Sample records for private overlays secure

  1. A Security Framework for JXTA-Overlay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Arnedo-moreno; Keita Matsuo; Leonard Barolli; Fatos Xhafa

    2009-01-01

    At present time, the maturity of P2P research field has pushed through new problems such us those related with security. For that reason, security starts to become one of the key issues when evaluating a P2P system and it is important to provide security mechanisms to P2P systems. The JXTA-Overlay project is an effort to use JXTA technology to provide

  2. Social Security: Privatization and Progressivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence J. Kotlikoff; Kent A. Smetters; Jan Walliser

    1998-01-01

    This paper uses a large-scale overlapping generations model that features intragenerational heterogeneity to show that privatizing the U.S. Social Security System could be done on a progressive basis. We start with a close replica of the current system; specifically, we include Social Security's progressive linkages between taxes paid and benefits received. The paper compares achieving progressivity as part of privatization

  3. Regulatory Problems in Privatizing Social Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howell E. Jackson

    This working paper, which will appear as a chapter of Framing the Social Security Debate (forthcoming Fall 1998) (Brookings Institution Press), discusses two regulatory problems associated with the privatization of social security: first, the risk that political interference with social security investments in equity securities will disrupt private capital markets and reduce returns on social security assets, and, second, risks

  4. The Trellis Security Infrastructure: A Layered Approach to Overlay Metacomputers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morgan Kan; Danny Ngo; Mark Lee; Paul Lu; Nolan Bard; Michael Closson; Meng Ding; Mark Goldberg; Nicholas Lamb; Yang Wang; Ron Senda; Edmund Sumbar

    2004-01-01

    Researchers often have access to a variety of dif- ferent high-performance computer (HPC) systems in different administrative domains, possibly across a wide-area network. Consequently, the security infrastructure becomes an important component of an overlay metacomputer: a user-level aggregation of HPC systems. The Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) uses a sophisticated approach based on proxies and certification authorities. However, GSI requires a

  5. Social security and privatization: a viable combination?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R. Rose; William Cartwright

    2009-01-01

    Privatization involves placing Social Security contributions into individual savings accounts. Recent moves to promote the privatization of Social Security in the United States assume that the Social Security system itself is now in crisis, although the evidence suggests otherwise. Nevertheless, there are real concerns about the future viability of Social Security that should be addressed. The public remains supportive of

  6. Quantum Private Queries: security analysis

    E-print Network

    Vittorio Giovannetti; Seth Lloyd; Lorenzo Maccone

    2008-09-11

    We present a security analysis of the recently introduced Quantum Private Query (QPQ) protocol. It is a cheat sensitive quantum protocol to perform a private search on a classical database. It allows a user to retrieve an item from the database without revealing which item was retrieved, and at the same time it ensures data privacy of the database (the information that the user can retrieve in a query is bounded and does not depend on the size of the database). The security analysis is based on information-disturbance tradeoffs which show that whenever the provider tries to obtain information on the query, the query (encoded into a quantum system) is disturbed so that the person querying the database can detect the privacy violation.

  7. Social Security private accounts: a risky proposition?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald P. Dwyer Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In the ongoing debate over Social Security, private accounts have been recommended as one part of the resolution of the funding difficulties the system faces in coming years. This article discusses what private accounts can and cannot do for individuals who choose to use them and for future Social Security deficits. ; Under current proposals, private accounts would give account

  8. Terrorism, Airport Security, and the Private Sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Seidenstat

    2004-01-01

    September 11, 2001, led to renewed emphasis on airport security in the United States. Before the tragedy, government policy led to a suboptimal level of security. The fundamental problem was not simply the use of private security firms, but rather the reliance on airline financing and poor Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight. After 9\\/11 a federalized security system was put

  9. Does Social Security Privatization Produce Efficiency Gains?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinichi Nishiyama; Kent Smetters

    2007-01-01

    While privatizing social security can improve labor supply incentives, it can also reduce risk sharing. We analyze a 50% privatization using an overlapping-generations model where heterogeneous agents with elastic labor supply face idiosyncratic earnings shocks and longevity uncertainty. When wage shocks are insurable, privatization produces about $18,100 of extra resources for each future household after all transitional losses have been

  10. Social Security Privatization and Financial Market Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Burtless

    A popular proposal for reforming social security is to supplement or replace traditional publicly financed benefits with a new system of mandatory defined- contribution private pensions. Proponents claim that private plans offer better returns than traditional social security. To achieve higher returns, however, contributors are exposed to extra risks associated with financial market fluctuations. This paper offers evidence on the

  11. Social Security Privatization and Market Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian E. Weller

    2006-01-01

    Under Social Security privatization, workers would be allowed to divert some of the money that currently goes to Social Security into private accounts. This would expose them to market risk, that is, the risk of a substantial drop in equity prices or of a prolonged bear market. This could result in generations of workers with less money than they thought

  12. Security Intelligence Networks and the Transformation of Contract Private Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy Lippert; Daniel OConnor

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the transformation of contract private security and security intelligence networks by drawing on results of a 2003 survey of contract security firms in Ontario, Canada. Comparing these results with a 1976 survey by Shearing et al. reveals a dramatic increase in the intelligence gathering and sharing capacities of contract security firms. This increased capacity can be put

  13. Does Social Security Privatization Produce Efficiency Gains?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinichi Nishiyama; Kent Smetters

    2005-01-01

    While privatizing Social Security can improve labor supply incentives, it can also reduce risk sharing when households face uninsurable risks. We simulate a stylized 50-percent privatization using an overlapping-generations model where heterogenous agents with elastic labor supply face idiosyncratic earnings shocks and longevity uncertainty. When wage shocks are insurable, privatization produces about $21,900 of new resources for each future household

  14. Can Social Security Privatization Be Pareto Improving?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas H. Joines

    Abstract The last two decades have witnessed the complete or parital privatization of public pension systems in several countries, and many proposals have been made to privatize the U.S. Social Security system either completely or partially. The motivation behind such proposals is that privatization will lead to substantial long-run welfare gains due to an increase in the economy steady-state capital

  15. Network security via private-key certificates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Davis; Ralph R. Swick

    1990-01-01

    We present some practical security protocols that use private-key encryption in the public-key style. Our system combines a new notion of private-key certificates, a simple key-translation protocol, and key-distribution. These certificates can be administered and used much as public-key certificates are, so that users can communicate securely while sharing neither an encryption key nor a network connection.

  16. COMMENT: SOCIAL SECURITY AND PRIVATE SAVINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PHILIP MEGUIRE

    1998-01-01

    * Abstract - From estimates of a modified life-cycle consumer expenditure function (LCF), Feldstein (1996) concluded that Social Security old age benefits reduced 1992 private saving by more than $400 billion. (1992 net (gross) private saving was $425 ($1,474) billion.) I confirm this finding, and show that it is more than three times its standard error but entirely due to

  17. Social Security privatization: balancing efficiency and fairness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Alan Garner

    1997-01-01

    This article examines these fundamental issues of economic efficiency and fairness that should be weighed when considering Social Security privatization. The first section summarizes the challenges to the current system and outlines various options for reform. The second section explains how privatization could improve economic efficiency, and briefly considers the difficult issue of the transition costs in moving from the

  18. Household Saving Behavior and Social Security Privatization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alisdair McKay

    2011-01-01

    I develop a general equilibrium model of saving behavior in which the quality of nancial decisions is endogenously determined by the incentives to exert effort in learning about financial opportunities. The model generates predictions for asset holdings, asset market participation and returns across households. I apply the model to analyze a social security privatization reform. Privatization affects household search effort,

  19. The False Charms of Social Security Privatization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia Munnell

    2005-01-01

    The privatization of social security has been sold as a free lunch. It is not. As this member of the Council of Economic Advisers under President Bill Clinton points out, a little reality is necessary. In a wide-ranging interview on the future of social security, this Challenge editorial board member corrects the many myths now being floated in one of

  20. Private Clouds: Secure Managed Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enuma Orakwue

    2010-01-01

    The continuously evolving state of information technology and network infrastructure has created a thriving market for Managed Services (MS). More and more public sector and private companies operate in mixed-mode with internally deployed but externally hosted IT applications and resources. As a result, Managed Service Providers (MSPs) are assuming operational IT responsibility for the enterprise while the customer maintains management

  1. Practical Private Information Retrieval with Secure Coprocessors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean W. Smith; Dave Safford

    2000-01-01

    What does it take to implement a server that provides access to records in a large database, in a way that ensures that the this access is completely private—even to the operator of this server? In this paper, we abstract this problem to a real world computer security application, and examine the question: using current commercially available tech- nology, is

  2. Private Circuits: Securing Hardware against Probing Attacks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ishai, Yuval

    A paper presented at the 2003 International Cryptology Conference considers the vulnerability of embedded cryptosystems to side channel attacks, which are different from normal security violations because they involve monitoring parts of the hardware system instead of the software. The authors propose the design of private circuits that are resistant to such attacks.

  3. Social Security privatization: a simple proposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Altig; Jagadeesh Gokhale

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for a U.S. Social Security reform that gradually, but ultimately fully, privatizes the system. This proposal follows the no-harm, no-foul principle in that it preserves the benefits of older generations and yet promises the same or higher retirement benefits for the young.

  4. Should the United States Privatize Social Security?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry J. Aaron; John B. Shoven

    1999-01-01

    The two papers that make up the core of this book address what is perhaps the most fundamental question in the current debate over Social Security: whether to shift, in part or even entirely, from today's pay-as-you-go system to one that is not just funded but also privatized in the sense that individuals would retain control over the investment of

  5. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section 552...Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms...secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition but separate from...

  6. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2009-07-01 true Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section 552...Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms...secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition but separate from...

  7. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section 552...Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms...secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition but separate from...

  8. Social security privatization: what it can and cannot accomplish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall P. Mariger

    1997-01-01

    This paper assesses the effect of social security privatization on the government budget, economic efficiency, national savings, and the distribution of resources across generations. It is shown that the benefits of privatization most often touted by privatization advocates can be achieved by simply altering taxes and social security pensions and leaving the basic structure of social security unchanged. In the

  9. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2009-07-01 true Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section 552...Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms...secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition but separate from...

  10. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section 552...Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms...secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition but separate from...

  11. Privatizing Social Security: the Chilean experience.

    PubMed

    Kritzer, B E

    1996-01-01

    In 1981, Chile introduced a new approach to social insurance, a system of individual capitalization accounts financed solely by the employee. This new privatized system was an improvement over Chile's failing pay-as-you-go arrangement. As many countries worldwide are facing financial problems with their social security system, they are now looking to the Chilean model in trying to find solutions. This article describes the conditions that led to the new system, the transition, and details of the new privatized system. PMID:8994293

  12. Leakage-resilient security architecture for mobile IPv6 in wireless overlay networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanane Fathi; Seonghan Shin; Kazukuni Kobara; Shyam S. Chakraborty; Hideki Imai; Ramjee Prasad

    2005-01-01

    The coupling of mobility and quality-of-service with security is a challenge that should be addressed in future wireless overlay systems. The mobility of a node can disrupt or even intermittently disconnect an ongoing real-time session because a secure handover must be performed to ensure continuous connectivity. The duration of the such interruptions is called disruption time or handover delay and

  13. The Trellis Security Infrastructure: A Layered Approach to Overlay Metacomputers

    E-print Network

    Lu, Paul

    administrative domains, there may be important issues related to cross-domain security. A practical problem; the different administrative domains may not have and may not be interested in entering into cross-domain be controlled by different groups who may not run the same security software or have not have negotiated cross-domain

  14. Towards Social Profile Based Overlays

    E-print Network

    Wolinsky, David Isaac; Boykin, P Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Online social networking has quickly become one of the most common activities of Internet users. As social networks evolve, they encourage users to share more information, requiring the users, in turn, to place more trust into social networks. Peer-to-peer (P2P) overlays provide an environment that can return ownership of information, trust, and control to the users, away from centralized third-party social networks. In this paper, we present a novel concept, social profile overlays, which enable users to share their profile only with trusted peers in a scalable, reliable, and private manner. Each user's profile consists of a unique private, secure overlay, where members of that overlay have a friendship with the overlay owner. Profile data is made available without regard to the online state of the profile owner through the use of the profile overlay's distributed data store. Privacy and security are enforced through the use of a public key infrastructure (PKI), where the role of certificate authority (CA) i...

  15. Social security versus private retirement accounts: a historical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Garrett; Russell M. Rhine

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares Social Security benefits relative to those paid from private investments: specifically, whether 2003 retirees would gain more retirement income if they had invested their payroll taxes in private accounts during their working years. Three different retirement ages and four possible earnings levels are considered for two private investments-6-month CDs or the S&P 500. On average, the results

  16. Social Security privatization in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kritzer, B E

    2000-01-01

    The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for women and lower earners than for men and higher earners; A minimum required rate of return among the pension fund management companies (in most of these countries) that has resulted in similarity among the companies and the consequent lack of meaningful choice; and High administrative fees in most of these countries, which reduce the individual's effective rate of return. To what extent these issues can be mitigated or resolved in the future is not yet clear. In general, a definitive assessment of the Chilean model and its Latin American variations will not be possible until a cohort of retirees has spent most of its career under the new system. PMID:11131978

  17. Security of practical private randomness generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pironio, Stefano; Massar, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Measurements on entangled quantum systems necessarily yield outcomes that are intrinsically unpredictable if they violate a Bell inequality. This property can be used to generate certified randomness in a device-independent way, i.e., without making detailed assumptions about the internal working of the quantum devices used to generate the random numbers. Furthermore these numbers are also private; i.e., they appear random not only to the user but also to any adversary that might possess a perfect description of the devices. Since this process requires a small initial random seed to sample the behavior of the quantum devices and to extract uniform randomness from the raw outputs of the devices, one usually speaks of device-independent randomness expansion. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we point out that in most real, practical situations, where the concept of device independence is used as a protection against unintentional flaws or failures of the quantum apparatuses, it is sufficient to show that the generated string is random with respect to an adversary that holds only classical side information; i.e., proving randomness against quantum side information is not necessary. Furthermore, the initial random seed does not need to be private with respect to the adversary, provided that it is generated in a way that is independent from the measured systems. The devices, however, will generate cryptographically secure randomness that cannot be predicted by the adversary, and thus one can, given access to free public randomness, talk about private randomness generation. The theoretical tools to quantify the generated randomness according to these criteria were already introduced in S. Pironio [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature09008 464, 1021 (2010)], but the final results were improperly formulated. The second aim of this paper is to correct this inaccurate formulation and therefore lay out a precise theoretical framework for practical device-independent randomness generation.

  18. 48 CFR 252.225-7039 - Contractors performing private security functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Contractors performing private security functions. 252.225-7039...225-7039 Contractors performing private security functions. As prescribed...following clause: CONTRACTORS PERFORMING PRIVATE SECURITY FUNCTIONS (AUG 2011)...

  19. Scalable P2P Overlays of Very Small Constant Degree: An Emerging Security Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelasity, Márk; Bilicki, Vilmos

    In recent years peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has been adopted by Internet-based malware as a fault tolerant and scalable communication medium for self-organization and survival. It has been shown that malicious P2P networks would be nearly impossible to uncover if they operated in a stealth mode, that is, using only a small constant number of fixed overlay connections per node for communication. While overlay networks of a small constant maximal degree are generally considered to be unscalable, we argue in this paper that it is possible to design them to be scalable, efficient and robust. This is an important finding from a security point of view: we show that stealth mode P2P malware that is very difficult to discover with state-of-the-art methods is a plausible threat. In this paper we discuss algorithms and theoretical results that support the scalability of stealth mode overlays, and we present realistic simulations using an event based implementation of a proof-of-concept system. Besides P2P botnets, our results are also applicable in scenarios where relying on a large number of overlay connections per node is not feasible because of cost or the limited number of communication channels available.

  20. Social Security Privatization with Income-Mortality Correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinichi Nishiyama; Kent Smetters

    2006-01-01

    While privatizing Social Security can improve labor supply incentives, it can also reduce risk sharing. We simulate a 50-percent privatization using an overlapping-generations model where heterogeneous agents with elastic labor supply face idiosyncratic earnings shocks and longevity uncertainty. When wage shocks are insurable, privatization produces about $30,100 of extra resources for each future household after all transitional losses have been

  1. International developments in social security privatization: What risk to women?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Schulz; Linda Rosenman; Sara E. Rix

    1999-01-01

    Throughout the world, older women are generally poorer than men. In an era when Social Security programs are increasingly under challenge by advocates of savings and pension schemes administered by the private sector, there is a need to assess the relative advantages of different public\\/private approaches for dealing with older women's financial needs. What would happen to women if more

  2. Social Security Privatization: Lessons From The United Kingdom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Williamson

    2002-01-01

    This study draws lessons for the debate about the proposed partial privatization of Social Security in the United States based on evidence from the United Kingdom. The British case suggests that privatization may lead to a reduction in the pension burden on the national budget if combined with substantial cuts in benefits. Such reforms may have positive effects on the

  3. Study of Cloud Computing Security Based on Private Face Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chenguang Wang; Huaizhi Yan

    2010-01-01

    Supporting study of a method to solve cloud computing security issue with private face recognition. The method has three parts: user part provides face images; cloud initialization part has a face subspace and templates database; cloud private matching identification part contains the core algorithm of the method, comparing two encrypted numbers under double-encrypted conditions. The experimental results show the method

  4. Secure routing for structured peer-to-peer overlay networks Miguel Castro1, Peter Druschel2, Ayalvadi Ganesh1, Antony Rowstron1 and Dan S. Wallach2

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Secure routing for structured peer-to-peer overlay networks Miguel Castro1, Peter Druschel2, we consider security issues in structured p2p overlay networks. We describe attacks that can networks provide a sub- strate for the construction of large-scale, decentralized applications, including

  5. Privatizing Social Security: First Round Effects of a Generic, VoluntaryPrivatized U.S. Social Security System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan L. Gustman; Thomas L. Steinmeier

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates individual responses to a simple scheme to privatize social security. The analysis explores the sensitivity of outcomes to how individuals project life expectancy, how they value spouse and survivor benefits, and to expected future reductions in social security benefits. Depending on assumptions made, first year participation ranges from 20% to almost 100%. Estimated time paths for taxes

  6. Securely Measuring the Overlap between Private Datasets with Cryptosets

    PubMed Central

    Swamidass, S. Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data—collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks—into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets—like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data—cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset’s contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach “information-theoretic” security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

  7. Securely measuring the overlap between private datasets with cryptosets.

    PubMed

    Swamidass, S Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data--collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks--into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets--like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data--cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset's contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach "information-theoretic" security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

  8. PSP: private and secure payment with RFID

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik-Oliver Blass; Anil Kurmus; Refik Molva; Thorsten Strufe

    2009-01-01

    RFID can be used for a variety of applications, e.g., to conveniently pay for public transportation. However, achieving security and privacy of payment is challenging due to the extreme resource restrictions of RFID tags. In this paper, we propose PSP -- a secure, RFID-based protocol for privacy-preserving payment. Similar to traditional electronic cash, the user of a tag can pay

  9. Privatizing Social Security: A Critical Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Belan; Pierre Pestieau

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical evaluation of theoretical models showing that shifting from pay-as-you-go to fully funded social security schemes can be made Pareto-improving. Further, it argues that what often makes a reform towards funded schemes attractive is a number of additional features that could also have been introduced in the unfunded social security system.The

  10. Privatizing social security: a critical assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal BELAN; Pierre PESTIEAU

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical evaluation of theoretical models showing that shifting from pay-as-you-go to funded social security schemes can be made Pareto-improving. Further, it argues that what often makes a reform toward funded schemes attractive is a number of additional features that could have been introduced as well in the unfunded social security system.

  11. Social security and private saving: a reconsideration of the assumptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolfo Todó-Rovira; Teodosio Pérez-Amaral

    1988-01-01

    Whether Social Security discourages private saving has been the focus of an ongoing debate since Feldstein's 1974 paper. On that paper he assumes that people expect after-retirement Social Security benefits to increase at an annual real rate of 2%. In this paper, using a wide sample of cross-section data, we estimate people' expected real rate of growth of after-retirement Social

  12. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SECURITY PRIVATIZATION IN ARGENTINA'S ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean Baker; Mark Weisbrot

    2002-01-01

    In July of 1994, with the strong support of the World Bank, Argentina partially privatized its Social Security system.2 In December of last year, Argentina finally removed its currency from its peg with the dollar, and halted payments on its debt, after four years of recession. These moves came in response to a situation that had clearly become untenable. The

  13. 26 CFR 1.141-4 - Private security or payment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Private security or payment test. 1.141-4 Section 1...Bonds § 1.141-4 Private security or payment test. (a) General rule ...bonds do not meet the private security test. The 1997 bonds meet the...

  14. 26 CFR 1.141-4 - Private security or payment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Private security or payment test. 1.141-4 Section 1...Bonds § 1.141-4 Private security or payment test. (a) General rule ...bonds do not meet the private security test. The 1997 bonds meet the...

  15. 26 CFR 1.141-4 - Private security or payment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Private security or payment test. 1.141-4 Section 1...Bonds § 1.141-4 Private security or payment test. (a) General rule ...bonds do not meet the private security test. The 1997 bonds meet the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.141-4 - Private security or payment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Private security or payment test. 1.141-4 Section 1...Bonds § 1.141-4 Private security or payment test. (a) General rule ...bonds do not meet the private security test. The 1997 bonds meet the...

  17. Social Security Privatization and African AmericansA Comparative Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferdinand C. Nwafor

    2005-01-01

    Social Security (SS) was formulated on a pay-as-you-go basis. Thus, current workers’ contributions fund retired workers’ benefits. As baby boomers begin to retire, the contribution-to-benefit ratio would decline significantly. In response, some advocates of reform have been proposing privatization of the SS system. Specifically, for African Americans whose retirement incomes are highly dependent on SS incomes, the question of how

  18. Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries

    SciTech Connect

    Olejnik, Lukasz [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland and Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center, Noskowskiego 12/14, PL-61-704 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-08-15

    We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.

  19. Privatization of Social Security: How It Works and Why It Matters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence J. Kotlikoff

    1995-01-01

    This paper uses the Auerbach-Kotlikoff Dynamic Life-Cycle Model (AK Model) to examine the macroeconomic and efficiency effects of privatizing social security, and a simple privatization proposal, the Personal Security System, to discuss other issues associated with privatization. According to the AK Model, privatizing social security can create major long-run increases in output and living standards which come largely but not

  20. The Portfolio Implications of Adding Social Security Private Account Options to Ongoing Investments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Friedman; Herbert E Phillips

    2010-01-01

    Proposals to allow private accounts under Social Security were introduced long before George Bush was elected President, and support for privatization in some form will survive his administration and the economic downturn that followed. This paper studies the impact that private accounts would have on risk\\/return investment tradeoffs available to Social Security participants who save and invest on an ongoing

  1. 17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Private resales of securities to institutions... General § 230.144A Private resales of securities to institutions...trust fund whose trustee is a bank or trust company and whose...C) With regard to foreign private issuers, the required...

  2. 17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Private resales of securities to institutions... General § 230.144A Private resales of securities to institutions...trust fund whose trustee is a bank or trust company and whose...C) With regard to foreign private issuers, the required...

  3. 17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Private resales of securities to institutions... General § 230.144A Private resales of securities to institutions...trust fund whose trustee is a bank or trust company and whose...C) With regard to foreign private issuers, the required...

  4. 17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Private resales of securities to institutions... General § 230.144A Private resales of securities to institutions...trust fund whose trustee is a bank or trust company and whose...C) With regard to foreign private issuers, the required...

  5. 17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Private resales of securities to institutions... General § 230.144A Private resales of securities to institutions...trust fund whose trustee is a bank or trust company and whose...C) With regard to foreign private issuers, the required...

  6. GUIDELINES ON IMPLEMENTING A SECURE SOCKETS LAYER (SSL) VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN)

    E-print Network

    GUIDELINES ON IMPLEMENTING A SECURE SOCKETS LAYER (SSL) VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN) By Sheila to assist organizations in strengthening their network security and in lessening the risks associated, offers practical guidelines on implementing a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) virtual private network (VPN

  7. Social Security Privatization with Elastic Labor Supply and Second-Best Taxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent Smetters

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows that many common methods of privatizing social security fail to reduce labor market distortions when taxes are second best, challenging a key reason to privatize. Ironically, providing \\

  8. The Effects of Social Security on Private Savings: A Reappraisal of the Time Series Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wade Donald Pfau

    2005-01-01

    Section I reviews some of the important contributions using time series evidence to estimate Social Security’s impact on private savings. Essential to these studies is the use of a “Social Security Wealth” (SSW) variable, created by Martin Feldstein (1974), which defines the present value of future discounted Social Security benefits for the entire population under the assumption that each working

  9. Social Security Privatization and Financial Market Risk: Lessons from U.S. Financial History

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Burtless

    2000-01-01

    A popular proposal for reforming social security is to supplement or replace traditional publicly financed benefits with a new system of mandatory defined-contribution private pensions. Proponents claim that private plans offer better returns than traditional social security. To achieve higher returns, however, contributors are exposed to extra risks associated with financial market fluctuations. This paper offers evidence on the extent

  10. The effects of social security privatization on household saving: evidence from the Chilean experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Lynn Coronado

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, a handful of countries have converted the financing of their social security systems from pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) to partial or full funding. Privatization is viewed as one way to insulate social security from the political and demographic pressures that currently threaten the financial stability of PAYGO systems. However, privatization would improve a nation's situation only if such a

  11. The Effects of Social Security Privatization on Household Saving: Evidence from Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Lynn Coronado

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, a handful of countries have converted the financing of their social security systems from pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) to partial or full funding. Privatization is viewed as one way to insulate social security from the political and demographic pressures that currently threaten the financial stability of PAYGO systems. However, privatization would improve a nation's situation only if such a

  12. Privatizing Social Security in the United States—Comparing the Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence J. Kotlikoff; Kent Smetters; Jan Walliser

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses a new version of the Auerbach–Kotlikoff model to consider alternative ways to privatize the U.S. Social Security System. The new model incorporates intra- and intergenerational heterogeneity and is closely calibrated to U.S. fiscal institutions. Three privatization issues are considered: financing the transition, participation rules, and progressivity. As shown, Social Security's privatization can substantially raise long-run living standards.

  13. Privatizing Social Security in the U.S. -- Comparing the Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence J. Kotlikoff; Kent Smetters; Jan Walliser

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses a new version of the Auerbach-Kotlikoff model to consider alternative ways to privatize the U.S. Social Security system. The new model incorporates intra- and intergenerational heterogeneity and is closely calibrated to U.S. fiscal institutions. Three privatization issues are considered: financing the transition, participation rules, and progressivity. As shown, Social Security's privatization can substantially raise long-run living standards.

  14. Bridging the Ideological Divide: Trust and Support for Social Security Privatization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Rudolph; Elizabeth Popp

    2009-01-01

    Using a pair of national surveys, this article analyzes the individual-level sources of public support for Social Security\\u000a privatization. Given the inherent risks associated with privatization, we argue that the political trust heuristic affords\\u000a untapped theoretical leverage in explaining public attitudes toward privatization. We find that, among certain individuals,\\u000a political trust plays an instrumental role in structuring privatization preferences. Political

  15. A framework for Secure and Private P2P Publish\\/Subscribe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Bernard; Maria Gradinariu Potop-Butucaru; S'ebastien Tixeuil

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel and totally decentralized strategy for private and secure data exchange in peer-to-peer systems. Our scheme outperforms Diffie-Hellman scheme and is particularly appealing for point-to-point exchanges with zero-knowledge. Furthermore, we show how to plug our private and secure data exchange module in existing publish\\/subscribe architectures. Our proposal enriches the original system with security and privacy making it

  16. Women's Welfare and Social Security Privatization in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHELLE DION

    2006-01-01

    Several Latin American countries have fully or partially privatized their public pensions since the 1980s. In 1995 Mexico privatized its public pension system, including a shift from a defined benefit to defined contribution system based on privately administered individual accounts. This article uses feminist criteria to evaluate the gender impact of welfare regimes and concludes that the Mexican pension privatization

  17. Do the Merits Matter More? Class Actions under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn F. Johnson; Karen K. Nelson; Adam C. Pritchard

    2002-01-01

    Congress passed the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 in an attempt to discourage meritless securities fraud class actions. This paper uses damages, accounting, insider trading and governance variables to explain the incidence of securities fraud litigation both before and after the passage of the PSLRA. Using a matched sample of sued and non-sued firms from the computer hardware

  18. Social Security and the Private Pension System: The Significance of Integrated Plans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela J. Perun

    2002-01-01

    Since the enactment of Social Security, the concept of ³integration² with Social Security has been a feature of the private pension system. Integration permits employers to take their contributions to Social Security into account and reduce the benefits of low-paid workers in their tax-qualified retirement plans. Prior studies suggest that (1) integration is declining among defined benefit plans and (2)

  19. Implementation of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2009-04-01

    This report documents implementation strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. This report details some of the efforts that have been implemented to leverage public and private resources, as well as implementation strategies to further leverage public and private resources.

  20. Asset Allocation and Risk Allocation: Can Social Security Improve Its Future Solvency Problem by Investing in Private Securities?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. MaCurdy; John B. Shoven

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the economics of investing the central trust fund of Social Security in private securities. We note that switching from a policy of having the trust fund invest solely in special issue Treasury bonds to one where some of the portfolio holds common stocks amounts to an asset swap. Such an asset swap does not increase national saving,

  1. Would a Privatized Social Security System Really Pay a Higher Rate of Return

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Genakoplos; Olivia S. Mitchell; Stephen P. Zeldes

    2000-01-01

    Many advocates of social security privatization argue that rates of return under a defined contribution individual account system would be much higher for all than they are under the current social security system. This claim is false. The mistake comes from ignoring accrued benefits already promised based on past payroll taxes, and from underestimating the riskiness of stock investments. Confusion

  2. Would a Privatized Social Security System Really Pay a Higher Rate of Return?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivia S. Mitchell; Stephen P. Zeldes

    1998-01-01

    Many advocates of social security privatization argue that rates of return under a defined contribution individual account system would be much higher for all than they are under the current social security system. This claim is false. The mistake comes from ignoring accrued benefits already promised based on past payroll taxes, and from underestimating the riskiness of stock investments. Confusion

  3. A global trend: privatization and reform of social security pension plans.

    PubMed

    Poortvliet, W G; Laine, T P

    1995-01-01

    Ten years ago Chile successfully privatized its social security system, beginning a worldwide trend to solve the problem of an increasing burden on government-supported social security programs. Contributing factors include an aging population, fewer workers to support retirees, government budget deficits and the influence of politics. PMID:10151120

  4. Social Security Privatization Reform and Labor Markets: The Case of Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Edwards; Alejandra Cox Edwards

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the way in which social security privatization reform affects labor market outcomes. We develop a model of the labor market where we assume that, as is the case in most emerging markets, a formal and an informal sectors coexist side by side. According to our model, a social security reform that reduces the implicit tax on labor in

  5. related activities. tests given by the Federal Government to certain private individuals engaged in national security-

    E-print Network

    of security service firms (armored car, The Act permits polygraph (a kind of lie detector) testsrelated activities. tests given by the Federal Government to certain private individuals engaged in national security- Federal, State and local governments are not affected by the law. Also, the law does

  6. Identification of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2009-02-01

    This report documents the identification of strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP).There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. The leveraging of dollars serves many purposes. These include increasing the amount of training that can be delivered and therefore increasing the number of people reached, increasing the number and quality of public/private partnerships, and increasing the number of businesses that are involved in the training of their future workforce.

  7. Social Security or Private Security Social security reform remains an important, controversial topic. This short essay

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    defines the return within a pay-as-you-go system Social security revenue increases with income growth considers the average return over the long run, ignoring differences in risk associated with different forms exceeds income growth in the long run. Thus, a fully funded retirement system should provide higher

  8. The Effects of Partial Privatization of Social Security upon Private Pensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn L. Moore

    2001-01-01

    Social Security does not provide retirement income in a vacuum. Rather, commentators often refer to our national retirement income system as a three legged stool, with Social Security representing one of the legs and employer sponsored pension plans and individual savings representing the other two legs. Because changes in one leg of the stool are likely to have a direct

  9. "i3" Recipients Dash to Secure Private Match

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Winners of the Investing in Innovation (i3) competition scrambled to make a deadline to find private-sector matches for their multimillion-dollar federal awards, meeting the challenge through a mix of cash grants and donations of pricey equipment and services, and by rechanneling previous grants to new purposes. The 49 organizations selected to…

  10. Electronic Markets for Private Information: Economic and Security Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Garfinkel; Manuel Nunez; Daniel Rice

    2006-01-01

    Technological advances in the collection, storage and analysis of data have increased the ease with which busi- nesses can make profitable use of information about individ- uals. Some of this information is private and individuals are simultaneously becoming more aware of its value and con- cerned about losing control of it. As a partial solution to these concerns a model

  11. Effective Ways of Secure, Private and Trusted Cloud Computing

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Pardeep; Chauhan, Durg Singh; Gupta, P K; Diwakar, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing, where shared resources, software and information, are provided to computers and devices on-demand. It provides people the way to share distributed resources and services that belong to different organization. Since cloud computing uses distributed resources in open environment, thus it is important to provide the security and trust to share the data for developing cloud computing applications. In this paper we assess how can cloud providers earn their customers' trust and provide the security, privacy and reliability, when a third party is processing sensitive data in a remote machine located in various countries? A concept of utility cloud has been represented to provide the various services to the users. Emerging technologies can help address the challenges of Security, Privacy and Trust in cloud computing.

  12. The Effectiveness of an Electronic Security Management System in a Privately Owned Apartment Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, David F.; Roush, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Poisson and negative binomial regression methods are used to analyze the monthly time series data to determine the effects of introducing an integrated security management system including closed-circuit television (CCTV), door alarm monitoring, proximity card access, and emergency call boxes to a large privately-owned complex of apartment…

  13. Is there any gain from social security privatization?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiyu Li; Shuanglin Lin

    2011-01-01

    Increasing calls for a social security reform of switching from the pay-as-you-go (PAYG) system to a funded system has been seen in recent decades. This paper examines the effect of this reform on capital accumulation and the welfare of each generation. Three methods are used to finance the pension debt, government debt financing, tax financing, and government asset financing. With

  14. Social Security, Private Transfers and Voting Behaviour: the Italian case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agar Brugiavini; Jose Ignacio; Conde Ruiz; Vincenzo Galasso

    This paper explores the political sustainability of the current Italian welfare state - in particular of the social security system. Previous studies - see D'Amato and Galasso (2002) for a politico-economic analysis based on a large calibrated model of the Italian economy - suggest that the demographic dynamic of population aging will lead to a larger size of the social

  15. Private Sector Cyber Security Investment Strategies: An Empirical Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brent R. Rowe; Michael P. Gallaher

    Organizations typically use very robust analysis techniques to determine how best to spend resources in order to increase revenue and decrease costs or losses. However, few organizations attempt such analysis processes to determine the level and type of cyber security mechanisms in which they invest and which they maintain. Key performance and evaluation metrics are not available, so those organizations

  16. Improving Practical Performance on Secure and Private Collaborative Linear Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Deitos; Florian Kerschbaum

    2009-01-01

    Although information sharing in supply chain management dramatically reduces costs, parties are reluctant to do so, mainly due to fear of information leakage. Solutions based on secure multi-party computation guarantee privacy and correctness, at an extra communication and computation cost. Efficiency is a major concern for practical solutions. The best known solution with public indexes selection is due to Li

  17. Securing US energy supplies: the private sector as an instrument of public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Prast, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Dr. Prast suggests that policy options that rely on private companies to help secure energy supplies need to consider the conflicts and tensions that exist between these companies and the public agencies, especially Federal agencies, that regulate their activities. The US still needs a combination of private initiative and public control, but the naive approach of the 1960s should be replaced with an atmosphere of continuous assessment to make sure the companies are meeting public policy goals. A new kind of private/public arrangement may be needed to deal with the large reserves on Federal lands. This will require redefining present Federal roles in energy production to focus on frontier technology and eliminate a duplication of effort. Dr. Prast feels that improvements can be made in the effectiveness of the Federal bureaucracy by profiting from past errors, but that efforts to disband DOE are premature until a relationship of cooperation and confidence develops between private companies and regulators. 64 references. (DCK)

  18. Securing Publish-Subscribe Overlay Services with EventGuard A publish-subscribe overlay service is a wide-area com-

    E-print Network

    Liu, Ling

    - subscribe (pub-sub) system is often implemented as a collec- tion of spatially disparate nodes communicating) authentication, and (iii) denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. In this paper we present EventGuard for securing pub-sub guards that can be seam- lessly plugged-into a content-based pub-sub system. The sec- ond component

  19. Symmetry-based estimation of lower bound on secure key rate of noisy private states

    E-print Network

    Jan Tuziemski; Pawe? Horodecki

    2013-06-20

    Quantum private states are the states that represent some amount of perfect secure key. A simple symmetry of any generalised private quantum state (ie. the states that represent perfect key but not fully random) is provided and extended on Devetak-Winter so called ccq (classical-classical-quantum) and cqq (classical-quantum-quantum) lower bound on secure key. This symmetry is used to develop a practical method of estimating the Alice measurement that is optimal form the perspective of single shot Devetak-Witner lower bound on secure key. The method is particularly good when the noise does not break the symmetry of the state with respect to the lower bound formula. It suggest a general paradigm for quick estimation of quantum communication rates under the symmetry of a given resource like state and/or channel.

  20. A tainted trade? Moral ambivalence and legitimation work in the private security industry.

    PubMed

    Thumala, Angélica; Goold, Benjamin; Loader, Ian

    2011-06-01

    The private security industry is often represented - and typically represents itself - as an expanding business, confident of its place in the world and sure of its ability to meet a rising demand for security. But closer inspection of the ways in which industry players talk about its past, present and future suggests that this self-promotion is accompanied by unease about the industry's condition and legitimacy. In this paper, we analyse the self-understandings of those who sell security - as revealed in interviews conducted with key industry players and in a range of trade materials - in order to highlight and dissect the constitutive elements of this ambivalence. This analysis begins by describing the reputational problems that are currently thought to beset the industry and the underlying fears about its status and worth that these difficulties disclose. We then examine how security players seek to legitimate the industry using various narratives of professionalization. Four such narratives are identified - regulation, education, association and borrowing - each of which seeks to justify private security and enhance the industry's social worth. What is striking about these legitimation claims is that they tend not to justify the selling of security in market terms. In conclusion we ask why this is the case and argue that market justifications are 'closed-off' by a moral ambivalence that attaches to an industry trading in products which cannot guarantee to deliver the condition that its consumers crave. PMID:21631459

  1. Patient's perception of health information security: The case of selected public and private hospitals in Addis Ababa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tibebe Tesema; Dawn Medlin; Ajith Abraham

    2010-01-01

    Information security in health sector is getting growing attention. In this connection, patient's perception about different aspects of health sector is worth considering. In this research, attempt has been made to assess and analyze patient's perception of health information security at some selected public and private hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Quantitative research approach using questionnaire as an instrument was

  2. The effectiveness of an electronic security management system in a privately owned apartment complex.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, David F; Roush, Jeffrey B

    2009-02-01

    Poisson and negative binomial regression methods are used to analyze the monthly time series data to determine the effects of introducing an integrated security management system including closed-circuit television (CCTV), door alarm monitoring, proximity card access, and emergency call boxes to a large privately-owned complex of apartment buildings in New York City. Crime rates in a control apartment complex under the same ownership, and in the police precinct in which the 2 complexes are located, serve as controls. PMID:19001121

  3. SOEMPI: A Secure Open Enterprise Master Patient Index Software Toolkit for Private Record Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Csaba; Durham, Elizabeth; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Xue, Yuan; Malin, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate bias in multi-institutional research studies, healthcare organizations need to integrate patient records. However, this process must be accomplished without disclosing the identities of the corresponding patients. Various private record linkage (PRL) techniques have been proposed, but there is a lack of translation into practice because no software suite supports the entire PRL lifecycle. This paper addresses this issue with the introduction of the Secure Open Enterprise Master Patient Index (SOEMPI). We show how SOEMPI covers the PRL lifecycle, illustrate the implementation of several PRL protocols, and provide a runtime analysis for the integration of two datasets consisting of 10,000 records. While the PRL process is slower than a non-secure setting, our analysis shows the majority of processes in a PRL protocol require several seconds or less and that SOEMPI completes the process in approximately two minutes, which is a practical amount of time for integration. PMID:25954421

  4. Secure Quantum Private Comparison of Equality Based on Asymmetric W State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Jie; Liu, Chao; Wang, Hai-bin; Liu, Jing-Fa; Wang, Fang; Yuan, Xiao-Min

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Liu et al. (Opt. Commun. 284:3160, 2011) proposed a protocol for quantum private comparison of equality (QPCE) based on symmetric W state. However, Li et al. (Eur. Phys. J. D 66:110, 2012) pointed out that there is a flaw of information leak, and they proposed a new protocol based on EPR pairs. While examining these two protocols, we find that there exists a same flaw: the third party (TP) can know the comparison result. In this paper, through introducing and constructing a special class of asymmetric W state, a secure QPCE protocol based on this asymmetric W state is presented. Analysis shows the present protocol can not only effectively avoid the information leak found by Li et al., but also ensure TP would not get any information about the comparison result.

  5. 77 FR 76076 - Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC...meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee. To...Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. DATES: The...

  6. Implementing Virtual Private Networking for Enabling Lower Cost, More Secure Wide Area Communications at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    MILLER,MARC M.; YONEK JR.,GEORGE A.

    2001-08-01

    Virtual Private Networking is a new communications technology that promises lower cost, more secure wide area communications by leveraging public networks such as the Internet. Sandia National Laboratories has embraced the technology for interconnecting remote sites to Sandia's corporate network, and for enabling remote access users for both dial-up and broadband access.

  7. CSP 544: System and Network Security Charlie Kaufman, Radia Perlman, Mike Speciner, Network Security: Private Communication in a Public World,

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    CSP 544: System and Network Security Texts Charlie Kaufman, Radia Perlman, Mike Speciner, Network in data and network security such: Access control, authentication, security assessment, network and data security tools, and security policies. A significant hands-on component includes network incidents

  8. Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications Using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

    2004-01-01

    With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their off ices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (LAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the target site that is running the VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

  9. Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

    2004-01-01

    With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their offices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (IAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the. target site that is running the . VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

  10. Macroeconomic Effects of Social Security Privatization in a Small Unionized Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonis Adam

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of a pension system privatization in a unionized economy. Using an overlapping-generations framework we show that in an environment characterized by unemployment, a reform towards a private pension system in the steady state may result in lower levels of employment and capital stock. In this case even if the privatization increases the welfare of all

  11. Policy and Practice Brief: Expanding Health Insurance Options; A Framework for Advising Social Security Beneficiaries of Their Rights Under Private Insurance Contracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheldon Jr. James R

    2001-01-01

    This brief provides a framework for advising Social Security beneficiaries of their rights under private insurance contracts. Reviewed are basic insurance concepts; coverage issues; pre-existing condition clauses; COBRA; ERISA; and, appeal rights.

  12. The new public management of security: the contracting and managerial state and the private military industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Ortiz

    2010-01-01

    Private military companies (PMCs) do not often figure as a case study alongside topics such as health and local government in the public management literature. However, this article shows that public management offers critical insights into the reasons why governments contract services to the private military industry. In particular, the article analyses the deep inroads that reforms inspired by new

  13. Securing communications over Atm networks: the remote Atm private networks interconnection example

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryline Laurent; Olivier Paul; Pierre Rolin

    1998-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract  When remoteAtm sites communicate through anAtm public network, a number of security problems arise, such as hacking, eavesdropping and traffic tampering. This paper proposes\\u000a three contributions to these security problems. Firstly, risks due toAtm technology usage are detailed. Secondly, a survey of existing techniques aiming at securingAtm communications is presented with emphasis on theAtm Forum’s security specifications. Thirdly, a new

  14. Partial Privatization of Social Security: Assessing Its Effect on Women, Minorities, and Lower-Income Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn L. Moore

    2000-01-01

    Once viewed as the “third rail” of politics, Social Security appears to be moving inexorably toward reform. In his 1998 State of the Union address, President Clinton proclaimed strengthening Social Security a high priority and called for bipartisan forums on Social Security reform to be held throughout the United States. Similarly, following the 1998 November elections, congressional leaders expressed commitment

  15. Characteristics of and determinants of the density of contributions in a Private Social Security System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Arenas de Mesa; Jere Behrman; David Bravo

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates previously unresearched issues pertaining to the well-known Chilean innovations in Social Security. Previous empirical studies of the Chilean system used aggregate and macro data, without attention to individual heterogeneity. This study uses new household survey data, linked with Social Security records for over 20 years, to analyze selected reform issues related to social security coverage and the

  16. False security or greater social inclusion? Exploring perceptions of CCTV use in public and private spaces accessed by the homeless.

    PubMed

    Huey, Laura

    2010-03-01

    It has been well documented that owing to the vulnerability inherent in their situation and status, the homeless experience high rates of harassment and criminal victimization. And yet, the question of whether CCTV surveillance of public and private spaces - so frequently viewed by the middle classes as a positive source of potential security - might also be viewed by the homeless in similar ways. Within the present paper, I address this issue by considering the possibility that CCTV might be seen by some homeless men and women as offering: a) a measure of enhanced security for those living in the streets and in shelters, and; b) to the extent that security is conceived of as a social good, the receipt of which marks one as a citizen of the state, a means by which they can be reconstituted as something more than 'lesser citizens'. To test these ideas, I rely on data from interviews conducted with homeless service users, service providers for the homeless, and police personnel in three cities. What is revealed is a mixed set of beliefs as to the relative security and meaning of CCTV. PMID:20377597

  17. A scalable security model for enabling Dynamic Virtual Private Execution Infrastructures on the Internet

    E-print Network

    Roca, Vincent

    communication facility between edge hosts. In- stead, it is becoming a world wide cloud increasingly embed- ding scale context. Based on the example of biomedical applications, the paper focuses on the security model discusses and illustrates how HIPerNet solutions fulfill the security requirements of applications through

  18. Soldiers of Misfortune: Is the Demise of National Armed Forces a Core Contributing Factor in the Rise of Private Security Companies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Maninger

    The rise of private security companies is the direct and logical consequence of factors that have gradually contributed to\\u000a the post-Cold War demise of national armies. While Western national armed forces are likely to retain their advantage over\\u000a private competitors in terms of available resources, they are increasingly facing a deployability-crisis. This means they\\u000a are experiencing difficulty recruiting, deploying and

  19. Social Security privatization and older women: A feminist political economy perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carroll L. Estes

    2004-01-01

    Gender is a crucial organizing principle in society that profoundly shapes the experience of old age and aging and the distribution of resources to older women. Using a critical feminist perspective, this paper looks at privatization in the context of the state, the capital, and the sex and gender system that conjointly reproduce the dominant institutions that render women, and

  20. In Sickness, Health, and Cyberspace: Protecting the Security of Electronic Private Health Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharona Hoffman; Andy Podgurski

    2007-01-01

    The electronic processing of health information provides considerable benefits to patients and health care providers while at the same time creating serious risks to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data. The Internet provides a conduit for rapid and uncontrolled dispersion and trafficking of illicitly obtained private health information, with far-reaching consequences to unsuspecting victims. To address such threats

  1. Network security vulnerabilities and personal privacy issues in Healthcare Information Systems: a case study in a private hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Namo?lu, Nihan; Ulgen, Yekta

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare industry has become widely dependent on information technology and internet as it moves from paper to electronic records. Healthcare Information System has to provide a high quality service to patients and a productive knowledge share between healthcare staff by means of patient data. With the internet being commonly used across hospitals, healthcare industry got its own share from cyber threats like other industries in the world. The challenge is allowing knowledge transfer to hospital staff while still ensuring compliance with security mandates. Working in collaboration with a private hospital in Turkey; this study aims to reveal the essential elements of a 21st century business continuity plan for hospitals while presenting the security vulnerabilities in the current hospital information systems and personal privacy auditing standards proposed by regulations and laws. We will survey the accreditation criteria in Turkey and counterparts in US and EU. We will also interview with medical staff in the hospital to understand the needs for personal privacy and the technical staff to perceive the technical requirements in terms of network security configuration and deployment. As hospitals are adopting electronic transactions, it should be considered a must to protect these electronic health records in terms of personal privacy aspects. PMID:23823398

  2. Efficient Retirement Design Combining Private Assets and Social Security to Maximize Retirement Resources

    E-print Network

    Straight, Aaron

    their Social Security benefits. Today people can start their benefits anytime between ages 62 and 70, subject, here is our first finding: With today's life expectancies and today's extremely low interest rates. For individuals with average health status, delaying has the biggest #12;3 payoff for the higher earner within

  3. Is The Potential For High Investor Leverage A Threat To Social Security Privatization?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantin Magin

    How risky and expensive it would be to insure a long-term individ- ual Social Security account invested in stocks against the risk that the portfolio's value would collapse? This paper uses a particular metric to evaluate this risk and cost. This metric is a long-term put option written on such a portfolio. The answer is that for reasonable para- meters

  4. Design Choices in Privatized Social-Security Systems: Learning from the Swedish Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Cronqvist; Richard H. Thaler

    2004-01-01

    In the 2000 U.S. Presidential campaign, George W. Bush advocated a partial privatiza- tion of the Social Security system. According to his plan, a portion of the payroll tax would be designated for individual savings accounts. At the same time as this issue was being debated in the United States, Sweden was in the process of launching a system that

  5. Junior must pay: pricing the implicit put in privatizing Social Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George M. Constantinides; John B. Donaldson; Rajnish Mehra

    2005-01-01

    Summary. Proposals that a portion of the Social Security Trust Fund assets be invested in equities entail the possibility that a severe decline in equity prices will render the Fund’s assets insufficient to provide the currently mandated level of benefits. In this event, existing taxpayers may be compelled to act as insurers of last resort. The cost to taxpayers of

  6. Loan, security, and dividend choices by individual (unconsolidated) public and private commercial banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick Niswander; Edward P. Swanson

    2000-01-01

    Using call report data, we consider whether the discretionary portion of loan loss provisions, loan charge-offs, securities gains and losses, and dividends are influenced by the bank's level of capital, earnings, and taxes. We studied more than 11,000 banks. We find that banks below a capital adequacy threshold often make discretionary choices that reduce earnings and capital. Banks above the

  7. Old-Age Income Security and Private Transfers in South Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinkook Lee; Youngae Lee

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relative contributions of government income support programs and familial transfers to old-age income security in Korea. This issue is critical, as policy reforms are in progress, and the potential crowding-out effect of government programs on familial transfer is at the center of heated debate. Using the 2006 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, we found that one-third of

  8. Cadmium ferrocyanide overlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.J.; Rubin, H.D.; Chen, Y.; Bocarsly, A.B. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that utilization of an n-CdSe photoanode in an electrolyte containing the ferro/ferricyanide redox couple (adjusted to pH = 13) gives rise to an overlayer on the electrode composed of [Cd(CN)Fe(CN)[sub 6

  9. Functional Overlay: An Illegitimate Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Walter

    1979-01-01

    Functional overlay is not a recognized psychiatric diagnosis. Evaluating functional overlay and differentiating between this concept and organic conditions is important in medicolegal areas in which financial values are placed on pain and disability. Functional overlay is not malingering: the former is based on preconscious or unconscious mechanisms, the latter is consciously induced. In considering psychologic reactions to pain and disability, a gradient of simulation, malingering, symptom exaggeration, overvaluation, functional overlay and hysteria is useful. The dynamics of overlay are a combination of anxiety from body-image distortion and depression from decreased efficiency of the body, as well as the resulting psychosocial disruption in a patient's life. PMID:516698

  10. Mask registration and wafer overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulseung; Bang, Changjin; Kim, Myoungsoo; Kang, Hyosang; Lee, Dohwa; Jeong, Woonjae; Lim, Ok-Sung; Yoon, Seunghoon; Jung, Jaekang; Laske, Frank; Parisoli, Lidia; Roeth, Klaus-Dieter; Robinson, John C.; Jug, Sven; Izikson, Pavel; Dinu, Berta; Widmann, Amir; Choi, DongSub

    2010-03-01

    Overlay continues to be one of the key challenges for lithography in advanced semiconductor manufacturing. It becomes even more challenging due to the continued shrinking of the device node. Some low k1 techniques, such as Double Exposure and Double Patterning also add additional loss of the overlay margin due to the fact that the single layer pattern is created based on more than 1 exposure. Therefore, the overlay between 2 exposures requires very tight overlay specification. Mask registration is one of the major contributors to wafer overlay, especially field related overlay. We investigated mask registration and wafer overlay by co-analyzing the mask data and the wafer overlay data. To achieve the accurate cohesive results, we introduced the combined metrology mark which can be used for both mask registration measurement as well as for wafer overlay measurement. Coincidence of both metrology marks make it possible to subtract mask signature from wafer overlay without compromising the accuracy due to the physical distance between measurement marks, if we use 2 different marks for both metrologies. Therefore, it is possible to extract pure scanner related signatures, and to analyze the scanner related signatures in details to in order to enable root cause analysis and ultimately drive higher wafer yield. We determined the exact mask registration error in order to decompose wafer overlay into mask, scanner, process and metrology. We also studied the impact of pellicle mounting by comparison of mask registration measurement pre-pellicle mounting and post-pellicle mounting in this investigation.

  11. Anonymity and Censorship Resistance in Unstructured Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Michael; Hamerlik, Marek; Linari, Alessandro; Maffei, Matteo; Tryfonopoulos, Christos; Weikum, Gerhard

    This paper presents Clouds, a peer-to-peer protocol that guarantees both anonymity and censorship resistance in semantic overlay networks. The design of such a protocol needs to meet a number of challenging goals: enabling the exchange of encrypted messages without assuming previously shared secrets, avoiding centralised infrastructures, like trusted servers or gateways, and guaranteeing efficiency without establishing direct connections between peers. Anonymity is achieved by cloaking the identity of protocol participants behind groups of semantically close peers. Censorship resistance is guaranteed by a cryptographic protocol securing the anonymous communication between the querying peer and the resource provider. Although we instantiate our technique on semantic overlay networks to exploit their retrieval capabilities, our framework is general and can be applied to any unstructured overlay network. Experimental results demonstrate the security properties of Clouds under different attacks and show the message overhead and retrieval effectiveness of the protocol.

  12. Overlay Networks with Linear Capacity Constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Zhu; Baochun Li

    2005-01-01

    Overlay networks are virtual networks residing over the IP network, consequently, overlay links may share hidden lower-level bottlenecks. Previous work have assumed an inde- pendent overlay model: a graph with independent link capacities. We introduce a model of overlays which incorporates correlated link capacities and linear capacity constraints (LCC) to formulate hidden shared bottlenecks; we refer to these as LCC-overlays.

  13. Overlay Networks with Linear Capacity Constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Zhu; Baochun Li

    2008-01-01

    Overlay networks are virtual networks residing over the IP network; consequently, overlay links may share hidden lower level bottlenecks. Previous work has assumed an independent overlay model: a graph with independent link capacities. We introduce a model of overlays that incorporates correlated link capacities and linear capacity constraints (LCC) to formulate hidden shared bottlenecks; we refer to these as LCC-overlays.

  14. Private Information Advisory Protecting the personal private information of our students, faculty and staff is of

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    Security Policies. Examples of private information includes, but is not limited to, social security numbers of Private Information procedure must be followed. This procedure is available at security.cuny.edu under be protected. #12;Please exercise the following security measures: 1. When files contain private information do

  15. 26 CFR 1.141-5 - Private loan financing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...purposes of the private loan financing test. (2) Tax assessment loan defined...Coordination with private business tests. See §§ 1.141-3 and 1...private business use and the private security or payment tests. (e) Examples. The...

  16. 26 CFR 1.141-5 - Private loan financing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...purposes of the private loan financing test. (2) Tax assessment loan defined...Coordination with private business tests. See §§ 1.141-3 and 1...private business use and the private security or payment tests. (e) Examples. The...

  17. 26 CFR 1.141-5 - Private loan financing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...purposes of the private loan financing test. (2) Tax assessment loan defined...Coordination with private business tests. See §§ 1.141-3 and 1...private business use and the private security or payment tests. (e) Examples. The...

  18. 26 CFR 1.141-5 - Private loan financing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...purposes of the private loan financing test. (2) Tax assessment loan defined...Coordination with private business tests. See §§ 1.141-3 and 1...private business use and the private security or payment tests. (e) Examples. The...

  19. 77 FR 70780 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractors Performing Private...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ...for OMB Review; Contractors Performing Private Security Functions Outside the United...requirement concerning Contractors Performing Private Security Functions Outside the United...Collection 9000- 0184, Contractors Performing Private Security Functions Outside the...

  20. Defending against eclipse attacks on overlay networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atul Singh; Miguel Castro; Peter Druschel; Antony I. T. Rowstron

    2004-01-01

    Overlay networks are widely used to deploy functionality at edge nodes without changing network routers. Each node in an overlay network maintains pointers to a set of neighbor nodes. These pointers are used both to maintain the overlay and to implement application functionality, for example, to locate content stored by overlay nodes. If an attacker controls a large fraction of

  1. Measurement Based Routing Strategies on Overlay Architectures

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    as the destination address · Overlay node strips the extra IP header and forwards the packet to the destinationMeasurement Based Routing Strategies on Overlay Architectures Student: Tuna G¨uven Faculty: Bobby network performance Some parts of network underutilized Application-Layer Overlay Network · Overlay nodes

  2. 26 CFR 1.141-2 - Private activity bond tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...they meet either the private business use test and private security or payment test of section 141(b) or the private loan...The private business use and private security or payment tests are described in §§ 1.141-3 and...

  3. 26 CFR 1.141-2 - Private activity bond tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...they meet either the private business use test and private security or payment test of section 141(b) or the private loan...The private business use and private security or payment tests are described in §§ 1.141-3 and...

  4. 26 CFR 1.141-2 - Private activity bond tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...they meet either the private business use test and private security or payment test of section 141(b) or the private loan...The private business use and private security or payment tests are described in §§ 1.141-3 and...

  5. 26 CFR 1.141-2 - Private activity bond tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...they meet either the private business use test and private security or payment test of section 141(b) or the private loan...The private business use and private security or payment tests are described in §§ 1.141-3 and...

  6. Overlay accuracy investigation for advanced memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Honggoo; Lee, Byongseog; Han, Sangjun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Kwon, Wontaik; Park, Sungki; Choi, DongSub; Lee, Dohwa; Jeon, Sanghuck; Lee, Kangsan; Volkovich, Roie; Itzkovich, Tal; Herzel, Eitan; Wagner, Mark; Elkodadi, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Overlay in lithography becomes much more challenging due to the shrink of device node and multi-patterning approach. Consequently, the specification of overlay becomes tighter, and more complicated overlay control methods like high order or field-by-field control become mandatory. In addition, the tight overlay specification starts to raise another fundamental question: accuracy. Overlay inaccuracy is dominated by two main components: one is measurement quality and the other is representing device overlay. The latter is because overlay is being measured on overlay targets, not on the real device structures. We investigated the following for accurate overlay measurement: optimal target design by simulation; optimal recipe selection using the index of measurement quality; and, the correlation with device pattern's overlay. Simulation was done for an advanced memory stack for optimal overlay target design which provides robustness for the process variation and sufficient signal for the stack. Robustness factor and sufficient signal factor sometimes contradicting each other, therefore there is trade-off between these two factors. Simulation helped to find the design to meet the requirement of both factors. The investigation involves also recipe optimization which decides the measurement conditions like wavelength. KLA-Tencor also introduced a new index which help to find an accurate measurement condition. In this investigation, we used CD-SEM to measure the overlay of device pattern after etch or decap process to check the correlation between the overlay of overlay mark and the overlay of device pattern.

  7. Grid Computing Security Lecture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Clayton Ferner

    2011-07-05

    Grid Computing Lecture~~Security: secure connection, authentication and authorization, password authentication, symmetric (secret) and asymmetric (public/private) key cyptography, RSA algorithm.

  8. Secure and Robust Overlay Content Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hun Jeong

    2010-01-01

    With the success of applications spurring the tremendous increase in the volume of data transfer, efficient and reliable content distribution has become a key issue. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has gained popularity as a promising approach to large-scale content distribution due to its benefits including self-organizing, load-balancing, and…

  9. Practical Secure Evaluation of Semi-Private Functions Annika Paus, Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi , and Thomas Schneider

    E-print Network

    ) to pure security requirements to reduce the probability of credential forgery or to make insider attacks is the number of gates of the simulated circuit. Fairplay [MNPS04], a state-of-the art implementation of SFE

  10. SECURITY FOR SOCIAL SECURITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Brown

    ABSTRACT With the election of George W. Bush, the debate around privatization of Social Security inthe United States is sure to be rekindled. The Republicans seem to favor separating a part of OASDI and moving ,that portion of the ,scheme ,into Individual Retirement Accounts. President Clinton had proposed ,creating larger social security funds and investing a portion of them in

  11. Fabrication of magnetic bubble memory overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Self-contained magnetic bubble memory overlay is fabricated by process that employs epitaxial deposition to form multi-layered complex of magnetically active components on single chip. Overlay fabrication comprises three metal deposition steps followed by subtractive etch.

  12. Investigation of dielectric overlay microstrip circuits

    E-print Network

    Klein, James Louis

    1988-01-01

    : Dr. Kai Chang The dielectric overlay may be implemented to solve the problems of several microstrip circuit. s. By overlaying a ring resonator the coupling will be increased and the losses reduced. In a directional coupler the overlay will serve... Microstrip Line 20 20 21 23 27 IV DIELECTRIC OVERLAY DIRECTIONAL COUPLER A. Introduction B. Theoretical Method C. Theoretical Results D. Experimental Procedure E. Experimental Results F. Design Curves for Coupled Microstrip Lines 36 36 40 43...

  13. Inferring Private Information Using Social Network Data

    E-print Network

    Kantarcioglu, Murat

    Inferring Private Information Using Social Network Data Jack Lindamood and Murat Kantarcioglu for released social networking data to infer undisclosed private in- formation about individuals. We purposes. These search results contained social security num- bers, addresses, and pornographic search

  14. Relativistic quantum private database queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  15. 20nm MOL overlay case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramany, Lokesh; Hsieh, Michael; Li, Chen; Koh, Hui Peng; Cho, David; Golotsvan, Anna; Ramanathan, Vidya; Karur Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Yap, Lipkong

    2014-04-01

    As the process nodes continue to shrink, overlay budgets are approaching theoretical performance of the tools. It becomes even more imperative to improve overlay performance in order to maintain the roadmap for advance integrated circuit manufacturing. One of the critical factors in 20nm manufacturing is the overlay performance between the Middle of Line (MOL) and the Poly layer. The margin between these two layers was a process limiter, it was essential that we maintain a very tight overlay control between these layers. Due to various process and metrology related effects, maintaining good overlay control became a challenge. In this paper we describe the various factors affecting overlay performance and the measures taken to mitigate or eliminate said factors to improve overlay performance.

  16. 31 CFR 306.86 - Change of name and succession of private organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Change of name and succession of private organizations. 306.86 Section...SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.86 Change of name and succession of private organizations. If a private...

  17. 31 CFR 306.86 - Change of name and succession of private organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Change of name and succession of private organizations. 306.86 Section...SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.86 Change of name and succession of private organizations. If a private...

  18. On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Guok, Chin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jackson, Keith [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kissel, Ezra [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Swany, D. Martin [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-10-12

    Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

  19. ENGINEERINGEnsuring the security of complex systems is a vital objective for all enterprises in the private and public sector. Increasing interconnectedness of critical infrastructures used by the

    E-print Network

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    goals for systems security and information assurance. Graduates will be qualified to seek positions, security system engineering, secure system architecture, information assurance, and technology governance. Stevens Institute of Technology's Master of Science program in Systems Security Engineering leverages

  20. A P2P system based on JXTA-overlay and its application for end-device control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladi Kolici; Fatos Xhafa; Keita Matsuo; Arjan Durresi; Leonard Barolli; Rozeta Miho

    2008-01-01

    This work is motivated by the need to develop decentralized P2P approaches in order to control the end-devices in a wide-area network without changing the network security policy. In this paper, we present the implementation of the JXTA-based P2P system called JXTA-Overlay. We use JXTA-Overlay for the control of end-devices such as: a smart box, robot, car and room lightning.

  1. AOS: an anonymous overlay system for mobile ad hoc networks Rui Zhang Yanchao Zhang Yuguang Fang

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yanchao

    and quantitative analysis. Keywords Ad hoc networks Á Anonymous communication Á Onion routing Á Overlay 1 communications and secure routing in MANETs and enables providing both at the same time. Last but not least, AOS have to be left in clear to enable multi-hop routing. Attackers thus can learn packet sources

  2. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California legislation…

  3. Private Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Brian T., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the expanding role of the rehabilitation counselor into private sector rehabilitation in the seven articles of this special issue. Topics cover private rehabilitation in an insurance context including forensics issues, computer applications, recent trends, services in a multiprogram private clinic, and rehabilitation counselor training.…

  4. Optimal Resource Allocation in Overlay Multicast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Cui; Yuan Xue; Klara Nahrstedt

    2003-01-01

    This paper targets the problem of optimal resource al- location in overlay multicast, which poses both theoreti- cal and practical challenges. Theoretically, resource al- location among overlay flows is not only subject to the network capacity constraint, but also the data constraint, mainly due to the dual role of end hosts as both receivers and senders. Practically, existing distributed resource

  5. Chapter VIII Automated Overlay of Infrared

    E-print Network

    Hopgood, Adrian

    166 Chapter VIII Automated Overlay of Infrared and Visual Medical Images G. Schaefer Aston written permission of IGI Global is prohibited. AbstrAct Medical infrared imaging captures the temperature a useful diagnostic visualisation for the clinician. #12;167 Automated Overlay of Infrared and Visual

  6. Overlay Multicast Trees of Minimal Delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anton Riabov; Zhen Liu; Li Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Overlay multicast (or application-level multicast) has become an increasingly popular alternative to IP-supported multicast. End nodes participating in overlay multicast can form a directed tree rooted at the source using existing unicast links. For each receiving node there is always only one incoming link. Very often, nodes can support no more than a fixed number of outgoing links due to

  7. Summary of Concrete Overlays Existing concrete pavement

    E-print Network

    Summary of Concrete Overlays Existing concrete pavement with surface distresses Prepared surface Monolithic pavement with new concrete surface Existing asphalt pavement with surface distresses Milled and cleaned surface New 2­5 in. (5.1­12.7 cm) bonded concrete overlay with square panels Existing composite

  8. Characterizing Overlay Multicast Networks and their Costs

    E-print Network

    Fahmy, Sonia

    Characterizing Overlay Multicast Networks and their Costs Sonia Fahmy, Senior Member, IEEE penalty over router-level alternatives. While overlay ­ Sonia Fahmy is with the Department of Computer 0739, E-mail: fahmy@cs.purdue.edu. Minseok Kwon is with the Department of Computer Science, Rochester

  9. Overcast: Reliable Multicasting with an Overlay Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Jannotti; David K. Gifford; Kirk L. Johnson; M. Frans Kaashoek; James W. O'Toole Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Overcast is an application-level multicasting system that can be incrementally deployed using today's Internet infrastructure. These properties stem from Overcast's implementation as an overlay network. An overlay network consists of a collection of nodes placed at strategic locations in an existing network fabric. These nodes implement a network abstrac- tion on top of the network provided by the under- lying

  10. Thermal reflective cracking of asphalt concrete overlays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eshan V. Dave; William G. Buttlar

    2010-01-01

    Reflective cracking of asphalt concrete (AC) overlays is one of the most extensive pavement distress and damage mechanisms in composite pavement structures. Numerous studies have been performed to evaluate the reflective cracking potential of AC overlays under different loading scenarios. Most of these studies have focused on reflective cracking due to tyre loading. A very limited amount of work has

  11. Corporate Security and Conflict Outcomes 

    E-print Network

    Tkach, Benjamin K

    2013-10-21

    This dissertation investigates the effects of private security firms (PSFs) on conflict outcomes. PSFs are corporations that are publicly or individually owned that provide security services for hire. Security services ...

  12. Overlay improvement roadmap: strategies for scanner control and product disposition for 5-nm overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, Nelson M.; Gabor, Allen H.; Menon, Vinayan C.; Longo, Peter P.; Halle, Scott D.; Koay, Chiew-seng; Colburn, Matthew E.

    2011-03-01

    To keep pace with the overall dimensional shrink in the industry, overlay capability must also shrink proportionally. Unsurprisingly, overlay capability < 10 nm is already required for currently nodes in development, and the need for multi-patterned levels has accelerated the overlay roadmap requirements to the order of 5 nm. To achieve this, many improvements need to be implemented in all aspects of overlay measurement, control, and disposition. Given this difficult task, even improvements involving fractions of a nanometer need to be considered. These contributors can be divided into 5 categories: scanner, process, reticle, metrology, and APC. In terms of overlay metrology, the purpose is two-fold: To measure what the actual overlay error is on wafer, and to provide appropriate APC feedback to reduce overlay error for future incoming hardware. We show that with optimized field selection plan, as well as appropriate within-field sampling, both objectives can be met. For metrology field selection, an optimization algorithm has been employed to proportionately sample fields of different scan direction, as well as proportional spatial placement. In addition, intrafield sampling has been chosen to accurately represent overlay inside each field, rather than just at field corners. Regardless, the industry-wide use of multi-exposure patterning schemes has pushed scanner overlay capabilities to their limits. However, it is now clear that scanner contributions may no longer be the majority component in total overlay performance. The ability to control correctable overlay components is paramount to achieving desired performance. In addition, process (non-scanner) contributions to on-product overlay error need to be aggressively tackled, though we show that there also opportunities available in active scanner alignment schemes, where appropriate scanner alignment metrology and correction can reduce residuals on product. In tandem, all these elements need to be in place to achieve the necessary overlay roadmap capability for current development efforts.

  13. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  14. MOSAIC: unified declarative platform for dynamic overlay composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Mao; Boon Thau Loo; Zachary G. Ives; Jonathan M. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Overlaynetworkscreatenewnetworkingservicesacrossnodes that communicate using pre-existing networks. MOSAIC is a unified declarative platform for constructing new overlay networks from multiple existing overlays, each possessing a subset ofthe desirednew network's characteristics. MOSAIC overlays are specified using Mozlog, a new declarative lan- guage for expressing overlay properties independently from their particular implementation or underlying network. This paper focuses on the runtime aspects of

  15. Privatizing Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

  16. Qmerit-calibrated overlay to improve overlay accuracy and device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Md Zakir; Jazim, Mohamed Fazly Mohamed; Sim, Stella; Lim, Alan; Hiem, Biow; Chuen, Lieu Chia; Ang, Jesline; Lim, Ek Chow; Klein, Dana; Amit, Eran; Volkovitch, Roie; Tien, David; Choi, DongSub

    2015-03-01

    In advanced semiconductor industries, the overlay error budget is getting tighter due to shrinkage in technology. To fulfill the tighter overlay requirements, gaining every nanometer of improved overlay is very important in order to accelerate yield in high-volume manufacturing (HVM) fabs. To meet the stringent overlay requirements and to overcome other unforeseen situations, it is becoming critical to eliminate the smallest imperfections in the metrology targets used for overlay metrology. For standard cases, the overlay metrology recipe is selected based on total measurement uncertainty (TMU). However, under certain circumstances, inaccuracy due to target imperfections can become the dominant contributor to the metrology uncertainty and cannot be detected and quantified by the standard TMU. For optical-based overlay (OBO) metrology targets, mark asymmetry is a common issue which can cause measurement inaccuracy, and it is not captured by standard TMU. In this paper, a new calibration method, Archer Self-Calibration (ASC), has been established successfully in HVM fabs to improve overlay accuracy on image-based overlay (IBO) metrology targets. Additionally, a new color selection methodology has been developed for the overlay metrology recipe as part of this calibration method. In this study, Qmerit-calibrated data has been used for run-to-run control loop at multiple devices. This study shows that color filter can be chosen more precisely with the help of Qmerit data. Overlay stability improved by 10~20% with best color selection, without causing any negative impact to the products. Residual error, as well as overlay mean plus 3-sigma, showed an improvement of up to 20% when Qmerit-calibrated data was used. A 30% improvement was seen in certain electrical data associated with tested process layers.

  17. Private Virtual Infrastructure for Cloud Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. John Krautheim

    Cloud computing places an organization's sensitive data in the control of a third party, introducing a significant level of risk on the privacy and security of the data. We propose a new management and security model for cloud computing called the Private Virtual Infrastructure (PVI) that shares the responsibility of security in cloud computing between the service provider and client,

  18. Rehabilitation of continuously reinforced concrete pavements using overlays 

    E-print Network

    Sriraman, Soumya

    1993-01-01

    overlay using CRC was laid on a 6 inch thick 28 jointed plain concrete pavement and which had previously been overlaid with 3. 5 inches of asphalt concrete. The primary purpose of the overlay was to strengthen the existing pavement and improve... in the design and performance of CRC overlays or overlays on CRC pavements. Climate and fatigue are other factors identified in literature as causative for the development of failures like rutting (predominant in AC overlays of CRC pavements), and reflective...

  19. Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Lee; Eugene Chuvyrov

    \\u000a Because everything about the design and operation of Windows Phone 7 targets consumers, it is only natural that Microsoft\\u000a has carefully thought through the ways to protect consumers from both intended and unintentional harm. Windows Phone 7 ships\\u000a with a compelling set of built-in security features that go towards accomplishing that goal. The capabilities of the Windows\\u000a Phone 7 platform

  20. 31 CFR 306.85 - Private corporations and unincorporated associations (including nominees).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private corporations and unincorporated associations...S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.85 Private corporations and unincorporated...

  1. 31 CFR 306.85 - Private corporations and unincorporated associations (including nominees).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private corporations and unincorporated associations...S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.85 Private corporations and unincorporated...

  2. 76 FR 41826 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ...Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: National...Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  3. Optimized Overlay Metrology Marks: Theory and Experiment

    E-print Network

    Markovitch, Shaul

    . This generally results in rework, that is the lot is returned to the previous lithography step after the resist circumstances the overlay measurements after development are not viable, and are done after etch. In this case

  4. Healthcare system's operational security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mazie Johnson; Syed Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Computer Security is a concept of protection designated to information system to accommodate the fundamental security objectives for data, information and computer services [1]. The goal of this research paper is to implement a security plan for the Lawson healthcare organization to assist with protecting and providing a secure information transmission and exchange of public and private data. The current

  5. Models and Languages for Overlay Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Behnel; Alejandro P. Buchmann

    2005-01-01

    Implementing overlay software is non-trivial. In current pro- jects, overlays or frameworks are built on top of low-level networking abstractions. This leaves the implementation of topologies, their mainte- nance and optimisation strategies, and the routing entirely to the devel- oper. Consequently, topology characteristics are woven deaply into the source code and the tight coupling with low-level frameworks prevents code reuse

  6. Food Security of Low-Income Single Parents in East Alabama: Use of Private and Public Programs in the Age of Welfare Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Duffy; Joseph J. Molnar; LaToya Claxton; Conner Bailey; Steve Mikloucich

    Despite a strong economy, the use of private, non- profit food assistance is increasing. To determine how single parenthood affects the use of both public and private food assistance, a sample of food bank clients and low-income, food-needy non-clients in East Alabamawas interviewed. Overall, single-parent food-pantry clients indicated higher levels of food insecurity than other groups, but the non-clients who

  7. Scatterometry or imaging overlay: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsing, Henry; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Most fabrication facilities today use imaging overlay measurement methods, as it has been the industry's reliable workhorse for decades. In the last few years, third-generation Scatterometry Overlay (SCOL™) or Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO-1) technology was developed, along another DBO technology (DBO-2). This development led to the question of where the DBO technology should be implemented for overlay measurements. Scatterometry has been adopted for high volume production in only few cases, always with imaging as a backup, but scatterometry overlay is considered by many as the technology of the future. In this paper we compare imaging overlay and DBO technologies by means of measurements and simulations. We outline issues and sensitivities for both technologies, providing guidelines for the best implementation of each. For several of the presented cases, data from two different DBO technologies are compared as well, the first with Pupil data access (DBO-1) and the other without pupil data access (DBO-2). Key indicators of overlay measurement quality include: layer coverage, accuracy, TMU, process robustness and robustness to process changes. Measurement data from real cases across the industry are compared and the conclusions are also backed by simulations. Accuracy is benchmarked with reference OVL, and self-consistency, showing good results for Imaging and DBO-1 technology. Process sensitivity and metrology robustness are mostly simulated with MTD (Metrology Target Designer) comparing the same process variations for both technologies. The experimental data presented in this study was done on ten advanced node layers and three production node layers, for all phases of the IC fabrication process (FEOL, MEOL and BEOL). The metrology tool used for most of the study is KLA-Tencor's Archer 500LCM system (scatterometry-based and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool) another type of tool is used for DBO-2 measurements. Finally, we conclude that both imaging overlay technology and DBO-1 technology are fully successful and have a valid roadmap for the next few design nodes, with some use cases better suited for one or the other measurement technologies. Having both imaging and DBO technology options available in parallel, allows Overlay Engineers a mix and match overlay measurement strategy, providing back up when encountering difficulties with one of the technologies and benefiting from the best of both technologies for every use case.

  8. Solidification of an alloy 625 weld overlay

    SciTech Connect

    DuPont, J.N. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

    1996-11-01

    The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temperature range) of an Alloy 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr-1Mo steel by gas metal arc welding was investigated by light and electron optical microscopy, electron microprobe, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The overlay deposit was found to terminate solidification at {approx}1,216 C by a {gamma}/Laves eutectic-type reaction. The Laves phase was highly enriched in Nb, Mo, and Si. The solidification reaction and microsegregation potential of major alloying elements in the overlay deposit are compared to other Nb-bearing Ni base alloys and found to be very similar to those for Alloy 718. Solidification cracks observed in the overlay were attributed to the wide solidification temperature range ({approx}170 C) and formation of interdendritic ({gamma} + Laves) constituent. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured volume percent ({gamma} + Laves) constituent with the Scheil equation by treating the overlay system as a simple {gamma}-Nb binary and using an experimentally determined k{sub Nb} value from electron microprobe data.

  9. Global Intrusion Detection in the DOMINO Overlay System Anonymous Submission

    E-print Network

    Jha, Somesh

    Global Intrusion Detection in the DOMINO Overlay System Anonymous Submission Abstract Sharing data between widely distributed intrusion detection systems offers the possibility of significant im (Distributed Overlay for Monitoring InterNet Outbreaks); an architecture for a distributed intrusion detection

  10. Path-aware Overlay Multicast Minseok Kwon and Sonia Fahmy

    E-print Network

    Fahmy, Sonia

    Path-aware Overlay Multicast Minseok Kwon and Sonia Fahmy Department of Computer Sciences, Purdue-0739 e-mail: {kwonm,fahmy}@cs.purdue.edu Abstract We investigate a heuristic application-level (overlay

  11. Impact of reticle writing errors on the on-product overlay performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haren, Richard; Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Liu, Xing Lan; Beltman, Jan; Pastol, Anne; Massin, Jean; Dupre La Tour, Emilie; Gatefait, Maxime; Sundermann, Frank

    2014-10-01

    The on-product overlay specification and Advanced Process Control (APC) are getting extremely challenging particularly after the introduction of multi-patterning applications like Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE). While the Reticle Writing Error (RWE) contribution could be marginalized for quite some time in the layer-to-layer overlay budget, it will become one of the dominating overlay contributors when the intra-layer overlay budget is considered. While most of the overlay contributors like wafer processing, scanner status, reticle transmission, dose, illumination conditions drop out of the intra-layer overlay budget, this is certainly not the case for reticle to reticle writing differences. In this work, we have studied the impact of the RWE on the on-product overlay performance. We show that the RWE can be characterized by an off-line mask registration tool and the modelled results can be sent as feed-forward corrections to the ASML TWINSCANTM. By doing so, the overlay control complexity (e.g. send-ahead wafers, APC settling time) can be reduced significantly. Off-line characterization enables that all reticles virtually become equal after correction (at least to the level of correction capability of the scanner). This means that all higher order RWE contributions (currently up to a third order polynomial) can be removed from the fingerprint. We show that out of 50 production reticles (FEOL, 28-nm technology), 30% can be improved on residual level when non-linear feed-forward corrections are considered as well. The additional benefit of feeding forward linear corrections to the scanner is even higher: it is anticipated that a large portion of the APC variation might find its origin in the RWE contribution. In order to send feed-forward corrections to the scanner, we obviously rely on the quality of the off-line RWE measurements. These measurements are usually provided by a registration tool at the mask shop. To secure the quality, an independent experimental verification test was developed to check if off-line RWE measurements can be used as feed-forward corrections to the scanner. The test has been executed on an ASML NXT: 1950i scanner and was designed such to isolate the reticle writing error contribution. The match between the off-line measurements and the experiment is striking.

  12. A location-aware peer-to-peer overlay network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-jen Wu; De-kai Liu; Ren-hung Hwang

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY This work describes a novel location-aware, self-organizing, fault-tolerant peer-to-peer (P2P) overlay network, referred to as Laptop. Network locality-aware considerations are a very important metric for designing a P2P overlay network. Several network proximity schemes have been proposed to enhance the routing efficiency of existing DHT-based overlay networks. However, these schemes have some drawbacks such as high overlay network and

  13. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  14. Overlay Performance Of The Perkin-Elmer Model 500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausschnitt, C. P.; Brunner, T. A.; Cronin, D. J.

    1983-11-01

    We describe the procedures and results of overlay performance evaluation conducted on production Micralign Series Model 500s. Studies of machine-to-contact print and machine-to-machine overlay, stability, and automatic alignment are presented. Preliminary results on automatic alignment indicate that the 98% limit of total overlay error - alignment plus distortion - can be kept below 0.3 ?m.

  15. Efficient Data Relaying Mechanism for Overlay Multicast Streaming Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong Min Lee; Juyoung Park; Shin-Gak Kang

    2007-01-01

    Overlay multicast delivery mechanism is a new approach in which multicast functionality is implemented over the application layer. However, existing overlay multicast protocols are not standardized and many restrictions occur when delivering high quality contents. In this paper, we propose efficient data relaying mechanism to support overlay multicast streaming services. The proposed algorithm utilizes windows sockets applications with nonblocking mode.

  16. A new approach for circuit extraction based on overlay graph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Song; Pushan Tang

    1988-01-01

    Presents an approach for circuit extraction that considers the physical significance of each overlay in multilayer IC masks. The overlay graph transformed from mask artwork data keeps the topological and geometric information of integrated circuits. The extraction based on the overlay graph implements a transformation from an IC chip layout to a circuit representation suitable for detailed circuit simulation. The

  17. Efficient Private Techniques for Verifying Social Proximity Michael J. Freedman

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    Efficient Private Techniques for Verifying Social Proximity Michael J. Freedman and Antonio privacy and security goals at a fraction of the cost of its current Private Matching [3] pro- tocol-fold. First, we describe and define a security model for verifying social con- nectedness in a privacy

  18. Advanced infrastructure — based streaming media overlay networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bolic; Z. Begic; S. Zoric

    2009-01-01

    Technology advances are giving people increasingly immersive multimedia experiences in their home entertainment systems, on their portable media players, on their desktop and laptop computers, and even on their mobile phones. A media overlay can enable new media capabilities in the network, while improving the end-user media performance and the system-wide efficiency of the network for both its media and

  19. MOSAIC: Multiple Overlay Selection and Intelligent Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Mao; Boon Thau Loo; Zachary G Ives; Jonathan M Smith

    2007-01-01

    Today, the most effective mechanism for remedying shortcomings of the Internet, or augmenting it with new networking capabilities, is to develop and deploy a new overlay network. This leads to the problem of multi- ple networking infrastructures, each with independent advantages, and each developed in isolation. A greatly preferable solution is to have a single infrastructure un- der which new

  20. Development of asphalt overlay fabric from jute

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ghosh; P. K. Banerjee; G. V. Rao

    2010-01-01

    A jute woven fabric employing leno based construction was designed for developing an asphalt overlay fabric, suitable for low traffic roads. To assess the suitability of this product, pavement models embedded with this fabric were subjected to accelerated cyclic mechanical loading and also to extended hygral loading. For the purpose of comparison, similar tests were also conducted on pavement models

  1. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, B. F.; Dupont, J. N.; Marder, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400C and their erosion resistance and microstructure evaluated. Steady state erosion rates were similar for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625, Iron-Aluminide, 316L SS, and High Chromium Cast Iron) and were considerably lower than the remaining coating evaluated. These coatings had different base (Co, Fe, Ni-base). No correlations were found between room temperature microhardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature, although this criteria is often thought to be an indicator of erosion resistance. It was suggested that the coatings that showed similar erosion rates may have similar mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates at this temperature. During the past quarter, Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were selected for more detailed investigations based upon the preliminary erosion test results. Microhardness tests were performed on eroded samples to determine the size of the work hardened zone and change in coatings hardness due to erosion. The work hardened zone was correlated with erosion resistance of the coatings. Additional Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates.

  2. Wafer to wafer overlay control algorithm implementation based on statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeong Soo; Kang, Young Seog; Kong, Jeong Heung; Hwang, Hyun Woo; Song, Myeong Gyu

    2015-03-01

    For mass production of DRAM device, a stable and effective overlay control becomes more and more important as DRAM design rule shrinks. Existent technologies were already applied to overcome this situation. Nevertheless, we are still suffered from tight overlay margin and forced to move from lot-based to wafer-based overlay control. However, the wafer-based control method requires a huge amount of measurement resource. In this paper, we present the insight for the wafer-based overlay correction with optimal measurement resource which is suitable for mass production. The experiment which is the wafer-based overlay correction by several statistical analyses carried out for 2X nm node DRAM. Among them, linear regression is a strong candidate for wafer-based overlay control, which improved up to 0.8 nm of maximum overlay.

  3. The impact of the 2007-2009 crisis on social security and private pension funds: A threat to their financial soundness?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Pino; Juan Yermo

    2010-01-01

    AbstractSocial security and pension funds were affected on an unparalleled scale by the recent financial crisis. They reported massive unrealized investment losses and their governance mechanisms have been challenged, therefore endangering their financial soundness and questioning their capacity to deliver adequate benefits. The year 2009 ended with financial markets recovering, but also with portfolio reallocations and traditional risk management approaches

  4. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  5. Peru privatizes

    SciTech Connect

    Suttil, K.R.

    1993-02-01

    Peru has been undergoing a revolution since the election of Alberto Fujimori as president in 1990. A revolution that is reversing many of the policies of the past 25 years and one which aims to bring Peru back into the mainstream of the world economy. All the enterprises nationalized in the heady days of the early 1970s are set up for privatization. The most important are the three mining companies: Hierro-Peru, Centromin, and Mineroo-Peru. It will not be easy to attract foreign investment after such a long period of political and economic instability but the rewards are there for the intrepid.

  6. Range queries on structured overlay networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Schütt; Florian Schintke; Alexander Reinefeld

    2008-01-01

    The efficient handling of range queries in peer-to-peer systems is still an open issue. Several approaches exist, but their lookup schemes are either too expensive (space-filling curves) or their queries lack expressiveness (topology-driven data distribution).We present two structured overlay networks that support arbitrary range queries. The first one, named Chord#, has been derived from Chord by substituting Chord’s hashing function

  7. Vertical Handoffs in Wireless Overlay Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Stemm; Randy H. Katz

    1998-01-01

    Abstract: We present extensions to a traditional cellular [Ses95] handoff system to handle the simultaneous operation of multiplewireless network interfaces. This new system allows mobile users to roam in a "Wireless Overlay Network"structure consisting of room-size, building-size, and wide-area data networks. In this structure, the user can connectto the wired network through multiple wireless subnets, and offers the best possible

  8. Investigation of dielectric overlay microstrip circuits 

    E-print Network

    Klein, James Louis

    1988-01-01

    of the microstrip has expanded to make it one of the most common means of microwave transmission. Its use has been expanded to encompass all aspects of the microwave area. With the use of microstrip the microwave monolithic integrated circuit, or MMIC, has become... OVERLAY DIRECTIONAL COUPLER A. Introduction The directional coupler is cotnmonly used in microwave integrated circuits such as balanced mixers, balanced anrplifiers, phase shifters, power splitters, power combiners, power monitors, and attenuators...

  9. The Case for Wireless Overlay Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy H. Katz; Eric A. Brewer

    Wireless data services, other than those for electronic mail or paging, have thus far been more of a promise than a success.\\u000a We believe that future mobile information systems must be built upon heterogeneous wireless overlay networks, extending traditional wired and internetworked processing “islands” to hosts on the move over coverage areas ranging from\\u000a in-room, in-building, campus, metropolitan, and wide-areas.

  10. Awareness and challenges of Internet security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Hawkins; David C. Yen; David C. Chou

    2000-01-01

    Internet security is an important issue today. Corporate data are at risk when they are exposed to the Internet. Current technologies provide a number of ways to secure data transmission and storage, including encryption, firewalls, and private networks. This article discusses the awareness of Internet security and challenges faced in both the public and the private sectors.

  11. Security Informatics Security Informatics

    E-print Network

    Camp, L. Jean

    Security Informatics Security Informatics Security Informatics is the study and design of information security technologies within social and economic contexts. Security Informatics builds upon strong of security and privacy. Security Informatics addresses both immediate problems of today, such as phishing

  12. Optimizing Deadline-Driven Bulk Data Transfers in Overlay Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei Agapi; Marcelo Pasin; Pascale Vicat-Blanc Primet; Thilo Kielmann

    2009-01-01

    Deadline-driven bulk data transfers frequently occur in overlay networks running data-intensive, distributed workflow applications, such as grid and cloud environments. What distinguishes such transfers from other Internet traffic is that overlay nodes should cooperate towards the common goal of delivering all inter-dependent data timely, rather than follow individual, selfish goals. For such scenarios, we propose scheduling transfers in overlays in

  13. Molecular Dynamics study of Pb overlayer on Cu(100)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimi, M.; Tibbits, P.; Ila, D.; Dalins, I.; Vidali, G.

    1991-01-01

    Isothermal-isobaric Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation of a submonolayer Pb film in c(2x2) ordered structure adsorbed on a Cu(100) substrate showed retention of order to high T. The Embedded Atom Method (EAM) calculated the energy of atoms of overlayer and substrate. The time-averaged squared modulus of the two dimensional structure factor for the Pb overlayer measured the order of the overlayer. The results are for increasing T only, and require verification by simulated cooling.

  14. Photoinduced plasmon excitations in alkali-metal overlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, S. R.; Horn, K.; Häberle, P.; Ishida, H.; Liebsch, A.

    1998-03-01

    Collective surface excitations in alkali-metal overlayers are observed using photoyield spectroscopy. Spectra for Na and K on Al(111) reveal a multipole surface plasmon and bulklike overlayer plasmon. In contrast, Li on Al exhibits only the multipole mode. In the submonolayer regime, all three alkali metals provide evidence for the threshold excitation. Time-dependent density-functional calculations for realistic alkali-metal overlayers agree well with these observations.

  15. Highly corrosion resistant weld overlay for oil patch applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hibner, E.L. [Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States); Maligas, M.N.; Vicic, J.C. [FMC Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Petroleum equipment companies currently sell 4130 and 4140 steel pipe with alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay for Oil Patch applications. Alloy 686 (UNS N06686), because of it`s superior corrosion resistance, is currently being evaluated as a replacement material for alloy 625. Mechanical properties and Slow Strain Rate test results for the alloy 686 weld overlay are discussed relative to the alloy 625 weld overlay.

  16. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

  17. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

  18. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

  19. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

  20. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

  1. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

  2. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

  3. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

  4. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

  5. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

  6. 17 CFR 240.12h-6 - Certification by a foreign private issuer regarding the termination of registration of a class of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Certification by a foreign private issuer regarding the termination...residents holding a foreign private issuer's equity or debt securities...States to brokers, dealers, banks and other nominees located...States; (B) The foreign private issuer's jurisdiction...

  7. 17 CFR 240.12h-6 - Certification by a foreign private issuer regarding the termination of registration of a class of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Certification by a foreign private issuer regarding the termination...residents holding a foreign private issuer's equity or debt securities...States to brokers, dealers, banks and other nominees located...States; (B) The foreign private issuer's jurisdiction...

  8. 17 CFR 240.12h-6 - Certification by a foreign private issuer regarding the termination of registration of a class of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Certification by a foreign private issuer regarding the termination...residents holding a foreign private issuer's equity or debt securities...States to brokers, dealers, banks and other nominees located...States; (B) The foreign private issuer's jurisdiction...

  9. 17 CFR 240.12h-6 - Certification by a foreign private issuer regarding the termination of registration of a class of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Certification by a foreign private issuer regarding the termination...residents holding a foreign private issuer's equity or debt securities...States to brokers, dealers, banks and other nominees located...States; (B) The foreign private issuer's jurisdiction...

  10. 17 CFR 240.12h-6 - Certification by a foreign private issuer regarding the termination of registration of a class of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Certification by a foreign private issuer regarding the termination...residents holding a foreign private issuer's equity or debt securities...States to brokers, dealers, banks and other nominees located...States; (B) The foreign private issuer's jurisdiction...

  11. Quantum data locking for high-rate private communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth

    2015-03-01

    We show that, if the accessible information is used as a security quantifier, quantum channels with a certain symmetry can convey private messages at a tremendously high rate, as high as less than one bit below the rate of non-private classical communication. This result is obtained by exploiting the quantum data locking effect. The price to pay to achieve such a high private communication rate is that accessible information security is in general not composable. However, composable security holds against an eavesdropper who is forced to measure her share of the quantum system within a finite time after she gets it.

  12. [The national union for private hospital oncology].

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    In the French health system, social security is the same for both public and private hospitals regardless of their status. In terms of number of patients screened, diagnosed, or treated, independant medicine is the most important sector in the French oncology. The multitude of organizations representing private hospitals or independant oncologists, physicians, radiologists or pathologists have a common organization, the National Union for Private Hospital Oncology (UNHPC). It bases its action on two founding postulates to ensure the quality of the oncology practice : the medical and managerial cultures are complementary and should be articulated ; the quality of organizations is as important as professional competence. PMID:23735663

  13. Hybrid overlay metrology with CDSEM in a BEOL patterning scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Jehoul, Christiane; Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    Overlay metrology accuracy is a major concern for our industry. Advanced logic process require more tighter overlay control for multipatterning schemes. TIS (Tool Induced Shift) and WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) are the main issues for IBO (Image Based Overlay) and DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay). Methods of compensation have been introduced, some are even very efficient to reduce these measured offsets. Another related question is about the overlay target designs. These targets are never fully representative of the design rules, strong efforts have been achieved, but the device cannot be completely duplicated. Ideally, we would like to measure in the device itself to verify the real overlay value. Top down CDSEM can measure critical dimensions of any structure, it is not dependent of specific target design. It can also measure the overlay errors but only in specific cases like LELE (Litho Etch Litho Etch) after final patterning. In this paper, we will revisit the capability of the CDSEM at final patterning by measuring overlay in dedicated targets as well as inside a logic and an SRAM design. In the dedicated overlay targets, we study the measurement differences between design rules gratings and relaxed pitch gratings. These relaxed pitch which are usually used in IBO or DBO targets. Beyond this "simple" LELE case, we will explore the capability of the CDSEM to measure overlay even if not at final patterning, at litho level. We will assess the hybridization of DBO and CDSEM for reference to optical tools after final patterning. We will show that these reference data can be used to validate the DBO overlay results (correctables and residual fingerprints).

  14. Multi layer overlay measurement recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Nuriel; Shuall, Nimrod; Tarshish-Shapir, Inna; Leray, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    One of the main challenges related to the growing number of Litho layers and most specifically to Multi Patterning, is the ability to align to many layers at once. In the past things were simple, the alignment tree was set so that every layer aligns to one layer and at the most is measured versus two layers, such as contact to poly and Isolation. Today, even at the 20 nm node there are double and triple patterning for critical layers such as Isolation, poly, contact and Metal 1. This forces a much more complex alignment tree and Overlay (OVL) measurement. Layers are sometimes aligned to an average of previous layers, to different layers at different orientations and disposition is done based on several measurements. This growing challenge increases the number of Overlay measurements significantly, increases the target area and present the need to make many measurement from different layers consistent. Another challenge is the increased number of recipes and the need for flexible alignment tree scheme during development. These challenges are addressed by Multi layer targets such as Triple AIM, Multilayer AIMid and the Blossom and micro-Blossom targets where alignment marks from multiple patterning steps and layers were densely populated. A single OVL reading is calculated by the metrology tool on a selected pair or multiple pair average1. Here we propose the Multi-Layer measurement that provides an additional degree of metrology and solution to these challenges: in one measurement several overlay results are achieved, the results are always self-consistent. It allows at the same measurement grab to look back and disposition previous layers after their processing was completed. It allows a flexible alignment tree without the need to add or change targets, even during ramp and production. It reduces the number of recipes that need to be created and managed. And it also reduces significantly the area needed for the targets. In this paper we will show recent results from IMEC, on Back-End (BE) stack of four layers including one double patterning layer. We compared several target sizes, showing that such a target can fit within the Indie requirements of 10x10 ?m. Results show that there is not a lot of need to compromise on performance in order to get good Multi-Layer measurements. Eventually we will describe process compatible targets which are needed more in the Front End (FE) layers. Looking forward at the increased complexity needed for future nodes and multiple pitch splitting lithography, it is encouraging to see that for Overlay we can simplify metrology instead of making it follow the complexity trend.

  15. An efficient streaming method in overlay multicast networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suk Kim Chin

    2009-01-01

    The predominance of unicast connectivity in the current Internet infrastructure sabotages the widespread deployment of video applications. As such overlay multicast networking has been proposed to accelerate the ubiquity of video streaming in the Internet. Based on an existing overlay multicast network architecture, this paper proposes a method which aims at improving the efficiency of the streaming scheme that is

  16. Virtual TCP Offload: Optimizing Ethernet Overlay Performance on Advanced Interconnects

    E-print Network

    Dinda, Peter A.

    performance on high-speed Ethernet networks [6,17]. Providing the same Ethernet abstraction on high-end dataVirtual TCP Offload: Optimizing Ethernet Overlay Performance on Advanced Interconnects Zheng Cui@northwestern.edu ABSTRACT Ethernet overlay networks are a powerful tool for virtu- alizing networked applications

  17. Spectrum allocation with beamforming antenna in heterogeneous overlaying networks

    E-print Network

    Bahk, Saewoong

    1 Spectrum allocation with beamforming antenna in heterogeneous overlaying networks Sunheui Ryoo spectrum reuse. In this paper, we explore schemes to mitigate cross-tier interference with beamforming antennas for overlay networks. In our model, fem- tocells can operate with frequency spectrum

  18. Global Intrusion Detection in the DOMINO Overlay System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinod Yegneswaran; Paul Barford; Somesh Jha

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Sharing data between widely distributed intrusion detec - tion systems offers the possibility of significant improve ments in speed and accuracy over isolated systems In this paper, we describe and evaluate DOMINO (Distributed Overlay for Monitoring InterNet Outbreaks); an architec - ture for a distributed intrusion detection system that fosters collaboration among heterogeneous nodes organized as an overlay network

  19. Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh1

    E-print Network

    Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh1 Miguel Castro2 Peter Druschel1, it can "eclipse" correct nodes and pre- vent correct overlay operation. This Eclipse attack is more general than the Sybil attack. Attackers can use a Sybil attack to launch an Eclipse attack by inventing

  20. Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Galen

    Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh½£ Miguel Castro¾ Peter Druschel, it can "eclipse" correct nodes and pre- vent correct overlay operation. This Eclipse attack is more general than the Sybil attack. Attackers can use a Sybil attack to launch an Eclipse attack by inventing

  1. Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atul Singh; Tsuen-wan Ngan; Peter Druschel; Dan S. Wallach

    2006-01-01

    Overlay networks are widely used to deploy func- tionality at edge nodes without changing network routers. Each node in an overlay network maintains connections with a number of peers, forming a graph upon which a distributed application or service is implemented. In an \\

  2. Verme: Worm Containment in Overlay Networks Filipe Freitas1

    E-print Network

    Ferreira, Paulo

    Verme: Worm Containment in Overlay Networks Filipe Freitas1 , Edgar Marques1 , Rodrigo Rodrigues2 Max Planck Institute for Software Systems (MPI-SWS) Abstract Topological worms, such as those random scanning worms be- cause they have knowledge of a subset of the overlay nodes, and choose

  3. Scalable Resilient Overlay Networks Using Destination-Guided Detouring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameer Qazi; Tim Moors

    2007-01-01

    Routing policies used in the Internet tend to be restrictive limiting communication between source-destination pairs to one route, when often better alternates exist. To avoid route flapping, recovery mechanisms may be dampened, making adaptation slow. Unstructured overlays have been widely used to mitigate the issues of path and performance failures in the Internet by routing through alternate paths via overlay

  4. Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers W. Randolph Franklin

    E-print Network

    Franklin, W. Randolph

    Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers W. Randolph Franklin ECSE Dept, 6026 JEC://wrfranklin.org/ Keywords: overlay, roundoff error, rational numbers, topology, intersection We present a solution as rational numbers, or vulgar fractions composed of a numerator divided by a denominator. Because the result

  5. Concrete Overlay Field Application ProgramPhase 2

    E-print Network

    Concrete Pavement Technology Center (CP Tech Center) at Iowa State University. #12;Contact If you would-house expertise on overlays through its choice of services, all provided through the National Concrete Pavement Technology Center: · Site visits and remote meetings. An expert team will visit potential overlay project

  6. Personal Communication Systems Using Multiple Hierarchical Cellular Overlays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long-rong Hu; Stephen S. Rappaport

    1995-01-01

    A personal communication system with multiple hierarchical cellular overlays is considered. The system can include a terrestrial segment and a space segment. The terrestrial trail segment, consisting of microcells and macrocells, provides high channel capacity by covering service areas with microcells. Overlaying macrocells cover spots that are difficult in radio propagation for microcells and provide overflow groups of channels for

  7. Topology-aware overlay networks for group communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minseok Kwon; Sonia Fahmy

    2002-01-01

    We propose an application level multicast approach, Topology Aware Grouping (TAG), which exploits underlying network topology information to build efficient overlay networks among multicast group members. TAG uses information about path overlap among members to construct a tree that reduces the overlay relative delay penalty, and reduces the number of duplicate copies of a packet on the same link. We

  8. Overlay mark optimization using the KTD signal simulation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anat Marchelli; Karsten Gutjahr; Michael Kubis; Christian Sparka; Mark Ghinovker; Alessandra Navarra; Amir Widmann

    2009-01-01

    As the overlay performance and accuracy requirements become tighter, the impact of process parameters on the target signal becomes more significant. Traditionally, in order to choose the optimum overlay target, several candidates are placed in the kerf area. The candidate targets are tested under different process conditions, before the target to be used in mass production is selected. The varieties

  9. Layout optimization for thick-film resist overlay metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang; Li, James; Zhou, Brian; Gu, Yili; Yang, Steve

    2008-03-01

    Design for Manufacturing (DFM) is being widely accepted as one of the keywords in cutting edge lithography and OPC technologies. DFM solutions impact the design-to-silicon flow at various stages, often during different time-point in the product life cycle, and often with both process equipments and metrology tools. As the design rule shrinks and mask field size increases, tighter specifications are applied on non-critical layers, including thick implant resist typically with thickness of 3.0um and above. Various functions, as Enhanced Global Alignment (EGA), Super Distortion Matching (SDM), and Grid Compensation for Matching (GCM), are widely used to achieve improved overlay accuracy. However, poor uniformity for CD and overlay was observed for thick resist implant layers. Systematic uncorrectable overlay residue was observed from the overlay map. Cross-section analysis shows asymmetric resist profile existed, causing inaccurate signal reading during the measurement. Although there are some recent researches focusing on CD-SEM metrology of overlay residue, overlay tools in current foundries are mainly optical-based ones, which are limited by the optical resolution. Instead of locally focusing on the manufacturing, an innovative methodology is proposed in this paper, by applying the newly designed overlay marks to solve this manufacturing problem. From the comparison of overlay performances between the proposed layout and the original design, it is shown that the taper asymmetry induced errors are significantly reduced.

  10. Repeated-Game Modeling of Multicast Overlays Mike Afergan

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yiling

    -term desire for quality and long-term desire for the network's continued existence. We simulate overlay tree video or stock tickers, require efficient distribution of real-time data. IP multicast is a router in network efficiency. Further, they are easier to deploy than IP multicast. Application overlays typically

  11. Etherlay: An Overlay Enhancement for Metro Ethernet Networks

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Etherlay: An Overlay Enhancement for Metro Ethernet Networks Minh Huynh and Prasant Mohapatra}@ucdavis.edu Abstract-- The ubiquitous Ethernet technology has propelled itself into a wide-scale adoption for Metro% of the total throughput. Keywords- Etherlay, Metro Ethernet Network, MSTP, Overlay, Resilience, RSTP. I

  12. An Efficient FPGA Overlay for Portable Custom Instruction Set Extensions

    E-print Network

    Lemieux, Guy

    An Efficient FPGA Overlay for Portable Custom Instruction Set Extensions Dirk Koch,, Christian this approach is commonly tailored to one specific FPGA system, we are presenting a fine-grained FPGA-like overlay architecture which can be implemented in the user logic of various FPGA families from different

  13. 33 CFR 106.305 - Facility Security Assessment (FSA) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (iv) Existing security measures and procedures...computer systems and networks; (vi) Existing agreements with private security companies; (vii...facility: (i) Physical security; (ii) Structural...computer systems and networks; and (vi)...

  14. 33 CFR 106.305 - Facility Security Assessment (FSA) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (iv) Existing security measures and procedures...computer systems and networks; (vi) Existing agreements with private security companies; (vii...facility: (i) Physical security; (ii) Structural...computer systems and networks; and (vi)...

  15. 33 CFR 106.305 - Facility Security Assessment (FSA) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (iv) Existing security measures and procedures...computer systems and networks; (vi) Existing agreements with private security companies; (vii...facility: (i) Physical security; (ii) Structural...computer systems and networks; and (vi)...

  16. 33 CFR 106.305 - Facility Security Assessment (FSA) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (iv) Existing security measures and procedures...computer systems and networks; (vi) Existing agreements with private security companies; (vii...facility: (i) Physical security; (ii) Structural...computer systems and networks; and (vi)...

  17. 33 CFR 106.305 - Facility Security Assessment (FSA) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (iv) Existing security measures and procedures...computer systems and networks; (vi) Existing agreements with private security companies; (vii...facility: (i) Physical security; (ii) Structural...computer systems and networks; and (vi)...

  18. Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.B.; Levin, B.F.; Marder, A.R.

    1999-08-02

    Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied. By depositing an alloy that offers better corrosion resistance than the underlying tube material, the wastage rates can be reduced. While Ni-based and stainless steel compositions are presently providing protection, they are expensive and susceptible to failure via corrosion-fatigue due to microsegregation upon solidification. Another material system presently under consideration for use as a coating in the oxidation/sulfidation environments is iron-aluminum. These alloys are relatively inexpensive, exhibit little microsegregation, and show excellent corrosion resistance. However, their use is limited due to weldability issues and their lack of corrosion characterization in simulated low NO(sub)x gas compositions. Therefore a program was initiated in 1996 to evaluate the use of iron-aluminum weld overlay coatings for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in fossil fired boilers with low NO(sub)x burners. Investigated properties included weldability, corrosion behavior, erosion resistance, and erosion-corrosion performance.

  19. Private Equity in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Westcott

    2009-01-01

    Private equity investment in Australia has changed in both extent and nature over the last few years. In particular, transactions where a private equity fund buys out a mature publicly listed company have increased. The targeting of ‘iconic’ companies such as Qantas by private equity heightened the concerns held in some quarters of the possible impact of private equity ownership

  20. 76 FR 4123 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice of this...Department of Homeland Security on matters related to homeland security. The Council is...private sector, and academia. The HSAC will...purpose of receiving information and swearing...

  1. 75 FR 59278 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice of this...Department of Homeland Security on matters related to homeland security. The Council is...private sector, and academia. The HSAC will...sensitive operational information from senior...

  2. Quantum data locking for high-rate private communication

    E-print Network

    Lupo, Cosmo

    We show that, if the accessible information is used as a security quantifier, quantum channels with a certain symmetry can convey private messages at a tremendously high rate, as high as less than one bit below the rate ...

  3. Trusted Cloud Computing with Secure Resources and Data Coloring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Hwang; Deyi Li

    2010-01-01

    Trust and security have prevented businesses from fully accepting cloud platforms. To protect clouds, providers must first secure virtualized data center resources, uphold user privacy, and preserve data integrity. The authors suggest using a trust-overlay network over multiple data centers to implement a reputation system for establishing trust between service providers and data owners. Data coloring and software watermarking techniques

  4. The USA PATRIOT Act: Implications for Private E-Mail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina Ebenger

    2008-01-01

    In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the USA PATRIOT Act was enacted to “enhance domestic security.” One of the means to accomplish this was to give law enforcement increased authority for the surveillance, interception, and disclosure of private e-mails. The USA PATRIOT Act negated several of the privacy protections afforded private e-mail under the Electronic

  5. Private-Loan Reliance Worries Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2008-01-01

    At many colleges across the nation, as administrators fret about the effects of a worsening economy, students arriving this fall will get more help securing jobs and more advice on paying for their educations. Some students will even find colleges willing to cut their tuition bills. This article reports that as banks tighten standards for private…

  6. How widespread are nonlinear crowding out effects? The response of private transfers to income in four developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Gibson; Susan Olivia; Scott Rozelle

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between household income and private transfers received in developing countries. If private transfers are unresponsive to household income, there is less likelihood of expansions in public social security crowding out private transfers. Most literature finds that private transfers are unresponsive, but this may be because responses have been obscured by the methods that ignore nonlinearities.

  7. How widespread are nonlinear crowding out effects? The response of private transfers to income in four developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Gibson; Susan Olivia; Scott Rozelle

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between household income and private transfers received in developing countries. If private transfers are unresponsive to household income, there is less likelihood of expansions in public social security crowding out private transfers. Most literature finds that private transfers are unresponsive, but this may be because responses have been obscured by the methods that ignore nonlinearities.

  8. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1996-11-01

    The hot and cold cracking tendencies of some early iron aluminide alloy compositions limited their use to applications where good weldability was not required. Considerable progress has been made toward improving this situation. Using hot crack testing techniques developed at ORNL and a systematic study of alloy compositional effects, we have established a range of compositions within which hot cracking resistance is very good, essentially equivalent to stainless steel. Cold cracking, however, remains an issue, and extensive efforts are continuing to optimize composition and welding parameters, especially preheat and postweld heat treatment, to minimize its occurrence. In terms of filler metal and process development, we have progressed from sheared strip through aspiration cast rod and shielded metal arc electrodes to the point where we can now produce composite wire with a steel sheath and aluminum core in coil form, which permits the use of both the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes. This is a significant advancement in that the gas metal arc process lends itself well to automated welding, and is the process of choice for commercial weld overlay applications. Using the newly developed filler metals, we have prepared clad specimens for testing in a variety of environments both in-house and outside ORNL, including laboratory and commercial organizations. As a means of assessing the field performance of this new type of material, we have modified several non-pressure boundary boiler components, including fuel nozzles and port shrouds, by introducing areas of weld overlay in strategic locations, and have placed these components in service in operating boilers for a side-by-side comparison with conventional corrosion-resistant materials.

  9. Private randomness expansion with untrusted devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

    2011-03-01

    Randomness is an important resource for many applications, from gambling to secure communication. However, guaranteeing that the output from a candidate random source could not have been predicted by an outside party is a challenging task, and many supposedly random sources used today provide no such guarantee. Quantum solutions to this problem exist, for example a device which internally sends a photon through a beamsplitter and observes on which side it emerges, but, presently, such solutions require the user to trust the internal workings of the device. Here, we seek to go beyond this limitation by asking whether randomness can be generated using untrusted devices—even ones created by an adversarial agent—while providing a guarantee that no outside party (including the agent) can predict it. Since this is easily seen to be impossible unless the user has an initially private random string, the task we investigate here is private randomness expansion. We introduce a protocol for private randomness expansion with untrusted devices which is designed to take as input an initially private random string and produce as output a longer private random string. We point out that private randomness expansion protocols are generally vulnerable to attacks that can render the initial string partially insecure, even though that string is used only inside a secure laboratory; our protocol is designed to remove this previously unconsidered vulnerability by privacy amplification. We also discuss extensions of our protocol designed to generate an arbitrarily long random string from a finite initially private random string. The security of these protocols against the most general attacks is left as an open question.

  10. Predicting the fatigue life of asphalt concrete overlay systems 

    E-print Network

    Germann, Frederick P

    1979-01-01

    shed in this report, for quantitative analysis of overlay methods designed to reduce reflection cracking. From this testing procedure the overlay scheme that shows the most resistance to fatigue crack1ng can be chosen. The procedure uses fatigue...'s resistance to cracking can be easily seen. One way to determine the fatigue 11fe is to perform fatigue tests on over- lay samples using the overlay tester. These tests can be time consuming and costly. Another method to find the fatigue life is to use a...

  11. Political science perspectives on transportation security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark B. Salter

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies some key issues for new research in transportation security from a political science perspective:\\u000a network-centric security thinking; infrastructure vulnerability; the dilemma of public\\/private operation of security screening;\\u000a policy coordination and market failure; and intermodal security. We argue of the importance of the ‘homeland security dilemma’:\\u000a the more governments and corporations spend on security, the greater the perception

  12. Security issues in networks with Internet access

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARL E. LANDWEHR; DAVID M. GOLDSCHLAG

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the basic principles of designing and administering a relatively secure network. The principles are illustrated by describing the security issues a hypothetical company faces as the networks that support its operations evolve from strictly private, through a mix of Internet and private nets, to a final state in which the Internet is finally integrated into its operations

  13. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

  14. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

  15. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

  16. Private Quantum Subsystems

    E-print Network

    Tomas Jochym-O'Connor; David W. Kribs; Raymond Laflamme; Sarah Plosker

    2013-01-24

    We investigate the most general notion of a private quantum code, which involves the encoding of qubits into quantum subsystems and subspaces. We contribute to the structure theory for private quantum codes by deriving testable conditions for private quantum subsystems in terms of Kraus operators for channels; establishing an analogue of the Knill-Laflamme conditions in this setting. For a large class of naturally arising quantum channels, we show that private subsystems can exist even in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also discover the first examples of private subsystems that are not complemented by operator quantum error correcting codes; implying that the complementarity of private codes and quantum error correcting codes fails for the general notion of private quantum subsystem.

  17. Private Drinking Water Wells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency, contains information from the on testing and protecting private water sources. The site can be helpful for persons having a private well or simply those interested in water science.

  18. The Private Language Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the private language argument (PLA)--the argument against the possibility of a private language. Raises questions about the PLA, suggesting there are a number of problems that PLA interpretation generates and fails to resolve. (Author/JL)

  19. Overlay metrology: the systematic, the random and the ugly

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Neal; Shin, Jennifer [Advanced Process Tool Development Group, Digital Semiconductor, Hudson, Massachusetts 01749 (United States)

    1998-11-24

    Typical advanced lithographic processes require an overlay tolerance that is approximately 30% of the minimum feature size. To achieve this metrology must be limited to an error budget of 3-5% of the minimum feature size. A discussion of the general use of overlay data for assessment of stepper performance is followed by an overview of key overlay metrology equipment performance parameters (Tool Induced Shift-TIS) and the interaction with the process (Wafer Induced Shift-WIS). The interactions between the target, the process and the equipment will also be reviewed. Finally, use of this information in a case study of overlay target design for Tungsten Chemical Mechanical Planarization (W CMP) will be presented. Relevant process data will demonstrate how such targets can be used to effectively monitor both stepper (systematic error) and metrology tool (random error) performance.

  20. Securities trading of concepts (STOC)

    E-print Network

    Dahan, Ely

    Identifying winning new product concepts can be a challenging process that requires insight into private consumer preferences. To measure consumer preferences for new product concepts, the authors apply a “securities trading ...

  1. A Primer on Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menell, Seth J.; Phelps, Richard P.

    This paper provides a detailed examination of "contracting," a type of privatization, and is intended to clarify the issues surrounding decisions to privatize public services. Privatization introduces competition among market participants as a means of generating revenue, spurring development of an industry, and/or improving the quality of…

  2. PRIVATE MATCHING UC Berkeley

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    Chapter 3 PRIVATE MATCHING Yaping Li UC Berkeley J. D. Tygar UC Berkeley Joseph M. Hellerstein UC Berkeley Intel Research Berkeley Abstract Consider two organizations that wish to privately match data. They want to find common data elements (or perform a join) over two databases without revealing private

  3. Privatization and Public Enterprises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Hemming; Ali Mansoor

    1987-01-01

    This paper considers whether privatization is an appropriate response to the problems associated with large public enterprise sectors in industrial and developing countries. It is argued that privatization is likely to be the source of some gains in efficiency, as privatized enterprises are less susceptible to political interference, management incentives are improved, and government financial backing is withdrawn. However, more

  4. An overlay network providing application-aware multimedia services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten Wijnants; Bart Cornelissen; Wim Lamotte; Bart De Vleeschauwer

    2006-01-01

    Real-time streaming of multimedia content is increasingly becoming a crucial part of networked applications. A logical consequence of this evolution is a growing demand for services that can be applied on these multimedia streams. In this paper, we present our overlay network which provides such multimedia services. Although these services are application-aware and can thus exploit application-specific knowledge, the overlay

  5. Augmenting reality in Direct View Optical (DVO) overlay applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Tim; Edwards, Tim

    2014-06-01

    The integration of overlay displays into rifle scopes can transform precision Direct View Optical (DVO) sights into intelligent interactive fire-control systems. Overlay displays can provide ballistic solutions within the sight for dramatically improved targeting, can fuse sensor video to extend targeting into nighttime or dirty battlefield conditions, and can overlay complex situational awareness information over the real-world scene. High brightness overlay solutions for dismounted soldier applications have previously been hindered by excessive power consumption, weight and bulk making them unsuitable for man-portable, battery powered applications. This paper describes the advancements and capabilities of a high brightness, ultra-low power text and graphics overlay display module developed specifically for integration into DVO weapon sight applications. Central to the overlay display module was the development of a new general purpose low power graphics controller and dual-path display driver electronics. The graphics controller interface is a simple 2-wire RS-232 serial interface compatible with existing weapon systems such as the IBEAM ballistic computer and the RULR and STORM laser rangefinders (LRF). The module features include multiple graphics layers, user configurable fonts and icons, and parameterized vector rendering, making it suitable for general purpose DVO overlay applications. The module is configured for graphics-only operation for daytime use and overlays graphics with video for nighttime applications. The miniature footprint and ultra-low power consumption of the module enables a new generation of intelligent DVO systems and has been implemented for resolutions from VGA to SXGA, in monochrome and color, and in graphics applications with and without sensor video.

  6. Maxmin overlay multicast: rate allocation and tree construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Cui; Yuan Xue; Klara Nahrstedt

    2004-01-01

    Although initially proposed as the deployable al- ternative to IP multicast, overlay multicast actually offers us great flexibilities on QoS-aware resource allocation for network applications. For example, in overlay multicast streaming, (1) the streaming rate of each client can be diversified to better accommodate network heterogeneity, through various end-to- end streaming adaptation techniques; and (2) one can freely organize the

  7. Loss characteristics in urban environment with different buildings' overlay profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Blaunstein; D. Katz; D. Censor

    2001-01-01

    In this work we continue the analysis of a probabilistic approach and the corresponding stochastic multiparametric model of wave propagation in built-up areas with randomly distributed buildings. We concentrate on the influence of buildings' overlay profile on signal decay within the UHF\\/X-band urban propagation channels. Using different buildings' overlay profiles, the field loss characteristics are examined taking into account single

  8. Delta Routing: Improving the Price-Performance of Hybrid Private Networks

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yuanyuan

    transferring. These private networks protect the traffic from security attacks by external parties be dropped. Not all traffic on private networks has the same requirement on reliability, delay and bandwidthDelta Routing: Improving the Price-Performance of Hybrid Private Networks G. Porter Department

  9. Cloud Optimize When it comes to building a private cloud, offering cloud services,

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Galen

    Cloud Optimize Your IT When it comes to building a private cloud, offering cloud services the flexibility of a private cloud, implementing solutions in a virtualized environment is not enough. Windows Server 2012 lets you go beyond virtualization to deploy and more securely connect to private clouds

  10. ``Electric growth`` of metal overlayers on semiconductor substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Cho, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Niu, Q.; Shih, C.K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics; Suo, Z. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1998-02-01

    In this article, the authors present the main results from their recent studies of metal overlayer growth on semiconductor substrates. They show that a variety of novel phenomena can exist in such systems, resulting from several competing interactions. The confined motion of the conduction electrons within the metal overlayer can mediate a surprisingly long-range repulsive force between the metal-semiconductor interface and the growth front, acting to stabilize the overlayer. Electron transfer from the overlayer to the substrate leads to an attractive force between the two interfaces, acting to destabilize the overlayer. Interface-induced Friedel oscillations in electron density can further impose an oscillatory modulation onto the two previous interactions. These three competing factors, of all electronic nature, can make a flat metal overlayer critically, marginally, or magically stable, or totally unstable against roughening. The authors further show that, for many systems, these electronic effects can easily win over the effect of stress. First-principles studies of a few representative systems support the main features of the present electronic growth concept.

  11. Privatization of Social Security: Lessons from Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Diamond

    1993-01-01

    In Chile, all covered workers must place 10% of monthly earnings in a savings account with a highly regulated intermediary that manages a single fund and provides survivors and disability insurance. Workers pay a commission charge, in addition to the mandatory 10%, to finance this insurance and to cover the costs and profits of the intermediaries. On becoming eligible to

  12. Generational equity or privatization of social security?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric R. Kingson; John B. Williamson

    1991-01-01

    In recent years important policy discussions have been framed in terms of fairness in the distribution of resources between generations. In response to this approach to framing policy discussions, a debatetermed the generational equity debate--has emerged. At one level, the debate takes form over differences between those who would use generational equity as a major criterion for policy decisions and

  13. Private Circuits: Securing Hardware against Probing Attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuval Ishai; Amit Sahai; David Wagner

    2003-01-01

    Can you guarantee secrecy even if an adversary can eavesdrop on your brain? We consider the problem of protecting privacy in circuits, when faced with an adversary that can access a bounded number of wires in the circuit. This question is motivated by side channel attacks, which allow an adversary to gain partial access to the inner workings of hardware.

  14. Secure and Private Collaborative Linear Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangtao Li; Mikhail J. Atallah

    2006-01-01

    The growth of the Internet has created tremendous opportunities for online collaborations. These often involve collaborative optimizations where the two parties are, for example, jointly minimizing costs without violating their own particular constraints (e.g., one party may have too much inventory, another too little inventory but too much production capacity, etc). Many of these optimizations can be formulated as linear

  15. Quantum private comparison with a malicious third party

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Yu, Jianping; Wang, Ping; Xu, Lingling; Wu, Chunhui

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we will show that quantum private comparison protocol is secure when a malicious third party is presented. The security of the protocol is considered in a cheat-sensitive model, in which the TP is kept honest by the possibility of being caught cheating. Besides, we enhance the privacy of the quantum private comparison protocol, where the participants' inputs and the comparison result can be preserved. Furthermore, in contrast to pervious protocols requiring a large amount of quantum resources, such as entanglement and quantum memory, our protocol is based on BB84 protocol, which is more feasible for practical applications. Finally, we analyze the security of the presented protocol.

  16. Quantum private comparison with a malicious third party

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Yu, Jianping; Wang, Ping; Xu, Lingling; Wu, Chunhui

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we will show that quantum private comparison protocol is secure when a malicious third party is presented. The security of the protocol is considered in a cheat-sensitive model, in which the TP is kept honest by the possibility of being caught cheating. Besides, we enhance the privacy of the quantum private comparison protocol, where the participants' inputs and the comparison result can be preserved. Furthermore, in contrast to pervious protocols requiring a large amount of quantum resources, such as entanglement and quantum memory, our protocol is based on BB84 protocol, which is more feasible for practical applications. Finally, we analyze the security of the presented protocol.

  17. Relaxing Environmental Security: Monitored Functionalities and Client-Server Computation

    E-print Network

    Sahai, Amit

    Relaxing Environmental Security: Monitored Functionalities and Client-Server Computation Abstract. Definition of security under the framework of Environmental Security (a.k.a Network-Aware Security or Universally Composable Security) typically re- quires "extractability" of the private inputs of parties

  18. Detecting referral and selection bias by the anonymous linkage of practice, hospital and clinic data using Secure and Private Record Linkage (SAPREL): case study from the evaluation of the Improved Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) service

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The evaluation of demonstration sites set up to provide improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT) comprised the study of all people identified as having common mental health problems (CMHP), those referred to the IAPT service, and a sample of attenders studied in-depth. Information technology makes it feasible to link practice, hospital and IAPT clinic data to evaluate the representativeness of these samples. However, researchers do not have permission to browse and link these data without the patients' consent. Objective To demonstrate the use of a mixed deterministic-probabilistic method of secure and private record linkage (SAPREL) - to describe selection bias in subjects chosen for in-depth evaluation. Method We extracted, pseudonymised and used fuzzy logic to link multiple health records without the researcher knowing the patient's identity. The method can be characterised as a three party protocol mainly using deterministic algorithms with dynamic linking strategies; though incorporating some elements of probabilistic linkage. Within the data providers' safe haven we extracted: Demographic data, hospital utilisation and IAPT clinic data; converted post code to index of multiple deprivation (IMD); and identified people with CMHP. We contrasted the age, gender, ethnicity and IMD for the in-depth evaluation sample with people referred to IAPT, use hospital services, and the population as a whole. Results The in IAPT-in-depth group had a mean age of 43.1 years; CI: 41.0 - 45.2 (n = 166); the IAPT-referred 40.2 years; CI: 39.4 - 40.9 (n = 1118); and those with CMHP 43.6 years SEM 0.15. (n = 12210). Whilst around 67% of those with a CMHP were women, compared to 70% of those referred to IAPT, and 75% of those subject to in-depth evaluation (Chi square p < 0.001). The mean IMD score for the in-depth evaluation group was 36.6; CI: 34.2 - 38.9; (n = 166); of those referred to IAPT 38.7; CI: 37.9 - 39.6; (n = 1117); and of people with CMHP 37.6; CI 37.3-37.9; (n = 12143). Conclusions The sample studied in-depth were older, more likely female, and less deprived than people with CMHP, and fewer had recorded ethnic minority status. Anonymous linkage using SAPREL provides insight into the representativeness of a study population and possible adjustment for selection bias. PMID:21995837

  19. Quantum private comparison over noisy channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddhu, Vikesh; Arvind

    2015-05-01

    Quantum private comparison (QPC) allows us to protect private information during its comparison. In the past, various three-party quantum protocols have been proposed that claim to work well under noisy conditions. Here, we tackle the problem of QPC under noise. We analyze the EPR-based protocol under depolarizing noise, bit flip and phase flip noise. We show how noise affects the robustness of the EPR-based protocol. We then present a straightforward protocol based on CSS codes to perform QPC which is robust against noise and secure under general attacks.

  20. Mixed oligopoly, privatization and subsidization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. White

    1996-01-01

    This paper demonstrates three effects of domestic production subsidies in a mixed oligopoly industry regarding privatization and efficiency. First, if subsidies are used before and after privatization, welfare is unchanged by privatization. Second, if subsidies are used only before privatization, then privatization always lowers welfare, regardless of the number of private firms in the industry. Third, the subsidy contributes to

  1. Intra-field overlay correction for illumination based distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, Michael; Brunner, Timothy; Morgenfeld, Bradley; Jing, Nan; Wiltshire, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    The use of extreme freeform illumination conditions and multi patterning processes used to generate sub 40nm images can result in significant intra-field overlay errors. When levels with differing illumination conditions are aligned to each other, these intra-field distortions can result in overlay errors which are uncorrectable using normal linear feedback corrections. We use a double exposure method, previously described by Minghetti [1] et al. to isolate and measure intra-field overlay distortions caused by tool lens signatures and different illumination conditions. A full field test reticle is used to create a dual level expose pattern. The same pattern is exposed twice, but with two different illumination conditions. The first exposure is done with a standard reference illumination. The second exposure is the target illumination condition. The test reticle has overlay target pairs that are measurable when the 2nd exposure is offset in the Y direction by the designed amount. This allows for a high density, 13x13, intra-field overlay measurement to be collected and modeled to determine 2nd and 3rd order intra-field terms. Since the resulting illumination and scanner lens specific intra field corrections are independent of field size, the sub-recipes can be applied to any product exposure independent of field size, which use the same illumination conditions as the test exposures. When the method is applied to all exposure levels in a product build cycle, the overlay errors contributed by the reference illumination condition cancel out. The remaining errors are due exclusively to the impact of the illumination condition on that scanner lens. Actual results correlated well with the model with more than 80% of the predicted overlay improvement being achieved.

  2. Further beyond: registration and overlay control enhancements for optical masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorhad, Kujan; Cohen, Avi; Avizemer, Dan; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Beyer, Dirk; Degel, Wolfgang; Kirsch, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Mask registration control is one of the key performance specifications during the mask qualification process. It is becoming an important factor for yield improvement with the continuously tightening registration specs driven by tight wafer overlay specs. Understanding the impact of miss classified masks on the final wafer yield is gaining more and more attention, especially with the appearance of Multiple Patterning Technologies, where mask to mask overlay effect on wafer is heavily influenced by mask registration. ZEISS has established a promising closed loop solution implemented in the mask house, where the PROVE® system - a highly accurate mask registration and overlay metrology measurement tool, is being used to feed the RegC® - a registration and mask to mask overlay correction tool that can also accurately predict the correction potential in advance. The well-established RegC® process typically reaches 40-70% improvement of the mask registration/overlay error standard deviation. The PROVE® - RegC® closed loop solution has several advantages over alternative registration control methods apart of the mask re-write saving. Among the advantages is the capability to correct for pellicle mounting registration effects without the need to remove the pellicle. This paper will demonstrate improved method for enhanced mask to mask overlay control based on a new scheme of data acquisition and performance validation by the PROVE®. The mask registration data as well as additional mask information will be used to feed the RegC® correction process. Significantly improved mask to mask overlay correction results will be discussed and presented in details.

  3. SECURITY FOR SOCIAL SECURITY: IS PRE-FUNDING THE ANSWER?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Brown

    With the election of George W. Bush, the debate around privatization of Social Security in the United States is sure to be rekindled. The Republicans seem to favor separating a part of OASDI and moving that portion of the scheme into Individual Retirement Accounts. President Clinton had proposed creating larger social security funds and investing a portion of them in

  4. Overlay metrology solutions in a triple patterning scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Mao, Ming; Baudemprez, Bart; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Overlay metrology tool suppliers are offering today several options to their customers: Different hardware (Image Based Overlay or Diffraction Based Overlay), different target designs (with or without segmentation) or different target sizes (from 5 um to 30 um). All these variations are proposed to resolve issues like robustness of the target towards process variations, be more representative of the design or increase the density of measurements. In the frame of the development of a triple patterning BEOL scheme of 10 nm node layer, we compare IBO targets (standard AIM, AIMid and multilayer AIMid). The metrology tools used for the study are KLA-Tencor's nextgeneration Archer 500 system (scatterometry- and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool). The overlay response and fingerprint of these targets will be compared using a very dense sampling (up to 51 pts per field). The benefit of indie measurements compared to the traditional scribes is discussed. The contribution of process effects to overlay values are compared to the contribution of the performance of the target. Different targets are combined in one measurement set to benefit from their different strengths (performance vs size). The results are summarized and possible strategies for a triple patterning schemes are proposed.

  5. Cooperative Resource Pricing in Service Overlay Networks for Mobile Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Tadashi; Okaie, Yutaka

    The success of peer-to-peer overlay networks depends on cooperation among participating peers. In this paper, we investigate the degree of cooperation among individual peers required to induce globally favorable properties in an overlay network. Specifically, we consider a resource pricing problem in a market-oriented overlay network where participating peers sell own resources (e.g., CPU cycles) to earn energy which represents some money or rewards in the network. In the resource pricing model presented in this paper, each peer sets the price for own resource based on the degree of cooperation; non-cooperative peers attempt to maximize their own energy gains, while cooperative peers maximize the sum of own and neighbors' energy gains. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the network topology is an important factor influencing the minimum degree of cooperation required to increase the network-wide global energy gain.

  6. Tensile Bond Strength of Latex-Modified Bonded Concrete Overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Cameron; Ramseyer, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The tensile bond strength of bonded concrete overlays was tested using the in-situ pull-off method described in ASTM C 1583 with the goal of determining whether adding latex to the mix design increases bond strength. One slab of ductile concrete (f'c > 12,000 psi) was cast with one half tined, i.e. roughened, and one half steel-troweled, i.e. smooth. The slab surface was sectioned off and overlay mixtures containing different latex contents cast in each section. Partial cores were drilled perpendicular to the surface through the overlay into the substrate. A tensile loading device applied a direct tensile load to each specimen and the load was increased until failure occurred. The tensile bond strength was then calculated for comparison between the specimens.

  7. Cooperative caching for multimedia streaming in overlay Won J. Jeon and Klara Nahrstedt

    E-print Network

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    Cooperative caching for multimedia streaming in overlay networks Won J. Jeon and Klara Nahrstedt@cs.uiuc.edu, Telephone: 1 217 333 1515 Klara Nahrstedt: E­mail: klara@cs.uiuc.edu #12; 2. COOPERATIVE OVERLAY CACHING

  8. Wide-area Overlay Networking to Manage Science DMZ Accelerated Flows

    E-print Network

    Calyam, Prasad

    /access - accelerated flows are starting to be setup from Science DMZs over wide- area overlay networks, by-passing Proxy Middleware Extended VLAN Overlay Science Application Science Application Software-Defined Network

  9. Professor Cetin Koc Network Security Expert

    E-print Network

    For Professor Cetin Koc Network Security Expert Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon By Errol Holcomb ECE 478 -Network Security Student June 3, 2002 #12;Introduction Today's ever-advancing computer networks (WAN), and Virtual Private networks (VPN). Section 2: The Building Blocks of a Secure Network

  10. BUILDING AN INTEGRATED SECURITY GATEWAY: MECHANISMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YING-DAR LIN; HUAN-YUN WEI; SHAO-TANG YU

    Network security has become a critical issue for enterprises. This article first gives a tutorial of each basic component of a security gateway, including the firewall, content filtering, network address translation (NAT), the virtual private network (VPN), and the intrusion detection system (IDS). The building of an integrated security gateway, using various open-source packages, is then described. Conflicts among the

  11. Security and Privacy A Modern Perspective

    E-print Network

    Witchel, Emmett

    /06)Data on laptop stolen from employee's home (5/06) Veterans' names Social Security numbers Dates Adversary can not change contents of message But not necessarily private Example: secure checksum PrivacySecurity and Privacy A Modern Perspective Emmett Witchel First Bytes Teachers Workshop 7/9/9 Thanks

  12. RFID security protocols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoda Daou; Ayman Kayssi; Ali Chehab

    2008-01-01

    We implement and test four RFID security protocols: strong private authentication protocol, efficient mutual-authentication protocol, Dimitriou's lightweight protocol, and advanced semi-randomized access control, by emulating the RFID system. Then, we analyze the results to provide an evaluation of each protocol. RFID tags are very limited in terms of processing power, and cannot perform complex computations. Two types of analysis are

  13. Optical fibre long period gratings with a photochromic overlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantaki, Maria; Pissadakis, Stavros

    2010-11-01

    Results are presented on the all-optical tuning of the attenuation bands of an optical fiber long period grating utilizing a photochromic outcladding overlayer. The outcladding overlayer consists of PMMA polymer doped with the photochromic molecule of spiropyran. The spectral transmission characteristics of the long period grating are reversibly altered using sequential exposures of 355 nm and 532 nm, Nd:YAG laser radiation. The spectra recorded refer to long period grating notch shifts and extinction ratio modification of 1.2 nm and 0.5 dB, respectively.

  14. High-frequency nonreciprocal reflection from magnetic films with overlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying; Nie, Yan; Camley, R. E. [Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States)

    2013-11-14

    We perform a theoretical study of the nonreciprocal reflection of high-frequency microwave radiation from ferromagnetic films with thin overlayers. Reflection from metallic ferromagnetic films is always near unity and shows no nonreciprocity. In contrast, reflection from a structure which has a dielectric overlayer on top of a film composed of insulated ferromagnetic nanoparticles or nanostructures can show significant nonreciprocity in the 75–80?GHz frequency range, a very high value. This can be important for devices such as isolators or circulators.

  15. Private health care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mukund W. Uplekar

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade there has been considerable international mobilisation around shrinking the role of States in health care. The World Bank reports that, in many low and middle-income countries, private sources of finance comprise the largest share of total national health expenditures. Private sector health care is ubiquitous, reaches throughout the population, preferred by the people and is significant

  16. The Limits of Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Paul

    Transferring public services and public assets to private ownership is not an entirely new idea. Governments at all levels in the United States have for years contracted out many services. However, under the recently coined label "privatization," such policies now come recommended as a more comprehensive approach to the problems of modern…

  17. Dialogue on Private Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior…

  18. PRIVATE POWER IN INDONESIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis T. Wells

    2007-01-01

    The Asian currency crisis led to the collapse of agreements that Indonesia had negotiated for private electric power only a few years earlier. The ensuing struggle with investors created bad publicity and cost the country several hundred million dollars. As Indonesia in 2007 was designing a new law that would pass the constitutional test and encourage private investors in electric

  19. Fundamentals of Private Pensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan M. McGill; Kyle N. Brown; John J. Haley; Sylvester J. Schieber; Mark J. Warshawsky

    1996-01-01

    For almost five decades, Fundamentals of Private Pensions has been the most authoritative text and reference book on private pensions in the US in the world. The revised and updated eighth edition adds to past knowledge while providing exciting new perspectives on the provision of retirement income. This new edition is organized into six main sections dealing with a variety

  20. Dialogue on private events

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

  1. Shapefile Overlay Using a Doubly-Connected Edge List Phil Katz and Stephen St.Vincent

    E-print Network

    Danner, Andrew

    Shapefile Overlay Using a Doubly-Connected Edge List Phil Katz and Stephen St.Vincent Swarthmore easily perform shapefile overlay operations: in- tersection, difference, and union. Our algorithm runs) Figure 1: Examples of shapefile overlays. (a) The original polygons in set S. Here, we have two over

  2. oStream: asynchronous streaming multicast in application-layer overlay networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Cui; Baochun Li; Klara Nahrstedt

    2004-01-01

    Although initially proposed as the deployable alternative to IP multicast, application-layer overlay network actually revolutionizes the way network applications can be built, since each overlay node is an end host, which is able to carry out more functionalities than simply forwarding packets. This paper addresses the on-demand media distribution problem in the context of overlay network. We take advantage of

  3. The Case for Wireless Overlay Networks Randy H. Katz and Eric A. Brewer

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , we are creating a wireless overlay network testbed, spanning from in­building to direct broadcast­area Overlay Networks In­Building Campus­Area Packet Relay Metropolitan­Area Regional­Area Figure 1 WirelessKatz 1 The Case for Wireless Overlay Networks Randy H. Katz and Eric A. Brewer Electrical

  4. Effects of Interface Conditions on Reflective Cracking Development in Hot-Mix Asphalt Overlays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jongeun Baek; Hasan Ozer; Hao Wang; Imad L. Al-Qadi

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the fracture behavior of a hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlay on a jointed concrete pavement (JCP). Moving vehicular loads were applied to the HMA overlay on top of a joint to develop reflective cracking. A bilinear cohesive zone model (CZM) was inserted in the HMA overlay right over the joint. An interface

  5. Advanced modeling strategies to improve overlay control for 32-nm lithography processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Minvielle; Lovejeet Singh; Jeffrey Schefske; Joerg Reiss; Eric Kent; Terry Manchester; Brad Eichelberger; Kelly O'Brien; Jim Manka; John C. Robinson; David Tien

    2009-01-01

    Overlay control is gaining more attention in recent years as technology moves into the 32nm era. Strict overlay requirements are being driven not only by the process node but also the process techniques required to meet the design requirements. Double patterning lithography and spacer pitch splitting techniques are driving innovative thinking with respect to overlay control. As lithographers push the

  6. Constructing Overlay Networks with Low Link Costs and Short Paths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuminori Makikawa; Takafumi Matsuo; Tatsuhiro Tsuchiya; Tohru Kikuno

    2007-01-01

    In overlay networks, which are virtual networks for P2P applications, topology mismatching is known as a serious problem to be solved. So far several distributed algorithms have been proposed to reduce link cost caused by this problem. However, they often create long routes with a large number of hops, especially for long distance communications. In this paper, we propose a

  7. Investigations of Magnetic Overlayers at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S; Butterfield, M T

    2009-06-26

    Magnetic overlayers of Fe and Co have been investigated with X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism in X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XMCD-ABS) and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES), including Spin-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SRPES), at Beamline 4 at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the interrogation of the 2p levels of the Fe.

  8. Spectrum Overlay through Aggregation of Heterogeneous Dispersed Bands

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    and possible technical solutions envisioned in the SOLDER project. Index Terms--Spectrum Aggregation; LTESpectrum Overlay through Aggregation of Heterogeneous Dispersed Bands Florian Kaltenberger1 , Fotis) and fragmented spectrum. Aggregation is happening at the MAC layer and each carrier is using the same PHY layer

  9. Hydrogen embrittlement of stainless steel overlay materials for hydrogenators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hardie; J. Xu; E. A. Charles; Y. Wei

    2004-01-01

    An investigation was carried out of the effect of hydrogen absorption on the tensile ductility of composite specimens representing stainless steel weld overlays on low alloy steel substrates as used in the fabrication of hydrogenators. Specimens of the two stainless steels (AISI 309 and 347) involved in hydrogen cracking were also fractured in tension at strain rates between 5.9×10?6 and

  10. A Case for Associative Peer to Peer Overlays Edith Cohen

    E-print Network

    Shamir, Ron

    . Peer­to­peer networks came to fame with the advent of Napster [23], a centralized architecture, where peers. Existing decentralized architectures can be coarsely par­ titioned into two groups [27A Case for Associative Peer to Peer Overlays Edith Cohen AT&T Labs--Research 180 Park Avenue

  11. Virtual haptic overlays enhance performance in telepresence tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Louis B.

    1995-12-01

    An empirical study was performed in which human subjects were asked to execute a peg- insertion task through a telepresence link with force-feedback. Subjects controlled a remote manipulator through natural hand motions by using an anthropomorphic upper body exoskeleton. The force-reflecting exoskeleton could present haptic sensations in six degrees of freedom. Subjects viewed the remote site through a high fidelity stereo vision system. Subjects performed the peg-insertion task under three different conditions: (1) in-person (direct manipulation), (2) through the telepresence link (telemanipulation), and (3) through the telepresence link while using abstract virtual haptic overlays known as `virtual fixtures' (telemanipulation with virtual fixturing). Five different haptic overlays were tested which included virtual surfaces, virtual damping fields, virtual snap-to-planes, and virtual snap-to- lines. Results of subject testing confirmed that human performance was significantly degraded when comparing telepresence manipulation to direct in-person manipulation. Results also confirmed that by introducing abstract haptic overlays into telepresence link, operator performance could be restored closer to natural in-person capacity. The use of 3D haptic overlays were found to as much as double manual performance in the standard peg-insertion task.

  12. Prediction of Reflection Cracking in Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays 

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Fang-Ling

    2011-02-22

    Reflection cracking is one of the main distresses in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays. It has been a serious concern since early in the 20th century. Since then, several models have been developed to predict the extent and severity of reflection...

  13. Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses

    E-print Network

    Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

    Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses Atul Singh, Tsuen-Wan "Johnny" Ngan of peers, forming a graph upon which a distributed application or service is implemented. In an "Eclipse of malicious nodes can eclipse a large number of correct victim nodes. This paper studies the impact of Eclipse

  14. 12. DETAIL INDICATING TRANSITION FROM ORIGINAL SURFACE TO GUNITE OVERLAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL INDICATING TRANSITION FROM ORIGINAL SURFACE TO GUNITE OVERLAY ON UPSTREAM EMBANKMENT OF DAM (FROM REPAIRS COMPLETED IN 1977) - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  15. Implementation of Distributed Floor Control Protocols on Overlay Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shankar M. Banik; Sridhar Radhakrishnan; Venkatesh Sarangan; Chandra N. Sekharan

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative multimedia applications (CMAs) on overlay networks are gaining popularity among users who are geographically dispersed. Examples of these kinds of applications include networked games and collaborative design and simulation. An important challenge in realizing CMAs is obtaining floor control, a problem in which the end-users compete among themselves to gain exclusive access to a shared resource. In this paper,

  16. Improving the Fault Resilience of Overlay Multicast for Media Streaming

    E-print Network

    Jarvis, Stephen

    Improving the Fault Resilience of Overlay Multicast for Media Streaming Guang Tan, Student Member is that the highly dynamic multicast members can make data delivery unreliable. In this paper, we address this issue in the context of live media streaming by exploring 1) how to construct a stable multicast tree that minimizes

  17. Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, John L.

    2001-01-01

    This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)

  18. Low Latency High Bandwidth Anonymous Overlay Network with Anonymous Routing

    E-print Network

    Low Latency High Bandwidth Anonymous Overlay Network with Anonymous Routing Roman Schlegel anonymous networks focus on providing strong anonymity for the price of having lower bandwidth, higher anonymize only a few specific applications. In this paper, we propose a new approach of constructing

  19. A Design of Overlay Anonymous Multicast Protocol , Xiaomei Liu1

    E-print Network

    A Design of Overlay Anonymous Multicast Protocol Li Xiao1 , Xiaomei Liu1 , Wenjun Gu2 , Dong Xuan2 Multicast services are demanded by a variety of appli- cations. Many applications require anonymity during their communication. However, there has been very little work on anonymous multicasting and such services

  20. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Community Water Fluoridation Private Well Water and Fluoride Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Frequently Asked Questions on fluoride levels in groundwater from private wells. How do ...

  1. Indistinguishability and semantic security for quantum encryption scheme

    E-print Network

    Chong Xiang; Li Yang

    2015-06-19

    We investigate the definition of security for encryption scheme in quantum context. We systematically define the indistinguishability and semantic security for quantum public-key and private-key encryption schemes, and for computational security, physical security and information-theoretic security. Based on our definition, we present a necessary and sufficient condition that leads to information-theoretic indistinguishability for quantum encryption scheme. The equivalence between the indistinguishability and semantic security of quantum encryption scheme is also proved.

  2. Private Ground Water Wells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Water Healthy Water Home Share Compartir Private Ground Water Wells Many people in the United States receive ... answers to frequently asked questions about wells . Ground Water and Wells When rain falls, much of it ...

  3. Policies and Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtwengler, Carol B.

    1998-01-01

    School boards considering contracting with a for-profit company should study the policy pitfalls that privatization might bring in the areas of personnel, finance, technology, program evaluation, negotiated contract waivers, program expansion, and student achievement. (MLF)

  4. Private Eyes: A Writer's Guide to Private Investigating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlie Sweet; Hal Blythe; John Landreth

    1993-01-01

    Is your protagonist a private eye? Is he or she believable? Do you know how private investigators really work? What tricks do they use to get the job done? And how do they live their lives? Now you can find out from the experts. A real private eye and two published mystery writers joined forces to write Private Eyes: A

  5. Challenging the Third Rail: Iconography and Social Security Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark C. Mitschow

    2001-01-01

    The Social Security system is expected to go bankrupt in approximately 2032. The debate on how to reform the system currently revolves around the issue of privatization. Advocates of privatization claim that allowing individuals to invest some of their SSI contributions would provide greater returns and protect the system from insolvency. Opponents of privatization argue that such a move would

  6. Unforgeable Encryption and Chosen Ciphertext Secure Modes of Operation

    E-print Network

    Rogaway, Phillip

    Unforgeable Encryption and Chosen Ciphertext Secure Modes of Operation Jonathan Katz1 and Moti Yung@cs.columbia.edu, moti@certco.com Abstract. We find certain neglected issues in the study of private-key encryption schemes. For one, private-key encryption is generally held to the same standard of security as public

  7. POST: A Secure, Resilient, Cooperative Messaging System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Mislove; Ansley Post; Charles Reis; Paul Willmann; Peter Druschel; Dan S. Wallach; Xavier Bonnaire; Pierre Sens; Jean-michel Busca; Luciana Bezerra Arantes

    2003-01-01

    POST is a cooperative, decentralized messaging system that supports traditional services like electronic mail (email), news, instant messaging, as well as collaborative applica- tions such as shared calendars and whiteboards. Unlike existing implementations of such services, POST is highly resilient, secure, scalable and does not rely on dedicated servers. POST is built upon a peer-to-peer (p2p) overlay network, consisting of

  8. Private support and social securityPrivate support and social security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frans van Dijk

    1998-01-01

    .   The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the ‘family’ and the ‘community’. In that case\\u000a people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined.\\u000a However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of

  9. Private Citizenship and School Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanek, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The current school choice debate reflects inevitable tensions between private and public education goals. Dramatic social geographic shifts since World War II may have changed the meaning of "private" and "public" so that a new public-private arrangement has evolved. This article discusses the origin of "private citizenship," identifies its key…

  10. The structure of privatization plans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Perotti; S. E. Guney

    1992-01-01

    In recent years a vast transfer of state-owned assets to the private sector has taken place in many countries, irrespective of their level of development or the political affiliation of their government. Privatization is believed to improve economic incentives; attract managerial and technological resources from the private sector; broaden share ownership; and reduce public sector borrowing. In fact, privatization can

  11. Distributional Effects in a General Equilibrium Analysis of Social Security Laurence J. Kotlikoff

    E-print Network

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    , when America's aging is considered, the long-run gains to Social Security's privatization are greater losses to transition generations. Second, Social Security's privatization helps the long- run poor evenDistributional Effects in a General Equilibrium Analysis of Social Security by Laurence J

  12. Completing the Reimbursement Form 1) Please complete the form with social security number, home address and

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Benjamin

    Completing the Reimbursement Form 1) Please complete the form with social security number, home/N) : FRS ACCOUNT SOCIAL SECURITY NO FIRST NAME AND MIDDLE INITIAL LAST NAME* * SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER MUST. "FULL RATE" PRIVATE AUTO MILEAGEe " HALF RATE" PRIVATE AUTO MILEAGE * ORIGINAL RECEIPTS MUST BE OBTAINED

  13. 13 CFR 107.1570 - Distributions by Licensee-optional Distribution to private investors and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distributions by Licensee-optional Distribution to private investors and SBA. 107.1570...Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1570 Distributions by Licensee—optional Distribution to...

  14. 32 CFR 2001.36 - Classified information in the custody of private organizations or individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified information in the custody of private...ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification § 2001.36 Classified information in the custody of...

  15. 32 CFR 2001.36 - Classified information in the custody of private organizations or individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified information in the custody of private...ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification § 2001.36 Classified information in the custody of...

  16. 32 CFR 2001.36 - Classified information in the custody of private organizations or individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified information in the custody of private...ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification § 2001.36 Classified information in the custody of...

  17. A NETWORK PERIMETER WITH SECURE EXTERNAL ACCESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick M. Avolio; Marcus J. Ranum

    1994-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A private network that carries sensitive data between local computers requires proper security measures to protect the privacy and integrity of the traffic. When such a network is connected to other networks, or when telephone access is allowed into that network, the remote terminals, phone lines, and other connections become extensions to that private network and must be protected

  18. Stanford Securities Class Action Clearinghouse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Stanford Law School presents the Stanford Securities Class Action Clearinghouse, a free, full-text database that identifies over 1,000 issuers named in federal class action securities fraud lawsuits since the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 was passed. The site provides "detailed information relating to the prosecution, defense, and settlement of federal class action securities fraud litigation." The site's search engine allows users to search by name of company sued or its ticker symbol, District Court where the case was filed, or by month or year in which the case was filed.

  19. APPLYING FOR A SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER (F-1 OR J-1 *P-1-00209* STUDENTS)

    E-print Network

    Ha, Taekjip

    care to keep your Social Security Number secure and private. Do not carry your Social Security cardAPPLYING FOR A SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER (F-1 OR J-1 *P-1-00209* STUDENTS) Step One: Determine your and Scholar Services · You must then wait 2 days after checking in before applying at the Social Security

  20. Outsourcing Power: How Privatizing Military Efforts Challenges Accountability, Professionalism, and Democracy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha Minow

    2005-01-01

    Private contractors have played key roles in recent high-profile scandals. These scandals hint at the degree to which the U.S. military has increased the scope and scale of its reliance on private security companies in recent decades. This trend offers many advantages, including nimbleness in the deployment of expertise and geographic flexibility. But it also departs from conventional methods of

  1. Constraints on short-selling and asset price adjustment to private information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas W. Diamond; Robert E. Verrecchia

    1987-01-01

    This paper models effects of short-sale constraints on the speed of adjustment (to private information) of security prices. Constraints eliminate some informative trades, but do not bias prices upward. Prohibiting traders from shorting reduces the adjustment speed of prices to private information, especially to bad news. Non-prohibitive costs can have the reverse effect, but this is unlikely. Implications are developed

  2. PrivateFlow: Decentralised Information Flow Control in Event Based Middleware (Demo)

    E-print Network

    Pietzuch, Peter

    be generally acceptable, in a privacy-aware health- care environment guarantees must exist that it will neverPrivateFlow: Decentralised Information Flow Control in Event Based Middleware (Demo) I the security of the whole platform. Aiming to minimize these problems, we propose a demon- stration of Private

  3. HVM capabilities of CPE run-to-run overlay control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramany, Lokesh; Chung, Woong Jae; Gutjahr, Karsten; Garcia-Medina, Miguel; Sparka, Christian; Yap, Lipkong; Demirer, Onur; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Riggs, Brent; Ramanathan, Vidya; Robinson, John C.; Pierson, Bill

    2015-03-01

    With the introduction of N2x and N1x process nodes, leading-edge factories are facing challenging demands of shrinking design margins. Previously un-corrected high-order signatures, and un-compensated temporal changes of high-order signatures, carry an important potential for improvement of on-product overlay (OPO). Until recently, static corrections per exposure (CPE), applied separately from the main APC correction, have been the industry's standard for critical layers [1], [2]. This static correction is setup once per device and layer and then updated periodically or when a machine change point generates a new overlay signature. This is a non-ideal setup for two reasons. First, any drift or sudden shift in tool signature between two CPE update periods can cause worse OPO and a higher rework rate, or, even worse, lead to yield loss at end of line. Second, these corrections are made from full map measurements that can be in excess of 1,000 measurements per wafer [3]. Advanced overlay control algorithms utilizing Run-to-Run (R2R) CPE can be used to reduce the overlay signatures on product in High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) environments. In this paper, we demonstrate the results of a R2R CPE control scheme in HVM. The authors show an improvement up to 20% OPO Mean+3Sigma values on several critical immersion layers at the 28nm and 14 nm technology nodes, and a reduction of out-of-spec residual points per wafer (validated on full map). These results are attained by closely tracking process tool signature changes by means of APC, and with an affordable metrology load which is significantly smaller than full wafer measurements.

  4. On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lavanya Ramakrishnan; Chin Guok; Keith R. Jackson; Ezra Kissel; D. Martin Swany; Deborah Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable high-throughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our

  5. Surgical Navigation by Autostereoscopic Image Overlay of Integral Videography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongen Liao; Nobuhiko Hata; Susumu Nakajima; Makoto Iwahara; Ichiro Sakuma; Takeyoshi Dohi

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an autostereoscopic image overlay technique that is integrated into a surgical navigation system to superimpose a real three-dimensional (3-D) image onto the patient via a half-silvered mirror. The images are created by employing a modified version of integral videography (IV), which is an animated extension of integral photography. IV records and reproduces 3-D images using a microconvex

  6. Shielding turbine blades from cvitation: Experiments with polymer overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, T.B. (Army Corps of Engineers, The Dalles, OR (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Cavitation damage to hydroelectric machinery produces one of the most prevalent maintenance problems at any hydro plant. Damage to the turbine runner blades, draft tube liner and discharge ring, and sometimes even the runner hub can require extensive welding repair. Typically, each unit develops its own cavitation characteristics that continue throughout the life of the machine. The traditional cavitation repair method is to gouge out the damaged material, then refill the void with a stainless steel. This method is costly and time-consuming, may cause blade distortion, and may result in galvanic corrosion when the stainless steel is applied to carbon steel base materials. What's more, this gouging and filling at temperatures between 2,200 and 2.300[degrees]F within a tenth of a square inch may cause residual stresses in the parent material. One strategy for limiting cavitation effects on turbine components is to overlay the original material with a protective layer. This protective coating will absorb the cavitation load, or at least a portion of it, thus limiting further damage to repaired areas. Typically, an overlay consists of a 1/32-inch or 1/16-inch layer of polymer material (either epoxies or ceramics) and a thin adhesive that bonds the polymer to the turbine steel. A cavitation-induced shock (energy) wave propagates through the polymer material and either reflects or transmits into the steel. (The relative acoustic impedances of the two materials determine whether the shock wave travels into the turbine steel or reflects back through the polymer.) For the overlay to be effective, the shock wave must be reflected, attenuated, or dispersed. typical overlay materials do not reflect, attenuate, or disperse the cavitation shock wave. Polycarbonates, with their unique energy dissipation capabilities, are a good candidate for a protective turbine blade coating.

  7. Topologically-Aware Overlay Construction and Server Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Ratnasamy; Mark Handley; Richard M. Karp; Scott Shenker

    2002-01-01

    A number of large-scale distributed Internet applications could potentially benefit from some level of knowledge about the relative proximity between its participating host nodes. For example, the perfor- mance of large overlay networks could be improved if the application-level connectivity between the nodes in these networks is congruent with the un- derlying IP-level topology. Similarly, in the case of replicated

  8. Indexing data-oriented overlay networks using belief propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANNY BICKSON; DANNY DOLEV; YAIR WEISS; KARL ABERER; MANFRED HAUSWIRTH

    In this paper we discuss the problem of data-oriented parti- tioning in large-scale overlay networks, as required by peer-to- peer databases or by peer-to-peer information retrieval. The goal is to partition a large set of nodes into k partitions with the ad- ditional requirement of meeting certain load-balancing constraints without global knowledge of the network's parameters, i.e., the de- sired

  9. Scalable supernode selection in peer-to-peer overlay networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia Lo; Dayi Zhou; Yuhong Liu; Chris GauthierDickey; Jun Li

    2005-01-01

    We define a problem called the supernode selection problem which has emerged across a variety of peer-to-peer applications. Supernode selection involves selection of a subset of the peers to serve a special role. The supernodes must be well-dispersed throughout the peer-to-peer overlay network, and must fulfil additional requirements such as load balance, resource needs, adaptability to churn, and heterogeneity. While

  10. Are We Entitled to Confiscate Enemy Private Property?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin Borchard

    1923-01-01

    If, as is commonly assumed, one of the principal functions of law is to insure the security of acquisitions,' one cannot fail to remark how seriously recent events have weakened that function. The provision of article 297 of the Treaty of Versailles, by which private property of ex-enemy nationals has been taken over by several of the Allied governments, sanctioned

  11. Private Yet Abuse Resistant Open Publishing (Position Paper)

    E-print Network

    Danezis, George

    Private Yet Abuse Resistant Open Publishing (Position Paper) George Danezis K.U. Leuven, ESAT@links.org Abstract We present the problem of abusive, off-topic or repetitive postings on open publishing websites and Retrieval]: On- line Information Services General Terms Security Keywords Open publishing, abuse resistance

  12. ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES LEVAN ELBAKIDZE Assistant of Homeland Security National Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Disease Defense. The conclusions are those of the author and not necessarily the sponsor." #12;ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY

  13. Diffusion Barriers to Increase the Oxidative Life of Overlay Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Lei, Jih-Fen

    1999-01-01

    Currently, most blades and vanes in the hottest section of aero gas turbine engines require some type of coating for oxidation protection. Newly developed single crystal superalloys have the mechanical potential to operate at increasingly higher component temperatures. However, at these elevated temperatures, coating/substrate interdiffusion can shorten the protective life of the coating. Diffusion barriers between overlay coatings and substrates are being examined to extend the protective life of the coating. A previously- developed finite-difference diffusion model has been modified to predict the oxidative life enhancement due to use of a diffusion barrier. The original diffusion model, designated COSIM, simulates Al diffusion in the coating to the growing oxide scale as well as Al diffusion into the substrate. The COSIM model incorporates an oxide growth and spalling model to provide the rate of Al consumption during cyclic oxidation. Coating failure is predicted when the Al concentration at the coating surface drops to a defined critical level. The modified COSIM model predicts the oxidative life of an overlay coating when a diffusion barrier is present eliminating diffusion of Al from the coating into the substrate. Both the original and the modified diffusion models have been used to predict the effectiveness of a diffusion barrier in extending the protective life of a NiCrAl overlay coating undergoing cyclic oxidation at 1100 C.

  14. Hg binding on Pd binary alloys and overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmaz, E.; Aboud, S.; Wilcox, J. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States). School of Earth Science

    2009-05-15

    The vast majority of the mercury released from coal combustion is elemental mercury. Noble metals such as Pd, Au, Ag, and Cu have been proposed to capture elemental mercury. Density functional theory calculations are carried out to investigate mercury interactions with Pd binary alloys and overlays in addition to pure Pd, Au, Ag, and Cu surfaces using a projected augmented wave method with the Perdew-Wang generalized 0 gradient approximation. It has been determined that Pd has the highest mercury binding energy in comparison to other noble metals. In addition, Pd is found to be the primary surface atom responsible for improving the interaction of mercury with the surface atoms in both Pd binary alloys and overlays. Deposition of Pd overlays on Au and Ag enhance the reactivity of the surface by shifting the d-states of surface atoms up in energy. Strong mercury binding causes a significant overlap between the s- and p-states of Pd and the d-state of Mercury.

  15. Cooperative Private SearchingCooperative Private SearchingCooperative Private SearchingCooperative Private Searching in Cloudsin Cloudsin Cloudsin Clouds

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    Sciences Temple University #12;Road Map Cloud Computing Basics Cloud Computing Security Privacy vsNetwork security and privacyNetwork security and privacyNetwork security and privacy Social networks and cloud solutions to achieve security. But there are other considerations. A secure cloud solution with very high

  16. Innovative fast technique for overlay accuracy estimation using archer self calibration (ASC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Pai, Yuan Chi; Amit, Eran; Yap, Lipkong; Itzkovich, Tal; Tien, David; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2014-04-01

    As overlay margins shrink for advanced process nodes, a key overlay metrology challenge is finding the measurement conditions which optimize the yield for every device and layer. Ideally, this setup should be found in-line during the lithography measurements step. Moreover, the overlay measurement must have excellent correlation to the device electrical behavior. This requirement makes the measurement conditions selection even more challenging since it requires information about the response of both the metrology target and device to different process variations. In this work a comprehensive solution for overlay metrology accuracy, used by UMC, is described. This solution ranks the different measurement setups by their accuracy, using Qmerit, as reported by the Archer 500. This ranking was verified to match device overlay using electrical tests. Moreover, the use of Archer Self Calibration (ASC) allows further improvement of overlay measurement accuracy.

  17. Self-Configuring Information Management for Large-Scale Service Overlays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Liang; Xiaohui Gu; Klara Nahrstedt

    2007-01-01

    Service overlay networks (SON) provide important infrastructure support for many emerging distributed applica- tions such as web service composition, distributed stream pro- cessing, and workflow management. Quality-sensitive distributed applications such as multimedia services and on-line data analysis often desire the SON to provide up-to-date dynamic information about different overlay nodes and overlay links. However, it is a challenging task to

  18. Content-Based Peer-to-Peer Network Overlay for Full-Text Federated Search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Lu; Jamie Callan

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-peer network overlays have mostly been designed to support search over document names, identifiers, or keywords from a small or controlled vocabulary. In this paper we propose a content-based P2P network overlay for full-text federated search over heterogeneous, open-domain contents. Local algorithms are developed to dynamically construct a network overlay with content-based locality and content-based small-world properties. Experimental results using

  19. private business Institution

    E-print Network

    Wong, Man Wah

    private business Name: Institution: Address: Country: e-mail: Please send me a proforma invoice Tel.: ++49 / 6221 / 345 205 Fax: ++49 / 6221 / 345 229 e-mail: birkhauser@springer.de Please send me Publisher in Mathematics Viaduktstr. 42 . CH-4051 Basel Tel. +41 / 61/205 07 07 Fax +41 / 61/205 07 92 e-mail

  20. The Private Sector Beckons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Krista

    1998-01-01

    Whether from frustration, ambition, or financial necessity, administrators are inclined to say "yes" when private companies come calling. Sometimes superintendents initiate contacts themselves and begin new careers as well-credentialed salespeople or behind-the-scenes think tanks. At the Edison Project, former superintendents work in curriculum…

  1. Private School Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTighe, Joe

    2004-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act has had a pervasive effect on American education in its drive to bring about improvement in student achievement through assessment and accountability. In its standards-based approach to reform, measurement by standardized tests is everything. In this article, the author discusses the issue of private school…

  2. Slouching toward Privatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickeson, Robert C.; Figuli, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a significant shift in the financial model of American higher education, laying groundwork for a transformation that could reshape people's understanding of the academy. The shift--toward increasing degrees of privatization--is unmistakable and has affected every American college and university to varying extents.…

  3. Information-Theoretically Secure Number-Product Protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Hao Shen; Justin Zhan; Da-Wei Wang; Tsan-Sheng Hsu; Churn-Jung Liau

    2007-01-01

    A secure multiparty number-product protocol is an important building block in the area of secure multiparty computation. With proper composition of the building block, most applications, such as circuit evaluation, data mining, and private information retrieval, can be executed securely and collaboratively by potentially dishonest parties. In this work, we propose a commodity-based secure number-product protocol, the security of which

  4. Network Security Implementation by Onion Routing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kaviya

    2009-01-01

    Communication is the god given gift that enables intellectual and cultural exchange and builds up our competence in social behavior. The internet has taken communication to unimaginable attitudes. But many questions arise when we think of security. Is Internet communication private? Most security concerns focuses on preventing eavesdropping that is outsiders listening in on electronic conversions. But encrypted messages can

  5. Social security coverage in Latin America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Rofman

    2005-01-01

    For almost a decade, the debate on social security in the region has revolved around the diversification of risks, macroeconomic effects of the systems, and private sector participation in their management. Now, however, many analysts are starting to focus on the issue of coverage. The debate on social security coverage has been complicated by a lack of consistent quantitative information

  6. Private Higher Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Diana L.

    1990-01-01

    Australia's higher education system reform, the booming overseas market, and unmet domestic demand have provided opportunities for private higher education. The growth of private provision, federal and state government responses, and pressures for subsidy and regulation have hastened development of a "peripheral private sector." (Author/MSE)

  7. The Privatization of Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    This study, The Privatization of Special Education, addresses a shift in the provision of special education and related services to students with disabilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Students with disabilities are being publicly placed in private day and residential schools at public expense. In Virginia, 125 private schools are licensed…

  8. Analysis of privatization: Different approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Tvaronavi?iene; Kristina Kalašinskaite

    2005-01-01

    Presented paper strives to elaborate privatization as one of national economy development tools. Performance of privatized enterprises has been taken into consideration. The authors examine different opinions about privatization process and its efficiency taking a close look at the researches that have been already made. Analysis has been targeted to implications’ diversity due to foresee those in transition countries. Governance

  9. Private Key Recovery Combination Attacks: On Extreme Fragility of Popular Bitcoin

    E-print Network

    Private Key Recovery Combination Attacks: On Extreme Fragility of Popular Bitcoin Key Management and practical operational security in bitcoin digital currency storage systems. We study the security two most used bitcoin HD Wallet key management solutions (e.g. in BIP032 and in earlier systems). These systems

  10. The Cost of Deposit Insurance for Privately Held Banks: A Market Comparable Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Falkenheim; George Pennacchi

    2003-01-01

    Previous empirical studies that use an option pricing model to estimate deposit insurance costs have been limited to banks that issue publicly traded securities: a bank's security prices are used to infer its risk characteristics. However, if deposit insurance costs are needed for privately held banks, as would be the case under a system of risk-based insurance premiums, then an

  11. Student Experiential Opportunities in National Security Careers

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2007-12-31

    This report documents student experiential opportunities in national security careers as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of how experiential opportunities assist students in the selection of a career and a list of opportunities in the private sector and government. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. Workforce development activities will facilitate the hiring of students to work with professionals in both the private and public sectors, as well as assist in preparing a workforce for careers in national security. The goal of workforce development under the NSPP grant is to assess workforce needs in national security and implement strategies to develop the appropriate workforce.

  12. Virtual overlay metrology for fault detection supported with integrated metrology and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong-Goo; Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Kim, Min-Suk; Han, Sang-Jun; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kwon, Won-Taik; Park, Sung-Ki; Ryan, Kevin; Theeuwes, Thomas; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Lim, Young-Wan; Slotboom, Daan; Kubis, Michael; Staecker, Jens

    2015-03-01

    While semiconductor manufacturing moves toward the 7nm node for logic and 15nm node for memory, an increased emphasis has been placed on reducing the influence known contributors have toward the on product overlay budget. With a machine learning technique known as function approximation, we use a neural network to gain insight to how known contributors, such as those collected with scanner metrology, influence the on product overlay budget. The result is a sufficiently trained function that can approximate overlay for all wafers exposed with the lithography system. As a real world application, inline metrology can be used to measure overlay for a few wafers while using the trained function to approximate overlay vector maps for the entire lot of wafers. With the approximated overlay vector maps for all wafers coming off the track, a process engineer can redirect wafers or lots with overlay signatures outside the standard population to offline metrology for excursion validation. With this added flexibility, engineers will be given more opportunities to catch wafers that need to be reworked, resulting in improved yield. The quality of the derived corrections from measured overlay metrology feedback can be improved using the approximated overlay to trigger, which wafers should or shouldn't be, measured inline. As a development or integration engineer the approximated overlay can be used to gain insight into lots and wafers used for design of experiments (DOE) troubleshooting. In this paper we will present the results of a case study that follows the machine learning function approximation approach to data analysis, with production overlay measured on an inline metrology system at SK hynix.

  13. Practical private database queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobi, Markus [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Simon, Christoph [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Institute for Quantum Information Science and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 1N4, Alberta (Canada); Gisin, Nicolas; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Branciard, Cyril; Walenta, Nino; Zbinden, Hugo [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2011-02-15

    Private queries allow a user, Alice, to learn an element of a database held by a provider, Bob, without revealing which element she is interested in, while limiting her information about the other elements. We propose to implement private queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol, with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. This approach makes our scheme both easy to implement and loss tolerant. While unconditionally secure private queries are known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by relying on fundamental physical principles instead of unverifiable security assumptions in order to protect both the user and the database. We think that the scope exists for such practical private queries to become another remarkable application of quantum information in the footsteps of quantum key distribution.

  14. Quantum private queries

    E-print Network

    Vittorio Giovannetti; Seth Lloyd; Lorenzo Maccone

    2007-10-11

    We propose a cheat sensitive quantum protocol to perform a private search on a classical database which is efficient in terms of communication complexity. It allows a user to retrieve an item from the server in possession of the database without revealing which item she retrieved: if the server tries to obtain information on the query, the person querying the database can find it out. Furthermore our protocol ensures perfect data privacy of the database, i.e. the information that the user can retrieve in a single queries is bounded and does not depend on the size of the database. With respect to the known (quantum and classical) strategies for private information retrieval, our protocol displays an exponential reduction both in communication complexity and in running-time computational complexity.

  15. Training Program SEC 0201: Computer Security Annual Refresher

    E-print Network

    Eisen, Michael

    ://www.lbl.gov/IT/Security/ Course Objectives: · Ensure LBNL community members understand their responsibilities for cyber security of responsibilities to protect private information · Ensure awareness of opportunities for cyber security assistance: FISMA/DOE requires all employees be trained annually. Contract 31 Contract Metric for FY 2006. Course

  16. Social Security Investment In Equities I: Linear Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Diamond; John Geanakoplos

    2002-01-01

    Among the elderly, Social Security income is distributed very differently than private pension and asset income. For the bottom quintile of the income distribution, 81 percent of income comes from Social Security, while only 6 percent is from pensions plus income from assets. For the top quintile, 23 percent comes from Social Security, while 46 percent is from pensions and

  17. On Security RequirementsAnalysis for Multi-Agent Systems

    E-print Network

    and social care information system is used as a case study throughout this paper. Keywords Security analysis that becomes more and more reliant on software systems, security is an important concern. Private informationOn Security RequirementsAnalysis for Multi-Agent Systems Paolo Bresciani ITC-irst via sommarive, 18

  18. Sharing information on computer systems security: An economic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Gordon; Martin P. Loeb; William Lucyshyn

    2003-01-01

    The US federal government has fostered a movement toward sharing information concerning computer security, with particular emphasis on protecting critical infrastructure assets that are largely owned by the private sector. As information security is paramount to accurate financial reporting and the provision of timely and relevant managerial accounting reports for decision-making, the issue of sharing information on computer systems security

  19. Proceedings Second Annual Cyber Security and Information Infrastructure Research Workshop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick T Sheldon; Axel Krings; Seong-Moo Yoo; Ali Mili; Joseph P Trien

    2006-01-01

    The workshop theme is Cyber Security: Beyond the Maginot Line Recently the FBI reported that computer crime has skyrocketed costing over $67 billion in 2005 alone and affecting 2.8M+ businesses and organizations. Attack sophistication is unprecedented along with availability of open source concomitant tools. Private, academic, and public sectors invest significant resources in cyber security. Industry primarily performs cyber security

  20. A Private Universe Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matthew Schneps

    2007-12-12

    The Private Universe Teachers Lab enables teachers to practice techniques of identifying student misconceptions and moving toward conceptual change in basic astronomy. This teachers lab contains a survey to identify misconceptions and three in-class activities for grades 4 to 8 that help students gain an understanding of the phases of the Moon. There are teacher discussion forums on planning teaching sequences and learning how to adapt activities to different situations.

  1. Guest Editorial: Web Security Using the web is a security risk. However, today's business world and our desire for useful and entertaining

    E-print Network

    McDaniel, Patrick Drew

    Guest Editorial: Web Security Using the web is a security risk. However, today's business world of active debate since the Internet's inception. Significant strides toward a secure and private web have been made. However, the investigation of web security is in its infancy and much work remains

  2. WIRELESS LAN SECURITY PROGRAM An eight-week in-depth program covering the latest solutions to wireless LAN security issues

    E-print Network

    Schaefer, Marcus

    Access® (WPA) 1.0 and WPA® 2.0 · Wireless LAN performance and security management · Security policy-based Virtual Private Network (VPN), Port-based Access Control (802.1X), RADIUS service for authentication the performance of various WLAN security technologies. YOU WILL LEARN ABOUT: · Common security attacks against

  3. Methodology for predicting asphalt concrete overlay life against reflection cracking 

    E-print Network

    Jayawickrama, Priyantha Warnasuriya

    1985-01-01

    . Experimental investigations carried out at Ohio State University ( 1, 2, 3) and Texas A8M University ( 4, 5, 6 ) have verified the applicability of fracture mechanics principles in predicting fatigue life of asphalt TIP OF THE CRACX /~ // N/i OVERLAY OLD... of Beam on Elastic Foundation Theor (a) Analysis for Maximum Bending Moment Figure 2 shows an overlaid pavement subjected to a uniformly 21 0 C rtS Cl 5- 8 M Qi rd i Ql (U H 4 0 Q) C C 0 rd ~ 0 rtj IV 0 H 4 Ql Q Cl 44 Ct CI 0 Ql 0 d5...

  4. SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF ACTIVE CONTENT

    E-print Network

    broadcasts appearing on a Web page are common examples of how this technology is being applied. Like any Security Division, Information Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology Introduction In today's world, both private and public sectors depend upon informa- tion technology (IT

  5. Quantum Oblivious Transfer Based on a Quantum Symmetrically Private Information Retrieval Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Sun, Si-Jia; Wang, Yan

    2015-03-01

    Private information retrieval implies oblivious transfer in classical cryptography. Following this clue, we present a novel quantum one-out-of-two OT protocol based on a practical quantum symmetrically private information retrieval protocol Jakobi et al. (Phys. Rev. A 83, 022301 2011), with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. While unconditionally secure oblivious transfer is known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by means of quantum physical principles instead of unproven security assumptions in order to protect both the sender and the receiver. The proposed OT protocol is loss tolerant, practical and robust against quantum memory attack.

  6. Application Layer Multicast with Proactive Route Maintenance over Redundant Overlay Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yohei Kunichika; Jiro Katto; Sakae Okubo

    2004-01-01

    Application layer multicast (ALM) or overlay multicast emerges as an alternative to the IP multicasting which has not yet widely spread. It enables packet multicasting delivery in an application layer without changing any network infrastructure of the current Internet. However, previous ALMs had an unavoidable disadvantage that end hosts have to reconstruct the overlay network after a node leaves the

  7. Scalable Stealth Mode P2P Overlays of Very Small Constant Degree

    E-print Network

    Jelasity, Márk

    Scalable Stealth Mode P2P Overlays of Very Small Constant Degree Márk Jelasity University of Szeged and robust. An important implication is that stealth mode P2P malware that is very difficult to discover that support the scalability of stealth mode overlays, and we present realistic event based simulations

  8. Dynamic Multipath Onion Routing in Anonymous Peer-To-Peer Overlay Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Landsiedel; Lexi Pimenidis; Klaus Wehrle; Heiko Niedermayer; Georg Carle

    2007-01-01

    Although recent years provided many protocols for anonymous routing in overlay networks, they commonly rely on the same communication paradigm: Onion Routing. In Onion Routing a static tunnel through an overlay network is build via layered encryption. All traffic exchanged by its end points is relayed through this tunnel. In contrast, this paper introduces dynamic multipath Onion Routing to extend

  9. Exit Policy Violations in Multi-Hop Overlay Routes: Analysis and Mitigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivasan Seetharaman; Mostafa H. Ammar

    2007-01-01

    The traffic exchanged between two overlay nodes in different autonomous systems (AS) is always subjected to a series of inter-domain policies. However, overlay routing often manages to get around these policy restrictions by relaying traffic through multiple legitimate segments, in order to achieve its selfish goals (e.g., better latency paths between end- systems). We focus on the violation of a

  10. Viral Concentration Determination Through Plaque Assays: Using Traditional and Novel Overlay Systems

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2015-01-01

    Plaque assays remain one of the most accurate methods for the direct quantification of infectious virons and antiviral substances through the counting of discrete plaques (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production. Typically solid or semisolid overlay substrates, such as agarose or carboxymethyl cellulose, have been used to restrict viral spread, preventing indiscriminate infection through the liquid growth medium. Immobilized overlays restrict cellular infection to the immediately surrounding monolayer, allowing the formation of discrete countable foci and subsequent plaque formation. To overcome the difficulties inherent in using traditional overlays, a novel liquid overlay utilizing microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium has been increasingly used as a replacement in the standard plaque assay. Liquid overlay plaque assays can be readily performed in either standard 6 or 12 well plate formats as per traditional techniques and require no special equipment. Due to its liquid state and subsequent ease of application and removal, microculture plate formats may alternatively be utilized as a rapid, accurate and high throughput alternative to larger scale viral titrations. Use of a non heated viscous liquid polymer offers the opportunity to streamline work, conserves reagents, incubator space, and increases operational safety when used in traditional or high containment labs as no reagent heating or glassware are required. Liquid overlays may also prove more sensitive than traditional overlays for certain heat labile viruses. PMID:25407402

  11. Viral concentration determination through plaque assays: using traditional and novel overlay systems.

    PubMed

    Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2014-01-01

    Plaque assays remain one of the most accurate methods for the direct quantification of infectious virons and antiviral substances through the counting of discrete plaques (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production. Typically solid or semisolid overlay substrates, such as agarose or carboxymethyl cellulose, have been used to restrict viral spread, preventing indiscriminate infection through the liquid growth medium. Immobilized overlays restrict cellular infection to the immediately surrounding monolayer, allowing the formation of discrete countable foci and subsequent plaque formation. To overcome the difficulties inherent in using traditional overlays, a novel liquid overlay utilizing microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium has been increasingly used as a replacement in the standard plaque assay. Liquid overlay plaque assays can be readily performed in either standard 6 or 12 well plate formats as per traditional techniques and require no special equipment. Due to its liquid state and subsequent ease of application and removal, microculture plate formats may alternatively be utilized as a rapid, accurate and high throughput alternative to larger scale viral titrations. Use of a non heated viscous liquid polymer offers the opportunity to streamline work, conserves reagents, incubator space, and increases operational safety when used in traditional or high containment labs as no reagent heating or glassware are required. Liquid overlays may also prove more sensitive than traditional overlays for certain heat labile viruses. PMID:25407402

  12. Mapping the PPLive Network: Studying the Impacts of Media Streaming on P2P Overlays

    E-print Network

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    to understand IPTV overlays like PPLive in order to enable the building of larger-scale media streaming overlays well-known instance of an IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) application. IPTV applications have seen development of IPTV technologies including tree-based mul- ticasts [8][9][10], receiver-driven p2p streaming

  13. Analytical Study of Adversarial Strategies in Cluster-based Overlays E. Anceaume

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Brasiliero Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, LSD Laboratory, Brazil Abstract Scheideler has shown of making these overlays resilient not only to benign crashes, but also to more malicious failure models several ways to make overlay networks provably robust against different forms of malicious attacks

  14. Analytical Study of Adversarial Strategies in Cluster-based Overlays E. Anceaume

    E-print Network

    Recanati, Catherine

    . Brasiliero Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, LSD Laboratory, Brazil Abstract Scheideler has shown of making these overlays resilient not only to benign crashes, but also to more malicious failure models several ways to make overlay networks provably robust against di#11;erent forms of malicious attacks

  15. Questioning the Benefits That Coloured Overlays Can Have for Reading in Students with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lisa M.; Tsogka, Natassa; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Visual stress (the experience of visual distortions and discomfort during prolonged reading) is frequently identified and alleviated with coloured overlays or lenses. Previous studies have associated visual stress with dyslexia and as a consequence, coloured overlays are widely distributed to children and adults with reading difficulty. However,…

  16. One Hop Lookups for Peer-to-Peer Overlays Anjali Gupta Barbara Liskov Rodrigo Rodrigues

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    One Hop Lookups for Peer-to-Peer Overlays Anjali Gupta Barbara Liskov Rodrigo Rodrigues MIT route lookup queries in just one hop, thus enabling applications that cannot tolerate the delay of multi-hop applications to locate objects stored in the system in a limited number of overlay hops. Peer-to-peer lookup

  17. Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers Salles V. G. Maghales and W Randolph Franklin

    E-print Network

    Franklin, W. Randolph

    Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers Salles V. G. Maghalães and W Randolph by representing coordinates as rational numbers. Now, intersections have no roundoff errors. Rational numbers for different kinds of soil. This paper presents Rat-overlay, an algorithm that uses rational numbers to perform

  18. Illinois DOT Responses to State Report Questions 1. Has your state built concrete overlays? Yes.

    E-print Network

    been your experience with overruns in concrete mix quantities? This can happen, but is not addressed Procedure Memorandum" and click "64-08 Portland Cement Concrete Inlay and Overlay". For design program clickIllinois DOT ­ Responses to State Report Questions 1. Has your state built concrete overlays? Yes

  19. Simplified Solution for Periodic Thermal Discontinuities in Asphalt Overlays Bonded to Rigid Pavements

    E-print Network

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    discontinuities distributed in a hot mix asphalt overlay bonded to a rigid pavement, where the length; Cracking. Introduction A concrete pavement which has been rehabilitated with an asphalt overlay can al. 2001 , and occasion- ally with very devastating effects Figs. 1 a and b . Advances in design

  20. [ ]May 2014 Portland cement concrete (PCC) overlays have been used with great success in many locations

    E-print Network

    Harms, Kyle E.

    accelerated pavement testing and document the experience of mix design and construction practice of PCC in standardizing the concrete overlay design process. In addition, typical section design thicknesses for various[ ]May 2014 PROBLEM Portland cement concrete (PCC) overlays have been used with great success

  1. Cracking resistance of thin-bonded overlays using fracture test, numerical simulations and early field performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarfraz Ahmed; Eshan V. Dave; William G. Buttlar; Marvin K. Exline

    2012-01-01

    Thin-bonded bituminous overlays are becoming an increasingly popular pavement maintenance treatment, which can be used to restore smoothness, seal and renew the pavement surface and increase skid resistance. Thin-bonded overlays (TBOs) are constructed using a specialised type of paving equipment called a ‘spray paver’. A spray paver combines the operation of applying a tack coat and laying down asphalt concrete

  2. Effect of PCC Joint Skew on Reflective Cracking in HMA Overlays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziad G. Ghauch

    2011-01-01

    Reflective cracking is a relatively premature distress that occurs in HMA materials overlaying cracked and jointed underlying pavements. The high concentration of stresses and strains in the vicinity of the discontinuity of the old pavement causes the cracks to reflect into the newly placed HMA overlay. While it is a common practice to use skewed transverse joints in rigid pavements

  3. WEB SERVICES MANAGEMENT NETWORK An Overlay Network for Federated Service Management

    E-print Network

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    service' interchangeably, but prefer the term `service,' since it stresses that we discuss the managementWEB SERVICES MANAGEMENT NETWORK An Overlay Network for Federated Service Management Vijay Machiraju, and protocols of a management overlay for federated service management, called Web Services Management Network

  4. Anonymous Routing in Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlays Nikita Borisov

    E-print Network

    Borisov, Nikita

    Anonymous Routing in Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlays by Nikita Borisov B.Math (University is approved: Chair Date Date Date University of California, Berkeley Spring 2005 #12;Anonymous Routing in Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlays Copyright 2005 by Nikita Borisov #12;1 Abstract Anonymous Routing

  5. AOS: an anonymous overlay system for mobile ad hoc networks Rui Zhang Yanchao Zhang Yuguang Fang

    E-print Network

    Latchman, Haniph A.

    AOS: an anonymous overlay system for mobile ad hoc networks Rui Zhang · Yanchao Zhang · Yuguang anonymous communications in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is an effective coun- termeasure against malicious traffic analysis. This paper presents AOS, an Anonymous Overlay System for MA- NETs, which

  6. Title: Experimental Fracture Mechanics for the Bond between Composite Overlays and Concrete Substrate

    E-print Network

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    should have high resistance to crack propagation, i.e. high fracture toughness. Crack initiation1 Title: Experimental Fracture Mechanics for the Bond between Composite Overlays and Concrete strength of composite overlays to concrete utilizing a fracture toughness test.. Specimen preparation, test

  7. Spatial signature in local overlay measurements: what CD-SEM can tell us and optical measurements can not

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Halle; Daniel Moore; Chas Archie; Shoji Hotta; Takumichi Sutani; Akiyuki Sugiyama; Masahiko Ikeno; Atsuko Yamaguchi; Kazuyoshi Torii

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the applications of CD-SEM overlay metrology for double patterned one-dimensional (1D) pitch split features as well as double patterned ensembles of two-dimensional (2D) complex shapes. Overlay model analysis of both optical overlay and CD-SEM is compared and found to give nearly equivalent results. Spatial correlation of the overlay vectors is examined over a large range of spatial

  8. Integrated production overlay field-by-field control for leading edge technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Woong Jae; Tristan, John; Gutjahr, Karsten; Subramany, Lokesh; Li, Chen; Sun, Yulei; Yelverton, Mark; Kim, Young Ki; Kim, Jeong Soo; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Pierson, William; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Riggs, Brent; Jug, Sven; Robinson, John C.; Yap, Lipkong; Ramanathan, Vidya

    2014-04-01

    As photolithography will continue with 193nm immersion multiple patterning technologies for the leading edge HVM process node, the production overlay requirement for critical layers in logic devices has almost reached the scanner hardware performance limit. To meet the extreme overlay requirements in HVM production environment, this study investigates a new integrated overlay control concept for leading edge technology nodes that combines the run-to-run (R2R) linear or high order control loop, the periodic field-by-field or correction per exposure (CPE) wafer process signature control loop, and the scanner baseline control loop into a single integrated overlay control path through the fab host APC system. The goal is to meet the fab requirements for overlay performance, lower the cost of ownership, and provide freedom of control methodology. In this paper, a detailed implementation of this concept will be discussed, along with some preliminary results.

  9. Using perspective guidance overlay to improve UAV manual control performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadema, Jochum; Theunissen, Erik; Koeners, Joris

    2007-04-01

    The guidance information that is available to the UAV operator typically suffers from limitations of data update rate and system latency. Even when using a flight director command display, the manual control task is considerably more difficult compared to piloting a manned aircraft. Results from earlier research into perspective guidance displays show that these displays provide performance benefits and suggest a reduction of the negative effects of system latency. The current study has shown that in case of limitations of data update rate and system latency the use of a conformal sensor overlay showing a perspective presentation of the trajectory constraints is consistently superior to the flight director command display. The superiority becomes more pronounced with an increase in data latency and a decrease in update rate. The fact that the perspective pathway overlay as used in this study can be implemented on any graphics system that is capable of rendering a set of 2-D vectors makes it a viable candidate for upgrades to current systems.

  10. Arbitrary precision value overlay and alignment system by double positioning of mask and wafer and electronic datum and nano sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wynn L. Bear; Xiang-Wen Xiong

    2009-01-01

    We provided a full-automatic alignment and overlay control systems and ultra stage based on electronic datum & micro Staggered nano-array sensor, which is focusing on the overlay need for double pattern and EUV Lithography of 32, 22nm node and less. Two of the noticeable effects of overlay & alignment control for IC manufacturing are offered in this paper. 1) About

  11. 1Ioanna Papafili Incentive-based Caching Mechanisms for Overlay Traffic Management Incentive-based Caching Mechanisms for

    E-print Network

    Chatziantoniou, Damianos

    1Ioanna Papafili Incentive-based Caching Mechanisms for Overlay Traffic Management Incentive, Athens, June 18, 2013 #12;2Ioanna Papafili Incentive-based Caching Mechanisms for Overlay Traffic #12;4Ioanna Papafili Incentive-based Caching Mechanisms for Overlay Traffic Management Context

  12. Will Outsourcing IT Security Lead to a Higher Social Level of Security?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brent R. Rowe

    More firms outsource information technology (IT) security activities each year, as they determine that they can achieve cost savings or a higher level of security at the same cost. However, despite the estimated benefits, many firms still fail to see a clear positive net benefit from their (private) perspective, given the risks and costs involved. This paper investigates the positive

  13. Will Pre-Funding Provide Security for Social Security? A Review of the Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Brown

    2000-01-01

    President Clinton has proposed creating larger social security funds and investing a portion of them in the private sector. Others have suggested more radical reforms such as moving social security from a defined-benefit scheme to a defined contribution plan based on the Chilean model. These proposals are based on the goal of creating higher investment returns, which would make social

  14. Local Govt. Private Fdn.

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Local Govt. 0.2% Industry 4.6% Private Fdn. 1.2% Federal 88.4% Other 2.3% State 3.3% $0 $20,000,000 $40,000,000 $60,000,000 $80,000,000 $100,000,000 $120,000,000 $140,000,000 1995- 1996 1996- 1997 1997.5% $0 $5,000,000 $10,000,000 $15,000,000 $20,000,000 $25,000,000 $30,000,000 $35,000,000 $40,000,000

  15. Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP)

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Papier, I.I. [Underwriters Labs., Inc., Northbrook, IL (United States)

    1996-06-20

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., (UL) have jointly established the Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP). The goal of this program is to enhance industrial and national security by providing a nationally recognized method for making informed selection and use decisions when buying security equipment and systems. The SESCP will provide a coordinated structure for private and governmental security standardization review. Members will participate in meetings to identify security problems, develop ad-hoc subcommittees (as needed) to address these identified problems, and to maintain a communications network that encourages a meaningful exchange of ideas. This program will enhance national security by providing improved security equipment and security systems based on consistent, reliable standards and certification programs.

  16. A network-assisted mobile VPN for securing users data in UMTS Christos Xenakis1

    E-print Network

    Stavrakakis, Ioannis

    A network-assisted mobile VPN for securing users data in UMTS Christos Xenakis1 , Christoforos-assisted mobile Virtual Private Network (mVPN) security scheme that provides secure remote access to corporate associated with the user and its device. The network-assisted mVPN addresses the security weaknesses

  17. 13 CFR 107.1550 - Distributions by Licensee-permitted “tax Distributions” to private investors and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distributions by Licensee-permitted âtax Distributionsâ...Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1550 Distributions by Licensee—permitted “tax Distributions” to private investors and SBA....

  18. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  19. Emerging Issues of Privatized Prisons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Austin, James, 1948-

    2001-01-01

    This report, posted May 14, 2001, from the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), prepared by the National Council on Crime and Delinquency, presents the results of a national study to examine the efficacy of prison privatization. The report looks at the factors that have contributed to the increase in prison populations (which has in turn fueled the movement to privatize prisons) as well as the role the private sector currently plays in the prison system. "It outlines the arguments, both in support of and opposition to, privatized prisons, reviews current literature on the subject, and examines issues that will have an impact on future privatizations." Overall, the study found that private prisons operate much the same as public ones, with only marginal cost savings, and those savings mostly gleaned from reduction in labor costs. Note that graphical elements such as figures and charts are not available in the text version of the report.

  20. Privatization and NEPA compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Krenz, K.; Matthews, P. [Turner Collie and Braden Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Sloger, W. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Charleston, SC (United States). Southern Div.

    1997-08-01

    The intent of the Department of Defense (DoD) base realignment and closure process is to reduce infrastructure by eliminating excess capacity. In 1995, DoD recommended closure of two naval technical centers, including Naval Ordnance Station (NOS) Louisville, Kentucky, and the relocation of functions, personnel, equipment and support to other naval activities. These initial recommendations were scrutinized by local community officials and an alternative to closure and relocation was developed. Active economic redevelopment of NOS Louisville through privatization of workload was accepted as a viable alternative to closure. The language adopted by the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission (BRAC) included the transfer of workload to the private sector. Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements for typical base closures or disposal actions is fairly well-established and straightforward. The decision to close a military facility is directed by Congress and the decision itself is not subject to NEPA analysis. The environmental impacts to be analyzed are those associated with alternative reuses of the federal property designated for closure.

  1. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  2. Collection Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to the problem of security of library collections and facilities from theft and vandalism. Highlights include responses to losses, defining security needs, typical weaknesses of facilities, policies and procedures that weaken a library's security, conducting a security audit, cost of security, cost-effectiveness, and…

  3. Protecting a University's Wireless Data Network with the WPA and VPN Security Solutions

    E-print Network

    Saksupakul, Rattanachai

    2007-05-18

    technologies, an organization will be able to enhance the flexibility of its network, increasing the efficiency of the business communications. Mason, A. G. (2004). CCSP Self-Study: Cisco Secure Virtual Private Networks (CSVPN) (2 nd ed.). Indianapolis... necessary for securing its network infrastructure. Security Policy Secure Test Improve Monitor Figure 6: Illustration of the security wheel technique commonly used as a tool to craft a security policy. Source: Mason, A. G. (2004). CCSP Self...

  4. Pan-private Algorithms Via Statistics on Sketches Darakhshan Mir, S. Muthukrishnan, Aleksandar Nikolov, Rebecca N. Wright

    E-print Network

    Wright, Rebecca N.

    Pan-private Algorithms Via Statistics on Sketches Darakhshan Mir, S. Muthukrishnan, Aleksandar together with security, formulated recently as pan-privacy by Dwork et al. (ICS 2010). Informally, pan or law). We study pan-private algorithms for basic analyses, like estimating distinct count, moments

  5. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

  6. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

  7. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

  8. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

  9. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

  10. Noisy Processing and Distillation of Private Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renes, Joseph M.; Smith, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    We provide a simple security proof for prepare and measure quantum key distribution protocols employing noisy processing and one-way postprocessing of the key. This is achieved by showing that the security of such a protocol is equivalent to that of an associated key distribution protocol in which, instead of the usual maximally entangled states, a more general private state is distilled. In addition to a more general target state, the usual entanglement distillation tools are employed (in particular, Calderbank-Shor-Steane like codes), with the crucial difference that noisy processing allows some phase errors to be left uncorrected without compromising the privacy of the key.

  11. Social Security Reform and Privatisation in Poland: Parallel projects or integrated agenda?1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Gesell; Katharina Müller

    Proposals to link privatisation and pension reform have been raised since the early 1990s in CEE. Although the methods of privatisation have been debated, the move towards a corporate system based on private ownership is generally undisputed. As regards social security, however, choices are less clear-cut: a shift towards private, individualised provision of old age security is not necessarily on

  12. Social Security and SSI as Safety Nets for the Elderly Poor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha N. Ozawa; Hong-Sik Yoon

    2002-01-01

    Partial privatization of Social Security is being considered as an integral part of the future Social Security program for American retirees. Because privatization creates uncertainty about the amount of retirement income that future retirees may expect to receive, the issue of a safety net is critical. This article presents the findings from an empirical study that investigated the degree to

  13. Spatial signature in local overlay measurements: what CD-SEM can tell us and optical measurements can not

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halle, Scott; Moore, Daniel; Archie, Chas; Hotta, Shoji; Sutani, Takumichi; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Ikeno, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Torii, Kazuyoshi

    2010-03-01

    This work explores the applications of CD-SEM overlay metrology for double patterned one-dimensional (1D) pitch split features as well as double patterned ensembles of two-dimensional (2D) complex shapes. Overlay model analysis of both optical overlay and CD-SEM is compared and found to give nearly equivalent results. Spatial correlation of the overlay vectors is examined over a large range of spatial distances. The smallest spatial distances are shown to have the highest degree of correlation. Correlation studies of local overlay in a globally uniform environment, suggest that the smallest sampling of overlay vectors need to be ~10-15?m, within the spatial sampling of this experiment. The smallest spatial distances are also found to have to tightest mean distributions. The distribution width of the CD-SEM overlay is found to scale linearly with log of the spatial distances over 4-5 orders of magnitude of spatial length. Methodologies are introduced to examine both the overlay of double pattern contacts at the edge of an array and lithographic process-induced overlay shift of contacts. Finally, a hybrid optical- CD-SEM overlay metrology is introduced in order to capture a high order, device weighted overlay response.

  14. STM study of the structure of sulfur (2 radical 3 times 2 radical 3)R30 degree overlayer on rhenium (0001)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Ogletree; C. Ocal; B. Marchon; G. A. Somorjai; M. Salmeron; T. Beebe; W. Siekhaus

    1988-01-01

    The structure of the sulfur overlayer chemisorbed on rhenium(0001) has been studied with scanning tunneling microscopy. The ordered sulfur overlayer was prepared in UHV and then transferred through air to an STM operating at a vacuum of 10⁻⁷ Torr. The sulfur overlayer passivates the rhenium substrate in air. STM images show the atomic structure of the overlayer unit cell to

  15. Monitoring process-induced overlay errors through high-resolution wafer geometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, K. T.; Vukkadala, P.; Veeraraghavan, S.; Sinha, J. K.

    2014-04-01

    Controlling overlay errors resulting from wafer processing, such as film deposition, is essential for meeting overlay budgets in future generations of devices. Out-of-plane distortions induced on the wafer due to processing are often monitored through high-resolution wafer geometry measurements. While such wafer geometry measurements provide information about the wafer distortion, mechanics models are required to connect such measurements to overlay errors, which result from in-plane distortions. The aim of this paper is to establish fundamental connections between the out-ofplane distortions that are characterized in wafer geometry measurements and the in-plane distortions on the wafer surface that lead to overlay errors. First, an analytical mechanics model is presented to provide insight into the connection between changes in wafer geometry and overlay. The analytical model demonstrates that the local slope of the change in wafer shape induced by the deposition of a residually stressed film is related to the induced overlay for simple geometries. Finite element modeling is then used to consider realistic wafer geometries and assess correlations between the local slope of the wafer shape change induced by the deposition of a stressed film and overlay. As established previously, overlay errors only result when the stresses in the film are non-uniform, thus the finite element study considers wafers with several different nonuniform residual stress distributions. Correlation between overlay and a metric based on a corrected wafer slope map is examined. The results of the modeling and simulations are discussed and compared to recently published experimental results.

  16. Skewness and Kurtosis Risks of Quality Control in Overlay Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takashi; Ikeda, Takahiro; Kasa, Kentaro; Asano, Masafumi; Sato, Yasuharu

    2010-06-01

    The population of overlay errors in layer-to-layer structures in semiconductor manufacturing often obeys non-normal distribution functions such as elliptic, rectangular, and skewed distributions. Thus, there can be many wrong diagnoses of quality control that can lead to consumer's risk and producer's risk. In a lot acceptance test, a product should be judged by variables rather than by attributes because of the small sample size. A new acceptance test by variables was introduced for a non-normal population. It included sample skewness and kurtosis as well as mean and standard deviations. Using operating characteristic (OC) curves, it was shown that sampling inspection by variables can be applied safely to a strong non-normal population with new variables.

  17. Skewness and Kurtosis Risks of Quality Control in Overlay Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashi Sato,; Takahiro Ikeda,; Kentaro Kasa,; Masafumi Asano,; Yasuharu Sato,

    2010-06-01

    The population of overlay errors in layer-to-layer structures in semiconductor manufacturing often obeys non-normal distribution functions such as elliptic, rectangular, and skewed distributions. Thus, there can be many wrong diagnoses of quality control that can lead to consumer’s risk and producer’s risk. In a lot acceptance test, a product should be judged by variables rather than by attributes because of the small sample size. A new acceptance test by variables was introduced for a non-normal population. It included sample skewness and kurtosis as well as mean and standard deviations. Using operating characteristic (OC) curves, it was shown that sampling inspection by variables can be applied safely to a strong non-normal population with new variables.

  18. Overlay improvement by exposure map based mask registration optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Irene; Guo, Eric; Chen, Ming; Lu, Max; Li, Gordon; Li, Rivan; Tian, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Along with the increased miniaturization of semiconductor electronic devices, the design rules of advanced semiconductor devices shrink dramatically. [1] One of the main challenges of lithography step is the layer-to-layer overlay control. Furthermore, DPT (Double Patterning Technology) has been adapted for the advanced technology node like 28nm and 14nm, corresponding overlay budget becomes even tighter. [2][3] After the in-die mask registration (pattern placement) measurement is introduced, with the model analysis of a KLA SOV (sources of variation) tool, it's observed that registration difference between masks is a significant error source of wafer layer-to-layer overlay at 28nm process. [4][5] Mask registration optimization would highly improve wafer overlay performance accordingly. It was reported that a laser based registration control (RegC) process could be applied after the pattern generation or after pellicle mounting and allowed fine tuning of the mask registration. [6] In this paper we propose a novel method of mask registration correction, which can be applied before mask writing based on mask exposure map, considering the factors of mask chip layout, writing sequence, and pattern density distribution. Our experiment data show if pattern density on the mask keeps at a low level, in-die mask registration residue error in 3sigma could be always under 5nm whatever blank type and related writer POSCOR (position correction) file was applied; it proves random error induced by material or equipment would occupy relatively fixed error budget as an error source of mask registration. On the real production, comparing the mask registration difference through critical production layers, it could be revealed that registration residue error of line space layers with higher pattern density is always much larger than the one of contact hole layers with lower pattern density. Additionally, the mask registration difference between layers with similar pattern density could also achieve under 5nm performance. We assume mask registration excluding random error is mostly induced by charge accumulation during mask writing, which may be calculated from surrounding exposed pattern density. Multi-loading test mask registration result shows that with x direction writing sequence, mask registration behavior in x direction is mainly related to sequence direction, but mask registration in y direction would be highly impacted by pattern density distribution map. It proves part of mask registration error is due to charge issue from nearby environment. If exposure sequence is chip by chip for normal multi chip layout case, mask registration of both x and y direction would be impacted analogously, which has also been proved by real data. Therefore, we try to set up a simple model to predict the mask registration error based on mask exposure map, and correct it with the given POSCOR (position correction) file for advanced mask writing if needed.

  19. BWR pipe crack and weld clad overlay studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.E.

    1984-10-01

    Leaks and cracks in the heat-affected zones of weldments in austenitic stainless steel piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs) due to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) have been observed since the mid-1960s. Since that time, cracking has continued to occur, and indication have been found in all parts of the recirculation system, including the largest diameter lines. Proposed solutions for the problem include procedures that produce a more favorable residual stress state on the inner surface, materials that are more resistant to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and changes in the reactor environment that decrease the susceptibility to cracking. In addition to the evaluation of these remedies, it is also important to gain a better understanding of the weld overlay procedure, which is the most widely used short-term repair for flawed piping.

  20. 12 CFR 220.103 - Borrowing of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...In borrowing securities from a private individual under § 220.6(h), however, it becomes especially important to bear in mind two limitations that are contained in the section. (c) The first limitation is that the section applies only if...

  1. 12 CFR 220.103 - Borrowing of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...In borrowing securities from a private individual under § 220.6(h), however, it becomes especially important to bear in mind two limitations that are contained in the section. (c) The first limitation is that the section applies only if...

  2. From client-side encryption to secure web applications

    E-print Network

    Stark, Emily (Emily Margarete)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents an approach for designing secure web applications that use client-side encryption to keep user data private in the face of arbitrary web server compromises, as well as a set of tools, called CryptFrame, ...

  3. Secure multi-party protocols under a modern lens

    E-print Network

    Boyle, Elette Chantae

    2013-01-01

    A secure multi-party computation (MPC) protocol for computing a function f allows a group of parties to jointly evaluate f over their private inputs, such that a computationally bounded adversary who corrupts a subset of ...

  4. TWRS privatization bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information.

  5. TWRS privatization bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety.

  6. Private Sector Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank is perhaps one of the world's premier organizations regarding development opportunities, and they are widely recognized for their work in the developing world. With this latest outing, they have created the Private Sector Development (PSD) Blog, which is designed to be both quirky and opinionated, qualities which are never in short supply as one wanders around the web. Having said that, the site is rather erudite, as it provides intelligent comments on topics that include disaster recovery, foreign direct investment, and corporate governance. New users will want to browse through some of the recent posts, and then perhaps look at the "Categories" section on the left-hand side of the page for future explorations. As might be expected, each post also contains links to external readings from a diverse set of publications, such as the Financial Times and like-minded ventures.

  7. Boston Private Industry Council

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1979 by a banker and education advocate, the Boston Private Industry Council's (PIC) Boston's Workforce Investment Board is a valuable program that pairs Boston businesses with Boston high school students to give the students valuable experience and jobs, while helping the businesses develop a skilled workforce. Visitors should definitely take a look at the "Research" tab to read about research on "Drop Out Studies", "Labor Market Studies", and "College Going Studies" that the PIC has produced with the Center for Labor Market Studies at Northeastern University. Under the "Programs" tab visitors can choose from career programs for youth, adults, and out-of-school youth (those who have not finished high school or finished without passing state requirements). Under the same tab, visitors will find the "Career Exploration for Youth" program provides career exploration programs including "Job Shadow Day", "Mock Interviews", and "Career Speakers".

  8. Laboratory evaluation of selected fabrics for reinforcement of asphaltic concrete overlays 

    E-print Network

    Pickett, David L

    1981-01-01

    and extend 1ts useful life. However, these overlays are susceptible to premature deterioration as a result of transverse re- flect1ve cracking, whereby a cracking pattern exist1ng in the original pavement 1s extended 1nto and through the new overlay.... Reflection cracking occurs in new overlays due to their inability to withstand tensile stresses created by movements of the underlying pavement. These damaging movements may be caused by traffic loading, thermally induced volume changes of the pav1ng...

  9. Overlay target selection for 20-nm process on A500 LCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Vidya; Subramany, Lokesh; Itzkovich, Tal; Gutjhar, Karsten; Snow, Patrick; Cho, Chanseob; Yap, Lipkong

    2015-03-01

    Persistently shrinking design rules and increasing process complexity require tight overlay control thereby making it imperative to choose the most suitable overlay measurement technique and complementary target design. In this paper we describe an assessment of various target designs from FEOL to BEOL on 20-nm process. Both scatterometry and imaging based methodology were reviewed for several key layers on A500LCM tool, which enables the use of both technologies. Different sets of targets were carefully designed and printed, taking into consideration the process and optical properties of each layer. The optimal overlay target for a given layer was chosen based on its measurement performance.

  10. Opting Out of Social Security and Adverse Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence J. Kotlikoff; Kent A. Smetters; Jan Walliser

    1998-01-01

    This paper compares two general methods of privatization social security: forced participation in the new privatized system vs. letting people choose between the new system or staying in social security (i.e., opting out). Simulations are performed using a large scale perfect-foresight OLG simulation model that incorporates both intra-generational and inter-generational heterogeneity. The decision of any agent to opt out is

  11. Public and Private at College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert

    1983-01-01

    The college, public or private, contains two separate realms. The public realm is the sphere of life bearing on the values sought by the college, and the private realm is that not bearing on those values. The scope of these realms is determined by the college's implicit and explicit purposes. (MSE)

  12. Privatization of airports in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Hooper

    2002-01-01

    It has been claimed that Asia lags behind the rest of the world in the privatization of airports. At the same time, the air transport sector has been growing quickly and this has placed enormous pressure on airport infrastructure. This paper reviews the situation and finds that the private sector is involved extensively with new airports and the upgrading of

  13. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, James M.; Freeland, William L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Privatization of school support services is a time-tested means for lowering educational costs. The three major services that school districts in Michigan contract out for are food, custodial and transportation. The Mackinac Center for Public Policy's survey of privatization is the longest running and most comprehensive source of school support…

  14. The structure of privatization plans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico C. Perotti; Serhat E. Guney

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade, large-scale privatization programs have transformed the structure of corporate ownership in many countries, and are a major cause of the development of their capital markets. They have contributed to nondebt financing of the public deficit, attracted foreign capital and technology, and promoted the return of flight capital. Finally, the large task of privatization of state-owned enterprises

  15. Attracting Foreign Investment Through Privatization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Rolfe; Douglas P. Woodward

    2004-01-01

    Privatization serves as a potential source of foreign direct investment in Africa. During the Chiluba era (1991–2001), Zambia conducted one of Africa's most sweeping privatization programs. Accordingly, direct investment swelled with the sale of state enterprises. This paper explores foreign and domestic ownership patterns following investor purchases of Zambian state-owned assets. Previous foreign owners of mining and manufacturing companies represent

  16. Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.…

  17. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, James M.; Anderson, Dustin D.

    2010-01-01

    Privatization of support services has been a method that Michigan school districts have used for several years to lower costs. More than ever before, Michigan school districts are privatizing the three main support services they offer--food, custodial and transportation. The annual survey finds that 48.8 percent of Michigan school districts are…

  18. Endogenous fertility, altruistic behavior across generations, and social security systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aloys Prinz

    1990-01-01

    The present paper explores the impact of an intergenerational externality on private fertility decisions, under a pay-as-you-go social security system. The analysis is performed in the framework of a steady state growth model, with overlapping generations. To explain why households have children, altruism between parents and children is assumed. Surprisingly, the effects of altruism are not symmetric. The private fertility

  19. A secure distributed key management scheme for ad hoc network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Xu; Hong Zhong; Xianping Yuan; Jia Yu

    2010-01-01

    An identity-based threshold key management scheme without secure channel is proposed for ad hoc network. The master private key, which is shared among all nodes by the Shamir's secret sharing scheme, is produced by all nodes when network is formed. The nodes' public keys are derived from their identities. In order to get the private key, each node needs to

  20. Protecting the Privacy and Security of Your Health Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... make sure that private information doesn’t become public. If you access your health records online, make sure you use a strong password and keep it secret. Keep in mind that if you post information online in a public forum, you cannot assume it’s private or secure. ...

  1. Peer-to-Peer Overlays for Real-Time Communication: Security Issues and Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhruv Chopra; Henning Schulzrinne; Enrico Marocco; Emil Ivov

    2009-01-01

    Peer to peer (P2P) networks offer higher robustness against failure, easier configuration and are generally more economical as compared to their client-server counterparts. This has made it reasonable for resource consuming and typically centralized applications like voice over IP (VoIP) and, in general, real-time communication to adapt and exploit the benefits of P2P. Such a migration needs to address a

  2. A comparison of alignment and overlay performance with varying hardmask materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sangho; Ha, Soon Mok; Nam, Young Min; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Nam, Suk-Woo

    2012-03-01

    In recent semiconductor manufacturing, hardmask is unavoidable requirement to further transfer the patterning from thin photoresist to underlayer. While several types of hardmask materials have been investigated, amorphous carbon has been attractive for good etching resistance and high-aspect-ratio resolution. However, it has fatal problem with lowering overlay controllability due to its high extinction coefficient (k). Thus, the correlation of alignment and overlay performance with varying hardmask materials is required to meet a tight overlay budget of 2x nm node and beyond. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of the hardmask materials with respect to the optical properties on the performance of overlay applicable to 2x nm memory devices.

  3. A program to design asphalt concrete overlays to mitigate reflection cracking 

    E-print Network

    Satyanarayana Rao, Sindhu

    2002-01-01

    One of the major concerns for pavement engineers is that many pavements considered structurally sound after being overlaid exhibit a cracking pattern similar to the existing pavement. The new overlay cracks because of its inability to withstand...

  4. Global Intrusion Detection in the DOMINO Overlay System Vinod Yegneswaran Paul Barford Somesh Jha

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    Global Intrusion Detection in the DOMINO Overlay System Vinod Yegneswaran Paul Barford Somesh Jha Sharing data between widely distributed intrusion detec- tion systems offers the possibility for a distributed intrusion detection system that fosters collaboration among heterogeneous nodes organized

  5. Synthesis of network delays for voice packets in Service Overlay Networks

    E-print Network

    an approach to synthesize network delay traces for QoS routing research in a full mesh Service Overlay Net delay traces. The synthetic network delay traces can be used to study quality of service provision

  6. 3D Finite Element Analysis of HMA Overlay Mix Design to Control Reflective Cracking

    E-print Network

    Ghauch, Ziad G

    2011-01-01

    One of the most common rehabilitation techniques of deteriorated pavements is the placement of an HMA overlay on top of the existing Asphalt Concrete (AC) or Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) pavement. However, shortly after pavement resurfacing, HMA overlays exhibit a cracking pattern similar to that of the underlying pavement. This phenomenon is known as reflective cracking. This study examines the effectiveness of several HMA overlay mix design strategies for the purpose of controlling the development of reflective cracking. A parametric study was conducted using a 3D Finite Element (FE) model of a rigid pavement section including a Linear Viscoelastic (LVE) model for Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) materials and non-uniform tire-pavement contact stresses. Results obtained show that for the intermediate and surface courses, using a Dense Graded (DG) or Polymer Modified (PM) asphalt mixture instead of a Standard Binder (SB) mixture results in reduced tensile stresses at the bottom of the HMA overlay but higher levels of...

  7. Governmental-Owner Power Imbalance and Privatization 

    E-print Network

    Xu, Kehan

    2011-10-21

    Privatization is defined as the sale of state-owned assets by governmental agencies to private investors (e.g., Megginson, Nash, Netter, and Poulsen, 2004; Villalonga, 2000). Research on privatization has focused on ...

  8. 75 FR 39091 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...Docket No. 2009-1144] Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation...application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U...C. 47134 establishes an airport privatization pilot program and authorizes the...

  9. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...Docket No. 2010-0473] Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation...application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U...Section 47134 establishes an airport privatization pilot program and authorizes the...

  10. 75 FR 68018 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...Docket No. 2010-1052] Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation...application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U...Section 47134 establishes an airport privatization pilot program and authorizes the...

  11. 78 FR 27339 - Private Attorney Involvement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ...SERVICES CORPORATION 45 CFR Part 1614 Private Attorney Involvement AGENCY: Legal Services...requesting public comments on revising LSC's Private Attorney Involvement (PAI) rule to respond...consider revisions to 45 CFR part 1614, Private Attorney Involvement (PAI rule) to...

  12. 43 CFR 4750.1 - Private maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private maintenance. 4750.1 Section 4750.1...CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.1 Private maintenance. The authorized officer...

  13. Cost efficient LSP protection in IP\\/MPLS-over-WDM overlay networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunggy Koo; Gokhan Sahin; Suresh Subramaniam

    2003-01-01

    We consider an IP\\/MPLS-over-WDM overlay network, which an IP\\/MPLS service layer exists independently over a WDM transport network. In the overlay model, two adjacent layers communicate with each other only through a pre-defined user-network interface (UNI) and the WDM topology information is not available to the service layer. In this paper, we concentrate on network design with a fault tolerance

  14. Residual stress determination in an overlay dissimilar welded pipe by neutron diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan Chuck Woo; Vyacheslav Em; Camden R Hubbard; Ho-Jin Lee; Kwang Soo Park

    2011-01-01

    Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of

  15. Residual stress determination in a dissimilar weld overlay pipe by neutron diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanchuck Woo; Vyacheslav Em; Camden R. Hubbard; Ho-Jin Lee; Kwang Soo Park

    2011-01-01

    Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of

  16. Electrochemical behaviour of pseudomorphic overlayers: Pd on Au(1 1 1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A Kibler; A. M El-Aziz; D. M Kolb

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of palladium adlayers on Au(111) are compared with those of massive Pd(111). Electro-deposited Pd forms a pseudomorphic overlayer on the unreconstructed Au(111) surface following the stacking sequence of the substrate. The altered electrochemical behaviour of the overlayer can be ascribed to changes in the electronic structure due to lateral strain. A gradual change to bulk properties is

  17. Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays.

    PubMed

    Rees, Nicholas D; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P; Ashwell, Geoffery J

    2002-05-01

    An overlay material was deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique onto a single-mode optical fiber containing a long-period grating. The long-period grating exhibits characteristic attenuation bands in its transmission spectrum whose central wavelengths were observed to depend on the optical thickness of the overlay material, even for materials that have a refractive index higher than that of silica. PMID:18007899

  18. Prediction of loss characteristics in built-up areas with various buildings' overlay profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Blaunstein; D. Katz; D. Censor; A. Freedman; I. Matityahu; I. Gur-Arie

    2001-01-01

    We continue the analysis of a probabilistic approach and the corresponding stochastic multi-parametric model of wave propagation in built-up areas with randomly distributed buildings. We concentrate on the influence of buildings' overlay profiles on signal spatial decay, and on path-loss dependence in the frequency domain within UHF\\/X-band urban propagation channels. Using different buildings' overlay profiles, the field-intensity attenuation along radio

  19. A New Advanced User Authentication and Confidentiality Security Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Sanjay; Chakraborty, Sanjay; Das, Suman

    2014-05-01

    Network & internet security is the burning question of today's world and they are deeply related to each other for secure successful data transmission. Network security approach is totally based on the concept of network security services. In this paper, a new system of network security service is implemented which is more secure than conventional network security services. This technique is mainly deals with two essential network security services, one is user authentication and other is data confidentiality. For user authentication this paper introduces Graphical Username & Voice Password approaches which provides better security than conventional username & password authentication process. In data confidentiality section this paper introduces two layer private key for both message encryption & decryption which is mainly applicable on 8 bit plain text data. This paper also provides the hints of introducing other two network security services (integrity and non-repudiation) as a future work.

  20. Security in Full-Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    When fully developed for NASA, Vanguard Enforcer(TM) software-which emulates the activities of highly technical security system programmers, auditors, and administrators-was among the first intrusion detection programs to restrict human errors from affecting security, and to ensure the integrity of a computer's operating systems, as well as the protection of mission critical resources. Vanguard Enforcer was delivered in 1991 to Johnson Space Center and has been protecting systems and critical data there ever since. In August of 1999, NASA granted Vanguard exclusive rights to commercialize the Enforcer system for the private sector. In return, Vanguard continues to supply NASA with ongoing research, development, and support of Enforcer. The Vanguard Enforcer 4.2 is one of several surveillance technologies that make up the Vanguard Security Solutions line of products. Using a mainframe environment, Enforcer 4.2 achieves previously unattainable levels of automated security management.