terminate solidification at ? 1216 °C by a ?/Laves eutectic-type reaction. The Laves phase was highly enriched in Nb, Mo, and Si. The solidification reaction and microsegregation potential of major alloying elements in the overlay deposit are compared to other Nb-bearing Ni base alloys and found to be very similar to those for Alloy 718. Solidification cracks observed in the overlay were attributed to the wide solidification temperature range (?170 °C) and formation of interdendritic ( ?+Laves) constituent. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured volume percent ( ?+Laves) constituent with the Scheil equation by treating the overlay system as a simple ?-Nb “binary” and using an experimentally determined k Nb value from electron microprobe data.

Dupont, J. N.

1996-11-01

133

Overlay breakdown methodology on immersion scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years a flourishing number of techniques such as High Order Control or mappers have been proposed to improve overlay control. However a sustainable improvement requires sometimes understanding the underlying causes of the overlay limiting factors in order to remove them when possible or at least to keep them under control. Root cause finding for overlay error is a tough task due the very high number of influencing parameters and the interaction of the usage conditions. This paper presents a breakdown methodology to deal with this complexity and to find the contributors of overlay error variation. We use a Partial Least Squares (PLS) algorithm to isolate the key contributors for correctable terms and a field-to-field linear regression technique to highlight the main causes of residuals. We present a study carried out on 45nm CMOS contact-gate overlay over 687 production wafers exposed in an ASML TWINSCAN XT:1700i Immersion scanner. We present the results of the correlations with the 180 process and equipment variables used for this study. For each isolated contributor we propose an explanation of the underlying physical phenomenon and solutions.

Lam, Auguste; Pasqualini, Francois; de Caunes, Jean; Gatefait, Maxime

2010-03-01

134

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

SciTech Connect

The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB`s.

Not Available

1994-11-01

135

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

136

17 CFR 275.203(m)-1 - Private fund adviser exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Private fund adviser exemption. 275.203(m)-1 Section 275.203(m)-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.203(m)-1 Private fund adviser exemption. (a)...

2013-04-01

137

On Adding Structure to Unstructured Overlay Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unstructured peer-to-peer overlay networks are very resilient to churn and topology changes, while requiring little maintenance cost. Therefore, they are an infrastructure to build highly scalable large-scale services in dynamic networks. Typically, the overlay topology is defined by a peer sampling service that aims at maintaining, in each process, a random partial view of peers in the system. The resulting random unstructured topology is suboptimal when a specific performance metric is considered. On the other hand, structured approaches (for instance, a spanning tree) may optimize a given target performance metric but are highly fragile. In fact, the cost for maintaining structures with strong constraints may easily become prohibitive in highly dynamic networks. This chapter discusses different techniques that aim at combining the advantages of unstructured and structured networks. Namely we focus on two distinct approaches, one based on optimizing the overlay and another based on optimizing the gossip mechanism itself.

Leitão, João; Carvalho, Nuno A.; Pereira, José; Oliveira, Rui; Rodrigues, Luís

138

Weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

SciTech Connect

A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-03-03

139

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

SciTech Connect

Twelve weld overlay hardfacing alloys have been selected for preliminary erosion testing based on a literature review These alloys have been separated into three major groups: (1) Cobalt containing alloys, (2) Nickel-base alloys, (3) Iron base alloys. These alloys are being applied to carbon steel substrates and will undergo preliminary erosion testing to identify candidates weld overlay alloys for erosion control in CFB boilers. The candidate alloys selected from the preliminary erosion tests will then undergo more detailed evaluations in future research.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-04-18

140

76 FR 46603 - Security Ratings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...convertible securities, other than common equity, is eligible to be registered...convertible securities, other than common equity, in primary offerings for...private information that is not common knowledge to the market--then...

2011-08-03

141

A Fatal Flaw: The Ninth Circuit Further Restricts Liability in 10b-5 Private Security Fraud Cases in Reese v. BP  

Microsoft Academic Search

On June 28, 2011, in Reese v. BP Explorations (Alaska) Inc., the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit held that plaintiffs could not bring certain securities fraud claims relating to a burst in an Alaskan oil pipeline, because the plaintiffs failed to show that the defendant had the “ultimate authority” for the allegedly fraudulent SEC filings. In so

Benjamin Piper

2012-01-01

142

An optimal discrete rate allocation for overlay video multicasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, overlay multicasting has been considered as an important approach for providing multicast services over the Internet. Due to the limited capacity and the heterogeneity of the Internet clients, using overlay multicasting for video streaming applications is a challenging task. Designing bandwidth-efficient overlay structures and optimal resource allocation are the most important techniques that can be considered to deal with

B. Akbari; Hamid R. Rabiee; Mohammed Ghanbari

2008-01-01

143

Overlay tool comparison for sub-130-nm technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Overlay Metrology Advisory Group (OMAG), which includes representatives from International SEMATECH Member Companies and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, has collaborated to create a unified specification for overlay measurement tools [1]. The methodology and results of an overlay benchmarking comparison of several tools are discussed in this paper. As device technologies shrink below the sub-130nm range, a

Beth Russo; Michael Bishop; David C. Benoit; Richard M. Silver

2002-01-01

144

Curriculum overlay model for embedding digital resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and implementation of a curriculum overlay model for the representation of adaptable curriculum using educational digital library resources. We focus on representing curriculum to enable the incorporation of digital resources into curriculum and curriculum sharing and customization by educators. We defined this model as a result of longitudinal studies on educators' development and customization of

Huda J. Khan; Keith E. Maull; Tamara Sumner

2008-01-01

145

Evaluation of Concrete Overlays for Bridge Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents performance of 12 concrete bridge decks that were rehabilitated and/or protected with latex-modified concrete and low-slump dense concrete overlays in order to prevent future de-icing salt penetration and reinforcing steel corrosion. ...

K. Babaei

1987-01-01

146

Using Overlays to Support Context Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subset of context awareness is network context information, which requires distributed monitoring and information gathering. We propose the use of ap plication level overlays, utilising hierarchical cl ustering techniques, as the infrastructure for supporting an d providing network context information. Our proposition is supported by results from previous work in the deve lopment and deployment of an active service

Michael Fr; Glen MacLarty; Ian Wakeman

147

MOSAIC: Multiple Overlay Selection and Intelligent Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, the most effective mechanism for remedying shortcomings of the Internet, or augmenting it with new networking capabilities, is to develop and deploy a new overlay network. This leads to the problem of multi- ple networking infrastructures, each with independent advantages, and each developed in isolation. A greatly preferable solution is to have a single infrastructure un- der which new

Yun Mao; Boon Thau Loo; Zachary G Ives; Jonathan M Smith

2007-01-01

148

Scalability in Adaptive Multi-Metric Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing application requirements have placed heavy emphasis on building overlay networks to efficiently de- liver data to multiple receivers. A key performance chal- lenge is simultaneously achieving adaptivity to changing network conditions and scalability to large numbers of users. In addition, most current algorithms focus on a sin- gle performance metric, such as delay or bandwidth, par- ticular to individual

Adolfo Rodriguez; Dejan Kostic; Amin Vahdat

2004-01-01

149

Arigatoni: A Simple Programmable Overlay Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

We design a lightweight Overlay Network, called Ari- gatoni, that is suitable to deploy the Global Comput- ing Paradigm over the Internet. Communications over the behavioral units of the model are performed by a simple communication protocol. Basic Global Comput- ers can communicate by first registering to a brokering service and then by mutually asking and oering ser- vices, in

Didier Benza; Michel Cosnard; Luigi Liquori; Marc Vesin

2006-01-01

150

The Overlay Network Content Distribution Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the lack of deployment of a network-layer multi- cast service, many overlay multicast protocols have been designed and deployed across the Internet to support con- tent distribution. To our knowledge, however, none have pro- vided a rigorous analysis of the problem or the effectiveness of their proposed solutions. Here, we set aside the engineer- ing challenges of protocol

Chip Killian; Michael Vrable; Alex C. Snoeren; Amin Vahdat; Joseph Pasquale

2005-01-01

151

Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied.

S. W. Banovic; J. B. DuPont; B. F. Levin; A. R. Marder

1999-01-01

152

Chainsaw: Eliminating Trees from Overlay Multicast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present Chainsaw, a p2p overlay mul- ticast system that completely eliminates trees. Peers are notified of new packets by their neighbors and must ex- plicitly request a packet from a neighbor in order to re- ceive it. This way, duplicate data can be eliminated and a peer can ensure it receives all packets. We show with

Vinay S. Pai; Kapil Kumar; Karthik Tamilmani; Vinay Sambamurthy; Alexander E. Mohr

2005-01-01

153

iOverlay: A Lightweight Middleware Infrastructure for Overlay Application Implementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The very nature of implementing and evaluating fully distributed algorithms or protocols in application-layer overlay networks involves certain programming tasks that are at best mundane and tedious -- and at worst challenging -- even at the application level. In this paper, we present iOverlay<\\/I>, a lightweight and high-performance middleware infrastructure that addresses these problems in a novel way by providing

Baochun Li; Jiang Guo; Mea Wang

2004-01-01

154

Governance and Risk Management of Network and Information Security: The Role of Public Private Partnerships in Managing the Existing and Emerging Risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globalisation and new technology has opened the gates to more security risks. As the strategic importance of communication networks and information increased, threats to the security and safety of communication infrastructures, as well as information stored in and/or transmitted increased significantly. The development of the self replicating programmes has become a nightmare for Internet users. Leading companies, strategic organisations were not immune to attacks; they were also "hacked" and overtaken by intruders. Incidents of recent years have also shown that national/regional crisis may also trigger cyber attacks at large scale. Experts forecast that cyber wars are likely to take the stage as tension mounts between developed societies. New risks such as cyber-attacks, network terrorism and disintegration of traditional infrastructures has somewhat blurred the boundaries of operation and control. This paper seeks to consider the risk management and governance and looking more specifically at implications for emerging economies.

Navare, Jyoti; Gemikonakli, Orhan

155

Private benefits in corporate control transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor with high security benefits, or because the buyer has high private benefits

Thomas Poulsen

2008-01-01

156

Private Schools Put Spotlight on Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Administrators and students at private schools tend to see their schools as safer than public schools. Spurred in part by the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, many private schools have joined the national push to revamp campus safety plans. Kenneth S. Trump, the president of the Cleveland-based National School Safety and Security Services,…

Zehr, Mary Ann

2005-01-01

157

Supersparse overlay sampling plans: an evaluation of methods and algorithms for optimizing overlay quality control and metrology tool throughput  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, overlay metrology has ben primarily used for quality control of developed wafers. The secondary roles of overlay metrology, stepper modeling and feedback control, have become more prominent in recent years. In particular, the design of overlay sampling plans is usually strongly influenced by the requirements imposed by stepper modeling. Previous research has shown that intrafield sampling plans must be

Joseph C. Pellegrini; Ziad R. Hatab; Jeffrey M. Bush; Thomas R. Glass

1999-01-01

158

PRIVATE PROTEST?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines two historically distinct understandings of privacy and their relationship to online protest. Using a contemporary view of privacy, which focuses on information secrecy and disclosure, the author examined the development of ‘private protest’ in which both the identities of protesters and even the number of participants are concealed. Empirically, she traced this by tracking both the percentage

Jennifer Earl

2012-01-01

159

Key Management Schemes for Peer-to-Peer Multimedia Streaming Overlay Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key distribution for multimedia live streaming peer-to-peer overlay networks is a field still in its childhood stage. A scheme designed for networks of this kind must seek security and efficiency while keeping in mind the following restrictions: limited bandwidth, continuous playing, great audience size and clients churn. This paper introduces two novel schemes that allow a trade-off between security and efficiency by allowing to dynamically vary the number of levels used in the key hierarchy. These changes are motivated by great variations in audience size, and initiated by decision of the Key Server. Additionally, a comparative study of both is presented, focusing on security and audience size. Results show that larger key hierarchies can supply bigger audiences, but offer less security against statistical attacks. The opposite happens for shorter key hierarchies.

Naranjo, J. A. M.; López-Ramos, J. A.; Casado, L. G.

160

Private-to-private Corruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cases of corruption reported by the media tend almost always to involve a private party (a citizen or a corporation) that pays, or promises to pay, money to a public party (a politician or a public official, for example) in order to obtain an advantage or avoid a disadvantage. Because of the harm it does to economic efficiency and

Antonio Argandoña

2003-01-01

161

Nuclear privatization  

SciTech Connect

The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross.

Jeffs, E.

1995-11-01

162

Application of layout overlay for failure analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

New layout overlay techniques have been developed based on standard image correlation techniques to support failure analysis in modern microelectronic devices, which are critical to analyze because they are realized in new technologies using sub-?m design rules, chemical mechanical polishing techniques CMP and auto-routing design techniques. As the new techniques are realized as an extension of a standard CAD-navigation software

C. Burmer; S. Görlich; S. Pauthner

1998-01-01

163

Achieving optimum diffraction based overlay performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) metrology has been shown to have significantly reduced Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) compared to Image Based Overlay (IBO), primarily due to having no measurable Tool Induced Shift (TIS). However, the advantages of having no measurable TIS can be outweighed by increased susceptibility to WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) caused by target damage, process non-uniformities and variations. The path to optimum DBO performance lies in having well characterized metrology targets, which are insensitive to process non-uniformities and variations, in combination with optimized recipes which take advantage of advanced DBO designs. In this work we examine the impact of different degrees of process non-uniformity and target damage on DBO measurement gratings and study their impact on overlay measurement accuracy and precision. Multiple wavelength and dual polarization scatterometry are used to characterize the DBO design performance over the range of process variation. In conclusion, we describe the robustness of DBO metrology to target damage and show how to exploit the measurement capability of a multiple wavelength, dual polarization scatterometry tool to ensure the required measurement accuracy for current and future technology nodes.

Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee; Coogans, Martyn; Fuchs, Andreas; Ponomarenko, Mariya; van der Schaar, Maurits; Vanoppen, Peter

2010-03-01

164

Overlay tool comparison for sub-130-nm technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Overlay Metrology Advisory Group (OMAG), which includes representatives from International SEMATECH Member Companies and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, has collaborated to create a unified specification for overlay measurement tools [1]. The methodology and results of an overlay benchmarking comparison of several tools are discussed in this paper. As device technologies shrink below the sub-130nm range, a critical need arises to develop more precise tools to measure overlay. Overlay metrology capability needs to be available for detecting and controlling total device overlay regardless of the source of error. The misregistration measurement uncertainty introduced by the overlay tool can be compared for several systems. A benchmarking study is currently underway and focuses on the existing technique of optical measurement of centerline offsets in different target designs. The critical parameters that the study analyzes include precision, accuracy, throughput, through focus measurements, and recipe portability. Imaging issues such as low contrast targets, across wafer thickness variation, CMP effects, and grainy metal targets can contribute greatly to overlay errors. Several process stacks were designed to incorporate some of these imaging issues and test the limitations of the overlay tools. The same set of wafers and test locations were measured at each supplier site and the results were analyzed. This paper focuses on the methodology used for overlay benchmarking and examples of the results generated with respect to the parameters tested.

Russo, Beth; Bishop, Michael; Benoit, David C.; Silver, Richard M.

2002-07-01

165

Advanced process control applied to metal layer overlay process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay control of printed layers onto processed metal levels highly depends on the process influences to the alignment and overlay measurement targets. This study characterizes the systematic influence to both alignment and overlay metrology based on AlCu deposition and W CMP. The systematic influence of AlCu deposition to alignment and overlay targets are explored in theory and then verified experimentally. Both theory and experimental results are then validated empirically as "non-zero" overlay control is applied to high volume production to increase wafer edge yield. The influence of W CMP on lot-to-lot overlay performance is also characterized and accounted for to further improve metal one overlay performance. The emphasis of this paper will be model-based Advanced Process Control (APC). Methods used to characterize process influence on overlay for a back-end metal process will be discussed. We will then describe how predictive overlay was modeled in terms of AlCu deposition target life, W CMP endpoint as well as normal control context such as exposure tool and part id. The challenge of implementing APC for increased context partitioning is discussed and the need for a model-based approach is stressed. The methodology used for lot disposition in the case of "non-zero" targeted overlay is also explained.

Gould, Christopher J.; Cui, Yuanting; Louks, Sean

2004-04-01

166

Privatization and the Rise of Global Capital Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the growth in global capital market valuation, trading volume and security issuance over the past two decades. After estimating the impact of share issue privatizations on the growth of stock markets, we find that privatizations have significantly increased market liquidity, as measured by the turnover ratio. We examine the effect privatizations have had on the pattern of share

Maria K. Boutchkova; William L. Megginson

2000-01-01

167

Toward Secure Services from Untrusted Developers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a secure service prototype built from untrusted, contributed code. The service manages private data for a variety of different users, and user programs frequently require access to other users' private data. However, aside from covert timing ch...

E. Kohier F. Kaashoek M. Brodsky M. Krohn P. Efstathopoulos

2007-01-01

168

Too much security?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major changes in the governance of crime are occurring within, on the margins, and outside the public sphere. Exemplified by the development of risk assessment, crime prevention, community safety, insurance, and private security, these changes call into question traditional modes of crime control and challenge existing criminal justice values. This article asks what exactly is on offer when security stands

Lucia Zedner

2003-01-01

169

Social Security Money's Worth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how three money's worth measures - the benefit-to-tax ratio, the internal rate of return, and the net present value - are calculated and used in analyses of social security reforms, including systems with privately managed individual accounts invested in equities. Declining returns from the U.S. social security system prove to be the inevitable result of having instituted

John Geanakoplos; Olivia S. Mitchell; Stephen P. Zeldes

1999-01-01

170

Experimental AC (Asphalt Concrete) overlays of PCC pavement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of experimental asphalt concrete (AC) overlays was constructed over an existing distressed portland cement concrete pavement on Interstate 80 near Boca, California. The experimental overlays included rubberized dense-graded AC, rubberized open-graded AC, a rubber flush coat interlayer, dense-graded AC with short polyester fibers and Bituthene interlayer strips. The report presents a description and discussion of AC mix batching, construction observations, laboratory testing, overlay covering, and initial performance evaluation.

Smith, R. D.

1983-11-01

171

T-Man: Gossip-based fast overlay topology construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale overlay networks have become crucial ingredients of fully-decentralized applications and peer-to-peer systems. Depending on the task at hand, overlay networks are organized into different topologies, such as rings, trees, semantic and geographic proximity networks. We argue that the central role overlay networks play in decentralized application development requires a more systematic study and effort towards understanding the possibilities and

Márk Jelasity; Alberto Montresor; Özalp Babaoglu

2009-01-01

172

Field application and performance of concrete overlay for pavement rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test section of concrete overlay was constructed and monitored for one year to evaluate the feasibility as a rehabilitation\\u000a alternative for deteriorated concrete pavement in Korea. The test section of 2-lane 290m long on 88 Highway near Jirisan I\\/C\\u000a included 25cm unbonded and 6cm and 10cm bonded concrete overlays. High early-strength slag cement was used in the overlay\\u000a concrete

Kyong-ku Yun; Young-chan Suh

1999-01-01

173

Pushback for Overlay Networks: Protecting Against Malicious Insiders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) overlay networks are a flexible way of creating decentralized services. Although resilient to external Denial of Service attacks, overlay networks can be rendered inoperable by simple flooding attacks generated from insider nodes. In this paper, we study detection and containment mechanisms against insider Denial of Service (DoS) attacks for overlay networks. To counter such attacks, we introduce novel

Angelos Stavrou; Michael E. Locasto; Angelos D. Keromytis

2008-01-01

174

Turning Heterogeneity into an Advantage in Overlay Routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed hash table (DHT)-based overlay net- works, represented by Pastry, CAN, and Chord, offer an administration-free and fault-tolerant application-level overlay network. While elegant from a theoretical perspective, these systems have some disadvantages. First, they rely on application- level routing, which may be inefficient with respect to network delays and bandwidth consumption. Second, they typically con- struct a homogeneously structured overlay

Zhichen Xu; Mallik Mahalingam; Magnus Karlsson

2003-01-01

175

Experimental verification of analytically determined weld overlay residual stress distribution  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this test program was to compare the experimentally determined residual stress distribution through the pipe wall resulting from weld overlay repair to that calculated by an analytical model. Two different weld overlay thicknesses and a last-pass heat sink weld were applied to pipe specimens using procedures that were qualified and in use for plant repairs in the United States. Conceptual description of the weld overlay repair, a discussion of specimen preparation, and results are presented.

Kulat, S.D.; Pitcairn, D.R.; Sobon, L.J.

1985-01-01

176

Policy-Based Resource Sharing in Streaming Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we discuss peer-to-peer media streaming overlay network architectures and introduce a policy-based architecture for streaming live media from media sources to end-users over independently owned and operated networks. This architecture (mSON) efficiently supports multiple simultaneous media streams, with different sources and user populations, through shared overlay resources. The overlay network infrastructure takes into account the existence of

K. Selcuk Candan; Yusuf Akca; Wen-Syan Lit

177

Scanner grid recipe creation improvement for tighter overlay specifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay specifications are tightening with each lithography technology node. As a result, there is a need to improve overlay control methodologies to make them more robust and less time- or effort-consuming, but without any compromise in quality. Two concepts aimed at improving the creation of scanner grid recipes in order to meet evertightening overlay specifications are proposed in this article. Simulations will prove that these concepts can achieve both goals, namely improving overlay control performance and reducing the time and effort required to do so. While more studies are needed to fine-tune the parameters to employ, the trends presented in this paper clearly show the benefits.

Cotte, Eric; Kathiresan, Hariharasudhan; Ruhm, Matthias; Schulz, Bernd; Schulze, Uwe

2013-10-01

178

Diffraction-based overlay metrology for double patterning technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extension of optical lithography to 32nm and beyond is made possible by Double Patterning Techniques (DPT) at critical levels of the process flow. The ease of DPT implementation is hindered by increased significance of critical dimension uniformity and overlay errors. Diffraction-based overlay (DBO) has shown to be an effective metrology solution for accurate determination of the overlay errors associated with double patterning [1, 2] processes. In this paper we will report its use in litho-freeze-litho-etch (LFLE) and spacer double patterning technology (SDPT), which are pitch splitting solutions that reduce the significance of overlay errors. Since the control of overlay between various mask/level combinations is critical for fabrication, precise and accurate assessment of errors by advanced metrology techniques such as spectroscopic diffraction based overlay (DBO) and traditional image-based overlay (IBO) using advanced target designs will be reported. A comparison between DBO, IBO and CD-SEM measurements will be reported. . A discussion of TMU requirements for 32nm technology and TMU performance data of LFLE and SDPT targets by different overlay approaches will be presented.

Dasari, Prasad; Korlahalli, Rahul; Li, Jie; Smith, Nigel; Kritsun, Oleg; Volkman, Cathy

2009-03-01

179

PlanetSim: A New Overlay Network Simulation Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research in peer to peer systems is lacking appro- priate environments for simulation and experimentation of large scale overlay services. This has led to a plethora of custom made simulators that waste development resources and hinder fair comparisons between different approaches. In this paper we present a new simulation \\/ ex- perimentation framework for large scale overlay services with

Pedro García López; Carles Pairot; Rubén Mondéjar; Jordi Pujol Ahulló; Helio Tejedor; Robert Rallo

2004-01-01

180

Considering Priority in Overlay Multicast Protocols Under Heterogeneous Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hosts participating in overlay multicast applications have a wide range of heterogeneity in bandwidth and participa- tion characteristics. In this paper, we highlight and show the need to systematically consider prioritization as a key criterion in the design of protocols for overlay multicast. We identify trade-offs in the design of prioritization heuristics in two important contexts. The first part of

Michael Bishop; Sanjay G. Rao; Kunwadee Sripanidkulchai

2006-01-01

181

Overlay budget considerations for an all-scanner fab  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the SIA roadmap an overlay of 65nm is necessary for state of the art 0.18micrometers processes. To meet such tight requirements it is necessary to know the magnitude of all contributions, to understand possible interactions and to try to drive every individual overlay component to its ultimate lower limit. In this experimental study we evaluate the impact of

Rolf Seltmann; Wolfgang Demmerle; Marc Staples; Anna Maria Minvielle; Bernd Schulz; Sven Muehle

2000-01-01

182

Topology-aware overlay networks for group communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an application level multicast approach, Topology Aware Grouping (TAG), which exploits underlying network topology information to build efficient overlay networks among multicast group members. TAG uses information about path overlap among members to construct a tree that reduces the overlay relative delay penalty, and reduces the number of duplicate copies of a packet on the same link. We

Minseok Kwon; Sonia Fahmy

2002-01-01

183

Performance of Thin Bonded Concrete Overlays in Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, two bonded conctrete overlays (BCO) have been constructed in Illinois. The first was constructed in 1994 - 1995 on a section of Interstate-80 (I-80), east of Moline, Illinois. The second bonded concrete overlay was placed in 1996 on a sec...

T. H. Volle

2000-01-01

184

Routing on Overlay Graphs in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric routing using source-destination locations has been widely suggested as a scalable alternative to conventional routing approaches in mobile ad hoc networks. Recently, there has been considerable attention on face routing in planar graphs constructed from overlay graphs in wireless networks. Given a plane tiled into an infinite mesh of polygons, an overlay graph is defined as one in which

Sumesh J. Philip; Joy Ghosh; Hung Q. Ngo; Chunming Qiao

2006-01-01

185

A map overlay error model based on boundary geometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An error model for quantifying the magnitudes and variability of errors generated in the areas of polygons during spatial overlay of vector geographic information system layers is presented. Numerical simulation of polygon boundary displacements was used to propagate coordinate errors to spatial overlays. The model departs from most previous error models in that it incorporates spatial dependence of coordinate errors at the scale of the boundary segment. It can be readily adapted to match the scale of error-boundary interactions responsible for error generation on a given overlay. The area of error generated by overlay depends on the sinuosity of polygon boundaries, as well as the magnitude of the coordinate errors on the input layers. Asymmetry in boundary shape has relatively little effect on error generation. Overlay errors are affected by real differences in boundary positions on the input layers, as well as errors in the boundary positions. Real differences between input layers tend to compensate for much of the error generated by coordinate errors. Thus, the area of change measured on an overlay layer produced by the XOR overlay operation will be more accurate if the area of real change depicted on the overlay is large. The model presented here considers these interactions, making it especially useful for estimating errors studies of landscape change over time. ?? 2005 The Ohio State University.

Gaeuman, D.; Symanzik, J.; Schmidt, J. C.

2005-01-01

186

Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks are widely used to deploy func- tionality at edge nodes without changing network routers. Each node in an overlay network maintains connections with a number of peers, forming a graph upon which a distributed application or service is implemented. In an \\

Atul Singh; Tsuen-wan Ngan; Peter Druschel; Dan S. Wallach

2006-01-01

187

Bullet: high bandwidth data dissemination using an overlay mesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, overlay networks have become an effective alternative to IP multicast for efficient point to multipoint communication across the Internet. Typically, nodes self-organize with the goal of forming an efficient overlay tree, one that meets performance targets without placing undue burden on the underlying network. In this paper, we target high-bandwidth data distribution from a single source to

Dejan Kostic; Adolfo Rodriguez; Jeannie R. Albrecht; Amin Vahdat

2003-01-01

188

Trusted Cloud Computing with Secure Resources and Data Coloring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trust and security have prevented businesses from fully accepting cloud platforms. To protect clouds, providers must first secure virtualized data center resources, uphold user privacy, and preserve data integrity. The authors suggest using a trust-overlay network over multiple data centers to implement a reputation system for establishing trust between service providers and data owners. Data coloring and software watermarking techniques

Kai Hwang; Deyi Li

2010-01-01

189

Political science perspectives on transportation security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identifies some key issues for new research in transportation security from a political science perspective:\\u000a network-centric security thinking; infrastructure vulnerability; the dilemma of public\\/private operation of security screening;\\u000a policy coordination and market failure; and intermodal security. We argue of the importance of the ‘homeland security dilemma’:\\u000a the more governments and corporations spend on security, the greater the perception

Mark B. Salter

2008-01-01

190

Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides  

SciTech Connect

The hot and cold cracking tendencies of some early iron aluminide alloy compositions limited their use to applications where good weldability was not required. Considerable progress has been made toward improving this situation. Using hot crack testing techniques developed at ORNL and a systematic study of alloy compositional effects, we have established a range of compositions within which hot cracking resistance is very good, essentially equivalent to stainless steel. Cold cracking, however, remains an issue, and extensive efforts are continuing to optimize composition and welding parameters, especially preheat and postweld heat treatment, to minimize its occurrence. In terms of filler metal and process development, we have progressed from sheared strip through aspiration cast rod and shielded metal arc electrodes to the point where we can now produce composite wire with a steel sheath and aluminum core in coil form, which permits the use of both the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes. This is a significant advancement in that the gas metal arc process lends itself well to automated welding, and is the process of choice for commercial weld overlay applications. Using the newly developed filler metals, we have prepared clad specimens for testing in a variety of environments both in-house and outside ORNL, including laboratory and commercial organizations. As a means of assessing the field performance of this new type of material, we have modified several non-pressure boundary boiler components, including fuel nozzles and port shrouds, by introducing areas of weld overlay in strategic locations, and have placed these components in service in operating boilers for a side-by-side comparison with conventional corrosion-resistant materials.

Goodwin, G.M.

1996-11-01

191

Securing collaborative environments  

SciTech Connect

The diverse set of organizations and software components involved in a typical collaboratory make providing a seamless security solution difficult. In addition, the users need support for a broad range of frequency and locations for access to the collaboratory. A collaboratory security solution needs to be robust enough to ensure that valid participants are not denied access because of its failure. There are many tools that can be applied to the task of securing collaborative environments and these include public key infrastructure, secure sockets layer, Kerberos, virtual and real private networks, grid security infrastructure, and username/password. A combination of these mechanisms can provide effective secure collaboration capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the requirements of typical collaboratories and some proposals for applying various security mechanisms to collaborative environments.

Agarwal, Deborah; Jackson, Keith; Thompson, Mary

2002-05-16

192

Advanced diffraction-based overlay for double patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffraction based overlay (DBO) technologies have been developed to address the tighter overlay control challenges as the dimensions of integrated circuit continue to shrink. Several studies published recently have demonstrated that the performance of DBO technologies has the potential to meet the overlay metrology budget for 22nm technology node. However, several hurdles must be cleared before DBO can be used in production. One of the major hurdles is that most DBO technologies require specially designed targets that consist of multiple measurement pads, which consume too much space and increase measurement time. A more advanced spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) technology-Mueller Matrix SE (MM-SE) is developed to address the challenge. We use a double patterning sample to demonstrate the potential of MM-SE as a DBO candidate. Sample matrix (the matrix that describes the effects of the sample on the incident optical beam) obtained from MM-SE contains up to 16 elements. We show that the Mueller elements from the off-diagonal 2x2 blocks respond to overlay linearly and are zero when overlay errors are absent. This superior property enables empirical DBO (eDBO) using two pads per direction. Furthermore, the rich information in Mueller matrix and its direct response to overlay make it feasible to extract overlay errors from only one pad per direction using modeling approach (mDBO). We here present the Mueller overlay results using both eDBO and mDBO and compare the results with image-based overlay (IBO) and CD-SEM results. We also report the tool induced shifts (TIS) and dynamic repeatability.

Li, Jie; Liu, Yongdong; Dasari, Prasad; Hu, Jiangtao; Smith, Nigel; Kritsun, Oleg; Volkman, Catherine

2010-03-01

193

Privatization of Social Security: Lessons from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chile, all covered workers must place 10% of monthly earnings in a savings account with a highly regulated intermediary that manages a single fund and provides survivors and disability insurance. Workers pay a commission charge, in addition to the mandatory 10%, to finance this insurance and to cover the costs and profits of the intermediaries. On becoming eligible to

Peter Diamond

1993-01-01

194

Private Circuits: Securing Hardware against Probing Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can you guarantee secrecy even if an adversary can eavesdrop on your brain? We consider the problem of protecting privacy in circuits, when faced with an adversary that can access a bounded number of wires in the circuit. This question is motivated by side channel attacks, which allow an adversary to gain partial access to the inner workings of hardware.

Yuval Ishai; Amit Sahai; David Wagner

2003-01-01

195

Citizenship, Public and Private  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knop develops private international law as the private side of citizenship. She shows that although individuals think of citizenship as public, private international law covers some of the same ground. Private international law also harks back to a historical conception of the legal citizen as someone who could sue and be sued, and someone who belonged to a community of

Karen Knop

2008-01-01

196

What will homeland security cost?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased spending on security by the public and private sectors in response to September 11 could have important effects on the U.S. economy. Sizable government expenditures, for example, could trigger a rise in the cost of capital and wages and a reduction in investment and employment in the private sector, while large-scale spending by businesses could hamper firm productivity.

Bart Hobijn

2002-01-01

197

Automated method for overlay sample plan optimization based on spatial variation modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an automated method for selecting optimal overlay sampling plans based on a systematic evaluation of the spatial variation components of overlay errors, overlay prediction errors, sampling confidence, and yield loss due to inadequate sampling. Generalized nested ANOVA and clustering analysis are used to quantify the major components of overlay variations in terms of stepper-related systematic

Xuemei Chen; Moshe E. Preil; Mathilde Le Goff-Dussable; Mireille Maenhoudt

2001-01-01

198

Combining Multihoming with Overlay Routing (or, How to Be a Better ISP without Owning a Network)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multihoming and overlay routing are used, mostly separately, to bypass Internet outages, congested links and long routes. In this paper, we examine a scenario in which multihoming and overlay routing are jointly used. Specifically, we assume that an overlay service provider (OSP) aims to offer its customers the combined benefits of multihoming and overlay routing, in terms of improved performance,

Yong Zhu; Constantinos Dovrolis; Mostafa H. Ammar

2007-01-01

199

Network security: VoIP security on data network--a guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information Security has emerged as one of the biggest concerns that network administrators and other stakeholders face today. Most data custodians face Information Security risks on a daily basis; thus, it is up to Information Security professionals to research these threats and exploits to secure private information from unauthorized access and mismanagement. It can be easily stated that familiarity with

Errol A. Blake

2007-01-01

200

Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensing with Langmuir Blodgett Overlay Waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber-optic chemical sensing has been demonstrated with a side-polished single-mode optical fiber, evanescently coupled to chemically sensitive Langmuir Blodgett (LB) overlay waveguides. The sensors exhibit a channel-dropping response centered on a wavelength that is dependent on the thickness and the refractive index of the overlay waveguide. It has been shown that pH-sensitive organic dyes proved to be suitable materials for the formation of an overlay waveguide whereas LB deposition provides the required thickness control. A theoretical model of the sensor response, based on the Kramers Kronig relations and phase matching of the guided modes within the optical fiber and overlay waveguide, shows good agreement with experimental results.

Flannery, Damien; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph P.; Ashwell, Geoffery J.

1999-12-01

201

Evaluating diffraction based overlay metrology for double patterning technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demanding sub-45 nm node lithographic methodologies such as double patterning (DPT) pose significant challenges for overlay metrology. In this paper, we investigate scatterometry methods as an alternative approach to meet these stringent new metrology requirements. We used a spectroscopic diffraction-based overlay (DBO) measurement technique in which registration errors are extracted from specially designed diffraction targets for double patterning. The results of overlay measurements are compared to traditional bar-in-bar targets. A comparison between DBO measurements and CD-SEM measurements is done to show the correlation between the two approaches. We discuss the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) requirements for sub-45 nm nodes and compare TMU from the different overlay approaches.

Saravanan, Chandra Saru; Liu, Yongdong; Dasari, Prasad; Kritsun, Oleg; Volkman, Catherine; Acheta, Alden; La Fontaine, Bruno

2008-04-01

202

A Study of CRCP Performance: New Construction vs. Overlay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the performance of several continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP) in Texas. Specifically, it involves a comparison of the performances of CRCP overlays and new CRCP construction for three projects: I35-2(45)175, located in...

J. I. Daniel W. R. Hudson B. F. McCullough

1978-01-01

203

Flexible Pavement Overlay Design by Dynamic Deflections. Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes a comprehensive study to develop a flexible pavement overlay design procedure based on Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) deflections for the South Carolina Department of Highways and Public Transportation (SCDHPT). The study include...

R. L. Baus A. M. Johnson

1992-01-01

204

Motivating the Private vs. Public Sector Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A questionnaire on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards received 362 responses from 380 managers. Pay and security were greater motivators for private than for public sector managers. Recognition had higher motivating potential in the public sector. Both groups were motivated by achievement and advancement. (SK)|

Khojasteh, Mak

1993-01-01

205

Private-Loan Reliance Worries Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At many colleges across the nation, as administrators fret about the effects of a worsening economy, students arriving this fall will get more help securing jobs and more advice on paying for their educations. Some students will even find colleges willing to cut their tuition bills. This article reports that as banks tighten standards for private

Basken, Paul

2008-01-01

206

Mixing materials within zone boundaries using shape overlays  

SciTech Connect

Shape overlays provide a means of statically imposing a physical region containing specified material properties onto a zoned mesh. In the most general case, material interface boundaries are unrelated to mesh zone boundaries, causing zones to contain a mixture of materials, and the mesh itself is not uniform in physical space. We develop and apply an algorithm for shape overlays on nonorthogonal, nonuniform meshes in two dimensions. Examples of shape generation in a multiblock uid dynamics code are shown.

Grandy, J.

1997-04-22

207

An Image Overlay system for medical data visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image Overlay is a computer display technique which superimposes computer images over the user’s direct view of the real world. The images are transformed in real-time so they appear to the user to be an integral part of the surrounding environment. By using Image Overlay with three-dimensional medical images such as CT reconstructions, a surgeon can visualize the data ‘in-vivo’,

Mike Blackwell; Constantinos Nikou; Anthony M. DiGioia; Takeo Kanade

2000-01-01

208

Weld overlaying for corrosion resistance in coal gasification atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardness and tensile testing of weldments which were exposed to a 1% HâS coal gasification atmosphere for 1000 hours at 982°C (1800°F) was completed. Corrosion evaluation of unwelded specimens of 304L, 310 SS and INCOLOY alloy 800H was completed also. The INCONEL Filler Metal 72 and R139 overlays increased and the AWS-ER309 overlays decreased in hardness after exposure. The welding

Sadowski

1979-01-01

209

Distributed Addressing and Routing Architecture for Internet Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A growing number of network applications create virtual networks called overlays on top of the Internet. Because advanced\\u000a communication modes such as multicast have not been able to be successfully deployed at the network layer, they are now being\\u000a implemented at the application layer thus creating such virtual networks. However these overlays require some form of addressing\\u000a and routing inside

Damien Magoni; Pascal Lorenz

2005-01-01

210

Coloured overlays and their effects on reading speed: a review.  

PubMed

Coloured overlays can reduce symptoms of visual stress and improve reading speed. These benefits are reliable and are not attributable simply to placebo effects. Five percent of children in mainstream education read at least 25% more quickly with an overlay, provided they have chosen the colour. The suboptimal design of children's text and the high level of classroom lighting may be partly responsible. PMID:12358317

Wilkins, Arnold

2002-09-01

211

AdOn: an intelligent overlay video advertising system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new video advertising system, called AdOn, which supports intelligent overlay video ads. Unlike most current ad-networks such as Youtube that overlay the ads at fixed positions in the videos (e.g., on the bottom fifth of videos 15 seconds in), AdOn is able to automatically detect a set of spatio-temporal nonintrusive positions and associate the contextually relevant

Jinlian Guo; Tao Mei; Falin Liu; Xian-sheng Hua

2009-01-01

212

Securing XML Web Services with Elliptic Curve Cryptography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to provide secure XML Web services based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is proposed. It adds an XML Web services security component to an existing virtual private network (VPN) gateway to provide integrated security solution for securing both XML Web services and traditional network-based applications. Both the XML Web services security component and the VPN server on the

Ying Liu; Tet H. Yeap; W. O'Brien

2007-01-01

213

Securing Personal Network clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Personal Network is a self-organizing, secure and private network of a user’s devices notwithstanding their geographic location. It aims to utilize pervasive computing to provide users with new and improved services. In this paper we propose a model for securing Personal Network clusters. Clusters are ad-hoc networks of co-located personal devices. The ad-hoc makeup of clusters, coupled with the

Assed Jehangir; Sonia M. Heemstra de Groot

2007-01-01

214

Application of mark diagnostics to overlay metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A suit of novel diagnostics and culling software for the BioRad Quaestor optical metrology system has been developed and used to improve the overlay (O/L) metrology. It is based on verification of the a priori constraints in images of the target and bullet levels of the O/L measurement marks. The software makes use of the base Quaestor edge detection and matching algorithms to produce two centerlines per level per axis mark detection, rather than one. This enables computation of measures of redundancy or symmetry in images of O/L measurement marks. Such measures of uncertainty of centerline estimation, rather than the values of measured O/L, are the basis for data culling against the user- defined tolerances. Having passed the culling, average centerline is used in the estimate of O/L. The new Quaestor software is shown to result in significant reduction of uncertainty of resulting measurements. Metrology available with the new software is compared to conventional and illustrated with examples. Based on the diagnostics generated by the tool, modifications of O/L mark design, placement, and process of mark formation are pursued with the objective of reducing the net uncertainty of O/L measurements.

Goodwin, Norman H.; Starikov, Alexander; Robertson, Grant

1992-06-01

215

Overlay Text Retrieval From Video Scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.

Manohar, K.; Irfan, S.; Sravani, K.

2013-03-01

216

Performance evaluation of a method to reduce inter-ISP transit cost caused by overlay routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay routing is an application-level routing mechanism and existing research has revealed that overlay routing can improve user-perceived performance. On the other hand, overlay routing may harm the ISPs' cost structure because of the policy mismatch between IP routing and overlay routing. In a previous study, we proposed a method to reduce inter-ISP transit cost caused by overlay routing while

Kazuhito MATSUDA; G. Hasegawa; S. Kamei; M. Murata

2010-01-01

217

The USA PATRIOT Act: Implications for Private E-Mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the USA PATRIOT Act was enacted to “enhance domestic security.” One of the means to accomplish this was to give law enforcement increased authority for the surveillance, interception, and disclosure of private e-mails. The USA PATRIOT Act negated several of the privacy protections afforded private e-mail under the Electronic

Tina Ebenger

2008-01-01

218

P3CA: Private Anomaly Detection Across ISP Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of malicious traffic in the Internet would be much easier if ISP networks shared their traffic traces. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art anomaly detection algorithms require detailed traffic information which is considered extremely private by operators. To address this, we propose an algorithm that allows ISPs to cooperatively detect anomalies without requiring them to reveal private traffic information. We leverage secure multiparty

Shishir Nagaraja; Virajith Jalaparti; Matthew Caesar; Nikita Borisov

2011-01-01

219

``Electric growth`` of metal overlayers on semiconductor substrates  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the authors present the main results from their recent studies of metal overlayer growth on semiconductor substrates. They show that a variety of novel phenomena can exist in such systems, resulting from several competing interactions. The confined motion of the conduction electrons within the metal overlayer can mediate a surprisingly long-range repulsive force between the metal-semiconductor interface and the growth front, acting to stabilize the overlayer. Electron transfer from the overlayer to the substrate leads to an attractive force between the two interfaces, acting to destabilize the overlayer. Interface-induced Friedel oscillations in electron density can further impose an oscillatory modulation onto the two previous interactions. These three competing factors, of all electronic nature, can make a flat metal overlayer critically, marginally, or magically stable, or totally unstable against roughening. The authors further show that, for many systems, these electronic effects can easily win over the effect of stress. First-principles studies of a few representative systems support the main features of the present electronic growth concept.

Zhang, Z.; Cho, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Niu, Q.; Shih, C.K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics; Suo, Z. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

1998-02-01

220

Creation of a Homeland Security Jail Information Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

September 11, 2001, is a date that resonates in each American; not only lives but policies and security practices changed that day. The intelligence community expanded its scope to include first responders, private citizens, and private companies. However...

J. L. Barsh

2012-01-01

221

Towards a uniform self-configuring virtual private network for workstations and clusters in grid computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rising popularity of grid computing makes the issues of growth, security, and access critical in deploying and maintaining well-functioning grid systems. Overlay networks (ON)provide a framework to deal with these issues, but current techniques impose limitations and administrative burdens such as manual configuration for each new system in the grid, installation and configuration of software. Additionally, current approaches lack

David Isaac Wolinsky; Yonggang Liu; Renato Figueiredo

2009-01-01

222

Overlay budget considerations for an all-scanner fab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the SIA roadmap an overlay of 65nm is necessary for state of the art 0.18micrometers processes. To meet such tight requirements it is necessary to know the magnitude of all contributions, to understand possible interactions and to try to drive every individual overlay component to its ultimate lower limit. In this experimental study we evaluate the impact of different contributions on the overall overlay performance in a fab equipped exclusively with ASML step and scan systems. First we discuss the overlay performance of advanced step and scan systems in a mix and match scenario, focusing on single machine overlay, long term stability and multiple machine matching. We show that both distortion and stage differences between different tools are typically less than 22nm, justifying a multiple machine scenario without significant loss of overlay performance. In the next step, we discuss the impact of layer deposition and CMP. We include shallow trench isolation, tungsten-CMP as well as conventional aluminum wiring and copper-dual-damascene technology into our examinations. In particular, we discuss the pro's and con's of using a zero-layer-mark-approach, compared to an alignment on marks formed in certain layers for direct layer to layer alignment. Furthermore, we examine the performance of ASMLs 'through-the-lens' (TTL)-alignment system becomes as small as 6nm using TTL-alignment. For marks directly affected by CMP-processes technology impact can be controlled within 13nm. We show that, even in a scenario with multiple tools matched to each other, where alignment marks are directly affected by a CMP process step, and where the standard TTL alignment marks are directly affected by a CMP process step, and where the standard TTL alignment system is used, the overall overlay can be controlled within 60nm. Using the ATHENA alignment system, a further improvement is possible.

Seltmann, Rolf; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Staples, Marc; Minvielle, Anna Maria; Schulz, Bernd; Muehle, Sven

2000-07-01

223

Private Drinking Water Wells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency, contains information from the on testing and protecting private water sources. The site can be helpful for persons having a private well or simply those interested in water science.

2008-10-06

224

Privatization in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Privatization calls for substantially trimming the scope and breadth of government services, replacing them with private or other nongovernmental operators. The attraction of privatization is reduced costs and increased management flexibility. To date, the arrangement has received substantial support from students and parents in situations that…

Rehfuss, John

1995-01-01

225

Public and Private Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average efficiency of public and private hospitals is about 20 per cent below best practice after adjusting for differences in what hospitals do and who they treat, according to the ‘Public and Private Hospitals’ Research Report released by the Productivity Commission. However, the Commission also found that the private sector tends to be slightly more efficient among large hospitals,

226

33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2009-07-01

227

33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2010-07-01

228

Overlay control using scatterometry based metrology (SCOMTM) in production environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The newly emerging lithographic technologies related to the 32nm node and below will require a step function in the overlay metrology performance, due to the dramatic shrinking of the error budgets. In this work, we present results of an emerging alternative technology for overlay metrology - Differential signal scatterometry overlay (SCOTM). The technique is based on spectroscopic analysis of polarized light, reflected from a "grating-on-grating" target. Based on theoretical analysis and initial data, this technology, as well as broad band bright field overlay, is a candidate technology that will allow achieving the requirements of the 32nm node and beyond it. We investigate the capability of SCOLTM to control overlay in a production environment, on complex stacks and process, in the context of advanced DRAM and Flash technologies. We evaluate several metrology mark designs and the effect on the metrology performance, in view of the tight TMU requirements of the 32nm node. The results - achieved on the KLA-Tencor's Archer tool, equipped with both broad band bright field AIMTM and scatterometry SCOLTM sensors - indicate the capability of the SCOLTM technology to satisfy the advanced nodes requirements.

Dinu, Berta; Fuchs, Stefan; Kramer, Uwe; Kubis, Michael; Marchelli, Anat; Navarra, Alessandra; Sparka, Christian; Widmann, Amir

2008-04-01

229

Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

230

Overlay target design characterization and optimization for tungsten CMP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the semiconductor industry pushes design rules to 0.25 micron and below, tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (WCMP) is emerging as a key process that reduces defect density, increases circuit density and improves yield. However, due to the non-selective nature of the WCMP process, the stepper alignment marks and the overlay metrology target can be seriously damaged during the polishing process. The result of this damage may contribute to the total misregistration error. This paper describes a systematic overlay target optimization on various WCMP layers in order to evaluate and reduce target and measurement noise. Eight different target designs were evaluated on three different metal layers. The quantification of overall measurement counts, measurement precision, modeled residual, and kernel analysis was used as the metric for determining the overall effectiveness of each overlay target design. Short and long term gauge studies were performed to verify the measurement capability of the metrology tool. An experiment was performed in which a known offset was introduced on the stepper to confirm that the overlay measurement responded accordingly. To verify the robustness of the target, oxide thickness, tungsten thickness and polish time were varied on one of the three layers. The measured overlay error was also correlated to cross-section scanning electron microscope (SEM) results.

Hsu, Stephen D.; Dusa, Mircea V.; Vlassak, Joost; Harker, Cameron; Zimmerman, Michelle

1998-06-01

231

Private Transfers and the Crowding Out Hypothesis: Semiparametric and Threshold Regression Evidence from Four Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates whether there is a non-linear relationship between income and the private transfers received by households in developing countries. If private transfers are unresponsive to household income, expansion of public social security is unlikely to crowd out private transfers, contrary to concerns first raised by Barro and Becker. There is little existing evidence for crowding out effects, but

Susan Olivia; John Gibson; Trinh Le

2004-01-01

232

Tensile Bond Strength of Latex-Modified Bonded Concrete Overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tensile bond strength of bonded concrete overlays was tested using the in-situ pull-off method described in ASTM C 1583 with the goal of determining whether adding latex to the mix design increases bond strength. One slab of ductile concrete (f'c > 12,000 psi) was cast with one half tined, i.e. roughened, and one half steel-troweled, i.e. smooth. The slab surface was sectioned off and overlay mixtures containing different latex contents cast in each section. Partial cores were drilled perpendicular to the surface through the overlay into the substrate. A tensile loading device applied a direct tensile load to each specimen and the load was increased until failure occurred. The tensile bond strength was then calculated for comparison between the specimens.

Dubois, Cameron; Ramseyer, Chris

2010-10-01

233

Diffraction-based overlay for spacer patterning and double patterning technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay performance will be increasingly important for Spacer Patterning Technology (SPT) and Double Patterning Technology (DPT) as various Resolution Enhancement Techniques are employed to extend the resolution limits of lithography. Continuous shrinkage of devices makes overlay accuracy one of the most critical issues while overlay performance is completely dependent on exposure tool. Image Based Overlay (IBO) has been used as the mainstream metrology for overlay by the main memory IC companies, but IBO is not suitable for some critical layers due to the poor Tool Induced Shift (TIS) values. Hence new overlay metrology is required to improve the overlay measurement accuracy. Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) is regarded to be an alternative metrology to IBO for more accurate measurements and reduction of reading errors. Good overlay performances of DBO have been reported in many articles. However applying DBO for SPT and DPT layers poses extra challenges for target design. New vernier designs are considered for different DPT and SPT schemes to meet overlay target in DBO system. In this paper, we optimize the design of the DBO target and the performance of DBO to meet the overlay specification of sub-3x nm devices which are using SPT and DPT processes. We show that the appropriate vernier design yields excellent overlay performance in residual and TIS. The paper also demonstrated the effects of vernier structure on overlay accuracy from SEM analysis.

Lee, Byoung Hoon; Park, Jeongsu; Lee, Jongsu; Park, Sarohan; Lim, Changmoon; Yim, Dong-Gyu; Park, Sungki; Ryu, Chan-Ho; Morgan, Stephen; van de Schaar, Maurits; Fuchs, Andreas; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve

2011-03-01

234

Measured residual stresses in overlay pipe weldments removed from service  

SciTech Connect

Surface and throughwall residual stresses were measured on an elbow-to-pipe weldment that had been removed from the Hatch-2 reactor about a year after the application of a weld overlay. The results were compared with experimental measurements on three mock-up weldments and with finite-element calculations. The comparison shows that there are significant differences in the form and magnitude of the residual stress distributions. However, even after more than a year of service, the residual stresses over most of the inner surface of the actual plant weldment with an overlay were strongly compressive. 3 refs., 7 figs.

Shack, W.J.

1985-02-01

235

An international geostationary overlay for GPS and GLONASS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of employing nonautonomous satellite repeaters on geostationary hosts for civil radionavigation, especially for integrity broadcast and for coverage augmentation, is reviewed. It is suggested that a worldwide geostationary overlay can be more economical than launching additional autonomous navigation satellites. Also presented are recently developed technical considerations for the geostationary overlay concept, including design parameters for the navigation package, signal and data format considerations for augmentation and integrity, and ground network concepts for generating and timing the uplink signal. Early results of a test program being conducted with transmission of GPS-like signals via an existing L-band mobile communications satellite are reported.

Kinal, G. V.; Singh, J. P.

236

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research is presently being conducted to develop a criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in Circulated Fluidized Beds. Initially, eleven weld overlay alloys were selected for erosion testing based upon a literature review. Al...

B. F. Levin J. N. Dupont A. R. Marder

1995-01-01

237

Assessment of the Potential for Color Overlays to Enhance the Reading Skills of Enlisted Navy Recruits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Meares Irlen Syndrome (MIS) is a perceptual difficulty associated with visual complaints that appear to be largely alleviated by individually selected color overlay(s) or tinted lenses. The current study was designed to assess the prevalence of MIS sympto...

C. U. Ekenna-Kalu N. Momen

2006-01-01

238

Design and Construction of Asphalt Overlays and Hot-Mix Asphalt Construction Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents (Partial): Mechanistically Based Flexible Overlay Design System for Idaho; Construction of Stone Matrix Asphalt Section at Edwards Air Force Base; Performance Evaluation of Asphalt Overlays on Broken and Seated Concrete Pavements; Hot-Mix Asphalt...

1996-01-01

239

A Study of the Performance Potential of DHT-based Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use simulation to study whether overlays basedon the recent distributed hash tables (DHTs) havethe potential to deliver performance comparableto that of overlays based on measurements. Ourwork is motivated by the use of DHTs for servicessuch as multicast, which is already targeted bymeasurement-based overlays; there is currently littleunderstanding of how the two approaches compareat scales where both are viable.

Sushant Jain; Ratul Mahajan; David Wetherall

2003-01-01

240

Evaluation of Thin Epoxy Systems Overlays for Concrete Bridge Decks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four overlay systems were applied to concrete bridge decks in north Louisiana in May 1985 to evaluate their performance as friction surfaces primarily and also as concrete sealers. Dural Flexolith, Poly-Carb Flexogrid, and Con/Chem Cono/Crete were placed ...

M. Rasoulian N. Rabalais

1991-01-01

241

Concrete Overlay as a Rehabilitation Option for Distressed Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-thin Whitetopping (UTW) involves placing a very thin concrete overlay 50 mm to 100 mm thick (2”-4”) on the milled surface of a distressed asphalt pavement. To investigate the performance of UTW placed over a flexible pavement subjected to slow and heavy moving wheel loads, whitetopping mixes were placed over a milled pavement surface in the Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT)

Sudarshan Rajan; J. Olek

2002-01-01

242

Extensive testing ensures success of unusual weld-overlay project  

SciTech Connect

Chevron U.S.A. Inc. has used a unique in situ weld-overlay procedure to repair large process vessels in a hot potassium carbonate CO{sub 2} treating plant. The plant is located on the Sacroc unit near Snyder, Tex. This paper details the project's procedures and execution.

Ferguson, K.R. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Midland, TX (US)); Stutheit, A.G. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Lafayette, LA (US))

1992-01-13

243

Investigations of magnetic overlayers at the Advanced Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic overlayers of Fe and Co have been investigated with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in x-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy, including spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, at Beamline 4 at the Advanced Photon Source. Particular emphasis was placed upon the interrogation of the 2p levels of the Fe.

Tobin, J.G.; Yu, S.-W.; Butterfield, M.T.; Komesu, Takashi; Waddill, G.D. (Missouri SU); (LLNL)

2010-08-27

244

Tree-assisted gossiping for overlay video distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given its readily deployable nature and broad applications for digital entertainment, video streaming through overlay networks has received much attention recently. While a tree topology is often advocated due to its scalability, it suffers from discontinuous playback under highly dynamic network environments. For on-demand streaming, the asynchronicity among client requests further aggravates the problem. On the other hand, gossip protocols

Jiangchuan Liu; Ming Zhou

2006-01-01

245

T-Man: Gossip-Based Overlay Topology Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay topology plays an important role in P2P systems. Topology serves as a basis for achieving functions such as routing, search- ing and information dissemination, and it has a major impact on their ef- ficiency, cost and robustness. Furthermore, the solution to problems such as sorting and clustering of nodes can also be interpreted as a topology. In this paper

Márk Jelasity; Özalp Babaoglu

2005-01-01

246

Overlaying Paper Maps with Digital Information Services for Tourists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the increasing availability of various forms of digital maps and guides, paper still prevails as the main information medium used by tourists during city visits. The authors describe how recent technologies for digitally augmented paper maps can be used to develop interactive paper maps that provide value-added services for tourists through digital overlays. An initial investigation into the use

Moira C. Norrie; Beat Signer

2005-01-01

247

A Generic Scheme for Building Overlay Networks in Adversarial Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a generic scheme for a central, yet un- tackled issue in overlay dynamic networks: maintaining stability over long life and against malicious adversaries. The generic scheme maintains desirable properties of the underlying structure including low diameter, and efficient routing mechanism, as well as balanced node dispersal. These desired properties are maintained in a decentral- ized manner without

Ittai Abraham; Baruch Awerbuch; Yossi Azar; Yair Bartal; Dahlia Malkhi; Elan Pavlov

2003-01-01

248

GMAC: An overlay multicast network for mobile agent platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of proper support for multicast services in the Internet has hindered the widespread use of applications that rely on group communication services such as mobile software agents. Although they do not require high bandwidth or heavy traffic, these types of applications need to cooperate in a scalable, fair and decentralized way. This paper presents GMAC, an overlay network

Pablo Gotthelf; Alejandro Zunino; Cristian Mateos; Marcelo Campo

2008-01-01

249

12. DETAIL INDICATING TRANSITION FROM ORIGINAL SURFACE TO GUNITE OVERLAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. DETAIL INDICATING TRANSITION FROM ORIGINAL SURFACE TO GUNITE OVERLAY ON UPSTREAM EMBANKMENT OF DAM (FROM REPAIRS COMPLETED IN 1977) - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

250

Overlaying simply connected planar subdivisions in linear time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm which computes the overlay Hb r+ rIg of two Simply connected planar subdivisions ~b and Hg; we assume that ~b (resp. ~) and all its components are colored in blue (resp. green). The algorithm runs in O(n + k) time and space, where n denotes the total nuruber of edges of ~b and IIg and k

Ulrich Finke; Klaus H. Hinrichs

1995-01-01

251

MACEDON: Methodology for Automatically Creating, Evaluating, and Designing Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, researchers designing and implementing large- scale overlay services employ disparate techniques at each stage in the production cycle: design, implemen- tation, experimentation, and evaluation. As a result, complex and tedious tasks are often duplicated leading to ineectiv e resource use and dicult y in fairly com- paring competing algorithms. In this paper, we present MACEDON, an infrastructure that provides

Adolfo Rodriguez; Charles Edwin Killian; Sooraj Bhat; Dejan Kostic; Amin Vahdat

2004-01-01

252

Performance of an Unbonded Concrete Overlay on I-74.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Illinois, the typical rehabilitation for a concrete pavement is full-depth patching of the distressed concrete, and overlaying the pavement with 3.25 inches of bituminous concrete. In cases where there are poor joints or extensive durability cracking o...

L. B. Heckel

2002-01-01

253

Cavitation erosion resistance of stellite alloy weld overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stellite alloys have excellent cavitation erosion resistance and are often used for liquid machinery, but the erosion properties of various stellite alloys have not been evaluated by a standard method. In this study, we evaluate the erosion resistance for various stellite alloy weld overlays of ST6 and ST21 in a vibrating method and in a cavitating liquid jet method. The

Shuji Hattori; Norihiro Mikami

2009-01-01

254

Crosslayer Survivability in Overlay-IP-WDM Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the Internet moves towards a three-layer architecture consisting of overlay networks on top of the IP network layer on top of WDM-based physical networks, incorporating the interaction between and among network layers is crucial for efficient and effective implementation of survivability. This dissertation has four major foci as follows:…

Pacharintanakul, Peera

2010-01-01

255

Field Cooling Rates of Asphalt Concrete Overlays at Low Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six overlay test sections were placed on an existing test road in Hanover, New Hampshire, to gain experience in compaction of asphalt pavements at rolling temperatures as low as 150 F. The asphalt cement and aggregated used had mix characteristics similar...

R. A. Eaton R. L. Berg

1980-01-01

256

Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)|

McKillip, John L.

2001-01-01

257

An Overlay Subscription Network for Live Internet TV Broadcast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a framework, called Overlay Subscription Network (OSN), for live Internet TV broadcast, where a subscriber can choose to watch at any time. This framework allows the source server to incrementally build a topology graph that contains the network connections not only from the server to each subscriber, but also among the subscribers themselves. With such a topology graph

Ying Cai; Jianming Zhou

2006-01-01

258

Stanford Securities Class Action Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stanford Law School presents the Stanford Securities Class Action Clearinghouse, a free, full-text database that identifies over 1,000 issuers named in federal class action securities fraud lawsuits since the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 was passed. The site provides "detailed information relating to the prosecution, defense, and settlement of federal class action securities fraud litigation." The site's search engine allows users to search by name of company sued or its ticker symbol, District Court where the case was filed, or by month or year in which the case was filed.

259

Computer-based production of bite mark comparison overlays.  

PubMed

Bite mark comparison protocols include measurement and analysis of the pattern, size, and shape of teeth against similar characteristics observed in an injury on skin or a mark on an object. The physical comparison of tooth position often depends upon transparent acetate overlays to detect similarities or differences between the teeth and the bite mark. Several methods are used to produce life-sized comparison overlays. The perimeter of the biting edges of the anterior teeth are usually recorded to produce facsimile images called hollow volume overlays. Some investigators hand-trace these outlines from dental study casts, or from bite exemplars produced in wax, styrofoam, or similar materials. Some use hand-traced outlines from xerographic images produced with office photocopiers that are calibrated to produce life-sized final images. Others use radiographic images and toneline photography of wax exemplars filled with radio-opaque materials, such as metal filings or barium sulfate. Dependence upon subjective input by the odontologist to trace these images manually is considered problematic. This is because the errors incorporated at any production stage are increased in the final product. The authors have developed a method to generate accurate hollow volume overlays using computer-based techniques. A PowerPC Macintosh computer, flatbed scanner, and Adobe Photoshop (a popular graphical interface application) are used to acquire, select, arrange and export detailed data from class and individual characteristics of a suspect's teeth to acetate film loaded in a high-resolution laser printer. This paper describes this technique to enable the odontologist to produce high-quality, accurate comparison overlays without subjective input. PMID:9729824

Sweet, D; Parhar, M; Wood, R E

1998-09-01

260

Secure transmission over an existing public WDM lightwave network  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a spread-spectrum-based approach to security-enhanced transmission over an existing public wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) lightwave network. Secure transmission for a dedicated user is achieved by overlaying a covert channel onto a multichannel WDM network. The covert channel is spectrally encoded using the technique of frequency hopping and then temporally spread by a dispersive element, with the resulting average power below

Bernard B. Wu; Paul R. Prucnal; Evgenii E. Narimanov

2006-01-01

261

Fear and Privatization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Supporters of public education fear attempts to privatize schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educates almost 90% of all K-12 students. This trepidation has recently been intensified by the creation of a "third sector" that includes charter schools, voucher programs, and…

Cooper, Bruce S.; Randall, E. Vance

2008-01-01

262

Private Speech in Ballet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

Johnston, Dale

2006-01-01

263

Private health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade there has been considerable international mobilisation around shrinking the role of States in health care. The World Bank reports that, in many low and middle-income countries, private sources of finance comprise the largest share of total national health expenditures. Private sector health care is ubiquitous, reaches throughout the population, preferred by the people and is significant

Mukund W. Uplekar

2000-01-01

264

The Limits of Privatization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Transferring public services and public assets to private ownership is not an entirely new idea. Governments at all levels in the United States have for years contracted out many services. However, under the recently coined label "privatization," such policies now come recommended as a more comprehensive approach to the problems of modern…

Starr, Paul

265

Why Do Governments Privatize?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of township-owned enterprises in the rapid growth of the Chinese economy during reform is widely acknowledged. Beginning in the mid-1990s, however, these firms began to be privatized. Perhaps the most striking feature of this process is that it has not occurred uniformly across townships. This raises the simple question: When and why do government leaders privatize? Drawing on

Loren Brandt; Hongbin Li; Joanne Roberts

2004-01-01

266

Public Values, Private Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and…

Devins, Neal E.

267

Privatisation of state security and policing in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the dynamics of the privatisation of state security and policing in post-Soviet Lithuania. Two periods in the evolution of the industry, each with its distinct set of actors, dynamics and types of services offered are defined and analysed. In the early 1990s, the private security industry was characterised by competition, coercion and negotiations among private protection organisations

Arunas Juska

2009-01-01

268

Incorporating layer 3 VPN into network processor based security gateway  

Microsoft Academic Search

A VPN uses IPSec framework to provide data integrity, data reliability authentication and against replay at the network layer. These features can protect the private data at a high security level but also bring additional pressure to the installations. In this paper, we will describe our IPSec VPN based security gateway system which can process private data in several Giga

Yue Lai; Shengli Xie

2009-01-01

269

Interaction of defined benefit pension plans and social security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the shift from defined benefit to defined contribution pension plans when the payout rate from social security is set optimally. This paper shows that when employees are receiving more of their private pensions from defined contribution plans one should be raising the payout rate from traditional social security rather than trying to privatize part of it.

Pierre PESTIEAU; Uri M Possen

2008-01-01

270

Dialogue on private events  

PubMed Central

In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events.

Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

2004-01-01

271

Performance Impact of Data Compression on Virtual Private Network Transactions (Extended Version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual private networks (VPNs) allow two or more parties to communicate securely over a public network. Using cryptographic algorithms and protocols, VPNs provide security services such as confidentiality, host authentication and data integrity. The computation required to provide adequate security, however, can significantly degrade performance. In this paper, we characterize the extent to which data compression can alleviate this performance

John P. McGregor; Ruby B. Lee

272

The Payroll Taxes and Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social security system encompasses a broad group of compulsory public and negotiated private quasi insur ances which protect workers against the economic risks of death, old age, disability, and unemployment. The various parts of this system cover from 25 per cent to 95 per cent of all workers. And the combined revenues of the public and private programs are

Paul G. Craig

1959-01-01

273

A life cycle analysis of social security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We develop an applied general equilibrium model to examine the optimal social security replacement rate and the welfare benefits associated with it. Our setup consists of overlapping generations of 65-period lived individuals facing mortality risk and individual income risk. Private credit markets, including markets for private annuities, are closed by assumption. Unlike previous analyses, we find that an unfunded

Ay?e ?mrohoroglu; Selahattin ?mrohoroglu; Douglas H. Joines

1995-01-01

274

The Forgotten Threat: Private Policing and the State  

Microsoft Academic Search

What do Disneyland, the Abu Ghraib U.S. military prison, the Mall ofAmerica, and the Y-12 nuclear security complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have in common? They have wildly different purposes, but they share a common characteristic as employers of private police. This answer-indicative of the prevalence and numbers of private police today-would have struck the nineteenth -century observer as evidence

Elizabeth E. Joh

2006-01-01

275

Overlay improvement by non-linear error correction and non-linear error control by APC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuing downscale of semiconductor fabrication ground rule requires increasingly tighter overlay tolerances, which becomes very challenging at the cutting-edge lithographic node. We need to keep improving overlay performance to admit the requirements of tight overlay budget. The conventional method of overlay control is controlling linear model parameters during alignment and process correction by APC (Advanced Process Control) for linear errors after alignment. Due to this kind of control for linear parameters, this linear error proportion out of total overlay error can be the indicator how well the overlay is being controlled by the conventional overlay control method. After achieving this small proportion of linear error, normally 10 parameters, out of total overlay errors, this conventional method of overlay control face the limitation of improvement and this implies us that it is necessary to work on non-linear overlay error for further improvement. Initial investigation starts from finding out contribution of grid and field for the remained error after 10 parameter linear modeling and the result shows up higher contribution from grid factor. The way to break down grid residual error is by method of control. Nikon provided GCM (Grid Compensation Matching) function which has some options to deal with these non-linear errors, so we tested and simulated a couple of new methods of overlay control to improve the other proportion of total overlay error beside linear overlay error. 1st approach for further improvement was remaining x,y offset feedback through APC for each field after linear modeling and 2nd was non-linear alignment and 3rd is the combination of both methods. This paper will explain which method will improve which part of overlay errors and the test or simulated results of improvement.

Choi, Dongsub; Jahnke, Andreas; Schumacher, Karl; Hoepfl, Max

2006-04-01

276

A New Mobile Information Security Solution Based on External Electronic Key  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile service raises a number of security and privacy challenges. To address this, we present an approach in which the mobile information security is enhanced by using external security key and specified policies. An electronic security key (eKey) is connected to the mobile device by adaptable interface for enhancing the security ability and storing private data. Front end administration module

Tiejun Pan; Leina Zheng; Chengbin Fang; Wenji Huang; Leilei Fang

2008-01-01

277

Security sonar for water intakes  

SciTech Connect

The security of the water approaches to nuclear facilities has been largely neglected because of the lack of solutions to the intrusion problem. This paper reviews underwater scanning sonar in general, highlights a number of problems encountered in a threat detection system using sonar and suggests some procedures that can help make such a system workable. Information is drawn from recent experience with several security projects in the governmental and private sectors, one of which was a nuclear facility.

Rothenbuhler, D.E.

1987-07-01

278

Modeling the dynamical interaction between epidemics on overlay networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epidemics seldom occur as isolated phenomena. Typically, two or more viral agents spread within the same host population and may interact dynamically with each other. We present a general model where two viral agents interact via an immunity mechanism as they propagate simultaneously on two networks connecting the same set of nodes. By exploiting a correspondence between the propagation dynamics and a dynamical process performing progressive network generation, we develop an analytical approach that accurately captures the dynamical interaction between epidemics on overlay networks. The formalism allows for overlay networks with arbitrary joint degree distribution and overlap. To illustrate the versatility of our approach, we consider a hypothetical delayed intervention scenario in which an immunizing agent is disseminated in a host population to hinder the propagation of an undesirable agent (e.g., the spread of preventive information in the context of an emerging infectious disease).

Marceau, Vincent; Noël, Pierre-André; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Dubé, Louis J.

2011-08-01

279

Indium tin oxide overlayered waveguides for sensor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films as electrodes for integrated optical electrochemical sensor devices is discussed. The effect of various thicknesses of ITO overlayers exhibiting low resistivity and high transparency on potassium ion-exchanged waveguides fabricated in glass substrates is investigated over the wavelength range 500 900 nm. ITO overlayers are formed by reactive thermal evaporation in oxygen, followed by annealing in air to a maximum temperature of 320 C. With air as the superstrate, losses in the waveguides were found to increase dramatically above 30-nm ITO thickness for TE polarization and above 50-nm thickness for TM. Losses were increased over the whole wavelength range for a superstrate index close to that of water. A one-dimensional, multilayer waveguide model is used in the interpretation of the experimental results.

Luff, B. Jonathan; Wilkinson, James S.; Perrone, Guido

1997-09-01

280

Daylighting design overlays for equidistant sun-path projections  

SciTech Connect

Projections of the Sun's daily and seasonal paths frequently are used to solve building design problems involving site obstructions and shading of fenestration. In the United States, equidistant projections are perhaps the most widely used (compared to other sunpath projections) because of the commercial availability of a complete set of sun-path diagrams for a range of useful latitudes. This paper describes the development of a set of overlays designed for use with sun-path projections to predict illumination on any building surface throughout the year for standard climatological conditions. Illumination is calculated for clear and overcast skies and for direct sunlight using algorithms recommended by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE). Values for illumination incident upon the surface, as well as transmitted through single and double glazing, can be calculated. Similar overlays for solar radiation are being developed.

Selkowitz, S.

1981-08-01

281

Advancements of diffraction-based overlay metrology for double patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the dimensions of integrated circuit continue to shrink, diffraction based overlay (DBO) technologies have been developed to address the tighter overlay control challenges. Previously data of high accuracy and high precision were reported for litho-etch-litho-etch double patterning (DP) process using normal incidence spectroscopic reflectometry on specially designed targets composed of 1D gratings in x and y directions. Two measurement methods, empirical algorithm (eDBO) using four pads per direction (2x4 target) and modeling based algorithm (mDBO) using two pads per direction (2x2 target) were performed. In this work, we apply DBO techniques to measure overlay errors for a different DP process, litho-freeze-litho-etch process. We explore the possibility of further reducing number of pads in a DBO target using mDBO. For standard targets composed of 1D gratings, we reported results for eDBO 2x4 targets, mDBO 2x2 targets, and mDBO 2x1 target. The results of all three types of targets are comparable in terms of accuracy, dynamic precision, and TIS. TMU (not including tool matching) is less than 0.1nm. In addition, we investigated the possibility of measuring overlay with one single pad that contains 2D gratings. We achieved good correlation to blossom measurements. TMU (not including tool matching) is ~ 0.2nm. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that DBO results are reported on a single pad. eDBO allows quick recipe setup but takes more space and measurement time. Although mDBO needs details of optical properties and modeling, it offers smaller total target size and much faster throughput, which is important in high volume manufacturing environment.

Li, Jie; Kritsun, Oleg; Liu, Yongdong; Dasari, Prasad; Weher, Ulrich; Volkman, Catherine; Mazur, Martin; Hu, Jiangtao

2011-03-01

282

Texture overlay onto deformable surface for virtual clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we describe a method for overlaying arbitrary texture image onto surface of T-shirt worn by a user. In this method, the texture image is previously divided into a number of patches. On the T-shirt, markers are printed at the positions corresponding to the vertices of the patches. The markers on the surface of the T-shirt are tracked

Jun Ehara; Hideo Saito

2005-01-01

283

Topologically-Aware Overlay Construction and Server Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of large-scale distributed Internet applications could potentially benefit from some level of knowledge about the relative proximity between its participating host nodes. For example, the perfor- mance of large overlay networks could be improved if the application-level connectivity between the nodes in these networks is congruent with the un- derlying IP-level topology. Similarly, in the case of replicated

Sylvia Ratnasamy; Mark Handley; Richard M. Karp; Scott Shenker

2002-01-01

284

Ranking factors in peer-to-peer overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of peer processes are distributed in a peer-to-peer (P2P) overlay network. It is difficult, maybe impossible for a peer to perceive the membership and location of every resource object due to the scalability and openness of a P2P network. In this article, we discuss a fully distributed P2P system where there is no centralized controller. Each peer

Kenichi Watanabe; Yoshio Nakajima; Tomoya Enokido; Makoto Takizawa

2007-01-01

285

Skewness and Kurtosis Risks of Quality Control in Overlay Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of overlay errors in layer-to-layer structures in semiconductor manufacturing often obeys non-normal distribution functions such as elliptic, rectangular, and skewed distributions. Thus, there can be many wrong diagnoses of quality control that can lead to consumer's risk and producer's risk. In a lot acceptance test, a product should be judged by variables rather than by attributes because of

Takashi Sato; Takahiro Ikeda; Kentaro Kasa; Masafumi Asano; Yasuharu Sato

2010-01-01

286

Are Virtualized Overlay Networks Too Much of a Good Thing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Themajorityofrecenthigh-proflleworkinpeer-to-peernet- workshasapproachedtheproblemoflocationbyabstractingoverobject lookup services. Namespace virtualization in the overlay layer provides load balance andprovableboundsonlatency at lowcosts. We contend that namespace virtualization comes at a signiflcant cost for applications that naturally describe their data sets in a hierarchical manner.Opportunitiesforenhancingbrowsing,prefetchingande-cient attribute-based searches are lost. A hierarchy exposes relationships be- tween items near to each other in the topology; virtualization of the namespace

Peter J. Keleher; Bobby Bhattacharjee; Bujor D. Silaghi

2002-01-01

287

Privatization in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Three factors have slowed the pace of power sector privatization, particularly in Europe: Capital shortages, political interests, scarce human capital resources. Balancing these factors are powerful drivers for privatization. These include the financial distress many European governments are facing, which limit their ability to continue subsidies and protection of unproductive state enterprises. Increasingly sophisticated customers are also demanding better products and services at lower prices. Privatization progress in Europe will probably move slowly and unevenly. Power generation will likely be the first beneficiary of any reform because it is not a natural monopoly. Transmission and distribution will remain regulated, despite discussion within the European Union regarding open or third-party access. What is likely to speed up the pace of privatization in some countries is a power crisis along the lines of what occurred in the Philippines. Greece, Italy and Portugal and perhaps the most likely prospects for such a scenario.

Cartselos, T.

1994-02-01

288

Encouraging Private Initiative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monograph for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless was to present ideas for how governments can encourage and support private sector efforts to provide housing for the poor. The monograph explains many specific actions governments in dev...

R. LaNier C. A. Oman S. Reeve

1987-01-01

289

Network-Aware Overlay Multicast for Large Data Dissemination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a network-aware overlay multicast (NAOM) technique for large data dissemination in a well-managed overlay network. To improve the throughput, NAOM utilizes forward-only hosts; these hosts participate in the overlay network but are not members of the multicast. With the inclusion of the forward-only hosts, data slices can detour bottleneck links and more resources can be used to build efficient multicast trees. Large data are divided into fixed-size slices, and the slices are delivered simultaneously to multicast receivers along the multiple multicast trees. We model the problem of building efficient multicast trees with the inclusion of forward-only hosts. The problem is an NP-hard problem, and we introduce a polynomial time heuristic algorithm. Furthermore, we propose a dynamic scheduling scheme for the transfer of data along the evaluated multicast trees. Our experimental results in a real network environment show an improvement of the throughput but at the cost of additional resource consumption of forward-only nodes.

Lee, Joonbok; Chon, Kilnam

290

Public Private Partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper provides a comparative analysis of the association between student achievement and public-private partnerships (PPPs) in schooling across countries. Student-level data from the PISA international achievement test provides information on the public-private character of both operation and funding of each tested school. Across countries, public operation is associated with lower student outcomes, but public funding with better student outcomes.

Peter Robinson

2000-01-01

291

Detecting Man-in-the-Middle Attacks against Transport Layer Security Connections with Timing Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol is a vital component to the protection of data as it traverses across networks. From e-commerce websites to Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), TLS protects massive amounts of private information, and protecting th...

L. M. Wagoner

2011-01-01

292

Unforgeable Encryption and Chosen Ciphertext Secure Modes of Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We nd certain neglected issues in the study of private-key encryption schemes. For one, private-key encryption is generally held to the same standard of security as public-key encryption (i.e., indistinguis- hability) even though usage of the two is very dierent. Secondly, though the importance of secure encryption of single blocks is well known, the security of modes of encryption (used

Jonathan Katz; Moti Yung

2000-01-01

293

Security Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

De Patta, Joe

2003-01-01

294

The Optimal Level of Social Security Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal level of Social Security benefits depends on balancing the protection that these benefits offer to those who have not provided adequately for their own old age against the welfare costs of distorting economic behavior. The primary such cost is the distortion in private saving. The present paper derives the level of Social Security benefits that is optimal in

Martin Feldstein

1986-01-01

295

One-Round Secure Computation and Secure Autonomous Mobile Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates one-round secure computation be- tween two distrusting parties: Alice and Bob each have private inputs to a common function, but only Alice, acting as the receiver, is to learn the output; the protocol is limited to one message from Alice to Bob followed by one message from Bob to Alice. A model in which Bob may be

Christian Cachin; Jan Camenisch; Joe Kilian; Joy Müller

2000-01-01

296

Student Experiential Opportunities in National Security Careers  

SciTech Connect

This report documents student experiential opportunities in national security careers as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of how experiential opportunities assist students in the selection of a career and a list of opportunities in the private sector and government. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. Workforce development activities will facilitate the hiring of students to work with professionals in both the private and public sectors, as well as assist in preparing a workforce for careers in national security. The goal of workforce development under the NSPP grant is to assess workforce needs in national security and implement strategies to develop the appropriate workforce.

None

2007-12-31

297

What Works in Securities Laws?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effect of securities laws on stock market development in 49 countries. We find little evidence that public enforcement benefits stock markets, but strong evidence that laws mandating disclosure and facilitating private enforcement through liability rules benefit stock markets. Copyright 2006 by The American Finance Association.

RAFAEL LA PORTA; FLORENCIO LOPEZ-DE-SILANES; ANDREI SHLEIFER

2006-01-01

298

Financial Private Regulation and Enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-setting bodies, cartels, and private litigation. The paper assesses these systems or modalities along the dimensions of effectiveness, legitimacy, quality, and

Geoffrey Miller

2011-01-01

299

Evaluation of Free-Riding Traffic Problem in Overlay Routing and Its Mitigation Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research on overlay networks has revealed that user-perceived network performance could be improved by an overlay routing mechanism. The effectiveness of overlay routing is mainly a result of the policy mismatch between the overlay routing and the underlay IP routing operated by ISPs. However, this policy mismatch causes a “free-riding” traffic problem, which may become harmful to the cost structure of Internet Service Providers. In the present paper, we define the free-riding problem in the overlay routing and evaluate the degree of free-riding traffic to reveal the effect of the problem on ISPs. We introduce a numerical metric to evaluate the degree of the free-riding problem and confirm that most multihop overlay paths that have better performance than the direct path brings the free-riding problem. We also discuss the guidelines for selecting paths that are more effective than the direct path and that mitigate the free-riding problem.

Hasegawa, Go; Hiraoka, Yuichiro; Murata, Masayuki

300

The White House's Site on Homeland Security  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the White House Web site, the National Strategy For Homeland Security (NSHS) is the first US document of its kind with the purpose of mobilizing and organizing "our Nation to secure the U.S. homeland from terrorist attacks." Accessible in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format, the document provides a framework that outlines the contributions that all Americans -- federal government departments and agencies, state and local governments, private companies and organizations, and individual Americans -- can make to better secure this country's homeland. The report is divided into sections, some of which include Threat and Vulnerability, Organizing for a Secure Homeland, Critical Mission Areas, Foundations, and Cost of Homeland Security.

2002-01-01

301

Better Management of Private Pension Plan Data Can Reduce Costs and Improve ERISA Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Employee Retirement Income Security Act requires private pension plans to report information for the Department of Labor, the Internal Revenue Service, and the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, the agencies responsible for administering and enforc...

1981-01-01

302

17 CFR 210.3-20 - Currency for financial statements of foreign private issuers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Currency for financial statements of foreign private issuers...CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933...General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-20...

2013-04-01

303

A Cross-Transmission Protocol Architecture Concept for Resource Discovery in P2P Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a cross-transmission protocol architecture for resource discovery in P2P overlay networks, where each client in the network can query and get the resource identifiers for other P2P overlay networks (like Infohash in Bittorrent network, AICH Top Hash in Emule\\/Edonkey network). In this way, client can download files from multi-overlay P2P networks simultaneously rather than from

Yi-Fang Qin; Xu Zhou; Hui Tang

2009-01-01

304

OverDoSe: A Generic DDoS Protection Service Using an Overlay Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and implementation of OverDoSe, an overlay network offering generic DDoS protection for targeted sites. OverDoSe clients and servers are isolated at the IP level. Overlay nodes route packets between a client and a server, and regulate traffic according to the server's instructions. Through the use of light-weight sec urity primitives, OverDoSe achieves resilience against compromised overlay

Elaine Shi; Ion Stoica; David Andersen; Adrian Perrig

305

Securing Online Transactions: Crime Prevention is the Key  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Comment illustrates how government regulation, criminal justice, private legal actions, and market forces contribute to the security of online transactions. Further, it argues that government regulation aimed at the prevention of cybercrime should be the primary focus of the efforts to improve online security. Ultimately, the Comment argues that as more businesses more online, securing online transactions becomes more

Michael Ena

2008-01-01

306

Adaptively Secure Two-Party Computation with Erasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the setting of multiparty computation a set of parties with private inputs wish to compute some joint function of their inputs, whilst preserving certain security properties (like privacy and correctness). An adaptively secure protocol is one in which the security properties are preserved even if an adversary can adaptively and dynamically corrupt parties during a computation. This provides a

Yehuda Lindelly

307

Adaptively Secure Two-Party Computation with Erasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In the setting of multiparty computation a set of parties with private inputs wish to compute some joint function of their inputs, whilst preserving certain security properties (like privacy and correctness). An adaptively secure protocol is one in which the security properties are preserved even if an adversary can adaptively and dynamically corrupt parties during a computation. This provides

Andrew Y. Lindell

2009-01-01

308

Infrared differential interference contrast microscopy for 3D interconnect overlay metrology.  

PubMed

One of the main challenges for 3D interconnect metrology of bonded wafers is measuring through opaque silicon wafers using conventional optical microscopy. We demonstrate here the use infrared microscopy, enhanced by implementing the differential interference contrast (DIC) technique, to measure the wafer bonding overlay. A pair of two dimensional symmetric overlay marks were processed at both the front and back sides of thinned wafers to evaluate the bonding overlay. A self-developed analysis algorithm and theoretical fitting model was used to map the overlay error between the bonded wafers and the interconnect structures. The measurement accuracy was found to be better than 1.0 micron. PMID:23938801

Ku, Yi-Sha; Shyu, Deh-Ming; Lin, Yeou-Sung; Cho, Chia-Hung

2013-08-12

309

A method for secure communications over a public fiber-optical network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a spread-spectrum based approach to secure communications over existing fiber-optical networks. Secure transmission for a dedicated user is achieved by overlaying a covert channel onto a host channel in the existing active fiber link. The covert channel is optically encoded and temporally spread, and has average power below the noise floor in the fiber, making it hidden for a direct detection thus allowing for cryptographic and steganographic security capabilities. The presence for the host channel in the network provides an ad hoc security expansion and increases the difficulty for an eavesdropper to intercept and decode the secure signal.

Wu, Bernard B.; Narimanov, Evgenii E.

2006-05-01

310

26 CFR 514.6 - Private pensions and life annuities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...paid to a nonresident alien who is a resident of...United States taxâForm to use. To secure...of private pensions and life annuities, the nonresident alien who is a resident of France shall file Form 1001A-F, in...

2013-04-01

311

Private anonymous fingerprinting for color images in the wavelet domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An online buyer of multimedia content does not want to reveal his identity or his choice of multimedia content whereas the seller or owner of the content does not want the buyer to further distribute the content illegally. To address these issues we present a new private anonymous fingerprinting protocol. It is based on superposed sending for communication security, group

W. Abdul; P. Gaborit; P. Carré

2010-01-01

312

Pan-private algorithms via statistics on sketches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider fully dynamic data, where we track data as it gets inserted and deleted. There are well developed notions of private data analyses with dynamic data, for example, using differential privacy. We want to go beyond privacy, and consider privacy together with security, formulated recently as pan-privacy by Dwork et al. (ICS 2010). Informally, pan-privacy preserves differential privacy while computing

Darakhshan Mir; S. Muthukrishnan; Aleksandar Nikolov; Rebecca N. Wright

2011-01-01

313

Peruvian projects, privatization proceeding  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program.

Not Available

1992-10-19

314

Salazar on private power  

SciTech Connect

The Philipines power market, considered one of the more mature markets in Asia, continues to expand with economic growth. Independent power producers will find opportunities in the next few years as new additions are required. Currently, the government is encouraging private investment and is awaiting feedback from financiers as it considers eliminating its government guarantee. In a recent interview, the Honorable Mariano S. Salazar, secretary of energy, with the Philippines` Department of Energy, discussed the regulatory structure, encouragement of private power and his country`s capital needs.

Anderson, J.

1995-02-01

315

Bandwidth auction for SVC streaming in dynamic multi-overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study the optimal bandwidth allocation for scalable video coding (SVC) streaming in multiple overlays. We model the whole bandwidth request and distribution process as a set of decentralized auction games between the competing peers. For the upstream peer, a bandwidth allocation mechanism is introduced to maximize the aggregate revenue. For the downstream peer, a dynamic bidding strategy is proposed. It achieves maximum utility and efficient resource usage by collaborating with a content-aware layer dropping/adding strategy. Also, the convergence of the proposed auction games is theoretically proved. Experimental results show that the auction strategies can adapt to dynamic join of competing peers and video layers.

Xiong, Yanting; Zou, Junni; Xiong, Hongkai

2010-07-01

316

Private Police in the United States: Findings and Recommendations, Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the summary of a five-volume study of the private police industry in the United States. The study describes the nature and extent of the private security industry, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law applies to it. It also ...

J. S. Kakalik S. Wildhorn

1971-01-01

317

Public-private partnerships in the fight against crime : An emerging frontier in corporate social responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper's aim is to demonstrate how organizations related to public security and safety can more effectively partner with private sector companies under the rubric of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An analysis of actual cases of collaboration between such bodies and the private sector informs a suggested engagement approach. Findings – A structured approach of engagement

Jeffrey Avina

2011-01-01

318

A domestic virtual private network based on remote supervision and operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supervision and control of remote domestic electrical equipments and personal computers need a stable virtual private network. This article puts forwards a kind of virtual private network using the Internet and IPv6 technology. Because upgrading port software of former domestic VPN truss is troublesome and difficult, we are aiming at finding a kind of secure, stable, and flexible virtual

Yong Niu; Peng Gong; Tao Jin; Kai Cai

2008-01-01

319

Blackwater vs. bin Laden: The Private Sector's Role in American Counterterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the United States government's use of private military and security companies (PMSCs) in support of its post–9\\/11 counterterrorism efforts. To date, existing studies on defense privatization have concentrated largely on the American military's use of contractors in Iraq. Here, the focus is broadened to examine PMSC support for military operations in Afghanistan, covert operations in Afghanistan and

David Perry

2012-01-01

320

Constraints on short-selling and asset price adjustment to private information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper models effects of short-sale constraints on the speed of adjustment (to private information) of security prices. Constraints eliminate some informative trades, but do not bias prices upward. Prohibiting traders from shorting reduces the adjustment speed of prices to private information, especially to bad news. Non-prohibitive costs can have the reverse effect, but this is unlikely. Implications are developed

Douglas W. Diamond; Robert E. Verrecchia

1987-01-01

321

The Impact of Job Characteristics on Private Prison Staff: Why Management Should Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of private prisons run by corporate security businesses has increased rapidly throughout the past two decades.\\u000a There has been a parallel increase in literature, both pro and con, comparing the efficiency and effectiveness of private\\u000a and public prisons; however, private prison staff has been largely ignored. OLS regression analysis of a survey of 160 employees\\u000a at a Midwestern

Nancy L. Hogan; Eric G. Lambert; Morris Jenkins; Daniel E. Hall

2009-01-01

322

78 FR 6807 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, September 28-October...Cyber Security mission to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait City, Kuwait, from...local) and private entities in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The mission will...

2013-01-31

323

Security Gap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses development planning and implementation of a school security program, the obstacles faced in setting up a high-tech security systems, and the growing reliance on technology to help ensure security. Balancing safety with a comfortable environment and prioritizing security issues early in the planning phase are addressed. (GR)|

Kelly, Abigail

1999-01-01

324

Security Gap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses development planning and implementation of a school security program, the obstacles faced in setting up a high-tech security systems, and the growing reliance on technology to help ensure security. Balancing safety with a comfortable environment and prioritizing security issues early in the planning phase are addressed. (GR)

Kelly, Abigail

1999-01-01

325

Private Victories (Closed Captioned).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program emphasizes that young people can achieve private victories by caring enough about themselves to reject drugs. Students learn that deciding against drugs can influence friends to do the same. The stories focus on a group of high school students...

1994-01-01

326

Pricing Private Mortgage Insurance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper considers issues in the evaluation of the price of private mortgage insurance (PMI). It discusses the PMI industry and examines alternative approaches to an evaluation of the pricing of PMI. Modern PMI started with the formation of the Mortgage...

C. Swan

1981-01-01

327

Private Wells Glossary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Bacteria:  Microscopic living organisms; some are helpful and some are harmful. "Good" bacteria aid in pollution control by consuming and breaking down organic matter and other pollutants in septic systems, sewage, oil spills, and soils. However, "bad" bacteria in soil, water, or air can cause human, animal, and plant health problems.   From Private Wells Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing (breaking bad)

2011-04-19

328

The Private Sector Beckons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether from frustration, ambition, or financial necessity, administrators are inclined to say "yes" when private companies come calling. Sometimes superintendents initiate contacts themselves and begin new careers as well-credentialed salespeople or behind-the-scenes think tanks. At the Edison Project, former superintendents work in curriculum…

Ramsey, Krista

1998-01-01

329

The Private Finance Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the development of the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) and contends that it is now deeply embedded and intertwined in policies to renew and modernize the United Kingdom's public services. After briefly reviewing prior research based upon the themes proposed by Broadbent and Laughlin (1999), this article suggests a new research agenda to reflect how the PFI has

Anthony Wall; Ciaran Connolly

2009-01-01

330

Private Information and Teamwork  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the efficiency properties of different systems of incentives when individuals have private information about their opportunities for solitary and team projects. In many situations, individuals choose the size of team they work in. This is the case in academia, advertising, law, and many other white collar fields, where an individual who has an idea or a client may

B. Curtis Eaton; Aidan Hollis

331

Private monitoring in auctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study infinitely repeated first-price auctions in which a bidder only learns whether or not he won the object. While repetition of the stage-game equilibrium is the unique Nash equilibrium in public strategies, with patient bidders there are simple Nash equilibria in private strategies that improve on bid rotation. Sequential rationality is appropriately captured by essentially perfect Bayesian equilibrium (EPBE),

Andreas Blume; Paul Heidhues

2006-01-01

332

Differentially Private Online Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the problem of preserving privacy in the online learning setting. We study the problem in the online convex programming (OCP) framework---a popular online learning setting with several interesting theoretical and practical implications---while using differential privacy as the formal privacy measure. For this problem, we distill two critical attributes that a private OCP algorithm should have

Prateek Jain; Pravesh Kothari; Abhradeep Thakurta

2011-01-01

333

The Irony of Privatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

What does privatization really mean? It depends on who is speaking and the specific language game in use. This article borrows an interpretive device, originally developed by Roland Barthes and further articulated by Jean Baudrillard, which lays waste to the assertion that a word has a single denotative meaning. Such an interpretation (that words represent, or correspond to, reality) is

Hugh T. Miller; James R. Simmons

1998-01-01

334

Public Roles, Private Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of a presidential spouse is very complex. Indeed, expectations vary among college governing boards and campus constituencies of what a presidential spouse's responsibilities should be. In this article, the author discusses the role of presidential spouses and how they balance their public roles with their private life.|

Lum, Lydia

2008-01-01

335

Surgical navigation by autostereoscopic image overlay of integral videography.  

PubMed

This paper describes an autostereoscopic image overlay technique that is integrated into a surgical navigation system to superimpose a real three-dimensional (3-D) image onto the patient via a half-silvered mirror. The images are created by employing a modified version of integral videography (IV), which is an animated extension of integral photography. IV records and reproduces 3-D images using a microconvex lens array and flat display; it can display geometrically accurate 3-D autostereoscopic images and reproduce motion parallax without the need for special devices. The use of semitransparent display devices makes it appear that the 3-D image is inside the patient's body. This is the first report of applying an autostereoscopic display with an image overlay system in surgical navigation. Experiments demonstrated that the fast IV rendering technique and patient-image registration method produce an average registration accuracy of 1.13 mm. Experiments using a target in phantom agar showed that the system can guide a needle toward a target with an average error of 2.6 mm. Improvement in the quality of the IV display will make this system practical and its use will increase surgical accuracy and reduce invasiveness. PMID:15217256

Liao, Hongen; Hata, Nobuhiko; Nakajima, Susumu; Iwahara, Makoto; Sakuma, Ichiro; Dohi, Takeyoshi

2004-06-01

336

Active membrane masks for improved overlay performance in proximity lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membrane masks are thin (2 micron x 35 mm x 35 mm) structures that carry the master exposure patterns in proximity (X-ray) lithography. With the continuous drive to the printing of ever-finer features in microelectronics, the reduction of mask-wafer overlay positioning errors by passive rigid body positioning and passive stress control in the mask becomes impractical due to nano and sub-micron scale elastic deformations in the membrane mask. This paper describes the design, mechanics and performance of a system for actively stretching a membrane mask in-plane to control overlay distortion. The method uses thermoelectric heating/cooling elements placed on the mask perimeter. The thermoelectric elements cause controlled thermoelastic deformations in the supporting wafer, which in turn corrects distortions in the membrane mask. Silicon carbide masks are the focus of this study, but the method is believed to be applicable to other mask materials, such as diamond. Experimental and numerical results will be presented, as well as a discussion of the design issues and related design decisions.

Huston, Dryver R.; Plumpton, James; Esser, Brian; Sullivan, Gerald A.

2004-07-01

337

Software Security: Building Security In  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Software security has come a long way in the last few years, but we've really only just begun. I will present a detailed approach to getting past theory and putting software security into practice. The three pillars of software security are applied risk management, software security best practices (which I call touchpoints), and knowledge. By describing

Gary Mcgraw

2006-01-01

338

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Final technical progress report, July 1992--July 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The erosion behavior of weld overlay coatings has been studied. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400(degrees)C at 90(degrees) and 30(degrees) particle impact angl...

B. F. Levin J. N. DuPont A. R. Marder

1995-01-01

339

Investigation of systematical overlay errors limiting litho process performance of thick implant resists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tapered resist profiles have been found to cause a deterimental effect on the overlay measurement capability, affecting lithography processes which utilize thick implant resist. Particularly, for resist thicknesses greater than 1.5 mum, the systematical contribution to the overlay error becomes predominant. In CMOS manufacturing, these resist types are being used mainly for high energy well implants. As design rules progressively

Alexandra G. Grandpierre; Roberto Schiwon; Jens-. Bruch; Christoph Nacke; Uwe P. Schroeder

2004-01-01

340

Historical data learning based dynamic LSP routing for overlay IP over WDM networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In overlay IP over WDM networks, there are only limited information exchanges between the two layers through the user network interface (UNI) [1] for service requests and responses. To enhance the overlay network performance while maintaining its simplicity, we propose for the first time to learn from the historical data of lightpath setting up costs maintained by the logical layer

Xiaojun Yu; Gaoxi Xiao; Tee-Hiang Cheng

2009-01-01

341

Towards a Common API for Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an ongoing effort to define com- mon APIs for structured peer-to-peer overlays and the key abstractions that can be built on them. In doing so, we hope to facilitate independent innovation in overlay pro- tocols, services, and applications, to allow direct experi- mental comparisons, and to encourage application devel- opment by third parties. We provide

Frank Dabek; Ben Y. Zhao; Peter Druschel; John Kubiatowicz; Ion Stoica

2003-01-01

342

Optimal path-control for dual-frequency overlay GNSS receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general overlay based front- end architecture that enables the joint reception of two signals broadcast in separate frequency bands, sharing just one common baseband stage. The consequences of this overlay in terms of signal quality are analyzed and it is shown that the noise floor superposition results in non-negligible signal degradations. However, it is also demonstrated

Alexander Rugamer; Cecile Mongredian; Santiago Urquijo; Gunter Rohmer

2011-01-01

343

A quantitative comet assay: Imaging and analysis of virus plaques formed with a liquid overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the plaque assay defines a “gold-standard” for measuring virus infectivity, its reliance on plaque counting limits its sensitivity. When the assay is performed with a liquid overlay, instead of agar overlay, spontaneous flows can promote a uni-directional spread of infection, creating elongated regions of cytopathology that resemble comets. As a model system comet and plaque cultures of vesicular stomatitis

Ying Zhu; John Yin

2007-01-01

344

IQ-Paths: Predictably High Performance Data Streams across Dynamic Network Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks are a key vehicle for delivering network and processing resources to high performance applications. For shared networks, however, to consistently deliver such resources at desired levels of performance, overlays must be managed at runtime, based on the continuous assessment and prediction of available distributed resources. Data-intensive applications, for example, must assess, predict, and judiciously use available network paths,

Zhongtang Cai; Vibhore Kumar; Karsten Schwan

2006-01-01

345

Metrology tool fleet management: applying FMP tool matching and monitoring concepts to an overlay fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay tool matching and accuracy issues are quickly reaching a comparable complexity to that of critical dimensional metrology. While both issues warrant serious investigation, this paper deals with the matching issues associated with overlay tools. Overlay tools need to run and measure as if they are a single tool - they need to act as one. In this paper a matching methodology is used to assess a set of overlay tools in a multiple of overlay applications. The methodology proposed in a prior2 SPIE paper is applied here to a fleet of two generations of overlay tools to detect measurement problems not seen with convention Statistical Process Control techniques. Four studies were used to examine the benefits of this matching methodology for this fleet of overlay tools. The first study was a matching assessment study. The second study was a hardware comparison between generations of tools. The third study was a measurement strategy comparison. The final study was a long term matching exercise where one example of a traditional long term monitoring strategy was compared to a new long term monitoring strategy. It is shown that this new tool matching method can be effectively applied to overlay metrology.

Morningstar, Jennifer; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Banke, Bill

2006-04-01

346

Benchmarking of current generation overlay systems at the 130-nm technology node  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Overlay Metrology Advisory Group (OMAG) is a group comprised of technical experts in the field of optical metrology from International SEMATECH Member Companies and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This council created a specification for overlay metrology benchmarking which indicates the critical parameters to be addressed in order to comply with the International Technology Roadmap for

Beth Russo; Michael Bishop

2003-01-01

347

Effect of PCC Joint Skew on Reflective Cracking in HMA Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflective cracking is a relatively premature distress that occurs in HMA materials overlaying cracked and jointed underlying pavements. The high concentration of stresses and strains in the vicinity of the discontinuity of the old pavement causes the cracks to reflect into the newly placed HMA overlay. While it is a common practice to use skewed transverse joints in rigid pavements

Ziad G. Ghauch

2011-01-01

348

Minimization of total overlay errors on product wafers using an advanced optimization scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The matching of wafer steppers is accomplished typically by patterning two successive layers, using different steppers of interest for each layer, and measuring the overlay at many points in the exposure field. Matching is considered to be optimized when some metric, such the sum-of-squares of overlay errors, is minimized over all measured points within the field. This is to be

Harry J. Levinson; Moshe E. Preil; Patrick J. Lord

1997-01-01

349

Toward 7nm target on product overlay for C028 FDSOI technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous need for lithography overlay performance improvement is a key point for advanced integrated circuit manufacturing. Overlay control is more and more challenging in the 2x nm process nodes regarding functionality margin of the chip and tool capability. Transistor architecture rules which are set, confirm poly to contact space as the most critical one for 28nm technology node. Critical Dimension variability of these layers, even with best in class process stability, in addition to design constraint lead to on product overlay specifications of around 7nm. In order to ensure that the target is met in production environment and to identify potential ways for improvement, identification of the contributors to overlay errors is essential. We have introduced a novel budget breakdown methodology using both bottom-up and top-down overlay data. For the bottom up part, we have performed extensive testing with very high sampling scheme so as to quantify the main effects. In-line overlay metrology data has been used for top down approach to verify the overall performance in production. In this paper we focused on the 28nm contact to gate overlay in a FDSOI process. The initial inconsistency between bottom up and top down results led us to further exploration of the root cause of these inconsistencies. We have been able to highlight key figures to focus on, like reticle heating, wafer table contamination and etch processing effects. Finally, we conclude on 7nm overlay target achievement feasibility in high volume manufacturing environment.

Gatefait, Maxime; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Goirand, Pierre Jerome; Lam, Auguste; Van Haren, Richard; Pastol, Anne; Doytcheva, Maya; Liu, Xing Lan; Beltman, Jan

2013-04-01

350

Simplified Solution for Periodic Thermal Discontinuities in Asphalt Overlays Bonded to Rigid Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the elastic fields which develop in an overlay bonded to a rigid substrate when the system is subjected to thermally induced stress. A two-dimensional solution of the displacement field is derived for periodic discontinuities distributed in a hot mix asphalt overlay bonded to a rigid pavement, where the length of the pavement before cracking develops is much

H. M. Yin; W. G. Buttlar

2007-01-01

351

Colored overlays enhance visual perceptual performance in children with autism spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), together with controls matched for age and ability participated in three experiments that assessed the therapeutic benefit of colored overlays. The findings from the first experiment showed that a significantly greater proportion of children with ASD, than controls, increased reading speed when using a colored overlay. This finding was replicated in the second experiment

A. K. Ludlow; A. J. Wilkins; P. Heaton

2008-01-01

352

Exploring Software Partitions for Fast Security Processing on a Multiprocessor Mobile SoC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functionality of mobile devices, such as cell phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs), has evolved to include various applications where security is a critical concern (secure web transactions, mobile commerce, download and playback of protected audio\\/video content, connection to corporate private networks, etc.). Security mechanisms (e.g., secure communication protocols) involve cryptographic algorithms, and are often quite computationally intensive, challenging

Divya Arora; Anand Raghunathan; Srivaths Ravi; Murugan Sankaradass; Niraj K. Jha; Srimat T. Chakradhar

2007-01-01

353

Privatization Or Marketization: Educational Development in Post-Mao China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the post-Mao era, the reformers have taken significant steps to privatize social policy and social welfare. Revamping the social security system and commodifying social services have become more prominent since the mid-eighties. Despite the post-Mao leaders' discomfort about the term "privatization", signs of state withdrawal from the provision of social policy and welfare are clear. The author argues that the emergence of private educational institutions indicates that China's educational development has gone through a similar process of privatization or quasi-marketization though the Chinese experience is different from that of Western counterparts. Specifically, this paper tries to examine how the flourishing market economy and the policy of decentralization have affected the development of China's higher education. No longer solely relying on public schools, private and minban (people run) educational institutions are becoming more popular in the new socialist market system. This paper attempts to examine how privatization and quasi- marketization have affected educational development in mainland China. The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the privatization of education in China.

Mok, Ka Ho

1997-09-01

354

The Role of Private Military Companies in US-Africa Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the increasing use of private military companies (PMCs) in United States’ security policy in Africa, and examines this phenomenon in relation to the US’ various military training programmes on the continent. We argue that the increasing use of PMCs in US security policy has evolved due to two critical and mutually dependent developments; African state weakness and

Kwesi Aning; Thomas Jaye; Samuel Atuobi

2008-01-01

355

Private Colleges: Strategies for Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By responding to the specialized needs of their clientele, private institutions have provided a personalized, value-oriented education to a degree not possible in the public sector. Notwithstanding the accomplishments of private institutions, demographic studies of postsecondary education indicate declines in private enrollments, a trend that is…

Smith, Joyce; Finch, Harold L.

1975-01-01

356

State Regulations versus Private Foundations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|State governments recognize higher education's need to reach out aggressively to industry and other private donors for financial support, but may also closely regulate the activities of private foundations that seek and manage funds for public institutions of higher education. Both private and public higher education institutions should be…

Sansbury, Olin B., Jr.

1984-01-01

357

Government Control of Privatized Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the change in government control of privatized firms in OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries. At the end of 2000, after the largest privatization wave in history, governments retained control of 62.4% of privatized firms. In civil law countries, governments tend to retain large ownership positions, whereas in common law countries they typically use golden shares.

Bernardo Bortolotti

2008-01-01

358

Why Do Governments Privatize Abroad?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privatization through global equity market placement has largely contributed to financial market development and integration. Despite the relevance of the fact, the reasons underlying governments' choice to sell shares of privatized companies abroad are still poorly understood. This paper presents new evidence for a sample of 233 share issue privatizations in 20 OECD countries, showing that redistribution concerns and the

M ARCELLA; C ARLO SCARPA; Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei

359

PRIVATIZATION AS A POLITICAL DECISION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many authors had used social welfare maximization and monopoly pricing distortion to advocate government intervention in the economy by state-owned enterprises. The modern theory of privatization and empirical investigations about the performance of private and state-owned firms has shown that public firms have not achieved its welfare objectives, and private firms are far more efficient. Through this paper we try

Paulo A. de Britto

360

Paradoxes of privatization and deregulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article draws three main lessons from recent regulatory developments on both sides of the Atlantic. First, deregulation and privatization have not meant an end to all regulation. On the contrary, newly deregulated or privatized industries lose their pre?existing statutory immunity from competition law and other regulatory requirements. Thus, privatization leads to the creation of new regulatory bodies and to

Giandomenico. Majone

1994-01-01

361

Rethinking maritime privatization in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

While recognizing the need for increased participation of the private sector in the maritime industry of developing countries, there is a need to go beyond the call for privatization in terms of mere change of ownership from state to private sector as the only solution to the inefficiency of the maritime industry in developing countries. This limited understanding of the

Okechukwu C. Iheduru

1993-01-01

362

Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same…

Nevin, John A.

2008-01-01

363

His own private hospital  

PubMed Central

Dr. Brian Day had a simple solution when it became increasingly difficult to book operating room time in Vancouver. He built his own hospital. The Cambie Surgical Centre, which treats patients from BC and around the world, has 2 main operating rooms, 10 recovery beds and 5 private rooms for extended stays. "What I've done," says Day, "is say that if there are no operating rooms at UBC, I'll build my own."

Jones, D

1997-01-01

364

A Private Universe Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Private Universe Teachers Lab enables teachers to practice techniques of identifying student misconceptions and moving toward conceptual change in basic astronomy. This teachers lab contains a survey to identify misconceptions and three in-class activities for grades 4 to 8 that help students gain an understanding of the phases of the Moon. There are teacher discussion forums on planning teaching sequences and learning how to adapt activities to different situations.

Schneps, Matthew; Sadler, Philip

2007-12-12

365

Managing Information Risk and the Economics of Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Information risk and the economics of managing security is a concern of private-sector executives, public policy makers, and\\u000a citizens. In this introductory chapter, we examine the nature of information risk and security economics from multiple perspectives\\u000a including chief information security officers of large firms, representatives from the media that cover information security\\u000a for both technical and mass media publications, and

M. Eric Johnson

366

Application of DBM system to overlay verification and wiggling quantification for advanced process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the shrinkage of semiconductor device scales, advanced semiconductor industries face tremendous challenges in process control. As lithography and etch processes are pushed to get smaller dimensions, the overlay and wiggling control are hot issues due to the limiting of pattern performance. Many chip makers are using Double Patterning Technology (DPT) process to overcome design rule limitations but they are also concerned about overlay control. In DPT process, obtaining accurate overlay data by measuring overlay marks with traditional metrology is difficult because of the difference of shape and position between cell pattern and overlay marks. Cell to overlay mark miss-match will occur when there is lens aberration or mask registration error. Therefore, the best way to obtain accurate overlay data without error is to measure the real cell itself. The overlay of the cell array using DPT process can be measured by analyzing the relative position of the 2nd exposed pattern to the 1st exposed pattern. But it is not easy to clearly distinguish a 1st layer and 2nd layer in a patterned cell array image using CD SEM. The Design Based Metrology (DBM)-system can help identify which cell pattern is a 1st or 2nd layer, so overlay error between the 1st and 2nd layers at DPT process can be checked clearly. Another noticeable problem in advanced processing is wiggling. The wiggling of a pattern become severe by the etch process and must be controlled to meet electrical characteristics of what the semiconductor device requires. The 1st stage of wiggling control is to understand the level of wiggling which is crucial to device performance. The DBM-system also can be used for quantification of wiggling by determining specially designed parameters. In this paper we introduce overlay verification and wiggling quantification through new methodology for advanced memory devices.

Lee, Taehyeong; Kim, Jungchan; Yoo, Gyun; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Park, Byoungjun; Maruyama, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Masahiro

2012-03-01

367

Cryptographic Securities Exchanges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While transparency in financial markets should enhance liquidity, its exploitation by unethical and parasitic traders discourages others from fully embracing disclosure of their own information. Traders exploit both the private information in upstairs markets used to trade large orders outside traditional exchanges and the public information present in exchanges' quoted limit order books. Using homomorphic cryptographic protocols, market designers can create "partially transparent" markets in which every matched trade is provably correct and only beneficial information is revealed. In a cryptographic securities exchange, market operators can hide information to prevent its exploitation, and still prove facts about the hidden information such as bid/ask spread or market depth.

Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

368

Terrorism, disasters, and security.  

PubMed

The purpose of this editorial is to explore the relationship between the new global emphasis on terrorism and the developing academic and practical fields of disaster management. It includes an appraisal of the place of terrorism among the various forms of disaster, a consideration of its relationship to risk assessment and its place in the practical handling of risks and incidents, and some reflections on the role of the private sector in security management. The influence on the current attitude toward managing the terrorism threat by the evolution of the disaster management field is considered and some of the problems with defining scenarios for counter-terrorism planning also are discussed. PMID:15141853

Alexander, David

369

Creating a Positive Workplace Experience: The Issue of Support from Supervisors and Management in Shaping the Job Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment of Private Correctional Staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of private correctional facilities operated by corporate security businesses has increased rapidly over the past 30 years. There has been a parallel increase in literature, both pro and con, comparing the efficiency and effectiveness of private and public prisons; however, employees of private correctional facilities have been largely ignored. This is a serious oversight in light of the

Eric Lambert; Nancy Hogan

2009-01-01

370

BWR pipe crack and weld clad overlay studies  

SciTech Connect

Leaks and cracks in the heat-affected zones of weldments in austenitic stainless steel piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs) due to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) have been observed since the mid-1960s. Since that time, cracking has continued to occur, and indication have been found in all parts of the recirculation system, including the largest diameter lines. Proposed solutions for the problem include procedures that produce a more favorable residual stress state on the inner surface, materials that are more resistant to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and changes in the reactor environment that decrease the susceptibility to cracking. In addition to the evaluation of these remedies, it is also important to gain a better understanding of the weld overlay procedure, which is the most widely used short-term repair for flawed piping.

Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.E.

1984-10-01

371

Erosion studies on duplex and graded ceramic overlay coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solid-particle erosion resistance of ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is of considerable economic and industrial significance. Of additional significance to the service performance of these coatings is the effort to minimize the differences in coefficients of thermal expansion between the metallic substrate and the overlay TBC. A new design strategy toward this effort is the introduction of functionally graded interlayers between the metallic and ceramic layers. This research examines the role of interlayer grading, microstructure, and thermal cycling on the solid-particle erosion behavior of partially stabilized zirconia and alumina coatings at ambient and elevated temperatures. The results point to beneficial effects of grading and processing on the elevated temperature erosion response of these deposits.

Usmani, Saifi; Sampath, Sanjay

1996-11-01

372

ECHO: a community video streaming system with interactive visual overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a networked video application where personalized avatars, controlled by a group of "hecklers", are overlaid on top of a real-time encoded video stream of an Internet game for multicast consumption. Rather than passively observing the streamed content individually, the interactivity of the controllable avatars, along with heckling voice exchange, engenders a sense of community during group viewing. We first describe how the system splits video into independent regions with and without avatars for processing in order to minimize complexity. Observing that the region with avatars is more delay-sensitive due to their interactivity, we then show that the regions can be logically packetized into separable sub-streams, and be transported and buffered with different delay requirements, so that the interactivity of the avatars can be maximized. The utility of our system extends beyond Internet game watching to general community streaming of live or pre-encoded video with visual overlays.

Cheung, Gene; Tan, Wai-tian; Shen, Bo; Ortega, Antonio

2008-01-01

373

Lipid adlayer organization mediated by a liquid overlayer.  

PubMed

We report on the formation of a chemically bound 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) monolayer on modified Au and silica surfaces, and changes in the organization of the interfacial lipid layer associated with immersion in aqueous solution. We have studied the interface using steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, water contact angle and optical ellipsometry measurements, and electrochemical methods. Our data reveal that the DMPC adlayer in contact with air forms a relatively well organized interface that mediates the rotational motion of perylene. In the presence of an aqueous overlayer, perylene reorientation becomes more rapid, consistent with a reduction in the organization of the interfacial lipid adlayer. One implication of this finding is that the interfacial adlayer is less than a uniform monolayer, which is confirmed by electrochemical data. Our data underscore the importance of water in mediating the organization of interfacial lipid adlayers. PMID:22995467

Baumler, S M; Blanchard, G J

2012-08-31

374

Lipid adlayer organization mediated by a liquid overlayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the formation of a chemically bound 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) monolayer on modified Au and silica surfaces, and changes in the organization of the interfacial lipid layer associated with immersion in aqueous solution. We have studied the interface using steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, water contact angle and optical ellipsometry measurements, and electrochemical methods. Our data reveal that the DMPC adlayer in contact with air forms a relatively well organized interface that mediates the rotational motion of perylene. In the presence of an aqueous overlayer, perylene reorientation becomes more rapid, consistent with a reduction in the organization of the interfacial lipid adlayer. One implication of this finding is that the interfacial adlayer is less than a uniform monolayer, which is confirmed by electrochemical data. Our data underscore the importance of water in mediating the organization of interfacial lipid adlayers.

Baumler, S. M.; Blanchard, G. J.

2012-12-01

375

Skewness and Kurtosis Risks of Quality Control in Overlay Inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The population of overlay errors in layer-to-layer structures in semiconductor manufacturing often obeys non-normal distribution functions such as elliptic, rectangular, and skewed distributions. Thus, there can be many wrong diagnoses of quality control that can lead to consumer’s risk and producer’s risk. In a lot acceptance test, a product should be judged by variables rather than by attributes because of the small sample size. A new acceptance test by variables was introduced for a non-normal population. It included sample skewness and kurtosis as well as mean and standard deviations. Using operating characteristic (OC) curves, it was shown that sampling inspection by variables can be applied safely to a strong non-normal population with new variables.

Takashi Sato,; Takahiro Ikeda,; Kentaro Kasa,; Masafumi Asano,; Yasuharu Sato,

2010-06-01

376

Patterning of Heteroepitaxial Overlayers from Nano to Micron Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin heteroepitaxial overlayers have been proposed as templates to generate stable, self-organized nanostructures at large length scales, with a variety of important technological applications. However, modeling strain-driven self-organization is a formidable challenge due to different length scales involved. In this Letter, we present a method for predicting the patterning of ultrathin films on micron length scales with atomic resolution. We make quantitative predictions for the type of superstructures (stripes, honeycomb, triangular) and length scale of pattern formation of two metal-metal systems, Cu on Ru(0001) and Cu on Pd(111). Our findings are in excellent agreement with previous experiments and call for future experimental investigations of such systems.

Elder, K. R.; Rossi, G.; Kanerva, P.; Sanches, F.; Ying, S.-C.; Granato, E.; Achim, C. V.; Ala-Nissila, T.

2012-06-01

377

Institutional Foundations for Cyber Security: Current Responses and New Challenges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper profiles institutions that are responsible for addressing threats to cyber security. Rather than focusing primarily on the private sector, we analyze key organizations at the national, international, and intergovernmental level. Our purpose is ...

J. Ferwerda N. Choucri S. Madnick

2010-01-01

378

Public Health, Safety, and Security for Mass Gatherings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ensuring the public health, safety, and security of the public at mass gatherings can be especially challenging. These areas are interrelated and do not fall within the exclusive domain of the private sector. On the contrary, mass gatherings require that ...

2008-01-01

379

Effect of metrology time delay on overlay APC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The run-to-run control strategy of lithography APC is primarily composed of a feedback loop as shown in the diagram below. It is known that the insertion of a time delay in a feedback loop can cause degradation in control performance and could even cause a stable system to become unstable, if the time delay becomes sufficiently large. Many proponents of integrated metrology methods have cited the damage caused by metrology time delays as the primary justification for moving from a stand-alone to integrated metrology. While there is little dispute over the qualitative form of this argument, there has been very light published about the quantitative effects under real fab conditions - precisely how much control is lost due to these time delays. Another issue regarding time delays is that the length of these delays is not typically fixed - they vary from lot to lot and in some cases this variance can be large - from one hour on the short side to over 32 hours on the long side. Concern has been expressed that the variability in metrology time delays can cause undesirable dynamics in feedback loops that make it difficult to optimize feedback filters and gains and at worst could drive a system unstable. By using data from numerous fabs, spanning many sizes and styles of operation, we have conducted a quantitative study of the time delay effect on overlay run- to-run control. Our analysis resulted in the following conclusions: (1) There is a significant and material relationship between metrology time delay and overlay control under a variety of real world production conditions. (2) The run-to-run controller can be configured to minimize sensitivity to time delay variations. (3) The value of moving to integrated metrology can be quantified.

Carlson, Alan; DiBiase, Debra

2002-07-01

380

Homeland Security Airport Security Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This model provides a framework for helping to understand and analyze the airport security problem. By modeling the security process, and identifying the weak points, we were able to make recommendations for possible Federal initiatives through legislativ...

N. F. Schneidewind

2006-01-01

381

Investigation of systematical overlay errors limiting litho process performance of thick implant resists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tapered resist profiles have been found to cause a deterimental effect on the overlay measurement capability, affecting lithography processes which utilize thick implant resist. Particularly, for resist thicknesses greater than 1.5 ?m, the systematical contribution to the overlay error becomes predominant. In CMOS manufacturing, these resist types are being used mainly for high energy well implants. As design rules progressively shrink, the overlay requirements are getting tighter, such that the limits of the process capability are reached. Since the resist thickness cannot be reduced due to the requirements of the implant process, it becomes inevitable to reduce the systematical overlay error for the litho process involving thick resists. The following analysis concentrates on the tapers of overlay marks printed on thick i-line positive resists. Conventionally, overlay between two litho layers is measured from box in box marks with respect to a reference layer where the statistical shift between the boxes is expected to provide the biggest source of residuals. We observed however that an even bigger error could be introduced by an unevenness of the i-line resist tapers, adding asymmetrical chip magnification. The inclination of these tapers depends on the proximity and surface of the surrounding features and stack variations. We show that by adjusting soft and hard bake temperatures and times, tapers can be significantly reduced and thereby the overlay performance was greatly improved.

Grandpierre, Alexandra G.; Schiwon, Roberto; Bruch, Jens-.; Nacke, Christoph; Schroeder, Uwe P.

2004-05-01

382

Privatization: An investor's perspective  

SciTech Connect

Imagine a world in which regions and sovereign states, through their designated representatives and with the support of politicians of the dominant parties, cast aside their customary sternness with people who are not broke; a world in which they strive to assure providers of capital, both foreign and domestic, of the highest possible returns of investment at the lowest possible level of risk (entrepreneurial returns at government bond risk levels, they say). Imagine this and one grasps the world described, or imagined, by the sponsors of the electrical, gas, telephone, and other grand international privatizations that mark the global investment scene today. Investors are generally better off with offerings where (1) the government continues to own a majority of the shares (for example, Endesa in Spain or KEPCO in Korea), (2) new management runs the business as a business (PowerGen in the U.K.), (3) strong growth in power demand continues (China Light Power in Hong Kong), and (4) regulatory and competitive policies are well established and in place (that is, investors are not sandbagged). Unfortunately, many of these privatization offerings have not lived up to the expectations beyond the initial premium -- buyers beware. Investing in privatized utilities can provide exceptional rewards from profitability improvement through greater efficiency and growth. In general, however, high prices should not be paid for mature utility properties, either directly or indirectly. Entry prices should be low in relation to the profitability level likely to be achieved through cost cutting. Growth utilities can reasonably be expected to maintain higher levels of profitability because of regulators' desire to attract additional capital. As far as any other assurance that may be given by managements and government officials on the road, they should be disregarded, and regulatory behavior should be forecast solely in terms of political expediency.

Rathnam, L.Y.; Khaitan, V. (Scudder, Stevens Clark Inc., Boston, MA (United States))

1994-01-01

383

An extensive and diverse set of molecular overlays for the validation of pharmacophore programs.  

PubMed

The pharmacophore hypothesis plays a central role in both the design and optimization of drug-like ligands. Pharmacophore patterns are invoked to explain the binding affinity of ligands and to enable the design of chemically distinct scaffolds that show affinity for a protein target of interest. The importance of pharmacophores in rationalizing ligand affinity has led to numerous algorithms that seek to overlay ligands based on their pharmacophoric features. All such algorithms must be validated with respect to known ligand overlays, usually by extracting ligand overlay sets from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). This validation step creates the problem of which of the known overlays to select and from which proteins. The large number of structures and protein families in the PDB makes it difficult to establish a definitive overlay set; as a result, validation studies have rarely employed the same data sets. We have therefore undertaken an exhaustive analysis of the RCSB PDB to identify 121 distinct ligand overlay sets. We have defined a robust protein overlay protocol, which is free from subjective interpretation over which residues to include, and we have analyzed each overlay set on the basis of whether they provide evidence for the pharmacophore hypothesis. Our final data set spans a broad range of structural types and degrees of difficulty and includes overlays that any algorithm should be able to reproduce, as well as some for which there is very weak evidence for a conserved pharmacophore at all. We provide this set in the hope that it will prove definitive, at least until the PDB is greatly enriched with further structures or with radically different protein folds and families. Upon publication, the data set will be available for free download from the Web site of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre. PMID:23565904

Giangreco, Ilenia; Cosgrove, David A; Packer, Martin J

2013-04-08

384

Secure authenticated video equipment  

SciTech Connect

In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized panics. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

Doren, N.E.

1993-07-01

385

75 FR 22674 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law Study Group Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law Study Group Notice of Meeting on the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Draft Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions and Its...

2010-04-29

386

75 FR 32834 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law Study Group Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law Study Group Notice of Meeting on the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Draft Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions and Its...

2010-06-09

387

Quantum private comparison protocol with d-dimensional Bell states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a quantum private comparison protocol with Bell states is proposed. In the protocol, two participants can determine the relationship between their secret inputs in size, with the assistance of a semi-trusted third party. The presented protocol can ensure fairness, correctness, and security. Meanwhile, all the particles undergo only a one-way trip, which improves the efficiency and security of the communication. Furthermore, only Bell states are exploited in the implementation of the protocol, and two participants are just required having the ability to perform single particle operations, which make the presented protocol more feasible in technique.

Lin, Song; Sun, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Fen; Yao, Zhi-Qiang

2013-01-01

388

Continuously Reinforced Concrete Overlays of Flexible Pavements on Trunk Road A2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and construction of continuously reinforced concrete (CRC) overlays on flexible pavements of Trunk Road A2 are described. The existing pavements were dual carriageways of flexible construction built in 1975-76; isolated sections had failed comp...

J. M. Gregory

1983-01-01

389

Origin of spurious ultrasonic echoes in stainless steel piping with weld overlay  

SciTech Connect

The initiation and growth of intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of stainless steel reactor piping welds has been a subject of concern to electric utilities for over ten years. This type of crack can be detected with ultrasonic shear waves during normal maintenance periods with a reliability of up to 80%. Often after an inspection indicating cracks, a utility has been allowed to administer a temporary fix to a pipe which is suspected of being cracked. This fix is a weld metal overlay. The repaired pipes often have to be inspected after the overlay has been put on the pipe. The overlay with a complex, elastically anisotropic microstructure, considerably reduces the reliability of the ultrasonic inspection. This paper addresses the problems arising because of the overlay.

Kupperman, D.S.

1986-08-01

390

Toward perfect on-wafer pattern placement: stitched overlay exposure tool characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continued lithographic pattern density scaling depends on aggressive overlay error reduction.1,2 Double patterning processes planned for the 22nm node require overlay tolerances below 5 nm; at which point even sub-nanometer contributions must be considered. In this paper we highlight the need to characterize and control the single-layer matching among the three pattern placement mechanisms intrinsic to step&scan exposure - optical imaging, mask-to- wafer scanning, and field-to-field stepping. Without stable and near-perfect pattern placement on each layer, nanometer-scale layer-to-layer overlay tolerance is not likely to be achieved. Our approach to understanding onwafer pattern placement is based on the well-known technique of stitched field overlay. We analyze dense sampling around the field perimeter to partition the systematic contributors to pattern placement error on representative dry and immersion exposure tools.

Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Brunner, Timothy A.; Felix, Nelson M.; Minghetti, Blandine

2010-03-01

391

Investigation into Shrinkage of High-Performance Concrete Used for Iowa Bridge Decks and Overlays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-performance concrete (HPC) overlays have been used increasingly as an effective and economical method for bridge decks in Iowa and other states. However, due to its high cementitious material content, HPC often displays high shrinkage cracking potent...

H. Senevirante K. Wang S. Sritharan S. M. Schlorholtz X. Hou X. Wang

2013-01-01

392

TWRS privatization bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information.

NONE

1996-03-01

393

Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks  

PubMed Central

In this article, I discuss the concepts of private stimuli, covert responses, and private events, emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as private. I argue that the role of private stimuli in the control of self-descriptive verbal responses is dependent on a relation (correlation or equivalence relation) with public stimuli, and that responses vary along a continuum of observability. These remarks on private stimuli and covert responses are introductory to an examination of the varying complexity of phenomena described as private. I argue that private events is a verbal response emitted under the control of phenomena of different degrees of complexity, and I interpret these phenomena, based on the principle of selection by consequences. I introduce the notion of inclusiveness to suggest that some phenomena related to privacy are less or more complex as they include relations of a phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and cultural origin.

Tourinho, Emmanuel Zagury

2006-01-01

394

Multi-user private comparison protocol using GHZ class states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a pioneering quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol for n users. State-of-the-art QPC protocols have been designed for two users who wish to compare their private information. However, if n users want to perform the equality comparison, these two-user QPC protocols have to be executed repeatedly at least n - 1 times. The proposed protocol allows n users' private information to be compared within one protocol execution. The proposed QPC protocol takes the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) class as a quantum resource and uses a special property in the GHZ-class state to perform the equality comparison. Moreover, due to the one-step quantum transmission, the protocol is free from Trojan horse attacks and it is also shown to be secure against other well-known attacks.

Chang, Yao-Jen; Tsai, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih

2013-02-01

395

Quantum private comparison of equality protocol without a third party  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel quantum private comparison protocol that uses Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs. The proposed protocol allows two parties to secretly compare their information without exposing their actual contents. The technique of entanglement swapping enables the comparison to be achieved without the help of a third party. Moreover, because the proposed protocol employs one-step transmission and decoy photons, it is secure against the various quantum attacks in existence thus far.

Lin, Jason; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih

2013-10-01

396

A spatial overlay analysis method for three-dimensional vector polyhedrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional spatial overlap analysis (3DSOA) has become a bottleneck in the development of three-dimensional Geographic Information System (3DGIS). Three-dimensional spatial overlay analysis method for vector polyhedrons is the key problem of three-dimensional spatial overlap analysis which still lacks complete solutions. This paper proposes a method for three dimensional spatial vector polyhedrons overlay analysis. First of all, it describes topological relationships

Yanjun Guo; Mao Pan; Zhe Wang; Honggang Qu; Xiangrong Lan

2010-01-01

397

Electrochemical behaviour of pseudomorphic overlayers: Pd on Au(1 1 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical properties of palladium adlayers on Au(111) are compared with those of massive Pd(111). Electro-deposited Pd forms a pseudomorphic overlayer on the unreconstructed Au(111) surface following the stacking sequence of the substrate. The altered electrochemical behaviour of the overlayer can be ascribed to changes in the electronic structure due to lateral strain. A gradual change to bulk properties is

L. A Kibler; A. M El-Aziz; D. M Kolb

2003-01-01

398

Effect of overlay APC control on cascading levels: pertrubations of the reference level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driven by overlay shrinks and increasing product diversification in advanced fabs, automatic control of correctable overlay coefficients has become critical to semiconductor manufacturing. Although numerous reports have shown the compelling benefits of automatic run-to-run feedback control, one important issue has received very little attention to date. In many state-of-the-art fabs, reticle to wafer alignment is performed against marks that were

Timothy H. Conway; Manish Misra; Alan P. Carlson; David A. Crow

2003-01-01

399

Self-organisation of nanoscaled pores in anodic oxide overlayer on stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nanoscaled morphology of the overlayer covering stainless steels after electropolishing in perchloric acid-based electrolyte was explored mainly by AFM and SEM. Two kinds of stainless steels were tested. For the austenitic one (AISI 304L), a quasi-periodic arrangement of pores in this overlayer has been observed. Depending on the experimental conditions, the distance between neighbouring pores ranged from 20nm up

F. Martin; D. Del Frari; J. Cousty; C. Bataillon

2009-01-01

400

Cost efficient LSP protection in IP\\/MPLS-over-WDM overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider an IP\\/MPLS-over-WDM overlay network, which an IP\\/MPLS service layer exists independently over a WDM transport network. In the overlay model, two adjacent layers communicate with each other only through a pre-defined user-network interface (UNI) and the WDM topology information is not available to the service layer. In this paper, we concentrate on network design with a fault tolerance

Sunggy Koo; Gokhan Sahin; Suresh Subramaniam

2003-01-01

401

IQ-Paths: Predictably High Performance Data Streams Across Dynamic Network Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks are a key vehicle for delivering network and processing resources to high performance applications. For shared\\u000a networks, however, to consistently deliver such resources at desired levels of performance, overlays must be managed at runtime,\\u000a based on the continuous assessment and prediction of available distributed resources. Data-intensive applications, for example,\\u000a must assess, predict, and judiciously use available network paths,

Zhongtang Cai; Vibhore Kumar; Karsten Schwan

2007-01-01

402

Interactive Guidance by Image Overlay in Robot Assisted Coronary Artery Bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present an original visual guidance system in the especially difficult context of robot assisted coronary artery bypass\\u000a graft. The overlay of a preoperative coronary tree model on the endoscopic images is initialized to help the surgeon to locate\\u000a himself. Then the surgeon points some landmarks observed in the operating field during the motion of the endoscope. The overlay\\u000a is

Fabien Mourgues; Thierry Viéville; Volkmar Falk; Ève Coste-manière

2003-01-01

403

Synthesis and structural study of nano\\/micro diamond overlayer films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nano\\/micro diamond overlayer films have been successfully fabricated by means of bias growth technique using microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. During the diamond growth, as a negative bias (?100V) is applied midway on the substrate side, the nanocrystalline diamond layer can be controllably deposited on the as-grown microcrystalline diamond to form a nano\\/micro overlayer structure. Transmission electron microscopy

N. Jiang; K Sugimoto; K Nishimura; Y Shintani; A Hiraki

2002-01-01

404

A Self-organized Clustering-based Overlay Network for Application Level Multicast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer-to-Peer Overlay networks enabling an end- end application level-multicast service have drawn enormous attention. This paper proposes a self-organized -Multicast Overlay Network (-MON) that enables an efficient end-end application level multicast. The -MON is organized into MON-Clusters, where G is the maximum physical number of hops between any two end- nodes in each MON-Cluster. Thus, end-users accessing from

Khaled Ragab; Akinori Yonezawa

2009-01-01

405

SkipNet: A Scalable Overlay Network with Practical Locality Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalable overlay networks such as Chord, CAN, Pastry, and Tapestry have recently emerged as flex- ible infrastructure for building large peer-to-peer sys- tems. In practice, such systems have two disadvantages: They provide no control over where data is stored and no guarantee that routing paths remain within an ad- ministrative domain whenever possible. SkipNet is a scalable overlay network that

Nicholas J. A. Harvey; Michael B. Jones; Stefan Saroiu; Marvin Theimer; Alec Wolman

2003-01-01

406

An overlay multicast protocol for live streaming and delay-guaranteed interactive media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many collaborative multimedia applications, there is often a requirement for simultaneously supporting live streaming and shareable interaction. A major challenge in designing such an application by overlay multicast is how to simultaneously provide scalable live streaming and delay-guaranteed interactive media. Live streaming by overlay multicast incurs additional application-layer latency, which conflicts with the delay-sensitive property of interactive media. To

Weizhan Zhang; Qinghua Zheng; Haifei Li; Feng Tian

407

Automatic security analysis using security metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security metrics are valuable for measuring and comparing the amount of security provided by different systems and configurations. However, meaningful security metrics for networked systems are significantly difficult to define, evaluate, interpret, and visualize. We design a system that provides security metrics collection, security metrics management, and security metrics visualization for scalable and automatic security analysis. We first identify a

Kun Sun; Sushil Jajodia; Jason Li; Yi Cheng; Wei Tang; Anoop Singhal

2011-01-01

408

850nm VCSEL with a liquid crystal overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed an in- house technology to overlay liquid crystal (LC) on top of a 850nm Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) creating a so-called LC-VCSEL. Prior to this, the effect of the cell thickness on the planar alignment of the E7 LC is investigated. It is observed that the LC orientation is planar, uniformly aligned over the whole cell with an average pre-tilt of 22.50 in a thin a cell of 13?m thickness; such alignment uniformity is not observed in a thick cell of 125?m. Nevertheless, several domains of good uniformity are still present. Further, the polarization resolved LI characteristics of LC-VCSEL are investigated with and without the insertion of LC in a cell glued directly onto VCSEL package. Before filling in the LC, the VCSEL emits linearly polarized light and this linear polarization is lost after LC filling. The output intensity as a function of polarizer angle shows partial planar alignment of the E7 LC, which is very important for the further advancement of the LC-VCSEL integrated system.

Nair, Veena M.; Panajotov, Krassimir; Petrov, Mikov; Thienpont, Hugo; Xie, Yi; Beeckman, Jeroen; Neyts, Kristiaan

2012-05-01

409

VCSELs with nematic and cholesteric liquid crystal overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study theoretically the spectral and polarization threshold characteristics of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with nematic and cholesteric liquid crystal overlay: LC-VCSELs. In the first case, we demonstrate the possibility of selecting between two orthogonal directions of linear polarization (LP) of the fundamental mode (x or y LP) by choosing appropriate NLC length and to achieve strong polarization discrimination: threshold gain difference as large as several times the threshold gain. We also demonstrate an active control of light polarization by electro-optically tuning the LC director and show that either polarization switching between x and y LP modes or continuous change of the LP direction is possible. For cholesteric LC-VCSEL we show that it becomes a coupled system with different spectral, threshold and polarization characteristics than the ones of the stand-alone VCSEL. Due to the existence of a band gap for circularly polarized light in the liquid crystal, lasing occurs in almost circularly polarized modes at the LC side.

Panajotov, K.; Dems, M.; Belmonte, C.; Thienpont, H.; Xie, Y.; Beeckman, J.; Neyts, K.

2013-03-01

410

Ultrasonic Evaluation of Two Dissimilar Metal Weld Overlay Specimens  

SciTech Connect

Two dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe-to-nozzle specimens were implanted with thermal fatigue cracks in the 13% to 90% through-wall depth range. The specimens were ultrasonically evaluated with phased-array probes having center frequencies of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 megahertz (MHz). An Alloy 82/182 weld overlay (WOL) was applied and the specimens were ultrasonically re-evaluated for flaw detection and characterization. The Post-WOL flaw depths were approximately 10% to 56% through-wall. This study has shown the effectiveness of ultrasonic examinations of Alloy 82/182 overlaid DMW specimens. Phased-array probes with center frequency in the 0.8- to 1.0-MHz range provide a strong coherent signal but the greater ultrasonic wavelength and larger beam spot size prevent the reliable detection of small flaws. These small flaws had nominal through-wall depths of less than 15% and length in the 50-60 mm (2-2.4 in.) range. Flaws in the 19% and greater through-wall depth range were readily detected with all four probes. At the higher frequencies, the reflected signals are less coherent but still provide adequate signal for flaw detection and characterization. A single inspection at 2.0 MHz could provide adequate detection and sizing information but a supplemental inspection at 1.0 or 1.5 MHz is recommended.

Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

2012-06-30

411

Deployable Overlay Network for Defense against Distributed SYN Flood Attacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers have recently become more serious. Most of them are SYN flood attacks, since the malicious attackers can easily exploit the TCP specification to generate traffic making public servers unavailable. We need a defense method which can protect legitimate traffic so that end users can connect the target servers during such attacks. In this paper, we propose a new framework, in which all of the TCP connections to the victim servers from a domain are maintained at the gateways of the domain (i. e., near the clients). We call the nodes maintaining the TCP connection defense nodes. The defense nodes check whether arriving packets are legitimate or not by maintaining the TCP connection. That is, the defense nodes delegate reply packets to the received connection request packets and identify the legitimate packets by checking whether the clients reply to the reply packets. Then, only identified traffic are relayed via overlay networks. As a result, by deploying the defense nodes at the gateways of a domain, the legitimate packets from the domain are relayed apart from other packets including attack packets and protected. Our simulation results show that our method can protect legitimate traffic from the domain deploying our method. We also describe the deployment scenario of our defense mechanism.

Ohsita, Yuichi; Ata, Shingo; Murata, Masayuki

412

Application Oriented Flow Routing Algorithm for VoIP Overlay Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay networks which are dynamically created over underlying IP networks are becoming widely used for delivering multimedia contents since they can provide several additional user-definable services. Multiple overlay paths between a source-destination overlay node pair are designed to improve service robustness against failures and bandwidth fluctuation of the underlying networks. Multimedia traffic can be distributed over those multiple paths in order to maximize paths' utilization and to increase application throughputs. Most of flow-based routing algorithms consider only common metrics such as paths' bandwidth or delay, which may be effective for data applications but not for real-time applications such as Voice over IP (VoIP), in which different levels of such performance metrics may give the same level of the performance experienced by end users. This paper focuses on such VoIP overlay networks and proposes a novel alternative path based flow routing algorithm using an application-specific traffic metric, i.e. “VoIP Path Capacity (VPCap), ” to calculate the maximum number of QoS satisfied VoIP flows which may be distributed over each available overlay path at a moment. The simulation results proved that more QoS-satisfied VoIP sessions can be established over the same multiple overlay paths, comparing to traditional approaches.

Wipusitwarakun, Komwut; Chimmanee, Sanon

413

Hot cracking susceptibility of Alloy 52M weld overlays onto CF8 stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, weld overlays of Alloy 52M (a nickel-based filler metal) onto CF8 stainless steel (SS) were performed using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Hot cracking in the weld overlays was observed particularly near the interfacial region of the Alloy 52M/CF8 weld overlay. In general, the hot cracks were most likely to occur at the sites with high dilution rates, e.g., at the weld start/end locations of a single pass or in the first and second passes in multi-pass overlays. The region near the weld interface between Alloy 52M and the CF8 SS had a higher hot cracking tendency than the other regions. It was found that the dilution rate and the formation of eutectic-type constituents (i.e., ?/NbC) both played significant roles in the determination of the hot cracking susceptibility of these weld overlays. Nevertheless, hot cracks were entirely eliminated by proper deposition of a SS buffer layer prior to overlaying with Alloy 52M.

Chu, H. A.; Young, M. C.; Chu, H. C.; Tsay, L. W.; Chen, C.

2013-02-01

414

Improved CD and overlay metrology using an optical Fourier transform instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an innovating method to measure the overlay by scatterometry using an optical Fourier transform (OFT) based system. In order to measure the overlay of patterned layers ? and ?, one line grating is placed in layer ? and another in layer ?. The two gratings have the same pitch and their lines are parallel. The whole scattering pattern of the double grating structure is then measured at fixed wavelength in a large range of incidence (0 to 80°) and for all the azimuth angles. This measurement is very rapid thanks to the OFT and not sensitive to vibration. The main advantage of OFT compared to standard OCD techniques like normal incidence reflectometry or spectroscopic ellipsometry is that the scattering pattern is more sensitive to overlay at an azimuth depending on the pitch value which is never parallel or perpendicular to the grooves of the gratings. In addition, the optical response is also sensitive to the sign of the overlay in addition to its amplitude. In a second method, we propose to measure the overlay simultaneously along the two directions of the plane using two bi-periodic structures patterned in layer ? and ?. By using OFT it is possible to deduce directly from the whole diffracted pattern, the overlay signs and amplitudes along both directions of the plane. The paper presents some simulations and some experimental results to illustrate this new method.

Petit, J.; Boher, P.; Leroux, T.; Barritault, P.; Hazart, J.; Chaton, P.

2005-05-01

415

Harden Security of High-Risk and Critical Supply Chains  

SciTech Connect

This article focuses on the security risk in the container supply chain. It provides an overview of the technical and policy initiatives that are being implemented by international organizations, governments, and the private sector to enhance security in the container supply chain.

Harrison, Glen [ORNL

2009-01-01

416

SOCIAL SECURITY AND SAVING: NEW TIME SERIES EVIDENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

* Abstract - This paper reexamines the results of my 1974 paper on Social Security and saving with the help of an additional 21 years of data. The estimates presented here reconfirm that each dollar of Social Security wealth (SSW) reduces private saving by between two and three cents. The parameter estimates for the postwar period and for the entire

MARTIN FELDSTEIN

1996-01-01

417

TASTY: tool for automating secure two-party computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secure two-party computation allows two untrusting parties to jointly compute an arbitrary function on their respective private inputs while revealing no information beyond the outcome. Existing cryptographic compilers can automatically generate secure computation protocols from high-level specifications, but are often limited in their use and efficiency of generated protocols as they are based on either garbled circuits or (additively) homomorphic

Wilko Henecka; Stefan K ögl; Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi; Thomas Schneider; Immo Wehrenberg

2010-01-01

418

Social Security Benefits and the Accumulation of Preretirement Wealth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a new and particularly well-suited body of data to assess the impact of social security retirement benefits on private savings. The Retirement History Survey combines survey evidence on the wealth of couples in their early sixties with detailed information from the administrative records of the Social Security Administration on the lifetime earnings of those individuals and the

Martin Feldstein

1985-01-01

419

The Social Security Student Benefit Program and Family Decisions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data from the Social Security Administration's "1973 Survey of Student Beneficiaries, this paper shows that the Social Security Student Benefit Program (terminated in 1982) positively influenced recipients' selection of quality private college programs. The program also affected parents' contributions and recipients' on campus employment.…

Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Luzadis, Rebecca A.

1986-01-01

420

A Scalable Systems Approach for Critical Infrastructure Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical infrastructures underpin the domestic security, health, safety and economic well being of the United States. They are large, widely dispersed, mostly privately owned systems operated under a mixture of federal, state and local government departments, laws and regulations. While there currently are enormous pressures to secure all aspects of all critical infrastructures immediately, budget realities limit available options. The

ARNOLD B. BAKER; ROBERT L. HUTCHINSON; ROBERT J. EAGAN; AJOY K. MOONKA; PATRICIA K. FALCONE; MARK L. SWINSON; JOE M. HARRIS; ERIK K. WEBB; GILBERT V. HERRERA; TOMMY D. WOODALL; W. CURTIS HINES

2002-01-01

421

Modular Design of Efficient Secure Function Evaluation Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-party Secure Function Evaluation (SFE) al- lows mutually distrusting parties to (jointly) correctly compute a function on their private input data, without revealing the inputs. SFE, properly designed, guarantees to satisfy the most stringent security requirements, even for interactive computation. Two-party SFE can benefit almost any client- server interaction where privacy is required, such as banking, TV, targeted advertisements, etc.

Vladimir Kolesnikov; Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi; Thomas Schneider

422

Private Faith and Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Must faith be privatized? Taken at face value, this could seem a curious question, since no one is in a position to "sell off" any religion to private interests, in the way that, for example, British Rail was dismembered. Yet the question is an important one in a contemporary society, characterized as it is by a significant divergence of views…

Trigg, Roger

2008-01-01

423

Promotion of US private investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) has been officially in business since January 19, 1971. Its major purpose\\u000a is to reorganise and widen the scope of programmes for the promotion of US private investment overseas in developing countries.

Dietmar Haubold

1971-01-01

424

Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.…

Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

2013-01-01

425

Critical Infrastructures: IT Security and Threats from Private Sector Ownership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical infrastructures of industrialized countries depend on an interconnected “system of systems” that physically spans the globe and exists virtually everywhere. Often, the governments and industries responsible for the critical infrastructures are unaware of the extension and integration of the “web” on which their infrastructures rely. The safety of the citizens and the economies of these countries rely on

Douglas Warfield

2012-01-01

426

Chapter 1: Private security in war-torn African states  

Microsoft Academic Search

international law was explicitly associated with the process of armed opposition to decolonisation. This view is substantiated by even a cursory reading of the 1977 OAU Convention for the Elimination of Mercenarism in Africa and the 1989 UN International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries. In the latter half of the 20th century, the term has

Jakkie Cilliers

427

Private Intersection of Certified Sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces certified sets to the private set intersection problem. A private set intersection protocol allows Alice and Bob to jointly compute the set intersection function without revealing their input sets. Since the inputs are private, malicious participants may choose their sets arbitrarily and may use this flexibility to affect the result or learn more about the input of an honest participant. With certified sets, a trusted party ensures the inputs are valid and binds them to each participant. The strength of the malicious model with certified inputs increases the applicability of private set intersection to real world problems. With respect to efficiency the new certified set intersection protocol improves existing malicious model private set intersection protocols by a constant factor.

Camenisch, Jan; Zaverucha, Gregory M.

428

Secured transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I describe the work that is currently under way, within the Network of Excellence charged with creating a draft Common Frame of Reference, to draft rules on security over moveable assets. After a brief introduction, I deal with two broad questions: (1) the general aims and scope of the scheme for security interests in the traditional sense

H. Beale

2008-01-01

429

Inferno security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the mechanisms used by Inferno to secure communications between machines. All security is optional: an application may use it or avoid it. Inferno provides strong mutual authentication message encryption, message digesting, and digital signatures. Authentication and digital signatures are performed using public key cryptography. Public keys are certified by Inferno-based certifying authorities that sign the public keys

David Leo Presotto

1997-01-01

430

School Security.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the opinions of four security experts on the issue of guns in schools. The experts respond to the following questions: will schools ever be free of weapons; will card access systems become common in public schools; will metal detectors solve school security problems; and will students ever be issued bullet-proof vests along with…

Bete, Tim, Ed.

1998-01-01

431

Technical means for securing health information.  

PubMed

Securing health information is an application domain which can learn more from other environments like airlines and banking than from military formalism or academic freedom. The techniques of the 80s using clear separation between public and private areas have to be upgraded. Propositions are made. Costs are evaluated. PMID:8960920

de Roulet, D; Scherrer, J R

1996-10-01

432

Unconditional Security Against Memory-Bounded Adversaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a private-key cryptosystem and a protocol for key agreement by public discussionthat are unconditionally secure based on the sole assumption that an adversary's memorycapacity is limited. No assumption about her computing power is made. The scenarioassumes that a random bit string of length slightly larger than the adversary's memorycapacity can be received by all parties. The random bit

Christian Cachin; Ueli M. Maurer

1997-01-01

433

Sequencing Social Security, Pension, and Insurance Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 1995The full benefits of social security reform will not be realized until social pension systems are restructured and downsized, contribution rates lowered, and the scope for private pension funds (voluntary or mandatory) increased. Reform of the insurance sector is also essential because of the close links between pensions and life, disability, and annuity insurance.For both economic and regulatory reasons,

Dimitri Vittas

1999-01-01

434

Discount Rate Heterogeneity and Social Security Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many countries consider the privatization of existing pay-as-you-go Social Security systems, the option to make participation in the new system voluntary may appeal to policy makers who need to obtain the political support of their workers. A critical issue in evaluating such a reform and its economic consequences is the unobserved heterogeneity in households' preferences for consumption. This paper

Andrew A. Samwick

1997-01-01

435

Discount rate heterogeneity and social security reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many countries consider the privatization of existing pay-as-you-go Social Security systems, the option to make participation in the new system voluntary may appeal to policy makers who need to obtain the political support of their workers. A critical issue in evaluating such a reform and its economic consequences is the unobserved heterogeneity in households' preferences for consumption. This paper

Andrew A. Samwick

1998-01-01

436

The security and recent technology of quantum key distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In principle, quantum key distribution (QKD) can be used to make unconditionally secure private communication. However, the\\u000a security of the existing real system for QKD needs to be carefully examined. Actually, the existing experiments based on weak\\u000a coherent states are not secure under photon-number-splitting attack. Fortunately, the decoy-state method and the entanglement-distribution\\u000a method can be used to realize the unconditionally

Xiang-Bin Wang; Hao Ying; Huai-Xing Ma; Cheng-Zhi Peng; Tao Yang; Jian-Wei Pan

2006-01-01

437

Is there a human right to private health care?  

PubMed

In recent years we have noticed an increase in the turn to rights analysis in litigation relating to access to health care. Examining litigation, we can notice a contradiction between on the one hand the ability of the right to health to reinforce privatization and commodification of health care, by rearticulating claims to private health care in terms of human rights, and on the other hand, its ability to reinforce and reinstate public values, especially that of equality, against the background of privatization and commodification. While many hope that rights discourse will do the latter, and secure that access to health care should occur on the basis of need as opposed to ability to pay, it has actually been used to attempt to advance arguments that will allow access to private or semiprivate health insurance in ways that may exacerbate inequality. These types of arguments won ground in the Canadian Supreme Court, but were rejected by the Israeli Supreme Court. In order to avoid this co-optation of right to health, a notion of rights that incorporates the principles of substantive equality is required. Otherwise, one of the unintended consequences of inserting rights analysis into public health care may be that it will reinforce rather than challenge privatization in a way that may increase inequalities. PMID:23581662

Gross, Aeyal

2013-01-01

438

Public–Private Partnerships in International Agricultural Research: An Analysis of Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public–private partnerships are a potentially important means of conducting pro-poor agricultural research in many developing\\u000a countries. Yet within the international agricultural research sector, there are few examples of successful collaboration that\\u000a have contributed to food security, poverty reduction or agricultural development. This study hypothesizes that partnerships\\u000a between public research agencies and private, multinational firms are constrained by fundamentally different incentive

David J. Spielman; Klaus von Grebmer

2006-01-01

439

Norms versus Rationality: Why Democracies Use Private Military Companies in Civil Wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private security and military services — so-called Private Military Companies (PMC) — were widely ignored as important actors\\u000a in international politics. However, PMCs are of increasing interest both in light of the debate about new wars and, especially,\\u000a in light of recent media reports on the role of such companies in the current war in Iraq (see Singer 2003a; Kümmel

Martin Binder

440

Societal security - security and identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept of societal security as per- ceived in the approach of the Copenhagen School of Security Studies, as well as the main criticism of the concept. Contrary to the traditional approach, the approach advocated by members of the Copenhagen School does not only focus on military threat; here the account is taken of a wider concept

CARL SCHMITT

2009-01-01

441

Secure Objectives for School Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

Dalton-Noblitt, April

2012-01-01

442

The Effect of State-Legalized Same-Sex Marriage on Social Security Benefits and Pensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the 2004 legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts, many have questioned how the legalization of such marriages at the state level may affect the eligibility for and payment of federal Social Security benefits and private pensions. Social Security benefits are currently paid to the spouses of disabled, retired, or deceased workers entitled to Social Security. However, under current law,

Laura Haltzel; Patrick Purcell

2008-01-01

443

Secure Information Flow and Pointer Confinement in a Java-like Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a sequential object-oriented language with pointers and mutable state, private fields and class- based visibility, dynamic binding and inheritance, recur- sive classes, casts and type tests, and recursive methods. Programs are annotated with security levels, constrained by security typing rules. A noninterference theorem shows how the rules ensure pointer confinement and secure infor- mation flow.

Anindya Banerjee; David A. Naumann

2002-01-01

444

Private Information and Insurance Rejections  

PubMed Central

Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets.

Hendren, Nathaniel

2013-01-01

445

Magnetic Order of Three-Dimensional Transition Metal Overlayers on IRON(100): Vanadium, Chromium and Manganese  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin polarized electron energy loss spectroscopy (SPEELS) techniques were used to probe the surface magnetic state of thin epitaxial overlayers of V, Cr and Mn on the Fe(100) surface. These measurements were taken both as a function of electron energy loss and thickness of the overlayer film. The Cr overlayers were found to have a layer-by -layer antiferromagnetic arrangement very similar to that of bulk Cr and a surface enhanced magnetic moment of the order 2mu_{rm B}. This arrangement implies that the two monolayer coupling period oscillations observed in similar Fe/Cr/Fe sandwich systems are due to the magnetic ordering within the Cr spacer layer. The ordering of the Mn overlayers on Fe were found to have a layered antiferromagnetic ordering very similar to the Cr overlayer system. In comparison with the Cr/Fe system studies, this result implies that Fe/Mn/Fe sandwich systems should show couplings similar to the Fe/Cr/Fe system. The Mn overlayers on Fe(100) have a novel structure different from any bulk form. The measured surface moment of the order 2.9mu_{rm B} as well as the layered antiferromagnetic ordering compares well with theoretical calculations. V overlayers are found to be only weakly magnetic. Surface moments less than 1mu_{rm B} are found only for thicknesses less than 3 ML V. The 1 ML surface is antiferromagnetically aligned with the Fe surface, while the 2 ML surface aligns with the Fe. The surface moment for these systems is estimated at less than 1 mu_{rm B }. These results imply that the V/Ag system is also weakly magnetic, possibly resolving the controversy surrounding this system. The measurements of the V/Fe system compare well with calculations.

Walker, Theodore George

446

Simultaneous overlay and CD measurement for double patterning: scatterometry and RCWA approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As optical lithography advances to 32 nm technology node and beyond, double patterning technology (DPT) has emerged as an attractive solution to circumvent the fundamental optical limitations. DPT poses unique demands on critical dimension (CD) uniformity and overlay control, making the tolerance decrease much faster than the rate at which critical dimension shrinks. This, in turn, makes metrology even more challenging. In the past, multi-pad diffractionbased overlay (DBO) using empirical approach has been shown to be an effective approach to measure overlay error associated with double patterning [1]. In this method, registration errors for double patterning were extracted from specially designed diffraction targets (three or four pads for each direction); CD variation is assumed negligible within each group of adjacent pads and not addressed in the measurement. In another paper, encouraging results were reported with a first attempt at simultaneously extracting overlay and CD parameters using scatterometry [2]. In this work, we apply scatterometry with a rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) approach to characterize two double-patterning processes: litho-etch-litho-etch (LELE) and litho-freeze-litho-etch (LFLE). The advantage of performing rigorous modeling is to reduce the number of pads within each measurement target, thus reducing space requirement and improving throughput, and simultaneously extract CD and overlay information. This method measures overlay errors and CDs by fitting the optical signals with spectra calculated from a model of the targets. Good correlation is obtained between the results from this method and that of several reference techniques, including empirical multi-pad DBO, CD-SEM, and IBO. We also perform total measurement uncertainty (TMU) analysis to evaluate the overall performance. We demonstrate that scatterometry provides a promising solution to meet the challenging overlay metrology requirement in DPT.

Li, Jie; Liu, Zhuan; Rabello, Silvio; Dasari, Prasad; Kritsun, Oleg; Volkman, Catherine; Park, Jungchul; Singh, Lovejeet

2009-03-01

447

Faster diffraction-based overlay measurements with smaller targets using 3D gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffraction-based overlay (DBO) technologies have been developed to address the overlay metrology challenges for 22nm technology node and beyond. Most DBO technologies require specially designed targets that consist of multiple measurement pads, which consume too much space and increase measurement time. The traditional empirical approach (eDBO) using normal incidence spectroscopic reflectometry (NISR) relies on linear response of the reflectance with respect to overlay displacement within a small range. It offers convenience of quick recipe setup since there is no need to establish a model. However it requires three or four pads per direction (x or y) which adds burden to throughput and target size. Recent advances in modeling capability and computation power enabled mDBO, which allows overlay measurement with reduced number of pads, thus reducing measurement time and DBO target space. In this paper we evaluate the performance of single pad mDBO measurements using two 3D targets that have different grating shapes: squares in boxes and L-shapes in boxes. Good overlay sensitivities are observed for both targets. The correlation to programmed shifts and image-based overlay (IBO) is excellent. Despite the difference in shapes, the mDBO results are comparable for square and L-shape targets. The impact of process variations on overlay measurements is studied using a focus and exposure matrix (FEM) wafer. Although the FEM wafer has larger process variations, the correlation of mDBO results with IBO measurements is as good as the normal process wafer. We demonstrate the feasibility of single pad DBO measurements with faster throughput and smaller target size, which is particularly important in high volume manufacturing environment.

Li, Jie; Kritsun, Oleg; Liu, Yongdong; Dasari, Prasad; Volkman, Catherine; Hu, Jiangtao

2012-03-01

448

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Research is presently being conducted to develop a criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in Circulated Fluidized Beds. Initially, eleven weld overlay alloys were selected for erosion testing based upon a literature review. All eleven coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400 C and their erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. In addition, the microstructure of each coating was characterized before and after the erosion tests. No correlations were found between room temperature hardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature. It was suggested that weld overlays mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates may contributed to their erosion resistance. During the previous two quarters the microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples in order to determine the size of the work hardened zone and the change in the coatings hardness due to erosion. As a result of these measurements it was established that one group of coatings deformed plastically, while another did not. In addition, the measurements of the weld overlays microhardness at 400 C were made. The coatings microhardness at 400 C was plotted versus their volume erosion rates. During the last quarter, erosion tests were performed for Inconel-625, 316L SS, and Iron-Aluminide wrought alloys in order to compare their erosion behavior with similar weld overlays. The results of microhardness profile measurements for all weld overlay coatings were analyzed. The factors that contribute to the erosion resistance of the coatings that deformed plastically are discussed in this progress report.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1994-10-26

449

The use of a new overlay mattress in patients with chronic pain: impact on sleep and self-reported pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the use of an air flotation mattress overlay in patients with chronic pain.Design: Four-week prospective AB design.Setting: The mattress overlay was used in a community setting.Subjects: Adult patients attending an outpatients clinic in a department of rheumatology, with chronic pain plus sleep problems, or pain sufficient to disturb sleep.Interventions: An inexpensive low-pressure inflatable mattress overlay (ReposeTM), which

P Price; S Rees-Mathews; N Tebble; J Camilleri

2003-01-01

450

Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events  

PubMed Central

Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same quantitative relations that characterize public operant behavior. This approach is illustrated by a model of attending to stimuli and to anticipated reinforcers in delayed matching to sample, in which the probabilities of attending are related to reinforcer rates by an expression derived from research on behavioral momentum.

Nevin, John A

2008-01-01

451

Quantum Private Comparison of Equality with ?-Type Entangled States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a quantum private comparison protocol with ?-type entangled states is proposed. In the protocol, two users can determine whether their secret inputs are equal, with the help of a semi-trusted third party. Here, the only constraint condition of this third party is that he could not collude with one user. Although the third party takes part in the whole process of the presented protocol, a feature of ?-type entangled state is utilized to design a eavesdropping check method to stand against his attack. Security analysis showed that the presented protocol is secure against some well-known attacks. Meanwhile, all the particles undergo only a one-way trip, which improves the efficiency and security of the presented protocol. Furthermore, only two-particle measurement is required in the implementation of the protocol, which make it more feasible in technique.

Lin, Song; Guo, Gong-De; Liu, Xiao-Fen

2013-07-01

452

Quantum Private Comparison of Equality with ?-Type Entangled States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a quantum private comparison protocol with ?-type entangled states is proposed. In the protocol, two users can determine whether their secret inputs are equal, with the help of a semi-trusted third party. Here, the only constraint condition of this third party is that he could not collude with one user. Although the third party takes part in the whole process of the presented protocol, a feature of ?-type entangled state is utilized to design a eavesdropping check method to stand against his attack. Security analysis showed that the presented protocol is secure against some well-known attacks. Meanwhile, all the particles undergo only a one-way trip, which improves the efficiency and security of the presented protocol. Furthermore, only two-particle measurement is required in the implementation of the protocol, which make it more feasible in technique.

Lin, Song; Guo, Gong-De; Liu, Xiao-Fen

2013-11-01

453

45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Private education. 605.39 ...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ...ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 ...provides private elementary or secondary education may not,...

2009-10-01

454

Infrared differential interference contrast microscopy for overlay metrology on 3D-interconnect bonded wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay metrology for stacked layers will be playing a key role in bringing 3D IC devices into manufacturing. However, such bonded wafer pairs present a metrology challenge for optical microscopy tools by the opaque nature of silicon. Using infrared microscopy, silicon wafers become transparent to the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, enabling metrology at the interface of bonded wafer pairs. Wafers can be bonded face to face (F2F) or face to back (F2B) which the stacking direction is dictated by how the stacks are carried in the process and functionality required. For example, Memory stacks tend to use F2B stacking enables a better managed design. Current commercial tools use single image technique for F2F bonding overlay measurement because depth of focus is sufficient to include both surfaces; and use multiple image techniques for F2B overlay measurement application for the depth of focus is no longer sufficient to include both stacked wafer surfaces. There is a need to specify the Z coordinate or stacking wafer number through the silicon when visiting measurement wafer sites. Two shown images are of the same (X, Y) but separate Z location acquired at focus position of each wafer surface containing overlay marks. Usually the top surface image is bright and clear; however, the bottom surface image is somewhat darker and noisier as an adhesive layer is used in between to bond the silicon wafers. Thus the top and bottom surface images are further processed to achieve similar brightness and noise level before merged for overlay measurement. This paper presents a special overlay measurement technique, using the infrared differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy technique to measure the F2B wafer bonding overlay by a single shot image. A pair of thinned wafers at 50 and 150 ?m thickness is bonded on top of a carrier wafer to evaluate the bonding overlay. It works on the principle of interferometry to gain information about the optical path length of the stacked wafers, to enhance the image contrast of overlay marks features even though they are locating in different Z plane. A two dimensional mirror-symmetric overlay marks for both top and bottom processing wafers is designed and printed in each die in order to know and realize the best achievable wafer to wafer bonding processing. A self-developed analysis algorithms is used to identify the overlay error between the stacking wafers and the interconnect structures. The experimental overlay results after wafer bonding including inter-die and intra-die analysis results will be report in the full paper. Correlation of overlay alignment offset data to electrical yield, provides an early indication of bonded wafer yield.

Ku, Yi-sha; Shyu, Deh-Ming; Lin, Yeou-Sung; Cho, Chia-Hung

2013-04-01

455

Security Transformation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the past 5 years, the United States has sought to transform its defense capabilities to reflect ongoing changes in technology, management techniques, the American political and economic landscapes, and the global security environment. The terrorist at...

S. Metz

2003-01-01

456

Energy Security  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson plan on US energy security and independence. Teaches different ways to reduce American dependence on foreign sources of energy, focusing on the plans offered by both Democratic and Republican politicians.

Institute, Levin

457

Security Detail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes problems of maintaining discipline and security at Jamaica High School in Queens, New York. Argues that court decisions and school regulations have allowed minority of aggressive and disruptive students to destabilize the learning environment. (PKP)

Epstein, Marc A.

2003-01-01

458

Panoramic security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief survey of the theoretical, physical, and psychophysical background of surveillance, the basis of security, is given, especially, in those cases when the signal carriers are electromagnetic waves. The concept of flat cylinder perspective (FCP) is introduced, allowing an undistorted 360-degree panoramic view. Technical considerations of designing such an optic, called PAL, satisfying these criteria are presented. Examples are given regarding how to use some instruments based on PAL-optic in surveillance and security related panoramic inspection tasks.

Greguss, Pal

1991-10-01

459

Secure Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Defining robust security architectures is vital for protecting IT infrastructures from cyber-attacks. This is especially true\\u000a when the IT infrastructure is going to be used by investigators and law enforcement agencies to combat crime across EU. A\\u000a compromise between the level of security and the level of acceptable risk must be found. As a first step it is mandatory to

Rodrigo Diaz Rodriguez

460

Secure portal.  

SciTech Connect

There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing the secure portal concept.

Nelson, Cynthia Lee

2007-09-01

461

Private nursing homes: contribution to long stay care of the elderly in the Brighton Health District.  

PubMed Central

Two surveys of private nursing homes, designated geriatric wards, and a sample of social service part III homes were carried out in the Brighton Health District using questionnaires supplemented (in the second survey) by some interviews. The dependency of old people in the private nursing homes was more like that of long stay hospital patients rather than that of residents in social services homes. In the private nursing homes, however, a smaller proportion of patients were in the medium to heavy nursing category (178 (31%) compared with 158 (63%) in the hospital long stay wards) and a larger proportion in the heavy nursing category (170 (30%) compared with 44 (17%) in the long stay wards). Of the patients in private nursing homes, 401 (82%) were local residents, 488 (86%) were long stay, and 459 (88%) were women; their mean age was 88 years. Two thirds of the patients were over 80. There were no significant differences between the private nursing homes and the wards in nursing workloads or staffing, except for a slightly higher provision of state registered nurses in the private sector. In the private nursing homes 348 (63%) of the patients had fees paid by private funds, 26 (5%) were in contract beds paid for by the National Health Service, and 176 (32%) were subsidized by the Department of Health and Social Security. Private nursing homes make a substantial contribution to the care of the elderly in the Brighton Health District, and the health authority should develop a more active partnership with this sector.

Bennett, J

1986-01-01

462

House Calls in Private Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates the experiences of a social worker in private practice who offered house calls as an ongoing setting for counseling and psychotherapy to individuals and families. Describes advantages and disadvantages, liability, and target populations. (JAC)

Whittington, Ronaele

1985-01-01

463

Considering and Evaluating Airport Privatization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a guidebook that assists airport operators, policy makers, and other relevant stakeholders as they consider and analyze the potential advantages and disadvantages of implementing various approaches to airport privatization. The guidebook ...

B. Boudreau D. Reimer S. Ernico S. Van Beek

2012-01-01

464

Diffraction-based overlay measurement on dedicated mark using rigorous modeling method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) is widely evaluated by numerous authors, results show DBO can provide better performance than Imaging Based Overlay (IBO). However, DBO has its own problems. As well known, Modeling based DBO (mDBO) faces challenges of low measurement sensitivity and crosstalk between various structure parameters, which may result in poor accuracy and precision. Meanwhile, main obstacle encountered by empirical DBO (eDBO) is that a few pads must be employed to gain sufficient information on overlay-induced diffraction signature variations, which consumes more wafer space and costs more measuring time. Also, eDBO may suffer from mark profile asymmetry caused by processes. In this paper, we propose an alternative DBO technology that employs a dedicated overlay mark and takes a rigorous modeling approach. This technology needs only two or three pads for each direction, which is economic and time saving. While overlay measurement error induced by mark profile asymmetry being reduced, this technology is expected to be as accurate and precise as scatterometry technologies.

Lu, Hailiang; Wang, Fan; Zhang, Qingyun; Chen, Yonghui; Zhou, Chang

2012-03-01

465

Lateral root morphogenesis is dependent on the mechanical properties of the overlaying tissues  

PubMed Central

In Arabidopsis, lateral root primordia (LRPs) originate from pericycle cells located deep within the parental root and have to emerge through endodermal, cortical, and epidermal tissues. These overlaying tissues place biomechanical constraints on the LRPs that are likely to impact their morphogenesis. This study probes the interplay between the patterns of cell division, organ shape, and overlaying tissues on LRP morphogenesis by exploiting recent advances in live plant cell imaging and image analysis. Our 3D/4D image analysis revealed that early stage LRPs exhibit tangential divisions that create a ring of cells corralling a population of rapidly dividing cells at its center. The patterns of division in the latter population of cells during LRP morphogenesis are not stereotypical. In contrast, statistical analysis demonstrated that the shape of new LRPs is highly conserved. We tested the relative importance of cell division pattern versus overlaying tissues on LRP morphogenesis using mutant and transgenic approaches. The double mutant aurora1 (aur1) aur2 disrupts the pattern of LRP cell divisions and impacts its growth dynamics, yet the new organ’s dome shape remains normal. In contrast, manipulating the properties of overlaying tissues disrupted LRP morphogenesis. We conclude that the interaction with overlaying tissues, rather than the precise pattern of divisions, is most important for LRP morphogenesis and optimizes the process of lateral root emergence.

Lucas, Mikael; Kenobi, Kim; von Wangenheim, Daniel; Vo?, Ute; Swarup, Kamal; De Smet, Ive; Van Damme, Daniel; Lawrence, Tara; Peret, Benjamin; Moscardi, Eric; Barbeau, Daniel; Godin, Christophe; Salt, David; Guyomarc'h, Soazig; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.; Maizel, Alexis; Laplaze, Laurent; Bennett, Malcolm J.

2013-01-01

466

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1994--March 1994  

SciTech Connect

The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterwalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1994-04-21

467

The challenges of transitioning from linear to high-order overlay control in advanced lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the lithography section of the ITRS 2006 update, at the top of the list of difficult challenges appears the text "overlay of multiple exposures including mask image placement". This is a reflection of the fact that today overlay is becoming a major yield risk factor in semiconductor manufacturing. Historically, lithographers have achieved sufficient alignment accuracy and hence layer to layer overlay control by relying on models which define overlay as a linear function of the field and wafer coordinates. These linear terms were easily translated to correctibles in the available exposure tool degrees of freedom on the wafer and reticle stages. However, as the 45 nm half pitch node reaches production, exposure tool vendors have begun to make available, and lithographers have begun to utilize so called high order wafer and field control, in which either look up table or high order polynomial models are modified on a product by product basis. In this paper, the major challenges of this transition will be described. It will include characterization of the sources of variation which need to be controlled by these new models and the overlay and alignment sampling optimization problem which needs to be addressed, while maintaining the ever tightening demands on productivity and cost of ownership.

Adel, M.; Izikson, P.; Tien, D.; Huang, C. K.; Robinson, J. C.; Eichelberger, B.

2008-03-01

468

Effect of Palladium Overlayer on Samarium Hydride Thin Film Switchable Mirror: Electrochemical and Topographical Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samarium films with a typical thickness of 55 nm deposited by vacuum evaporation and covered with Pd overlayers with thicknesses of 5, 8, 11, and 15 nm were loaded with hydrogen and deloaded in a 1 M KOH solution galvanostatically at room temperature. Our study showed that palladium overlayer thickness plays the most crucial role in observing the fast transition between an as-deposited metallic state and a semiconducting nearly samarium trihydride state as well as in obtaining a very high optical contrast. The desorption of hydrogen from palladium-capped SmH3-? films was studied by in situ transmission measurement during the electrochemical loading/unloading of hydrogen. It was shown that palladium cap layer thickness affects the deloading of hydrogen from the hydrided films. The effect of a palladium overlayer on the surface morphology of metallic and hydrogen-desorbed samarium films showed the sequence of nucleation and growth.

Kumar, Pushpendra; Malhotra, Lalit Kumar

2006-12-01

469

Weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Task A: Literature review, progress report  

SciTech Connect

A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-03-03

470

Study of behaviors of aluminum overlayers deposited on uranium via AES, EELS, and XPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum overlayers on uranium were prepared by sputtering at room temperature in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. The growth mode of aluminum overlayers and behaviors of the Al/U interface reaction were studied in situ by auger electron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results suggested that the interdiffusion took place at the Al/U interface during the initial stage of deposition. The U4f spectra of the Al/U interface showed strong correlation satellites at binding energies of 380.4 and 392.7 eV and plasma loss features at 404.2 eV, respectively. The interactions between aluminum and uranium yielded the intermetallic compound of UAlx, inducing the shift to a low binding energy for Al2p peaks. The results indicated that aluminum overlayers were formed on the uranium by sputtering in an island growth mode.

Liu, Kezhao; Luo, Lizhu; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Jiangrong; Xiao, Hong; Hong, Zhanglian; Yang, Hui

2013-04-01

471

Secure key from bound entanglement.  

PubMed

We characterize the set of shared quantum states which contain a cryptographically private key. This allows us to recast the theory of privacy as a paradigm closely related to that used in entanglement manipulation. It is shown that one can distill an arbitrarily secure key from bound entangled states. There are also states that have less distillable private keys than the entanglement cost of the state. In general, the amount of distillable key is bounded from above by the relative entropy of entanglement. Relationships between distillability and distinguishability are found for a class of states which have Bell states correlated to separable hiding states. We also describe a technique for finding states exhibiting irreversibility in entanglement distillation. PMID:15904201

Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Micha?; Horodecki, Pawe?; Oppenheim, Jonathan

2005-04-26

472

As privatization of libraries continues, some grow concerned  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

San Joaquin County to consider privatizing librarieshttp://www.lodinews.com/news/article_14f6af7a-9175-549a-bb11-bb28778d8252.htmlShould public libraries be put in private hands?http://www.scpr.org/programs/patt-morrison/2010/09/27/privatization-of-libraries/Library Systems & Serviceshttp://www.lssi.com/Carnegie Libraries: The Future Made Brighthttp://www.nps.gov/history/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/50carnegie/50carnegie.htmBoston Athenaeumhttp://www.bostonathenaeum.org/Public-private partnerships in cities are nothing new, and many cities and political units have had experiences with partial or complete privatization of various services over the years. A recent wrinkle in this process is raising eyebrows across the country, as a number of public libraries in cities with struggling economies have been taken over by the Library Systems & Services (LSSI) company. Recently, the company was approached with and accepted an offer to run the libraries in the city of Santa Clarita, California for $4 million, a city that is relatively healthy economically. The company claims that they are able to reign in costs, and in an interview with the New York Times, their chief executive, Frank A. Pezzanite, noted, "A lot of libraries are atrocious. Their policies are all about job security. That is why the profession is nervous about us." Obviously, there are many people who are incensed by Pezzanite's comments and his approach to management, and a number of library employees are quite upset about the terms of the company's contract. Others believe that libraries are a public service that is too important to be handed over to a private, profit-driven company. It remains to be seen whether this trend will continue, but for now the number of libraries managed by LSSI constitute the country's fifth-largest library system.The first link will take users to an article from this Monday's New York Times about this recent library privatization in California. The second link leads to a recent piece in the Lodi News-Sentinel about the proposed privatization of libraries in San Joaquin County. Moving on, the third link leads to a conversation about the privatization of public libraries recently featured on Southern California Public Radio. The fourth link whisks users away to the homepage of LSSI. The fifth link leads to a lovely set of educational resources about the Carnegie libraries in the United States, courtesy of the National Park Service's Teaching with Historic Places Lesson Plans program. The final link leads to the homepage of the Boston Athenaeum, which is a different type of membership library entirely, founded in 1807.

Grinnell, Max

2010-10-01

473

Security enhanced mobile agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a security model for mobile agent based systems. The model defines the notion of a security-enhanced agent and outlines security management components in agent platform bases and considers secure migration of agents from one base to another. The security enhanced agent carries a passport that contains its security credentials and some related security code. Then we describe

Vijay Varadharajan

2000-01-01

474

Privatization and competition policies for Australian universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privatization” encapsulates an ideological shift towards market principles such as competition, commercialization, deregulation, efficiency and changing forms of accountability. In higher education, the privatization trend includes the full gamut from the creation of fully private institutions which operate without government financial support, to reforms in largely government-funded institutions operating in more of a quasi-market mode. This article examines privatization policies

Jan Currie; Lesley Vidovich

2000-01-01

475

The State Board's Role with Private Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A state board of education has several major responsibilities regarding private schools. It should have an understanding of the legal constraints regarding its relationship with private schools. It should have information about the character of private schools nationwide and in their state. Research is needed regarding how private schools affect…

Lamborn, Robert L.

476

An Analysis of Private School Closings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We add to the small literature on private school supply by exploring exits of K-12 private schools. We find that the closure of private schools is not an infrequent event and use national survey data from the National Center for Education Statistics to study closures of private schools. We assume that the probability of an exit is a function of…

Pandey, Lakshmi; Sjoquist, David L.; Walker, Mary Beth

2009-01-01

477

Privatization and Economic Strategy in Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privatization, together with liberalization and deregulation, constituted the core of Mozambique's economic transition. Privatization in Mozambique has taken place on an unusually large scale in comparison with the rest of Africa. Privatization interacted with military demobilization and political transition since military officers, together with members of the main political parties, were amongst the buyers of state assets. Private businessmen who

Carlos Castel-Branco; Christopher Cramer; Degol Hailu

2001-01-01

478

Scalable Tool Infrastructure for the Cray XT Using Tree-Based Overlay Networks  

SciTech Connect

Performance, debugging, and administration tools are critical for the effective use of parallel computing platforms, but traditional tools have failed to overcome several problems that limit their scalability, such as communication between a large number of tool processes and the management and processing of the volume of data generated on a large number of compute nodes. A tree-based overlay network has proven effective for overcoming these challenges. In this paper, we present our experiences in bringing our MRNet tree-based overlay network infrastructure to the Cray XT platform, including a description of proof-of-concept tools that use MRNet on the Cray XT.

Roth, Philip C [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

2009-01-01

479

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1993--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Twelve weld overlay hardfacing alloys have been selected for preliminary erosion testing based on a literature review These alloys have been separated into three major groups: (1) Cobalt containing alloys, (2) Nickel-base alloys, (3) Iron base alloys. These alloys are being applied to carbon steel substrates and will undergo preliminary erosion testing to identify candidates weld overlay alloys for erosion control in CFB boilers. The candidate alloys selected from the preliminary erosion tests will then undergo more detailed evaluations in future research.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-04-18

480

Nanoparticles-modified polymer-based solar-reflective coating as a cooling overlay for asphalt pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of rutting is one of the most serious problems on asphalt pavements. Decreasing the surface temperature of the asphalt pavement is an effective method to solve the rutting problem on asphalt pavements. In this study, a nano-sized-particles-filled polymer composite was developed as an overlay to reflect solar energy and decrease the surface temperature of asphalt pavements. The overlay

He Wang; Jing Zhong; Decheng Feng; Jing Meng; Ning Xie

2012-01-01

481

Evaluation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays for Erosion-Corrosion Resistant Boiler Tube Coatings in Low NOx Boilers  

SciTech Connect

Iron aluminide weld overlays containing ternary additions and thermal spray coatings are being investigated for corrosion protection of boiler tubes in Low NO{sub x} burners. The primary objective of the research is to identify overlay and thermal spray compositions that provide corrosion protection of waterwall boiler tubes.

Regina, J.R.; Lim, M.; Barbosa, N., DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

2000-04-28

482

C-arm Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Needle Path Overlay for Fluoroscopic-Guided Placement of Translumbar Central Venous Catheters  

SciTech Connect

C-arm cone beam computed tomography is an advanced 3D imaging technology that is currently available on state-of-the-art flat-panel-based angiography systems. The overlay of cross-sectional imaging information can now be integrated with real-time fluoroscopy. This overlay technology was used to guide the placement of three percutaneous translumbar inferior vena cava catheters.

Tam, Alda, E-mail: alda.tam@di.mdacc.tmc.ed [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Unit 325 (United States); Mohamed, Ashraf [Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. (United States); Pfister, Marcus; Rohm, Esther [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, AX Division (Germany); Wallace, Michael J. [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Unit 325 (United States)

2009-07-15

483

49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.201 Security of the secured area. (a) Each airport operator required to have a security...least one secured area. (b) Each airport operator required to establish a...

2011-10-01

484

49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.201 Security of the secured area. (a) Each airport operator required to have a security...least one secured area. (b) Each airport operator required to establish a...

2012-10-01

485

16 CFR Appendix to Part 23 - Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate, Silver, and Platinum Industry Products Appendix to Part...Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate, Silver, and Platinum Industry Products (a) Exemptions...considered in any assay for quality of a platinum industry product include...

2010-01-01

486

16 CFR Appendix to Part 23 - Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate, Silver, and Platinum Industry Products Appendix to Part...Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate, Silver, and Platinum Industry Products (a) Exemptions...considered in any assay for quality of a platinum industry product include...

2009-01-01

487

TWRS privatization process technical baseline  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

Orme, R.M.

1996-09-13

488

Private equity investments beyond Earth orbits: Can space exploration be the new frontier for private investments?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The year 2004 can be considered an important milestone for space activities. First, on January 14, 2004 President Bush announced a new vision for human and robotic space exploration named “A Renewed Spirit of Discovery”. This new space exploration policy called for “a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond” and seeks also to “promote international and commercial participation in space exploration to further US scientific, security, and economic interests”. Secondly, the satellite industry has experienced a trend of private investment fund acquisitions. Five of six major fixed and mobile satellite service providers in the world have been partly or entirely sold to conventional financial investors. These transactions have taken place despite the background noise of overcapacity, stagnant growth and declining operating margins satellite services sector. Over the last 18 months, we have seen a total of approximately US $12B dollars in private equity transactions in the satellite sector. Finally, the Ansari X prize has been won opening the possibility of the personal spaceflight revolution. This paper seeks to provide some insights into the nature, timing and a rationale for these investments in the space sector. Then, an attempt is made to analyze the potential that space exploration might present for traditional financial investors.

Mathurin, Jeph; Peter, Nicolas

2006-07-01

489

Study on the Cross-Border Scope of the Private Right of Action Under Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 As Required by Section 929Y of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study stems from two significant legal developments in the Summer of 2010 regarding the application of Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act) to transnational securities frauds. Section 10(b) is an antifraud provision des...

2012-01-01

490

The impact of privatization on access in Tanzania.  

PubMed

In the late 1980s, many developing countries were forced to adopt structural adjustment policies as a condition for securing loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. One of the World Bank's recommended policies was to change the mix of private and public health facilities. This study, based on fieldwork done in Tanzania in 1993, examines the impact of this policy on health-care accessibility in two northern Tanzanian districts, one rural and one urban. Accessibility was measured in terms of equality and equity of coverage. The placement of the very few government clinics opened during the years 1985-1993 did much more to improve coverage than the haphazard location of many new private clinics. Equity was not improved as very few clinics were placed in demographically needy areas. PMID:11352415

Benson, J S

2001-06-01

491

A new method to enhance the magnetism of Fe overlayer on GaAs(100): sulfur passivation using CH3CSNH2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) has been used to investigat the magnetism of Fe overlayer on S-passivated GaAs(100) pretreated by CH3CSNH2. Comparing with the magnetism of Fe overlayer on clean GaAs(100), we find that sulfur passivation can prevent As diffusion into Fe overlayer and weaken the interaction of As and Fe. It results in enhancing the magnetism of Fe overlayer on GaAs(100).

Xu Peng-shou; Guo Hong-zhi; Zhang Fa-pei; Lu Er-dong; Xu Fa-qiang; Pan Hai-bin; Zhang Xin-yi

1999-01-01

492

Status of Educational Efforts in National Security Workforce  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the status of educational efforts for the preparation of a national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This report includes an assessment of the current educational situation for the national security workforce.

None

2008-03-31

493

Caring for our seniors – private issue or public? The Asian scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author put forward a framework in which the five domains of care needs of older people, that is, financial security, health and personal care, housing, psychosocial emotional care and seniors as ‘resources’, should be provided with a shared responsibility between public and private domains. The public domain denotes the State's indispensable role in developing viable legislations and policies, whereas

Ernest Wing-Tak Chui

2012-01-01

494

Second Line of Defense Virtual Private Network Guidance for Deployed and New CAS Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the importance of remote access via virtual private network (VPN) for the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Central Alarm System (CAS) sites, the requirements for maintaining secure channels while using VPN and implementation requirements for current and future sites.

Singh, Surya V.; Thronas, Aaron I.

2010-01-01

495

A Survey of Private Ohio Academic Libraries' Physical Processing Practices for Circulating Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Little guidance is given in today's general technical services or cataloging textbooks to assist librarians in making decisions on procedures for the physical preparation of materials prior to placement on the shelves for public access. As small, private academic libraries face automation of circulation, addition of security systems, and debates…

Factor, Olivia Spaid

496

Public and private organizations in Latin America: a comparison of reward preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compares Latin American graduate students in management with work experience in government and business. Explores similarities and differences in work-related incentives between public and private sector groups. Finds that while administrative reforms in developing countries may assume differences in the importance of job security across the two sectors and neglect the possibility of a national or community service orientation, these

Monteze M. Snyder; Joyce Osland

1996-01-01

497

Diplomatic Security Service - Partner in National Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Diplomatic Security Service (DSS) is the United States Department of State's security operational arm. Its activities influence and support national security. Due to its low profile, it may be relatively unknown to the senior leadership of other US go...

B. B. Collins

1992-01-01

498

Cyber security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network infrastructure with reliable communications and processing capabilities is key to commerce. In this note, different techniques for improving cybers security of data and wireless networks are described. First, network survivability, along with cost, is included in the objective function for network design algorithms. Second, persistent monitoring capabilities are added to network management protocols to provide early detection of network

On-Ching Yue

2003-01-01

499

Interdependent Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do firms have adequate incentives to invest in protection against a risk whose magnitude depends on the actions of others? This paper characterizes the Nash equilibria for this type of interaction between agents, which we call the interdependent security (IDS) problem. When agents are identical, there are two Nash equilibria for a wide range of cost and risk parameters—either everyone

Howard Kunreuther; Geoffrey Heal

2003-01-01

500

Impact of Capitation Payment: The Social Security Scheme of Thailand. Major Applied Research Working Paper 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1990, Thailand introduced a Social Security Scheme (SSS), a compulsory social insurance scheme that covers formal sector private employees. The SSS contracts with hospitals (main contractors, MCs) at a capitation rate to cover all services SSS benefici...

W. C. Yip S. Supakankunti J. Sriratanaban W. S. Janjaroen S. Pongpanich

2001-01-01