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1

Quantum Private Queries: security analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a security analysis of the recently introduced Quantum Private Query (QPQ) protocol. It is a cheat sensitive quantum protocol to perform a private search on a classical database. It allows a user to retrieve an item from the database without revealing which item was retrieved, and at the same time it ensures data privacy of the database (the

Vittorio Giovannetti; Seth Lloyd; Lorenzo Maccone

2008-01-01

2

Secure Aggregation in Large Scale Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks have been very useful in solving large scale data dissemination problems. In this paper, we consider the case of data gathering which is the inverse of dissemination problem. In particular, we focus on a scenario where an organization or a constellation of organizations is interested in gathering data from large number of nodes spread across the administrative boundaries.

Waseem Ahmad; Ashfaq A. Khokhar

2006-01-01

3

Quantum private queries: security analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a security analysis of the recently introduced Quantum Private\\u000aQuery (QPQ) protocol. It is a cheat sensitive quantum protocol to perform a\\u000aprivate search on a classical database. It allows a user to retrieve an item\\u000afrom the database without revealing which item was retrieved, and at the same\\u000atime it ensures data privacy of the database (the

Vittorio Giovannetti; Seth Lloyd; Lorenzo Maccone

2010-01-01

4

Privatizing Social Security: The Wall Street Fix  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Privatizing Social Security: The Wall Street Fix," by Dean Baker of the Economic Policy Institute, argues that "Social Security is sound now and will continue to be sound indefinitely," and sees privatization as a serious threat. The Social Security system currently collects more in taxes than benefits paid out, with the excess held in the Trust Fund. But this is expected to change in 2014 when the baby boomers and increased longevity of retirees is likely to result in benefits exceeding taxes collected. By 2031, the Trust Fund is expected to be exhausted. Suggestions for reforming Social Security include minor changes to the eligibility requirement or tax rates, allowing part of Social Security contributions to be invested freely, and totally privatizing Social Security.

Baker, Dean.

1996-04-29

5

On virtual private networks security design issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of virtual private networks (VPNs) provides an economical and efficient solution on communicating private information securely over public network infrastructure.In this paper, we discuss two issues on the design of VPN. We first propose the VPN services, the mandatory VPN operations for each VPN service and the design on VPN protocol stack.Afterwards, we propose a list of protocol

Cheung Kwok Ho; Jelena V. Misic

2002-01-01

6

1 Scalable and Secure P2P Overlay Networks 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1  

E-print Network

Contents 1 Scalable and Secure P2P Overlay Networks 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 P2P Overlay Network Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3.1 Classification of P2P systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.3.2 Unstructured P2P

Shi, Weisong

7

Privatizing Social Security: the Chilean experience.  

PubMed

In 1981, Chile introduced a new approach to social insurance, a system of individual capitalization accounts financed solely by the employee. This new privatized system was an improvement over Chile's failing pay-as-you-go arrangement. As many countries worldwide are facing financial problems with their social security system, they are now looking to the Chilean model in trying to find solutions. This article describes the conditions that led to the new system, the transition, and details of the new privatized system. PMID:8994293

Kritzer, B E

1996-01-01

8

Social Security or Private Security Social security reform remains an important, controversial topic. This short essay  

E-print Network

Social Security or Private Security Social security reform remains an important, controversial topic. This short essay provides a primer about the current social security system and its primary-as-you-go" principle The current social security system taxes workers to pay benefits to retirees. As such, the system

Ahmad, Sajjad

9

32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RESERVATIONS Physical Security of Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington...security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition but separate from military...

2010-07-01

10

Social Security privatization in Latin America.  

PubMed

The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for women and lower earners than for men and higher earners; A minimum required rate of return among the pension fund management companies (in most of these countries) that has resulted in similarity among the companies and the consequent lack of meaningful choice; and High administrative fees in most of these countries, which reduce the individual's effective rate of return. To what extent these issues can be mitigated or resolved in the future is not yet clear. In general, a definitive assessment of the Chilean model and its Latin American variations will not be possible until a cohort of retirees has spent most of its career under the new system. PMID:11131978

Kritzer, B E

2000-01-01

11

Privatizing Social Security: The Troubling Trade-Offs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Privatizing Social Security: The Troubling Trade-Offs," by Gary Burtless and Barry Bosworth of the Brookings Institution, argues that most of the "economic advantages of privatization can be obtained in either a public or a private retirement system." The Social Security system currently collects more in taxes than benefits paid out, with the excess held in the Trust Fund. But this is expected to change in 2014 when the baby boomers and increased longevity of retirees is likely to result in benefits exceeding taxes collected. By 2031, the Trust Fund is expected to be exhausted. Suggestions for reforming Social Security include minor changes to the eligibility requirement or tax rates, allowing part of Social Security contributions to be invested freely, and totally privatizing Social Security.

Bosworth, Barry.

12

Characterization of Security Notions for Probabilistic PrivateKey Encryption #  

E-print Network

area of modern cryptographic research. Indeed, Shannon's definition of perfect security in the context of their relationships, has been a major area of research in mod­ ern cryptography. Here, we focus on the case of private

Katz, Jonathan

13

Study of Cloud Computing Security Based on Private Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supporting study of a method to solve cloud computing security issue with private face recognition. The method has three parts: user part provides face images; cloud initialization part has a face subspace and templates database; cloud private matching identification part contains the core algorithm of the method, comparing two encrypted numbers under double-encrypted conditions. The experimental results show the method

Chenguang Wang; Huaizhi Yan

2010-01-01

14

The Role of the Private Sector in Homeland Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chapter 1 reviews the budgetary requirements of state and local governments for homeland security and suggests how restructuring\\u000a both security and emergency services and greater use of public–private partnerships could address a significant portion of\\u000a such needs. Specifically, governments could shed services that are private in nature, contract out public services that could\\u000a be more efficiently provided under market conditions,

Simon Hakim; Erwin A. Blackstone

15

Social Security Privatization in Britain: Key Lessons for America's Reformers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Heritage Foundation article, "Social Security Privatization in Britain: Key Lessons for America's Reformers," by Louis D. Enoff and Robert E. Moffit, looks at Britain's effort to privatize its pension system and what lessons it holds for Americans. The Social Security system currently collects more in taxes than benefits paid out, with the excess held in the Trust Fund. But this is expected to change in 2014 when the baby boomers and increased longevity of retirees is likely to result in benefits exceeding taxes collected. By 2031, the Trust Fund is expected to be exhausted. Suggestions for reforming Social Security include minor changes to the eligibility requirement or tax rates, allowing part of Social Security contributions to be invested freely, and totally privatizing Social Security.

Enoff, Louis D.

1997-01-01

16

Securely Measuring the Overlap between Private Datasets with Cryptosets.  

PubMed

Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data-collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks-into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets-like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data-cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset's contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach "information-theoretic" security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

Swamidass, S Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

2015-01-01

17

Securely Measuring the Overlap between Private Datasets with Cryptosets  

PubMed Central

Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data—collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks—into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets—like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data—cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset’s contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach “information-theoretic” security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

Swamidass, S. Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

2015-01-01

18

Would Privatizing Social Security Raise Economic Welfare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A funded social security retirement program would imply a larger capital stock and a higher level of real income than an unfunded program that provides the same level of benefits. The transition from an unfunded program to a funded program that does not reduce the benefits of existing retirees or the present value of the benefit entitlements of existing employees

Martin Feldstein

1995-01-01

19

Private Security Training. Phase 4: Firearms Training. Instructor Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides instructional materials for the firearms training phase of a private security training course of study. The seven units in the course cover the following topics: safety; revolver nomenclature and maintenance; inspecting revolvers and holsters; fundamentals of revolver shooting; legal issues and deadly force; range…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

20

GUIDELINES ON IMPLEMENTING A SECURE SOCKETS LAYER (SSL) VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN)  

E-print Network

GUIDELINES ON IMPLEMENTING A SECURE SOCKETS LAYER (SSL) VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN) By Sheila, offers practical guidelines on implementing a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) virtual private network (VPN). SSL VPNs provide secure remote access to an organization's resources. A VPN is a virtual network

21

The effects of social security privatization on household saving: evidence from the Chilean experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a handful of countries have converted the financing of their social security systems from pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) to partial or full funding. Privatization is viewed as one way to insulate social security from the political and demographic pressures that currently threaten the financial stability of PAYGO systems. However, privatization would improve a nation's situation only if such a

Julia Lynn Coronado

1998-01-01

22

The Effects of Social Security Privatization on Household Saving: Evidence from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a handful of countries have converted the financing of their social security systems from pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) to partial or full funding. Privatization is viewed as one way to insulate social security from the political and demographic pressures that currently threaten the financial stability of PAYGO systems. However, privatization would improve a nation's situation only if such a

Julia Lynn Coronado

2002-01-01

23

Implementation of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development  

SciTech Connect

This report documents implementation strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. This report details some of the efforts that have been implemented to leverage public and private resources, as well as implementation strategies to further leverage public and private resources.

None

2009-04-01

24

77 FR 35883 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractors Performing Private Security...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Register Volume 77, Number 116 (Friday, June...Supplement; Contractors Performing Private Security...references to the title of DoDI 3020.50...security contractors performing outside the United...on a substantial number of small entities...security contractors performing outside the...

2012-06-15

25

Efficient Retirement Design Combining Private Assets and Social Security to Maximize Retirement Resources  

E-print Network

#12;1 Efficient Retirement Design Combining Private Assets and Social Security to Maximize. This booklet is about a related subject - how to use your accumulated assets and your Social Security their Social Security benefits. Today people can start their benefits anytime between ages 62 and 70, subject

Straight, Aaron

26

Inter-BSs virtual private network for privacy and security enhanced 60 GHz radio-over-fiber system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel inter-basestations (inter-BSs) based virtual private network (VPN) for the privacy and security enhanced 60 GHz radio-over-fiber (RoF) system using optical code-division multiplexing (OCDM) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. By establishing inter-BSs VPN overlaying the network structure of a 60 GHz RoF system, the express and private paths for the communication of end-users under different BSs can be offered. In order to effectively establish the inter-BSs VPN, the OCDM encoding/decoding technology is employed in the RoF system. In each BS, a 58 GHz millimeter-wave (MMW) is used as the inter-BSs VPN channel, while a 60 GHz MMW is used as the common central station (CS)-BSs communication channel. The optical carriers used for the downlink, uplink and VPN link transmissions are all simultaneously generated in a lightwave-centralized CS, by utilizing four-wave mixing (FWM) effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The obtained results properly verify the feasibility of our proposed configuration of the inter-BSs VPN in the 60 GHz RoF system.

Zhang, Chongfu; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Wei; Qiu, Kun; Li, Changchun; Jiang, Ning

2013-06-01

27

77 FR 76076 - Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. app 2) and implementing regulation 41 CFR 101-6, announcement is made for the committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee. To discuss the matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector...

2012-12-26

28

Would a Privatized Social Security System Really Pay a Higher Rate of Return?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many advocates of social security privatization argue that rates of return under a defined contribution individual account system would be much higher for all than they are under the current social security system. This claim is false. The mistake comes from ignoring accrued benefits already promised based on past payroll taxes, and from underestimating the riskiness of stock investments. Confusion

Olivia S. Mitchell; Stephen P. Zeldes

1998-01-01

29

Authenticated, private, and secured smart cards (APS-SC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From historical perspective, the recent advancements in better antenna designs, low power circuitry integrations and inexpensive fabrication materials have made possible a miniature counter-measure against Radar, a clutter behaving like a fake target return called Digital Reflection Frequency Modulation (DRFM). Such a military counter-measure have found its way in the commerce as a near field communication known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a passive or active item tag T attached to every readable-writable Smart Card (SC): Passports ID, medical patient ID, biometric ID, driver licenses, book ID, library ID, etc. These avalanche phenomena may be due to the 3 rd Gen phones seeking much more versatile & inexpensive interfaces, than the line-of-sight bar-code optical scan. Despite of the popularity of RFID, the lacking of Authenticity, Privacy and Security (APS) protection restricted somewhat the wide spread commercial, financial, medical, legal, and militarily applications. Conventional APS approach can obfuscate a private passkey K of SC with the tag number T or the reader number R, or both, i.e. only T*K or R*K or both will appear on them, where * denotes an invertible operation, e.g. EXOR, but not limited to it. Then, only the authentic owner, knowing all, can inverse the operation, e.g. EXOR*EXOR= I to find K. However, such an encryption could be easily compromised by a hacker seeking exhaustively by comparison based on those frequently used words. Nevertheless, knowing biological wetware lesson for power of pairs sensors and Radar hardware counter-measure history, we can counter the counter-measure DRFM, instead using one RFID tag per SD, we follow the Nature adopting two ears/tags, e.g. each one holding portions of the ID or simply two different ID's readable only by different modes of the interrogating reader, followed by brain central processor in terms of nonlinear invertible shufflers mixing two ID bits. We prefer to adopt such a hardware-software combined hybrid approach because of a too limited phase space of a single RFID for any meaningful encryption approach. Furthermore, a useful biological lesson is not to put all eggs in one basket, "if you don't get it all, you can't hack it". According to the Radar physics, we can choose the amplitude, the frequency, the phase, the polarization, and two radiation energy supply principles, the capacitance coupling (~6m) and the inductance coupling (<1m), to code the pair of tags differently. A casual skimmer equipped with single-mode reader can not read all. We consider near-field and mid-field applications each in this paper. The near-field is at check-out counters or the convey-belt inventory involving sensitive and invariant data. The mid-field search & rescue involves not only item/person identification, but also the geo-location. If more RF power becomes cheaper & portable for longer propagation distance in the near future, then a triangulation with pair of secured readers, located at known geo-locations, could interrogate and identify items/persons and their locations in a GPS-blind environment.

Szu, Harold; Mehmood, Amir

2006-04-01

30

Identification of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the identification of strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP).There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. The leveraging of dollars serves many purposes. These include increasing the amount of training that can be delivered and therefore increasing the number of people reached, increasing the number and quality of public/private partnerships, and increasing the number of businesses that are involved in the training of their future workforce.

None

2009-02-01

31

Novel Quantum Virtual Private Network Scheme for PON via Quantum Secure Direct Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocols with quantum identification (QI) based on passive optical network (PON) architecture are proposed. One QSDC protocol can be implemented between two different optical network units just with simple configurations of PON by optical line terminal when they are in the same virtual private network after optical line terminal performing QI to the optical network units in the given PON architecture. The other QSDC protocol is also implemented between any two legitimated users in the virtual private network but with considerable reduction of workload of the optical line terminal. The security analysis shows that the proposed QSDC schemes with quantum identification are unconditionally secure and allow the legitimate users to exchange their secret information efficiently and to realize a quantum virtual private network in the PON networks ultimately.

Gong, Li-Hua; Liu, Ye; Zhou, Nan-Run

2013-09-01

32

European Private Security, Corporate Investigation and Military Services: Collective Security, Market Regulation and Structuring the Public Sphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the private security industry and public institutions and agencies is complex and by no means one-way. The industry assists and acts as a substitute for the public sphere, is governed by it, albeit in a partial and uneven manner, whilst restructuring the public sphere in pursuit of commercial advantage at home and abroad. This paper explores aspects

Nicholas Dorn; Michael Levi

2007-01-01

33

Effective Ways of Secure, Private and Trusted Cloud Computing  

E-print Network

Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing, where shared resources, software and information, are provided to computers and devices on-demand. It provides people the way to share distributed resources and services that belong to different organization. Since cloud computing uses distributed resources in open environment, thus it is important to provide the security and trust to share the data for developing cloud computing applications. In this paper we assess how can cloud providers earn their customers' trust and provide the security, privacy and reliability, when a third party is processing sensitive data in a remote machine located in various countries? A concept of utility cloud has been represented to provide the various services to the users. Emerging technologies can help address the challenges of Security, Privacy and Trust in cloud computing.

Kumar, Pardeep; Chauhan, Durg Singh; Gupta, P K; Diwakar, Manoj

2011-01-01

34

How Hispanics in the U.S. Fare Under the Privatization of Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The privatization of Social Security will harm Hispanics in the United States. Hispanics benefit greatly from the current system of Social Security because it helps people with the following characteristics: those who have (1) lower-than-average income, (2) higher incidence of disability, (3) more children per family, and (4) longer-than-average life expectancies. Unlike other ethnic\\/racial groups, Hispanics have all four of

Avery Blank

2012-01-01

35

Privatize  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Privatize site is a great place to create tweets with private links that can only be viewed by the people you mention. It's a nice way to share information with only a set few and it's a good way to create discrete offerings. Users simply need to login with their Twitter account to get started. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

Jackson, Bryn

36

Tenure security, private time preference, and use of natural resources among lowland Bolivian Amerindians  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the effect of tenure security and private time preference on the use of different types of natural resources, such as old-growth and fallow forests, fish, and game, we did a survey and a psychological experiment with 443 households in 42 villages of Yuracaré, Mojeńo, Tsimane’, and Chiquitano Indians in the Bolivian lowlands. Results of multivariate tobit regressions suggest

R. Godoy; K. Kirby; D. Wilkie

2001-01-01

37

PUF-Based RFID Authentication Secure and Private under Complete Memory Leakage  

E-print Network

PUF-Based RFID Authentication Secure and Private under Complete Memory Leakage Daisuke Moriyama1, Japan {dmoriyam, smatsuo}@nict.go.jp 2 Columbia University 3 Google, inc. Abstract. RFID tags-channel) attacks become a criti- cal threat. Another well known threat to RFID devices is tag tracing implying

38

The Effectiveness of an Electronic Security Management System in a Privately Owned Apartment Complex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poisson and negative binomial regression methods are used to analyze the monthly time series data to determine the effects of introducing an integrated security management system including closed-circuit television (CCTV), door alarm monitoring, proximity card access, and emergency call boxes to a large privately-owned complex of apartment…

Greenberg, David F.; Roush, Jeffrey B.

2009-01-01

39

Borrowing to Save: A Critique of Recent Proposals to Partially Privatize Social Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concern over Social Security's forecasted long-run deficit is occurring at a time when the program has a short-term surplus. One proposed strategy to address this forecasted deficit is to allow the investment of a portion of payroll taxes into private savings accounts (PSAs). The author analyzes recent proposals for PSAs and concludes that PSAs…

Dattalo, Patrick

2007-01-01

40

Liaisons Dangereuses: The Cooperation between Private Security Companies and Humanitarian Aid Agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hiring of private security companies (PSCs) by humanitarian aid agencies working in complex emergencies has so far received\\u000a only little attention in academic research and political parlance. Systematic data on the scope, type and impact of such collaboration\\u000a does not exist. According to a 2003 report by International Alert, “the impression, though, is that it is much wider than

Marc Boemcken

41

SoKey: New security architecture for zero-possibility private information leak in social networking applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose new security architecture, Socially Keyed (SoKey) architecture, to achieve zero possibility for personal information leak from social network sites (SNS). SoKey makes sure that the private information provided to a social networking server will never leak even in the worst cases, such as when the security administrators involve in information thefts, at the same time it allows flexible

Jacob W. Keister; Hiroshi Fujinoki; Clinton W. Bandy; Steven R. Lickenbrock

2011-01-01

42

Patient's perception of health information security: The case of selected public and private hospitals in Addis Ababa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information security in health sector is getting growing attention. In this connection, patient's perception about different aspects of health sector is worth considering. In this research, attempt has been made to assess and analyze patient's perception of health information security at some selected public and private hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Quantitative research approach using questionnaire as an instrument was

Tibebe Tesema; Dawn Medlin; Ajith Abraham

2010-01-01

43

On the Association Between SROs, Private Security Guards, Use-of-Force Capabilities, and Violent Crime in Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although school crime and the use of security measures to combat school crime has been the focus of a number of prior empirical studies, there is substantially less information known about the relationship between school resource officers (SROs) and private security guards in schools and school crime. Using data from the 2006 School Survey on Crime and Safety, this study

Jon Maskaly; Christopher M. Donner; Jennifer Lanterman; Wesley G. Jennings

2011-01-01

44

The effectiveness of an electronic security management system in a privately owned apartment complex.  

PubMed

Poisson and negative binomial regression methods are used to analyze the monthly time series data to determine the effects of introducing an integrated security management system including closed-circuit television (CCTV), door alarm monitoring, proximity card access, and emergency call boxes to a large privately-owned complex of apartment buildings in New York City. Crime rates in a control apartment complex under the same ownership, and in the police precinct in which the 2 complexes are located, serve as controls. PMID:19001121

Greenberg, David F; Roush, Jeffrey B

2009-02-01

45

Appears in Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Secure Network Protocols (NPSec 2005) Identity Theft Protection in Structured Overlays  

E-print Network

Appears in Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Secure Network Protocols (NPSec 2005) Identity Theft-scale stor- age. We identify the main attack in these networks as a form of P2P identity theft, where scale, use of low cost identities, and distribution across independent network domains, we cannot treat

Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

46

Appears in Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Secure Network Protocols (NPSec 2005) Identity Theft Protection in Structured Overlays #  

E-print Network

Appears in Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Secure Network Protocols (NPSec 2005) Identity Theft­scale stor­ age. We identify the main attack in these networks as a form of P2P identity theft, where scale, use of low cost identities, and distribution across independent network domains, we cannot treat

Zhao, Ben Y.

47

75 FR 51609 - Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities By the authority vested...local, tribal, and private sector entities, it is hereby ordered...local, tribal, and private sector (SLTPS) entities. Sec. 1.2. The...

2010-08-23

48

Secure Quantum Private Comparison of Equality Based on Asymmetric W State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Liu et al. (Opt. Commun. 284:3160, 2011) proposed a protocol for quantum private comparison of equality (QPCE) based on symmetric W state. However, Li et al. (Eur. Phys. J. D 66:110, 2012) pointed out that there is a flaw of information leak, and they proposed a new protocol based on EPR pairs. While examining these two protocols, we find that there exists a same flaw: the third party (TP) can know the comparison result. In this paper, through introducing and constructing a special class of asymmetric W state, a secure QPCE protocol based on this asymmetric W state is presented. Analysis shows the present protocol can not only effectively avoid the information leak found by Li et al., but also ensure TP would not get any information about the comparison result.

Liu, Wen-Jie; Liu, Chao; Wang, Hai-bin; Liu, Jing-Fa; Wang, Fang; Yuan, Xiao-Min

2014-06-01

49

Auditor decision-making in different litigation environments: The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act, audit reports and audit firm size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 had a marked impact on public accounting firms in the US by significantly reducing their liability exposure with respect to litigation involving publicly traded audit clients. This shift in the litigation environment of public accounting firms has been argued to have been manifest in changed auditor decisions regarding their

Marshall A. Geiger; K. Raghunandan; Dasaratha V. Rama

2006-01-01

50

Taxation of International Private Capital Flows and Securities Transactions in Developing Countries: Do Public Finance Considerations Augment the Macroeconomic Dividends?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines policies to tax international private capital flows and securities transactions in developing countries. Many recent studies focus on the macroeconomic dividends associated with these policies (namely, their contribution to macroeconomic and financial stability and lengthened investor time horizons). In this paper I explore whether the potential of these policies to raise much?needed tax revenues in developing countries

Ilene Grabel

2005-01-01

51

Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications Using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their off ices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (LAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the target site that is running the VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

2004-01-01

52

Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their offices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (IAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the. target site that is running the . VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

2004-01-01

53

17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...act as an exclusive election; any seller hereunder...to comply with the securities registration or broker-dealer...requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934...least $100 million in securities of issuers that are...Act or any business development company as defined...Retirement Income Security Act of 1974;...

2011-04-01

54

17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...act as an exclusive election; any seller hereunder...to comply with the securities registration or broker-dealer...requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934...least $100 million in securities of issuers that are...Act or any business development company as defined...Retirement Income Security Act of 1974;...

2013-04-01

55

17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...act as an exclusive election; any seller hereunder...to comply with the securities registration or broker-dealer...requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934...least $100 million in securities of issuers that are...Act or any business development company as defined...Retirement Income Security Act of 1974;...

2014-04-01

56

17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...act as an exclusive election; any seller hereunder...to comply with the securities registration or broker-dealer...requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934...least $100 million in securities of issuers that are...Act or any business development company as defined...Retirement Income Security Act of 1974;...

2012-04-01

57

Strategies for Developing Policies and Requirements for Secure and Private Electronic Commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While the Internet is dramatically changing the way business is conducted, security and privacy issues are of deeper concern\\u000a than ever before. A primary fault in evolutionary electronic commerce systems is the failure to adequately address security\\u000a and privacy issues; therefore, security and privacy policies are either developed as an afterthought to the system or not\\u000a at all. One reason

Annie I. Antón; Julia B. Earp

58

Reforming the Reform: Attempting Social Solidarity and Equity in Chile's Privatized Social Security System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the pension reform carried out by Chile's Bachelet administration in 2008. The goal of the reform was to expand the privatized pension system introduced by the Pinochet military government in 1980 by universalizing benefits, augmenting the value of pension, and reducing old-age poverty over time. The most important accomplishment of the reform legislation is to guarantee a

Silvia Borzutzky

2012-01-01

59

48 CFR 252.225-7039 - Contractors performing private security functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...countermeasures (other than the discharge of a weapon, including laser optical distracters, acoustic hailing devices, electromuscular...weapons, equipment, force protection, security, health, safety, or relations and interaction with locals; and (iv)...

2012-10-01

60

Network security vulnerabilities and personal privacy issues in Healthcare Information Systems: a case study in a private hospital in Turkey.  

PubMed

Healthcare industry has become widely dependent on information technology and internet as it moves from paper to electronic records. Healthcare Information System has to provide a high quality service to patients and a productive knowledge share between healthcare staff by means of patient data. With the internet being commonly used across hospitals, healthcare industry got its own share from cyber threats like other industries in the world. The challenge is allowing knowledge transfer to hospital staff while still ensuring compliance with security mandates. Working in collaboration with a private hospital in Turkey; this study aims to reveal the essential elements of a 21st century business continuity plan for hospitals while presenting the security vulnerabilities in the current hospital information systems and personal privacy auditing standards proposed by regulations and laws. We will survey the accreditation criteria in Turkey and counterparts in US and EU. We will also interview with medical staff in the hospital to understand the needs for personal privacy and the technical staff to perceive the technical requirements in terms of network security configuration and deployment. As hospitals are adopting electronic transactions, it should be considered a must to protect these electronic health records in terms of personal privacy aspects. PMID:23823398

Namo?lu, Nihan; Ulgen, Yekta

2013-01-01

61

O2O: Virtual Private Organizations to Manage Security Policy Interoperability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the interaction between systems is absolutely essential to achieve business continuity. There is a need to exchange and share services and resources. Unfortunately, this does not come without security problems. The organi- zations (companies, enterprizes, etc.) have to manage accesses to their services and resources by external opponents. O2O is a formal approach we suggest in this paper to

Frédéric Cuppens; Nora Cuppens-boulahia; Céline Coma

2006-01-01

62

Enabling private and public sector organizations as agents of homeland security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeland security and defense applications seek to reduce the risk of undesirable eventualities across physical space in real-time. With that functional requirement in mind, our work focused on the development of IP based agent telecommunication solutions for heterogeneous sensor \\/ robotic intelligent \\

David H. J. Glassco; Jordan C. Glassco

2006-01-01

63

Enabling private and public sector organizations as agents of homeland security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homeland security and defense applications seek to reduce the risk of undesirable eventualities across physical space in real-time. With that functional requirement in mind, our work focused on the development of IP based agent telecommunication solutions for heterogeneous sensor / robotic intelligent "Things" that could be deployed across the internet. This paper explains how multi-organization information and device sharing alliances may be formed to enable organizations to act as agents of homeland security (in addition to other uses). Topics include: (i) using location-aware, agent based, real-time information sharing systems to integrate business systems, mobile devices, sensor and actuator based devices and embedded devices used in physical infrastructure assets, equipment and other man-made "Things"; (ii) organization-centric real-time information sharing spaces using on-demand XML schema formatted networks; (iii) object-oriented XML serialization as a methodology for heterogeneous device glue code; (iv) how complex requirements for inter / intra organization information and device ownership and sharing, security and access control, mobility and remote communication service, tailored solution life cycle management, service QoS, service and geographic scalability and the projection of remote physical presence (through sensing and robotics) and remote informational presence (knowledge of what is going elsewhere) can be more easily supported through feature inheritance with a rapid agent system development methodology; (v) how remote object identification and tracking can be supported across large areas; (vi) how agent synergy may be leveraged with analytics to complement heterogeneous device networks.

Glassco, David H. J.; Glassco, Jordan C.

2006-05-01

64

Multi-level overlay techniques for improving DPL overlay control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay continues to be one of the key challenges for lithography in semiconductor manufacturing, especially in light of the accelerated pace of device node shrinks. This reality will be especially evident at 20nm node where DPL and multi-layer overlay will require 4nm or less in overlay control across many critical layers in order to meet device yield entitlements. The motivation for this paper is based on improving DPL overlay control in face of the high complexity involved with multi-layer overlay requirements. For example, the DPL-2nd-litho layer will need to achieve tight registration with the DPL-1st-litho layer, and at the same time, it will need to achieve tight overlay to the reference-litho layer, which in some cases can also be a DPL layer. Of course, multi-level overlay measurements are not new, but the combination of increased complexity of multi-DPL layers and extremely challenging overlay specifications for 20nm node together will necessitate a better understanding of multi-level overlay control, specifically in terms of root cause analysis of multi-layer related overlay errors and appropriate techniques for improvement In this paper, we start with the identification of specific overlay errors caused by multi-layer DPL processing on full film stack product wafers. After validation of these findings with inter-lot and intra-lot controlled experiments, we investigate different advanced control techniques to determine how to optimize overlay control and minimize both intra-lot and inter-lot sources of error. A new approach to overlay data analysis will also be introduced that combines empirical data with target image quality data to more accurately determine and better explain the root cause error mechanism as well as provide effective strategies for improved overlay control.

Chen, Charlie; Pai, Y. C.; Yu, Dennis; Pang, Peter; Yu, Chun Chi; Wu, Robert (Hsing-Chien); Huang, Eros (Chien Jen); Chen, Marson (Chiun-Chieh); Tien, David; Choi, Dongsub

2012-03-01

65

Electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of cathodic protection to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures has been well established. Application of a durable, skid-resistant electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay would advance the use of cathodic protection for the highway industry. Laboratory studies indicate that electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays using conductive fillers, such as calcined coke breeze, in conjunction with polyester or vinyl ester resins have resistivities of 1 to 10 ohm-cm. Both multiple-layer and premixed mortar-type overlays were made. Shear bond strengths of the conductive overlays to concrete substrates vary from 600 to 1300 psi, with the premixed overlays having bond strengths 50 to 100% higher than the multiple-layer overlays.

Fontana, J. J.; Webster, R. P.

1984-08-01

66

VirtualVirtual PrivatePrivate  

E-print Network

of VPNs When and why VPN? VPN Design Issues Security Issues VPN Examples: PPTP, L2TP, IPSec Overview #12;Raj Jain 3 What is a VPN?What is a VPN? Private Network: Uses leased lines Virtual Private Network: Uses public Internet Internet Service Provider #12;Raj Jain 4 Types of VPNsTypes of VPNs WAN VPN

Jain, Raj

67

Sociological investigation of infant overlaying death   

E-print Network

Overlaying was a common nineteenth century explanation of sudden infant death while bedsharing. This thesis shows that in many cases the term overlaying was a misnomer, and instead it identifies infant overlaying death ...

Sartain, Sheree

2012-11-28

68

BGP Path-State Overlays as an Alternative to BGPSEC  

E-print Network

Process BGP Process BGP Router Overlay Management Overlay Process BGP Router Standard BGP BGP Process Overlay Management Overlay Process BGP Standard BGP BGP Process BGP Process BGP Router Overlay Management

Politčcnica de Catalunya, Universitat

69

Defending against eclipse attacks on overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks are widely used to deploy functionality at edge nodes without changing network routers. Each node in an overlay network maintains pointers to a set of neighbor nodes. These pointers are used both to maintain the overlay and to implement application functionality, for example, to locate content stored by overlay nodes. If an attacker controls a large fraction of

Atul Singh; Miguel Castro; Peter Druschel; Antony I. T. Rowstron

2004-01-01

70

Strategies of Conflict in Coexisting Streaming Overlays  

E-print Network

Strategies of Conflict in Coexisting Streaming Overlays Chuan Wu, Baochun Li Department-to-peer streaming overlays, corresponding to channels of programming. With coex- isting streaming overlays, one to satisfy the required streaming rate in each overlay, as well as to minimize streaming costs. In this paper

Li, Baochun

71

Overlay similarity: a new overlay index for metrology tool and scanner overlay fingerprint methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For different CD metrologies like average CD from CD SEM and optical CD (OCD) from scatterometry, CD point-to-point R2 has been well adopted as the CD correlation index. For different overlay metrologies like image-based box-in-box overlay and scatterometry-based overlay, we propose the cosine similarity as the correlation index of overlay. The cosine similarity is a measure of similarity between two vectors of n dimensions by finding the cosine of the angle between them, often used to compare documents in text mining. It has been widely used in web and document search engines and can be used as the similarity index of overlay tool-to-tool matching and scanner tool-to-tool or day-to-day fingerprint. In this paper, we demonstrate that the cosine similarity has a very high sensitivity to the overly tool performance. We compared the similarities of three generations (A1, A2, A3) of the overlay tools of venders A and B and found that after target re-training and TIS correction on each tool A1 similarity to A3 can be improved from 0.9837 to 0.9951. Overlay point-to-point matching with A3 vs. A1 can be reduced from 4.8 to 2.1 nm. The tool precision similarities, i.e. tool self best similarity, for A1, A2, A3 and B are 0.9986, 0.9990, 0.9995, and 0.9994 respectively. From this table, we demonstrate that we can use old-generation overlay tool with suitable hardware maintenance, to match to the latest-generation overlay tool.

Ke, Chih-Ming; Kao, Ching-Pin; Wang, Yu-Hsi; Hu, Jimmy; Chang, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Ya-Jung; Yen, Anthony; Lin, Burn J.

2009-03-01

72

Secure and Robust Overlay Content Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the success of applications spurring the tremendous increase in the volume of data transfer, efficient and reliable content distribution has become a key issue. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has gained popularity as a promising approach to large-scale content distribution due to its benefits including self-organizing, load-balancing, and…

Kang, Hun Jeong

2010-01-01

73

Salary Predictors and Equity Issues for Student Affairs Administrators at Public and Private Institutions: From Dean to Director of Security.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regression analyses indicated that age of respondent and gender were the most consistent predictors of salary within many of the high-level student affairs positions at both public and private institutions. Degree was determined to be a significant predictor of salary, but in a negative direction. (Contains 25 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

Walker, David A.; Reason, Robert D.; Robinson, Daniel C.

2003-01-01

74

Investigation of Scanning Electron Microscope Overlay Metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with optics-based measurement, overlay measurement using scanning electron microscope (SEM) is more suitable for small overlay marks. Small overlay marks can be located freely in a chip. This method realizes highly accurate measurement. SEM overlay metrology has been studied in recent years. It has been reported that SEM-based overlay metrology is capable of making accurate measurements. Overlay marks of grooves were used in that case and signals were obtained easily from marks with topographic structure. We have investigated SEM overlay metrology using marks covered with flat oxide film and anti+reflection coating. Using voltage contrast images, we demonstrated that SEM is also capable of making accurate measurements in such a case. In this work, we examine the accuracy and precision of SEM-based overlay metrology using a mark covered with thick resist film. In addition, we investigated the effect of small overlay marks.

Koike, Toru; Ikeda, Takahiro; Abe, Hideaki; Komatsu, Fumio

1999-12-01

75

Grid Computing Security Lecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grid Computing Lecture~~Security: secure connection, authentication and authorization, password authentication, symmetric (secret) and asymmetric (public/private) key cyptography, RSA algorithm.

Dr. Clayton Ferner

2011-07-05

76

Fabrication of magnetic bubble memory overlay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-contained magnetic bubble memory overlay is fabricated by process that employs epitaxial deposition to form multi-layered complex of magnetically active components on single chip. Overlay fabrication comprises three metal deposition steps followed by subtractive etch.

1973-01-01

77

Censorship resistant overlay publishing Technical Report  

E-print Network

Censorship resistant overlay publishing Technical Report Department of Computer Science-027 Censorship resistant overlay publishing Eugene Y. Vasserman, Victor Heorhiadi, Yongdae Kim, and Nicholas J. Hopper November 01, 2011 #12;#12;Censorship resistant overlay publishing Eugene Y. Vasserman Kansas State

Minnesota, University of

78

20nm MOL overlay case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the process nodes continue to shrink, overlay budgets are approaching theoretical performance of the tools. It becomes even more imperative to improve overlay performance in order to maintain the roadmap for advance integrated circuit manufacturing. One of the critical factors in 20nm manufacturing is the overlay performance between the Middle of Line (MOL) and the Poly layer. The margin between these two layers was a process limiter, it was essential that we maintain a very tight overlay control between these layers. Due to various process and metrology related effects, maintaining good overlay control became a challenge. In this paper we describe the various factors affecting overlay performance and the measures taken to mitigate or eliminate said factors to improve overlay performance.

Subramany, Lokesh; Hsieh, Michael; Li, Chen; Koh, Hui Peng; Cho, David; Golotsvan, Anna; Ramanathan, Vidya; Karur Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Yap, Lipkong

2014-04-01

79

Mobile Virtual Private Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mĺrtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

80

Relativistic quantum private database queries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

2015-02-01

81

Membership-concealing overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the concept of membership-concealing overlay net- works (MCONs), which hide the real-world identities of partici- pants. We argue that while membership concealment is orthogo- nal to anonymity and censorship resistance, pseudonymous com- munication and censorship resistance become much easier if done over a membership-concealing network. We formalize the concept of membership concealment, discuss a number of attacks against

Eugene Y. Vasserman; Rob Jansen; James Tyra; Nicholas Hopper; Yongdae Kim

2009-01-01

82

On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers  

SciTech Connect

Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Guok, Chin; Jackson, Keith; Kissel, Ezra; Swany, D. Martin; Agarwal, Deborah

2009-10-12

83

Anonymous and Censorship-resistant Content-sharing in Unstructured Overlays Michael Backes1,2 Marek Hamerlik3 Alessandro Linari4  

E-print Network

Anonymous and Censorship-resistant Content-sharing in Unstructured Overlays Michael Backes1,2 Marek anonymous and censorship resistant search functionality in such networks. Although we utilize semantic over. General Terms: Performance, Security. Keywords: Semantic overlays, anonymity, censorship resistance. 1

Tryfonopoulos, Christos

84

Security  

E-print Network

“A virtual arms cache at your fingertips. HackNotes Linux and Unix Security Portable Reference is a valuable reference for busy administrators and consultants who value the condensed and practical insight to understanding the threats they face and how to practically utilize tools to test the security of their environments.”

Nitesh Dhanjani

85

Privatizing Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California legislation…

Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

2012-01-01

86

SECURE DOCUMENT ACCESS ARCHITECTURE BASED ON DISTRIBUTED FIREWALL AND  

E-print Network

the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Virtual Private Network (VPN) technique to secure the connection, network security. SSL VPN 1. (Virtual Private Network VPN) (Secure Socket Layer SSL) PPTPIPSec VPN TCP/IP (Denial of Service DoS) (Man

Yang, Kai-Hsiang

87

Is Private Speech Really Private  

E-print Network

This study sought to answer the question “is private speech really private?” by assessing if participants spoke more to themselves when in the company of the experimenter or when they were alone. The similarity between ...

Smith, Ashley

2011-01-01

88

An update on the DPL overlay discontinuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It could be argued that the biggest challenge of the 32 nm half pitch node is the production implementation of double patterning lithography. Within the framework of this broad domain, a specific challenge which has been highlighted is overlay control due to the sharing between two exposures the overlay control allocation of a single patterning step. The models used in

Mike Adel

2008-01-01

89

Opus: an overlay peer utility service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, an increasing number of important network services, such as content distribution, replicated services, and storage systems, are deploying overlays across multiple Internet sites to deliver better performance, reliability and adaptability. Currently however, such network services must individually reimplement substantially similar functionality. For example, applications must configure the overlay to meet their specific demands for scale, service quality and reliability.

Rebecca Braynard; Dejan Kostic; Adolfo Rodriguez; Jeff Chase; Amin Vahdat

2002-01-01

90

A concrete overlay on an asphalt road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placing a concrete overlay directly on top of an older asphalt pavement is a procedure that has been used sporadically by transportation agencies for the past quarter century. This practice is now receiving more attention because of initial cost savings and because this type of concrete overlay has shown better than average long-term performance as a resurfacing strategy.Nebraska Department of

Robert C. Rea; Wayne G. Jensen

2005-01-01

91

Overcast: Reliable Multicasting with an Overlay Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overcast is an application-level multicasting system that can be incrementally deployed using today's Internet infrastructure. These properties stem from Overcast's implementation as an overlay network. An overlay network consists of a collection of nodes placed at strategic locations in an existing network fabric. These nodes implement a network abstrac- tion on top of the network provided by the under- lying

John Jannotti; David K. Gifford; Kirk L. Johnson; M. Frans Kaashoek; James W. O'Toole Jr.

2000-01-01

92

Informed content delivery across adaptive overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks have emerged as a powerful and highly flexible method for delivering content. We study how to optimize throughput of large transfers across richly connected, adaptive overlay networks, focusing on the potential of collaborative transfers between peers to supplement ongoing downloads. First, we make the case for an erasure-resilient encoding of the content. Using the digital fountain encoding approach,

John W. Byers; Jeffrey Considine; Michael Mitzenmacher; Stanislav Rost

2004-01-01

93

77 FR 15566 - Private Transfer Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency...encumbered by certain types of private transfer fee covenants and in certain related securities...encumbered by certain private transfer fees. To allow full public participation...

2012-03-16

94

76 FR 6702 - Private Transfer Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency...encumbered by certain types of private transfer fee covenants and in certain related securities...proposed rule would except private transfer fees paid to homeowner associations,...

2011-02-08

95

Social Security: Cato Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Social Security Privatization is a web site developed by the Cato Institute that argues for privatizing Social Security to prevent future insolvency. The Social Security system currently collects more in taxes than benefits paid out, with the excess held in the Trust Fund. But this is expected to change in 2014 when the baby boomers and increased longevity of retirees is likely to result in benefits exceeding taxes collected. By 2031, the Trust Fund is expected to be exhausted. Suggestions for reforming Social Security include minor changes to the eligibility requirement or tax rates, allowing part of Social Security contributions to be invested freely, and totally privatizing Social Security.

96

Private Handshakes  

E-print Network

Private handshaking allows pairs of users to determine which (secret) groups they are both a member of. Group membership is kept secret to everybody else. Private handshaking is a more private form of secret handshaking, because it does not allow the group administrator to trace users. We extend the original definition of a handshaking protocol to allow and test for membership of multiple groups simultaneously. We present simple and efficient protocols for both the single group and multiple group membership case. Private handshaking is a useful tool for mutual authentication, demanded by many pervasive applications (including RFID) for privacy. Our implementations are efficient enough to support such usually resource constrained scenarios.

Hoepman, Jaap-Henk

2008-01-01

97

CFDP for Interplanetary Overlay Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol for Interplanetary Overlay Network (CFDP-ION) is an implementation of CFDP that uses IO' s DTN (delay tolerant networking) implementation as its UT (unit-data transfer) layer. Because the DTN protocols effect automatic, reliable transmission via multiple relays, CFDP-ION need only satisfy the requirements for Class 1 ("unacknowledged") CFDP. This keeps the implementation small, but without loss of capability. This innovation minimizes processing resources by using zero-copy objects for file data transmission. It runs without modification in VxWorks, Linux, Solaris, and OS/X. As such, this innovation can be used without modification in both flight and ground systems. Integration with DTN enables the CFDP implementation itself to be very simple; therefore, very small. Use of ION infrastructure minimizes consumption of storage and processing resources while maximizing safety.

Burleigh, Scott C.

2011-01-01

98

SWOON: A Testbed for Secure Wireless Overlay Networks Y. L. Huang, J. D. Tygar, H. Y. Lin, L. Y. Yeh, H. Y. Tsai, K. Sklower, S. P. Shieh, C. C. Wu,  

E-print Network

heterogeneous wireless networks, such as WSN, WiMAX or 3GPP. 1 Introduction Cyber-security problems need special directly since these simulators, abstracting some sys- tem attributes, do not model the bottlenecks from project provides a safe testbed that can match the threat level of the experi- ments. DETER in its current

Tygar, Doug

99

Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

Technology & Learning, 2008

2008-01-01

100

Privatizing Australia  

SciTech Connect

The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

Burr, M.T.

1995-07-01

101

An update on the DPL overlay discontinuity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It could be argued that the biggest challenge of the 32 nm half pitch node is the production implementation of double patterning lithography. Within the framework of this broad domain, a specific challenge which has been highlighted is overlay control due to the sharing between two exposures the overlay control allocation of a single patterning step. The models used in the literature to support this assertion are reviewed and compared with recent results. An analysis of the implications for overlay metrology performance and cost of ownership is presented and compared with actual capabilities currently available with both imaging and scatterometry sensor technology. Technology matching between imaging and scatterometry emerges as a requirement to enable combined imaging scatterometry overlay control use cases.

Adel, Mike

2008-11-01

102

Analysis of Overlay Network Impact on Dependability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, peer-to-peer systems have become widely accepted and are probably the most recognizable examples of distributed applications. As they are maturing and their functionalities are becoming increasingly complex, the need for dependable solutions arises. In particular peer-to-peer systems' dependability is immensely influenced by their virtual overlay networks. The paper presents the results of analysis of diverse overlay networks with respect

Piotr Karwaczynski; Jan Kwiatkowski

2005-01-01

103

Investigation of dielectric overlay microstrip circuits  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATION OF DIELECTRIC OVERLAY MICROSTRIP CIRCUITS A Thesis by JAMES LOUIS KLEIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major... Subject: Electrical Engineering INVESTIGATION OF DIELECTRIC OVERLAY MICRO STRIP CIRCUITS A Thesis by JAMES LOUIS KLEIN Approved as to style and content by: Kai Chang Robert D. Nevels (Member) Krzysztof A. Michalski (Member) Mark H. Weichold...

Klein, James Louis

1988-01-01

104

Overcast: Reliable Multicasting with an Overlay Network  

E-print Network

Overcast is an application-level multicasting system that can be incrementally deployed using today's Internet infrastructure. These properties stem from Overcast's implementation as an overlay network. An overlay network consists of a collection of nodes placed at strategic locations in an existing network fabric. These nodes implement a network abstraction on top of the network provided by the underlying substrate network.

John Jannotti; David K. Gifford; Kirk L. Johnson; M. Frans Kaashoek; James W. O& apos; Toole, Jr.; M. Frans; Kaashoek James

2000-01-01

105

Food Security of Low-Income Single Parents in East Alabama: Use of Private and Public Programs in the Age of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a strong economy, the use of private, non- profit food assistance is increasing. To determine how single parenthood affects the use of both public and private food assistance, a sample of food bank clients and low-income, food-needy non-clients in East Alabamawas interviewed. Overall, single-parent food-pantry clients indicated higher levels of food insecurity than other groups, but the non-clients who

Patricia A. Duffy; Joseph J. Molnar; LaToya Claxton; Conner Bailey; Steve Mikloucich

106

A moving overlay shrinks the attentional blink.  

PubMed

This report describes a study examining the effects of overlaying a veil of spots on the letters in a central rapid serial visual presentation stream. Observers identified two target letters (T1 and T2, respectively) embedded in a stream of distractor letters printed in a different color. In Experiment 1, the attentional blink (AB) diminished when a different overlay veiled each letter, such that the spots appeared to move as the letters changed. Experiment 2 concerned whether the performance enhancement occurred because the overlay hampered processing of the lag 1 distractor, thus weakening the distractor's interference with T1. Experiment 3 focused on how changing the overlay at or around T1 affected the AB. The attention disengagement hypothesis was proposed to explain the common theme in the results-that performance was only enhanced when different overlays were applied to the T1 and lag 1 frames. The claim is that the AB reflects a failure of prompt attentional disengagement from T1, which, in turn, delays reengagement when T2 appears shortly thereafter. When T1's disappearance is accompanied by an overlay change, the perceptual system gets an additional cue signaling that the visual scene has changed, thereby inducing attentional disengagement. Apart from facilitating prompt reengagement at the next target, earlier disengagement also improves target recovery by excluding features of the trailing item, likely to be a distractor, from working memory. PMID:25245077

Chua, Fook K

2015-01-01

107

Interacting epidemics on overlay networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between multiple pathogens spreading on networks connecting a given set of nodes presents an ongoing theoretical challenge. Here, we aim to understand such interactions by studying bond percolation of two different processes on overlay networks of arbitrary joint degree distribution. We find that an outbreak of a first pathogen providing immunity to another one spreading subsequently on a second network connecting the same set of nodes does so most effectively if the degrees on the two networks are positively correlated. In that case, the protection is stronger the more heterogeneous the degree distributions of the two networks are. If, on the other hand, the degrees are uncorrelated or negatively correlated, increasing heterogeneity reduces the potential of the first process to prevent the second one from reaching epidemic proportions. We generalize these results to cases where the edges of the two networks overlap to arbitrary amount, or where the immunity granted is only partial. If both processes grant immunity to each other, we find a wide range of possible situations of coexistence or mutual exclusion, depending on the joint degree distribution of the underlying networks and the amount of immunity granted mutually. These results generalize the concept of a coexistence threshold and illustrate the impact of large-scale network structure on the interaction between multiple spreading agents.

Funk, Sebastian; Jansen, Vincent A. A.

2010-03-01

108

Transaction Structures in the Developing World: Evidence from Private Equity  

E-print Network

While variations in public securities markets across nations have attracted increasing scrutiny, private financings have received little attention. But in developing nations, the bulk of financings are private ones. This ...

Lerner, Josh

2004-05-28

109

32 CFR 552.124 - Transportation of privately owned weapons and ammunition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation of privately owned weapons and ammunition. 552.124 Section 552.124 ...RESERVATIONS Physical Security of Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington...Transportation of privately owned weapons and ammunition. (a) Privately owned firearms...

2010-07-01

110

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

111

Medieval Security in the Modern State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The size of the private security industry has increased substantially in recent decades. While previous research has focused on the industry's growth trajectory, less emphasis has been placed on explaining the nature and diversity of private security services. This article investigates the possibility of studying private security with the feudal model. Feudalism is introduced as an ideal type and

Joshua Woods

2010-01-01

112

Design-overlay interactions in metal double patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In double patterning lithography (DPL), overlay error between two patterning steps at the same layer translates into CD variability. Since CD uniformity budget is very tight, overlay control becomes a tough challenge for DPL. In this paper, we electrically evaluate overlay error for BEOL DPL with the goal of studying relative effects of different overlay sources and interactions of overlay control with design parameters. Experimental results show the following: (a) overlay electrical impact is not significant in case of positive-tone DPL (< 3.4% average capacitance variation) and should be the base for determining overlay budget requirement; (b) when considering congestion, overlay electrical impact reduces in positivetone DPL; (c) Design For Manufacturability (DFM) techniques like wire spreading can have a large effect on overlay electrical impact (20% increase of spacing can reduce capacitance variation by 22%); (d) translation overlay has the largest electrical impact compared to other overlay sources; and (e) overlay in y direction (x for horizontal metalization) has negligible electrical impact and, therefore, preferred routing direction should be taken into account for overlay sampling and alignment strategies.

Ghaida, Rani S.; Gupta, Puneet

2009-03-01

113

Usage of overlay metrology simulator in design of overlay metrology tools for the 65-nm node and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirement for state-of-the-art performance by overlay metrology at the 65nm technology node drives the development and design of new optical metrology solutions. The use of measurement modeling is increasing, affecting the tool concepts, tolerances, and calibrations, as well as the overlay target design. In this article, we present our overlay metrology simulation platform, developed in-house, and its central role in optical performance modeling. The simulation validation tests are presented using standard overlay test wafers. The impact of residual optical aberrations with different overlay targets is simulated, emphasizing the degree of control needed to support overlay measurement methodology.

Simovitch, Yariv; Gov, Shahar

2004-05-01

114

Transaction Structures in the Developing World: Evidence from Private Equity  

E-print Network

While variations in public securities markets across nations have attracted increasing scrutiny, private financings have received little attention. But in developing nations, the bulk of financings are ...

Lerner, Josh

2004-12-10

115

Weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

SciTech Connect

A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-03-03

116

Occupational Culture in Policing Reviewed: A Comparison of Values in the Public and Private Police  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen an increasing privatization of the security sector, leading to an intermingling of private and public policing and a possible “value-shift” for the overall security policy. Systematic comparative research between police and private security values is, however, still lacking. This article intends to help filling this void by giving an overview of literature on values and occupational

Kim Loyens

2009-01-01

117

DCM: device correlated metrology for overlay measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main issues with overlay error metrology accuracy is the bias between results based on overlay (OVL) targets and actual device overlay error. In this study, we introduce the concept of Device Correlated Metrology (DCM), which is a systematic approach to quantifying and overcoming the bias between target-based overlay results and device overlay issues. For systematically quantifying the bias components between target and device, we introduce a new hybrid target integrating an optical OVL target with a device mimicking CD-SEM (Critical Dimension - Scanning Electron Microscope) target. The hybrid OVL target is designed to accurately represent the process influence found on the real device. In the general case, the CD-SEM can measure the bias between target and device on the same layer at AEI (After Etch Inspection) for all layers, the OVL between layers at AEI for most cases and at ADI (After Develop Inspection) for limited cases such as DPL (Double Patterning Lithography). The results shown demonstrate that for the new process compatible hybrid targets the bias between target and device is small, of the order of CD-SEM measurement uncertainty. Direct OVL measurements by CD-SEM show excellent correlation with optical OVL measurements in certain conditions. This correlation helps verify the accuracy of the optical measurement results and is applicable for imaging based OVL metrology methods using AIM or AIMid OVL targets, and scatterometry-based overlay methods such as SCOL (Scatterometry OVL). Future plans include broadening the hybrid target design to better mimic each layer's process conditions such as pattern density. We are also designing hybrid targets for memory devices.

Chen, Charlie; Huang, George K. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Wu, Jimmy C. H.; Cheng, Yu Wei; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Yu, Chun Chi; Amir, Nuriel; Choi, Dongsub; Itzkovich, Tal; Tarshish-Shapir, Inna; Tien, David C.; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Kato, Takeshi; Inoue, Osamu; Kawada, Hiroki; Okagawa, Yutaka; Huang, Luis; Hsu, Matthew; Su, Amei

2013-04-01

118

Proposals to Restructure Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses five proposed changes in Social Security: indexing the normal retirement age to life expectancy (as Sweden is doing); investing part of the trust funds in private securities; partial privatization (as has been proposed by Senators Kerrey and Simpson, Sweden is doing and Mexico has done); replacing Social Security by individually mandated savings (as was done in Chile

Peter A. Diamond

1996-01-01

119

Global Intrusion Detection in the DOMINO Overlay System Anonymous Submission  

E-print Network

Global Intrusion Detection in the DOMINO Overlay System Anonymous Submission Abstract Sharing data between widely distributed intrusion detection systems offers the possibility of significant im (Distributed Overlay for Monitoring InterNet Outbreaks); an architecture for a distributed intrusion detection

Jha, Somesh

120

KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

Plesea, Lucian

2007-01-01

121

Medical Progress and Supplementary Private Health Insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many welfare states, tightening financial constraints suggest excluding some medical services, including new ones, from social security coverage. This may create opportunities for private health insurance. This study analyses the performance of supplementary private health insurance (SPHI) in markets for excluded services in terms of population covered, risk selection and insurer profits. Using a utility-based simulation model, the insurance

Reiner Leidl

2003-01-01

122

OVERLAY PUBLICATIONS: A FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW OF THE CONCEPT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tackles the issues of overlay publications (journals, but also edited monographs and books in general). Its two parts are aimed at providing theoreti- cal understanding of what an overlay publication is and at examining a concrete example of a print on demand overlay book, published after the free digital ver- sion was released. The first part takes into

Nicola Cavalli

123

QRON: QoS-aware routing in overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, many overlay applications have emerged in the Internet. Currently, each of these applications requires their proprietary functionality support. A general unified framework may be a desirable alternative to application-specific overlays. We introduce the concept of overlay brokers (OBs). We assume that each autonomous system in the Internet has one or more OBs. These OBs cooperate with each other to

Zhi Li; Prasant Mohapatra

2004-01-01

124

Impact of reticle writing errors on the on-product overlay performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The on-product overlay specification and Advanced Process Control (APC) are getting extremely challenging particularly after the introduction of multi-patterning applications like Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE). While the Reticle Writing Error (RWE) contribution could be marginalized for quite some time in the layer-to-layer overlay budget, it will become one of the dominating overlay contributors when the intra-layer overlay budget is considered. While most of the overlay contributors like wafer processing, scanner status, reticle transmission, dose, illumination conditions drop out of the intra-layer overlay budget, this is certainly not the case for reticle to reticle writing differences. In this work, we have studied the impact of the RWE on the on-product overlay performance. We show that the RWE can be characterized by an off-line mask registration tool and the modelled results can be sent as feed-forward corrections to the ASML TWINSCANTM. By doing so, the overlay control complexity (e.g. send-ahead wafers, APC settling time) can be reduced significantly. Off-line characterization enables that all reticles virtually become equal after correction (at least to the level of correction capability of the scanner). This means that all higher order RWE contributions (currently up to a third order polynomial) can be removed from the fingerprint. We show that out of 50 production reticles (FEOL, 28-nm technology), 30% can be improved on residual level when non-linear feed-forward corrections are considered as well. The additional benefit of feeding forward linear corrections to the scanner is even higher: it is anticipated that a large portion of the APC variation might find its origin in the RWE contribution. In order to send feed-forward corrections to the scanner, we obviously rely on the quality of the off-line RWE measurements. These measurements are usually provided by a registration tool at the mask shop. To secure the quality, an independent experimental verification test was developed to check if off-line RWE measurements can be used as feed-forward corrections to the scanner. The test has been executed on an ASML NXT: 1950i scanner and was designed such to isolate the reticle writing error contribution. The match between the off-line measurements and the experiment is striking.

van Haren, Richard; Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Liu, Xing Lan; Beltman, Jan; Pastol, Anne; Massin, Jean; Dupre La Tour, Emilie; Gatefait, Maxime; Sundermann, Frank

2014-10-01

125

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400C and their erosion resistance and microstructure evaluated. Steady state erosion rates were similar for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625, Iron-Aluminide, 316L SS, and High Chromium Cast Iron) and were considerably lower than the remaining coating evaluated. These coatings had different base (Co, Fe, Ni-base). No correlations were found between room temperature microhardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature, although this criteria is often thought to be an indicator of erosion resistance. It was suggested that the coatings that showed similar erosion rates may have similar mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates at this temperature. During the past quarter, Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were selected for more detailed investigations based upon the preliminary erosion test results. Microhardness tests were performed on eroded samples to determine the size of the work hardened zone and change in coatings hardness due to erosion. The work hardened zone was correlated with erosion resistance of the coatings. Additional Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates.

Levin, B. F.; Dupont, J. N.; Marder, A. R.

1994-01-01

126

7 CFR 1962.41 - Sale of chattel security or EO property by borrowers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...borrower's indebtedness. (b) Private sale. The borrower may sell chattel security or EO property at a private sale if: (1)(i) The borrower...the security at either public or private sale. If the agency hires a...

2010-01-01

127

Making the Gigabit IPsec VPN Architecture Secure  

Microsoft Academic Search

By placing the security processors directly in the data path to secure traffic without the aid of additional outside devices or software, the flow-through security device creates a virtual private network that maximizes network processing unit host offload with minimal system integration effort. A virtual private network uses the Internet protocol security (IPsec) framework to provide confidentiality, data integrity, and

Robert Friend

2004-01-01

128

NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY Off-Campus Private Party Registration Policy  

E-print Network

is informing the University that the property owner or management company at the location of the event has been to request security services at private student social events located at private residences near the De student's private off-campus residence in the DeKalb community. The student-host's name must be listed

Kostic, Milivoje M.

129

75 FR 66822 - Study on Extraterritorial Private Rights of Action  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...4-617] Study on Extraterritorial Private Rights of Action AGENCY: Securities and Exchange...determine the extent to which private rights of action under the antifraud provisions...conduct a study to determine whether private rights of action should be similarly...

2010-10-29

130

Sample Occupations Airline Security Specialist  

E-print Network

Corporate Security Officer Correctional Officer Court Diversion Specialist Crime Lab Analyst Crime Mapper Maritime Drug Interdiction Agent Medical Examiner Military Intelligence Analyst Military Police Officer Private Security Specialist Probation Counselor/Officer Research Analyst Risk Assessment Analyst Secret

Ronquist, Fredrik

131

Private database queries using one quantum state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel private database query protocol with only one quantum state is proposed. The database owner Bob sends only one quantum state to the user Alice. The proposed protocol combines the idea of semiquantum key distribution and private query. It can be implemented in the situation where not all the parties can afford expensive quantum resources and operations. So our proposal is more practical in use. We also prove that the proposed protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou; Yang, Rui

2015-03-01

132

Governance and Risk Management of Network and Information Security: The Role of Public Private Partnerships in Managing the Existing and Emerging Risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globalisation and new technology has opened the gates to more security risks. As the strategic importance of communication networks and information increased, threats to the security and safety of communication infrastructures, as well as information stored in and/or transmitted increased significantly. The development of the self replicating programmes has become a nightmare for Internet users. Leading companies, strategic organisations were not immune to attacks; they were also "hacked" and overtaken by intruders. Incidents of recent years have also shown that national/regional crisis may also trigger cyber attacks at large scale. Experts forecast that cyber wars are likely to take the stage as tension mounts between developed societies. New risks such as cyber-attacks, network terrorism and disintegration of traditional infrastructures has somewhat blurred the boundaries of operation and control. This paper seeks to consider the risk management and governance and looking more specifically at implications for emerging economies.

Navare, Jyoti; Gemikonakli, Orhan

133

Overlay leaves litho: impact of non-litho processes on overlay and compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the ITRS roadmap [1], the overlay requirement for the 28nm node is 8nm. If we compare this number with the performance given by tool vendors for their most advanced immersion systems (which is < 3nm), there seems to remain a large margin. Does that mean that today's leading edge Fab has an easy life? Unfortunately not, as other contributors affecting overlay are emerging. Mask contributions and so-called non-linear wafer distortions are known effects that can impact overlay quite significantly. Furthermore, it is often forgotten that downstream (post-litho) processes can impact the overlay as well. Thus, it can be required to compensate for the effects of subsequent processes already at the lithography operation. Within our paper, we will briefly touch on the wafer distortion topic and discuss the limitations of lithography compensation techniques such as higher order corrections versus solving the root cause of the distortions. The primary focus will be on the impact of the etch processes on the pattern placement error. We will show how individual layers can get affected differently by showing typical wafer signatures. However, in contrast to the above-mentioned wafer distortion topic, lithographic compensation techniques can be highly effective to reduce the placement error significantly towards acceptable levels (see Figure 1). Finally we will discuss the overall overlay budget for a 28nm contact to gate case by taking the impact of the individual process contributors into account.

Ruhm, Matthias; Schulz, Bernd; Cotte, Eric; Seltmann, Rolf; Hertzsch, Tino

2014-10-01

134

Overlay Tolerances For VLSI Using Wafer Steppers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order for VLSI circuits to function properly, the masking layers used in the fabrication of those devices must overlay each other to within the manufacturing tolerance incorporated in the circuit design. The capabilities of the alignment tools used in the masking process determine the overlay tolerances to which circuits can be designed. It is therefore of considerable importance that these capabilities be well characterized. Underestimation of the overlay accuracy results in unnecessarily large devices, resulting in poor utilization of wafer area and possible degradation of device performance. Overestimation will result in significant yield loss because of the failure to conform to the tolerances of the design rules. The proper methodology for determining the overlay capabilities of wafer steppers, the most commonly used alignment tool for the production of VLSI circuits, is the subject of this paper. Because cost-effective manufacturing process technology has been the driving force of VLSI, the impact on productivity is a primary consideration in all discussions. Manufacturers of alignment tools advertise the capabilities of their equipment. It is notable that no manufacturer currently characterizes his aligners in a manner consistent with the requirements of producing very large integrated circuits, as will be discussed. This has resulted in the situation in which the evaluation and comparison of the capabilities of alignment tools require the attention of a lithography specialist. Unfortunately, lithographic capabilities must be known by many other people, particularly the circuit designers and the managers responsible for the financial consequences of the high prices of modern alignment tools. All too frequently, the designer or manager is confronted with contradictory data, one set coming from his lithography specialist, and the other coming from a sales representative of an equipment manufacturer. Since the latter generally attempts to make his merchandise appear as attractive as possible, the lithographer is frequently placed in the position of having to explain subtle issues in order to justify his decisions. It is the purpose of this paper to provide that explanation.

Levinson, Harry J.; Rice, Rory

1988-01-01

135

Identity theft protection in structured overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured peer-to-peer (P2P) overlays rely on consistent and robust key-based routing to support large-scale network applications such as multicast and global-scale storage. We identify the main attack in these networks as a form of P2P identity theft, where a malicious node in the path of a message claims it is the desired destination node. Attackers can hijack route and lookup

Lakshmi Ganesh; Ben Y. Zhao

2005-01-01

136

Vertical Handoffs in Wireless Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We present extensions to a traditional cellular [Ses95] handoff system to handle the simultaneous operation of multiplewireless network interfaces. This new system allows mobile users to roam in a "Wireless Overlay Network"structure consisting of room-size, building-size, and wide-area data networks. In this structure, the user can connectto the wired network through multiple wireless subnets, and offers the best possible

Mark Stemm; Randy H. Katz

1998-01-01

137

Bundle Security Protocol for ION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

2011-01-01

138

Privatization and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private

Dash, Neena

2009-01-01

139

CYCLON: Inexpensive Membership Management for Unstructured P2P Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unstructured overlays form an important class of peer-to-peer networks, notably when content-based searching is at stake. The construction of these overlays, which is es- sentially a membership management issue, is crucial. Ideally, the resulting overlays should have low diameter and be resilient to massive node failures, which are both characteristic properties of random graphs. In addition, they should be able

Spyros Voulgaris; Daniela Gavidia; Maarten Van Steen

2005-01-01

140

Adaptive lookup for unstructured peer-to-peer overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalability and efficient global search in unstructured peer-to-peer overlays have been extensively studied in the literature. The global search comes at the expense of local interactions between peers. Most of the unstructured peer-to-peer overlays do not provide any performance guarantee. In this work we propose a novel Quality of Service enabled lookup for unstructured peer-to-peer overlays that will allow the

K. Haribabu; Dayakar Reddy; Chittaranjan Hota; Antti Ylä-jääski; Sasu Tarkoma

2008-01-01

141

Scanner grid recipe creation improvement for tighter overlay specifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay specifications are tightening with each lithography technology node. As a result, there is a need to improve overlay control methodologies to make them more robust and less time- or effort-consuming, but without any compromise in quality. Two concepts aimed at improving the creation of scanner grid recipes in order to meet evertightening overlay specifications are proposed in this article. Simulations will prove that these concepts can achieve both goals, namely improving overlay control performance and reducing the time and effort required to do so. While more studies are needed to fine-tune the parameters to employ, the trends presented in this paper clearly show the benefits.

Cotte, Eric; Kathiresan, Hariharasudhan; Ruhm, Matthias; Schulz, Bernd; Schulze, Uwe

2013-10-01

142

Real cell overlay measurement through design based metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recent device nodes, lithography has been struggling to improve its resolution limit. Even though next generation lithography technology is now facing various difficulties, several innovative resolution enhancement technologies, based on 193nm wavelength, were introduced and implemented to keep the trend of device scaling. Scanner makers keep developing state-of-the-art exposure system which guarantees higher productivity and meets a more aggressive overlay specification. "The scaling reduction of the overlay error has been a simple matter of the capability of exposure tools. However, it is clear that the scanner contributions may no longer be the majority component in total overlay performance. The ability to control correctable overlay components is paramount to achieve the desired performance.(2)" In a manufacturing fab, the overlay error, determined by a conventional overlay measurement: by using an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO, often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area of a memory device. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion, caused by etching or CMP, also can be a source of the mismatch. Therefore, the requirement of a direct overlay measurement in the cell pattern gradually increases in the manufacturing field, and also in the development level. In order to overcome the mismatch between conventional overlay measurement and the real placement error of layer to layer in the cell area of a memory device, we suggest an alternative overlay measurement method utilizing by design, based metrology tool. A basic concept of this method is shown in figure1. A CD-SEM measurement of the overlay error between layer 1 and 2 could be the ideal method but it takes too long time to extract a lot of data from wafer level. An E-beam based DBM tool provides high speed to cover the whole wafer with high repeatability. It is enabled by using the design as a reference for overlay measurement and a high speed scan system. In this paper, we have demonstrated that direct overlay measurement in the cell area can distinguish the mismatch exactly, instead of using overlay mark. This experiment was carried out for several critical layer in DRAM and Flash memory, using DBM(Design Based Metrology) tool, NGR2170™.

Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Lee, Taehyeong; Ji, Sunkeun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun

2014-04-01

143

Interfield sampling method dependency of overlay and global alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the classical calculation of overlay margin as 1/4 design rule, the overlay control requirement for sub-0.15 micrometer design rule device is nominally below 40 nm. To meet this demand, it is necessary that one should analyze every part in global alignment and overlay measurement procedure, then factor out the parameter that is known to affect overlay control, and correct it as much as possible. One of the major causes degrading overlay budget seems to be the nonoptimized wafer sampling method. Compensated but undercorrected overlay errors usually fitted as linear terms can be amplified due to improper sampling method e.g. asymmetric one. In this paper, we have investigated the possible causes that yield global alignment noise and the sampling method dependency of global alignment repeatability and overlay model calculations. The achievement of better alignment repeatability is critical for improving not only in- wafer overlay but wafer-to-wafer overlay control. It is thus evident that overlay control can be improved by reducing alignment noises or by optimizing sampling method. Global alignment repeatability and its results are significantly affected by which chips in a wafer map are selected as global alignment purpose. This result can be understood as noise margin is different for each sampling plan and there exists an optimal sampling method. We tested several sampling methods that belong to symmetric group (translation, inversion, rotation symmetric), which are known to show better noise margin. The criteria to select the best sampling method were residual and linear term reproducibility which are significantly affected by raw data noise. The raw data variations include stage position errors and process induced alignment signal abnormality. We found among the candidates the optimal sampling method which leaves the least residual and shows as good repeatability as full chip measurement. Similar results could be obtained for overlay sampling method.

Hong, Jin; Lee, Junghyun; Cho, Hanku; Moon, Joo-Tae; Lee, Sang-In

2000-06-01

144

33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2010-07-01

145

33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2011-07-01

146

33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2010-07-01

147

33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2011-07-01

148

33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2013-07-01

149

33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2014-07-01

150

33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2014-07-01

151

33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2012-07-01

152

33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2012-07-01

153

33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2013-07-01

154

On the Design of Virtual Machine Sandboxes for Distributed Computing in Wide-area Overlays of Virtual Workstations  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent advances in virtual computing and the revelation that compute-intensive tasks run well on system virtual machines (VMs), the ability to develop, deploy, and manage distributed systems has been ameliorated. This paper explores the design space of VM-based sandboxes where the following techniques that facilitate the deployment of secure nodes in wide-area overlays of virtual workstations (WOWs) are employed:

David Isaac Wolinsky; Abhishek Agrawal; P. Oscar Boykin; Justin R. Davis; Arijit Ganguly; Vladimir Paramygin; Y. Peter Sheng; Renato J. Figueiredo

2006-01-01

155

Scalable Consistency Management in Dynamic Content Distribution Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content distribution overlays improves end-user performance by replicating Web contents on a group of geographically distributed sites interconnected over the Internet. However, with the development whereby overlay systems can manage dynamically (Ganguly et al., 2005) changing files, an important issue to be resolved is consistency management, which means the cached replicas on different sites must be updated if the originals

Zhou Su; Jiro Katto; Y. Yasuhiko

2005-01-01

156

Spectrum allocation with beamforming antenna in heterogeneous overlaying networks  

E-print Network

1 Spectrum allocation with beamforming antenna in heterogeneous overlaying networks Sunheui Ryoo spectrum reuse. In this paper, we explore schemes to mitigate cross-tier interference with beamforming antennas for overlay networks. In our model, fem- tocells can operate with frequency spectrum

Bahk, Saewoong

157

On Churn and Communication Delays in Social Overlays  

E-print Network

-based system in use, Freenet [2], is commonly ascribed to the class of P2P systems. Social overlays haveOn Churn and Communication Delays in Social Overlays Giuliano Mega, Alberto Montresor, and Gian network that mirrors the social relationships among the nodes' owners are increasingly attracting interest

Montresor, Alberto

158

An Efficient FPGA Overlay for Portable Custom Instruction Set Extensions  

E-print Network

An Efficient FPGA Overlay for Portable Custom Instruction Set Extensions Dirk Koch,, Christian this approach is commonly tailored to one specific FPGA system, we are presenting a fine-grained FPGA-like overlay architecture which can be implemented in the user logic of various FPGA families from different

Lemieux, Guy

159

Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks are widely used to deploy func- tionality at edge nodes without changing network routers. Each node in an overlay network maintains connections with a number of peers, forming a graph upon which a distributed application or service is implemented. In an \\

Atul Singh; Tsuen-wan Ngan; Peter Druschel; Dan S. Wallach

2006-01-01

160

Residual stress measurement in 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welding overlay repair (WOR) is commonly employed to rebuild piping systems suffering from intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). To understand the effects of this repair, it is necessary to investigate the distribution of residual stresses in the welding pipe. The overlay welding technique must induce compressive residual stress at the inner surface of the welded pipe to prevent IGSCC. To

Hung-Ju Yen; Mark Ching-Cheng Lin; Lih-Jin Chen

1996-01-01

161

Anonymity and Censorship Resistance in Unstructured Overlay Networks  

E-print Network

Anonymity and Censorship Resistance in Unstructured Overlay Networks Michael Backes4, Marek anonymity and censorship resistance in semantic overlay networks. The de- sign of such a protocol needs by cloaking the identity of protocol participants behind groups of semantically close peers. Censorship

Tryfonopoulos, Christos

162

Building and Maintaining Overlay Networks for Bandwidth-Demanding Applications  

E-print Network

bandwidth as tree edges. In my thesis, I present an overlay multicast protocol that builds a tree in whichBuilding and Maintaining Overlay Networks for Bandwidth-Demanding Applications Min Sik Kim Advisor of the algorithm. The scalability of the shared congestion detection technique is improved using an indexed

Kim, Min Sik

163

A map overlay error model based on boundary geometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An error model for quantifying the magnitudes and variability of errors generated in the areas of polygons during spatial overlay of vector geographic information system layers is presented. Numerical simulation of polygon boundary displacements was used to propagate coordinate errors to spatial overlays. The model departs from most previous error models in that it incorporates spatial dependence of coordinate errors at the scale of the boundary segment. It can be readily adapted to match the scale of error-boundary interactions responsible for error generation on a given overlay. The area of error generated by overlay depends on the sinuosity of polygon boundaries, as well as the magnitude of the coordinate errors on the input layers. Asymmetry in boundary shape has relatively little effect on error generation. Overlay errors are affected by real differences in boundary positions on the input layers, as well as errors in the boundary positions. Real differences between input layers tend to compensate for much of the error generated by coordinate errors. Thus, the area of change measured on an overlay layer produced by the XOR overlay operation will be more accurate if the area of real change depicted on the overlay is large. The model presented here considers these interactions, making it especially useful for estimating errors studies of landscape change over time. ?? 2005 The Ohio State University.

Gaeuman, D.; Symanzik, J.; Schmidt, J.C.

2005-01-01

164

Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh1  

E-print Network

Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh1 Miguel Castro2 Peter Druschel1, it can "eclipse" correct nodes and pre- vent correct overlay operation. This Eclipse attack is more general than the Sybil attack. Attackers can use a Sybil attack to launch an Eclipse attack by inventing

165

Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh  

E-print Network

Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh½£ Miguel Castro¾ Peter Druschel, it can "eclipse" correct nodes and pre- vent correct overlay operation. This Eclipse attack is more general than the Sybil attack. Attackers can use a Sybil attack to launch an Eclipse attack by inventing

Hunt, Galen

166

Path Optimization in Stream-Based Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of sensor networks and distributed applications that gen- erate data streams has created a need for Internet overlays designed for streaming data. Such stream-based overlay network (SBONs) consist of a set of Internet hosts that collect, process, and deliver stream-based data to multiple applications. A key challenge in the design and im- plementation of SBONs is efficient path

Peter Pietzuch; Jeffrey Shneidman; Matt Welsh; Margo Seltzer; Mema Roussopoulos

2004-01-01

167

Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers W. Randolph Franklin  

E-print Network

Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers W. Randolph Franklin ECSE Dept, 6026 JEC://wrfranklin.org/ Keywords: overlay, roundoff error, rational numbers, topology, intersection We present a solution as rational numbers, or vulgar fractions composed of a numerator divided by a denominator. Because the result

Franklin, W. Randolph

168

Towards Robust Internet Applications: Self-Organizing Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-organizing overlays based on distributed hash tables (DHTs) are set to make Internet applications more robust. They can improve system dependability, evolve smoothly from small configurations, and scale to massive configurations. Application case studies are presented to illustrate weaknesses of current architectures and to show how overlays can improve robustness-cost tradeoffs. The case studies include email, next generation voice and

John Risson; Tim Moors

2005-01-01

169

Carbonaceous Overlayer Thickness Determination Using XPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To account for the presence of the adventitious carbon layer in XPS analysis, its thickness must be known. A fast method for determining this thickness from existing data would be highly desirable. As first proposed by Ebel, et. al, the C1s and CKVV emission peaks from the carbonaceous overlayer can be used for this purpose because of the large difference in their inelastic mean free paths in carbon. We have previously evaluated this method using thiol-based self-assembled monolayers on gold substrates. C1s/CKVV ratios were measured as a function of overlayer thickness and were found to consistently underestimate the ratio determined from the Ebel model. Our hypothesis was that these discrepancies were due to a "substrate effect", where photoelectrons from the underlying gold substrate caused additional core-level ionizations in the carbon layer. In this paper, we present a modification of the Ebel model which accounts for the substrate effect. We find that the predictions of this model agree favorably with our experimental data for carbonaceous films on various substrate materials. This work was funded by the NSWCCD ILIR Program.

Brizzolara, Robert; Beard, Bruce

1998-03-01

170

Quantum data locking for high-rate private communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that, if the accessible information is used as a security quantifier, quantum channels with a certain symmetry can convey private messages at a tremendously high rate, as high as less than one bit below the rate of non-private classical communication. This result is obtained by exploiting the quantum data locking effect. The price to pay to achieve such a high private communication rate is that accessible information security is in general not composable. However, composable security holds against an eavesdropper who is forced to measure her share of the quantum system within a finite time after she gets it.

Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth

2015-03-01

171

Social Security Money's Worth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how three money's worth measures - the benefit-to-tax ratio, the internal rate of return, and the net present value - are calculated and used in analyses of social security reforms, including systems with privately managed individual accounts invested in equities. Declining returns from the U.S. social security system prove to be the inevitable result of having instituted

John Geanakoplos; Olivia S. Mitchell; Stephen P. Zeldes

1999-01-01

172

New foundations for efficient authentication, commutative cryptography, and private disjointness testing  

E-print Network

This dissertation presents new constructions and security definitions related to three areas: authentication, cascadable and commutative crytpography, and private set operations. Existing works relevant to each of these ...

Weis, Stephen August, 1978-

2006-01-01

173

33 CFR 106.305 - Facility Security Assessment (FSA) requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (iv) Existing security measures and procedures...equipment, including computer systems and networks...agreements with private security companies; (vii...facility: (i) Physical security; (ii) Structural...systems, including computer systems and...

2010-07-01

174

33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED...

2011-07-01

175

33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED...

2010-07-01

176

33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED...

2013-07-01

177

33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED...

2014-07-01

178

33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED...

2012-07-01

179

Private sector in post-conflict state building  

E-print Network

in Kathmandu of both the government and the private structures, widespread corruption and abuse of authority for that to materialise, however, an established rule of law and good governance and the personal security are crucial. I by civil society and government actors. Private companies are both the part of the problem and also

Richner, Heinz

180

Case study of virtual private network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, business benefits for this Virtual Private Network (VPN) and protocols, techniques, equipments used in this VPN are reported. In addition, our design experience for fault tolerance, security and network management and administration on this VPN are showed. Finally, the issues for future planning of this VPN is addressed.

Hernandez, Harold; Chung, Ping-Tsai

2001-07-01

181

private undergraduate scholarship application  

E-print Network

private undergraduate scholarship application Financial Aid and Awards, Student Services, MBC 3200/committee or other recommendations and supporting documentation confirming eligibility for particular scholarships should be submitted with this application when applicable. private scholarships for which you

182

Distributed Dynamic Capacity Contracting: An overlay congestion pricing framework  

E-print Network

1 Distributed Dynamic Capacity Contracting: An overlay congestion pricing framework Murat Yuksel. We propose a new congestion-sensitive pricing framework Distributed Dynamic Capacity Contracting to control congestion: Pricing for Congestion Control (PFCC) and Pricing over Congestion Control (POCC). PFCC

Kalyanaraman, Shivkumar

183

Trusted Cloud Computing with Secure Resources and Data Coloring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trust and security have prevented businesses from fully accepting cloud platforms. To protect clouds, providers must first secure virtualized data center resources, uphold user privacy, and preserve data integrity. The authors suggest using a trust-overlay network over multiple data centers to implement a reputation system for establishing trust between service providers and data owners. Data coloring and software watermarking techniques

Kai Hwang; Deyi Li

2010-01-01

184

A Primer on Privatization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a detailed examination of "contracting," a type of privatization, and is intended to clarify the issues surrounding decisions to privatize public services. Privatization introduces competition among market participants as a means of generating revenue, spurring development of an industry, and/or improving the quality of…

Menell, Seth J.; Phelps, Richard P.

185

Privatization in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Privatization calls for substantially trimming the scope and breadth of government services, replacing them with private or other nongovernmental operators. The attraction of privatization is reduced costs and increased management flexibility. To date, the arrangement has received substantial support from students and parents in situations that…

Rehfuss, John

1995-01-01

186

Mixing materials within zone boundaries using shape overlays  

SciTech Connect

Shape overlays provide a means of statically imposing a physical region containing specified material properties onto a zoned mesh. In the most general case, material interface boundaries are unrelated to mesh zone boundaries, causing zones to contain a mixture of materials, and the mesh itself is not uniform in physical space. We develop and apply an algorithm for shape overlays on nonorthogonal, nonuniform meshes in two dimensions. Examples of shape generation in a multiblock uid dynamics code are shown.

Grandy, J.

1997-04-22

187

Rehabilitation of continuously reinforced concrete pavements using overlays  

E-print Network

was actually experienced. Any rehabilitation alternative being considered must, hence be able to meet the design requirements and not fail during its design life. Rigid overlays provide a feasible option in terms of strength and longevity. For a nation... whose network of pavements is now in need of rehabilitation, CRC pavements present themselves as a very feasible and lucrative option, if life-cycle costs were the basis of design. If designed and constructed properly, CRC overlays can serve...

Sriraman, Soumya

1993-01-01

188

Augmenting reality in Direct View Optical (DVO) overlay applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of overlay displays into rifle scopes can transform precision Direct View Optical (DVO) sights into intelligent interactive fire-control systems. Overlay displays can provide ballistic solutions within the sight for dramatically improved targeting, can fuse sensor video to extend targeting into nighttime or dirty battlefield conditions, and can overlay complex situational awareness information over the real-world scene. High brightness overlay solutions for dismounted soldier applications have previously been hindered by excessive power consumption, weight and bulk making them unsuitable for man-portable, battery powered applications. This paper describes the advancements and capabilities of a high brightness, ultra-low power text and graphics overlay display module developed specifically for integration into DVO weapon sight applications. Central to the overlay display module was the development of a new general purpose low power graphics controller and dual-path display driver electronics. The graphics controller interface is a simple 2-wire RS-232 serial interface compatible with existing weapon systems such as the IBEAM ballistic computer and the RULR and STORM laser rangefinders (LRF). The module features include multiple graphics layers, user configurable fonts and icons, and parameterized vector rendering, making it suitable for general purpose DVO overlay applications. The module is configured for graphics-only operation for daytime use and overlays graphics with video for nighttime applications. The miniature footprint and ultra-low power consumption of the module enables a new generation of intelligent DVO systems and has been implemented for resolutions from VGA to SXGA, in monochrome and color, and in graphics applications with and without sensor video.

Hogan, Tim; Edwards, Tim

2014-06-01

189

Privatization of Social Security: Lessons from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chile, all covered workers must place 10% of monthly earnings in a savings account with a highly regulated intermediary that manages a single fund and provides survivors and disability insurance. Workers pay a commission charge, in addition to the mandatory 10%, to finance this insurance and to cover the costs and profits of the intermediaries. On becoming eligible to

Peter Diamond

1993-01-01

190

Residual stresses in weld overlay tubes: A finite element study  

SciTech Connect

Residual stresses and strains in a tube with circumferential weld overlay were analyzed by the finite element (FE) method. The objective of this work was to develop and verify a FE model, to determine the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in the weld overlay tube, and to evaluate the significance of two contributing factors to residual stress: (1) difference in material properties between tube and weld material, and (2) thermal gradients in the weld. An axisymmetric FE model was developed to simulate the circumferential two-layer welding process of alloy 625 overlay on SA210 tube. The first layer was modeled as a gas metal arc welding process with filler metal, whereas the autogenous gas tungsten arc welding process was modeled for the second layer. Neutron diffraction technique was used to experimentally determine residual elastic strains in the weld overlay tube. Comparison with the FE results shows overall good agreement. Both the experimental and FE results show high compressive stresses at the inside tube surface and high tensile stresses in the weld overlay. This suggests that weld overlay may be used to relieve tensile or produce compressive stresses at the inside tube surface, which is significant for applications where crack initiation is found at the root pass of the joining weld.

Taljat, B.; Zacharia, T.; Wang, X.L.; Keiser, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Feng, Z. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Jirinec, M.J. [Welding Services, Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

1997-01-03

191

Toward Secure Services from Untrusted Developers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We present a secure service prototype built from untrusted, contributed code. The service manages private data for a variety of different users, and user programs freq uently require access to other users’ private data. However, aside from covert timing channels, no part of the service can corrupt private data or leak it between users or outside the system without

Micah Brodsky; Petros Efstathopoulos; Frans Kaashoek; Eddie Kohler; Maxwell Krohn; David Mazieres; Robert Morris; Alexander Yip

2007-01-01

192

The Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes the Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator (IONAC) an electronic apparatus, now under development, for relaying data at high rates in spacecraft and interplanetary radio-communication systems utilizing a delay-tolerant networking protocol. The protocol includes provisions for transmission and reception of data in bundles (essentially, messages), transfer of custody of a bundle to a recipient relay station at each step of a relay, and return receipts. Because of limitations on energy resources available for such relays, data rates attainable in a conventional software implementation of the protocol are lower than those needed, at any given reasonable energy-consumption rate. Therefore, a main goal in developing the IONAC is to reduce the energy consumption by an order of magnitude and the data-throughput capability by two orders of magnitude. The IONAC prototype is a field-programmable gate array that serves as a reconfigurable hybrid (hardware/ firmware) system for implementation of the protocol. The prototype can decode 108,000 bundles per second and encode 100,000 bundles per second. It includes a bundle-cache static randomaccess memory that enables maintenance of a throughput of 2.7Gb/s, and an Ethernet convergence layer that supports a duplex throughput of 1Gb/s.

Pang, Jackson; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Clare, Loren P.

2008-01-01

193

Overlay Text Retrieval From Video Scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.

Manohar, K.; Irfan, S.; Sravani, K.

2013-03-01

194

Privacy Amplification, Private States, and the Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

We show that three principle means of treating privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, private state distillation, classical privacy amplification, and via the uncertainty principle, are equivalent and interchangeable. By adapting the security proof based on the uncertainty principle, we construct a new protocol for private state distillation which we prove is identical to standard classical privacy amplification. Underlying this approach is a new characterization of private states, related to their standard formulation by the uncertainty principle, which gives a more physical understanding of security in quantum key distribution.

Joseph M. Renes; Jean-Christian Boileau

2007-02-19

195

33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2013-07-01

196

33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2014-07-01

197

33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2012-07-01

198

33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2013-07-01

199

33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2014-07-01

200

33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2010-07-01

201

33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2012-07-01

202

Securities trading of concepts (STOC)  

E-print Network

Identifying winning new product concepts can be a challenging process that requires insight into private consumer preferences. To measure consumer preferences for new product concepts, the authors apply a “securities trading ...

Dahan, Ely

203

Further beyond: registration and overlay control enhancements for optical masks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mask registration control is one of the key performance specifications during the mask qualification process. It is becoming an important factor for yield improvement with the continuously tightening registration specs driven by tight wafer overlay specs. Understanding the impact of miss classified masks on the final wafer yield is gaining more and more attention, especially with the appearance of Multiple Patterning Technologies, where mask to mask overlay effect on wafer is heavily influenced by mask registration. ZEISS has established a promising closed loop solution implemented in the mask house, where the PROVE® system - a highly accurate mask registration and overlay metrology measurement tool, is being used to feed the RegC® - a registration and mask to mask overlay correction tool that can also accurately predict the correction potential in advance. The well-established RegC® process typically reaches 40-70% improvement of the mask registration/overlay error standard deviation. The PROVE® - RegC® closed loop solution has several advantages over alternative registration control methods apart of the mask re-write saving. Among the advantages is the capability to correct for pellicle mounting registration effects without the need to remove the pellicle. This paper will demonstrate improved method for enhanced mask to mask overlay control based on a new scheme of data acquisition and performance validation by the PROVE®. The mask registration data as well as additional mask information will be used to feed the RegC® correction process. Significantly improved mask to mask overlay correction results will be discussed and presented in details.

Gorhad, Kujan; Cohen, Avi; Avizemer, Dan; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Beyer, Dirk; Degel, Wolfgang; Kirsch, Markus

2014-10-01

204

Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

Burleigh, Scott C.

2011-01-01

205

Securing collaborative environments  

SciTech Connect

The diverse set of organizations and software components involved in a typical collaboratory make providing a seamless security solution difficult. In addition, the users need support for a broad range of frequency and locations for access to the collaboratory. A collaboratory security solution needs to be robust enough to ensure that valid participants are not denied access because of its failure. There are many tools that can be applied to the task of securing collaborative environments and these include public key infrastructure, secure sockets layer, Kerberos, virtual and real private networks, grid security infrastructure, and username/password. A combination of these mechanisms can provide effective secure collaboration capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the requirements of typical collaboratories and some proposals for applying various security mechanisms to collaborative environments.

Agarwal, Deborah; Jackson, Keith; Thompson, Mary

2002-05-16

206

Quantum private comparison with a malicious third party  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we will show that quantum private comparison protocol is secure when a malicious third party is presented. The security of the protocol is considered in a cheat-sensitive model, in which the TP is kept honest by the possibility of being caught cheating. Besides, we enhance the privacy of the quantum private comparison protocol, where the participants' inputs and the comparison result can be preserved. Furthermore, in contrast to pervious protocols requiring a large amount of quantum resources, such as entanglement and quantum memory, our protocol is based on BB84 protocol, which is more feasible for practical applications. Finally, we analyze the security of the presented protocol.

Sun, Zhiwei; Yu, Jianping; Wang, Ping; Xu, Lingling; Wu, Chunhui

2015-02-01

207

Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

208

Diffraction-based overlay for spacer patterning and double patterning technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay performance will be increasingly important for Spacer Patterning Technology (SPT) and Double Patterning Technology (DPT) as various Resolution Enhancement Techniques are employed to extend the resolution limits of lithography. Continuous shrinkage of devices makes overlay accuracy one of the most critical issues while overlay performance is completely dependent on exposure tool. Image Based Overlay (IBO) has been used as the mainstream metrology for overlay by the main memory IC companies, but IBO is not suitable for some critical layers due to the poor Tool Induced Shift (TIS) values. Hence new overlay metrology is required to improve the overlay measurement accuracy. Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) is regarded to be an alternative metrology to IBO for more accurate measurements and reduction of reading errors. Good overlay performances of DBO have been reported in many articles. However applying DBO for SPT and DPT layers poses extra challenges for target design. New vernier designs are considered for different DPT and SPT schemes to meet overlay target in DBO system. In this paper, we optimize the design of the DBO target and the performance of DBO to meet the overlay specification of sub-3x nm devices which are using SPT and DPT processes. We show that the appropriate vernier design yields excellent overlay performance in residual and TIS. The paper also demonstrated the effects of vernier structure on overlay accuracy from SEM analysis.

Lee, Byoung Hoon; Park, JeongSu; Lee, Jongsu; Park, Sarohan; Lim, ChangMoon; Yim, Dong-Gyu; Park, Sungki; Ryu, Chan-Ho; Morgan, Stephen; van de Schaar, Maurits; Fuchs, Andreas; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve

2011-03-01

209

When security meets software engineering: A case of modelling secure information systems  

E-print Network

When security meets software engineering: A case of modelling secure information systems Engineering: towards the Modeling of Secure Information Systems" paper presented at the 15th International. This is mainly because private information is stored in computer systems and without security, organisations (and

210

Analytical Study of Adversarial Strategies in Cluster-based Overlays E. Anceaume  

E-print Network

demonstrates first that an adversary can very quickly subvert DHT-based overlays by simply never triggering-to-peer overlay networks as a building block for architecting Internet scale systems has raised the attention

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

211

Analytical Study of Adversarial Strategies in Cluster-based Overlays E. Anceaume  

E-print Network

demonstrates #12;rst that an adversary can very quickly subvert DHT-based overlays by simply never triggering-to-peer overlay networks as a building block for architecting Internet scale systems has raised the attention

Recanati, Catherine

212

High-frequency nonreciprocal reflection from magnetic films with overlayers  

SciTech Connect

We perform a theoretical study of the nonreciprocal reflection of high-frequency microwave radiation from ferromagnetic films with thin overlayers. Reflection from metallic ferromagnetic films is always near unity and shows no nonreciprocity. In contrast, reflection from a structure which has a dielectric overlayer on top of a film composed of insulated ferromagnetic nanoparticles or nanostructures can show significant nonreciprocity in the 75–80?GHz frequency range, a very high value. This can be important for devices such as isolators or circulators.

Wang, Ying; Nie, Yan; Camley, R. E. [Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States)

2013-11-14

213

The Limits of Privatization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transferring public services and public assets to private ownership is not an entirely new idea. Governments at all levels in the United States have for years contracted out many services. However, under the recently coined label "privatization," such policies now come recommended as a more comprehensive approach to the problems of modern…

Starr, Paul

214

Privatizing Roads: an \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

During most of the twentieth century, highways, tunnels and bridges were viewed as public goods that had to be provided by the government. By the end of the century, however, chronic budgetary problems had led governments to allow participation of private firms in financing, building,and operating infrastructure projects. For example, worldwide private invest-ment in transport infrastructure went from almost nothing

Eduardo Engel; Ronald Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

2002-01-01

215

Private Speech in Ballet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

Johnston, Dale

2006-01-01

216

PRIVATE SCHOLARSHIP INFORMATION  

E-print Network

PRIVATE SCHOLARSHIP INFORMATION Truman State University Financial Aid Office 100 E. Normal, MC 103 Kirksville, MO 63501 6607854130 Please complete this form if you will receive any private scholarships for the upcoming year. DO NOT list any Truman State University academic scholarships, including Truman Foundation

Gering, Jon C.

217

The Private User Network Interface--a GMPLS-compliant signaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To address the integration of [IP/MPLS (multiprotocol label-switching)] packet and (optical) transport networks, the Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF) has defined a user-to-network interface (UNI) for overlay networks: the OIF UNI version 1.0, also referred to as the Public UNI. However, since its implementation agreement specification, it has become clear that this UNI--based on OIF-specific extensions to the generalized MPLS (GMPLS) protocols--will not be able to meet the future requirements of some operational environments. Hence a flexible, extensible, and fully GMPLS-compliant UNI is being defined at the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): the Private UNI (aka GMPLS for overlay networks). The Private UNI enhances the interaction between the packet and transport network control planes of a multilayer network architecture. This interface is particularly suitable for a control-plane interconnection model in which the equipment belongs to a common administrative entity (i.e., a single carrier environment). Signaling sessions through the Private UNI are used to invoke two main services that require constructive coordination between the network layers: provisioning and network recovery. Here we present the Private UNI specific GMPLS resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions in support of these services in IP/MPLS over SONET/SDH (synchronous optical network/synchronous digital hierarchy) GMPLS multilayer networks and illustrate how Private UNI signaling enhances coordination in multilayer network recovery.

Papadimitriou, Dimitri; Rousseau, Bart; Körber, Wolfgang; Brockmann, Steffen; Verchčre, Dominique

2004-03-01

218

Dialogue on private events  

PubMed Central

In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

2004-01-01

219

Dialogue on private events.  

PubMed

In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

Palmer, David C; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T V Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

2004-01-01

220

Performance Evaluation and Comparison of Tree and Ring Application-Layer Multicast Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application-layer multicast (ALM) protocols differ in, among other aspects, the topology of the underlying overlay network (e.g., tree, mesh or ring). Therefore, comparing the performance of ALM overlay networks is an important step to- wards assessing the inherent advantages and\\/or limitations of each overlay network topology. In particular, ring-based ALM overlay networks have the advantages of (a) providing a con-

Ahmed Sobeih; Jun Wang; William Yurcik

221

Post-conflict private policing: experiences from several former Yugoslav countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the development of the private security sector in several former Yugoslav countries that have gone through difficult post-conflict reconstruction including the field of security. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper takes a qualitative approach to data collection that includes interviews with experts in the field of private security from several ex-Yugoslav countries.

Andrej Sotlar

2009-01-01

222

Security Informatics Security Informatics  

E-print Network

engineering, management information systems, economics, informatics or related disciplines. Our graduates is managed or with security incident response teams? #12;Sample M.S. Security Informatics Program of Study 1Security Informatics Security Informatics Security Informatics is the study and design

Camp, L. Jean

223

Improvement of Panorama-Based Annotation Overlay Using Omnidirectional Vision and Inertial Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annotation overlay on live videoframes is an essentialfeature of augmentedreality (AR), and is awell-suited application for wearable computers. A novelmethod of annotation overlay and its real-time implementationis presented. This method uses a set ofpanoramic images capturedbyomnidirectional visionat various points of environment and annotations attachedon the images. The method overlays the annotationsaccording to the image alignment between theinput frames and the

Masakatsu Kourogi; Takeshi Kurata; Katsuhiko Sakaue; Yoichi Muraoka

2000-01-01

224

Distributed QoS Routing for Backbone Overlay , Swapna S. Gokhale2  

E-print Network

Distributed QoS Routing for Backbone Overlay Networks Li Lao1 , Swapna S. Gokhale2 , and Jun-added services. Due to the difficulty of supporting end-to-end QoS purely in end-user overlays, backbone over- lays for QoS support have been proposed. In this paper, we describe a backbone QoS overlay network

Cui, Jun-Hong

225

Scalable deterministic end-to-end probing and analytical method for overlay network monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay network monitoring is one of the most important issues in the design and operation of overlay networks. It faced with increasing demand for better throughput and response time performance. Given an overlay network with n end hosts, existing systems either require O (n2) measurements, and thus lack scalability, or can only estimate the latency but not failures or congestion.

Yanjie Ren; Yan Qiao; Xue-song Qiu; Shun-an Wu

2011-01-01

226

Construction of an Efficient Overlay Multicast Infrastructure for Real-time Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider an overlay architecture where service providers deploy a set of service nodes (called MSNs) in the network to efficiently implement media-streaming applications. These MSNs are organized into an overlay and act as application- layer multicast forwarding entities for a set of clients. We present a decentralized scheme that organizes the MSNs into an appropriate overlay structure that is

Suman Banerjee; Christopher Kommareddy; Koushik Kar; Samrat Bhattacharjee; Samir Khuller

2003-01-01

227

PAVEMENT OVERLAY THICKNESS EVALUATION USING GROUND PENTRATING RADAR (GPR)  

E-print Network

PAVEMENT OVERLAY THICKNESS EVALUATION USING GROUND PENTRATING RADAR (GPR) Dwayne Harris, M.Sc., PG deflectometer (FWD), and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Core drilling provides very accurate pin point pavement and affected by the limitations and assumptions the method used to estimate thickness. GPR provides pavement

Shan, Jie

228

Improved overlay control through automated high order compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Moore's Law drives CD smaller and smaller, overlay budget is shrinking rapidly. Furthermore, the cost of advanced lithography tools prohibits usage of latest and greatest scanners on non-critical layers, resulting in different layers being exposed with different tools; a practice commonly known as 'mix and match.' Since each tool has its unique signature, mix and match becomes the source of high order overlay errors. Scanner alignment performance can be degraded by a factor of 2 in mix and match, compared to single tool overlay operation. In a production environment where scanners from different vendors are mixed, errors will be even more significant. Mix and match may also be applied to a single scanner when multiple illumination modes are used to expose critical levels. This is because different illuminations will have different impact to scanner aberration fingerprint. The semiconductor technology roadmap has reached a point where such errors are no longer negligible. Mix and match overlay errors consist of scanner stage grid component, scanner field distortion component, and process induced wafer distortion. Scanner components are somewhat systematic, so they can be characterized on non product wafers using a dedicated reticle. Since these components are known to drift over time it becomes necessary to monitor them periodically, per scanner, per illumination. In this paper, we outline a methodology for automating characterization of mix and match errors, and a control system for real-time correction.

Wakamoto, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yasukawa, K.; Sukegawa, A.; Maejima, S.; Kato, A.; Robinson, J. C.; Eichelberger, B. J.; Izikson, P.; Adel, M.

2007-03-01

229

Refined Overlay Power Management in the Home Environment  

E-print Network

power consumption makes up a large part of global energy consumption. These home appliances are not only efficient power management. Index Terms--Home network, Energy saving, Green network- ing, Overlay control communication [1]. Energy saving is recognized as a key issue in global warming and climate change. According

Boyer, Edmond

230

Concrete Overlay as a Rehabilitation Option for Distressed Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-thin Whitetopping (UTW) involves placing a very thin concrete overlay 50 mm to 100 mm thick (2”-4”) on the milled surface of a distressed asphalt pavement. To investigate the performance of UTW placed over a flexible pavement subjected to slow and heavy moving wheel loads, whitetopping mixes were placed over a milled pavement surface in the Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT)

Sudarshan Rajan; J. Olek

2002-01-01

231

A Generic Scheme for Building Overlay Networks in Adversarial Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a generic scheme for a central, yet un- tackled issue in overlay dynamic networks: maintaining stability over long life and against malicious adversaries. The generic scheme maintains desirable properties of the underlying structure including low diameter, and efficient routing mechanism, as well as balanced node dispersal. These desired properties are maintained in a decentral- ized manner without

Ittai Abraham; Baruch Awerbuch; Yossi Azar; Yair Bartal; Dahlia Malkhi; Elan Pavlov

2003-01-01

232

T-Man: Gossip-based Overlay Topology Mark Jelasity  

E-print Network

T-Man: Gossip-based Overlay Topology Management M´ark Jelasity and Ozalp Babaoglu University of nodes can also be interpreted as a topology. In this paper we propose a generic protocol, T-Man, intuitive and flexible manner. At the same time, the T-Man protocol involves only local communication

Jelasity, Márk

233

Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses  

E-print Network

Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses Atul Singh, Tsuen-Wan "Johnny" Ngan of peers, forming a graph upon which a distributed application or service is implemented. In an "Eclipse of malicious nodes can eclipse a large number of correct victim nodes. This paper studies the impact of Eclipse

Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

234

Incidental Learning of Geospatial Concepts across Grade Levels: Map Overlay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the authors evaluate map overlay, a concept central to geospatial thinking, to determine how it is naively and technically understood, as well as to identify when it is leaner innately. The evaluation is supported by results from studies at three grade levels to show the progression of incidentally learned geospatial knowledge as…

Battersby, Sarah E.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Marsh, Meredith J.

2006-01-01

235

Efficient Routing for Peer-to-Peer Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current peer-to-peer lookup schemes keep a small amount of routing state per node, typically logarithmic in the number of overlay nodes. This de- sign assumes that routing information at each mem- ber node must be kept small, so that the book- keeping required to respond to system membership changes is also small, given that aggressive mem- bership dynamics are

Anjali Gupta; Barbara Liskov; Rodrigo Rodrigues

2004-01-01

236

APPLICATION OF NELSON'S SORPTION ISOTHERM TO WOOD COMPOSITES AND OVERLAYS'  

E-print Network

APPLICATION OF NELSON'S SORPTION ISOTHERM TO WOOD COMPOSITES AND OVERLAYS' Qinglin Wu Assistant in both adsorption and desorption at 2 9 2 . The EMC- RH data were fit to Nelson's sorption isotherm. It was found that Nelson's model can be used to describe the experimental data from different composite

237

Content Delivery in Overlay Networks: a Stochastic Graph Processes Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, We consider the problem of distributing a content of nite size to a group of users connected through an overlay network that is built by a peer-to-peer application. The goal is the fastest possible diffusion of the content until it reaches all the

Damiano Carra; Renato Lo Cigno; Ernst W. Biersack

2006-01-01

238

Prediction of Reflection Cracking in Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays  

E-print Network

Reflection cracking is one of the main distresses in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays. It has been a serious concern since early in the 20th century. Since then, several models have been developed to predict the extent and severity of reflection...

Tsai, Fang-Ling

2011-02-22

239

Promoting Learning of Instructional Design via Overlay Design Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I begin by introducing Virtual Design Apprenticeship (VDA), a learning model--built on a solid foundation of education principles and theories--that promotes learning of design skills via overlay design tools. In VDA, when an individual needs to learn a new design skill or paradigm she is provided accessible, concrete examples that have been…

Carle, Andrew Jacob

2012-01-01

240

Factors affecting the erosion resistance of weld overlays  

SciTech Connect

Research was conducted to study factors affecting the solid particle erosion resistance of weld overlay coatings. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400 C. Erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. Ultimet, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings showed the best erosion resistance at 30 and 90{degree} impact angles. Microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples below the erosion surface to determine the size of the plastically deformed zone and it was found that one group of coatings deformed plastically as a result of the particle impact while the others did not. No correlations were found between average microhardness at 400 C and volumetric erosion rates for plastically deformed weld overlays. For this group of overlays erosion resistance was correlated to the area under the curve of microhardness versus distance from the eroded surface. The physical significance of this parameter is discussed. For coatings that did not deform plastically, an increase in average microhardness at 400 C led to an increase in their volumetric erosion rates. The possible erosion mechanisms for these coating groups are discussed.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

241

Active membrane masks for improved overlay performance in proximity lithography  

E-print Network

. With the continuous drive to the printing of ever-finer features in microelectronics, the reduction of mask-wafer overlay positioning errors by passive rigid body positioning and passive stress control in the mask perimeter. The thermoelectric elements cause controlled thermoelastic deformations in the supporting wafer

Huston, Dryver R.

242

An Overlay Architecture for High Quality VoIP Streams  

E-print Network

An Overlay Architecture for High Quality VoIP Streams Yair Amir, Member, IEEE, ACM, Claudiu Danilov features associated with Voice over IP (VoIP) are driving its adoption by service providers. Unfortunately and jitter is the key requirement for supporting high quality interactive conversations, VoIP applications

Amir, Yair

243

An Overlay Architecture for High Quality VoIP Streams  

E-print Network

An Overlay Architecture for High Quality VoIP Streams Yair Amir, Claudiu Danilov, Stuart Goose://www.cnds.jhu.edu Abstract-- The cost savings and novel features associated with Voice over IP (VoIP) are driving its requirement for supporting high quality interactive conversations, VoIP applications use UDP to transfer data

Amir, Yair

244

Virtual haptic overlays enhance performance in telepresence tasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An empirical study was performed in which human subjects were asked to execute a peg- insertion task through a telepresence link with force-feedback. Subjects controlled a remote manipulator through natural hand motions by using an anthropomorphic upper body exoskeleton. The force-reflecting exoskeleton could present haptic sensations in six degrees of freedom. Subjects viewed the remote site through a high fidelity stereo vision system. Subjects performed the peg-insertion task under three different conditions: (1) in-person (direct manipulation), (2) through the telepresence link (telemanipulation), and (3) through the telepresence link while using abstract virtual haptic overlays known as `virtual fixtures' (telemanipulation with virtual fixturing). Five different haptic overlays were tested which included virtual surfaces, virtual damping fields, virtual snap-to-planes, and virtual snap-to- lines. Results of subject testing confirmed that human performance was significantly degraded when comparing telepresence manipulation to direct in-person manipulation. Results also confirmed that by introducing abstract haptic overlays into telepresence link, operator performance could be restored closer to natural in-person capacity. The use of 3D haptic overlays were found to as much as double manual performance in the standard peg-insertion task.

Rosenberg, Louis B.

1995-12-01

245

Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)

McKillip, John L.

2001-01-01

246

7 CFR 1717.857 - Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution and power supply borrowers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution...Percent Private Financing § 1717.857 Refinancing of existing secured debt—distribution...accommodation or subordination for the refinancing of existing secured debt...

2013-01-01

247

7 CFR 1717.857 - Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution and power supply borrowers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution...Percent Private Financing § 1717.857 Refinancing of existing secured debt—distribution...accommodation or subordination for the refinancing of existing secured debt...

2011-01-01

248

7 CFR 1717.857 - Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution and power supply borrowers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution...Percent Private Financing § 1717.857 Refinancing of existing secured debt—distribution...accommodation or subordination for the refinancing of existing secured debt...

2010-01-01

249

7 CFR 1717.857 - Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution and power supply borrowers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution...Percent Private Financing § 1717.857 Refinancing of existing secured debt—distribution...accommodation or subordination for the refinancing of existing secured debt...

2014-01-01

250

7 CFR 1717.857 - Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution and power supply borrowers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution...Percent Private Financing § 1717.857 Refinancing of existing secured debt—distribution...accommodation or subordination for the refinancing of existing secured debt...

2012-01-01

251

A Unified Approach to Information Security Compliance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increased number of government-mandated and private contractual information security requirements in recent years has caused higher education security professionals to view information security as another aspect of regulatory or contractual compliance. The existence of fines, penalties, or loss (including bad publicity) has also increased the…

Adler, M. Peter

2006-01-01

252

Private Ground Water Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... Water Healthy Water Home Share Compartir Private Ground Water Wells Many people in the United States receive ... answers to frequently asked questions about wells . Ground Water and Wells When rain falls, much of it ...

253

Private Eyes: A Writer's Guide to Private Investigating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is your protagonist a private eye? Is he or she believable? Do you know how private investigators really work? What tricks do they use to get the job done? And how do they live their lives? Now you can find out from the experts. A real private eye and two published mystery writers joined forces to write Private Eyes: A

Charlie Sweet; Hal Blythe; John Landreth

1993-01-01

254

Distributed QoS Routing for Backbone Overlay Jun-Hong Cui, Swapna S. Gokhale, Li Lao and Jijun Lu  

E-print Network

1 Distributed QoS Routing for Backbone Overlay Networks Jun-Hong Cui, Swapna S. Gokhale, Li Lao, but due to the difficulty of supporting end-to-end QoS purely in end-user overlays, backbone overlays for QoS support have been proposed. In this paper, we describe a backbone QoS overlay network

Cui, Jun-Hong

255

A finite element overlay technique for modeling pinned composite joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite element technique using overlaid plane stress elements is presented for modeling a pinned composite joint. The technique allows for discrete modeling of the pin and web regions of the joint in a two-dimensional (2-D) finite element analysis. Thus, predictive capability is substantially increased without the added complexity of a three-dimensional (3-D) analysis. The overlay technique requires a thorough evaluation of the model constraints between the joint components. Bearing panels are used to account for a reduced compressive modulus under bearing loads. Application of the plane stress overlay technique to the Filament Wound Case (FWC) Program is discussed. The experimental approach to determine bearing panel moduli using a double lap shear test is detailed, and finite element results are correlated with full-scale FWC joint test results.

Colvin, G. E.; Adams, D. S.

1986-01-01

256

Detection of embedded fatigue cracks in Inconel weld overlay and the evaluation of the minimum thickness of the weld overlay using eddy current testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the applicability of eddy current testing to the detection and sizing of fatigue cracks embedded in Inconel weld overlays. Welded plate specimens, which model head penetration welds and their weld overlays, are fabricated, and fatigue cracks are artificially introduced into the specimens. Eddy current inspections are performed using a uniform eddy current probe driven with 10?kHz, and

Noritaka Yusa; Ladislav Janousek; Mihai Rebican; Zhenmao Chen; Kenzo Miya; Naoki Chigusa; Hajime Ito

2006-01-01

257

QoS-aware Service Composition in Service Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the amount of Web services over the Internet grows continuously, these services can be interconnected to form a service overlay network (SON). On the basis of SON, building value-added services by service composition is an effective method to satisfy the changeable functional and non-functional QoS (quality of service) requirements of customers. However, the previous research on QoS- aware service

Yang Li; Jinpeng Huai; Ting Deng; Hailong Sun; Huipeng Guo; Zongxia Du

2007-01-01

258

LOT: A Robust Overlay for Distributed Range Query Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale data-centric services are often handled by clusters of computers that include hundreds of thousands of computing nodes. However, traditional distributed query processing techniques fail to handle the large-scale distribution, peer-to-peer communication and frequent disconnection. In this paper, we introduce LOT, a robust, fault-tolerant and highly distributed overlay network for large-scale peer-to-peer query processing. LOT is based on a robust

Andre Allavena; Qiang Wang; Ihab Ilyas; Srinivasan Keshav

259

Service Overlay Networks: SLAs, QoS and Bandwidth Provisioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We advocate the notion of service overlay network (SON) as an effective means to address some of the issues, in par- ticular, end-to-end QoS, plaguing the current Internet, and to facilitate the creation and deployment of value-added In- ternet services such as VoIP, Video-on-Demand, and other emerging QoS-sensitive services. A SON purchases band- width with certain QoS guarantees from individual

Zhenhai Duan; Zhi-li Zhang; Yiwei Thomas Hou

2002-01-01

260

Predicting the fatigue life of asphalt concrete overlay systems  

E-print Network

Photograph of Ultrasonic Transducers Taken Apart. 14 Ultrasonic Transducers Epoxied to Overlay Sample. 15 Ultrasonic Calibration Curve - Normalized Voltage Versus Crack Height . 16 Schematic of Duomorhp Apparatus . 17 Duomorph Output as Viewed... to predict fatigue life and to explain crack growth, a mechanistic model was developed at Ohio State University ( 15, 17, 18). From fracture mechanics, fatigue life can be described by the process of crack initiation, crack growth, and ultimate fracture...

Germann, Frederick P

1979-01-01

261

Shielding turbine blades from cvitation: Experiments with polymer overlays  

SciTech Connect

Cavitation damage to hydroelectric machinery produces one of the most prevalent maintenance problems at any hydro plant. Damage to the turbine runner blades, draft tube liner and discharge ring, and sometimes even the runner hub can require extensive welding repair. Typically, each unit develops its own cavitation characteristics that continue throughout the life of the machine. The traditional cavitation repair method is to gouge out the damaged material, then refill the void with a stainless steel. This method is costly and time-consuming, may cause blade distortion, and may result in galvanic corrosion when the stainless steel is applied to carbon steel base materials. What's more, this gouging and filling at temperatures between 2,200 and 2.300[degrees]F within a tenth of a square inch may cause residual stresses in the parent material. One strategy for limiting cavitation effects on turbine components is to overlay the original material with a protective layer. This protective coating will absorb the cavitation load, or at least a portion of it, thus limiting further damage to repaired areas. Typically, an overlay consists of a 1/32-inch or 1/16-inch layer of polymer material (either epoxies or ceramics) and a thin adhesive that bonds the polymer to the turbine steel. A cavitation-induced shock (energy) wave propagates through the polymer material and either reflects or transmits into the steel. (The relative acoustic impedances of the two materials determine whether the shock wave travels into the turbine steel or reflects back through the polymer.) For the overlay to be effective, the shock wave must be reflected, attenuated, or dispersed. typical overlay materials do not reflect, attenuate, or disperse the cavitation shock wave. Polycarbonates, with their unique energy dissipation capabilities, are a good candidate for a protective turbine blade coating.

Armentrout, T.B. (Army Corps of Engineers, The Dalles, OR (United States))

1993-05-01

262

ROMA: Reliable Overlay Multicast with Loosely Coupled TCP Connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of architecting a reliable content delivery system across an overlay network using TCP connections as the transport primitive. We first argue that natural designs based on store-and-forward principles that tightly couple TCP connections at intermediate end-systems impose fundamen- tal performance limitations, such as dragging down all transfer rates in the system to the rate of the

Gu.-In. Kwon; John W. Byers

2004-01-01

263

Network load-aware content distribution in overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Massive,content,distribution on,overlay,networks stresses both the server and the network,resources because,of the large volumes of data, relatively high bandwidth requirement, and,many,concurrent,clients. While the server limitation can be circumvented by replicating the data at more nodes, the network limitation is far less easy to cope with, due to the difficulty in determining,the cause and,location of congestion and in provisioning extra resources. In

Seung Chul Han; Ye Xia

2009-01-01

264

Secure VPN Schemes in UMTS Alternative Schemes for Dynamic Secure VPN  

E-print Network

Secure VPN Schemes in UMTS Alternative Schemes for Dynamic Secure VPN Deployment in UMTS Christos alternative schemes for secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) deployment over the Universal Mobile in the deployed VPN schemes, as well as the employed authentication models are examined. An analysis in terms

Stavrakakis, Ioannis

265

Unforgeable Encryption and Chosen Ciphertext Secure Modes of Operation  

E-print Network

Unforgeable Encryption and Chosen Ciphertext Secure Modes of Operation Jonathan Katz1 and Moti Yung@cs.columbia.edu, moti@certco.com Abstract. We find certain neglected issues in the study of private-key encryption schemes. For one, private-key encryption is generally held to the same standard of security as public

Rogaway, Phillip

266

Overlay mark optimization using the KTD signal simulation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the overlay performance and accuracy requirements become tighter, the impact of process parameters on the target signal becomes more significant. Traditionally, in order to choose the optimum overlay target, several candidates are placed in the kerf area. The candidate targets are tested under different process conditions, before the target to be used in mass production is selected. The varieties of targets are left on the mass production mask and although they will not be used for overlay measurements they still consume kerf real estate. To improve the efficiency of the process we are proposing the KTD (KLA-Tencor Target Designer). It is an easy to use system that enables the user to select the optimum target based on advanced signal simulation. Implementing the KTD in production is expected to save 30% of kerf real estate due to more efficient target design process as well as reduced engineering time. In this work we demonstrate the capability of the KTD to simulate the Archer signal in the context of advanced DRAM processes. For several stacks we are comparing simulated target signals with the Archer100 signals. We demonstrate the robustness feature in the KTD application that enables the user to test the target sensitivity to process changes. The results indicate the benefit of using KTD in the target optimization process.

Marchelli, Anat; Gutjahr, Karsten; Kubis, Michael; Sparka, Christian; Ghinovker, Mark; Navarra, Alessandra; Widmann, Amir

2009-03-01

267

Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay.  

PubMed

Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:25267257

Ibáńez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I

2014-09-30

268

An Overlapping Structured P2P for REIK Overlay Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

REIK is based on a ring which embedded an inverse Kautz digraph, to enable multi-path P2P routing. It has the constant degree and the logarithmic diameter DHT scheme with constant congestion and Byzantine fault tolerance. However, REIK did not consider the interconnection of many independent smaller networks. In this paper, we propose a new approach to build overlay network, OLS-REIK which is an overlapping structured P2P for REIK overlay network. It is a more flexible interconnecting different REIK network. Peers can belong to several rings, allowing this interconnection. By connecting smaller structured overlay networks in an unstructured way, it provides a cost effective alternative to hierarchical structured P2P systems requiring costly merging. Routing of lookup messages is performed as in REIK within one ring, but a peer belonging to several rings forwards the request to the different rings it belongs to. Furthermore a small number of across point is enough to ensure a high exhaustiveness level.

Liu, Wenjun; Song, Jingjing; Yu, Jiguo

269

The benefits of privatization.  

PubMed

The promise of a universal, comprehensive, publicly funded system of medical care that was the foundation of the Medical Care Act passed in 1966 is no longer possible. Massive government debt, increasing health care costs, a growing and aging population and advances in technology have challenged the system, which can no longer meet the expectations of the public or of the health care professions. A parallel, private system, funded by a not-for-profit, regulated system of insurance coverage affordable for all wage-earners, would relieve the overstressed public system without decreasing the quality of care in that system. Critics of a parallel, private system, who base their arguments on the politics of fear and envy, charge that such a private system would "Americanize" Canadian health care and that the wealthy would be able to buy better, faster care than the rest of the population. But this has not happened in the parallel public and private health care systems in other Western countries or in the public and private education system in Canada. Wealthy Canadians can already buy medical care in the United States, where they spend $1 billion each year, an amount that represents a loss to Canada of 10,000 health care jobs. Parallel-system schemes in other countries have proven that people are driven to a private system by dissatisfaction with the quality of service, which is already suffering in Canada. Denial of choice is unacceptable to many people, particularly since the terms and conditions under which Canadians originally decided to forgo choice in medical care no longer apply. PMID:8752066

Dirnfeld, V

1996-08-15

270

Salazar on private power  

SciTech Connect

The Philipines power market, considered one of the more mature markets in Asia, continues to expand with economic growth. Independent power producers will find opportunities in the next few years as new additions are required. Currently, the government is encouraging private investment and is awaiting feedback from financiers as it considers eliminating its government guarantee. In a recent interview, the Honorable Mariano S. Salazar, secretary of energy, with the Philippines` Department of Energy, discussed the regulatory structure, encouragement of private power and his country`s capital needs.

Anderson, J.

1995-02-01

271

A life cycle analysis of social security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We develop an applied general equilibrium model to examine the optimal social security replacement rate and the welfare benefits associated with it. Our setup consists of overlapping generations of 65-period lived individuals facing mortality risk and individual income risk. Private credit markets, including markets for private annuities, are closed by assumption. Unlike previous analyses, we find that an unfunded

Ay?e ?mrohoroglu; Selahattin ?mrohoroglu; Douglas H. Joines

1995-01-01

272

26 CFR 1.141-3 - Definition of private business use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vending machines, advertising displays, and use for television cameras, but incidental uses may not include output purchases. ...into account under section 141(b)(2)(A) (the private security test); and (iv) No more than 15 percent of the...

2012-04-01

273

77 FR 27494 - SK Private Investment Fund 1998 LLC, et al.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 30060; 813-194] SK Private Investment Fund 1998 LLC, et al.; Notice of...sections 6(b) and 6(e) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the...

2012-05-10

274

32 CFR 2001.36 - Classified information in the custody of private organizations or individuals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...custody of private organizations or individuals. 2001.36 Section 2001.36 National Defense Other Regulations Relating...NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification § 2001.36 Classified information in the custody of...

2010-07-01

275

17 CFR 210.3-20 - Currency for financial statements of foreign private issuers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Currency for financial statements of foreign private issuers...FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933...OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-20...

2014-04-01

276

17 CFR 210.3-20 - Currency for financial statements of foreign private issuers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Currency for financial statements of foreign private issuers...FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933...OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-20...

2011-04-01

277

17 CFR 210.3-20 - Currency for financial statements of foreign private issuers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Currency for financial statements of foreign private issuers...FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933...OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-20...

2012-04-01

278

17 CFR 210.3-20 - Currency for financial statements of foreign private issuers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Currency for financial statements of foreign private issuers...FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933...OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-20...

2013-04-01

279

The privatization age? : which services are privatized and why  

E-print Network

This dissertation examines the determinants of the extent of privatization of service delivery. Despite the fact that right-wing governments extolling neo-liberal policies have placed privatization at the top of the policy ...

Zehavi, Amos J., 1968-

2005-01-01

280

Stanford Securities Class Action Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stanford Law School presents the Stanford Securities Class Action Clearinghouse, a free, full-text database that identifies over 1,000 issuers named in federal class action securities fraud lawsuits since the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 was passed. The site provides "detailed information relating to the prosecution, defense, and settlement of federal class action securities fraud litigation." The site's search engine allows users to search by name of company sued or its ticker symbol, District Court where the case was filed, or by month or year in which the case was filed.

281

Privatization and Educational Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out…

Lieberman, Myron

282

UNIVERSITIES IN TEXAS, PRIVATE  

E-print Network

Caption FOR PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN TEXAS, PRIVATE SUPPORT IS THE ENGINE OF QUALITY. Indeed, state support (general revenues) today provides just one-third of Texas A&M University's total budget per student as Texas A&M. COLLEGE OF SCIENCE http://www.science.tamu.edu 3257 TAMU College Station

283

Privatizing University Properties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Maryland at College Park has taken an unusual step in turning over management of some student residences (two graduate student apartment complexes) to a private property management firm. The realty group found ways to convert necessary expenditures for property improvement into substantial revenue for the university. Suggestions…

Doctrow, Jerry; And Others

1996-01-01

284

Slouching toward Privatization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past two decades have seen a significant shift in the financial model of American higher education, laying groundwork for a transformation that could reshape people's understanding of the academy. The shift--toward increasing degrees of privatization--is unmistakable and has affected every American college and university to varying extents.…

Dickeson, Robert C.; Figuli, David J.

2007-01-01

285

Public Schools, Private Profits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why private companies and schools doing business with one another may be harmful to students. Problems uncovered from a decade of commercialization in the classroom are discussed as are issues of for-profit companies seeking to take over the operation of public schools, and one attempt to impose legislation to curtail commercialism. (GR)

Kennedy, Mike

2000-01-01

286

A private function.  

PubMed

Hinchingbrooke Hospital in Cambridgeshire is the first NHS trust to be run by a private company, Circle. The trust has shown signs of improvements in services and greater financial stability since it was taken over. However, Circle's initial willingness to involve staff in decisions appears to have waned, and there are concerns over job losses. PMID:23189576

Dean, Erin

287

Privatized multipurpose reactor initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) and seven other companies have submitted a plan to the DOE for deploying a multipurpose reactor at the Savannah River Plant. The facility would consume excess plutonium as fuel, irradiate tritium producing targets, and generate electricity. The plan proposes to establish a consortium that would privately finance and own two System 80+ nuclear units and

1995-01-01

288

The Private Sector Beckons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether from frustration, ambition, or financial necessity, administrators are inclined to say "yes" when private companies come calling. Sometimes superintendents initiate contacts themselves and begin new careers as well-credentialed salespeople or behind-the-scenes think tanks. At the Edison Project, former superintendents work in curriculum…

Ramsey, Krista

1998-01-01

289

Improving Quality and Access in Private Sector Primary Health Care—The Role of Business Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper discusses the economic,rationale for alternative business models in private sector health care delivery. “Social franchising” and other business models of health care delivery secure cooperation between providers, and coordinating agencies in order to improve quality, access, and efficiency of primary health care (PHC) in the private sector. The paper develops a simple economic,theory of health care production

David Bishai

290

77 FR 41204 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. app 2) and implementing regulation 41 CFR 101-6, announcement is made for the committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee. To discuss the matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector...

2012-07-12

291

78 FR 75376 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTP-PAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. appendix 2), the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) announces a meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTP-PAC). The meeting will be held to discuss matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private......

2013-12-11

292

76 FR 80971 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. app 2) and implementing regulation 41 CFR 101-6, announcement is made for the committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee. To discuss the matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector...

2011-12-27

293

Constraints on short-selling and asset price adjustment to private information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper models effects of short-sale constraints on the speed of adjustment (to private information) of security prices. Constraints eliminate some informative trades, but do not bias prices upward. Prohibiting traders from shorting reduces the adjustment speed of prices to private information, especially to bad news. Non-prohibitive costs can have the reverse effect, but this is unlikely. Implications are developed

Douglas W. Diamond; Robert E. Verrecchia

1987-01-01

294

Simulation of non-uniform wafer geometry and thin film residual stress on overlay errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition of residually stressed films in semiconductor manufacturing processes introduces elastic distortions in the wafer that can contribute to overlay errors in lithographic patterning. The distortion induced by film deposition causes out-of-plane distortion (i.e. wafer shape) that can be measured with commercial metrology tools as well as in-plane distortion that leads to overlay errors. In the present work, overlay

Sathish Veeraraghaven; Kevin T. Turner; Jaydeep Sinha

2011-01-01

295

Collusion Resistant Broadcast Encryption with Short Ciphertexts and Private Keys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe two new public key broadcast encryption systems for stateless receivers. Both systems are fully secure against any number of colluders. In our first construction both cipher- texts and private keys are of constant size (only two group elements), for any subset of receivers. The public key size in this system is linear in the total number of receivers.

Dan Boneh; Craig Gentry; Brent Waters

2005-01-01

296

Algorithms for provisioning virtual private networks in the hose model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual Private Networks(VPNs) provide customers with predictable and secure network connections over a shared network. The recently proposed hose model for VPNs allows for greater flexibility since it permits traffic to and from a hose endpoint to be arbitrarily distributed to other endpoints. In this paper, we develop novel algorithms for provisioning VPNs in the hose model. We connect VPN

Amit Kumar; Rajeev Rastogi; Abraham Silberschatz; Bülent Yener

2001-01-01

297

ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES  

E-print Network

ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES LEVAN ELBAKIDZE Assistant of Homeland Security National Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Disease Defense. The conclusions are those of the author and not necessarily the sponsor." #12;ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY

McCarl, Bruce A.

298

A Flexible Model for Resource Management in Virtual Private Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As IP technologies providing both tremendous capacity and the ability to establish dynamic secure associations between endpoints emerge, Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are going through dramatic growth. The number of endpoints per VPN is growing and the communication pattern between endpoints is becoming increasingly hard to forecast. Consequently, users are demanding dependable, dynamic connectivity between endpoints, with the network expected

Nick G. Duffield; Pawan Goyal; Albert G. Greenberg; Partho Pratim Mishra; K. K. Ramakrishnan; Jacobus E. Van Der Merive

1999-01-01

299

Conduction-Type Control of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors by Ti and Pd Overlayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conduction-type of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) was controlled by depositing metal overlayers with different work functions (Ti and Pd) onto the side surfaces of the CNT channel of the ambipolar CNTFETs. The devices with the Ti overlayer showed n-type conduction. On the other hand, the devices with the Pd overlayer showed p-type conduction. The phenomena were explained by the suppression of carrier injection from the drain contact by the energy barrier formed at the CNT-overlayer source-side contact.

Ishii, Satoshi; Tamaoki, Masato; Kishimoto, Shigeru; Mizutani, Takashi

2013-03-01

300

PRIVATE PRACTITIONERS Value Added Features  

E-print Network

PROMOTING VISION WELLNESS PRIVATE PRACTITIONERS Value Added Features: In addition to the health. Choose from private practitioners and leading optical retailers offered through the EyeMed ACCESS panel

Mountziaris, T. J.

301

Building multiservice Internet protocol virtual private networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiservice Internet Protocol-based Virtual Private Networks (MIP- VPNs) with Quality of Service (QoS) are becoming a reality due to the availability of new standards from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This paper describes how components including security models, IP tunneling protocols, and service differentiation schemes fit together in order to construct such a VPN. First, the concept and rationale of VPN is presented, followed by a discussion of its supporting components. A comparison is made among the various VPN technologies.

Cheung, William

1999-11-01

302

Alternative security  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

Weston, B.H. (Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States))

1990-01-01

303

The Privatization of Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, The Privatization of Special Education, addresses a shift in the provision of special education and related services to students with disabilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Students with disabilities are being publicly placed in private day and residential schools at public expense. In Virginia, 125 private schools are licensed…

McKinney, Judith A.

2011-01-01

304

COURSE SYLLABUS SPORT / PRIVATE PILOT  

E-print Network

COURSE SYLLABUS SPORT / PRIVATE PILOT #12;#12;Cessna eLearning Web Based Instructional Programs Cessna Sport / Private Pilot Training Course SYLLABUS King Schools, Inc. 3840 Calle Fortunada San Diego States of America. #12;Ver. 1.02 Cessna Sport / Private Pilot Syllabus Your Path to Becoming a Pilot

305

Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same…

Nevin, John A.

2008-01-01

306

Combined overlay, focus and CD metrology for leading edge lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As leading edge lithography moves to 22-nm design rules, low k1 technologies like double patterning are the new resolution enablers, and system control and setup are the new drivers to meet remarkably tight process requirements. The way of thinking and executing setup and control of lithography scanners is changing in four ways. First, unusually tight process tolerances call for very dense sampling [1], which in effect means measurements at high throughput combined with high order modeling and corrections to compensate for wafer spatial fingerprint. Second, complex interactions between scanner and process no longer allow separation of error sources through traditional metrology approaches, which are based on using one set of metrology tools and methods for setup and another for scanner performance control. Moreover, setup and control of overlay is done independently from CD uniformity, which in effect leads to independent and conflicting adjustments for the scanner. Third, traditional CD setup and control is based on the focus and dose calculated from their CD response and not from measurement of their effect on pattern profile, which allows a clean and orthogonal de-convolution of focus and dose variations across the wafer. Fourth, scanner setup and control has to take into consideration the final goal of lithography, which is the accurate printing of a complex pattern describing a real device layout. To this end we introduce a new setup and control metrology step: measuring-to-match scanner 1D and 2D proximity. In this paper we will describe the strategy for setup and control of overlay, focus, CD and proximity based on the YieldStarTM metrology tool and present the resulting performance. YieldStar-200 is a new, high throughput metrology tool based on a high numerical aperture scatterometer concept. The tool can be used stand-alone as well as integrated in a processing track. It is suitable for determining process offsets in X,Y and Z directions through Overlay and Focus measurements respectively. In addition CD profile information can be measured enabling proximity matching applications. By using a technique [2][3][4] to de-convolve dose and focus based on the profile measurement of a well-characterized process monitor target, we show that the dose and focus signature of a high NA 193nm immersion scanner can be effectively measured and corrected. A similar approach was also taken to address overlay errors using the diffraction based overlay capability [5] of the same metrology tool. We demonstrate the advantage of having a single metrology tool solution, which enables us to reduce dose, focus and overlay variability to their minimum non-correctable signatures. This technique makes use of the high accuracy and repeatability of the YieldStar tool and provides a common reference of scanner setup and user process. Using ASML's YieldStar in combination with ASML scanners, and control solutions allows for a direct link from the metrology tool to the system settings, ensuring that the appropriate system settings can be easily and directly updated.

Ebert, Martin; Cramer, Hugo; Tel, Wim; Kubis, Michael; Megens, Henry

2011-04-01

307

Privatization Or Marketization: Educational Development in Post-Mao China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the post-Mao era, the reformers have taken significant steps to privatize social policy and social welfare. Revamping the social security system and commodifying social services have become more prominent since the mid-eighties. Despite the post-Mao leaders' discomfort about the term "privatization", signs of state withdrawal from the provision of social policy and welfare are clear. The author argues that the emergence of private educational institutions indicates that China's educational development has gone through a similar process of privatization or quasi-marketization though the Chinese experience is different from that of Western counterparts. Specifically, this paper tries to examine how the flourishing market economy and the policy of decentralization have affected the development of China's higher education. No longer solely relying on public schools, private and minban (people run) educational institutions are becoming more popular in the new socialist market system. This paper attempts to examine how privatization and quasi- marketization have affected educational development in mainland China. The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the privatization of education in China.

Mok, Ka Ho

1997-09-01

308

Methodology for predicting asphalt concrete overlay life against reflection cracking  

E-print Network

Q in Equation 28 above, Hetenyi's solutions for a semi-inf1nite beam are used. 2k [(I+B d C d A -(I+2B d-C d)B +(2-D -D ? )] (29) Z6 E Php /r ///////////, f M M / rr , . /r Figure 3. - Deformation of the Pavement With the Wheel Load P1aced Eccentrically.... Experimental investigations carried out at Ohio State University ( 1, 2, 3) and Texas A8M University ( 4, 5, 6 ) have verified the applicability of fracture mechanics principles in predicting fatigue life of asphalt TIP OF THE CRACX /~ // N/i OVERLAY OLD...

Jayawickrama, Priyantha Warnasuriya

1985-01-01

309

Ductile film delamination from compliant substrates using hard overlayers  

PubMed Central

Flexible electronic devices call for copper and gold metal films to adhere well to polymer substrates. Measuring the interfacial adhesion of these material systems is often challenging, requiring the formulation of different techniques and models. Presented here is a strategy to induce well defined areas of delamination to measure the adhesion of copper films on polyimide substrates. The technique utilizes a stressed overlayer and tensile straining to cause buckle formation. The described method allows one to examine the effects of thin adhesion layers used to improve the adhesion of flexible systems. PMID:25641995

Cordill, M.J.; Marx, V.M.; Kirchlechner, C.

2014-01-01

310

Security sonar for water intakes  

SciTech Connect

The security of the water approaches to nuclear facilities has been largely neglected because of the lack of solutions to the intrusion problem. This paper reviews underwater scanning sonar in general, highlights a number of problems encountered in a threat detection system using sonar and suggests some procedures that can help make such a system workable. Information is drawn from recent experience with several security projects in the governmental and private sectors, one of which was a nuclear facility.

Rothenbuhler, D.E.

1987-07-01

311

Characterization of wafer geometry and overlay error on silicon wafers with nonuniform stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Process-induced overlay errors are a growing problem in meeting the ever-tightening overlay requirements for integrated circuit production. Although uniform process-induced stress is easily corrected, nonuniform stress across the wafer is much more problematic, often resulting in noncorrectable overlay errors. Measurements of the wafer geometry of free, unchucked wafers give a powerful method for characterization of such nonuniform stress-induced wafer distortions. Wafer geometry data can be related to in-plane distortion of the wafer pulled flat by an exposure tool vacuum chuck, which in turn relates to overlay error. This paper will explore the relationship between wafer geometry and overlay error by the use of silicon test wafers with deliberate stress variations, i.e., engineered stress monitor (ESM) wafers. A process will be described that allows the creation of ESM wafers with nonuniform stress and includes many thousands of overlay targets for a detailed characterization of each wafer. Because the spatial character of the stress variation is easily changed, ESM wafers constitute a versatile platform for exploring nonuniform stress. We have fabricated ESM wafers of several different types, e.g., wafers where the center area has much higher stress than the outside area. Wafer geometry is measured with an optical metrology tool. After fabrication of the ESM wafers including alignment marks and first level overlay targets etched into the wafer, we expose a second level resist pattern designed to overlay with the etched targets. After resist patterning, relative overlay error is measured using standard optical methods. An innovative metric from the wafer geometry measurements is able to predict the process-induced overlay error. We conclude that appropriate wafer geometry measurements of in-process wafers have strong potential to characterize and reduce process-induced overlay errors.

Brunner, Timothy A.; Menon, Vinayan C.; Wong, Cheuk Wun; Gluschenkov, Oleg; Belyansky, Michael P.; Felix, Nelson M.; Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Vukkadala, Pradeep; Veeraraghavan, Sathish; Sinha, Jaydeep K.

2013-10-01

312

Detailed descriptions of new proof-of-concept Bluetooth security analysis tools and new security attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the details of two new proof-of-concept Bluetooth security analysis tools and two new attacks against Bluetooth security. On-Line PIN Cracking script is a security analysis tool for on-line Bluetooth device PIN cracking. Brute-Force BD ADDR Scanning script is a security analysis tool for brute-force discovery of the addresses of Bluetooth devices that want to be private. Scripts

Keijo M. J. Haataja

2005-01-01

313

Network Security Implementation by Onion Routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication is the god given gift that enables intellectual and cultural exchange and builds up our competence in social behavior. The internet has taken communication to unimaginable attitudes. But many questions arise when we think of security. Is Internet communication private? Most security concerns focuses on preventing eavesdropping that is outsiders listening in on electronic conversions. But encrypted messages can

K. Kaviya

2009-01-01

314

A Concrete Security Treatment of Symmetric Encryption  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study notions and schemes for symmetric (ie. private key) encryption in a concrete security framework. We give four different notions of security against chosen plaintext attack and analyze the concrete complexity of reductions among them, providing both upper and lower bounds, and obtaining tight relations. In this way we classify notions (even though polynomially reducible to each other) as

Mihir Bellare; Anand Desai; E. Jokipii; Phillip Rogaway

1997-01-01

315

Collagen gel overlay induces two phases of apoptosis in MDCK cells.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that collagen gel overlay induced cell remodeling to form lumen and apoptosis in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. In the present study, we established that collagen gel overlay-induced apoptosis was initiated at areas exclusive of cell remodeling within 24 h (first phase) and extended into areas of cell remodeling within 48 h (second phase). Collagen gel overlay-induced apoptosis was accompanied by selective proteolysis of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), talin, p130(cas), and c-src. Upon collagen gel overlay, FAK was initially degraded into a 90-kDa product during the first phase and subsequently into a 80-kDa product during the second phase. Collagen gel overlay-induced apoptosis of focal adhesion complex proteins and apoptosis of the first phase could be blocked only by a protease inhibitor cocktail. In addition, we found that both DEVD-fmk and ZVAD-fmk inhibited secondary proteolysis of FAK, but only ZVAD-fmk blocked collagen gel overlay-induced apoptosis of the second phase. Finally, collagen gel overlay-induced apoptosis and proteolysis of focal adhesion complex proteins were completely inhibited by the combination of protease inhibitor cocktail and ZVAD-fmk. Taken together, collagen gel overlay induces two phases of apoptosis; the first phase is dependent on proteolysis of focal adhesion complex proteins, and the second phase on activation of caspases. PMID:11350739

Wang, Y K; Lin, H H; Tang, M J

2001-06-01

316

The GridMapper challenge: how to integrate into manufacturing for reduced overlay error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More sophisticated corrections of overlay error are required because of the challenge caused by technology scaling faster than fundamental tool improvements. Starting at the 45 nm node, the gap between the matchedmachine- overlay error (MMO) and technology requirement has decreased to the point where additional overlay correction methods are needed. This paper focuses on the steps we have taken to enable GridMapperTM, which is offered by ASML, as a method to reduce overlay error. The paper reviews the basic challenges of overlay error and previous standard correction practices. It then describes implementation of GridMapper into IBM's 300 mm fabrication facility. This paper also describes the challenges we faced and the improvements in overlay control observed with the use of this technique. Specifically, this paper will illustrate several improvements: 1. Minimization of non-linear grid signature differences between tools 2. Optimization of overlay corrections across all fields 3. Decreased grid errors, even on levels not using GridMapper 4. Maintenance of the grid for the lifetime of a product 5. Effectiveness in manufacturing - cycle time, automated corrections for tool grid signature changes and overlay performance similar to dedicated chuck performance

Gabor, Allen; Liegl, Bernhard; Pike, Michael; Hwang, Emily; Wiltshire, Timothy

2010-04-01

317

Debunking some myths about structured and unstructured overlays Miguel Castro Manuel Costa Antony Rowstron  

E-print Network

Debunking some myths about structured and unstructured overlays Miguel Castro Manuel Costa Antony study using sim- ulations driven by real-world traces that debunks these widespread myths. We describe to this debate by debunking some widespread myths. Unstructured overlays, for example Gnutella [1], or- ganize

Narasayya, Vivek

318

Towards a Common API for Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an ongoing effort to define com- mon APIs for structured peer-to-peer overlays and the key abstractions that can be built on them. In doing so, we hope to facilitate independent innovation in overlay pro- tocols, services, and applications, to allow direct experi- mental comparisons, and to encourage application devel- opment by third parties. We provide

Frank Dabek; Ben Y. Zhao; Peter Druschel; John Kubiatowicz; Ion Stoica

2003-01-01

319

Questioning the Benefits That Coloured Overlays Can Have for Reading in Students with and without Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual stress (the experience of visual distortions and discomfort during prolonged reading) is frequently identified and alleviated with coloured overlays or lenses. Previous studies have associated visual stress with dyslexia and as a consequence, coloured overlays are widely distributed to children and adults with reading difficulty. However,…

Henderson, Lisa M.; Tsogka, Natassa; Snowling, Margaret J.

2013-01-01

320

GIS based map overlay method for comprehensive assessment of road environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the matrix method, a Geographic Information System (GIS) based map overlay method is developed to analyze comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around road and its impact on the environment, which is adapted for the comprehensive assessment of road environmental impact and the optimal selection of road alignments. The assessment process of

Xiugang Li; Wei Wang; Fang Li; Xuejun Deng

1999-01-01

321

CONCRETE REQUIREMENTS FOR ULTRA-THIN CONCRETE OVERLAYS (WHITETOPPING) FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Whitetopping solutions for old flexible asphalt pavement overlays have been a challange for highway agencies and designers in the recent past years, with special regards to ultra-thin concrete overlays, also called by ultra-thin whitetopping (UTW). Considering the needs of full bond between the UTW and the old asphalt concrete (AC) layer it is clear the impossibility of applying conventional

José T. Balbo; Marcos P. Rodolfo

322

Dynamic Bandwidth Auctions in Multi-overlay P2P Streaming with Network Coding  

E-print Network

1 Dynamic Bandwidth Auctions in Multi-overlay P2P Streaming with Network Coding Chuan Wu, Student, bli}@eecg.toronto.edu {zongpeng}@cpsc.ucalgary.ca Abstract--In peer-to-peer (P2P) live streaming applications such as IPTV, it is natural to accommodate multiple coexisting streaming overlays, corresponding

Li, Zongpeng

323

Neighborhood Filtering Strategies for Overlay Construction in P2P-TV Systems: Design and  

E-print Network

1 Neighborhood Filtering Strategies for Overlay Construction in P2P-TV Systems: Design, Trento, Italy ­ {lastname}@fbk.eu Abstract--Peer-to-Peer live-streaming (P2P-TV) systems aim to benchmark different strategies for the construction and maintenance of the overlay topology in P2P

324

Small-World Overlay P2P Networks: Construction and Handling Dynamic Flash Crowd  

E-print Network

Small-World Overlay P2P Networks: Construction and Handling Dynamic Flash Crowd Ken Y.K. Hui John C@cs.purdue.edu Abstract In this paper, we consider how to "construct" and "maintain" an overlay structured P2P network with a high clustering coefficient implies the underlying P2P net- work has the "potential" to provide object

Lui, John C.S.

325

Adaptive Overlay Topology for Mesh-Based P2P-TV Richard John Lobb  

E-print Network

Adaptive Overlay Topology for Mesh-Based P2P-TV Systems Richard John Lobb University of Canterbury and maintaining the overlay top- ology in mesh-based P2P-TV systems. Our algorithm opti- mizes the topology-to-peer Live Streaming (P2P-TV) systems are can- didates for becoming the next Internet killer applications

326

Variance component analysis based fault diagnosis of multi-layer overlay lithography processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overlay lithography process is one of the most important steps in semiconductor manufacturing. This work attempts to solve a challenging problem in this technique, namely error source identification and diagnosis for multistage overlay processes. In this paper, a multistage state space model for the misalignment errors of the lithography process is developed and a general mixed linear input–output model

Jie Yu; S. Joe Qin

2009-01-01

327

Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers Salles V. G. Maghales and W Randolph Franklin  

E-print Network

Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers Salles V. G. MaghalĂŁes and W Randolph by representing coordinates as rational numbers. Now, intersections have no roundoff errors. Rational numbers for different kinds of soil. This paper presents Rat-overlay, an algorithm that uses rational numbers to perform

Franklin, W. Randolph

328

Perturbation-Resistant and Overlay-Independent Resource Discovery Steven Y. Ko and Indranil Gupta  

E-print Network

Perturbation-Resistant and Overlay-Independent Resource Discovery Steven Y. Ko and Indranil Gupta and discovery in dis- tributed systems should be both perturbation-resistant and overlay-independent. Perturbation-resistance means that inserts and lookups must be robust to ordinary stresses such as node

Gupta, Indranil

329

Stochastic Graph Processes for Performance Evaluation of Content Delivery Applications in Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new methodology to model the distribution of finite size content to a group of users connected through an overlay network. Our methodology describes the distribution process as a constrained stochastic graph process (CSGP), where the con- straints dictated by the content distribution protocol and the characteristics of the overlay network define the interaction among nodes. A

Damiano Carra; Renato Lo Cigno; Ernst W. Biersack

2008-01-01

330

Change in the electronic states of graphite overlayers depending on thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic states of graphite overlayers formed on the TaC(111) surface have been investigated with the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. The graphite film grows on the substrate layer by layer. The thickness of the overlayer has been adjusted precisely to be either one or two monolayers. The physical properties of the monolayer graphite film are modified by

A. Nagashima; H. Itoh; T. Ichinokawa; C. Oshima; S. Otani

1994-01-01

331

[ ]May 2014 Portland cement concrete (PCC) overlays have been used with great success in many locations  

E-print Network

[ ]May 2014 PROBLEM Portland cement concrete (PCC) overlays have been used with great success or concrete. The proven durability and cost-effective construction method of bonded concrete overlay over concrete layer over a PCC or cement-stabilized soil base. Due to the increasing costs of roadway

Harms, Kyle E.

332

Toward 7nm target on product overlay for C028 FDSOI technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous need for lithography overlay performance improvement is a key point for advanced integrated circuit manufacturing. Overlay control is more and more challenging in the 2x nm process nodes regarding functionality margin of the chip and tool capability. Transistor architecture rules which are set, confirm poly to contact space as the most critical one for 28nm technology node. Critical Dimension variability of these layers, even with best in class process stability, in addition to design constraint lead to on product overlay specifications of around 7nm. In order to ensure that the target is met in production environment and to identify potential ways for improvement, identification of the contributors to overlay errors is essential. We have introduced a novel budget breakdown methodology using both bottom-up and top-down overlay data. For the bottom up part, we have performed extensive testing with very high sampling scheme so as to quantify the main effects. In-line overlay metrology data has been used for top down approach to verify the overall performance in production. In this paper we focused on the 28nm contact to gate overlay in a FDSOI process. The initial inconsistency between bottom up and top down results led us to further exploration of the root cause of these inconsistencies. We have been able to highlight key figures to focus on, like reticle heating, wafer table contamination and etch processing effects. Finally, we conclude on 7nm overlay target achievement feasibility in high volume manufacturing environment.

Gatefait, Maxime; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Goirand, Pierre Jerome; Lam, Auguste; Van Haren, Richard; Pastol, Anne; Doytcheva, Maya; Liu, Xing Lan; Beltman, Jan

2013-04-01

333

Combining Computer and Manual Overlays--Willamette River Greenway Study1  

E-print Network

Combining Computer and Manual Overlays-- Willamette River Greenway Study1 Asa Hanamoto and Lucille computer mapping with manual overlays. An example of its use is the Willamette River Greenway Study to develop policy for qualitative use of the land. The environment is the visual, physical. chemical

Standiford, Richard B.

334

Overlay Networks with Linear Capacity Constraints Ying Zhu and Baochun Li, Senior Member, IEEE  

E-print Network

Abstract-- Overlay networks are virtual networks residing over the IP network, consequently, overlay links formulate Maximum-Flow with LCC as a linear program, and propose an efficient distributed algorithm to solve optimal or near-optimal bandwidth. We also outline a distributed algorithm to efficiently construct

Li, Baochun

335

Lightweight storage and overlay networks for fault tolerance.  

SciTech Connect

The next generation of capability-class, massively parallel processing (MPP) systems is expected to have hundreds of thousands to millions of processors, In such environments, it is critical to have fault-tolerance mechanisms, including checkpoint/restart, that scale with the size of applications and the percentage of the system on which the applications execute. For application-driven, periodic checkpoint operations, the state-of-the-art does not provide a scalable solution. For example, on today's massive-scale systems that execute applications which consume most of the memory of the employed compute nodes, checkpoint operations generate I/O that consumes nearly 80% of the total I/O usage. Motivated by this observation, this project aims to improve I/O performance for application-directed checkpoints through the use of lightweight storage architectures and overlay networks. Lightweight storage provide direct access to underlying storage devices. Overlay networks provide caching and processing capabilities in the compute-node fabric. The combination has potential to signifcantly reduce I/O overhead for large-scale applications. This report describes our combined efforts to model and understand overheads for application-directed checkpoints, as well as implementation and performance analysis of a checkpoint service that uses available compute nodes as a network cache for checkpoint operations.

Oldfield, Ron A.

2010-01-01

336

Private sector involvement in civil space remote sensing. Volume 1: Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of private sector developers, users, and interpreters of Earth resources data was conducted in an effort to encourage private investment and participation in remote sensing systems. Results indicate positive interest in participation beyond the current hardware contracting level, however, there is a substantial gap between current market levels and system costs. Issues identified include the selection process for an operating entity, the public/private interface, data collection and access policies, price and profit regulation in a subsidized system, international participation, and the responsibility for research and development. It was agreed that the cost, complexity, and security implications of integrated systems need not be an absolute bar to their private operation.

1979-01-01

337

Cloud Security by Max Garvey  

E-print Network

Cloud Security Survey by Max Garvey #12;Cloudy Cloud is Cloudy What is the cloud? On Demand Service Network access Resource pooling Elasticity of Resources Measured Service #12;Cloud Types/Variants Iaa Cloud Public Cloud Hybrid Cloud combination. Private cloud with overflow going to public cloud. #12

Tolmach, Andrew

338

Exact and reliable overlay metrology in nanoscale semiconductor devices using an image processing method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As semiconductor processing becomes more complicated and pattern sizes shrink, the overlay metrology has become one of the most important issues in the semiconductor industry. Therefore, in order to obtain correct, reliable overlay values in semiconductor fabrication facilities (fab), quantization methods for the efficient management and implementation of a measurement algorithm are required, as well as an understanding of the target structures in the semiconductor device. We implemented correct, reliable overlay values in the pattern using the image processing method. The quantization method, through correlation analysis and a new algorithm for target structures, were able to improve the sensitivity to misalignment in the pattern and enable more stable and credible in-line measurement by decreasing the distribution of the residuals in overlay values. Since overlay values of the pattern in the fab were measured and managed more reliably and quickly, it is expected that our study will be able to contribute to the yield enhancement of semiconductor companies.

Park, Jinkook; Shin, ChaeHo; Kim, Minkook; Kim, Junghwan; Park, JeongKyun; Kim, JungSoo; Jun, ChungSam; Yim, Yeny; Lee, Janghee

2014-10-01

339

Innovative techniques for improving overlay accuracy by using DCM (device correlated metrology) targets as reference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay metrology performance as Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), design rule compatibility, device correlation and measurement accuracy are been challenged at 2x nm node and below. Process impact on overlay metrology becoming critical, and techniques to improve measurement accuracy becomes increasingly important. In this paper, we present an innovative methodology for improving overlay accuracy. A propriety quality metric, Qmerit, is used to identify overlay metrology measurement settings with least process impacts and reliable accuracies. Using the quality metric, an innovative calibration method, ASC (Archer Self Calibration) is then used to remove the inaccuracies. Accuracy validation can be achieved by correlation to reference overlay data from another independent metrology source such as CDSEM data collected on DCM (Device Correlated Metrology) hybrid target or electrical testing. Additionally, reference metrology can also be used to verify which measurement conditions are the most accurate. In this paper we bring an example of such use case.

Tzai, Wei-Jhe; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Chen, Howard; Chen, Charlie; Pai, Yuan Chi; Yu, Chun-Chi; Lin, Chia Ching; Itzkovich, Tal; Yap, Lipkong; Amit, Eran; Tien, David; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

2014-04-01

340

Practical private database queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol  

SciTech Connect

Private queries allow a user, Alice, to learn an element of a database held by a provider, Bob, without revealing which element she is interested in, while limiting her information about the other elements. We propose to implement private queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol, with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. This approach makes our scheme both easy to implement and loss tolerant. While unconditionally secure private queries are known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by relying on fundamental physical principles instead of unverifiable security assumptions in order to protect both the user and the database. We think that the scope exists for such practical private queries to become another remarkable application of quantum information in the footsteps of quantum key distribution.

Jakobi, Markus [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Simon, Christoph [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Institute for Quantum Information Science and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 1N4, Alberta (Canada); Gisin, Nicolas; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Branciard, Cyril; Walenta, Nino; Zbinden, Hugo [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

2011-02-15

341

SECURING WIRELESS SECURING WIRELESS  

E-print Network

Network Security: 802.11, Bluetooth and Handheld Devices, in 2002. This guide assists organizations Bluetooth technology and wireless handheld devices such as text messaging devices, PDAs, and smart phones Special Publication (SP) 800-48, Wireless Network Security: 802.11, Bluetooth and Handheld Devices

342

Privatization: An investor's perspective  

SciTech Connect

Imagine a world in which regions and sovereign states, through their designated representatives and with the support of politicians of the dominant parties, cast aside their customary sternness with people who are not broke; a world in which they strive to assure providers of capital, both foreign and domestic, of the highest possible returns of investment at the lowest possible level of risk (entrepreneurial returns at government bond risk levels, they say). Imagine this and one grasps the world described, or imagined, by the sponsors of the electrical, gas, telephone, and other grand international privatizations that mark the global investment scene today. Investors are generally better off with offerings where (1) the government continues to own a majority of the shares (for example, Endesa in Spain or KEPCO in Korea), (2) new management runs the business as a business (PowerGen in the U.K.), (3) strong growth in power demand continues (China Light Power in Hong Kong), and (4) regulatory and competitive policies are well established and in place (that is, investors are not sandbagged). Unfortunately, many of these privatization offerings have not lived up to the expectations beyond the initial premium -- buyers beware. Investing in privatized utilities can provide exceptional rewards from profitability improvement through greater efficiency and growth. In general, however, high prices should not be paid for mature utility properties, either directly or indirectly. Entry prices should be low in relation to the profitability level likely to be achieved through cost cutting. Growth utilities can reasonably be expected to maintain higher levels of profitability because of regulators' desire to attract additional capital. As far as any other assurance that may be given by managements and government officials on the road, they should be disregarded, and regulatory behavior should be forecast solely in terms of political expediency.

Rathnam, L.Y.; Khaitan, V. (Scudder, Stevens Clark Inc., Boston, MA (United States))

1994-01-01

343

A Brief Guide to Social Security Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"A Brief Guide to Social Security Reform," by Daniel J. Mitchell of the Heritage Foundation, argues for the need to privatize the Social Security system in the US. The Social Security system currently collects more in taxes than benefits paid out, with the excess held in the Trust Fund. But this is expected to change in 2014 when the baby boomers and increased longevity of retirees is likely to result in benefits exceeding taxes collected. By 2031, the Trust Fund is expected to be exhausted. Suggestions for reforming Social Security include minor changes to the eligibility requirement or tax rates, allowing part of Social Security contributions to be invested freely, and totally privatizing Social Security.

Mitchell, Daniel J.

1997-01-01

344

Student Experiential Opportunities in National Security Careers  

SciTech Connect

This report documents student experiential opportunities in national security careers as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of how experiential opportunities assist students in the selection of a career and a list of opportunities in the private sector and government. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. Workforce development activities will facilitate the hiring of students to work with professionals in both the private and public sectors, as well as assist in preparing a workforce for careers in national security. The goal of workforce development under the NSPP grant is to assess workforce needs in national security and implement strategies to develop the appropriate workforce.

None

2007-12-31

345

Computer vision and soft computing for automatic skull-face overlay in craniofacial superimposition.  

PubMed

Craniofacial superimposition can provide evidence to support that some human skeletal remains belong or not to a missing person. It involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. Within the craniofacial superimposition process, the skull-face overlay stage just focuses on achieving the best possible overlay of the skull and a single ante mortem image of the suspect. Although craniofacial superimposition has been in use for over a century, skull-face overlay is still applied by means of a trial-and-error approach without an automatic method. Practitioners finish the process once they consider that a good enough overlay has been attained. Hence, skull-face overlay is a very challenging, subjective, error prone, and time consuming part of the whole process. Though the numerical assessment of the method quality has not been achieved yet, computer vision and soft computing arise as powerful tools to automate it, dramatically reducing the time taken by the expert and obtaining an unbiased overlay result. In this manuscript, we justify and analyze the use of these techniques to properly model the skull-face overlay problem. We also present the automatic technical procedure we have developed using these computational methods and show the four overlays obtained in two craniofacial superimposition cases. This automatic procedure can be thus considered as a tool to aid forensic anthropologists to develop the skull-face overlay, automating and avoiding subjectivity of the most tedious task within craniofacial superimposition. PMID:25447179

Campomanes-Álvarez, B Rosario; Ibáńez, O; Navarro, F; Alemán, I; Botella, M; Damas, S; Cordón, O

2014-10-18

346

Implementing IPv6 as a Peer-to-Peer Overlay Network Lidong Zhou Robbert van Renesse Michael Marsh  

E-print Network

Implementing IPv6 as a Peer-to-Peer Overlay Network Lidong Zhou Robbert van Renesse Michael Marsh,rvr,mmarsh}@cs.cornell.edu Abstract This paper proposes to implement an IPv6 routing in- frastructure as a self-organizing overlay network on top of the current IPv4 infrastructure. The overlay network builds upon a distributed IPv6 edge

Birman, Kenneth P.

347

Overlay stability improvement at metal layers using combination of feedforward and feedback run-to-run control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We had to rework many lots at metal layers for the overlay instability. We found that the wafer rotation in overlay components related at the number of wafers from the change of CMP PAD at Tungsten CMP process and then improved overlay stability by using the feedforward run-to-run control as utilizing above correlation and confirmed the advantage for using the

T. Higashi; K. Murakami; A. Oikawa

2003-01-01

348

Lemnos Interoperable Security Program  

SciTech Connect

The manner in which the control systems are being designed and operated in the energy sector is undergoing some of the most significant changes in history due to the evolution of technology and the increasing number of interconnections to other system. With these changes however come two significant challenges that the energy sector must face; 1) Cyber security is more important than ever before, and 2) Cyber security is more complicated than ever before. A key requirement in helping utilities and vendors alike in meeting these challenges is interoperability. While interoperability has been present in much of the discussions relating to technology utilized within the energy sector and especially the Smart Grid, it has been absent in the context of cyber security. The Lemnos project addresses these challenges by focusing on the interoperability of devices utilized within utility control systems which support critical cyber security functions. In theory, interoperability is possible with many of the cyber security solutions available to utilities today. The reality is that the effort required to achieve cyber security interoperability is often a barrier for utilities. For example, consider IPSec, a widely-used Internet Protocol to define Virtual Private Networks, or â?? tunnelsâ?ť, to communicate securely through untrusted public and private networks. The IPSec protocol suite has a significant number of configuration options and encryption parameters to choose from, which must be agreed upon and adopted by both parties establishing the tunnel. The exercise in getting software or devices from different vendors to interoperate is labor intensive and requires a significant amount of security expertise by the end user. Scale this effort to a significant number of devices operating over a large geographical area and the challenge becomes so overwhelming that it often leads utilities to pursue solutions from a single vendor. These single vendor solutions may inadvertently lock utilities into proprietary and closed systems Lemnos is built on the successes of Open PCS Security Architecture for Interoperable Design (OPSAID), a previous DOE National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) project. It enhances security interoperability by identifying basic cyber security functions based on utility requirements and then selecting open source solutions, namely Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) RFCs, to support these functions. Once identified, specific configuration parameters for each RFC suitable for the electric utility control system environment are identified and documented. These configuration parameters are referred to as Interoperable Configuration Profiles (ICP) and their effectiveness within the utility control systems environment is verified with comprehensive testing as the final step in the process. The project focused on development of ICPs for four security protocols (IPsec, SSH, LDAP, and Syslog) which represent fundamental building blocks which can be utilized for securing utility control systems. These ICPs are product agnostic and can be applied modularly to any device (router, substation gateway, intelligent electronic device, etc.) within the utility control system as the end user deems necessary for their unique system architecture. The Lemnos Interoperable Security Program is a public-private partnership under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability's Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program and supports The Roadmap to Secure Energy Delivery Systems. In addition to EnerNex, the core team supporting the effort includes Tennessee Valley Authority, Sandia National Laboratories, and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories. Adding to the core team effort is collaboration from additional industry participants in the project including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Alien Vault, Cisco, Encore Networks, GarrettCom, Industrial Defender, N-Dimension Solutions, Phoenix Contact, RuggedCom, and Siemens.

John Stewart; Ron Halbgewachs; Adrian Chavez; Rhett Smith; David Teumim

2012-01-31

349

Sharing information on computer systems security: An economic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US federal government has fostered a movement toward sharing information concerning computer security, with particular emphasis on protecting critical infrastructure assets that are largely owned by the private sector. As information security is paramount to accurate financial reporting and the provision of timely and relevant managerial accounting reports for decision-making, the issue of sharing information on computer systems security

Lawrence A. Gordon; Martin P. Loeb; William Lucyshyn

2003-01-01

350

Quantum Oblivious Transfer Based on a Quantum Symmetrically Private Information Retrieval Protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Private information retrieval implies oblivious transfer in classical cryptography. Following this clue, we present a novel quantum one-out-of-two OT protocol based on a practical quantum symmetrically private information retrieval protocol Jakobi et al. (Phys. Rev. A 83, 022301 2011), with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. While unconditionally secure oblivious transfer is known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by means of quantum physical principles instead of unproven security assumptions in order to protect both the sender and the receiver. The proposed OT protocol is loss tolerant, practical and robust against quantum memory attack.

Yang, Yu-Guang; Sun, Si-Jia; Wang, Yan

2015-03-01

351

Emerging Issues of Privatized Prisons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, posted May 14, 2001, from the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), prepared by the National Council on Crime and Delinquency, presents the results of a national study to examine the efficacy of prison privatization. The report looks at the factors that have contributed to the increase in prison populations (which has in turn fueled the movement to privatize prisons) as well as the role the private sector currently plays in the prison system. "It outlines the arguments, both in support of and opposition to, privatized prisons, reviews current literature on the subject, and examines issues that will have an impact on future privatizations." Overall, the study found that private prisons operate much the same as public ones, with only marginal cost savings, and those savings mostly gleaned from reduction in labor costs. Note that graphical elements such as figures and charts are not available in the text version of the report.

Austin, James, 1948-

2001-01-01

352

Private development of artificial reefs  

E-print Network

PRIVATE DEVFLOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL REEFS A Thesis ARTHUR ALLEN BURNS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject...: Management PRIVATE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL REEFS A Thesis by ARTHUR ALLEN BURNS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: irman o t e Committee { ead o the Depa tment ~Member Memb e- December 1978 12409Ei'7 ABSTRACT Private Development...

Burns, Arthur Allen

1978-01-01

353

Computer Security and the Data Encryption Standard. Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Security and the Data Encryption Standard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 15 papers and summaries of presentations in this collection provide technical information and guidance offered by representatives from federal agencies and private industry. Topics discussed include physical security, risk assessment, software security, computer network security, and applications and implementation of the Data Encryption…

Branstad, Dennis K., Ed.

354

BWR pipe crack and weld clad overlay studies  

SciTech Connect

Leaks and cracks in the heat-affected zones of weldments in austenitic stainless steel piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs) due to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) have been observed since the mid-1960s. Since that time, cracking has continued to occur, and indication have been found in all parts of the recirculation system, including the largest diameter lines. Proposed solutions for the problem include procedures that produce a more favorable residual stress state on the inner surface, materials that are more resistant to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and changes in the reactor environment that decrease the susceptibility to cracking. In addition to the evaluation of these remedies, it is also important to gain a better understanding of the weld overlay procedure, which is the most widely used short-term repair for flawed piping.

Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.E.

1984-10-01

355

Ubiquitous map-image access through wireless overlay networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the availability of various wireless link-layer technologies, such as Bluetooth, WLAN and GPRS, in one wireless device, ubiquitous communications can be realized through managing vertical handoff in the environment of wireless overlay networks. In this paper, we propose a vertical handoff management system based on mobile IPv6, which can automatically manage the multiple network interfaces on the mobile device, and make decisions on network interface selection according to the current situation. Moreover, we apply our proposed vertical handoff management with JPEG-2000 codec to the wireless application of map image access. The developed system is able to provide seamless communications, as well as fast retrieve any interested map region with any block size, in different resolutions and different color representations directly from the compressed bitstream.

Cai, Jianfei; Huang, Haijie; Ni, Zefeng; Chen, Chang Wen

2004-10-01

356

Differentially private distributed logistic regression using private and public data  

PubMed Central

Background Privacy protecting is an important issue in medical informatics and differential privacy is a state-of-the-art framework for data privacy research. Differential privacy offers provable privacy against attackers who have auxiliary information, and can be applied to data mining models (for example, logistic regression). However, differentially private methods sometimes introduce too much noise and make outputs less useful. Given available public data in medical research (e.g. from patients who sign open-consent agreements), we can design algorithms that use both public and private data sets to decrease the amount of noise that is introduced. Methodology In this paper, we modify the update step in Newton-Raphson method to propose a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on both public and private data. Experiments and results We try our algorithm on three different data sets, and show its advantage over: (1) a logistic regression model based solely on public data, and (2) a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on private data under various scenarios. Conclusion Logistic regression models built with our new algorithm based on both private and public datasets demonstrate better utility than models that trained on private or public datasets alone without sacrificing the rigorous privacy guarantee. PMID:25079786

2014-01-01

357

Monitoring process-induced overlay errors through high-resolution wafer geometry measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling overlay errors resulting from wafer processing, such as film deposition, is essential for meeting overlay budgets in future generations of devices. Out-of-plane distortions induced on the wafer due to processing are often monitored through high-resolution wafer geometry measurements. While such wafer geometry measurements provide information about the wafer distortion, mechanics models are required to connect such measurements to overlay errors, which result from in-plane distortions. The aim of this paper is to establish fundamental connections between the out-ofplane distortions that are characterized in wafer geometry measurements and the in-plane distortions on the wafer surface that lead to overlay errors. First, an analytical mechanics model is presented to provide insight into the connection between changes in wafer geometry and overlay. The analytical model demonstrates that the local slope of the change in wafer shape induced by the deposition of a residually stressed film is related to the induced overlay for simple geometries. Finite element modeling is then used to consider realistic wafer geometries and assess correlations between the local slope of the wafer shape change induced by the deposition of a stressed film and overlay. As established previously, overlay errors only result when the stresses in the film are non-uniform, thus the finite element study considers wafers with several different nonuniform residual stress distributions. Correlation between overlay and a metric based on a corrected wafer slope map is examined. The results of the modeling and simulations are discussed and compared to recently published experimental results.

Turner, K. T.; Vukkadala, P.; Veeraraghavan, S.; Sinha, J. K.

2014-04-01

358

Security Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

De Patta, Joe

2003-01-01

359

RFID Security: Tradeoffs between Security and Ivan Damgard and Michael stergaard Pedersen  

E-print Network

RFID Security: Tradeoffs between Security and Efficiency Ivan Damg°ard and Michael �stergaard privacy for RFID tags. We add to this definition a completeness and a soundness require- ment, i prove a conjecture by Juels and Weis, namely in a strongly private and sound RFID system using only

360

TWRS privatization bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information.

NONE

1996-03-01

361

Private Sector Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank is perhaps one of the world's premier organizations regarding development opportunities, and they are widely recognized for their work in the developing world. With this latest outing, they have created the Private Sector Development (PSD) Blog, which is designed to be both quirky and opinionated, qualities which are never in short supply as one wanders around the web. Having said that, the site is rather erudite, as it provides intelligent comments on topics that include disaster recovery, foreign direct investment, and corporate governance. New users will want to browse through some of the recent posts, and then perhaps look at the "Categories" section on the left-hand side of the page for future explorations. As might be expected, each post also contains links to external readings from a diverse set of publications, such as the Financial Times and like-minded ventures.

362

TWRS privatization bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety.

NONE

1996-02-01

363

Boston Private Industry Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1979 by a banker and education advocate, the Boston Private Industry Council's (PIC) Boston's Workforce Investment Board is a valuable program that pairs Boston businesses with Boston high school students to give the students valuable experience and jobs, while helping the businesses develop a skilled workforce. Visitors should definitely take a look at the "Research" tab to read about research on "Drop Out Studies", "Labor Market Studies", and "College Going Studies" that the PIC has produced with the Center for Labor Market Studies at Northeastern University. Under the "Programs" tab visitors can choose from career programs for youth, adults, and out-of-school youth (those who have not finished high school or finished without passing state requirements). Under the same tab, visitors will find the "Career Exploration for Youth" program provides career exploration programs including "Job Shadow Day", "Mock Interviews", and "Career Speakers".

364

Public Funds and Private Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Financial and survival problems facing private colleges, unless the state governments make major changes in the way public education is financed, are discussed in this speech. The gap between the cost of attending public and private institutions is growing, at least for families with incomes above the median. Many of the best academic colleges and…

Pope, Kenneth H.

365

Michigan School Privatization Survey 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Privatization of support services has been a method that Michigan school districts have used for several years to lower costs. More than ever before, Michigan school districts are privatizing the three main support services they offer--food, custodial and transportation. The annual survey finds that 48.8 percent of Michigan school districts are…

Hohman, James M.; Anderson, Dustin D.

2010-01-01

366

Privatization of airports in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been claimed that Asia lags behind the rest of the world in the privatization of airports. At the same time, the air transport sector has been growing quickly and this has placed enormous pressure on airport infrastructure. This paper reviews the situation and finds that the private sector is involved extensively with new airports and the upgrading of

Paul Hooper

2002-01-01

367

Private Faith and Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Must faith be privatized? Taken at face value, this could seem a curious question, since no one is in a position to "sell off" any religion to private interests, in the way that, for example, British Rail was dismembered. Yet the question is an important one in a contemporary society, characterized as it is by a significant divergence of views…

Trigg, Roger

2008-01-01

368

Michigan School Privatization Survey 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Privatization of school support services is a time-tested means for lowering educational costs. The three major services that school districts in Michigan contract out for are food, custodial and transportation. The Mackinac Center for Public Policy's survey of privatization is the longest running and most comprehensive source of school support…

Hohman, James M.; Freeland, William L. E.

2008-01-01

369

Public/Private Partnership Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the Public/Private Partnership Programs, a school-community project developed in 1981 by the District of Columbia public schools and the private sector community to provide career-focused high school programs. The project was designed to motivate and support young people to stay in school, graduate from high school, and…

District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.

370

Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., (UL) have jointly established the Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP). The goal of this program is to enhance industrial and national security by providing a nationally recognized method for making informed selection and use decisions when buying security equipment and systems. The SESCP will provide a coordinated structure for private and governmental security standardization review. Members will participate in meetings to identify security problems, develop ad-hoc subcommittees (as needed) to address these identified problems, and to maintain a communications network that encourages a meaningful exchange of ideas. This program will enhance national security by providing improved security equipment and security systems based on consistent, reliable standards and certification programs.

Steele, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Papier, I.I. [Underwriters Labs., Inc., Northbrook, IL (United States)

1996-06-20

371

Peer-to-Peer Overlays for Real-Time Communication: Security Issues and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer to peer (P2P) networks offer higher robustness against failure, easier configuration and are generally more economical as compared to their client-server counterparts. This has made it reasonable for resource consuming and typically centralized applications like voice over IP (VoIP) and, in general, real-time communication to adapt and exploit the benefits of P2P. Such a migration needs to address a

Dhruv Chopra; Henning Schulzrinne; Enrico Marocco; Emil Ivov

2009-01-01

372

33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2014-07-01

373

33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2012-07-01

374

33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2011-07-01

375

33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2010-07-01

376

33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2013-07-01

377

Security Intrusion & Detection Security Intrusion  

E-print Network

1 16 Security Intrusion & Detection · Security Intrusion ­ One or combination of security events · Intrusion Detection ­ a security service that monitors and analyzes system events ­ to find, and provide on system: not to sign every pkt! · configured according to system security policies ­ Many dynamics

Dong, Yingfei

378

Noisy Preprocessing and the Distillation of Private States  

E-print Network

We provide a simple security proof for prepare & measure quantum key distribution protocols employing noisy processing and one-way postprocessing of the key. This is achieved by showing that the security of such a protocol is equivalent to that of an associated key distribution protocol in which, instead of the usual maximally-entangled states, a more general {\\em private state} is distilled. Besides a more general target state, the usual entanglement distillation tools are employed (in particular, Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS)-like codes), with the crucial difference that noisy processing allows some phase errors to be left uncorrected without compromising the privacy of the key.

Joseph M. Renes; Graeme Smith

2006-12-14

379

Information Security Awareness On-Line Materials Design with Knowledge Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information Security Awareness, though known as a primary and important issue in the domain of Information Security, CSI computer crime and security survey showed poor security awareness training in public and private sectors. In many studies, the authors have found that the usage of knowledge maps helps the process of learning and conception…

Shaw, Ruey-Shiang; Keh, Huan-Chao; Huang, Nan-Ching; Huang, Tien-Chuan

2011-01-01

380

Security and Trust in Agent-Oriented Middleware  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Spreading of technologies as peer-to-peer networks, web services, multi-agent systems, ubiquitous computing, shows a clear\\u000a trend toward open and highly distributed systems, requiring wide and dynamic overlay networks. But mass adoption of these\\u000a technologies, especially in contexts where sensible resources are handled, will come true only if they will be able to guarantee\\u000a a proper level of security. This paper

Agostino Poggi; Michele Tomaiuolo; Giosuč Vitaglione

2003-01-01

381

[Diabetes in private practice. Data of the INSERM national survey on private practice (1974-1975)].  

PubMed

Data from a national survey of private medicine in France were used to estimate the frequency of diabetes in primary care and to analyse both patient characteristics and therapeutic management. An approach was made to 2012 physicians who were requested to complete a questionnaire for each patient they saw during the course of a single day; 1103 responded and completed more than 20000 questionnaires. An additional investigation looked into the nature of the non responders. Diabetics represent 2,2% of patients in private medicine. Each year about 5,5 million consultations in private practice in France are for diabetes alone or for diabetes in association with other illnesses. 89% of diabetic patients are over 45 years of age and more than 48% older than 65. In most cases (80%), diabetes is associated with other medical problems, half of them being consequences of diabetes (cardio-vascular diseases, ocular and renal diseases). In 85% of cases, diabetics receive their basic care from a general practitioner. Therapeutic management is based mainly on drugs; diet or advice about life style are mentioned in barely one third of cases. Using linkage with social security data, it was possible to make a crude estimate of the number of diabetics in France. It was estimated at about 1 million for 52,6 million inhabitants. PMID:6852339

Colvez, A; Eschwege, E; Michel, E; Hatton, F

1983-03-01

382

From client-side encryption to secure web applications  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an approach for designing secure web applications that use client-side encryption to keep user data private in the face of arbitrary web server compromises, as well as a set of tools, called CryptFrame, ...

Stark, Emily (Emily Margarete)

2013-01-01

383

Secure multi-party protocols under a modern lens  

E-print Network

A secure multi-party computation (MPC) protocol for computing a function f allows a group of parties to jointly evaluate f over their private inputs, such that a computationally bounded adversary who corrupts a subset of ...

Boyle, Elette Chantae

2013-01-01

384

A program to design asphalt concrete overlays to mitigate reflection cracking  

E-print Network

One of the major concerns for pavement engineers is that many pavements considered structurally sound after being overlaid exhibit a cracking pattern similar to the existing pavement. The new overlay cracks because of its inability to withstand...

Satyanarayana Rao, Sindhu

2002-01-01

385

How to minimize CD variation and overlay degradation induced by film stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is getting harder to minimize feature size to satisfy bit growth requirement. 3D NAND flash memory has been developed to meet bit growth requirement without shrinking feature size. To increase the number of memory cells per unit area without shrinking feature size, we should increase the number of stacked film layers which finally become memory cells. Wafer warpage is induced by the stress between film and wafer. Both of film stress and wafer warpage increase in proportion to stacked film layers, and the increase of wafer warpage makes CD uniformity worse. Overlay degradation has no relation with wafer warpage, but has indirect relation with film stress. Wafer deformation in film deposition chamber is the source of overlay degradation. In this paper, we study the reasons why CD uniformity and overlay accuracy are affected by film stress, and suggest the methods which keep CD uniformity and overlay accuracy safe without additional processes.

Jung, Woo-Yung; Lim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Shin-Ae; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Yoo, Jung-A.; Pyi, Seung-Ho; Kim, Jin-Woong

2012-03-01

386

22 CFR 216.4 - Private applicants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROCEDURES § 216.4 Private applicants. Programs...I.D. is sought by private applicants, such as...educational and research institutions, are subject to these...financing submitted by private applicants...

2010-04-01

387

Private Information and Insurance Rejections  

PubMed Central

Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets. PMID:24187381

Hendren, Nathaniel

2013-01-01

388

New developments in electrical linewidth and overlay metrology for ULSI fabrication processes  

SciTech Connect

Compared to other metrology approaches, electrical test structures for the measurement of dimensional characteristics such as linewidth and overlay directly relate to the electrical performance of the circuits being fabricated. The inherent disadvantage of electrical techniques is that they can be applied only to the extraction of the dimensions of features patterned in electrically-conducting materials. They can not be directly applied to patterned resist films or dielectric material layers. In the case of narrow on-wafer features patterned in resist, for example, linewidths are preferably extracted by electron-beam methods. These methods are sufficiently repeatable for monitoring fabrication-process variations. However, the traceability of the units in which linewidth is expressed is thwarted by the unavailability of suitable calibration artifacts. In the case of overlay metrology, the same limitations as regards electrical conduction apply. However, similar advantages accrue in principle to electrical overlay methods when they can be utilized. It is the electrical quality of the overlay of a conducting via relative to underlying or overlying conducting material which is of driving importance for circuit functionality. This may differ from the overlay values extracted from the same patterns by commonly-used optical overlay tools. Further refinements in the state of the art in both electrical linewidth and electrical overlay metrologies are desirable as feature sizes and spacings continue to shrink in emerging generations of devices. This paper discusses some recent innovations which have been recently introduced and indicates new roles for electrical metrology in low-cost certification of reference materials for both linewidth and overlay applications.

Cresswell, M.W.; Allen, R.A.; Linholm, L.W.; Ghoshtagore, R.N.; Teague, E.C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Gurnell, A.W. [Bio-Rad Micromeasurements, Inc., York (United Kingdom); Sniegowski, J.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-07-01

389

SkipNet: A Scalable Overlay Network with Practical Locality Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalable overlay networks such as Chord, CAN, Pastry, and Tapestry have recently emerged as flex- ible infrastructure for building large peer-to-peer sys- tems. In practice, such systems have two disadvantages: They provide no control over where data is stored and no guarantee that routing paths remain within an ad- ministrative domain whenever possible. SkipNet is a scalable overlay network that

Nicholas J. A. Harvey; Michael B. Jones; Stefan Saroiu; Marvin Theimer; Alec Wolman

2003-01-01

390

An identity-based approach to secure P2P applications with Likir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured overlay networks are highly susceptible to attacks aimed at subverting their structure or functionalities. Although\\u000a many secure architectural design proposals have been presented in the past, a widely accepted and comprehensive solution is\\u000a lacking. Likir (Layered Identity-based Kademlia-like Infrastructure) is our solution for implementing a secure Peer-to-Peer\\u000a network based on a Distributed Hash Table. Our purpose is to focus

Luca Maria Aiello; Marco Milanesio; Giancarlo Ruffo; Rossano Schifanella

391

Magnetocrystalline anisotropies and magnetostriction of ultrathin Fe films on GaAs with Cr overlayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we present data which show that Cr overlayers on epitaxial Fe films on GaAs substrates change the magnetic properties of the films in comparison to Au overlayers. For films thinner than 50 ML, the presence of the Cr overlayer reduced the magnitude of the uniaxial anisotropy in the Fe film, while for a 150 ML film, there was still a strong uniaxial anisotropy present. The anisotropy constants were determined using a modified energy density model, and were found to be smaller than those for Au overlayer films. The absolute magnetizations were measured on a vibrating sample magnetometer. It was determined that for the same thickness of Fe the magnetization with a Cr overlayer was 75% of that for a Au overlayer. This was either due to the Cr alloying with the Fe at the interface, or the Cr forming CrO2 on the surface of the film. The magnetostriction constant was determined using the Villari effect. For all the films the saturation magnetostriction constant was more negative than the bulk Fe value.

Morley, N. A.; Tang, S. L.; Gibbs, M. R. J.; Ahmad, E.; Will, I. G.; Xu, Y. B.

2005-05-01

392

The study and simulation of high-order overlay control including field-by-field methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay continues to be one of the key challenges for photolithography in semiconductor manufacturing. It becomes even more challenging due to the continued shrinking of the device node. The corresponding tighter overlay specs require the consideration of new paradigms for overlay control, such as high-order control schemes and/or field-by-field overlay control. These approaches have been demonstrated to provide tighter overlay control for design rule structures, and can be applied to areas such as double patterning lithography (DPL), as well as for correcting non-linear overlay deformation signatures caused by non-lithographic wafer processing. Previously we presented a study of high-order control applied to high order scanner correction, high order scanner alignment, and the sampling required to support these techniques. Here we extend this work, using sources of variation (SOV) techniques, and have further studied the impact of field by field compensation. This report will show an optimized procedure for high order control using production wafers and field by field control.

Choi, Dongsub; Lee, Chulseung; Bang, Changjin; Kim, Myoungsoo; Kang, Hyosang; Manka, James; Yoon, Seunghoon; Lee, Dohwa; Robinson, John C.

2009-03-01

393

Advanced mask-to-mask overlay analysis for next generation technology node reticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double Patterning Lithography (DPL) for next-generation wafer exposure is placing greater demands on the requirements for pattern placement accuracy on photomasks: the DPL mask pair must now meet the pattern placement specifications that a single mask was required to meet in previous generations. As a result, each mask in the mask pair must individually conform to much tighter mask registration specs. Minimizing all sources of systematic overlay error has become critical. In addition, the mask-to-mask overlay between the two masks comprising the DPL pair must be measured-a methodology shift from the current practice of referencing mask registration error only to design data. Characterizing mask-to-mask overlay error requires the ability to measure pattern placement errors using in-die structures on reticle pairs. Today's analysis methods do not allow for comparison of registration maps based on different site locations. This gap has created a lack of information about the true overlay impact of mask-to-mask registration errors on masks with few or no common features. A new mask-to-mask overlay analysis method is demonstrated that provides new flexibility for mask-to-mask comparison. This new method enables mask manufacturers to meet fab requirements for DPL, and it enables semiconductor manufacturers to verify if overlay deviations are within acceptable limits.

Roeth, Klaus-Dieter; Laske, Frank; Schmidt, Karl-Heinrich; Adam, Dieter; Ache, Oliver; Ilsen, David

2010-05-01

394

Mix-and-match overlay performance of the NSR-S622D immersion scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current technology nodes, as well as subsequent generations necessitate ongoing improvements to the mix-and-match overlay (MMO) capabilities of lithography scanners. This work will introduce newly developed scanner solutions to address this requirement, and performance data from the latest generation immersion scanner, the NSR-S622D, will be introduced. Enhanced MMO accuracy is imperative for the 22 nm half-pitch and future technology nodes. In order for the matched overlay accuracy to approach single machine overlay (SMO) capabilities, MMO errors must be reduced further. The dominant MMO error sources can be divided into three main areas: SMO, lens distortion matching and wafer grid matching. Nikon continues to decrease these matching error contributors over time, and the latest generation NSRS622D immersion scanner provides a number of innovative solutions to satisfy the most demanding overlay matching requirements ; as a result MMO performance within 3nm is achieved on S622D. Moreover, overlay master system is developed for further product overlay accuracy and stability improvement.

Makino, Katsushi; Kikuchi, Takahisa; Sasamoto, Satoru; Hongki, Park; Mori, Akiko; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Wakamoto, Shinji

2013-04-01

395

Improved CD and overlay metrology using an optical Fourier transform instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an innovating method to measure the overlay by scatterometry using an optical Fourier transform (OFT) based system. In order to measure the overlay of patterned layers ? and ?, one line grating is placed in layer ? and another in layer ?. The two gratings have the same pitch and their lines are parallel. The whole scattering pattern of the double grating structure is then measured at fixed wavelength in a large range of incidence (0 to 80°) and for all the azimuth angles. This measurement is very rapid thanks to the OFT and not sensitive to vibration. The main advantage of OFT compared to standard OCD techniques like normal incidence reflectometry or spectroscopic ellipsometry is that the scattering pattern is more sensitive to overlay at an azimuth depending on the pitch value which is never parallel or perpendicular to the grooves of the gratings. In addition, the optical response is also sensitive to the sign of the overlay in addition to its amplitude. In a second method, we propose to measure the overlay simultaneously along the two directions of the plane using two bi-periodic structures patterned in layer ? and ?. By using OFT it is possible to deduce directly from the whole diffracted pattern, the overlay signs and amplitudes along both directions of the plane. The paper presents some simulations and some experimental results to illustrate this new method.

Petit, J.; Boher, P.; Leroux, T.; Barritault, P.; Hazart, J.; Chaton, P.

2005-05-01

396

Application Oriented Flow Routing Algorithm for VoIP Overlay Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay networks which are dynamically created over underlying IP networks are becoming widely used for delivering multimedia contents since they can provide several additional user-definable services. Multiple overlay paths between a source-destination overlay node pair are designed to improve service robustness against failures and bandwidth fluctuation of the underlying networks. Multimedia traffic can be distributed over those multiple paths in order to maximize paths' utilization and to increase application throughputs. Most of flow-based routing algorithms consider only common metrics such as paths' bandwidth or delay, which may be effective for data applications but not for real-time applications such as Voice over IP (VoIP), in which different levels of such performance metrics may give the same level of the performance experienced by end users. This paper focuses on such VoIP overlay networks and proposes a novel alternative path based flow routing algorithm using an application-specific traffic metric, i.e. “VoIP Path Capacity (VPCap), ” to calculate the maximum number of QoS satisfied VoIP flows which may be distributed over each available overlay path at a moment. The simulation results proved that more QoS-satisfied VoIP sessions can be established over the same multiple overlay paths, comparing to traditional approaches.

Wipusitwarakun, Komwut; Chimmanee, Sanon

397

Stimuli, reinforcers, and private events.  

PubMed

Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same quantitative relations that characterize public operant behavior. This approach is illustrated by a model of attending to stimuli and to anticipated reinforcers in delayed matching to sample, in which the probabilities of attending are related to reinforcer rates by an expression derived from research on behavioral momentum. PMID:22478505

Nevin, John A

2008-01-01

398

Impact of pellicle on overlay in double patterning lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reticle Pattern Placement Error (PPE) has been identified as one of the key challenges of Double-Patterning Lithography (DPL) as the overlay of the circuit patterns between two masks is a critical achievement for successful implementation of the process. According to the 2009 ITRS roadmap, double-patterning lithography is expected to extend 193nm immersion lithography to the 23nm node by 2016 and the corresponding PPE requirements is 1.9nm. PPE between the two masks comprising a DPL mask pair affects the resulting critical dimensions of the circuit pattern and the final device performance. In this paper, we study how the reticle PPE can be affected by the pellicle. The pellicle can induce a mechanical stress on the reticle such that the actual placement of the circuit patterns on wafer will be distorted after the lithography process. This distortion effect is known as Pellicle-Induced Distortion (PID). We conducted experiments by using different combinations of pellicle frames and frame adhesives on a DPL mask pair to study how reticle PPE can change with each combination. We used the KLA-Tencor LMS IPRO4 mask registration metrology tool to measure the PPE before and after the mount/un-mount of each experiment combination. The analysis is done using the KLA-Tencor DEVA software to quantify how the pellicle can affect the individual reticle PPE and also the relative errors between the DPL mask pair.

Loeffler, Oliver; Laske, Frank; Ferber, Michael; Roeth, Klaus-Dieter; Chua, Lin; Jin, You Seung; Marcuccilli, Gino; Nagaswami, Venkat

2011-03-01

399

Ultrasonic Evaluation of Two Dissimilar Metal Weld Overlay Specimens  

SciTech Connect

Two dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe-to-nozzle specimens were implanted with thermal fatigue cracks in the 13% to 90% through-wall depth range. The specimens were ultrasonically evaluated with phased-array probes having center frequencies of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 megahertz (MHz). An Alloy 82/182 weld overlay (WOL) was applied and the specimens were ultrasonically re-evaluated for flaw detection and characterization. The Post-WOL flaw depths were approximately 10% to 56% through-wall. This study has shown the effectiveness of ultrasonic examinations of Alloy 82/182 overlaid DMW specimens. Phased-array probes with center frequency in the 0.8- to 1.0-MHz range provide a strong coherent signal but the greater ultrasonic wavelength and larger beam spot size prevent the reliable detection of small flaws. These small flaws had nominal through-wall depths of less than 15% and length in the 50-60 mm (2-2.4 in.) range. Flaws in the 19% and greater through-wall depth range were readily detected with all four probes. At the higher frequencies, the reflected signals are less coherent but still provide adequate signal for flaw detection and characterization. A single inspection at 2.0 MHz could provide adequate detection and sizing information but a supplemental inspection at 1.0 or 1.5 MHz is recommended.

Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

2012-06-30

400

Design of a synthetic vision overlay for UAV autoland monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), autonomous forms of autoland are being pursued that do not depend on special, deployability restraining, ground-based equipment for the generation of the reference path to the runway. Typically, these forms of autoland use runway location data from an onboard database to generate the reference path to the desired location. Synthetic Vision (SV) technology provides the opportunity to use conformally integrated guidance reference data to 'anchor' the goals of such an autoland system into the imagery of the nose-mounted camera. A potential use of this is to support the operator in determining whether the vehicle is flying towards the right location in the real world, e.g., the desired touchdown position on the runway. Standard conformally integrated symbology, representing e.g., the future pathway and runway boundaries, supports conformance monitoring and detection of latent positioning errors. Additional integration of landing performance criteria into the symbology supports assessment of the severity of these errors, further aiding the operator in the decision whether the automated landing should be allowed to continue or not. This paper presents the design and implementation of an SV overlay for UAV autoland procedures that is intended for conformance and integrity monitoring during final approach. It provides preview of mode changes and decision points and it supports the operator in assessing the integrity of the used guidance solution.

Tadema, Jochum; Theunissen, Eric

2008-04-01

401

Private Well Water and Fluoride  

MedlinePLUS

... once every three years since influences to well water quality can change over time. Contact your public health ... state or area. Additional information on testing well water quality in private wells serving homes can be found ...

402

Network Security  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course on Network Security is provided by the Cyber Security Education Consortium (CSEC). The course requires students to perform laboratory assignments in securing networks and operating systems to learn about "network communications from a security standpoint" and "hardware and software security solutions." Links are provided to learn more about the Major Topics Covered, Course Learning Objectives, and Course Outline. The Course Outline includes a list of careers that require the knowledge from this course and related textbooks.

403

Equitable regulation of private forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of forested ecosystems often requires cross-boundary management at large spatial scales. This can be challenging,\\u000a however, in landscapes where forests are primarily under small-scale, private ownership. Consequently, in many areas of the\\u000a world private forest practices are governmentally regulated to promote more consistent cross-boundary outcomes and better\\u000a protection of large-scale ecological integrity. In this qualitative, ‘grounded theory’ study,

Roje S. Gootee; Keith A. Blatner; David M. Baumgartner; Matthew S. Carroll; Edward P. Weber

404

Asphalt overlay design methods for rigid pavements considering rutting, reflection cracking, and fatigue cracking. Research report September 1996--August 1997  

SciTech Connect

An asphalt concrete pavement (ACP) overlay over a rigid pavement represents a viable rehabilitation strategy. It can provide good serviceability at an initial construction cost that is substantially less than that of a rigid overlay rehabilitation. In addition, ACP overlays require less construction time, which can reduce user costs during construction. However, it may not be the most economical solution for long-term rehabilitation. Because of their relatively short service life, ACP overlays may require maintenance sooner than rigid overlays. And one of the more critical distresses that effectively determine the life span of the structure is reflection cracking. This report investigates alternative strategies that seek to prevent reflection cracking on ACP overlays.

Cho, Y.H.; Liu, C.; Dossey, T.; McCullough, B.F.

1998-10-01

405

Security in Full-Force  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When fully developed for NASA, Vanguard Enforcer(TM) software-which emulates the activities of highly technical security system programmers, auditors, and administrators-was among the first intrusion detection programs to restrict human errors from affecting security, and to ensure the integrity of a computer's operating systems, as well as the protection of mission critical resources. Vanguard Enforcer was delivered in 1991 to Johnson Space Center and has been protecting systems and critical data there ever since. In August of 1999, NASA granted Vanguard exclusive rights to commercialize the Enforcer system for the private sector. In return, Vanguard continues to supply NASA with ongoing research, development, and support of Enforcer. The Vanguard Enforcer 4.2 is one of several surveillance technologies that make up the Vanguard Security Solutions line of products. Using a mainframe environment, Enforcer 4.2 achieves previously unattainable levels of automated security management.

2002-01-01

406

An Analysis of Private School Closings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We add to the small literature on private school supply by exploring exits of K-12 private schools. We find that the closure of private schools is not an infrequent event and use national survey data from the National Center for Education Statistics to study closures of private schools. We assume that the probability of an exit is a function of…

Pandey, Lakshmi; Sjoquist, David L.; Walker, Mary Beth

2009-01-01

407

The "Decline" of Private Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No topic in private higher education study has attracted as great attention globally as has growth. This is appropriate as private growth has soared to nearly a third of the world's total higher education enrolment. But while private growth continues to be the dominant trend, important declines in private shares have emerged. These must be…

Levy, Daniel C.

2013-01-01

408

Private Sector Financing for Water Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tax benefits that are currently available for private investors provide the impetus for private sector financing and operation of municipal water and wastewater facilities. Tax reforms now being considered by Congress may greatly affect private investment in the public sector, but whatever form privatization takes in the future, the concept will probably be of increasing importance in restructuring the financing

Ronald D

1986-01-01

409

Foundations of Secure Interactive Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of secure multiparty computation is usually described as follows: each of n players in a network holds a private input x\\u000a i. Together they would like to compute a function F(x\\u000a 1,...,x\\u000a n) without revealing the inputs, even though no particular player can be trusted. Attempts to contrive formal definitions for\\u000a the problem have treated properties of the

Donald Beaver

1991-01-01

410

Conflicting interests in private hospital care.  

PubMed

This article looks at key changes impacting on private hospital care: the increasing corporate ownership of private hospitals; the Commonwealth Government's support for private health; the significant increase in health fund membership; and the contracting arrangements between health funds and private hospitals. The changes highlight the often conflicting interests of hospitals, doctors, Government, health funds and patients in the provision of private hospital care. These conflicts surfaced in the debate around allegations of 'cherry picking' by private hospitals of more profitable patients. This is also a good illustration of the increasing entanglement of the Government in the fortunes of the private health industry. PMID:12474506

O'Loughlin, Mary Ann

2002-01-01

411

How to Keep Your Health Information Private and Secure  

MedlinePLUS

... permanently. When Using Mobile Devices · Research mobile apps – software programs that perform one or more specific functions – ... functions you approve. · Consider installing or using encryption software for your device. Encryption software is now widely ...

412

ENFORCEMENT OF SECURITY POLICY COMPLIANCE IN VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORKS  

E-print Network

members may use computers that are shared, borrowed, or rented from others to connect to a VPN, VPN used for VPN access is compromised, an attacker can exploit it to gain unauthorized access. We propose and maintain access to the organization's VPN. Experiments demonstrate the efficacy and efficiency of our

Brustoloni, José Carlos

413

Secure Floating-Point Arithmetic and Private Satellite Collision Analysis  

E-print Network

,000 spacecraft3 , orbital debris larger than 10 centimeters are routinely tracked and their number exceeds 21://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/, last accessed December 16, 2013 4 Orbital Debris Program Office, NASA. http for the primitives as well as the conjunction anal- ysis itself. 1 Introduction The Earth is orbited by nearly 7

414

Secure authenticated video equipment  

SciTech Connect

In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized panics. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

Doren, N.E.

1993-07-01

415

As privatization of libraries continues, some grow concerned  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

San Joaquin County to consider privatizing librarieshttp://www.lodinews.com/news/article_14f6af7a-9175-549a-bb11-bb28778d8252.htmlShould public libraries be put in private hands?http://www.scpr.org/programs/patt-morrison/2010/09/27/privatization-of-libraries/Library Systems & Serviceshttp://www.lssi.com/Carnegie Libraries: The Future Made Brighthttp://www.nps.gov/history/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/50carnegie/50carnegie.htmBoston Athenaeumhttp://www.bostonathenaeum.org/Public-private partnerships in cities are nothing new, and many cities and political units have had experiences with partial or complete privatization of various services over the years. A recent wrinkle in this process is raising eyebrows across the country, as a number of public libraries in cities with struggling economies have been taken over by the Library Systems & Services (LSSI) company. Recently, the company was approached with and accepted an offer to run the libraries in the city of Santa Clarita, California for $4 million, a city that is relatively healthy economically. The company claims that they are able to reign in costs, and in an interview with the New York Times, their chief executive, Frank A. Pezzanite, noted, "A lot of libraries are atrocious. Their policies are all about job security. That is why the profession is nervous about us." Obviously, there are many people who are incensed by Pezzanite's comments and his approach to management, and a number of library employees are quite upset about the terms of the company's contract. Others believe that libraries are a public service that is too important to be handed over to a private, profit-driven company. It remains to be seen whether this trend will continue, but for now the number of libraries managed by LSSI constitute the country's fifth-largest library system.The first link will take users to an article from this Monday's New York Times about this recent library privatization in California. The second link leads to a recent piece in the Lodi News-Sentinel about the proposed privatization of libraries in San Joaquin County. Moving on, the third link leads to a conversation about the privatization of public libraries recently featured on Southern California Public Radio. The fourth link whisks users away to the homepage of LSSI. The fifth link leads to a lovely set of educational resources about the Carnegie libraries in the United States, courtesy of the National Park Service's Teaching with Historic Places Lesson Plans program. The final link leads to the homepage of the Boston Athenaeum, which is a different type of membership library entirely, founded in 1807.

Grinnell, Max

2010-10-01

416

Secure sequential transmission of quantum information  

E-print Network

We propose a quantum communication protocol that can be used to transmit any quantum state, one party to another via several intermediate nodes, securely on quantum communication network. The scheme makes use of the sequentially chained and approximate version of private quantum channels satisfying certain commutation relation of $n$-qubit Pauli operations. In this paper, we study the sequential structure, security analysis, and efficiency of the quantum sequential transmission (QST) protocol in depth.

Kabgyun Jeong; Jaewan Kim

2015-01-19

417

Implementing a secure client/server application  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing rise in attacks and security breaches on computer systems. Particularly vulnerable are systems that exchange user names and passwords directly across a network without encryption. These kinds of systems include many commercial-off-the-shelf client/server applications. A secure technique for authenticating computer users and transmitting passwords through the use of a trusted {open_quotes}broker{close_quotes} and public/private keys is described in this paper.

Kissinger, B.A.

1994-08-01

418

Design and development of a mobile image overlay system for needle interventions.  

PubMed

Previously, a static and adjustable image overlay systems were proposed for aiding needle interventions. The system was either fixed to a scanner or mounted over a large articulated counterbalanced arm. Certain drawbacks associated with these systems limited the clinical translation. In order to minimize these limitations, we present the mobile image overlay system with the objective of reduced system weight, smaller dimension, and increased tracking accuracy. The design study includes optimal workspace definition, selection of display device, mirror, and laser source. The laser plane alignment, phantom design, image overlay plane calibration, and system accuracy validation methods are discussed. The virtual image is generated by a tablet device and projected into the patient by using a beamsplitter mirror. The viewbox weight (1.0 kg) was reduced by 8.2 times and image overlay plane tracking precision (0.21 mm, STD = 0.05) was improved by 5 times compared to previous system. The automatic self-calibration of the image overlay plane was achieved in two simple steps and can be done away from patient table. The fiducial registration error of the physical phantom to scanned image volume registration was 1.35 mm (STD = 0.11). The reduced system weight and increased accuracy of optical tracking should enable the system to be hand held by the physician and explore the image volume over the patient for needle interventions. PMID:25571403

Anand, M; King, F; Ungi, T; Lasso, A; Rudan, J; Jayender, J; Fritz, J; Carrino, J A; Jolesz, F A; Fichtinger, G

2014-01-01

419

Lateral root morphogenesis is dependent on the mechanical properties of the overlaying tissues  

PubMed Central

In Arabidopsis, lateral root primordia (LRPs) originate from pericycle cells located deep within the parental root and have to emerge through endodermal, cortical, and epidermal tissues. These overlaying tissues place biomechanical constraints on the LRPs that are likely to impact their morphogenesis. This study probes the interplay between the patterns of cell division, organ shape, and overlaying tissues on LRP morphogenesis by exploiting recent advances in live plant cell imaging and image analysis. Our 3D/4D image analysis revealed that early stage LRPs exhibit tangential divisions that create a ring of cells corralling a population of rapidly dividing cells at its center. The patterns of division in the latter population of cells during LRP morphogenesis are not stereotypical. In contrast, statistical analysis demonstrated that the shape of new LRPs is highly conserved. We tested the relative importance of cell division pattern versus overlaying tissues on LRP morphogenesis using mutant and transgenic approaches. The double mutant aurora1 (aur1) aur2 disrupts the pattern of LRP cell divisions and impacts its growth dynamics, yet the new organ’s dome shape remains normal. In contrast, manipulating the properties of overlaying tissues disrupted LRP morphogenesis. We conclude that the interaction with overlaying tissues, rather than the precise pattern of divisions, is most important for LRP morphogenesis and optimizes the process of lateral root emergence. PMID:23479644

Lucas, Mikaël; Kenobi, Kim; von Wangenheim, Daniel; Vo?, Ute; Swarup, Kamal; De Smet, Ive; Van Damme, Daniël; Lawrence, Tara; Péret, Benjamin; Moscardi, Eric; Barbeau, Daniel; Godin, Christophe; Salt, David; Guyomarc’h, Soazig; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.; Maizel, Alexis; Laplaze, Laurent; Bennett, Malcolm J.

2013-01-01

420

Security Locks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions affected--perhaps the…

Hart, Kevin

2010-01-01

421

TWRS privatization process technical baseline  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

Orme, R.M.

1996-09-13

422

Efficient Semi-static Secure Broadcast Encryption Scheme  

E-print Network

Efficient Semi-static Secure Broadcast Encryption Scheme Jongkil Kim, Willy Susilo, Man Ho Au-sized private keys and ciphertexts. Our result improves the semi-static secure broadcast encryption scheme in in the aforementioned generic transformation. Keywords: semi-static, broadcast encryption, constant size 1 Introduction

Seberry, Jennifer

423

Two Requirements for Usable and Secure Software Engineering  

E-print Network

and threats [8]. In another study [to appear], we found that modelling how one user unintentionally exploited as ranked Usable Security as one of the top cyber-security research topics for government and the private not as a process, but as a hermeneutic circle. Nuseibeh alludes to this in his twin- peaks model [14], which talks

Jeavons, Peter

424

Harden Security of High-Risk and Critical Supply Chains  

SciTech Connect

This article focuses on the security risk in the container supply chain. It provides an overview of the technical and policy initiatives that are being implemented by international organizations, governments, and the private sector to enhance security in the container supply chain.

Harrison, Glen [ORNL

2009-01-01

425

A Scalable Systems Approach for Critical Infrastructure Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical infrastructures underpin the domestic security, health, safety and economic well being of the United States. They are large, widely dispersed, mostly privately owned systems operated under a mixture of federal, state and local government departments, laws and regulations. While there currently are enormous pressures to secure all aspects of all critical infrastructures immediately, budget realities limit available options. The

ARNOLD B. BAKER; ROBERT L. HUTCHINSON; ROBERT J. EAGAN; AJOY K. MOONKA; PATRICIA K. FALCONE; MARK L. SWINSON; JOE M. HARRIS; ERIK K. WEBB; GILBERT V. HERRERA; TOMMY D. WOODALL; W. CURTIS HINES

2002-01-01

426

The Graduate MIS Security Course: Objectives and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the magnitude of real and potential losses, both private and public employers increasingly expect graduates of management information systems (MIS) programs to understand information security concepts. The infrastructure requirements for the course includes setting up a secure laboratory environment to accommodate the development of viruses…

Jensen, Bradley K.; Guynes, Carl S.; Nyaboga, Andrew

2009-01-01

427

SOCIAL SECURITY AND SAVING: NEW TIME SERIES EVIDENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

* Abstract - This paper reexamines the results of my 1974 paper on Social Security and saving with the help of an additional 21 years of data. The estimates presented here reconfirm that each dollar of Social Security wealth (SSW) reduces private saving by between two and three cents. The parameter estimates for the postwar period and for the entire

MARTIN FELDSTEIN

1996-01-01

428

The Houston Ship Channel security: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Houston Ship Channel (HSC) is a 50-mile long shipping channel that contains many private ports including the Port of Houston Authority. It has a uniquely critical role with respect to the US petroleum energy supply. The HSC security is currently planned for significant enhancement under the auspices of the Harris County and the Houston-based Port Strategic Security Council. The

Han Q. Le; P. A. Bellamy; S. S. S. Pei

2007-01-01

429

The Houston Ship Channel Physical Security - A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Houston Ship Channel (HSC) is a 50-mile long shipping channel that contains many private ports including the Port of Houston Authority. It has a uniquely critical role with respect to the US petroleum energy supply. The HSC security is currently planned for significant enhancement under the auspices of the Harris County and the Houston-based Port Strategic Security Council. The

Han Q. Le; P. A. Bellamy; S. S. S. Pei

430

Perfectly-Secure Key Distribution for Dynamic Conferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key distribution scheme for dynamic conferences is a method by which initiallyan (off-line) trusted server distributes private individual pieces of informationto a set of users. Later, each member of any group of users of a given size (a dynamicconference) can compute a common secure group key. In this paper westudy the theory and applications of such perfectly secure systems.

Carlo Blundo; Alfredo De Santis; Amir Herzberg Shay Kutten; Ugo Vaccaro

1993-01-01

431

Small private key MQPKS on an embedded microprocessor.  

PubMed

Multivariate quadratic (MQ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key MQ scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing MQ on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key MQ scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

2014-01-01

432

Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor  

PubMed Central

Multivariate quadratic ( ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

2014-01-01

433

75 FR 80082 - State, Local, Tribal, And Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. Appendix 2) and implementing regulation 41 CFR 101-6, the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) announces the inaugural meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC). The SLTPS-PAC will advise the President, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Director of the......

2010-12-21

434

Public Schools, Private Markets: A Reporter's Guide to Privatization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More and more, private for-profit and non-profit organizations are involved in schools. No longer limited to support services like transportation and food services, companies are providing tutoring, directing classroom instruction and managing public and charter schools. School reform has raised the stakes for schools and students, asking for…

Elliott, Scott

2005-01-01

435

private landowners'private landowners' guide toguide to  

E-print Network

to ensure forest resources are managed in a way that promotes environmental, social, and economicprivate landowners'private landowners' guide toguide to forest certification forest certification in the southin the south #12;22 Process Quality · Forest Certification · Serv Safe · Underwriters' Laboratory

436

Residual stress determination in an overlay dissimilar welded pipe by neutron diffraction  

SciTech Connect

Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of nuclear power reactors. Two neutron diffractometers with different spatial resolutions have been utilized on the identical specimen for comparison. The macroscopic 'stress-free' lattice spacing (d{sub o}) was also obtained from both using a 2-mm width comb-like coupon. The results show significant changes in residual stresses from tension (300-400 MPa) to compression (-600 MPa) through the thickness of the dissimilar weld overlay pipe specimen.

Woo, Wan Chuck [ORNL; Em, Vyacheslav [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Lee, Ho-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Park, Kwang Soo [Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction

2011-01-01

437

Threshold analysis of the susceptible-infected-susceptible model on overlay networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on overlay networks in which n multiple sets of links interconnect among the same nodes. By using the microscopic Markov-chain approximation (MMA) approach, we establish the conditions of epidemic outbreak for two kinds of spreading mechanisms in such an overlay network: the concatenation case and the switching case. When a uniform infection rate is set in all the subnetworks, we find the epidemic threshold for the switching case is just n times as large as that of concatenation case. We also find that the overlay network with a uniform infection rate can be considered as an equivalent (in the sense of epidemic dynamics and epidemic threshold) weighted network. To be specific, the concatenation case corresponds to the integer weighted network, while the switching case corresponds to the fractional weighted network. Interestingly, the time-varying unweighted network can be mapped into the static weighted network. Our analytic results exhibit good agreement with numerical simulations.

Wu, Qingchu; Zhang, Haifeng; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu

2014-07-01

438

Optical fiber refractometer based on silicon nitride nano-overlay deposited with PECVD method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an application of polymer-clad silica (PCS) multimode optical fiber coated with high refractive index (nD>2.4) silicon nitride (SiNx) nano-overlay for refractive index (RI) sensing. The nano-overlay was deposited on 2.5 mm-long section of the fiber's core using radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF PECVD) method. We show that spectral response of the sensor to external RI strongly depends on the overlay deposition time. For just 6 min-long process the sensitivity calculated as a shift of the resonance observed in the transmission spectrum at about ?=600 nm with RI reaches 690 nm/RIU. The experimental results have been compared to numerical simulations.

Michalak, Bartosz; ?mietana, Mateusz; Koba, Marcin

2014-05-01

439

Weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Task A: Literature review, progress report  

SciTech Connect

A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-03-03

440

Characterizing the Global Impact of P2P Overlays on the AS-Level Underlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the problem of characterizing and assessing the global impact of the load imposed by a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) overlay on the AS-level underlay. In particular, we capture Gnutella snapshots for four consecutive years, obtain the corresponding AS-level topology snapshots of the Internet and infer the AS-paths associated with each overlay connection. Assuming a simple model of overlay traffic, we analyze the observed load imposed by these Gnutella snapshots on the AS-level underlay using metrics that characterize the load seen on individual AS-paths and by the transit ASes, illustrate the churn among the top transit ASes during this 4-year period, and describe the propagation of traffic within the AS-level hierarchy.

Rasti, Amir Hassan; Rejaie, Reza; Willinger, Walter

441

Discount rate heterogeneity and social security reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many countries consider the privatization of existing pay-as-you-go Social Security systems, the option to make participation in the new system voluntary may appeal to policy makers who need to obtain the political support of their workers. A critical issue in evaluating such a reform and its economic consequences is the unobserved heterogeneity in households' preferences for consumption. This paper

Andrew A. Samwick

1998-01-01

442

Discount Rate Heterogeneity and Social Security Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many countries consider the privatization of existing pay-as-you-go Social Security systems, the option to make participation in the new system voluntary may appeal to policy makers who need to obtain the political support of their workers. A critical issue in evaluating such a reform and its economic consequences is the unobserved heterogeneity in households' preferences for consumption. This paper

Andrew A. Samwick

1997-01-01

443

Sequencing Social Security, Pension, and Insurance Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 1995The full benefits of social security reform will not be realized until social pension systems are restructured and downsized, contribution rates lowered, and the scope for private pension funds (voluntary or mandatory) increased. Reform of the insurance sector is also essential because of the close links between pensions and life, disability, and annuity insurance.For both economic and regulatory reasons,

Dimitri Vittas

1999-01-01

444

Snore related signals processing in a private cloud computing system.  

PubMed

Snore related signals (SRS) have been demonstrated to carry important information about the obstruction site and degree in the upper airway of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) patients in recent years. To make this acoustic signal analysis method more accurate and robust, big SRS data processing is inevitable. As an emerging concept and technology, cloud computing has motivated numerous researchers and engineers to exploit applications both in academic and industry field, which could have an ability to implement a huge blue print in biomedical engineering. Considering the security and transferring requirement of biomedical data, we designed a system based on private cloud computing to process SRS. Then we set the comparable experiments of processing a 5-hour audio recording of an OSAHS patient by a personal computer, a server and a private cloud computing system to demonstrate the efficiency of the infrastructure we proposed. PMID:25205499

Qian, Kun; Guo, Jian; Xu, Huijie; Zhu, Zhaomeng; Zhang, Gongxuan

2014-09-01

445

Private Public Choice Felix Brandt  

E-print Network

of cryptography called secure multiparty computation. Similar to the implementation of social choice functions]. We aim at constructing secure social choice mechanisms by distributing the mechanism computation brandtf@cs.tum.edu Technical Report FKI-247-03 March 2003 Abstract The fields of social choice theory

Cengarle, MarĂ­a Victoria

446

Investigation on synchronization of the offset printing process for fine patterning and precision overlay  

SciTech Connect

Offset printing processes are promising candidates for producing printed electronics due to their capacity for fine patterning and suitability for mass production. To print high-resolution patterns with good overlay using offset printing, the velocities of two contact surfaces, which ink is transferred between, should be synchronized perfectly. However, an exact velocity of the contact surfaces is unknown due to several imperfections, including tolerances, blanket swelling, and velocity ripple, which prevents the system from being operated in the synchronized condition. In this paper, a novel method of measurement based on the sticking model of friction force was proposed to determine the best synchronized condition, i.e., the condition in which the rate of synchronization error is minimized. It was verified by experiment that the friction force can accurately represent the rate of synchronization error. Based on the measurement results of the synchronization error, the allowable margin of synchronization error when printing high-resolution patterns was investigated experimentally using reverse offset printing. There is a region where the patterning performance is unchanged even though the synchronization error is varied, and this may be viewed as indirect evidence that printability performance is secured when there is no slip at the contact interface. To understand what happens at the contact surfaces during ink transfer, the deformation model of the blanket's surface was developed. The model estimates how much deformation on the blanket's surface can be borne by the synchronization error when there is no slip at the contact interface. In addition, the model shows that the synchronization error results in scale variation in the machine direction (MD), which means that the printing registration in the MD can be adjusted actively by controlling the synchronization if there is a sufficient margin of synchronization error to guarantee printability. The effect of synchronization on the printing registration was verified experimentally using gravure offset printing. The variations in synchronization result in the differences in the MD scale, and the measured MD scale matches exactly with the modeled MD scale.

Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Eonseok; Kim, Hyunchang; Choi, Young-Man; Lee, Seunghyun; Kim, Inyoung; Yoon, Dukkyun; Jo, Jeongdai; Kim, Bongmin; Lee, Taik-Min, E-mail: taikmin@kimm.re.kr [Advanced Manufacturing Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Gajeongbuk-Ro 156, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-06-21

447

75 FR 80350 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized; Miscellaneous Amendments; Correction AGENCY: Office of...

2010-12-22

448

C-arm Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Needle Path Overlay for Fluoroscopic-Guided Placement of Translumbar Central Venous Catheters  

SciTech Connect

C-arm cone beam computed tomography is an advanced 3D imaging technology that is currently available on state-of-the-art flat-panel-based angiography systems. The overlay of cross-sectional imaging information can now be integrated with real-time fluoroscopy. This overlay technology was used to guide the placement of three percutaneous translumbar inferior vena cava catheters.

Tam, Alda, E-mail: alda.tam@di.mdacc.tmc.ed [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Unit 325 (United States); Mohamed, Ashraf [Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. (United States); Pfister, Marcus; Rohm, Esther [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, AX Division (Germany); Wallace, Michael J. [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Unit 325 (United States)

2009-07-15

449

Fabrication of All-Nb Josephson Junctions Using Oxidized Zr Overlayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabrication of all-Nb Josephson tunnel junctions using artificial barriers of oxidized Zr overlayers is described. Thin Zr overlayers are sputter-deposited onto polycrystalline Nb films and then thermally oxidized. The tunneling characteristics of these junctions are found to be greatly affected by the occurrence of Zr diffusion into the grain boundaries of the base Nb films during Zr deposition, which is confirmed by XPS analysis. Paying particular attention to the rapid substrate cooling, high quality junctions with Vm{=}47 mV are obtained.

Asano, Hidefumi; Tanabe, Keiichi; Katoh, Yujiro; Michikami, Osamu

1986-03-01

450

Supramolecular self-assembled network formation containing NBr halogen bonds in physisorbed overlayers  

E-print Network

, blue = nitrogen, white = hydrogen, green = fluorine, bronze = bromine. The unit cell is shown in black. The best fit to the experimental pattern of the co-crystal is shown in Figure 3(a), and the corresponding structure is shown in Figure 3(b... of a halogen bonded co- crystal of BPY and DBTFB. Significantly the overlayer structure has been determined and the C-Br···N halogen bond angle between the bromine and the nitrogen (as determined from the overlayer X-ray diffraction structure...

Brewer, Adam Y.; Sacchi, Marco; Parker, Julia E.; Truscott, Chris L.; Jenkins, Steve; Clarke, Stuart M.

2014-08-05

451

A Spatial Overlay Ranking Method for a Geospatial Search of Text Objects  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earth-science researchers need the capability to find relevant information by location and topic. Conventional geographic techniques that simply check whether polygons intersect can efficiently achieve a high recall on location, but can not achieve precision for ranking results in likely order of importance to the reader. A spatial overlay ranking based upon how well an object's footprint matches the search area provides a more effective way to spatially search a collection of reports, and avoids many of the problems associated with an 'in/out' (True/False) boolean search. Moreover, spatial overlay ranking appears to work well even when spatial extent is defined only by a simple bounding box.

Lanfear, Kenneth J.

2006-01-01

452

Studying Protein-Protein Interactions via Blot Overlay/Far Western Blot.  

PubMed

Blot overlay is a useful method for studying protein-protein interactions. This technique involves fractionating proteins on SDS-PAGE, blotting to nitrocellulose or PVDF membrane, and then incubating with a probe of interest. The probe is typically a protein that is radiolabeled, biotinylated, or simply visualized with a specific antibody. When the probe is visualized via antibody detection, this technique is often referred to as "Far Western blot." Many different kinds of protein-protein interactions can be studied via blot overlay, and the method is applicable to screens for unknown protein-protein interactions as well as to the detailed characterization of known interactions. PMID:25859963

Hall, Randy A

2015-01-01

453

Change in the electronic states of graphite overlayers depending on thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic states of graphite overlayers formed on the TaC(111) surface have been investigated with the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. The graphite film grows on the substrate layer by layer. The thickness of the overlayer has been adjusted precisely to be either one or two monolayers. The physical properties of the monolayer graphite film are modified by chemical bonding at the interface. This interfacial bonding becomes weak upon the formation of the second layer of graphite, which makes the properties of the double-layer graphite film similar to those of bulk graphite.

Nagashima, A.; Itoh, H.; Ichinokawa, T.; Oshima, C.; Otani, S.

1994-08-01

454

A safety evaluation for overlay disbonding of high-temperature and pressure vessels  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen induced disbonding test (autoclave test) of stainless weld-overlaid 2-1/4Cr-1Mo and 2-1/4Cr-1Mo-1/4V steel, and the calculations of residual hydrogen contents at the fusion boundary in the specimens and actual vessels, were performed. The effects of microstructure of weld overlay near the fusion boundary and postweld heat treatment on disbonding resistance were clarified, and critical hydrogen content values in weld overlay to prevent disbonding were obtained. A simple evaluation method for disbonding in actual vessels using Tempering Parameter was established.

Horita, Ryuichi; Nakajima; Hiroyuki [Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Osaka (Japan). Technical Research Institute; Tanaka, Kazunori; Murakami, Shunzo [Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Kumamoto (Japan). Ariake Works; Fujii, Tadaomi [Nichizo Tech Incorporation, Osaka (Japan). Technology Headquarters

1995-11-01

455

Public vs. Private (and beyond)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different types of schools make for different experiences. Pros and cons abound, whether one teaches at a public, private, magnet, or charter school. Although it's certainly true that some individual schools may offer better environments for music education than others, no type of school is categorically the "best." Still, it can be instructive to…

Poliniak, Susan

2012-01-01

456

What Can We Learn Privately?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning problems form an important category of com- putational tasks that generalizes many of the computations researchers apply to large real-life data sets. We ask: what concept classes can be learned privately, namely, by an al- gorithm whose output does not depend too heavily on any one input or specific training example? More precisely, we investigate learning algorithms that satisfydifferential

Shiva Prasad Kasiviswanathan; Homin K. Lee; Kobbi Nissim; Sofya Raskhodnikova; Adam Smith

2008-01-01

457

Virtual Private Network VPN VPN  

E-print Network

13 9804020 14 2 22 #12;Virtual Private Network VPN VPN VPN VPN VPN VPN VPN VPN VPN VPN VPN VPN VPN VPN VPN VPN VPN Linux VPN SSL VPN IP Divert IP VPN proc ID #12;#12;3 1 13 2 17 2 2.4 VPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.4.1 IPsec

Chiba, Shigeru

458

The Administration's Private Pension Proposal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines legislation proposed by the Nixon administration to (1) make available to employed workers a new type of personal retirement plan having tax-deferral advantages, (2) apply pre-retirement vesting requirements to the private pension system, and (3) broaden tax-deferred retirement plans presently available to the self-employed…

American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

459

Jakuta Limited Canterbury Private Sector  

E-print Network

as detail how various factors may influence and affect the market. Major issues that were focused on were education is at present preparing for one of the most radical transitions in its history due to government with housemates and local resident neighbours, how the rise in tuition fees may affect the private rental sector

Banaji,. Murad

460

Financing a Private School Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) survey of more than 1,200 individuals who filed financial aid forms underscores the central role financial aid plays in their ability to pursue a private education for their children. This article highlights the survey findings, demonstrating why school leaders need to thoroughly analyze…

Torres, Amanda

2014-01-01

461

Private Client Services YESHIVA UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

accident occur, your primary automobile insurance policy would be the first level of coverage. The Group Federal Insurance Company (Chubb) as the insurer as well as Marsh Private Client Services as the program an"umbrella policy") is in excess of any other collectible insurance. For example, should a car

Emmons, Scott

462

[The private nurse and medicines].  

PubMed

The procedures carried out by private practice nurses with regard to medicines are codified in order for them to be covered by French health insurance. However, the nomenclature ignores all the associated activities required to ensure the patient's global and safe nursing care. The preparation of medicines is part of these invisible but essential activities. PMID:24839685

Ducastel, Marielle

2014-04-01

463

Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development. However,…

Heyneman, Stephen P.

2011-01-01

464

Review your system access with your company's Information Security Officer. Access that is not  

E-print Network

Review your system access with your company's Information Security Officer. Access and downloading of information from laptop computers. Beware that your conversations may not be private or secure to be someone you trust in order to obtain personal or sensitive information. Additional travel security tips

Shepp, Larry

465

Weekly Security Incident Log Period of Jan 9 -Jan 15, 2012  

E-print Network

Illness Security and EMS responded to a report of two ill community members in the food court washroomWeekly Security Incident Log Period of Jan 9 - Jan 15, 2012 Incident No. Reported Date Building Name Category Subcategory Incident Summary 2012-000084 VANIER RESIDENCE Private Property Security

466

Name: U of M ID number: Social Security number: Date of birth  

E-print Network

Name: U of M ID number: Social Security number: Date of birth: Phone (home): Phone (other is private. Except for social security number, which is voluntary, all information requested on this form-Manitoba reciprocity fee status will be granted. Failure to provide your social security number will have no effect

Amin, S. Massoud

467

Security Against Covert Adversaries: Efficient Protocols for Realistic Adversaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the setting of secure multiparty computation, a set of mutually distrustful parties wish to securely compute some joint\\u000a function of their private inputs. The computation should be carried out in a secure way, meaning that no coalition of corrupted\\u000a parties should be able to learn more than specified or somehow cause the result to be “incorrect.” Typically, corrupted parties

Yonatan Aumann; Yehuda Lindell

2010-01-01

468

A Survey of Private Ohio Academic Libraries' Physical Processing Practices for Circulating Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little guidance is given in today's general technical services or cataloging textbooks to assist librarians in making decisions on procedures for the physical preparation of materials prior to placement on the shelves for public access. As small, private academic libraries face automation of circulation, addition of security systems, and debates…

Factor, Olivia Spaid

469

1 | P a g e What Is Microsoft Private Cloud Fast Track?  

E-print Network

providers build dedicated infrastructure as a service (IaaS) environments that transform the way, allocate, secure, and manage resources for agile IaaS. Likewise, business units can deploy line Private Cloud solution. · High availability and live migration to provide greater SLA for production

Chaudhuri, Surajit

470

Investor Behavior and Fund Performance under a Privatized Retirement Accounts System: Evidence from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S. and in Chile, there have been heated debates about the relative merits of a decentralized privatized pension system relative to a more traditional social security system. On the firm side, there are concerns that pension funds engage in anticompetitive behavior and take advantage of consumers’ by charging high fees and account maintenance changes. On the consumer side,

Elena Krasnokutskaya; Petra Todd

2009-01-01

471

76 FR 41826 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. app 2) and implementing regulation 41 CFR 101-6, announcement is made for the following committee meeting. The meeting will be held to discuss the matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector...

2011-07-15

472

Second Line of Defense Virtual Private Network Guidance for Deployed and New CAS Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the importance of remote access via virtual private network (VPN) for the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Central Alarm System (CAS) sites, the requirements for maintaining secure channels while using VPN and implementation requirements for current and future sites.

Singh, Surya V.; Thronas, Aaron I.

2010-01-01

473

THE EU-AFRICA ENERGY COOPERATION: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE BUSINESSES  

E-print Network

THE EU-AFRICA ENERGY COOPERATION: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE BUSINESSESD Candidate Energy security, sustainable development and mutual benefits are the three keywords of the longstanding EU-Africa cooperation in the field of energy. Because of its huge energy reserves and its green

Boyer, Edmond

474

77 FR 70780 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractors Performing Private...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

Under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Regulatory Secretariat will be submitting to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve a new information collection requirement concerning Contractors Performing Private Security Functions Outside the United States. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 43039, on July 23, 2012. No comments......

2012-11-27

475

Accelerating Secure Storage on FreeBSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract It goes without,saying,that Information,Security,is extremely,important,in today's connected,world. Protecting,the vast,quantities,of digital information stored,by companies,is critical to maintaining business,integrity,and,reducing,the,risk related,to the,unintentional,disclosure,of private information. Storing data securely is one mechanism,that can help reduce the risk of attackers gaining access to sensitive,information.,This paper,examines,some,of the,secure,storage,solutions,that are available,on the,FreeBSD operating,system,and,discusses,options,for the acceleration,of processor-intense cryptographic,operations. Contents

Adrian Hoban; Brad Vrabete; Brendan Kennedy

476

Education and the Private Finance Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

Griggs, Clive

2010-01-01

477

Governmental-Owner Power Imbalance and Privatization  

E-print Network

of privatization from an organizational perspective. This dissertation proposes that privatization decisions of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) are influenced by different interests in governmental agencies. Using the resource dependence theory, I studied the power...

Xu, Kehan

2011-10-21

478

Capitalist Punishment: Ethics and Private Prisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the results of Western capitalism has been the increasing pressure for the privatization of the criminal justice system.\\u000a Although there has long been private or nonprofit involvement in corrections, a newer response has been to turn entire prisons\\u000a over to private enterprise, or to pay private prisons to house state or federal inmates. Progressively, then, inmates once\\u000a completely

Martin D. Schwartz; Dana M. Nurge

2004-01-01

479

17 CFR 239.37 - Form F-7, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain Canadian...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (2) Is a foreign private issuer; and (3) Has had a class of its securities listed on The Montreal Exchange, The Toronto Stock Exchange or the Senior Board of the Vancouver Stock Exchange for the 12 calendar months immediately preceding...

2011-04-01

480

17 CFR 239.37 - Form F-7, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain Canadian...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (2) Is a foreign private issuer; and (3) Has had a class of its securities listed on The Montreal Exchange, The Toronto Stock Exchange or the Senior Board of the Vancouver Stock Exchange for the 12 calendar months immediately preceding...

2013-04-01

481

17 CFR 239.37 - Form F-7, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain Canadian...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (2) Is a foreign private issuer; and (3) Has had a class of its securities listed on The Montreal Exchange, The Toronto Stock Exchange or the Senior Board of the Vancouver Stock Exchange for the 12 calendar months immediately preceding...

2012-04-01

482

17 CFR 239.37 - Form F-7, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain Canadian...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (2) Is a foreign private issuer; and (3) Has had a class of its securities listed on The Montreal Exchange, The Toronto Stock Exchange or the Senior Board of the Vancouver Stock Exchange for the 12 calendar months immediately preceding...

2010-04-01

483

17 CFR 239.37 - Form F-7, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain Canadian...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (2) Is a foreign private issuer; and (3) Has had a class of its securities listed on The Montreal Exchange, The Toronto Stock Exchange or the Senior Board of the Vancouver Stock Exchange for the 12 calendar months immediately preceding...

2014-04-01

484

Property Tax on Privatized Roads Jason Junge  

E-print Network

Property Tax on Privatized Roads Jason Junge David Levinson Minnesota Department of Transportation@umn.edu http://nexus.umn.edu 1 Published as Junge, Jason and David Levinson (2013) Property Tax on Privatized is exempt from the local property tax. Transferring roads from public to private ownership would not only

Levinson, David M.

485

Public Aid to Private And Proprietary Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today private institutions of higher education are included in practically every federal program which aids higher educational institutions and students. At the state level, over 40 states have some form of aid to the private sector. Some now ask for much more massive assistance to private colleges, on both the federal and state levels. The…

American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

486

Private Fingerprint Matching Siamak F. Shahandashti1  

E-print Network

Private Fingerprint Matching Siamak F. Shahandashti1 , Reihaneh Safavi-Naini2 , and Philip Ogunbona private fingerprint matching protocol that compares two fin- gerprints based on the most widely-used minutia-based fingerprint matching algorithm. The protocol enables two parties, each holding a private

487

75 FR 68018 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...privatization of the airport by sale or lease to a private party. Specifically, the Administrator...portion of Federal grants upon the sale or lease of an airport, and to...is also authorized to exempt the private purchaser or lessee from the...

2010-11-04

488

75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...privatization of the airport by sale or lease to a private party. Specifically, the Administrator...portion of Federal grants upon the sale or lease of an airport, and to...is also authorized to exempt the private purchaser or lessee from the...

2010-07-07

489

77 FR 58208 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...privatization of the airport by sale or lease to a private party. Specifically, the Administrator...portion of Federal grants upon the sale of an airport, and to return airport...is also authorized to exempt the private purchaser or lessee from the...

2012-09-19

490

75 FR 39091 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...privatization of the airport by sale or lease to a private party. Specifically, the Administrator...portion of Federal grants upon the sale or lease of an airport, and to...is also authorized to exempt the private purchaser or lessee from the...

2010-07-07

491

Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

Fengqiao, Yan

2009-01-01

492

Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the…

Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

2013-01-01

493

Building and Managing Your Private Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of clinicians entering private practice is growing each day. This book presents a step-by-step process for prospective entrepreneurs who wish to become a private practitioner. The text is divided into eight sections. Section 1 looks at the rationale for private practice and addresses the personal questions involving clinical skills,…

Richards, Daniel L.

494

Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

Beamer, Sarah A.

2011-01-01

495

Private initiatives in higher education in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Africa's higher education crisis has prompted the growth of private institutions. Enrollments are very low and in most African countries do not account for a significant proportion of university enrollments. The largest number of private institutions are in Kenya which is the subject of a case study. Private institutions provide professional training in fields of employment opportunity but also offer

Thomas Owen Eisemon

1992-01-01

496

Local Government Restructuring: Privatization and Its Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local government restructuring should no longer be viewed as a simple dichotomy between private and public provision. A 1997 survey of chief elected township and county officials in New York shows that local governments use both private and public sector mechanisms to structure the market, create competition, and attain economies of scale. In addition to privatization and inter-municipal cooperation, two

Mildred Warner; Robert Hebdon

2001-01-01

497

Private Higher Education and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Western Europe, especially in Germany, private higher education is generally perceived as an alternative to public higher education for students from relatively affluent families; more broadly, there is a general perception that attending a private higher education institution is correlated to wealth. This perception is influenced by private

Reisz, Robert D.; Stock, Manfred

2012-01-01

498

Building an Efficient Transcoding Overlay for P2P Streaming to Heterogeneous Devices  

E-print Network

: Liu, D., Li, F., Shen, B., and Chen, S. 2012. Building an efficient transcoding overlay for P2P of the work has been published in NOSSDAV 2007 [Liu et al. 2007]. D. Liu is currently affiliated with MicroStrategy Inc. Author's addresses: D. Liu, MicroStrategy Inc., 1850 Towers Crescent Plaza, Tysons Corner, VA

Chen, Songqing

499

Classically exact overlayer dynamics: Diffusion of rhodium clusters on Rh(100)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is presented for describing the classical dynamics (e.g., diffusion, desorption) of adsorbed overlayers of atoms or molecules, starting from arbitrary interatomic potentials. Provided that a certain dynamical criterion is met, the method yields classically exact results, but with many orders of magnitude less computation than direct molecular dynamics. The approach provides, for what we believe to be

Arthur Voter

1986-01-01

500

Distributed dynamic capacity contracting: an overlay congestion pricing Murat Yuksel*, Shivkumar Kalyanaraman  

E-print Network

Distributed dynamic capacity contracting: an overlay congestion pricing framework Murat Yuksel, USA Received 18 December 2002; accepted 18 December 2002 Abstract Several congestion pricing proposals for congestion-sensitive pricing over a single differentiated-services (diff-serv) domain. We propose a new

Yuksel, Murat