These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Quantum Private Queries: Security Analysis  

E-print Network

A security analysis of the recently introduced Quantum Private Query (QPQ) protocol is presented. The latter is a cheat sensitive quantum protocol to perform a private search on a classical database. It allows a user to ...

Giovannetti, Vittorio

2

Private Security Office Curriculum Framework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prepared by the Florida Department of Education, this 24-page pdf document details the curriculum for the training and education of private security officers. Down to very specific tasks, this document could be useful for educators and administrators working in security or loss prevention training as a ready-to-use guide for course or syllabus creation. Here, visitors will find recommendations for the major concepts students should understand before entering the workforce, laboratory activities to teach those concepts, and the specific skills needed to obtain certification. These skills include recognizing criminal procedures for common crimes, defining a crime scene, and demonstrating firearms skills.

2007-07-14

3

Quantum Private Queries: security analysis  

E-print Network

We present a security analysis of the recently introduced Quantum Private Query (QPQ) protocol. It is a cheat sensitive quantum protocol to perform a private search on a classical database. It allows a user to retrieve an item from the database without revealing which item was retrieved, and at the same time it ensures data privacy of the database (the information that the user can retrieve in a query is bounded and does not depend on the size of the database). The security analysis is based on information-disturbance tradeoffs which show that whenever the provider tries to obtain information on the query, the query (encoded into a quantum system) is disturbed so that the person querying the database can detect the privacy violation.

Vittorio Giovannetti; Seth Lloyd; Lorenzo Maccone

2008-09-11

4

Quantum Private Queries: security analysis  

E-print Network

We present a security analysis of the recently introduced Quantum Private Query (QPQ) protocol. It is a cheat sensitive quantum protocol to perform a private search on a classical database. It allows a user to retrieve an item from the database without revealing which item was retrieved, and at the same time it ensures data privacy of the database (the information that the user can retrieve in a query is bounded and does not depend on the size of the database). The security analysis is based on information-disturbance tradeoffs which show that whenever the provider tries to obtain information on the query, the query (encoded into a quantum system) is disturbed so that the person querying the database can detect the privacy violation.

Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo

2008-01-01

5

Security Intelligence Networks and the Transformation of Contract Private Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the transformation of contract private security and security intelligence networks by drawing on results of a 2003 survey of contract security firms in Ontario, Canada. Comparing these results with a 1976 survey by Shearing et al. reveals a dramatic increase in the intelligence gathering and sharing capacities of contract security firms. This increased capacity can be put

Randy Lippert; Daniel OConnor

2006-01-01

6

On virtual private networks security design issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of virtual private networks (VPNs) provides an economical and efficient solution on communicating private information securely over public network infrastructure.In this paper, we discuss two issues on the design of VPN. We first propose the VPN services, the mandatory VPN operations for each VPN service and the design on VPN protocol stack.Afterwards, we propose a list of protocol

Cheung Kwok Ho; Jelena V. Misic

2002-01-01

7

Chapter 7: Gurkhas and the private security  

Microsoft Academic Search

he private security business in Africa in the 1990s is more sophisticated than it was in the 1960s and 1970s. At that time, it was mostly associated with mercenary activity in violent and bloody civil wars and the emphasis was often on the recruitment of men to serve in combat units. Although some security firms, such as Sandline International, have

Alex Vines

8

Social Security privatization in Latin America.  

PubMed

The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for women and lower earners than for men and higher earners; A minimum required rate of return among the pension fund management companies (in most of these countries) that has resulted in similarity among the companies and the consequent lack of meaningful choice; and High administrative fees in most of these countries, which reduce the individual's effective rate of return. To what extent these issues can be mitigated or resolved in the future is not yet clear. In general, a definitive assessment of the Chilean model and its Latin American variations will not be possible until a cohort of retirees has spent most of its career under the new system. PMID:11131978

Kritzer, B E

2000-01-01

9

Security of practical private randomness generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements on entangled quantum systems necessarily yield outcomes that are intrinsically unpredictable if they violate a Bell inequality. This property can be used to generate certified randomness in a device-independent way, i.e., without making detailed assumptions about the internal working of the quantum devices used to generate the random numbers. Furthermore these numbers are also private; i.e., they appear random not only to the user but also to any adversary that might possess a perfect description of the devices. Since this process requires a small initial random seed to sample the behavior of the quantum devices and to extract uniform randomness from the raw outputs of the devices, one usually speaks of device-independent randomness expansion. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we point out that in most real, practical situations, where the concept of device independence is used as a protection against unintentional flaws or failures of the quantum apparatuses, it is sufficient to show that the generated string is random with respect to an adversary that holds only classical side information; i.e., proving randomness against quantum side information is not necessary. Furthermore, the initial random seed does not need to be private with respect to the adversary, provided that it is generated in a way that is independent from the measured systems. The devices, however, will generate cryptographically secure randomness that cannot be predicted by the adversary, and thus one can, given access to free public randomness, talk about private randomness generation. The theoretical tools to quantify the generated randomness according to these criteria were already introduced in S. Pironio [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature09008 464, 1021 (2010)], but the final results were improperly formulated. The second aim of this paper is to correct this inaccurate formulation and therefore lay out a precise theoretical framework for practical device-independent randomness generation.

Pironio, Stefano; Massar, Serge

2013-01-01

10

Relations between police and private security officers in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of the working relationship between police officers and private security officers in South Korea. More specifically, this study examines how police officers and security personnel perceive the working relationships between the two organizations, their attitudes on the professionalism of security personnel, their views of ways to improve the

Mahesh K. Nalla; Eui-Gab Hwang

2006-01-01

11

IPSec-based secure wireless virtual private network  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently enormous interest in the design of secure wireless networks. This has been necessitated by the fact that free-space radio transmission in wireless networks makes eavesdropping easy and consequently, a security breach may result in unauthorized access, information theft, interference, jamming and service degradation. Virtual private networks (VPN) have emerged as an important solution to security threats surrounding

Wei Qu; Sampalli Srinivas

2002-01-01

12

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 6, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2011 1355 Extrinsic Channel-Like Fingerprinting Overlays  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 6, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2011 1355 Extrinsic Channel-Like Fingerprinting Overlays Using Subspace Embedding Nate S. Goergen, Student Member, IEEE Abstract--We present a physical-layer fingerprint-embedding scheme for orthogonal frequency

Liu, K. J. Ray

13

PSP: private and secure payment with RFID  

Microsoft Academic Search

RFID can be used for a variety of applications, e.g., to conveniently pay for public transportation. However, achieving security and privacy of payment is challenging due to the extreme resource restrictions of RFID tags. In this paper, we propose PSP -- a secure, RFID-based protocol for privacy-preserving payment. Similar to traditional electronic cash, the user of a tag can pay

Erik-Oliver Blass; Anil Kurmus; Refik Molva; Thorsten Strufe

2009-01-01

14

SEPIA: Security through Private Information Aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations are reluctant to share network measurements due to privacy and security concerns. This impedes method validation, global network monitoring, and cooperation in network defense. State- of-the-art approaches for measurement sharing either require non-disclosure agreements or use anony- mization techniques to protect privacy. Anonymization involves, however, an inherent tradeoff between disclosure risk and data utility. Moreover, recent attacks on anonymization

Martin Burkhart; Mario Strasser; Xenofontas Dimitropoulos

2009-01-01

15

How to Keep Your Health Information Private and Secure  

MedlinePLUS

... communities, such as message boards. · Store in a personal health record (PHR) that is not offered through a health provider or health plan covered by HIPAA. Keep Your Electronic Health ... tips to ensure your personal health information is private and secure when accessing ...

16

17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Private resales of securities to institutions. 230.144A Section 230.144A Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

2012-04-01

17

17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Private resales of securities to institutions. 230.144A Section 230.144A Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

2013-04-01

18

17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Private resales of securities to institutions. 230.144A Section 230.144A Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

2010-04-01

19

17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Private resales of securities to institutions. 230.144A Section 230.144A Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

2011-04-01

20

17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.  

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Private resales of securities to institutions. 230.144A Section 230.144A Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

2014-04-01

21

Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries  

SciTech Connect

We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.

Olejnik, Lukasz [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland and Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center, Noskowskiego 12/14, PL-61-704 Poznan (Poland)

2011-08-15

22

Cryptanalysis of the secure quantum private comparison protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Yang et al [2009 Phys. Scr. 80 065002] presented the first quantum private comparison protocol that involves single photons only. This protocol is very promising in practice. However, in this paper, we analyze the security of the protocol and point out a subtle loophole. It is shown that both Eve and Charlie could obtain Bob's secret by launching a special dense-coding attack. Moreover, details of this attack and its correctness are given, and also two solutions are demonstrated to improve the protocol in order to overcome the fatal flaw.

Liu, Xing-Tong; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing

2013-06-01

23

GUIDELINES ON IMPLEMENTING A SECURE SOCKETS LAYER (SSL) VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN)  

E-print Network

GUIDELINES ON IMPLEMENTING A SECURE SOCKETS LAYER (SSL) VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN) By Sheila, offers practical guidelines on implementing a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) virtual private network (VPN). SSL VPNs provide secure remote access to an organization's resources. A VPN is a virtual network

24

Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Overlay Networks  

E-print Network

presenting a survey of various public overlays, we identify two overlays that match the requirements: XMPP-scale private structured overlays from public Brunet or XMPP infrastructures. I. INTRODUCTION While P2P overlays

Figueiredo, Renato J.

25

New holographic overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a new type of holographic overlay, FLASHPRINT, which may be used in both security and packaging applications. Unlike the more common embossed holograms currently used, FLASHPRINT leads to reduced set-up costs and offers a simpler process. This reduces the long lead times characteristic of the existing technology and requires the customer to provide only two-dimensional artwork. The overlay material contains a covert 2-D image. The image may be switched on or off by simply tilting the overlay in a light source. The overlay is replayed in the 'on' position to reveal the encoded security message as a highly saturated gold colored image. This effect is operable for a wide range of lighting conditions and viewing geometries. In the 'off' position the overlay is substantially transparent. These features make the visual effect of the overlay attractive to incorporate into product design. They may be laminated over complex printed artwork such as labels and security passes without masking the printed message. When switched 'on' the image appears both sharp and more than seven times brighter than white paper. The image remains sharp and clear even in less favorable lighting conditions. Although the technique offers a low set-up cost for the customer, through its simplicity, it remains as technically demanding and difficult to counterfeit as any holographic process.

Hopwood, Anthony I.

1991-10-01

26

Guest Editorial Overlay networks  

E-print Network

(VM) to apply to communica- tion systems. They go by many names, including virtual private networksGuest Editorial Overlay networks Virtual networks (VNs) extend the abstraction of virtual memory avoiding recoding a real im- plementation into a simulation system. Virtualizing a network raises issues

Touch, Joe

27

Implementation of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development  

SciTech Connect

This report documents implementation strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. This report details some of the efforts that have been implemented to leverage public and private resources, as well as implementation strategies to further leverage public and private resources.

None

2009-04-01

28

Asset Allocation and Risk Allocation: Can Social Security Improve Its Future Solvency Problem by Investing in Private Securities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the economics of investing the central trust fund of Social Security in private securities. We note that switching from a policy of having the trust fund invest solely in special issue Treasury bonds to one where some of the portfolio holds common stocks amounts to an asset swap. Such an asset swap does not increase national saving,

Thomas E. MaCurdy; John B. Shoven

1999-01-01

29

48 CFR 252.225-7039 - Contractors performing private security functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hailing devices, electromuscular TASER guns, blunt-trauma devices like rubber balls and sponge grenades, and a variety of other riot control agents and delivery systems) are employed by personnel performing private security functions in response to a...

2013-10-01

30

48 CFR 252.225-7039 - Contractors performing private security functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hailing devices, electromuscular TASER guns, blunt-trauma devices like rubber balls and sponge grenades, and a variety of other riot control agents and delivery systems) are employed by personnel performing private security functions in response to a...

2012-10-01

31

Authenticated, private, and secured smart cards (APS-SC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From historical perspective, the recent advancements in better antenna designs, low power circuitry integrations and inexpensive fabrication materials have made possible a miniature counter-measure against Radar, a clutter behaving like a fake target return called Digital Reflection Frequency Modulation (DRFM). Such a military counter-measure have found its way in the commerce as a near field communication known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a passive or active item tag T attached to every readable-writable Smart Card (SC): Passports ID, medical patient ID, biometric ID, driver licenses, book ID, library ID, etc. These avalanche phenomena may be due to the 3 rd Gen phones seeking much more versatile & inexpensive interfaces, than the line-of-sight bar-code optical scan. Despite of the popularity of RFID, the lacking of Authenticity, Privacy and Security (APS) protection restricted somewhat the wide spread commercial, financial, medical, legal, and militarily applications. Conventional APS approach can obfuscate a private passkey K of SC with the tag number T or the reader number R, or both, i.e. only T*K or R*K or both will appear on them, where * denotes an invertible operation, e.g. EXOR, but not limited to it. Then, only the authentic owner, knowing all, can inverse the operation, e.g. EXOR*EXOR= I to find K. However, such an encryption could be easily compromised by a hacker seeking exhaustively by comparison based on those frequently used words. Nevertheless, knowing biological wetware lesson for power of pairs sensors and Radar hardware counter-measure history, we can counter the counter-measure DRFM, instead using one RFID tag per SD, we follow the Nature adopting two ears/tags, e.g. each one holding portions of the ID or simply two different ID's readable only by different modes of the interrogating reader, followed by brain central processor in terms of nonlinear invertible shufflers mixing two ID bits. We prefer to adopt such a hardware-software combined hybrid approach because of a too limited phase space of a single RFID for any meaningful encryption approach. Furthermore, a useful biological lesson is not to put all eggs in one basket, "if you don't get it all, you can't hack it". According to the Radar physics, we can choose the amplitude, the frequency, the phase, the polarization, and two radiation energy supply principles, the capacitance coupling (~6m) and the inductance coupling (<1m), to code the pair of tags differently. A casual skimmer equipped with single-mode reader can not read all. We consider near-field and mid-field applications each in this paper. The near-field is at check-out counters or the convey-belt inventory involving sensitive and invariant data. The mid-field search & rescue involves not only item/person identification, but also the geo-location. If more RF power becomes cheaper & portable for longer propagation distance in the near future, then a triangulation with pair of secured readers, located at known geo-locations, could interrogate and identify items/persons and their locations in a GPS-blind environment.

Szu, Harold; Mehmood, Amir

2006-04-01

32

A prefix space partitioning approach to scalable peer gateway discovery in secure virtual private networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual private networks (VPNs) are the used by enterprises to secure sensitive traffic going over public network infrastructure like the Internet. In VPNs, geographically separated networks belonging to the same community of interest (COI) are connected through virtual links (security associations) between VPN gateways. VPN gateways authenticate traffic, encrypt packets, and decrypt packets so that only encrypted packets from VPN

Bharat Doshi

2005-01-01

33

A New Method for Creating Efficient Security Policies in Virtual Private Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important protocols for implementing tunnels in order to take action of secure virtual private network is IPsec protocol. IPsec policies are used widely in order to limit access to information in security gateways or firewalls. The security treatment, namely (Deny, Allow or Encrypt) is done for outbound as well as inbound traffic by security policies. It is so important that they adjust properly. The current methods for security policies creation as seen in given security requirements are not efficient enough i.e. there are much more created policies than requirements. In this paper, we define a new method to decrease adopted security policies for a specific set of security requirements without any undesirable effect. Our measurement shows that security policies creation will be improved efficiently, and their updating time will be decreased.

Sadeghi, Mohammad Mehdi Gilanian; Mohd Ali, Borhanuddin; Pedram, Hossein; Deghan, Mehdi; Sabaei, Masoud

34

The relationship between crime and private security at US shopping centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses self-report data from the 1993 National Shopping Center Security Survey to examine the growing problem of\\u000a crime at shopping centers located in the United States. Security managers from 369 shopping centers provided data on crime\\u000a incidents, private security measures, and numerous shopping center demographic measures. Data are analyzed via LISREL using\\u000a bivariate regression modeling. Results show that

Gang Lee; Richard C. Hollinger; DEAN A. DABNEYt

1999-01-01

35

Identification of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the identification of strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP).There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. The leveraging of dollars serves many purposes. These include increasing the amount of training that can be delivered and therefore increasing the number of people reached, increasing the number and quality of public/private partnerships, and increasing the number of businesses that are involved in the training of their future workforce.

None

2009-02-01

36

"i3" Recipients Dash to Secure Private Match  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Winners of the Investing in Innovation (i3) competition scrambled to make a deadline to find private-sector matches for their multimillion-dollar federal awards, meeting the challenge through a mix of cash grants and donations of pricey equipment and services, and by rechanneling previous grants to new purposes. The 49 organizations selected to…

Cavanagh, Sean

2010-01-01

37

Methods of Integrating Social Security with Private Pension Plans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the reasons for considering integration of Social Security benefits into the company pension plan and the approaches to and methods of integration, and how they apply to various types of plans. (Editor/TA)

Burke, Paul E.

1977-01-01

38

Lighten Encryption Schemes for Secure and Private RFID Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We provide several concrete implementations of a generic method given by Vaudenay to construct secure privacy-preserving RFID\\u000a authentication and identification systems. More precisely, we give the first instantiation of the Vaudenay’s result by using\\u000a the IND-CCA secure DHAES cryptosystem. Next we argue that weaker cryptosystems can also be used by recalling the WIPR RFID\\u000a system and giving a new protocol

Sébastien Canard; Iwen Coisel; Jonathan Etrog

2010-01-01

39

Novel Quantum Virtual Private Network Scheme for PON via Quantum Secure Direct Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocols with quantum identification (QI) based on passive optical network (PON) architecture are proposed. One QSDC protocol can be implemented between two different optical network units just with simple configurations of PON by optical line terminal when they are in the same virtual private network after optical line terminal performing QI to the optical network units in the given PON architecture. The other QSDC protocol is also implemented between any two legitimated users in the virtual private network but with considerable reduction of workload of the optical line terminal. The security analysis shows that the proposed QSDC schemes with quantum identification are unconditionally secure and allow the legitimate users to exchange their secret information efficiently and to realize a quantum virtual private network in the PON networks ultimately.

Gong, Li-Hua; Liu, Ye; Zhou, Nan-Run

2013-09-01

40

Implementation of multiple secure virtual private networks over passive optical networks using electronic CDMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical layer solution for implementing multiple secure virtual private networks (VPNs) over a passive optical network (PON) using electronic code-division multiple access is proposed. The multiple virtual private networking capability is experimentally demonstrated with 40-Mb\\/s data multiplexed with a 640-Mb\\/s electronic code that is unique to each of the VPNs in the PON, and the transmission of the electronically

Nishaanthan Nadarajah; Elaine Wong; Ampalavanapillai Nirmalathas

2006-01-01

41

Analysis of security threats to MPLS virtual private networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) based virtual private networking is one of the fastest-growing network technologies. It provides corporate and government customers with flexible, inexpensive “autobahns” that seamlessly connect multiple, geographically-dispersed sites, enabling voice, video, data and other high-bandwidth applications. The technology is also attractive to service providers because it enables them to flexibly provision resources for a variety of classes

Denise Grayson; Daniel Guernsey; Jonathan Butts; Michael Spainhower; Sujeet Shenoi

2009-01-01

42

ENFORCEMENT OF SECURITY POLICY COMPLIANCE IN VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORKS  

E-print Network

protocols, such as IPsec, typically do not authenticate the configuration of users' computers. If a computer to be combined with IPsec, such that only an organization's members that use uncompromised computers can gain). Members may use VPNs, e.g., when they are at home or traveling. VPNs often use IPsec to secure

Brustoloni, José Carlos

43

Deterrence from self-protection measures in the ‘market model’ of crime: dynamic panel data estimates from employment in private security occupations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private individuals and entities invest in a wide variety of market-provisioned self-protection devices or services to mitigate their probability of victimization to crime. However, evaluating the effect of such private security measures remains understudied in the economics of crime literature. Unlike most previous studies, the present analysis considers four separate measures of private security: security guards, detectives and investigators, security

Paul R. Zimmerman

2010-01-01

44

Borrowing to Save: A Critique of Recent Proposals to Partially Privatize Social Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concern over Social Security's forecasted long-run deficit is occurring at a time when the program has a short-term surplus. One proposed strategy to address this forecasted deficit is to allow the investment of a portion of payroll taxes into private savings accounts (PSAs). The author analyzes recent proposals for PSAs and concludes that PSAs…

Dattalo, Patrick

2007-01-01

45

The Effectiveness of an Electronic Security Management System in a Privately Owned Apartment Complex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poisson and negative binomial regression methods are used to analyze the monthly time series data to determine the effects of introducing an integrated security management system including closed-circuit television (CCTV), door alarm monitoring, proximity card access, and emergency call boxes to a large privately-owned complex of apartment…

Greenberg, David F.; Roush, Jeffrey B.

2009-01-01

46

Transformation of the state? Reactions to the privatization of security in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private Military and Security Companies (PMSCs) have increasingly received attention from International Relations scholars. While most of the research has thus far been conducted with the aim to define the actor, assess the consequences of the services they perform for states' monopoly over the use of force, or to evaluate the options for regulation, societal responses to these companies have

Jutta Joachim

2010-01-01

47

Secure and Manageable Virtual Private Networks for End-users Kenichi Kourai Toshio Hirotsu Koji Sato Osamu Akashi Kensuke Fukuda  

E-print Network

Secure and Manageable Virtual Private Networks for End-users Kenichi Kourai Toshio Hirotsu Koji construction, execution environment 1. Introduction Virtual private networks (VPNs) are becoming indis conflict when the same private addresses are used in some networks. To avoid this problem, end-users cannot

Chiba, Shigeru

48

A tainted trade? Moral ambivalence and legitimation work in the private security industry.  

PubMed

The private security industry is often represented - and typically represents itself - as an expanding business, confident of its place in the world and sure of its ability to meet a rising demand for security. But closer inspection of the ways in which industry players talk about its past, present and future suggests that this self-promotion is accompanied by unease about the industry's condition and legitimacy. In this paper, we analyse the self-understandings of those who sell security - as revealed in interviews conducted with key industry players and in a range of trade materials - in order to highlight and dissect the constitutive elements of this ambivalence. This analysis begins by describing the reputational problems that are currently thought to beset the industry and the underlying fears about its status and worth that these difficulties disclose. We then examine how security players seek to legitimate the industry using various narratives of professionalization. Four such narratives are identified - regulation, education, association and borrowing - each of which seeks to justify private security and enhance the industry's social worth. What is striking about these legitimation claims is that they tend not to justify the selling of security in market terms. In conclusion we ask why this is the case and argue that market justifications are 'closed-off' by a moral ambivalence that attaches to an industry trading in products which cannot guarantee to deliver the condition that its consumers crave. PMID:21631459

Thumala, Angélica; Goold, Benjamin; Loader, Ian

2011-06-01

49

SPINAT: Integrating IPsec into Overlay Routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tackling the major Internet security, scalability and mobility problems without essentially changing the existing Internet architecture has turned out to be a very challenging task. The overlay routing approaches fortunately seem to offer a sound way to mitigate most of these issues. Basically, they decouple the end-point identifiers from locators by defining a new namespace. Overlay routing is based on

Jukka Ylitalo; Patrik Salmela; Hannes Tschofenig

2005-01-01

50

FACT SHEET: Fusion Center Assessment emergency response, public health and private sector security personnel to understand local intelligence  

E-print Network

and local jurisdictions as a result of the 9/11 Commission recommendations, with assistance and cooperationFACT SHEET: Fusion Center Assessment emergency response, public health and private sector security

51

On the Association Between SROs, Private Security Guards, Use-of-Force Capabilities, and Violent Crime in Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although school crime and the use of security measures to combat school crime has been the focus of a number of prior empirical studies, there is substantially less information known about the relationship between school resource officers (SROs) and private security guards in schools and school crime. Using data from the 2006 School Survey on Crime and Safety, this study

Jon Maskaly; Christopher M. Donner; Jennifer Lanterman; Wesley G. Jennings

2011-01-01

52

The effectiveness of an electronic security management system in a privately owned apartment complex.  

PubMed

Poisson and negative binomial regression methods are used to analyze the monthly time series data to determine the effects of introducing an integrated security management system including closed-circuit television (CCTV), door alarm monitoring, proximity card access, and emergency call boxes to a large privately-owned complex of apartment buildings in New York City. Crime rates in a control apartment complex under the same ownership, and in the police precinct in which the 2 complexes are located, serve as controls. PMID:19001121

Greenberg, David F; Roush, Jeffrey B

2009-02-01

53

Contracting-out in the United Kingdom: a partnership between social security and private pension plans.  

PubMed

Contracting-out was introduced in the United Kingdom in 1978 as part of the arrangements for the State Earnings-Related Pension Scheme (SERPS) in order to avoid duplication with the existing well-developed defined benefit occupational pension plan sector. Members and sponsors of contracted-out schemes were able to save on their social security contributions in recognition of the fact that they were accruing equivalent benefits through an occupational pension plan. Later on this concept was extended to those with individual money purchase pension plans. This article considers a brief history of contracting-out, the principles of contracting-out, some problems associated with contracting-out, the implications of the introduction of stakeholder pensions and State Second Pension, and the latest rebate review and rebate orders. It examines how U.K. pensions policy since 1978 has been based on a partnership between social security and private pension plans. PMID:12503327

Daykin, Chris

2002-01-01

54

Keynote 2: using randomized techniques to build scalable intrusion-tolerant overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks provide important routing functionality not easily supported directly by the Internet. Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs) have been proposed to support such overlay networks. While it is often straightforward to support overlay networks on DHTs, this choice can be questioned. DHTs dictate routes that are not optimal, and DHTs are hard to secure. As overlay networks are beginning to

Robbert van Renesse

2005-01-01

55

Using randomized techniques to build scalable intrusion-tolerant overlay networks (Keynote)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks provide important routing func- tionality not easily supported directly by the Inter- net. Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs) have been pro- posed to support such overlay networks. While it is often straightforward to support overlay networks on DHTs, this choice can be questioned. DHTs dic- tate routes that are not optimal, and DHTs are hard to secure. As overlay

Robbert Van Renesse

2005-01-01

56

Constructing the Overlay Network by Tuning Link Huijuan Wang and Piet Van Mieghem  

E-print Network

or virtual private networks can be considered as a subgraph of Gspt. We construct two types of Gspt: (a) Gspt of overlay network is a virtual private network (VPN), a private network that uses a public network (usuallyConstructing the Overlay Network by Tuning Link Weights Huijuan Wang and Piet Van Mieghem Delft

Van Mieghem, Piet

57

A Secure Programming Paradigm for Network Virtualization (Invited Paper)  

E-print Network

include overlay networks, virtual private networks, the mbone, and peer-to-peer networks. One common themeA Secure Programming Paradigm for Network Virtualization (Invited Paper) Ana Milanova, Sonia Fahmy a predefined port. It may receive requests from users all over the network to maintain a virtual firewall. User

Fahmy, Sonia

58

Implementing Virtual Private Networking for Enabling Lower Cost, More Secure Wide Area Communications at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Virtual Private Networking is a new communications technology that promises lower cost, more secure wide area communications by leveraging public networks such as the Internet. Sandia National Laboratories has embraced the technology for interconnecting remote sites to Sandia's corporate network, and for enabling remote access users for both dial-up and broadband access.

MILLER,MARC M.; YONEK JR.,GEORGE A.

2001-08-01

59

Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their offices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (IAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the. target site that is running the . VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

2004-01-01

60

Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications Using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their off ices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (LAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the target site that is running the VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

2004-01-01

61

Implementing declarative overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks are used today in a variety of distributed systems ranging from file-sharing and storage systems to communication infrastructures. However, designing, building and adapting these overlays to the intended application and the target environment is a difficult and time consuming process.To ease the development and the deployment of such overlay networks we have implemented P2, a system that uses

Boon Thau Loo; Tyson Condie; Joseph M. Hellerstein; Petros Maniatis; Timothy Roscoe; Ion Stoica

2005-01-01

62

CSP 544: System and Network Security Charlie Kaufman, Radia Perlman, Mike Speciner, Network Security: Private Communication in a Public World,  

E-print Network

security tools, and security policies. A significant hands-on component includes network incidents Signatures (Basic Schemes and Practice) 7 hours · Hacking, Vulnerabilities, and Countermeasures 6 hours · Security Assessment and Incident Handling 6 hours · Tools Used for Network Security and Detecting

Heller, Barbara

63

Enabling distributed simulation multilevel security using virtual machine and virtual private network technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing the accuracy of the portrayal of all of the elements of a simulation environment has long been a prime goal of the modeling and simulation community; a goal that has remained far out of reach for many reasons. One of the greatest hurdles facing simulation developers in the effort to increase simulation accuracy is the need to segregate information across the entire simulation environment according to access restrictions in order to insure the integrity, security, and reliability requirements imposed on the data. However, this need for segregation does not mean that those with the highest access permissions should be forced to use multiple computers and displays to integrate the information that they need or that intelligent agents should be restricted in their access to the information that they need in order to adequately assist their human operators. In this paper, we present a potential solution to the problem of integrating and segregating data, which is the use of virtual machine and virtual private network technology in order to maintain segregation of data, control access, and control intercommunication.

Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

2007-04-01

64

False security or greater social inclusion? Exploring perceptions of CCTV use in public and private spaces accessed by the homeless.  

PubMed

It has been well documented that owing to the vulnerability inherent in their situation and status, the homeless experience high rates of harassment and criminal victimization. And yet, the question of whether CCTV surveillance of public and private spaces - so frequently viewed by the middle classes as a positive source of potential security - might also be viewed by the homeless in similar ways. Within the present paper, I address this issue by considering the possibility that CCTV might be seen by some homeless men and women as offering: a) a measure of enhanced security for those living in the streets and in shelters, and; b) to the extent that security is conceived of as a social good, the receipt of which marks one as a citizen of the state, a means by which they can be reconstituted as something more than 'lesser citizens'. To test these ideas, I rely on data from interviews conducted with homeless service users, service providers for the homeless, and police personnel in three cities. What is revealed is a mixed set of beliefs as to the relative security and meaning of CCTV. PMID:20377597

Huey, Laura

2010-03-01

65

Inter-Overlay Cooperation in High-Bandwidth Overlay Multicast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cooperation of end users can be exploited to boost the performance of high-bandwidth multicast. Whileintra- overlay cooperation, the mechanism for cooperation within a single overlay (multicast group), has been extensively studied, little attention has been paid tointer-overlay coop- eration. In this paper we explore the possibility and effects of cooperation among co-existing heterogeneous overlays in the context of live

Guang Tan; Stephen A. Jarvis

2006-01-01

66

26 CFR 1.141-4 - Private security or payment test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...utility. Although the utility lines are privately owned and the...company for the use of those lines, the assessments are payments...cost of relocating the utility line. Thus, the assessment payments...of the bonds. Example 7. Allocation of payments to funds not...

2010-04-01

67

SecureMed-ID: memorable and private identifiers for off-site access to medical records  

Microsoft Academic Search

SecureMed-ID improves the memorability of identifiers used by electronic medical record systems. Making identifiers that are easier to remember should improve the privacy of the medical record system by preventing leaks due to human error. SecureMed-ID can easily transform the commonly-used Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) system into a human-friendly two-word alias. This system hides much of the complexity of information

Todd H. Stokes; Richard A. Moffitt; May D. Wang

2011-01-01

68

Overlay metrology tool calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous publication, we introduced Blossom, a multi-layer overlay mark (Ausschnitt, et al. 2006, [1]). Through further testing carried out since that publication, Blossom has been shown to meet the requirements on current design rules (Ausschnitt, et al. 2007, [2]), while giving some unique benefits. However, as future design rules shrink, efforts must be made now to ensure the

L. A. Binns; P. Dasari; N. P. Smith; G. Ananew; H. Fink; C. P. Ausschnitt; J. Morningstar; C. Thomison; R. J. Yerdon

2007-01-01

69

Network security vulnerabilities and personal privacy issues in Healthcare Information Systems: a case study in a private hospital in Turkey.  

PubMed

Healthcare industry has become widely dependent on information technology and internet as it moves from paper to electronic records. Healthcare Information System has to provide a high quality service to patients and a productive knowledge share between healthcare staff by means of patient data. With the internet being commonly used across hospitals, healthcare industry got its own share from cyber threats like other industries in the world. The challenge is allowing knowledge transfer to hospital staff while still ensuring compliance with security mandates. Working in collaboration with a private hospital in Turkey; this study aims to reveal the essential elements of a 21st century business continuity plan for hospitals while presenting the security vulnerabilities in the current hospital information systems and personal privacy auditing standards proposed by regulations and laws. We will survey the accreditation criteria in Turkey and counterparts in US and EU. We will also interview with medical staff in the hospital to understand the needs for personal privacy and the technical staff to perceive the technical requirements in terms of network security configuration and deployment. As hospitals are adopting electronic transactions, it should be considered a must to protect these electronic health records in terms of personal privacy aspects. PMID:23823398

Namo?lu, Nihan; Ulgen, Yekta

2013-01-01

70

Data Security Lapses in Developed Societies: Public and Private Sector Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of twenty five million (25) child-benefit records was disclosed on 20th November 2007 to the House of Commons. The scale of the security lapse at the Treasury's tax agency, affected almost half the British population. Two computer discs containing the names, addresses and dates of birth of nine and a half (9.5) million parents and fifteen and a

Anthony J Rodrigues

71

Strategyproof Mechanisms for Dynamic Multicast Tree Formation in Overlay Networks  

E-print Network

Strategyproof Mechanisms for Dynamic Multicast Tree Formation in Overlay Networks Selwyn Yuen the two scenarios of variable and single rate sessions, and further design distributed algorithms that maximizes its private utility, and may be reluctant to replicate and forward messages to downstream children

Li, Baochun

72

Overlay similarity: a new overlay index for metrology tool and scanner overlay fingerprint methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For different CD metrologies like average CD from CD SEM and optical CD (OCD) from scatterometry, CD point-to-point R2 has been well adopted as the CD correlation index. For different overlay metrologies like image-based box-in-box overlay and scatterometry-based overlay, we propose the cosine similarity as the correlation index of overlay. The cosine similarity is a measure of similarity between two vectors of n dimensions by finding the cosine of the angle between them, often used to compare documents in text mining. It has been widely used in web and document search engines and can be used as the similarity index of overlay tool-to-tool matching and scanner tool-to-tool or day-to-day fingerprint. In this paper, we demonstrate that the cosine similarity has a very high sensitivity to the overly tool performance. We compared the similarities of three generations (A1, A2, A3) of the overlay tools of venders A and B and found that after target re-training and TIS correction on each tool A1 similarity to A3 can be improved from 0.9837 to 0.9951. Overlay point-to-point matching with A3 vs. A1 can be reduced from 4.8 to 2.1 nm. The tool precision similarities, i.e. tool self best similarity, for A1, A2, A3 and B are 0.9986, 0.9990, 0.9995, and 0.9994 respectively. From this table, we demonstrate that we can use old-generation overlay tool with suitable hardware maintenance, to match to the latest-generation overlay tool.

Ke, Chih-Ming; Kao, Ching-Pin; Wang, Yu-Hsi; Hu, Jimmy; Chang, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Ya-Jung; Yen, Anthony; Lin, Burn J.

2009-03-01

73

Optimized Overlay Metrology Marks: Theory and Experiment  

E-print Network

1 Optimized Overlay Metrology Marks: Theory and Experiment M. Adel, M. Ghinovker, B. Golovanevsky a detailed analysis of overlay metrology mark and find the mapping between various properties of mark. Keywords Overlay metrology, overlay mark, Cramer-Rao lower bound, Fisher information matrix, box

Markovitch, Shaul

74

To Overlay or Not To Overlay Roch Guerin  

E-print Network

at thickening the waist failed because § A big solution for a small problem § The best solution rather than" network layer #12;The Pro-Overlay "Arguments" Previous attempts at thickening the waist have failed? § Small data path cost § Significant control path (management) cost The IntServ/RSVP debacle § Hardly

Guerin, Roch

75

Symbiotic Relationships in Internet Routing Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose to construct routing overlay networks us- ing the following principle: that overlay edges should be based on mutual advantage between pairs of hosts. Upon this principle, we design, implement, and evaluate Peer- Wise, a latency-reducing overlay network. To show the feasibility of PeerWise, we must show first that mutual advantage exists in the Internet: perhaps contrary to ex-

Cristian Lumezanu; Randolph Baden; Dave Levin; Neil Spring; Bobby Bhattacharjee

2009-01-01

76

Dynamic Virtual Private Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend traditional Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) with fault-tolerance and dynamicmembership properties, defining a Dynamic Virtual Private Network (DVPN). We require nonew hardware and make no special assumptions about line security. An implementation exhibitslow overheard, provides guarantees of authenticity and confidentiality to any IP applicationrunning over the virtual network. Our system is lightweight, allowing the use of multiple finegrainedVPNs. Instead

Ohad Rodeh; Ken Birman; Mark Hayden; Danny Dolev

1998-01-01

77

42 CFR 405.415 - Requirements of the private contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements of the private contract. 405...PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Private Contracts § 405...private contract. A private contract under this...other section of the Social Security...

2010-10-01

78

On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers  

SciTech Connect

Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Guok, Chin; Jackson, Keith; Kissel, Ezra; Swany, D. Martin; Agarwal, Deborah

2009-10-12

79

Flutter Analysis of the Shuttle Tile Overlay Repair Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle tile overlay repair concept, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is designed for on-orbit installation over an area of damaged tile to permit safe re-entry. The thin flexible plate is placed over the damaged area and secured to tile at discreet points around its perimeter. A series of flutter analyses were performed to determine if the onset of flutter met the required safety margins. Normal vibration modes of the panel, obtained from a simplified structural analysis of the installed concept, were combined with a series of aerodynamic analyses of increasing levels of fidelity in terms of modeling the flow physics to determine the onset of flutter. Results from these analyses indicate that it is unlikely that the overlay installed at body point 1800 will flutter during re-entry.

Bey, Kim S.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Waters, William A.; Chen, Roger

2007-01-01

80

Meeting overlay requirements for future technology nodes with indie overlay metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a consequence of the shrinking sizes of the integrated circuit structures, the overlay budget shrinks as well. Overlay is traditionally measured with relatively large test structures which are located in the scribe line of the exposure field, in the four corners. Although the performance of the overlay metrology tools has improved significantly over time it is questionable if this

Bernd Schulz; Rolf Seltmann; Jens Busch; Fritjof Hempel; Eric Cotte; Benjamin Alles

2007-01-01

81

Parenting from the Pocket: Value Tensions and Technical Directions for Secure and Private Parent-Teen Mobile Safety  

E-print Network

An increasing number of high-tech devices, such as driver monitoring systems and Internet usage monitoring tools, are advertised as useful or even necessary for good parenting of teens. Simultaneously, there is a growing market for mobile “personal safety ” devices. As these trends merge, there will be significant implications for parent-teen relationships, affecting domains such as privacy, trust, and maturation. Not only the teen and his or her parents are affected; other important stakeholders include the teen’s friends who may be unwittingly monitored. This problem space, with less clearcut assets, risks, and affected parties, thus lies well outside of more typical computer security applications. To help understand this problem domain and what, if anything, should be built, we turn to the theory and methods of Value Sensitive Design, a systematic approach to designing for human values in technology. We first develop value scenarios that highlight potential issues, benefits, harms, and challenges. We then conducted semi-structured interviews with 18 participants (9 teens and their parents). Results show significant differences with respect to information about: 1) internal state (e.g., mood) versus external environment (e.g., location); 2) situation (e.g., emergency vs. non-emergency); and 3) awareness (e.g., notification vs. non-notification). The value scenario and interview results positioned us to identify key technical challenges – such as strongly protecting the privacy of a teen’s contextual information during ordinary situations but immediately exposing that information to others as appropriate in an emergency – and corresponding architectural levers for these technologies. In addition to laying a foundation for future work in this area, this research serves as a prototypical example of using Value Sensitive Design to explicate the underlying human values in complex security domains.

Alexei Czeskis; Ivayla Dermendjieva; Hussein Yapit; Alan Borning; Batya Friedman; Brian Gill; Tadayoshi Kohno

82

Overview on MPLS Virtual Private Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic idea, features, and necessity of multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) are given in this paper, with a special focus on virtual private networks (VPN) as one of the most important features that MPLS as technology enables and supports. In this context, we first describe the general VPN models, the overlay and the peer model, and than analyze different models,

Artan Halimi; Brikena Statovci-Halimi

2002-01-01

83

Overcast: Reliable Multicasting with an Overlay Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overcast is an application-level multicasting system that can be incrementally deployed using today's Internet infrastructure. These properties stem from Overcast's implementation as an overlay network. An overlay network consists of a collection of nodes placed at strategic locations in an existing network fabric. These nodes implement a network abstrac- tion on top of the network provided by the under- lying

John Jannotti; David K. Gifford; Kirk L. Johnson; M. Frans Kaashoek; James W. O'Toole Jr.

2000-01-01

84

Censorship resistant overlay publishing Technical Report  

E-print Network

storage systems to resist state-level Internet censorship, construct a system that fulfills thoseCensorship resistant overlay publishing Technical Report Department of Computer Science-027 Censorship resistant overlay publishing Eugene Y. Vasserman, Victor Heorhiadi, Yongdae Kim, and Nicholas J

Minnesota, University of

85

CFDP for Interplanetary Overlay Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol for Interplanetary Overlay Network (CFDP-ION) is an implementation of CFDP that uses IO' s DTN (delay tolerant networking) implementation as its UT (unit-data transfer) layer. Because the DTN protocols effect automatic, reliable transmission via multiple relays, CFDP-ION need only satisfy the requirements for Class 1 ("unacknowledged") CFDP. This keeps the implementation small, but without loss of capability. This innovation minimizes processing resources by using zero-copy objects for file data transmission. It runs without modification in VxWorks, Linux, Solaris, and OS/X. As such, this innovation can be used without modification in both flight and ground systems. Integration with DTN enables the CFDP implementation itself to be very simple; therefore, very small. Use of ION infrastructure minimizes consumption of storage and processing resources while maximizing safety.

Burleigh, Scott C.

2011-01-01

86

Mobile Virtual Private Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mĺrtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

87

Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

Technology & Learning, 2008

2008-01-01

88

Interacting epidemics on overlay networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between multiple pathogens spreading on networks connecting a given set of nodes presents an ongoing theoretical challenge. Here, we aim to understand such interactions by studying bond percolation of two different processes on overlay networks of arbitrary joint degree distribution. We find that an outbreak of a first pathogen providing immunity to another one spreading subsequently on a second network connecting the same set of nodes does so most effectively if the degrees on the two networks are positively correlated. In that case, the protection is stronger the more heterogeneous the degree distributions of the two networks are. If, on the other hand, the degrees are uncorrelated or negatively correlated, increasing heterogeneity reduces the potential of the first process to prevent the second one from reaching epidemic proportions. We generalize these results to cases where the edges of the two networks overlap to arbitrary amount, or where the immunity granted is only partial. If both processes grant immunity to each other, we find a wide range of possible situations of coexistence or mutual exclusion, depending on the joint degree distribution of the underlying networks and the amount of immunity granted mutually. These results generalize the concept of a coexistence threshold and illustrate the impact of large-scale network structure on the interaction between multiple spreading agents.

Funk, Sebastian; Jansen, Vincent A. A.

2010-03-01

89

IP Virtual Private Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing technologies, including frame relay and ATM, can be used to create virtual private networks (VPNs) over a shared infrastructure. However, two new technologies, tag switching and IP security, may be used to create IP VPNs that are independent of the access network and the core technology. This paper examines these technologies, compares them to each other and to existing

S Hills; D McGlaughlin; N Hanafi

2000-01-01

90

Private Rehabilitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the expanding role of the rehabilitation counselor into private sector rehabilitation in the seven articles of this special issue. Topics cover private rehabilitation in an insurance context including forensics issues, computer applications, recent trends, services in a multiprogram private clinic, and rehabilitation counselor training.…

McMahon, Brian T., Ed.

1983-01-01

91

Security in Private Networks of Appliance Sensors and Actuators Stu Mesnier, csm1@seas.wustl.edu (A project report written under the guidance of Prof. Raj Jain)  

E-print Network

that are peculiar for private home and small office appliance networks. Keywords: private appliance network, PAN coffee maker that you load with water and fresh grounds then program to brew 10 minutes before you awake to sleep a bit later yet still wake in time for church, so you don't program the coffee maker but only your

Jain, Raj

92

Solidification of an alloy 625 weld overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temperature range) of an Alloy 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr - 1Mo steel by gas metal arc welding was investigated by light and electron optical microscopy, electron microprobe, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The overlay deposit was found to terminate solidification at ? 1216 °C by a ?/Laves eutectic-type reaction. The Laves phase was highly enriched in Nb, Mo, and Si. The solidification reaction and microsegregation potential of major alloying elements in the overlay deposit are compared to other Nb-bearing Ni base alloys and found to be very similar to those for Alloy 718. Solidification cracks observed in the overlay were attributed to the wide solidification temperature range (?170 °C) and formation of interdendritic ( ?+Laves) constituent. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured volume percent ( ?+Laves) constituent with the Scheil equation by treating the overlay system as a simple ?-Nb “binary” and using an experimentally determined k Nb value from electron microprobe data.

Dupont, J. N.

1996-11-01

93

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

SciTech Connect

The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB`s.

Not Available

1994-11-01

94

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

95

Solidification of an alloy 625 weld overlay  

SciTech Connect

The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temperature range) of an Alloy 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr-1Mo steel by gas metal arc welding was investigated by light and electron optical microscopy, electron microprobe, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The overlay deposit was found to terminate solidification at {approx}1,216 C by a {gamma}/Laves eutectic-type reaction. The Laves phase was highly enriched in Nb, Mo, and Si. The solidification reaction and microsegregation potential of major alloying elements in the overlay deposit are compared to other Nb-bearing Ni base alloys and found to be very similar to those for Alloy 718. Solidification cracks observed in the overlay were attributed to the wide solidification temperature range ({approx}170 C) and formation of interdendritic ({gamma} + Laves) constituent. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured volume percent ({gamma} + Laves) constituent with the Scheil equation by treating the overlay system as a simple {gamma}-Nb binary and using an experimentally determined k{sub Nb} value from electron microprobe data.

DuPont, J.N. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

1996-11-01

96

Patent Overlay Mapping: Visualizing Technological Distance  

E-print Network

The purpose of this paper is to present a new global patent map that represents all technological categories, and a method to locate patent data of individual organizations and technological fields on the global map. This second patent overlay map technique is shown to be of potential interest to support competitive intelligence and policy decision-making. The global patent map is based on similarities in citing-to-cited relationships between categories of the International Patent Classification (IPC) of European Patent Office (EPO) patents from 2000 to 2006. This patent dataset, extracted from PatStat database, represents more than 760,000 patent records in more than 400 IPC categories. To illustrate the kind of analytical support offered by this approach, the paper shows the overlay of nanotechnology-related patenting activities of two companies and two different nanotechnology subfields on to the global patent map. The exercise shows the potential of patent overlay maps to visualize technological areas and...

Kay, Luciano; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L; Rafols, Ismael

2012-01-01

97

Weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

SciTech Connect

A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-03-03

98

Exposing private information by timing web applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the time web sites take to respond to HTTP requests can leak private information, using two dierent types of attacks. The first, direct timing, directly measures response times from a web site to expose private informa- tion such as validity of an username at a secured site or the number of private photos in a publicly viewable

Andrew Bortz; Dan Boneh

2007-01-01

99

76 FR 6702 - Private Transfer Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency...encumbered by certain types of private transfer fee covenants and in certain related securities...proposed rule would except private transfer fees paid to homeowner associations,...

2011-02-08

100

77 FR 15566 - Private Transfer Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency...encumbered by certain types of private transfer fee covenants and in certain related securities...encumbered by certain private transfer fees. To allow full public participation...

2012-03-16

101

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

SciTech Connect

Twelve weld overlay hardfacing alloys have been selected for preliminary erosion testing based on a literature review These alloys have been separated into three major groups: (1) Cobalt containing alloys, (2) Nickel-base alloys, (3) Iron base alloys. These alloys are being applied to carbon steel substrates and will undergo preliminary erosion testing to identify candidates weld overlay alloys for erosion control in CFB boilers. The candidate alloys selected from the preliminary erosion tests will then undergo more detailed evaluations in future research.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-04-18

102

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400C and their erosion resistance and microstructure evaluated. Steady state erosion rates were similar for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625, Iron-Aluminide, 316L SS, and High Chromium Cast Iron) and were considerably lower than the remaining coating evaluated. These coatings had different base (Co, Fe, Ni-base). No correlations were found between room temperature microhardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature, although this criteria is often thought to be an indicator of erosion resistance. It was suggested that the coatings that showed similar erosion rates may have similar mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates at this temperature. During the past quarter, Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were selected for more detailed investigations based upon the preliminary erosion test results. Microhardness tests were performed on eroded samples to determine the size of the work hardened zone and change in coatings hardness due to erosion. The work hardened zone was correlated with erosion resistance of the coatings. Additional Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates.

Levin, B. F.; Dupont, J. N.; Marder, A. R.

1994-01-01

103

Summary of Concrete Overlays Existing concrete pavement  

E-print Network

Summary of Concrete Overlays Existing concrete pavement with surface distresses Prepared surface Monolithic pavement with new concrete surface Existing asphalt pavement with surface distresses Milled pavement with asphalt surface distresses Milled and cleaned surface New 2­5 in. (5.1­12.7 cm) bonded

104

Impact of chuck flatness on wafer distortion and stepper overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay accuracy is known as one of the most important subjects for ULSI device production. Significant contributions such as alignment accuracy and mask distortions are well known. By breaking the 100 nm range on overlay accuracy a number of influences have to take into account, which were usually neglected for relaxed design rules. One of these influences to the overlay

Klaus Simon; H.-U. Scheunemann; Hans L. Huber; F. Gabeli

1993-01-01

105

Private Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the subject of private politics, presents a research agenda, and provides an example involving activists and a firm. Private politics addresses situations of conflict and their resolution without reliance on the law or government. It encompasses the political competition over entitlements in the status quo, the direct competition for support from the public, bargaining over the resolution

David P. Baron

2003-01-01

106

Privatizing Australia  

SciTech Connect

The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

Burr, M.T.

1995-07-01

107

Maritime privatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘…few systematic attempts have been made to monitor SOE financial performance…’ [1]. THE WORLD BANK An SOE is a state-owned enterprise. This tactful understatement is from the Bank 1988 World Development Report, which considers the struggle between public and private operations. Privatization of ports and shipping is a philosophical cousin of deregulation, free trade laissez-faire and user pay. All are

J. Eyre

1990-01-01

108

Virtual Private Network Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes an architecture how QoS-enabled virtual private networks over the Internet can bebuilt and managed. The basic technologies for secure VPNs and for QoS support are introduced in the firstchapter. The second chapter describes our vision of a QoS-enabled VPN service over the Internet. It also discussesin detail the required components and their interactions of an appropriate architecture.

T. Braun; M. Günter; M. Kasumi; I. Khalil

1999-01-01

109

In Second International Workshop on Security and Privacy in Cloud Computing, Minneapolis, MN. 24 June 2011. Private Editing Using Untrusted Cloud Services  

E-print Network

In Second International Workshop on Security and Privacy in Cloud Computing, Minneapolis, MN. 24 our extension preserves most of the cloud application's functionality with less than 10% overhead for typical use. Keywords-cloud security, incremental cryptography, data privacy. I. Introduction The idea

Evans, David

110

Medieval Security in the Modern State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The size of the private security industry has increased substantially in recent decades. While previous research has focused on the industry's growth trajectory, less emphasis has been placed on explaining the nature and diversity of private security services. This article investigates the possibility of studying private security with the feudal model. Feudalism is introduced as an ideal type and

Joshua Woods

2010-01-01

111

How big does a coloured overlay have to be?  

PubMed

Coloured overlays and coloured lenses can both increase reading speed, but when they do their colour is not necessarily the same, suggesting that the beneficial effects of a coloured filter might depend upon the area of the visual field that it colours. We investigated the effects of overlays on reading speed and varied the size of the overlay and the colour of the surround. Children who had been assessed with coloured overlays were required to read a passage of randomly ordered common words. The words were printed in black ink as a block of text positioned centrally on an A4 page of white paper in landscape orientation. The speed of reading was compared under four conditions: (1) without an overlay; (2) with an overlay of the chosen colour covering the entire page; (3) with the overlay cut so that it just covered the text but left the margin white; (4) with the overlay of the chosen colour covering the text but with the margin coloured a complementary colour, using a second overlay. The children who were using an overlay read more quickly with the overlay; those who were no longer using the overlay did not. Although the block of text covered less than half the page, the colour and nature of the margin did not affect reading speed significantly. These findings suggest that in order to be effective at improving reading speed an overlay needs to cover the text, but not necessarily the remainder of the page, which means that smaller overlays may sometimes be sufficient. PMID:14687202

Waldie, Michelle; Wilkins, Arnold

2004-01-01

112

PSP: Private and Secure Payment with RFID Erik-Oliver Bla1, Anil Kurmus1, Refik Molva1, and Thorsten Strufe2  

E-print Network

payments. PSP is secure against invention and overspending of coins, and can reveal the identity of users of non-volatile memory on the tag. 1 Introduction Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems that were

Gesbert, David

113

Lawless Privatization?  

E-print Network

Party (with L. Nevzlin, M. Khodorkovsky as chairmen) and many others. After the abolition of benefits8 at the end of 1991, young entrepreneurs, having accumulated initial capital, formed a class of private owners in such profitable spheres... , thus threatening their positions. Table 3. Schemes of privatization processes in Russia in the early 1990s Option 1 Option 2 Option 315 #1; “Workers’ collectives” were entitled to obtain 25% of non-voting preferred shares at no charge. However...

Medova, Elena; Tischenko, Larissa

2006-01-01

114

Overlay Tolerances For VLSI Using Wafer Steppers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order for VLSI circuits to function properly, the masking layers used in the fabrication of those devices must overlay each other to within the manufacturing tolerance incorporated in the circuit design. The capabilities of the alignment tools used in the masking process determine the overlay tolerances to which circuits can be designed. It is therefore of considerable importance that these capabilities be well characterized. Underestimation of the overlay accuracy results in unnecessarily large devices, resulting in poor utilization of wafer area and possible degradation of device performance. Overestimation will result in significant yield loss because of the failure to conform to the tolerances of the design rules. The proper methodology for determining the overlay capabilities of wafer steppers, the most commonly used alignment tool for the production of VLSI circuits, is the subject of this paper. Because cost-effective manufacturing process technology has been the driving force of VLSI, the impact on productivity is a primary consideration in all discussions. Manufacturers of alignment tools advertise the capabilities of their equipment. It is notable that no manufacturer currently characterizes his aligners in a manner consistent with the requirements of producing very large integrated circuits, as will be discussed. This has resulted in the situation in which the evaluation and comparison of the capabilities of alignment tools require the attention of a lithography specialist. Unfortunately, lithographic capabilities must be known by many other people, particularly the circuit designers and the managers responsible for the financial consequences of the high prices of modern alignment tools. All too frequently, the designer or manager is confronted with contradictory data, one set coming from his lithography specialist, and the other coming from a sales representative of an equipment manufacturer. Since the latter generally attempts to make his merchandise appear as attractive as possible, the lithographer is frequently placed in the position of having to explain subtle issues in order to justify his decisions. It is the purpose of this paper to provide that explanation.

Levinson, Harry J.; Rice, Rory

1988-01-01

115

Investigation of dielectric overlay microstrip circuits  

E-print Network

capacitance. The advantage of this method is that it provides a closed-form solution. However, this method in its current form is limited to a specific structure containing four dielectric layers. The second method that is well suited to the overlay... capacitances. The first is the capacitance of the structure with all dielectrics replaced by air, this is denoted by C . The second capacitance is that where the dielectrics are present, denoted by C. From these two capacitances, the characteristic impedance...

Klein, James Louis

2012-06-07

116

Scalability of Reliable Group Communication Using Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides some new insights into the scalability of reliable group communication mechanisms using overlays. These mechanisms use individual TCP connections for packet transfers between end-systems. End-systems store incoming packets and forward them to downstream nodes using different unicast TCP connections. In this paper we assume that buffers in end-systems are large enough for the transfers. It is shown

François Baccelli; Augustin Chaintreau; Zhen Liu; Anton Riabov; Sambit Sahu

2004-01-01

117

Rewiring strategies for semantic overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic overlay networks cluster peers that are semantically, thematically or socially close into groups, by means of a rewiring\\u000a procedure that is periodically executed by each peer. This procedure establishes new connections to similar peers and disregards\\u000a connections to peers that are dissimilar. Retrieval effectiveness is then improved by exploiting this information at query\\u000a time (as queries may address clusters

Paraskevi Raftopoulou; Euripides G. M. Petrakis; Christos Tryfonopoulos

2009-01-01

118

Transaction Structures in the Developing World: Evidence from Private Equity  

E-print Network

While variations in public securities markets across nations have attracted increasing scrutiny, private financings have received little attention. But in developing nations, the bulk of financings are private ones. This ...

Lerner, Josh

2004-05-28

119

Nordic privatization and private healthcare.  

PubMed

The role of the private sector in public healthcare systems is much debated, but there is little research to inform the debate. In the Nordic countries the extent and type of private sector involvement is largely unknown and the changes and the consequences have not been studied. This paper presents a conceptual framework and some limited data about the changing private-public mix and privatization in the Nordic countries between 1985 and 2000. The data suggest a small increase in both private financing and provision which has accelerated in recent years, especially in specific healthcare fields such as diagnostic centres, dentistry, primary medical care and care for older people. The overall increase is small, but large in certain sectors. Differences between the countries can only be understood in relation to their historical, financial, economic and political context, even though there are many commonalities. Impact also is context dependent, but the findings do show a cross-country pattern of a willingness to experiment and a change in underlying assumptions. The findings show a more extensive interpenetration of private and public than previously recognized but more research is required, especially about changes in recent years about which data are scarce. The paper considers the factors driving these trends, the likely larger changes in the next 10 years and the possible consequences for patients, professionals, managers and governments. It notes the different ways governments can control or influence finance and provision. It proposes that the Nordic and other governments improve regulation and data collection about the private sector and consider influencing private providers through partnership arrangements, rather than leaving the developments to be shaped by growing consumer demands or market logic alone. PMID:12968800

Ovretveit, John

2003-01-01

120

77 FR 70780 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractors Performing Private...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Contractors Performing Private Security Functions Outside the United States AGENCIES...Contractors Performing Private Security Functions Outside the United States. A notice...necessary for the proper performance of functions of the Federal Acquisition...

2012-11-27

121

Making the Gigabit IPsec VPN Architecture Secure  

Microsoft Academic Search

By placing the security processors directly in the data path to secure traffic without the aid of additional outside devices or software, the flow-through security device creates a virtual private network that maximizes network processing unit host offload with minimal system integration effort. A virtual private network uses the Internet protocol security (IPsec) framework to provide confidentiality, data integrity, and

Robert Friend

2004-01-01

122

Highly corrosion resistant weld overlay for oil patch applications  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum equipment companies currently sell 4130 and 4140 steel pipe with alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay for Oil Patch applications. Alloy 686 (UNS N06686), because of it`s superior corrosion resistance, is currently being evaluated as a replacement material for alloy 625. Mechanical properties and Slow Strain Rate test results for the alloy 686 weld overlay are discussed relative to the alloy 625 weld overlay.

Hibner, E.L. [Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States); Maligas, M.N.; Vicic, J.C. [FMC Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

123

Transaction Structures in the Developing World: Evidence from Private Equity  

E-print Network

While variations in public securities markets across nations have attracted increasing scrutiny, private financings have received little attention. But in developing nations, the bulk of financings are ...

Lerner, Josh

2004-12-10

124

Basic studies of overlay performance on immersion lithography tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion lithography with ArF light and Ultra Pure Water (UPW) is the most promising technology for semiconductor manufacturing with 65 nm hp design and below. Since Nikon completed the first full-field immersion scanner, the Engineering Evaluation Tool (EET, NA=0.85) at the end of 2004, Toshiba and Nikon have investigated overlay accuracy with the EET which uses the local fill nozzle. EET successfully demonstrated immersion tools are comparable in single machine overlay accuracy to dry tools, and immersion-dry matching has the same level overlay matching accuracy as dry-dry matching. EET also made it clear that overlay accuracy is independent of scanning speed, and both solvent-soluble topcoats, as well as developer-soluble topcoats can be used without degradation of overlay accuracy. We investigated the impact of the thermal environment on overlay accuracy also, assuming that a key technology of overlay with immersion tools must achieve thermal stabilities similar to dry tools. It was found that the temperature of supply water and loading wafer are stable enough to keep the overlay accuracy good. As for evaporation heat, water droplets on the backside of the wafer lead to overlay degradation. We have decided to equip the wafer holder of S609B, the first immersion production model, with an advanced watertight structure.

Shiraishi, Ken-ichi; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Tanizaki, Hirokazu; Ishii, Yuuki; Kono, Takuya; Nakagawa, Shinichiro; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko

2006-03-01

125

20 CFR 404.112 - When we consider certain employees of private nonprofit organizations to be fully insured.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...consider certain employees of private nonprofit organizations...Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Insured...consider certain employees of private nonprofit...

2010-04-01

126

Scalability implications of virtual private networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview of the most promising technologies for service providers to offer virtual private network services. The focus is on the analysis of the scalability implications of these virtual private network mechanisms on existing service provider backbone networks. Very often, when deploying VPN services, service providers will be confronted with a trade-off between scalability and security. VPNs

J. De Clercq; O. Paridaens

2002-01-01

127

Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays  

SciTech Connect

Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied. By depositing an alloy that offers better corrosion resistance than the underlying tube material, the wastage rates can be reduced. While Ni-based and stainless steel compositions are presently providing protection, they are expensive and susceptible to failure via corrosion-fatigue due to microsegregation upon solidification. Another material system presently under consideration for use as a coating in the oxidation/sulfidation environments is iron-aluminum. These alloys are relatively inexpensive, exhibit little microsegregation, and show excellent corrosion resistance. However, their use is limited due to weldability issues and their lack of corrosion characterization in simulated low NO(sub)x gas compositions. Therefore a program was initiated in 1996 to evaluate the use of iron-aluminum weld overlay coatings for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in fossil fired boilers with low NO(sub)x burners. Investigated properties included weldability, corrosion behavior, erosion resistance, and erosion-corrosion performance.

Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.B.; Levin, B.F.; Marder, A.R.

1999-08-02

128

Repeated-Game Modeling of Multicast Overlays Mike Afergan  

E-print Network

Repeated-Game Modeling of Multicast Overlays Mike Afergan MIT CSAIL Email: afergan Abstract-- This paper studies multicast application overlay networks in a repeated-game framework introduce a repeated-game model of user behavior that captures the practical tradeoff between a user's short

Chen, Yiling

129

Information Overlay for Camera Phones in Indoor Environments  

E-print Network

,gaetano}@cs.washington.edu Abstract. Increasingly, cell phones are used to browse for information while location systems assist step fur- ther and actually overlay information on to the physical world using the cell phone's cameraInformation Overlay for Camera Phones in Indoor Environments Harlan Hile and Gaetano Borriello Dept

Anderson, Richard

130

Cluster Overlay Broadcast (COB): MANET Routing with Complexity Polynomial in  

E-print Network

Cluster Overlay Broadcast (COB): MANET Routing with Complexity Polynomial in Source and operation of very large scale wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In this paper, we develop and analyze Cluster Overlay Broadcast (COB), a low-complexity routing algorithm for MANETs. COB runs on top

Reisslein, Martin

131

DCast: Sustaining Collaboration in Overlay Multicast despite Rational Collusion  

E-print Network

design, incentive mechanism, rational col- lusion, sybil attack, whitewashing attack, overlay multicast 1-1-4503-1651-4/12/10 ...$15.00. streaming of sporting events or TV programs. A peer in over- lay multicast is supposed.1 and PPLive online TV platform [22]) often rely on overlay multicast. To prevent peers from free

Yu, Haifeng

132

Exogenous-Loss Aware Traffic Management in Overlay Networks  

E-print Network

Exogenous-Loss Aware Traffic Management in Overlay Networks Toward Global Fairness Mina Guirguis be taken into account in overlay traffic management techniques that aim to achieve global fairness Traffic Managers (OTMs). We use an equation based approach to derive the quiescent loss rate

Matta, Abraham "Ibrahim"

133

Effects of overlay designs on reliability of flexible pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of flexible pavements requires timely application of preventive maintenance and rehabilitation actions such as overlays. These actions are an integral part of a design strategy that minimises the use of recourses over the pavement's life-cycle. The objective of this paper is to develop a reliability model for flexible pavements that accounts for the effects of overlay designs. In this

Vighnesh P. Deshpande; Ivan D. Damnjanovic; Paolo Gardoni

2010-01-01

134

NEBLO: Anonymity in a Structured Overlay Giuseppe Ciaccio  

E-print Network

it impossible for a "small" coalition of malicious peers to correlate overlay addresses to hosts for censorship, censorship-resistant 1. Introduction and motivation Overlay networks have been receiving a lot of atten- tion to the physical Internet address of the destination host. It must be made difficult for an adversary to build

Ciaccio, Giuseppe

135

Dynamis: Dynamic Overlay Service Composition for Distributed Stream Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced Internet services, such as those for processing data streams from sensor networks, often need to support complex operations to meet the needs of multiple user groups. Exploiting resources of distributed nodes to compose services in an overlay network is one approach to addressing this problem. To compose services, an overlay infrastructure needs to support dynamic adaptation to varying conditions

Farshad A. Samimi; Philip K. Mckinley

2008-01-01

136

Performance Impact of Data Compression on Virtual Private Network Transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual private networks (VPNs) allow two or moreparties to communicate securely over a public network.Using cryptographic algorithms and protocols, VPNsprovide security services such as confidentiality, hostauthentication and data integrity. The computationrequired to provide adequate security, however, cansignificantly degrade performance. In this paper, wecharacterize the extent to which data compression canalleviate this performance problem in a VPN implementedwith the IP Security...

John Patrick Mcgregor; Ruby B. Lee

2000-01-01

137

Multicast and Bulk Lookup in Structured Overlay Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structured overlay networks are often used to implement a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) abstraction. In this chapter, we argue that structured overlay networks are suitable for doing efficient group communication. We provide algorithms that enable a node to efficiently broadcast a message to all other nodes in a structured overlay network, without inducing any redundant messages. We also provide algorithms that enasble any node to efficiently send a message to all nodes in a specified set of identifiers. Such algorithms have found usage in many structured overlay networks that implement range queries. Similarly, we provide algorithms that enable any node to efficiently send a message to the nodes responsible for any of the identifiers in a specified set of identifiers. Finally, we look at a case study of implementing efficient Application Level Multicast (ALM) using the group communication algorithms on top of structured overlay networks.

Ghodsi, Ali

138

Security in programming  

E-print Network

for protecting private state. · Objects for capabilities. · Method calls enriched with security semantics (as languages; proof-carrying code. Using language constructs to embody policies · Data abstraction

Abadi, MartĂ­n

139

Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides  

SciTech Connect

The hot and cold cracking tendencies of some early iron aluminide alloy compositions have limited their use in applications where good weldability is required. Using hot crack testing techniques invented at ORNL, and experimental determinations of preheat and postweld heat treatment needed to avoid cold cracking, we have developed iron aluminide filler metal compositions which can be successfully used to weld overlay clad various substrate materials, including 9Cr-1Mo steel, 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel, and 300-series austenitic stainless steels. Dilution must be carefully controlled to avoid crack-sensitive deposit compositions. The technique used to produce the current filler metal compositions is aspiration-casting, i.e. drawing the liquid from the melt into glass rods. Future development efforts will involve fabrication of composite wires of similar compositions to permit mechanized gas tungsten arc (GTA) and/or gas metal arc (GMA) welding.

Goodwin, G.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-08-01

140

Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides  

SciTech Connect

The hot and cold cracking tendencies of some early iron aluminide alloy compositions limited their use to applications where good weldability was not required. Considerable progress has been made toward improving this situation. Using hot crack testing techniques developed at ORNL and a systematic study of alloy compositional effects, we have established a range of compositions within which hot cracking resistance is very good, essentially equivalent to stainless steel. Cold cracking, however, remains an issue, and extensive efforts are continuing to optimize composition and welding parameters, especially preheat and postweld heat treatment, to minimize its occurrence. In terms of filler metal and process development, we have progressed from sheared strip through aspiration cast rod and shielded metal arc electrodes to the point where we can now produce composite wire with a steel sheath and aluminum core in coil form, which permits the use of both the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes. This is a significant advancement in that the gas metal arc process lends itself well to automated welding, and is the process of choice for commercial weld overlay applications. Using the newly developed filler metals, we have prepared clad specimens for testing in a variety of environments both in-house and outside ORNL, including laboratory and commercial organizations. As a means of assessing the field performance of this new type of material, we have modified several non-pressure boundary boiler components, including fuel nozzles and port shrouds, by introducing areas of weld overlay in strategic locations, and have placed these components in service in operating boilers for a side-by-side comparison with conventional corrosion-resistant materials.

Goodwin, G.M.

1996-11-01

141

75 FR 66822 - Study on Extraterritorial Private Rights of Action  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...4-617] Study on Extraterritorial Private Rights of Action AGENCY: Securities and Exchange...determine the extent to which private rights of action under the antifraud provisions...conduct a study to determine whether private rights of action should be similarly...

2010-10-29

142

Awareness and challenges of Internet security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet security is an important issue today. Corporate data are at risk when they are exposed to the Internet. Current technologies provide a number of ways to secure data transmission and storage, including encryption, firewalls, and private networks. This article discusses the awareness of Internet security and challenges faced in both the public and the private sectors.

Steve Hawkins; David C. Yen; David C. Chou

2000-01-01

143

Asphaltic concrete overlays of rigid and flexible pavements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a mechanistic approach to overlay thickness selection is described. The procedure utilizes a deflection analysis to determine pavement rehabilitation needs. Design guides for selecting the overlay thickness are presented. Tolerable deflection-traffic load relationships and the deflection attenuation properties of asphaltic concrete were developed, representing the subgrade support conditions and properties of materials used in Louisiana. All deflection measurements on asphaltic concrete were corrected for the effect of temperature. Deflection measurements taken before and after overlay were also adjusted to minimize the effects of seasonal subgrade moisture variation.

Kinchen, R. W.; Temple, W. H.

1980-10-01

144

Toward Secure Services from Untrusted Developers  

E-print Network

We present a secure service prototype built from untrusted,contributed code.The service manages private data for a variety of different users, anduser programs frequently require access to other users' private data.However, ...

Brodsky, Micah

2007-08-06

145

Mitigating Attacks Against Measurement-Based Adaptation Mechanisms in Unstructured Multicast Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many multicast overlay networks maintain application-specific performance goals such as bandwidth, latency, jitter and loss rate by dynamically changing the overlay structure using measurement-based adaptation mechanisms. This results in an unstructured overlay where no neighbor selection constraints are imposed. Although such networks provide resilience to benign failures, they are susceptibl e to attacks conducted by adversaries that compromise overlay nodes.

Aaron Walters; David John Zage; Cristina Nita-rotaru

2006-01-01

146

A framework for mitigating attacks against measurement-based adaptation mechanisms in unstructured multicast overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many multicast overlay networks maintain application-specific performance goals by dynamically adapting the overlay structure when the monitored performance becomes inadequate. This adaptation results in an unstructured overlay where no neighbor selection constraints are imposed. Although such networks provide resilience to benign failures, they are susceptible to attacks conducted by adversaries that compromise overlay nodes. Previous defense solutions proposed to address

Aaron Walters; David Zage; Cristina Nita-Rotaru

2008-01-01

147

166 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, VOL. 17, NO. 2, MAY 2004 Optimized Overlay Metrology Marks  

E-print Network

Metrology Marks: Theory and Experiment Mike Adel, Mark Ghinovker, Boris Golovanevsky, Pavel Izikson, Elyakim--In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of overlay metrology mark and find the mapping between various, Fisher information matrix, grating marks, overlay mark, overlay mark fidelity, overlay metrology. I

Bruckstein, Alfred M.

148

Internet security architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

F ear of security breaches has been a major reason for the business world' s reluctance to embrace the Internet as a viable means of communication . A widely adopted solution consists of physically separating private networks from the rest of Inter net using firewalls. This paper discusses the current cryptographic security measures a vailable for the Internet infrastructure as

Refik Molva

1999-01-01

149

Full-Information Lookups for Peer-to-Peer Overlays  

E-print Network

Most peer-to-peer lookup schemes keep a small amount of routing state per node, typically logarithmic in the number of overlay nodes. This design assumes that routing information at each member node must be kept small so ...

Rodrigues, Rodrigo

150

Overlay Text Retrieval From Video Scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.

Manohar, K.; Irfan, S.; Sravani, K.

2013-03-01

151

Perturbation-Resistant and Overlay-Independent Resource Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper realizes techniques supporting the position that strategies for resource location and discovery in dis- tributed systems should be both perturbation-resistant and overlay-independent. Perturbation-resistance means that inserts and lookups must be robust to ordinary stresses such as node perturbation, which may arise out of conges- tion, competingclient applications,or user churn. Overlay- independence implies that the insert and lookup strategies,

Steven Y. Ko; Indranil Gupta

2005-01-01

152

Community overlays upon real-world complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many networks are characterized by the presence of communities, densely intra-connected groups with sparser inter-connections between groups. We propose a community overlay network representation to capture large-scale properties of communities. A community overlay G o can be constructed upon a network G, called the underlying network, by (a) aggregating each community in G as a node in the overlay G o ; (b) connecting two nodes in the overlay if the corresponding two communities in the underlying network have a number of direct links in between, (c) assigning to each node/link in the overlay a node/link weight, which represents e.g. the percentage of links in/between the corresponding underlying communities. The community overlays have been constructed upon a large number of real-world networks based on communities detected via five algorithms. Surprisingly, we find the following seemingly universal properties: (i) an overlay has a smaller degree-degree correlation than its underlying network ? o ( D l+, D l-) < ?( D l+, D l-) and is mostly disassortative ? o ( D l+, D l-) < 0; (ii) a community containing a large number W i of nodes tends to connect to many other communities ? o ( W i , D i ) > 0. We explain the generic observation (i) by two facts: (1) degree-degree correlation or assortativity tends to be positively correlated with modularity; (2) by aggregating each community as a node, the modularity in the overlay is reduced and so is the assortativity. The observation (i) implies that the assortativity of a network depends on the aggregation level of the network representation, which is illustrated by the Internet topology at router and AS level.

Ge, X.; Wang, H.

2012-01-01

153

Rehabilitation of continuously reinforced concrete pavements using overlays  

E-print Network

REHABILITATION OF CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS USING OVERLAYS A Thesis by SOUMYA SRIRAMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1993 Major Subject: Civil Engineering REHABILITATION OF CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS USING OVERLAYS A Thesis by SOUMYA SRIRAMAN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Sriraman, Soumya

2012-06-07

154

Residual stresses in weld overlay tubes: A finite element study  

SciTech Connect

Residual stresses and strains in a tube with circumferential weld overlay were analyzed by the finite element (FE) method. The objective of this work was to develop and verify a FE model, to determine the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in the weld overlay tube, and to evaluate the significance of two contributing factors to residual stress: (1) difference in material properties between tube and weld material, and (2) thermal gradients in the weld. An axisymmetric FE model was developed to simulate the circumferential two-layer welding process of alloy 625 overlay on SA210 tube. The first layer was modeled as a gas metal arc welding process with filler metal, whereas the autogenous gas tungsten arc welding process was modeled for the second layer. Neutron diffraction technique was used to experimentally determine residual elastic strains in the weld overlay tube. Comparison with the FE results shows overall good agreement. Both the experimental and FE results show high compressive stresses at the inside tube surface and high tensile stresses in the weld overlay. This suggests that weld overlay may be used to relieve tensile or produce compressive stresses at the inside tube surface, which is significant for applications where crack initiation is found at the root pass of the joining weld.

Taljat, B.; Zacharia, T.; Wang, X.L.; Keiser, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Feng, Z. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Jirinec, M.J. [Welding Services, Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

1997-01-03

155

Overlay improvements using a real time machine learning algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While semiconductor manufacturing is moving towards the 14nm node using immersion lithography, the overlay requirements are tightened to below 5nm. Next to improvements in the immersion scanner platform, enhancements in the overlay optimization and process control are needed to enable these low overlay numbers. Whereas conventional overlay control methods address wafer and lot variation autonomously with wafer pre exposure alignment metrology and post exposure overlay metrology, we see a need to reduce these variations by correlating more of the TWINSCAN system's sensor data directly to the post exposure YieldStar metrology in time. In this paper we will present the results of a study on applying a real time control algorithm based on machine learning technology. Machine learning methods use context and TWINSCAN system sensor data paired with post exposure YieldStar metrology to recognize generic behavior and train the control system to anticipate on this generic behavior. Specific for this study, the data concerns immersion scanner context, sensor data and on-wafer measured overlay data. By making the link between the scanner data and the wafer data we are able to establish a real time relationship. The result is an inline controller that accounts for small changes in scanner hardware performance in time while picking up subtle lot to lot and wafer to wafer deviations introduced by wafer processing.

Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Kubis, Michael; Henke, Wolfgang; Slotboom, Daan; Hoogenboom, Tom; Mulkens, Jan; Coogans, Martyn; ten Berge, Peter; Verkleij, Dick; van de Mast, Frank

2014-04-01

156

Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

Burleigh, Scott C.

2011-01-01

157

Trusted Cloud Computing with Secure Resources and Data Coloring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trust and security have prevented businesses from fully accepting cloud platforms. To protect clouds, providers must first secure virtualized data center resources, uphold user privacy, and preserve data integrity. The authors suggest using a trust-overlay network over multiple data centers to implement a reputation system for establishing trust between service providers and data owners. Data coloring and software watermarking techniques

Kai Hwang; Deyi Li

2010-01-01

158

33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2011-07-01

159

33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2010-07-01

160

33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2011-07-01

161

33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2010-07-01

162

33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2013-07-01

163

33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2012-07-01

164

33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2013-07-01

165

33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2012-07-01

166

Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

167

Policy message Securing private or common  

E-print Network

by customary practices and social relations ­ which are often more powerful than the state's rules are subject not only to government regulation, but also to customary norms and local power relations. Further. ·Propertyrightsareembedded in the local society and are sub- ject to local power relations. ·Formalpropertyrightscanbeas

Richner, Heinz

168

Cooperative Resource Pricing in Service Overlay Networks for Mobile Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of peer-to-peer overlay networks depends on cooperation among participating peers. In this paper, we investigate the degree of cooperation among individual peers required to induce globally favorable properties in an overlay network. Specifically, we consider a resource pricing problem in a market-oriented overlay network where participating peers sell own resources (e.g., CPU cycles) to earn energy which represents some money or rewards in the network. In the resource pricing model presented in this paper, each peer sets the price for own resource based on the degree of cooperation; non-cooperative peers attempt to maximize their own energy gains, while cooperative peers maximize the sum of own and neighbors' energy gains. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the network topology is an important factor influencing the minimum degree of cooperation required to increase the network-wide global energy gain.

Nakano, Tadashi; Okaie, Yutaka

169

Securing collaborative environments  

SciTech Connect

The diverse set of organizations and software components involved in a typical collaboratory make providing a seamless security solution difficult. In addition, the users need support for a broad range of frequency and locations for access to the collaboratory. A collaboratory security solution needs to be robust enough to ensure that valid participants are not denied access because of its failure. There are many tools that can be applied to the task of securing collaborative environments and these include public key infrastructure, secure sockets layer, Kerberos, virtual and real private networks, grid security infrastructure, and username/password. A combination of these mechanisms can provide effective secure collaboration capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the requirements of typical collaboratories and some proposals for applying various security mechanisms to collaborative environments.

Agarwal, Deborah; Jackson, Keith; Thompson, Mary

2002-05-16

170

New foundations for efficient authentication, commutative cryptography, and private disjointness testing  

E-print Network

This dissertation presents new constructions and security definitions related to three areas: authentication, cascadable and commutative crytpography, and private set operations. Existing works relevant to each of these ...

Weis, Stephen August, 1978-

2006-01-01

171

33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED...

2010-07-01

172

33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED...

2013-07-01

173

33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED...

2012-07-01

174

33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED...

2011-07-01

175

Security issues in networks with Internet access  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the basic principles of designing and administering a relatively secure network. The principles are illustrated by describing the security issues a hypothetical company faces as the networks that support its operations evolve from strictly private, through a mix of Internet and private nets, to a final state in which the Internet is finally integrated into its operations

CARL E. LANDWEHR; DAVID M. GOLDSCHLAG

1997-01-01

176

Power Control in Spectrum Overlay Networks: How to Cross a Multi-Lane Highway  

E-print Network

Power Control in Spectrum Overlay Networks: How to Cross a Multi-Lane Highway Wei Ren, Qing Zhao source to destina- tion in spectrum overlay networks as crossing a multi-lane highway, each lane having

Islam, M. Saif

177

Detecting referral and selection bias by the anonymous linkage of practice, hospital and clinic data using Secure and Private Record Linkage (SAPREL): case study from the evaluation of the Improved Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) service  

PubMed Central

Background The evaluation of demonstration sites set up to provide improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT) comprised the study of all people identified as having common mental health problems (CMHP), those referred to the IAPT service, and a sample of attenders studied in-depth. Information technology makes it feasible to link practice, hospital and IAPT clinic data to evaluate the representativeness of these samples. However, researchers do not have permission to browse and link these data without the patients' consent. Objective To demonstrate the use of a mixed deterministic-probabilistic method of secure and private record linkage (SAPREL) - to describe selection bias in subjects chosen for in-depth evaluation. Method We extracted, pseudonymised and used fuzzy logic to link multiple health records without the researcher knowing the patient's identity. The method can be characterised as a three party protocol mainly using deterministic algorithms with dynamic linking strategies; though incorporating some elements of probabilistic linkage. Within the data providers' safe haven we extracted: Demographic data, hospital utilisation and IAPT clinic data; converted post code to index of multiple deprivation (IMD); and identified people with CMHP. We contrasted the age, gender, ethnicity and IMD for the in-depth evaluation sample with people referred to IAPT, use hospital services, and the population as a whole. Results The in IAPT-in-depth group had a mean age of 43.1 years; CI: 41.0 - 45.2 (n = 166); the IAPT-referred 40.2 years; CI: 39.4 - 40.9 (n = 1118); and those with CMHP 43.6 years SEM 0.15. (n = 12210). Whilst around 67% of those with a CMHP were women, compared to 70% of those referred to IAPT, and 75% of those subject to in-depth evaluation (Chi square p < 0.001). The mean IMD score for the in-depth evaluation group was 36.6; CI: 34.2 - 38.9; (n = 166); of those referred to IAPT 38.7; CI: 37.9 - 39.6; (n = 1117); and of people with CMHP 37.6; CI 37.3-37.9; (n = 12143). Conclusions The sample studied in-depth were older, more likely female, and less deprived than people with CMHP, and fewer had recorded ethnic minority status. Anonymous linkage using SAPREL provides insight into the representativeness of a study population and possible adjustment for selection bias. PMID:21995837

2011-01-01

178

Private-Loan Reliance Worries Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At many colleges across the nation, as administrators fret about the effects of a worsening economy, students arriving this fall will get more help securing jobs and more advice on paying for their educations. Some students will even find colleges willing to cut their tuition bills. This article reports that as banks tighten standards for private

Basken, Paul

2008-01-01

179

Laboratory evaluation of selected fabrics for reinforcement of asphaltic concrete overlays  

E-print Network

of reinforcing materials to bituminous overlays has been used for years in attempts to increase the tensile strength of overlays and make them less susceptible to reflection cracking. Early field trials employed steel reinforcing in the form of welded wi re... of reinforcing materials to bituminous overlays has been used for years in attempts to increase the tensile strength of overlays and make them less susceptible to reflection cracking. Early field trials employed steel reinforcing in the form of welded wi re...

Pickett, David L

2012-06-07

180

Performance Evaluation and Comparison of Tree and Ring Application-Layer Multicast Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application-layer multicast (ALM) protocols differ in, among other aspects, the topology of the underlying overlay network (e.g., tree, mesh or ring). Therefore, comparing the performance of ALM overlay networks is an important step to- wards assessing the inherent advantages and\\/or limitations of each overlay network topology. In particular, ring-based ALM overlay networks have the advantages of (a) providing a con-

Ahmed Sobeih; Jun Wang; William Yurcik

181

Translation of Overlay Models of Student Knowledge for Relative Domains  

E-print Network

by all adaptive systems is the "new-user" problem. The models of those students who have just startedTranslation of Overlay Models of Student Knowledge for Relative Domains Based on Domain Ontology Mapping Sergey Sosnovsky1 , Peter Dolog2 , Nicola Henze3 , Peter Brusilovsky1 , Wolfgang Nejdl3 1 School

Dolog, Peter

182

Crosslayer Survivability in Overlay-IP-WDM Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the Internet moves towards a three-layer architecture consisting of overlay networks on top of the IP network layer on top of WDM-based physical networks, incorporating the interaction between and among network layers is crucial for efficient and effective implementation of survivability. This dissertation has four major foci as follows:…

Pacharintanakul, Peera

2010-01-01

183

Virtual TCP Offload: Optimizing Ethernet Overlay Performance on Advanced Interconnects  

E-print Network

Virtual TCP Offload: Optimizing Ethernet Overlay Performance on Advanced Interconnects Zheng Cui Patrick G. Bridges John R. Lange Peter A. Dinda Department of CS University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA {cuizheng,bridges}@cs.unm.edu Department of CS University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15260

Dinda, Peter A.

184

PAVEMENT OVERLAY THICKNESS EVALUATION USING GROUND PENTRATING RADAR (GPR)  

E-print Network

deflectometer (FWD), and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Core drilling provides very accurate pin point pavementPAVEMENT OVERLAY THICKNESS EVALUATION USING GROUND PENTRATING RADAR (GPR) Dwayne Harris, M.Sc., PG for determining pavement thickness are core drilling, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), and ground penetrating

Shan, Jie

185

Fireflies: scalable support for intrusion-tolerant network overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and evaluates Fireflies, a scalable protocol for supporting intrusion-tolerant network overlays. While such a protocol cannot distinguish Byzantine nodes from correct nodes in general, Fireflies provides correct nodes with a reasonably current view of which nodes are live, as well as a pseudo-random mesh for communication. The amount of data sent by correct nodes grows linearly with

Hűavard Johansen; André Allavena; Robbert van Renesse

2006-01-01

186

Firefly-inspired Heartbeat Synchronization in Overlay Networks Ozalp Babaoglu  

E-print Network

flash messages using an algorithm inspired by mathematical models of firefly synchronization. We reFirefly-inspired Heartbeat Synchronization in Overlay Networks Ozalp Babaoglu Univ. Bologna, Italy synchronization in certain species of fireflies. In our protocol, nodes send flash messages to their neighbors

Jelasity, Márk

187

Recipient Anonymity in a Structured Overlay Giuseppe Ciaccio  

E-print Network

to request messages. Such a feature is of main concerns when designing censorship-resistant distributed of malicious peers to correlate overlay addresses to hosts for censorship or auditing purposes. 1. Introduction and message routing on top of the Internet addressing and packet routing scheme. Each host participating

Ciaccio, Giuseppe

188

Refined Overlay Power Management in the Home Environment  

E-print Network

power consumption makes up a large part of global energy consumption. These home appliances are not only efficient power management. Index Terms--Home network, Energy saving, Green network- ing, Overlay control communication [1]. Energy saving is recognized as a key issue in global warming and climate change. According

Boyer, Edmond

189

T-Man: Gossip-based Overlay Topology Mark Jelasity  

E-print Network

T-Man: Gossip-based Overlay Topology Management M´ark Jelasity and Ozalp Babaoglu University of nodes can also be interpreted as a topology. In this paper we propose a generic protocol, T-Man, intuitive and flexible manner. At the same time, the T-Man protocol involves only local communication

Jelasity, Márk

190

T-Man: Gossip-Based Overlay Topology Management  

E-print Network

T-Man: Gossip-Based Overlay Topology Management M´ark Jelasity and Ozalp Babaoglu University protocol, T-Man, for constructing and maintaining a large class of topologies. In the proposed framework in a straightforward, intuitive and flexible manner. At the same time, the T-Man protocol involves only local

191

How Bad Are Overlay Networks? Stephen Cogdon and Ian Wakeman  

E-print Network

-bone [6]. Tree building protocols configure and self-organise the overlay network. Tree building (DVMRP) [4]. The 6-bone is an experimental network for testing IPv6 [5]. The X-bone is an experimental control protocol (TBCP) is a constrained tree building technique [7] signifying that the number

Haddadi, Hamed

192

BWR pipe crack and weld clad overlay studies  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results on (a) the influence of simulated BWR environments and temperature on the intergranular-stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility of sensitized stainless steels (SS), (b) the stress-corrosion susceptibility of alternative piping materials, (c) analysis of field components to assess the effectiveness of in-service inspection techniques and the in-reactor performance of weld overlay repairs, and (d) finite-element analyses and experimental measurement of residual stresses in weldments with weld overlays. Fracture-mechanics crack-growth data are presented to confirm correlations between the critical corrosion potentials required to inhibit IGSCC and the level of impurities in the environment. Slow-strain-rate tests show that very low levels of impurities (25 ppb of sulfate) can produce suseptibility to transgranular-stress-corrosion cracking (TGSCC) in Type 316NG SS and that nitrogen levels is SS above 0.1 wt. % appear to increase susceptibility to TGSCC. Preliminary results on a German Type 347NG SS suggest that it is at least as resistant to TGSCC in impurity environments as Type 316NG SS. Measurements on overlay weldments removed from the Hatch-2 reactor confirm that compressive residual stresses are produced on the inner surface of the weldments by the overlay.

Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.E.; Rybicki, E.F.

1985-10-01

193

A work domain analysis for virtual private networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

For businesses, virtual private networking has become a new method of building corporate communication networks. In addition to providing improved flexibility, security and global reach, virtual private networks (VPNs) can offer substantial cost-savings by reducing the dependence on expensive, private leased-line networks and troublesome remote-access solutions. Unfortunately, the deployment and management of such systems may come at a high cost.

Johnson Kuo; Catherine M. Burns

2000-01-01

194

The USA PATRIOT Act: Implications for Private E-Mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the USA PATRIOT Act was enacted to “enhance domestic security.” One of the means to accomplish this was to give law enforcement increased authority for the surveillance, interception, and disclosure of private e-mails. The USA PATRIOT Act negated several of the privacy protections afforded private e-mail under the Electronic

Tina Ebenger

2008-01-01

195

Quantum Private Comparison Based on Phase Encoding of Single Photons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a scheme for quantum private comparison using phase encoding. The analysis indicates that the scheme is secure, and can prevent some familiar attacks. With the use of error-correcting code (ECC), it achieves a limited fault tolerant quantum private comparison. The scheme is easy to be realized in current experiments.

Li, Yan-Bing; Ma, Ying-Jie; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Yan-shuo

2014-09-01

196

A Performance Oriented Service Interface for Virtual Private Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents a quality of service (QoS) framework for IP based virtual private networks (VPNs). For IP based VPNs to provide a service comparable to private line networks it has to provide a number of features including closed user groups, security and performance guarantees. This document focuses primarily on the issue of performance, and provide a QoS framework which

Nick Duffield; Pawan Goyal; Albert Greenberg; Partho Mishra; K. k. Ramakrishnan; Jacobus E. Van Der Merwe; Naganand Doraswamy; Shantigram Jagannath

1998-01-01

197

A Study of Encrypted, Tunneling Models in Virtual Private Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of virtual private networks offers a simple and cheap alternative to dedicated secure networks in corporate networks and Internet environments. The choice, however, of authentication and encryption techniques and protocols affect issues such as data throughput and performance throughout the network. This paper looks into two virtual private network models within a corporate network. Two operating system platforms

Samir Al-khayatt; Siraj A. Shaikh; Babak Akhgar; Jawed I. A. Siddiqi

2002-01-01

198

Market-Based Self-Optimization for Autonomic Service Overlay Networks  

E-print Network

1 Market-Based Self-Optimization for Autonomic Service Overlay Networks Weihong Wang, Baochun Li, overlay nodes can be programmed to self-organize and self-manage the net- work. To achieve the highest performance within a service overlay, they are further expected to self-optimize the network, by cooperatively

Li, Baochun

199

Overlay accuracy of EUV1 using compensation method for nonflatness of mask  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two EUVL masks were made using the compensation method for nonflatness of a mask; and the EUV1 was used to evaluate the resulting overlay accuracy. For the same mask, the reproducibility of the intra-field overlay errors was better than 1 nm (3sigma) without linear components; and that of the flatness was better than 20 nm PV. In contrast, the overlay

Yuusuke Tanaka; Takashi Kamo; Kazuya Ota; Hiroyuki Tanaka; Osamu Suga; Masamitsu Itoh; Shusuke Yoshitake

2011-01-01

200

Characterizing lens distortion to overlay accuracy by using fine measurement pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has shown that the lens distortion will contribute significantly to overlay error. Since the resolution has gone below 0.18 micrometers with 70 nm overlay tolerance, the lens aberration plays a more important role in the tolerance budget. Originally, the line size of overlay measurement target is about 3 micrometers , which is much larger than the circuit dimensions.

Ron Chu; Chungwei Hsu; Tsu-Wen Hwang

1999-01-01

201

Effects of illumination wavelength on the accuracy of optical overlay metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the integration density in the manufacturing of IC's increases and tighter design rules are implemented, the accuracy of overlay in the photolithography process is becoming all the more important. Consequently, investigation and characterization of the accuracy (as well as precision) of the overlay measurement are being required to insure that the overlay metrology tool qualifies for the new technologies.

Jae-Seong Han; Hak Kim; Jeong-Lim Nam; Min-Seog Han; Soon-Kwon Lim; Shimon D. Yanowitz; Nigel P. Smith; Andrew M. Smout

1997-01-01

202

Private randomness expansion with untrusted devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Randomness is an important resource for many applications, from gambling to secure communication. However, guaranteeing that the output from a candidate random source could not have been predicted by an outside party is a challenging task, and many supposedly random sources used today provide no such guarantee. Quantum solutions to this problem exist, for example a device which internally sends a photon through a beamsplitter and observes on which side it emerges, but, presently, such solutions require the user to trust the internal workings of the device. Here, we seek to go beyond this limitation by asking whether randomness can be generated using untrusted devices—even ones created by an adversarial agent—while providing a guarantee that no outside party (including the agent) can predict it. Since this is easily seen to be impossible unless the user has an initially private random string, the task we investigate here is private randomness expansion. We introduce a protocol for private randomness expansion with untrusted devices which is designed to take as input an initially private random string and produce as output a longer private random string. We point out that private randomness expansion protocols are generally vulnerable to attacks that can render the initial string partially insecure, even though that string is used only inside a secure laboratory; our protocol is designed to remove this previously unconsidered vulnerability by privacy amplification. We also discuss extensions of our protocol designed to generate an arbitrarily long random string from a finite initially private random string. The security of these protocols against the most general attacks is left as an open question.

Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

2011-03-01

203

Private Quantum Subsystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the most general notion of a private quantum code, which involves the encoding of qubits into quantum subsystems and subspaces. We contribute to the structure theory for private quantum codes by deriving testable conditions for private quantum subsystems in terms of Kraus operators for channels, establishing an analogue of the Knill-Laflamme conditions in this setting. For a large class of naturally arising quantum channels, we show that private subsystems can exist even in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also discover the first examples of private subsystems that are not complemented by operator quantum error correcting codes, implying that the complementarity of private codes and quantum error correcting codes fails for the general notion of private quantum subsystems.

Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Kribs, David W.; Laflamme, Raymond; Plosker, Sarah

2013-07-01

204

IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 8, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2000 775 On the Cost of Virtual Private Networks  

E-print Network

Private Networks Reuven Cohen, Senior Member, IEEE, and Gideon Kaempfer Abstract--A virtual private constructing a secure virtual private network (VPN) over the public Internet. Essentially, a VPN is a privateIEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 8, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2000 775 On the Cost of Virtual

Cohen, Reuven

205

Implementation of an FPGA based accelerator for virtual private networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual Private Networks (VPN) are becoming increasingly popular network architectures for corporate networks. As VPNs are built on the Internet infrastructure, the data exchange among different local area networks will be passed through the Internet and thus can be easily eavesdropped, masqueraded, etc. Therefore, certain security measures must be used to deal with these privacy issues. The Internet Protocol Security

O. Y. H. Cheung; P. H. W. Leong

2002-01-01

206

Framework for exploring the interaction between design rules and overlay control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay control is becoming increasingly more important with the scaling of technology. It has become even more critical and more challenging with the move toward multiple-patterning lithography, where overlay translates into CD variability. Design rules and overlay have strong interaction and can have a considerable impact on the design area, yield, and performance. We study this interaction and evaluate the overall design impact of rules, overlay characteristics, and overlay control options. For this purpose, we developed a model for yield loss from overlay that considers overlay residue after correction and the breakdown between field-to-field and within-field overlay; the model is then incorporated into a general design-rule evaluation framework to study the overlay/design interaction. The framework can be employed to optimize design rules and more accurately project overlay-control requirements of the manufacturing process. The framework is used to explore the design impact of litho-etch litho-etch double-patterning rules and poly line-end extension rule defined between poly and active layer for different overlay characteristics (i.e., within-field versus field-to-field overlay) and different overlay models at the 14-nm node. Interesting conclusions can be drawn from our results. For example, one result shows that increasing the minimum mask-overlap length by 1 nm would allow the use of a third-order wafer/sixth-order field-level overlay model instead of a sixth-order wafer/sixth-order field-level model with negligible impact on design.

Ghaida, Rani S.; Gupta, Mukul; Gupta, Puneet

2013-07-01

207

33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2010-07-01

208

33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2013-07-01

209

A finite element overlay technique for modeling pinned composite joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite element technique using overlaid plane stress elements is presented for modeling a pinned composite joint. The technique allows for discrete modeling of the pin and web regions of the joint in a two-dimensional (2-D) finite element analysis. Thus, predictive capability is substantially increased without the added complexity of a three-dimensional (3-D) analysis. The overlay technique requires a thorough evaluation of the model constraints between the joint components. Bearing panels are used to account for a reduced compressive modulus under bearing loads. Application of the plane stress overlay technique to the Filament Wound Case (FWC) Program is discussed. The experimental approach to determine bearing panel moduli using a double lap shear test is detailed, and finite element results are correlated with full-scale FWC joint test results.

Colvin, G. E.; Adams, D. S.

1986-01-01

210

On the overlay of CDMA 1xEVDO system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the impact of the overlay of CDMA2000 1x-EVDO and CDMA2000 cellular systems in terms of throughput is investigated. Currently, the 3G cellular systems furthermore to provide only voice services are focusing to offer a variety of data applications such as VoIP, video, telephony, wireless gaming, and push-to-talk (PTT), along with a high demand of downlink intensive applications.

José Antonio Avendańo-Osorio; Hebert Harif Ortiz-Flores; Josefina Castańeda-Camacho

2009-01-01

211

Interface Chemistry and Physics of SEMICONDUCTOR:MOLECULAR Overlayer Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of semiconductor: molecular overlayer systems have been studied with the focus being on photoelectrochromic devices and semiconductor surface passivation. The topics are discussed in the dissertation in that order. Spectroscopic (UV-VIS absorption and Raman scattering) and electrochemical techniques were used to characterize the photochromic behavior of thin Prussian Blue films grown on partially reduced single crystal SrTiO_3 wafers.

John Paul Ziegler

1988-01-01

212

Shielding turbine blades from cvitation: Experiments with polymer overlays  

SciTech Connect

Cavitation damage to hydroelectric machinery produces one of the most prevalent maintenance problems at any hydro plant. Damage to the turbine runner blades, draft tube liner and discharge ring, and sometimes even the runner hub can require extensive welding repair. Typically, each unit develops its own cavitation characteristics that continue throughout the life of the machine. The traditional cavitation repair method is to gouge out the damaged material, then refill the void with a stainless steel. This method is costly and time-consuming, may cause blade distortion, and may result in galvanic corrosion when the stainless steel is applied to carbon steel base materials. What's more, this gouging and filling at temperatures between 2,200 and 2.300[degrees]F within a tenth of a square inch may cause residual stresses in the parent material. One strategy for limiting cavitation effects on turbine components is to overlay the original material with a protective layer. This protective coating will absorb the cavitation load, or at least a portion of it, thus limiting further damage to repaired areas. Typically, an overlay consists of a 1/32-inch or 1/16-inch layer of polymer material (either epoxies or ceramics) and a thin adhesive that bonds the polymer to the turbine steel. A cavitation-induced shock (energy) wave propagates through the polymer material and either reflects or transmits into the steel. (The relative acoustic impedances of the two materials determine whether the shock wave travels into the turbine steel or reflects back through the polymer.) For the overlay to be effective, the shock wave must be reflected, attenuated, or dispersed. typical overlay materials do not reflect, attenuate, or disperse the cavitation shock wave. Polycarbonates, with their unique energy dissipation capabilities, are a good candidate for a protective turbine blade coating.

Armentrout, T.B. (Army Corps of Engineers, The Dalles, OR (United States))

1993-05-01

213

Advances in process overlay on 300-mm wafers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay budgets are getting tighter within 300 mm volume production and as a consequence the process effects on alignment and off-line metrology becomes more important. In a short loop experiment, with cleared reference marks in each image field, the isolated effect of processing was measured with a sub-nanometer accuracy. The examined processes are Shallow Trench Isolation (STI), Tungsten-Chemical Mechanical Processing

Jens Staecker; Stefanie Arendt; Karl Schumacher; Evert C. Mos; Richard J. van Haren; Maurits van der Schaar; Remi Edart; Wolfgang Demmerle; Hoite Tolsma

2002-01-01

214

Prediction of Reflection Cracking in Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays  

E-print Network

for HMA overlay with reinforcing geosynthetic over jointed concrete pavement in wet-freeze zone (New York, New York) ??????????????????????????? 258 5.12 The comparision between field and predicted results for LMH severity distress (AC over AC... pavement structure, Wet-Freeze climatic zone) ???????? 260 5.13 The comparision between field and predicted results for LMH severity distress (AC over JPC pavement structure, Wet-Freeze climatic zone) ??????? 261 5.14 The comparision between field...

Tsai, Fang-Ling

2011-02-22

215

Segment-sending Schedule in Data-driven Overlay Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data-driven overlay network is suitable for live-event streaming, because it can provide relatively-continuous streaming even in dynamic environment. In terms of improving streaming quality, prior work covered membership management, buffer map exchange, segment requesting schedule, etc. In this paper, we address the problem of segment-sending schedule on the segment-providing node, which may also affect the streaming quality. The schedule methods

Dan Li; Yong Cui; Ke Xu; Jianping Wu

2006-01-01

216

Fireflies: scalable support for intrusion-tolerant network overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and evaluates Fireflies, a scalable pro- tocol for supporting intrusion-tolerant network overlays.1 While such a protocol cannot distinguish Byzantine nodes from correct nodes in general, Fireflies provides correct nodes with a reasonably current view of which nodes are live, as well as a pseudo-random mesh for communication. The amount of data sent by correct nodes grows linearly

Hĺvard D. Johansen; André Allavena; Robbert Van Renesse

2006-01-01

217

SureMail: Notification Overlay for Email Reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of silent email loss in the Internet. Some recent studies have reported loss rates of 0.5-1%, which indicates that the problem is significant, especially since email loss can impose a high cost. We present SureMail, a system designed to address the silent email loss problem. SureMail augments the existing SMTP-based email system with a notification overlay

Sharad Agarwal; Venkata N. Padmanabhan; Dilip A. Joseph

2005-01-01

218

Advancements of diffraction-based overlay metrology for double patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the dimensions of integrated circuit continue to shrink, diffraction based overlay (DBO) technologies have been developed to address the tighter overlay control challenges. Previously data of high accuracy and high precision were reported for litho-etch-litho-etch double patterning (DP) process using normal incidence spectroscopic reflectometry on specially designed targets composed of 1D gratings in x and y directions. Two measurement methods, empirical algorithm (eDBO) using four pads per direction (2x4 target) and modeling based algorithm (mDBO) using two pads per direction (2x2 target) were performed. In this work, we apply DBO techniques to measure overlay errors for a different DP process, litho-freeze-litho-etch process. We explore the possibility of further reducing number of pads in a DBO target using mDBO. For standard targets composed of 1D gratings, we reported results for eDBO 2x4 targets, mDBO 2x2 targets, and mDBO 2x1 target. The results of all three types of targets are comparable in terms of accuracy, dynamic precision, and TIS. TMU (not including tool matching) is less than 0.1nm. In addition, we investigated the possibility of measuring overlay with one single pad that contains 2D gratings. We achieved good correlation to blossom measurements. TMU (not including tool matching) is ~ 0.2nm. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that DBO results are reported on a single pad. eDBO allows quick recipe setup but takes more space and measurement time. Although mDBO needs details of optical properties and modeling, it offers smaller total target size and much faster throughput, which is important in high volume manufacturing environment.

Li, Jie; Kritsun, Oleg; Liu, Yongdong; Dasari, Prasad; Weher, Ulrich; Volkman, Catherine; Mazur, Martin; Hu, Jiangtao

2011-03-01

219

An Overlapping Structured P2P for REIK Overlay Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

REIK is based on a ring which embedded an inverse Kautz digraph, to enable multi-path P2P routing. It has the constant degree and the logarithmic diameter DHT scheme with constant congestion and Byzantine fault tolerance. However, REIK did not consider the interconnection of many independent smaller networks. In this paper, we propose a new approach to build overlay network, OLS-REIK which is an overlapping structured P2P for REIK overlay network. It is a more flexible interconnecting different REIK network. Peers can belong to several rings, allowing this interconnection. By connecting smaller structured overlay networks in an unstructured way, it provides a cost effective alternative to hierarchical structured P2P systems requiring costly merging. Routing of lookup messages is performed as in REIK within one ring, but a peer belonging to several rings forwards the request to the different rings it belongs to. Furthermore a small number of across point is enough to ensure a high exhaustiveness level.

Liu, Wenjun; Song, Jingjing; Yu, Jiguo

220

Impact of chuck flatness on wafer distortion and stepper overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay accuracy is known as one of the most important subjects for ULSI device production. Significant contributions such as alignment accuracy and mask distortions are well known. By breaking the 100 nm range on overlay accuracy a number of influences have to take into account, which were usually neglected for relaxed design rules. One of these influences to the overlay is directly related to wafer distortions induced by flatness deviations of wafer chucks. This impact was characterized by investigating the elastic behavior of 4' wafers (525 micrometers thick), fixed on a wafer chuck. Induced elastical deformation due to flatness error of the chuck causes strains and elongations in the wafer surface and therefore wafer distortions. The results obtained by exposure experiments and calculations show that even a point size defect has a 30 mm spreading. Therefore the induced distortions arrives about 100 nm in case of a 3 micrometers flatness irregularity. The final result of the investigations induces that the flatness differences between different wafer chucks or steppers should be smaller than 1 micrometers for design rules below quarter micron.

Simon, Klaus; Scheunemann, H.-U.; Huber, Hans L.; Gabeli, F.

1993-06-01

221

Hg binding on Pd binary alloys and overlays  

SciTech Connect

The vast majority of the mercury released from coal combustion is elemental mercury. Noble metals such as Pd, Au, Ag, and Cu have been proposed to capture elemental mercury. Density functional theory calculations are carried out to investigate mercury interactions with Pd binary alloys and overlays in addition to pure Pd, Au, Ag, and Cu surfaces using a projected augmented wave method with the Perdew-Wang generalized 0 gradient approximation. It has been determined that Pd has the highest mercury binding energy in comparison to other noble metals. In addition, Pd is found to be the primary surface atom responsible for improving the interaction of mercury with the surface atoms in both Pd binary alloys and overlays. Deposition of Pd overlays on Au and Ag enhance the reactivity of the surface by shifting the d-states of surface atoms up in energy. Strong mercury binding causes a significant overlap between the s- and p-states of Pd and the d-state of Mercury.

Sasmaz, E.; Aboud, S.; Wilcox, J. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States). School of Earth Science

2009-05-15

222

Diffusion Barriers to Increase the Oxidative Life of Overlay Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, most blades and vanes in the hottest section of aero gas turbine engines require some type of coating for oxidation protection. Newly developed single crystal superalloys have the mechanical potential to operate at increasingly higher component temperatures. However, at these elevated temperatures, coating/substrate interdiffusion can shorten the protective life of the coating. Diffusion barriers between overlay coatings and substrates are being examined to extend the protective life of the coating. A previously- developed finite-difference diffusion model has been modified to predict the oxidative life enhancement due to use of a diffusion barrier. The original diffusion model, designated COSIM, simulates Al diffusion in the coating to the growing oxide scale as well as Al diffusion into the substrate. The COSIM model incorporates an oxide growth and spalling model to provide the rate of Al consumption during cyclic oxidation. Coating failure is predicted when the Al concentration at the coating surface drops to a defined critical level. The modified COSIM model predicts the oxidative life of an overlay coating when a diffusion barrier is present eliminating diffusion of Al from the coating into the substrate. Both the original and the modified diffusion models have been used to predict the effectiveness of a diffusion barrier in extending the protective life of a NiCrAl overlay coating undergoing cyclic oxidation at 1100 C.

Nesbitt, James A.; Lei, Jih-Fen

1999-01-01

223

Network-Aware Overlay Multicast for Large Data Dissemination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a network-aware overlay multicast (NAOM) technique for large data dissemination in a well-managed overlay network. To improve the throughput, NAOM utilizes forward-only hosts; these hosts participate in the overlay network but are not members of the multicast. With the inclusion of the forward-only hosts, data slices can detour bottleneck links and more resources can be used to build efficient multicast trees. Large data are divided into fixed-size slices, and the slices are delivered simultaneously to multicast receivers along the multiple multicast trees. We model the problem of building efficient multicast trees with the inclusion of forward-only hosts. The problem is an NP-hard problem, and we introduce a polynomial time heuristic algorithm. Furthermore, we propose a dynamic scheduling scheme for the transfer of data along the evaluated multicast trees. Our experimental results in a real network environment show an improvement of the throughput but at the cost of additional resource consumption of forward-only nodes.

Lee, Joonbok; Chon, Kilnam

224

Private Governments and Private Services: Homeowners Associations in the City and Behind the Gate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we examine homeowners associations (HOAs) as private providers of what are traditionally considered local government services: streets, security, recreation, maintenance, and public works (e.g., water, drainage, sewerage, and trash collection). Although much has been theorized about the nature of such organizations, little empirical data has been collected to examine these prescriptions. We present the results of a

Barbara Coyle McCabe; Jill Tao

2006-01-01

225

Overlay accuracy of EUV1 using compensation method for nonflatness of mask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two EUVL masks were made using the compensation method for nonflatness of a mask; and the EUV1 was used to evaluate the resulting overlay accuracy. For the same mask, the reproducibility of the intra-field overlay errors was better than 1 nm (3?) without linear components; and that of the flatness was better than 20 nm PV. In contrast, the overlay errors were about 3 nm (3?) for the two masks. The main cause of this degradation in overlay accuracy might be the difference in mask flatness (~260 nm PV). Using overlay patterns corrected by the compensation method reduced the overlay errors to about 2.5 nm (3?). Although the compensation method produced only a small change, it definitely improved the intra-field overlay of the EUV1. Furthermore, the EUV1 was used to evaluate the intra-wafer overlay for 23 shots. The single-machine overlay (SMO) was found to be better than 4.5 nm (Mean + 3?nonlinear), and the mix-and-match overlay (MMO) between the EUV1 and an ArF immersion scanner (NSR-S610C) was about 20 nm (Mean + 3?nonlinear). The main cause of the MMO errors might be the nonflatness of the mask and wafer chucks of the EUV1. Thus, the chucks must be made flatter to reduce MMO errors. This work was supported in part by NEDO.

Tanaka, Yuusuke; Kamo, Takashi; Ota, Kazuya; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Suga, Osamu; Itoh, Masamitsu; Yoshitake, Shusuke

2011-04-01

226

Key confirmation and adaptive corruptions in the protocol security logic  

E-print Network

Shmatikov The University of Texas at Austin Abstract. Cryptographic security for key exchange and secure's secrets such as the private signing key, the victim must be able to detect this and abort the protocol

Shmatikov, Vitaly

227

Evaluation of Free-Riding Traffic Problem in Overlay Routing and Its Mitigation Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research on overlay networks has revealed that user-perceived network performance could be improved by an overlay routing mechanism. The effectiveness of overlay routing is mainly a result of the policy mismatch between the overlay routing and the underlay IP routing operated by ISPs. However, this policy mismatch causes a “free-riding” traffic problem, which may become harmful to the cost structure of Internet Service Providers. In the present paper, we define the free-riding problem in the overlay routing and evaluate the degree of free-riding traffic to reveal the effect of the problem on ISPs. We introduce a numerical metric to evaluate the degree of the free-riding problem and confirm that most multihop overlay paths that have better performance than the direct path brings the free-riding problem. We also discuss the guidelines for selecting paths that are more effective than the direct path and that mitigate the free-riding problem.

Hasegawa, Go; Hiraoka, Yuichiro; Murata, Masayuki

228

Private Speech in Ballet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

Johnston, Dale

2006-01-01

229

Virtual private networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virtual private network (VPN) can help resolve many of the issues associated with today's private networks. A VPN facilitates an agile IT infrastructure. Global VPNs enable connectivity to all locations anywhere in the world at a fraction of the cost of dedicated links. VPN services enable remote access to the intranet at significantly lower cost, thus enabling support for

R. Venkateswaran

2001-01-01

230

Microstructure and Properties of Nickel-Alloy and Nickel-WC Composite Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructures and performance of Ni-based alloys and Ni-WC (nickel-tungsten carbide) composite overlays deposited by plasma transferred arc welding have been studied. The Ni-alloy overlays had similar microstructures consisting of gamma-Ni dendrites, with interdendritic Ni-based eutectics, borides and carbides. Low hardness alloy overlays contained a smaller fraction of interdendritic phases relative to the high hardness alloys. The interdendritic regions make

Thilan Liyanage

2010-01-01

231

Dialogue on private events  

PubMed Central

In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

2004-01-01

232

Compensating process non-uniformity to improve wafer overlay by RegC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of double and triple patterning tightened the Overlay current nodes' specifications across the industry to levels of 5nm and 3nm respectively. Overlay error is a combination of Intra-field and field-to-field errors. The Intra-field error includes several systematic signatures, such as overlay magnitude differences between X and Y axes, field center vs edge and more. The recent developments in scanner technology improved the intra-field Overlay to high orders. In this work we have quantified the state-of-the-art residual overlay errors and applied the RegC® (registration/overlay control) process, a new solution of deep sub-nanometer pattern shift, to further improve the overlay process control, in addition to the current lithography's state-of-the-art capabilities. As a result we managed to reduce the baseline overlay error by more than one nanometer and reduced systematic intrafield non-uniformities, by removing the 3 sigma difference between X and Y to zero. The combination of intra-field control by RegC® with high order correction per exposure (CPE) by the scanner provides a new era of overlay control required for the 2x and 1x multiple patterning processes.

Leray, Philippe; Cheng, Shaunee; Cohen, Avi; Graitzer, Erez; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Rehtan, Shiran; Wertsman, Nadav

2014-04-01

233

Employing Multicast in P2P Overlay Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work on multicast has evolved from bottom IP layer multicast to Application Layer Multicast. While there are issues with the dep-loyment of IP layer multicast, it outperforms Application Layer Multicast. However, the latter has the advantage of an easier dep-loyment. Furthermore, as will be illustrated later in this Chapter, IP layer multicast has the potential to make parallel overlay operations more efficient. Application Layer Multicast is primarily used to send application specific messages/data to a number of nodes.

Kolberg, Mario

234

Bandwidth auction for SVC streaming in dynamic multi-overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study the optimal bandwidth allocation for scalable video coding (SVC) streaming in multiple overlays. We model the whole bandwidth request and distribution process as a set of decentralized auction games between the competing peers. For the upstream peer, a bandwidth allocation mechanism is introduced to maximize the aggregate revenue. For the downstream peer, a dynamic bidding strategy is proposed. It achieves maximum utility and efficient resource usage by collaborating with a content-aware layer dropping/adding strategy. Also, the convergence of the proposed auction games is theoretically proved. Experimental results show that the auction strategies can adapt to dynamic join of competing peers and video layers.

Xiong, Yanting; Zou, Junni; Xiong, Hongkai

2010-07-01

235

Advances in process overlay on 300-mm wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay budgets are getting tighter within 300 mm volume production and as a consequence the process effects on alignment and off-line metrology becomes more important. In a short loop experiment, with cleared reference marks in each image field, the isolated effect of processing was measured with a sub-nanometer accuracy. The examined processes are Shallow Trench Isolation (STI), Tungsten-Chemical Mechanical Processing (W-CMP) and resist spinning. The alignment measurements were done on an ASML TWINSCANT scanner and the off-line metrology measurements on a KLA Tencor. Mark type and mark position dependency of the process effects are analyzed. The mean plus 3 (sigma) of the maximum overlay after correcting batch average wafer parameters is used as an overlay performance indicator (OPI). 3 (sigma) residuals to the wafer-model are used as an indicator of the noise that is added by the process. The results are in agreement with existing knowledge of process effects on 200 mm wafers. The W-CMP process introduces an additional wafer rotation and scaling that is similar for alignment marks and metrology targets. The effects depend on the mark type; in general they get less severe for higher spatial frequencies. For a 7th order alignment mark, the OPI measured about 12 nm and the added noise about 12 nm. For the examined metrology targets the OPI is about 20 nm with an added noise of about 90 nm. Two different types of alignment marks were tested in the STI process, i.e., zero layer marks and marks that were exposed together with the STI product. The overlay contribution due to processing on both types of alignment marks is very low (smaller than 5 nm OPI) and independent on mark type. Some flyers are observed fot the zero layer marks. The flyers can be explained by the residues of oxide and nitride that is left behind in the spaces of the alignment marks. Resist spinning is examined on single layer resist and resist with an organic Bottom Anti-Reflective Coating (BARC) underneath. Single layer resist showed scaling on unsegmented marks that disappears using higher diffraction orders and/or mark segmentation. Resist with a planarizing BARC caused additional effects on the wafer edge for measurements with the red laser signal. The effects disappear using the green laser of ATHENAT.

Staecker, Jens; Arendt, Stefanie; Schumacher, Karl; Mos, Evert C.; van Haren, Richard J. F.; van der Schaar, Maurits; Edart, Remi; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Tolsma, Hoite

2002-07-01

236

Training Program SEC 0201: Computer Security Annual Refresher  

E-print Network

of responsibilities to protect private information · Ensure awareness of opportunities for cyber security assistance to information and the course can be obtained through the Computer Security Website at http://www.lbl.gov/IT/Security/ Course Objectives: · Ensure LBNL community members understand their responsibilities for cyber security

Eisen, Michael

237

Best Practices and Procedures for Securing Sensitive Information  

E-print Network

. Use the Virtual Private Network (VPN) to access Newark campus secure storage network drives remotely commitment to protect university network resources and restricted data (Social Security Numbers, grades outside a central system, store it on the secure storage network drive. Use shared drives for secure

238

Stanford Securities Class Action Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stanford Law School presents the Stanford Securities Class Action Clearinghouse, a free, full-text database that identifies over 1,000 issuers named in federal class action securities fraud lawsuits since the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 was passed. The site provides "detailed information relating to the prosecution, defense, and settlement of federal class action securities fraud litigation." The site's search engine allows users to search by name of company sued or its ticker symbol, District Court where the case was filed, or by month or year in which the case was filed.

239

Lightweight storage and overlay networks for fault tolerance.  

SciTech Connect

The next generation of capability-class, massively parallel processing (MPP) systems is expected to have hundreds of thousands to millions of processors, In such environments, it is critical to have fault-tolerance mechanisms, including checkpoint/restart, that scale with the size of applications and the percentage of the system on which the applications execute. For application-driven, periodic checkpoint operations, the state-of-the-art does not provide a scalable solution. For example, on today's massive-scale systems that execute applications which consume most of the memory of the employed compute nodes, checkpoint operations generate I/O that consumes nearly 80% of the total I/O usage. Motivated by this observation, this project aims to improve I/O performance for application-directed checkpoints through the use of lightweight storage architectures and overlay networks. Lightweight storage provide direct access to underlying storage devices. Overlay networks provide caching and processing capabilities in the compute-node fabric. The combination has potential to signifcantly reduce I/O overhead for large-scale applications. This report describes our combined efforts to model and understand overheads for application-directed checkpoints, as well as implementation and performance analysis of a checkpoint service that uses available compute nodes as a network cache for checkpoint operations.

Oldfield, Ron A.

2010-01-01

240

Using perspective guidance overlay to improve UAV manual control performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The guidance information that is available to the UAV operator typically suffers from limitations of data update rate and system latency. Even when using a flight director command display, the manual control task is considerably more difficult compared to piloting a manned aircraft. Results from earlier research into perspective guidance displays show that these displays provide performance benefits and suggest a reduction of the negative effects of system latency. The current study has shown that in case of limitations of data update rate and system latency the use of a conformal sensor overlay showing a perspective presentation of the trajectory constraints is consistently superior to the flight director command display. The superiority becomes more pronounced with an increase in data latency and a decrease in update rate. The fact that the perspective pathway overlay as used in this study can be implemented on any graphics system that is capable of rendering a set of 2-D vectors makes it a viable candidate for upgrades to current systems.

Tadema, Jochum; Theunissen, Erik; Koeners, Joris

2007-04-01

241

The interfacial microstructure of weld overlay of corrosion resistant alloys  

SciTech Connect

For reasons of economy, hydrogenation pressure vessels of heavy wall sections are fabricated by cladding with one or more layers of austenitic stainless steel on the inside of the vessel wall. Submerged Arc Welding with strip-electrode technology is used in this process because of its ability to combine excellent deposit properties and controllable penetration with high deposition rates. However, hydrogen-related disbonding of the clad-overlay is a problem remaining in the use of the composite pressure vessels in petrochemical industries. One of the major factors contributing to the disbonding is the microstructure developed during solidification of the weld metal. It is unclear what kind of microstructure is most susceptible to disbonding and how the microstructure develops. Marshall and Lazor et al. believed that martensitic structures were the culprit for the initiation of disbonding. Ohnishi et al. concluded from their investigation that a layer of martensite adjacent to the fusion line would reduce the disbonding. Recently, Godden et al. found that a so-called Type 2 grain boundary was the most susceptible structure to the disbonding, but the mechanism is not clear. This study investigated the microstructures along the interface between overlays and base steel and established the mechanism of the formation of crack-susceptible microstructures.

Wu, Yunjian; Patchett, B.M.; Bicknell, C. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

1994-05-01

242

Modeling Patterning of Heteroepitaxial Overlayers from Nano to Micron Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin heteroepitaxial overlayers have been proposed as templates to generate stable, self-organized nanostructures at large length scales, with a variety of important technological applications. However, modeling strain-driven self-organization is a formidable challenge due to a large span of length and time scales involved. In this talk, I will present a method for predicting the patterning of ultrathin films on micron length scales with atomic resolution [K.R. Elder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 226102 (2012)]. It is based on the Phase-Field Crystal model, which allows one to reach diffusive time scales for relaxation of the system. We make quantitative predictions for the type of superstructures (stripes, honeycomb, triangular) and length scales of pattern formation of both compressively strained and tensile overlayers on metal-metal systems, including Cu on Ru(0001), Cu on Pd(111), and Ag on Cu(111). Our findings are in excellent agreement with previous experiments and call for future experimental investigations of such systems.

Ala-Nissila, Tapio

2013-03-01

243

Coded multiple chirp spread spectrum system and overlay service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An asynchronous spread-spectrum system called coded multiple chirp is proposed, and the possible spread-spectrum overlay over an analog FM-TV signal is investigated by computer simulation. Multiple single-sloped up and down chirps are encoded by a pseudonoise code and decoded by dechirpers (pulse-compression filters) followed by a digital code correlator. The performance of the proposed system, expressed in terms of in probability of bit error and code miss probability, is similar to that of FSK (frequency shift keying) using codewords if sufficient compression gain is used. When chirp is used to overlay an FM-TV channel, two chirp signals with data rate up to 25 kb/s could be overlaid in a 36-MHz satellite transponder without significant mutual interference. Performance estimates for a VSAT (very small aperture terminal) earth station operating at C-band show that a 2.4-m antenna and 300-mW transmitter could send a 2.4-kb/s signal to a large central earth station over an occupied channel.

Kim, Junghwan; Pratt, Timothy; Ha, Tri T.

244

Coded multiple chirp spread spectrum system and overlay service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An asynchronous spread-spectrum system called coded multiple chirp is proposed, and the possible spread-spectrum overlay over an analog FM-TV signal is investigated by computer simulation. Multiple single-sloped up and down chirps are encoded by a pseudonoise code and decoded by dechirpers (pulse-compression filters) followed by a digital code correlator. The performance of the proposed system, expressed in terms of in probability of bit error and code miss probability, is similar to that of FSK (frequency shift keying) using codewords if sufficient compression gain is used. When chirp is used to overlay an FM-TV channel, two chirp signals with data rate up to 25 kb/s could be overlaid in a 36-MHz satellite transponder without significant mutual interference. Performance estimates for a VSAT (very small aperture terminal) earth station operating at C-band show that a 2.4-m antenna and 300-mW transmitter could send a 2.4-kb/s signal to a large central earth station over an occupied channel.

Kim, Junghwan; Pratt, Timothy; Ha, Tri T.

1988-01-01

245

All-optical virtual private network in passive optical networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent progress on all-optical virtual- private-network (VPN) schemes in passive optical networks (PONs). PON is a promising candidate in future access areas to provide broadband services with low cost. With all-optical virtual private network (VPN) function, PON can support effi- cient internetworking among end users with dedicated optical channels, thus enabling guaranteed bandwidth and enhanced security at the

Y. Su; Y. Tian; E. Wong; N. Nadarajah; C. C. K. Chan

2008-01-01

246

Policies and Privatization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School boards considering contracting with a for-profit company should study the policy pitfalls that privatization might bring in the areas of personnel, finance, technology, program evaluation, negotiated contract waivers, program expansion, and student achievement. (MLF)

Furtwengler, Carol B.

1998-01-01

247

WEB SECURITY Browser Security  

E-print Network

WEB SECURITY 1 Browser Security: Lessons from Google Chrome Google Chrome developers focused can attack users through their Web browsers. Browsers face the challenge of keeping their users safe while providing a rich platform for Web applications. Browsers are an appealing target for attackers

Tomkins, Andrew

248

Metrology tool fleet management: applying FMP tool matching and monitoring concepts to an overlay fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay tool matching and accuracy issues are quickly reaching a comparable complexity to that of critical dimensional metrology. While both issues warrant serious investigation, this paper deals with the matching issues associated with overlay tools. Overlay tools need to run and measure as if they are a single tool - they need to act as one. In this paper a matching methodology is used to assess a set of overlay tools in a multiple of overlay applications. The methodology proposed in a prior2 SPIE paper is applied here to a fleet of two generations of overlay tools to detect measurement problems not seen with convention Statistical Process Control techniques. Four studies were used to examine the benefits of this matching methodology for this fleet of overlay tools. The first study was a matching assessment study. The second study was a hardware comparison between generations of tools. The third study was a measurement strategy comparison. The final study was a long term matching exercise where one example of a traditional long term monitoring strategy was compared to a new long term monitoring strategy. It is shown that this new tool matching method can be effectively applied to overlay metrology.

Morningstar, Jennifer; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Banke, Bill

2006-03-01

249

Towards a Common API for Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an ongoing effort to define com- mon APIs for structured peer-to-peer overlays and the key abstractions that can be built on them. In doing so, we hope to facilitate independent innovation in overlay pro- tocols, services, and applications, to allow direct experi- mental comparisons, and to encourage application devel- opment by third parties. We provide

Frank Dabek; Ben Y. Zhao; Peter Druschel; John Kubiatowicz; Ion Stoica

2003-01-01

250

OMAN -A Management Architecture for P2P Service Overlay Networks  

E-print Network

OMAN - A Management Architecture for P2P Service Overlay Networks Adriano Fiorese1,2 , Paulo Sim Overlay Net- works (SON). The architecture, named OMAN, takes into account the formation of the P2P SON as pointing the overall potential of the OMAN archi- tecture. Keywords:Services Management, P2P, Service

Boyer, Edmond

251

Sepidar: Incentivized Market-Based P2P Live-Streaming on the Gradient Overlay Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live streaming of video content using overlay networks has gained widespread adoption on the Internet. This paper presents Sepidar, a distributed market-based model, that builds and maintains overlay network trees, which are approximately minimal height, for delivering live media as a number of sub streams. A streaming tree is constructed for each sub stream such that nodes that contribute higher

Amir H. Payberah; Fatemeh Rahimian; Seif Haridi; Jim Dowling

2010-01-01

252

Viral concentration determination through plaque assays: using traditional and novel overlay systems.  

PubMed

Plaque assays remain one of the most accurate methods for the direct quantification of infectious virons and antiviral substances through the counting of discrete plaques (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production. Typically solid or semisolid overlay substrates, such as agarose or carboxymethyl cellulose, have been used to restrict viral spread, preventing indiscriminate infection through the liquid growth medium. Immobilized overlays restrict cellular infection to the immediately surrounding monolayer, allowing the formation of discrete countable foci and subsequent plaque formation. To overcome the difficulties inherent in using traditional overlays, a novel liquid overlay utilizing microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium has been increasingly used as a replacement in the standard plaque assay. Liquid overlay plaque assays can be readily performed in either standard 6 or 12 well plate formats as per traditional techniques and require no special equipment. Due to its liquid state and subsequent ease of application and removal, microculture plate formats may alternatively be utilized as a rapid, accurate and high throughput alternative to larger scale viral titrations. Use of a non heated viscous liquid polymer offers the opportunity to streamline work, conserves reagents, incubator space, and increases operational safety when used in traditional or high containment labs as no reagent heating or glassware are required. Liquid overlays may also prove more sensitive than traditional overlays for certain heat labile viruses. PMID:25407402

Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

2014-01-01

253

RESEARCH REPORT 987-9 ASPHALT OVERLAY DESIGN METHODS FOR RIGID  

E-print Network

RESEARCH REPORT 987-9 ASPHALT OVERLAY DESIGN METHODS FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS CONSIDERING RUTTING FOR TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BUREAU OF ENGINEERING RESEARCH THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN OCTOBER 1998 #12's Catalog No. 5. Report Date October 1998 4. Title and Subtitle ASPHALT OVERLAY DESIGN METHODS FOR RIGID

Texas at Austin, University of

254

CodedStream: Live Media Streaming with Overlay Coded Jiang Guo, Ying Zhu, Baochun Li  

E-print Network

CodedStream: Live Media Streaming with Overlay Coded Multicast Jiang Guo, Ying Zhu, Baochun Li in the overlay network remain unused. In this paper, we propose CodedStream, a high-bandwidth live media and network coding may indeed bring significant benefits with respect to improving the quality of live media

Li, Baochun

255

Improving the accuracy of overlay measurement through wafer sampling map rearrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, different sampling methods for alignment and overlay measurement were compared. Several types of wafer map, such as symmetry, asymmetry, and random were tested. In order to characterize the performance of each sampling plan, criteria including the alignment error, overlay measurement data and the final registration result after adjusting stepper parameters were examined. The compensation value for exposure

Chungwei Hsu; Ron Chu; Jen H. Chen

1999-01-01

256

Backup Path Allocation Based On A Correlated Link Failure Probability Model In Overlay Networks  

E-print Network

failure probability between the primary and the backup paths. To demonstrate the feasibility of ourBackup Path Allocation Based On A Correlated Link Failure Probability Model In Overlay Networks. As a result, although we may select a disjoint backup path at the overlay layer, one physical link failure may

California at Irvine, University of

257

AOS: an anonymous overlay system for mobile ad hoc networks Rui Zhang Yanchao Zhang Yuguang Fang  

E-print Network

AOS: an anonymous overlay system for mobile ad hoc networks Rui Zhang · Yanchao Zhang · Yuguang anonymous communications in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is an effective coun- termeasure against malicious traffic analysis. This paper presents AOS, an Anonymous Overlay System for MA- NETs, which

Latchman, Haniph A.

258

Wafer based aberration metrology for lithographic systems using overlay measurements on targets  

E-print Network

Wafer based aberration metrology for lithographic systems using overlay measurements on targets projection system from wafer metrology data. For this, new types of phase-shift gratings (PSG) are introduced metrology tool. In this way, the overlay error can be used as a measurand based on which the phase

259

Effect of heat treatment on the precipitation and pitting corrosion behavior of 347 SS weld overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and corrosion performance of 347 SS weld overlay has been investigated. The microstructure and phase change of the as-welded and post weld heat treated (PWHT) overlays were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was also used for intermetallic phase identification. The results showed

I-Hsuang Lo; Wen-Ta Tsai

2003-01-01

260

Questioning the Benefits That Coloured Overlays Can Have for Reading in Students with and without Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual stress (the experience of visual distortions and discomfort during prolonged reading) is frequently identified and alleviated with coloured overlays or lenses. Previous studies have associated visual stress with dyslexia and as a consequence, coloured overlays are widely distributed to children and adults with reading difficulty. However,…

Henderson, Lisa M.; Tsogka, Natassa; Snowling, Margaret J.

2013-01-01

261

Content-Based Peer-to-Peer Network Overlay for Full-Text Federated Search  

E-print Network

Content-Based Peer-to-Peer Network Overlay for Full-Text Federated Search Jie Lu Jamie Callan network overlay for full-text federated search over heterogeneous, open-domain contents. Local algorithms for providing federated search to large-scale networks of text digital libraries. Search in current P2P networks

Callan, Jamie

262

Exploiting skewness to build an optimal hedge fund with a currency overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents an investigation into the use of portfolio selection methods to construct a hedge fund with a currency overlay. The fund, which is based on number of international stock and bond market indices and is constructed from the perspective of a Sterling investor, allows the individual exposures in the currency overlay to be optimally determined. As well as

C. J. Adcock

2005-01-01

263

Debunking some myths about structured and unstructured overlays Miguel Castro Manuel Costa Antony Rowstron  

E-print Network

Debunking some myths about structured and unstructured overlays Miguel Castro Manuel Costa Antony study using sim- ulations driven by real-world traces that debunks these widespread myths. We describe to this debate by debunking some widespread myths. Unstructured overlays, for example Gnutella [1], or- ganize

Narasayya, Vivek

264

Integrated production overlay field-by-field control for leading edge technology nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As photolithography will continue with 193nm immersion multiple patterning technologies for the leading edge HVM process node, the production overlay requirement for critical layers in logic devices has almost reached the scanner hardware performance limit. To meet the extreme overlay requirements in HVM production environment, this study investigates a new integrated overlay control concept for leading edge technology nodes that combines the run-to-run (R2R) linear or high order control loop, the periodic field-by-field or correction per exposure (CPE) wafer process signature control loop, and the scanner baseline control loop into a single integrated overlay control path through the fab host APC system. The goal is to meet the fab requirements for overlay performance, lower the cost of ownership, and provide freedom of control methodology. In this paper, a detailed implementation of this concept will be discussed, along with some preliminary results.

Chung, Woong Jae; Tristan, John; Gutjahr, Karsten; Subramany, Lokesh; Li, Chen; Sun, Yulei; Yelverton, Mark; Kim, Young Ki; Kim, Jeong Soo; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Pierson, William; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Riggs, Brent; Jug, Sven; Robinson, John C.; Yap, Lipkong; Ramanathan, Vidya

2014-04-01

265

Innovative techniques for improving overlay accuracy by using DCM (device correlated metrology) targets as reference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay metrology performance as Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), design rule compatibility, device correlation and measurement accuracy are been challenged at 2x nm node and below. Process impact on overlay metrology becoming critical, and techniques to improve measurement accuracy becomes increasingly important. In this paper, we present an innovative methodology for improving overlay accuracy. A propriety quality metric, Qmerit, is used to identify overlay metrology measurement settings with least process impacts and reliable accuracies. Using the quality metric, an innovative calibration method, ASC (Archer Self Calibration) is then used to remove the inaccuracies. Accuracy validation can be achieved by correlation to reference overlay data from another independent metrology source such as CDSEM data collected on DCM (Device Correlated Metrology) hybrid target or electrical testing. Additionally, reference metrology can also be used to verify which measurement conditions are the most accurate. In this paper we bring an example of such use case.

Tzai, Wei-Jhe; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Chen, Howard; Chen, Charlie; Pai, Yuan Chi; Yu, Chun-Chi; Lin, Chia Ching; Itzkovich, Tal; Yap, Lipkong; Amit, Eran; Tien, David; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

2014-04-01

266

A comparison of the fracture properties of conventional and polymer-modified two-layer asphalt concrete overlay systems  

E-print Network

and different combinations of mixtures, 18 different overlay systems were tested for their fracture toughness. Each overlay was made up of two different layers with asphalt rich sand anti-fracture (SAF) mixture as the bottom layer. Fracture mechanics concepts...

Reddy, Praveena Gutha

2012-06-07

267

A network-assisted mobile VPN for securing users data in UMTS Christos Xenakis1  

E-print Network

-assisted mobile Virtual Private Network (mVPN) security scheme that provides secure remote access to corporate. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are used for authentication and authorization of users' accessA network-assisted mobile VPN for securing users data in UMTS Christos Xenakis1 , Christoforos

Stavrakakis, Ioannis

268

The structure of privatization plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years a vast transfer of state-owned assets to the private sector has taken place in many countries, irrespective of their level of development or the political affiliation of their government. Privatization is believed to improve economic incentives; attract managerial and technological resources from the private sector; broaden share ownership; and reduce public sector borrowing. In fact, privatization can

E. C. Perotti; S. E. Guney

1992-01-01

269

Social Costs of Mass Privatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to leading economic theorists, creating capitalism out of communism requires rapid privatization. In this article we empirically test the welfare implications of privatization policies in Post-Soviet countries by using cross-national panel mortality data as an indicator of social costs. We find that rapid privatization – whether measured by a novel measure of mass privatization program implementation or Enterprise Bank

David Stuckler; Lawrence P. King

2007-01-01

270

Colour Separation Overlay and its relation to digital video sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current techniques for color separation overlay (CSO) are briefly described. The influence of CSO techniques on the formulation of standards for digital video sampling parameters is discussed and experiments are described which investigated the effects on CSO pictures of filtering and sampling the foreground picture signals. The conclusions are that a chrominance (UV) bandwidth of at least 3 MHz, (implying a sampling frequency of at least 6 MHz) is needed for satisfactory CSO whereas luminance (Y) sampling frequency need not be constrained by CSO considerations. Hence a YUV sampling frequency standard of 13.5, 6.75, 6.75 MHz appears to be commensurate with good-quality CSO. This investigation into digital video sampling parameters formed part of the evidence on which the 13.5:6.75:6.75 system was chosen for digital video sampling.

Oliphant, A.

1982-06-01

271

Complete Imageless solution for overlay front-end manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imageless option of KLA-Tencor RDM system (Recipe Data Management) is a new method of recipe creation, using only the mask design to define alignment target and measurement parameters. This technique is potentially the easiest tool to improve recipe management of a large amount of products in logic fab. Overlay recipes are created without wafer, by using a synthetic image (copy of gds mask file) for alignment pattern and target design like shape (frame in frame) and size for the measurement. A complete gauge study on critical CMOS 90nm Gate level has been conducted to evaluate reliability and robustness of the imageless recipe. We show that Imageless limits drastically the number of templates used for recipe creation, and improves or maintains measurement capability compare to manual recipe creation (operator dependant). Imageless appears to be a suitable solution for high volume manufacturing, as shown by the results obtained on production lots.

Herisson, David; LeCacheux, Virginie; Touchet, Mathieu; Vachellerie, Vincent; Lecarpentier, Laurent; Felten, Franck; Polli, Marco

2005-09-01

272

Implementing IPv6 as a Peer-to-Peer Overlay Network Lidong Zhou Robbert van Renesse Michael Marsh  

E-print Network

Implementing IPv6 as a Peer-to-Peer Overlay Network Lidong Zhou Robbert van Renesse Michael Marsh,rvr,mmarsh}@cs.cornell.edu Abstract This paper proposes to implement an IPv6 routing in- frastructure as a self-organizing overlay network on top of the current IPv4 infrastructure. The overlay network builds upon a distributed IPv6 edge

Birman, Kenneth P.

273

A Symmetric Replication Scheme for Increased Security and Performance in Structured Overlay Networks ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical Report T2004:11 ISSN 1100-3154 ISRN: SICS-T{2004\\/11-SE Abstract. Existing structured peer-to-peer systems heavily rely on replication as a means to provide fault-tolerance. Many systems use the so-called successor- list scheme for replication. We argue that this scheme has grave limitations. First, these systems are vulnerable to, what we call, Mendacity attacks, where a malicious peer can lie about other peers

Ali Ghodsi; Luc Onana Alima; Seif Haridi

274

The benefits of privatization.  

PubMed

The promise of a universal, comprehensive, publicly funded system of medical care that was the foundation of the Medical Care Act passed in 1966 is no longer possible. Massive government debt, increasing health care costs, a growing and aging population and advances in technology have challenged the system, which can no longer meet the expectations of the public or of the health care professions. A parallel, private system, funded by a not-for-profit, regulated system of insurance coverage affordable for all wage-earners, would relieve the overstressed public system without decreasing the quality of care in that system. Critics of a parallel, private system, who base their arguments on the politics of fear and envy, charge that such a private system would "Americanize" Canadian health care and that the wealthy would be able to buy better, faster care than the rest of the population. But this has not happened in the parallel public and private health care systems in other Western countries or in the public and private education system in Canada. Wealthy Canadians can already buy medical care in the United States, where they spend $1 billion each year, an amount that represents a loss to Canada of 10,000 health care jobs. Parallel-system schemes in other countries have proven that people are driven to a private system by dissatisfaction with the quality of service, which is already suffering in Canada. Denial of choice is unacceptable to many people, particularly since the terms and conditions under which Canadians originally decided to forgo choice in medical care no longer apply. PMID:8752066

Dirnfeld, V

1996-08-15

275

Salazar on private power  

SciTech Connect

The Philipines power market, considered one of the more mature markets in Asia, continues to expand with economic growth. Independent power producers will find opportunities in the next few years as new additions are required. Currently, the government is encouraging private investment and is awaiting feedback from financiers as it considers eliminating its government guarantee. In a recent interview, the Honorable Mariano S. Salazar, secretary of energy, with the Philippines` Department of Energy, discussed the regulatory structure, encouragement of private power and his country`s capital needs.

Anderson, J.

1995-02-01

276

Lemnos Interoperable Security Program  

SciTech Connect

The manner in which the control systems are being designed and operated in the energy sector is undergoing some of the most significant changes in history due to the evolution of technology and the increasing number of interconnections to other system. With these changes however come two significant challenges that the energy sector must face; 1) Cyber security is more important than ever before, and 2) Cyber security is more complicated than ever before. A key requirement in helping utilities and vendors alike in meeting these challenges is interoperability. While interoperability has been present in much of the discussions relating to technology utilized within the energy sector and especially the Smart Grid, it has been absent in the context of cyber security. The Lemnos project addresses these challenges by focusing on the interoperability of devices utilized within utility control systems which support critical cyber security functions. In theory, interoperability is possible with many of the cyber security solutions available to utilities today. The reality is that the effort required to achieve cyber security interoperability is often a barrier for utilities. For example, consider IPSec, a widely-used Internet Protocol to define Virtual Private Networks, or â?? tunnelsâ?ť, to communicate securely through untrusted public and private networks. The IPSec protocol suite has a significant number of configuration options and encryption parameters to choose from, which must be agreed upon and adopted by both parties establishing the tunnel. The exercise in getting software or devices from different vendors to interoperate is labor intensive and requires a significant amount of security expertise by the end user. Scale this effort to a significant number of devices operating over a large geographical area and the challenge becomes so overwhelming that it often leads utilities to pursue solutions from a single vendor. These single vendor solutions may inadvertently lock utilities into proprietary and closed systems Lemnos is built on the successes of Open PCS Security Architecture for Interoperable Design (OPSAID), a previous DOE National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) project. It enhances security interoperability by identifying basic cyber security functions based on utility requirements and then selecting open source solutions, namely Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) RFCs, to support these functions. Once identified, specific configuration parameters for each RFC suitable for the electric utility control system environment are identified and documented. These configuration parameters are referred to as Interoperable Configuration Profiles (ICP) and their effectiveness within the utility control systems environment is verified with comprehensive testing as the final step in the process. The project focused on development of ICPs for four security protocols (IPsec, SSH, LDAP, and Syslog) which represent fundamental building blocks which can be utilized for securing utility control systems. These ICPs are product agnostic and can be applied modularly to any device (router, substation gateway, intelligent electronic device, etc.) within the utility control system as the end user deems necessary for their unique system architecture. The Lemnos Interoperable Security Program is a public-private partnership under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability's Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program and supports The Roadmap to Secure Energy Delivery Systems. In addition to EnerNex, the core team supporting the effort includes Tennessee Valley Authority, Sandia National Laboratories, and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories. Adding to the core team effort is collaboration from additional industry participants in the project including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Alien Vault, Cisco, Encore Networks, GarrettCom, Industrial Defender, N-Dimension Solutions, Phoenix Contact, RuggedCom, and Siemens.

John Stewart; Ron Halbgewachs; Adrian Chavez; Rhett Smith; David Teumim

2012-01-31

277

A Concrete Security Treatment of Symmetric Encryption  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study notions and schemes for symmetric (ie. private key) encryption in a concrete security framework. We give four different notions of security against chosen plaintext attack and analyze the concrete complexity of reductions among them, providing both upper and lower bounds, and obtaining tight relations. In this way we classify notions (even though polynomially reducible to each other) as

Mihir Bellare; Anand Desai; E. Jokipii; Phillip Rogaway

1997-01-01

278

Reliable Process for Security Policy Deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We focus in this paper on the problem of configuring and managi ng network security devices, such as Fire- walls, Virtual Private Network (VPN) tunnels, and Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs). Our proposal is the following. First, we formally specify the security require ments of a given system by using an expressive access control model. As a result, we obtain an

Stere Preda; Nora Cuppens-Boulahia; Frederic Cuppens; Joaquín García-alfaro; Laurent Toutain

2009-01-01

279

Cloud Security by Max Garvey  

E-print Network

Cloud Security Survey by Max Garvey #12;Cloudy Cloud is Cloudy What is the cloud? On Demand Service Network access Resource pooling Elasticity of Resources Measured Service #12;Cloud Types/Variants Iaa Cloud Public Cloud Hybrid Cloud combination. Private cloud with overflow going to public cloud. #12

Tolmach, Andrew

280

A method for secure communications over a public fiber-optical network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a spread-spectrum based approach to secure communications over existing fiber-optical networks. Secure transmission for a dedicated user is achieved by overlaying a covert channel onto a host channel in the existing active fiber link. The covert channel is optically encoded and temporally spread, and has average power below the noise floor in the fiber, making it hidden for a direct detection thus allowing for cryptographic and steganographic security capabilities. The presence for the host channel in the network provides an ad hoc security expansion and increases the difficulty for an eavesdropper to intercept and decode the secure signal.

Wu, Bernard B.; Narimanov, Evgenii E.

2006-05-01

281

Student Experiential Opportunities in National Security Careers  

SciTech Connect

This report documents student experiential opportunities in national security careers as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of how experiential opportunities assist students in the selection of a career and a list of opportunities in the private sector and government. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. Workforce development activities will facilitate the hiring of students to work with professionals in both the private and public sectors, as well as assist in preparing a workforce for careers in national security. The goal of workforce development under the NSPP grant is to assess workforce needs in national security and implement strategies to develop the appropriate workforce.

None

2007-12-31

282

Public Roles, Private Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of a presidential spouse is very complex. Indeed, expectations vary among college governing boards and campus constituencies of what a presidential spouse's responsibilities should be. In this article, the author discusses the role of presidential spouses and how they balance their public roles with their private life.

Lum, Lydia

2008-01-01

283

A Private School Manifesto.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manifesto outlines the purposes, instructional program, facilities, allocation of resources, financing, and implementation of a private elementary and middle school that is based on the concepts of professional accountability and individualized learning. The school would be organized around learning families that cross grade and ability…

Christison, Milton

284

Private Information Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe schemes that enable a user to access repli- cated copies of a database ( ) and privately retrieve information stored in the database. This means that each individual database gets no information on the identity of the item retrieved by the user. For a single database, achieving this type of privacy requires com- municating the whole database, or

Benny Chorf; Oded Goldreichf; Eyal Kushilevitz; Madhu Sudan

1995-01-01

285

Differentially Private Online Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the problem of preserving privacy in the online learning setting. We study the problem in the online convex programming (OCP) framework---a popular online learning setting with several interesting theoretical and practical implications---while using differential privacy as the formal privacy measure. For this problem, we distill two critical attributes that a private OCP algorithm should have

Prateek Jain; Pravesh Kothari; Abhradeep Thakurta

2011-01-01

286

A Private Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fairfax County (Virginia) Public Schools sends up to 100 high-risk/expelled students yearly to two privately operated Richard Milburn campuses. The cost is $3,500 per student. Although these schools lack typical high-school amenities, kids appreciate getting more teacher attention. Houston has a similar, more costly last-resort program. (MLH)

Hardy, Lawrence

1999-01-01

287

Private School Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The No Child Left Behind Act has had a pervasive effect on American education in its drive to bring about improvement in student achievement through assessment and accountability. In its standards-based approach to reform, measurement by standardized tests is everything. In this article, the author discusses the issue of private school…

McTighe, Joe

2004-01-01

288

Privatization and Educational Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out…

Lieberman, Myron

289

private business Institution  

E-print Network

private business Name: Institution: Address: Country: e-mail: Please send me an invoice Please / Shestakov,I., IME-USP, Sao Paulo, Brazil / Zelmanov,E., UCSD, La Jolla, USA (Eds) 2009. 250 p. Hardcover EUR's Works on Alternative and Jordan Algebras.- A Word about the Teacher A.I. Shirshov Sao Paulo, Brazil / A

Bremner, Murray

290

Overlayers on silver nanotriangles: Field confinement and spectral position of localized surface plasmon resonances.  

PubMed

We studied the spectral evolution of plasmon modes associated with silver nanotriangles as a function of dielectric overlayer thickness in the range of 5-300 nm. A substantial red-shift of the resonance is observed that oscillates with increasing over-layer thickness. We explain this previously unreported oscillation through the cavity quantum electrodynamical effect of the array of triangles combined with the dielectric overlayer. The red-shift, though substantial, is less than expected. Comparison with numerical models indicates that this discrepancy is due to very tight field confinement around the tips of the triangles. PMID:16895372

Murray, W Andrew; Suckling, James R; Barnes, William L

2006-08-01

291

Prosthodontic management of worn dentition in pediatric patient with complete overlay dentures: a case report.  

PubMed

Overlay complete dentures are simple, reversible and economical treatment modality for patients with congenital or acquired disorders that severely affect the tooth development. It satisfies both the esthetic and functional demands where the extraction of teeth is not generally indicated. In pediatric patients, the overlay dentures establish a relatively stable occlusion that improves patient's tolerance to the future treatment procedures for worn dentition. This clinical report highlights the imperative need of appropriate treatment strategy and application of maxillary and mandibular overlay dentures in a pediatric patient who suffered from congenitally mutilated and worn dentition. PMID:23236577

Kumar, Prince; Rastogi, Jyoti; Jain, Chandni; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

2012-11-01

292

Continuous reporting benefits in the private debt capital market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study is an experiment, administered over the Internet, measuring the effect that continuous reporting has on a company's ability to secure private debt capital. Specifically, we test whether commercial loan officers would be more willing to increase the probablity of loan acceptance to a mid-sized company operating in a continuous reporting environment than they would a company that operates

DeWayne L. Searcy; Terry J. Ward; Jon B. Woodroof

2009-01-01

293

Structural Cloud Audits that Protect Private Information Hongda Xiao  

E-print Network

in a privacy-preserving manner. We present a privacy-preserving structural-reliability auditor (P-SRA), discuss computing, reliability, secure multi-party computation 1. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing and cloud storage nowStructural Cloud Audits that Protect Private Information Hongda Xiao Yale Univ., EE Dept. hongda

Feigenbaum, Joan

294

Virtual private networks: an overview with performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual private networks have gained immense popularity among commercial and defense organizations because of their capability to provide secure connectivity at lower costs. Several commercial and open source VPN products are now available that can be configured to provide VPN services with varying characteristics. This article studies some of the most popular open-source Linux-based VPN solutions (OSLVs) and compares them

S. Khanvilkar; A. Khokhar

2004-01-01

295

Algorithms for provisioning virtual private networks in the hose model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual Private Networks(VPNs) provide customers with predictable and secure network connections over a shared network. The recently proposed hose model for VPNs allows for greater flexibility since it permits traffic to and from a hose endpoint to be arbitrarily distributed to other endpoints. In this paper, we develop novel algorithms for provisioning VPNs in the hose model. We connect VPN

Amit Kumar; Rajeev Rastogi; Abraham Silberschatz; Bülent Yener

2001-01-01

296

A flexible model for resource management in virtual private networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As IP technologies providing both tremendous capacity and the ability to establish dynamic secure associations between endpoints emerge, Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are going through dramatic growth. The number of endpoints per VPN is growing and the communication pattern between endpoints is becoming increasingly hard to forecast. Consequently, users are demanding dependable, dynamic connectivity between endpoints, with the network expected

N. G. Duffield; Pawan Goyal; Albert Greenberg; Partho Mishra; K. K. Ramakrishnan; Jacobus E. van der Merive

1999-01-01

297

A Flexible Model for Resource Management in Virtual Private Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As IP technologies providing both tremendous capacity and the ability to establish dynamic secure associations between endpoints emerge, Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are going through dramatic growth. The number of endpoints per VPN is growing and the communication pattern between endpoints is becoming increasingly hard to forecast. Consequently, users are demanding dependable, dynamic connectivity between endpoints, with the network expected

Nick G. Duffield; Pawan Goyal; Albert G. Greenberg; Partho Pratim Mishra; K. K. Ramakrishnan; Jacobus E. Van Der Merive

1999-01-01

298

Faster Private Set Intersection based on OT Extension (Full Version)  

E-print Network

Faster Private Set Intersection based on OT Extension (Full Version) Benny Pinkas Bar intersection (PSI) allows two parties to com- pute the intersection of their sets without revealing any information about items that are not in the intersection. It is one of the best studied applications of secure

299

ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES  

E-print Network

ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES LEVAN ELBAKIDZE Assistant of Homeland Security National Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Disease Defense. The conclusions are those of the author and not necessarily the sponsor." #12;ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY

McCarl, Bruce A.

300

The privatization age? : which services are privatized and why  

E-print Network

This dissertation examines the determinants of the extent of privatization of service delivery. Despite the fact that right-wing governments extolling neo-liberal policies have placed privatization at the top of the policy ...

Zehavi, Amos J., 1968-

2005-01-01

301

A New Method for Generating an Invariant Iris Private Key Based on the Fuzzy Vault System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively

Youn Joo Lee; Kang Ryoung Park; Sung Joo Lee; Kwanghyuk Bae; Jaihie Kim

2008-01-01

302

Proceedings Second Annual Cyber Security and Information Infrastructure Research Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workshop theme is Cyber Security: Beyond the Maginot Line Recently the FBI reported that computer crime has skyrocketed costing over $67 billion in 2005 alone and affecting 2.8M+ businesses and organizations. Attack sophistication is unprecedented along with availability of open source concomitant tools. Private, academic, and public sectors invest significant resources in cyber security. Industry primarily performs cyber security

Frederick T Sheldon; Axel Krings; Seong-Moo Yoo; Ali Mili; Joseph P Trien

2006-01-01

303

Improved diffraction-based overlay metrology by use of two dimensional array target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results of theoretical modeling into a scatterometry-based method relevant to overlay measurement. A set of two array targets were designed with intentional offsets difference, d and d+20 nm, between the top and bottom grid arrays along the X and Y directions. The correlation of bi-azimuth measurements is the first critical issue been taken into account. The method linearizes the differential values of scatterometry signatures at the first diffraction order with respect to designed offsets, and hence permits determination of overlay using a classical linear method. By evaluating the process variations (eg. CD, roundness and thickness) on overlay measurement error, a set of two overlay target design were optimized to minimize the correlation of bi-azimuth measurements and maximize the measurement sensitivity.

Ku, Yi-Sha; Pang, Hsiu-Lan; Hsu, Weite; Shyu, Deh-Ming

2009-08-01

304

Patterning of Heteroepitaxial Overlayers from Nano to Micron Scales K. R. Elder,1,* G. Rossi,2  

E-print Network

Patterning of Heteroepitaxial Overlayers from Nano to Micron Scales K. R. Elder,1,* G. Rossi,2 P dimension- ality of the surface is the only driving force leading to surface reconstruction. More often

Elder, Ken

305

A program to design asphalt concrete overlays to mitigate reflection cracking  

E-print Network

"Reflection Crack". Reinforcing grids reduce the amount of water that enters the sublayers of a pavement by reinforcing the overlay. The appearance of a reflection crack is delayed, and reinforcing the pavement reduces the width of the crack that develops...

Satyanarayana Rao, Sindhu

2012-06-07

306

Radio-over-fiber distribution using an optical millimeter-wave\\/DWDM overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate an optical MM-wave\\/DWDM overlay using optical suppressed-carrier modulation to simultaneously upconvert multi-wavelength subcarriers to 35 GHz. Performance of the system is analyzed for radio-over-fiber distribution

R. A. Griffin; J. J. O'Reilly

1999-01-01

307

Informed Content Delivery Across Adaptive Overlay byers@cs.bu.edu  

E-print Network

Considine jconsidi@cs.bu.edu Michael Mitzenmacher michaelm@eecs.harvard.edu Stanislav Rost stanrost they complement existing overlay network architectures. #3; John Byers, Jeffrey Considine and Stanislav Rost were

Byers, John W.

308

Informed Content Delivery Across Adaptive Overlay byers@cs.bu.edu  

E-print Network

Considine jconsidi@cs.bu.edu Michael Mitzenmacher michaelm@eecs.harvard.edu Stanislav Rost stanrost they complement existing overlay network architectures. John Byers, Jeffrey Considine and Stanislav Rost were sup

Mitzenmacher, Michael

309

Computer Security and the Data Encryption Standard. Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Security and the Data Encryption Standard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 15 papers and summaries of presentations in this collection provide technical information and guidance offered by representatives from federal agencies and private industry. Topics discussed include physical security, risk assessment, software security, computer network security, and applications and implementation of the Data Encryption…

Branstad, Dennis K., Ed.

310

Ultrasonic Evaluation of Two Dissimilar Metal Weld Overlay Specimens  

SciTech Connect

Two dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe-to-nozzle specimens were implanted with thermal fatigue cracks in the 13% to 90% through-wall depth range. The specimens were ultrasonically evaluated with phased-array probes having center frequencies of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 megahertz (MHz). An Alloy 82/182 weld overlay (WOL) was applied and the specimens were ultrasonically re-evaluated for flaw detection and characterization. The Post-WOL flaw depths were approximately 10% to 56% through-wall. This study has shown the effectiveness of ultrasonic examinations of Alloy 82/182 overlaid DMW specimens. Phased-array probes with center frequency in the 0.8- to 1.0-MHz range provide a strong coherent signal but the greater ultrasonic wavelength and larger beam spot size prevent the reliable detection of small flaws. These small flaws had nominal through-wall depths of less than 15% and length in the 50-60 mm (2-2.4 in.) range. Flaws in the 19% and greater through-wall depth range were readily detected with all four probes. At the higher frequencies, the reflected signals are less coherent but still provide adequate signal for flaw detection and characterization. A single inspection at 2.0 MHz could provide adequate detection and sizing information but a supplemental inspection at 1.0 or 1.5 MHz is recommended.

Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

2012-06-30

311

Design of a synthetic vision overlay for UAV autoland monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), autonomous forms of autoland are being pursued that do not depend on special, deployability restraining, ground-based equipment for the generation of the reference path to the runway. Typically, these forms of autoland use runway location data from an onboard database to generate the reference path to the desired location. Synthetic Vision (SV) technology provides the opportunity to use conformally integrated guidance reference data to 'anchor' the goals of such an autoland system into the imagery of the nose-mounted camera. A potential use of this is to support the operator in determining whether the vehicle is flying towards the right location in the real world, e.g., the desired touchdown position on the runway. Standard conformally integrated symbology, representing e.g., the future pathway and runway boundaries, supports conformance monitoring and detection of latent positioning errors. Additional integration of landing performance criteria into the symbology supports assessment of the severity of these errors, further aiding the operator in the decision whether the automated landing should be allowed to continue or not. This paper presents the design and implementation of an SV overlay for UAV autoland procedures that is intended for conformance and integrity monitoring during final approach. It provides preview of mode changes and decision points and it supports the operator in assessing the integrity of the used guidance solution.

Tadema, Jochum; Theunissen, Eric

2008-04-01

312

Support surfaces: beds, mattresses, overlays-oh my!  

PubMed

The prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers are major concerns for health care providers across the care continuum. The selection of a support surface is an important component of a comprehensive pressure ulcer prevention program. The accepted standard in clinical practice for pre-venting pressure ulcers and other complications of immobility is to either turn patients manually at frequent intervals or to use a pressure-reducing device. The longer a patient is immobilized, the more profound will be the systemic complications. The costs associated with the complications of immobility are staggering in terms of human suffering, physiologic damage,and real dollars. A variety of specialty beds, mattresses, and overlays have been designed to address pressure, shear, friction, and moisture. Limited data exist regarding the efficacy of these products. Clinicians want to choose a support surface for their patients on the basis of product performance. With the push toward establishing standards for testing methods and reporting information, clinicians can look forward to making support surface decisions based on the evidence and outcome data resulting from controlled clinical studies and expert opinion and consensus. PMID:15924893

Mackey, Dianne

2005-06-01

313

On cooperative and efficient overlay network evolution based on a group selection pattern.  

PubMed

In overlay networks, the interplay between network structure and dynamics remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we study dynamic coevolution between individual rational strategies (cooperative or defect) and the overlay network structure, that is, the interaction between peer's local rational behaviors and the emergence of the whole network structure. We propose an evolutionary game theory (EGT)-based overlay topology evolution scheme to drive a given overlay into the small-world structure (high global network efficiency and average clustering coefficient). Our contributions are the following threefold: From the viewpoint of peers' local interactions, we explicitly consider the peer's rational behavior and introduce a link-formation game to characterize the social dilemma of forming links in an overlay network. Furthermore, in the evolutionary link-formation phase, we adopt a simple economic process: Each peer keeps one link to a cooperative neighbor in its neighborhood, which can slightly speed up the convergence of cooperation and increase network efficiency; from the viewpoint of the whole network structure, our simulation results show that the EGT-based scheme can drive an arbitrary overlay network into a fully cooperative and efficient small-world structure. Moreover, we compare our scheme with a search-based economic model of network formation and illustrate that our scheme can achieve the experimental and analytical results in the latter model. In addition, we also graphically illustrate the final overlay network structure; finally, based on the group selection model and evolutionary set theory, we theoretically obtain the approximate threshold of cost and draw the conclusion that the small value of the average degree and the large number of the total peers in an overlay network facilitate the evolution of cooperation. PMID:19726264

Nakao, Akihiro; Wang, Yufeng

2010-04-01

314

On cooperative and efficient overlay network evolution based on a group selection pattern.  

PubMed

In overlay networks, the interplay between network structure and dynamics remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we study dynamic coevolution between individual rational strategies (cooperative or defect) and the overlay network structure, that is, the interaction between peer's local rational behaviors and the emergence of the whole network structure. We propose an evolutionary game theory (EGT)-based overlay topology evolution scheme to drive a given overlay into the small-world structure (high global network efficiency and average clustering coefficient). Our contributions are the following threefold: From the viewpoint of peers' local interactions, we explicitly consider the peer's rational behavior and introduce a link-formation game to characterize the social dilemma of forming links in an overlay network. Furthermore, in the evolutionary link-formation phase, we adopt a simple economic process: Each peer keeps one link to a cooperative neighbor in its neighborhood, which can slightly speed up the convergence of cooperation and increase network efficiency; from the viewpoint of the whole network structure, our simulation results show that the EGT-based scheme can drive an arbitrary overlay network into a fully cooperative and efficient small-world structure. Moreover, we compare our scheme with a search-based economic model of network formation and illustrate that our scheme can achieve the experimental and analytical results in the latter model. In addition, we also graphically illustrate the final overlay network structure; finally, based on the group selection model and evolutionary set theory, we theoretically obtain the approximate threshold of cost and draw the conclusion that the small value of the average degree and the large number of the total peers in an overlay network facilitate the evolution of cooperation. PMID:20199937

Wang, Yufeng; Nakao, Akihiro

2010-06-01

315

Prediction of loss characteristics in built-up areas with various buildings' overlay profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We continue the analysis of a probabilistic approach and the corresponding stochastic multi-parametric model of wave propagation in built-up areas with randomly distributed buildings. We concentrate on the influence of buildings' overlay profiles on signal spatial decay, and on path-loss dependence in the frequency domain within UHF\\/X-band urban propagation channels. Using different buildings' overlay profiles, the field-intensity attenuation along radio

N. Blaunstein; D. Katz; D. Censor; A. Freedman; I. Matityahu; I. Gur-Arie

2001-01-01

316

Interactive Guidance by Image Overlay in Robot Assisted Coronary Artery Bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present an original visual guidance system in the especially difficult context of robot assisted coronary artery bypass\\u000a graft. The overlay of a preoperative coronary tree model on the endoscopic images is initialized to help the surgeon to locate\\u000a himself. Then the surgeon points some landmarks observed in the operating field during the motion of the endoscope. The overlay\\u000a is

Fabien Mourgues; Thierry Viéville; Volkmar Falk; Čve Coste-maničre

2003-01-01

317

Design and fabrication of low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon overlay DBR for glass waveguide devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a methodology for the design of low-loss, high-reflectivity, amorphous silicon, overlay DBRs for glass waveguide devices. In order to improve the DBR reflectivity while minimizing the DBR-induced loss, we theoretically determine the optimum overlay thickness and establish an iterative deposition procedure to achieve this value. Details of the design criteria, measurement of the design parameters, and a numerical

Jaeyoun Kim; Kim A. Winick; Catalin Florea; Michael McCoy

2002-01-01

318

33 CFR 125.17 - Persons eligible for Coast Guard Port Security Cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Persons eligible for Coast Guard Port Security Cards...and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...FOR PERSONS REQUIRING ACCESS TO WATERFRONT FACILITIES... Persons eligible for Coast Guard Port Security Cards...Persons having regular public or private...

2011-07-01

319

33 CFR 125.17 - Persons eligible for Coast Guard Port Security Cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Persons eligible for Coast Guard Port Security Cards...and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...FOR PERSONS REQUIRING ACCESS TO WATERFRONT FACILITIES... Persons eligible for Coast Guard Port Security Cards...Persons having regular public or private...

2010-07-01

320

Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., (UL) have jointly established the Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP). The goal of this program is to enhance industrial and national security by providing a nationally recognized method for making informed selection and use decisions when buying security equipment and systems. The SESCP will provide a coordinated structure for private and governmental security standardization review. Members will participate in meetings to identify security problems, develop ad-hoc subcommittees (as needed) to address these identified problems, and to maintain a communications network that encourages a meaningful exchange of ideas. This program will enhance national security by providing improved security equipment and security systems based on consistent, reliable standards and certification programs.

Steele, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Papier, I.I. [Underwriters Labs., Inc., Northbrook, IL (United States)

1996-06-20

321

Assessment and prediction of drying shrinkage cracking in bonded mortar overlays  

SciTech Connect

Restrained drying shrinkage cracking was investigated on composite beams consisting of substrate concrete and bonded mortar overlays, and compared to the performance of the same mortars when subjected to the ring test. Stress development and cracking in the composite specimens were analytically modeled and predicted based on the measurement of relevant time-dependent material properties such as drying shrinkage, elastic modulus, tensile relaxation and tensile strength. Overlay cracking in the composite beams could be very well predicted with the analytical model. The ring test provided a useful qualitative comparison of the cracking performance of the mortars. The duration of curing was found to only have a minor influence on crack development. This was ascribed to the fact that prolonged curing has a beneficial effect on tensile strength at the onset of stress development, but is in the same time not beneficial to the values of tensile relaxation and elastic modulus. -- Highlights: •Parameter study on material characteristics influencing overlay cracking. •Analytical model gives good quantitative indication of overlay cracking. •Ring test presents good qualitative indication of overlay cracking. •Curing duration has little effect on overlay cracking.

Beushausen, Hans, E-mail: hans.beushausen@uct.ac.za; Chilwesa, Masuzyo

2013-11-15

322

Implementation of Overlay Function Based on Fuzzy Logic in Spatial Decision Support System  

E-print Network

Abstract: The overlay functions in GIS are well known and often needed tools for integrating different factors and generating useful information for decision makers. Both the integration model and the generated information usually rely on crisp set theory. In many cases, either the boundaries of classes are not clearly defined, or the classification of a feature into a class is not obvious. In such cases, overlay based on fuzzy set and fuzzy logic is unavoidable. The aim of this study is to develop overlay functions on the basis of fuzzy logic and to examine the usability of such functions in integrating data related to indeterminate aspects of a phenomenon. To implement and examine the idea, an application program is developed using VBA programming language and the available Arc Object library. Using this application, a user can generate fuzzy data and use different fuzzy overlay functions to integrate those data. To test the applicability of the model and application, the suitable locations for building commercial sites of oil products are determined using this application. In summery, data integration using fuzzy overlay functions can improve the reliability of decisions, when dealing with indeterminate phenomena. Key words: GIS Fuzzy overlay Fuzzy operators Fuzzy membership function

M. S. Mesgari; A. Pirmoradi; G. R. Fallahi

323

Improved CD and overlay metrology using an optical Fourier transform instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an innovating method to measure the overlay by scatterometry using an optical Fourier transform (OFT) based system. In order to measure the overlay of patterned layers ? and ?, one line grating is placed in layer ? and another in layer ?. The two gratings have the same pitch and their lines are parallel. The whole scattering pattern of the double grating structure is then measured at fixed wavelength in a large range of incidence (0 to 80°) and for all the azimuth angles. This measurement is very rapid thanks to the OFT and not sensitive to vibration. The main advantage of OFT compared to standard OCD techniques like normal incidence reflectometry or spectroscopic ellipsometry is that the scattering pattern is more sensitive to overlay at an azimuth depending on the pitch value which is never parallel or perpendicular to the grooves of the gratings. In addition, the optical response is also sensitive to the sign of the overlay in addition to its amplitude. In a second method, we propose to measure the overlay simultaneously along the two directions of the plane using two bi-periodic structures patterned in layer ? and ?. By using OFT it is possible to deduce directly from the whole diffracted pattern, the overlay signs and amplitudes along both directions of the plane. The paper presents some simulations and some experimental results to illustrate this new method.

Petit, J.; Boher, P.; Leroux, T.; Barritault, P.; Hazart, J.; Chaton, P.

2005-05-01

324

Analysis of overlay errors induced by exposure energy in negative tone development process for photolithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Negative tone development (NTD) process with positive resist and organic solvent-based developer enhances image contrast and uses a light-field mask to make same feature in opposition to positive tone development (PTD). Due to extremely high transmission rate of a light-field mask, absorption of exposure energy on a mask becomes imperceptible. However, the exposure energy transmitted through the mask influences not only lens heating but also wafer heating. Overlay budget by wafer heating becomes a considerable amount in NTD process. In this paper, to clarify overlay change induced by wafer heating in NTD process, four different levels of exposure energy are applied and the overlay errors are deteriorated by increasing energy. Due to wafer heating, the remarkable correlation between Y-overlay errors and scanning direction are observed. Especially, Ty, RK8, and RK12 have mostly considerable correlation with scanning direction. In NTD process, to avoid this phenomenon, exposure energy has to be minimized. In case scanning direction dependency in overlay is not prevented by minimization of exposure energy, fingerprint correction in wafer field is able to reduce this overlay error.

Kim, Young Ha; Kim, Jang-Sun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Cho, Byeong-Ok; Choi, Jinphil; Kang, Young Seog; Ha, Hunhwan

2014-03-01

325

Privatization Or Marketization: Educational Development in Post-Mao China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the post-Mao era, the reformers have taken significant steps to privatize social policy and social welfare. Revamping the social security system and commodifying social services have become more prominent since the mid-eighties. Despite the post-Mao leaders' discomfort about the term "privatization", signs of state withdrawal from the provision of social policy and welfare are clear. The author argues that the emergence of private educational institutions indicates that China's educational development has gone through a similar process of privatization or quasi-marketization though the Chinese experience is different from that of Western counterparts. Specifically, this paper tries to examine how the flourishing market economy and the policy of decentralization have affected the development of China's higher education. No longer solely relying on public schools, private and minban (people run) educational institutions are becoming more popular in the new socialist market system. This paper attempts to examine how privatization and quasi- marketization have affected educational development in mainland China. The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the privatization of education in China.

Mok, Ka Ho

1997-09-01

326

The Y-12 National Security Complex 4-1 4. The Y-12 National Security Complex  

E-print Network

The Y-12 National Security Complex 4-1 4. The Y-12 National Security Complex The Y-12 Complex, fuels the nation's naval reactors, and performs complementary work for other government and private. So while continuing its key role, the Y-12 Complex has evolved to become the resource the nation

Pennycook, Steve

327

Will Outsourcing IT Security Lead to a Higher Social Level of Security?  

Microsoft Academic Search

More firms outsource information technology (IT) security activities each year, as they determine that they can achieve cost savings or a higher level of security at the same cost. However, despite the estimated benefits, many firms still fail to see a clear positive net benefit from their (private) perspective, given the risks and costs involved. This paper investigates the positive

Brent R. Rowe

328

Cryptographic Securities Exchanges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While transparency in financial markets should enhance liquidity, its exploitation by unethical and parasitic traders discourages others from fully embracing disclosure of their own information. Traders exploit both the private information in upstairs markets used to trade large orders outside traditional exchanges and the public information present in exchanges' quoted limit order books. Using homomorphic cryptographic protocols, market designers can create "partially transparent" markets in which every matched trade is provably correct and only beneficial information is revealed. In a cryptographic securities exchange, market operators can hide information to prevent its exploitation, and still prove facts about the hidden information such as bid/ask spread or market depth.

Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

329

Using the overlay assay to qualitatively measure bacterial production of and sensitivity to pneumococcal bacteriocins.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the highly diverse polymicrobial community of the nasopharynx where it must compete with resident organisms. We have shown that bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) dictate the outcome of these competitive interactions. All fully-sequenced pneumococcal strains harbor a bacteriocin-like peptide (blp) locus. The blp locus encodes for a range of diverse bacteriocins and all of the highly conserved components needed for their regulation, processing, and secretion. The diversity of the bacteriocins found in the bacteriocin immunity region (BIR) of the locus is a major contributor of pneumococcal competition. Along with the bacteriocins, immunity genes are found in the BIR and are needed to protect the producer cell from the effects of its own bacteriocin. The overlay assay is a quick method for examining a large number of strains for competitive interactions mediated by bacteriocins. The overlay assay also allows for the characterization of bacteriocin-specific immunity, and detection of secreted quorum sensing peptides. The assay is performed by pre-inoculating an agar plate with a strain to be tested for bacteriocin production followed by application of a soft agar overlay containing a strain to be tested for bacteriocin sensitivity. A zone of clearance surrounding the stab indicates that the overlay strain is sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by the pre-inoculated strain. If no zone of clearance is observed, either the overlay strain is immune to the bacteriocins being produced or the pre-inoculated strain does not produce bacteriocins. To determine if the blp locus is functional in a given strain, the overlay assay can be adapted to evaluate for peptide pheromone secretion by the pre-inoculated strain. In this case, a series of four lacZ-reporter strains with different pheromone specificity are used in the overlay. PMID:25350516

Maricic, Natalie; Dawid, Suzanne

2014-01-01

330

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Research is presently being conducted to develop a criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in Circulated Fluidized Beds. Initially, eleven weld overlay alloys were selected for erosion testing based upon a literature review. All eleven coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400 C and their erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. In addition, the microstructure of each coating was characterized before and after the erosion tests. No correlations were found between room temperature hardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature. It was suggested that weld overlays mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates may contributed to their erosion resistance. During the previous two quarters the microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples in order to determine the size of the work hardened zone and the change in the coatings hardness due to erosion. As a result of these measurements it was established that one group of coatings deformed plastically, while another did not. In addition, the measurements of the weld overlays microhardness at 400 C were made. The coatings microhardness at 400 C was plotted versus their volume erosion rates. During the last quarter, erosion tests were performed for Inconel-625, 316L SS, and Iron-Aluminide wrought alloys in order to compare their erosion behavior with similar weld overlays. The results of microhardness profile measurements for all weld overlay coatings were analyzed. The factors that contribute to the erosion resistance of the coatings that deformed plastically are discussed in this progress report.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1994-10-26

331

THE ADVANCED COURSE IN ENGINEERING ON CYBER A Learning Community for Developing Cyber-Security Leaders  

E-print Network

THE ADVANCED COURSE IN ENGINEERING ON CYBER SECURITY A Learning Community for Developing Cyber-Security in Engineering on Cyber Security (ACE-CS) is a public- private partnership to develop top ROTC cadets into the next generation of cyber security leaders. Modeled after the General Electric Advanced Course

Older, Susan

332

THE ADVANCED COURSE IN ENGINEERING ON CYBER A Learning Community for Developing Cyber-Security Leaders  

E-print Network

THE ADVANCED COURSE IN ENGINEERING ON CYBER SECURITY A Learning Community for Developing Cyber-Security: The Advanced Course in Engineering on Cyber Security (ACE-CS) is a public-private partnership to develop top ROTC cadets into the next generation of cyber security leaders. Modeled after the General Electric

333

Exploring Software Partitions for Fast Security Processing on a Multiprocessor Mobile SoC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functionality of mobile devices, such as cell phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs), has evolved to include various applications where security is a critical concern (secure web transactions, mobile commerce, download and playback of protected audio\\/video content, connection to corporate private networks, etc.). Security mechanisms (e.g., secure communication protocols) involve cryptographic algorithms, and are often quite computationally intensive, challenging

Divya Arora; Anand Raghunathan; Srivaths Ravi; Murugan Sankaradass; Niraj K. Jha; Srimat T. Chakradhar

2007-01-01

334

Creating a Positive Workplace Experience: The Issue of Support from Supervisors and Management in Shaping the Job Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment of Private Correctional Staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of private correctional facilities operated by corporate security businesses has increased rapidly over the past 30 years. There has been a parallel increase in literature, both pro and con, comparing the efficiency and effectiveness of private and public prisons; however, employees of private correctional facilities have been largely ignored. This is a serious oversight in light of the

Eric Lambert; Nancy Hogan

2009-01-01

335

Quantum Oblivious Transfer Based on a Quantum Symmetrically Private Information Retrieval Protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Private information retrieval implies oblivious transfer in classical cryptography. Following this clue, we present a novel quantum one-out-of-two OT protocol based on a practical quantum symmetrically private information retrieval protocol Jakobi et al. (Phys. Rev. A 83, 022301 2011), with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. While unconditionally secure oblivious transfer is known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by means of quantum physical principles instead of unproven security assumptions in order to protect both the sender and the receiver. The proposed OT protocol is loss tolerant, practical and robust against quantum memory attack.

Yang, Yu-Guang; Sun, Si-Jia; Wang, Yan

2014-08-01

336

CliqueStream: An Efficient and Fault-Resilient Live Streaming Network on a Clustered Peer-to-Peer Overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several overlay-based live multimedia streaming plat- forms have been proposed in the recent peer-to-peer stream- ing literature. In most of the cases, the overlay neighbors are chosen randomly for robustness of the overlay. How- ever, this causes nodes that are distant in terms of proximity in the underlying physical network to become neighbors, and thus data travels unnecessary distances before

Shah Asaduzzaman; Ying Qiao; Gregor v. Bochmann

2008-01-01

337

Microstructures and abrasive wear performance of PTAW deposited Ni–WC overlays using different Ni-alloy chemistries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructures and performance of Ni–WC (nickel–tungsten carbide) composite overlays deposited by plasma transferred arc welding are studied using a combination of microscopy, hardness, and wear testing. The Ni–WC overlays had microstructures consisting of ?-Ni dendrites, with interdendritic Ni-based eutectics, borides and carbides. Overlays which were produced with a low hardness Ni-alloy matrix contained a smaller fraction of interdendritic phases

T. Liyanage; G. Fisher; A. P. Gerlich

338

IMPERMEABLE THIN AlâOâ OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to further improve the hot corrosion resistance of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), an AlâOâ overlay of 58 ÎĽm thick was deposited on the surface of YSZ by electron-beam physical vapor deposition. Hot corrosion tests were performed on the YSZ coatings with Îł-AlâOâ overlay and α-AlâOâ overlay in molten salt mixture (Na2SO4 + 5wt%V2O5) at 950 C. The α-AlâOâ overlay

Scott X. Mao

2004-01-01

339

Infrared differential interference contrast microscopy for overlay metrology on 3D-interconnect bonded wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay metrology for stacked layers will be playing a key role in bringing 3D IC devices into manufacturing. However, such bonded wafer pairs present a metrology challenge for optical microscopy tools by the opaque nature of silicon. Using infrared microscopy, silicon wafers become transparent to the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, enabling metrology at the interface of bonded wafer pairs. Wafers can be bonded face to face (F2F) or face to back (F2B) which the stacking direction is dictated by how the stacks are carried in the process and functionality required. For example, Memory stacks tend to use F2B stacking enables a better managed design. Current commercial tools use single image technique for F2F bonding overlay measurement because depth of focus is sufficient to include both surfaces; and use multiple image techniques for F2B overlay measurement application for the depth of focus is no longer sufficient to include both stacked wafer surfaces. There is a need to specify the Z coordinate or stacking wafer number through the silicon when visiting measurement wafer sites. Two shown images are of the same (X, Y) but separate Z location acquired at focus position of each wafer surface containing overlay marks. Usually the top surface image is bright and clear; however, the bottom surface image is somewhat darker and noisier as an adhesive layer is used in between to bond the silicon wafers. Thus the top and bottom surface images are further processed to achieve similar brightness and noise level before merged for overlay measurement. This paper presents a special overlay measurement technique, using the infrared differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy technique to measure the F2B wafer bonding overlay by a single shot image. A pair of thinned wafers at 50 and 150 ?m thickness is bonded on top of a carrier wafer to evaluate the bonding overlay. It works on the principle of interferometry to gain information about the optical path length of the stacked wafers, to enhance the image contrast of overlay marks features even though they are locating in different Z plane. A two dimensional mirror-symmetric overlay marks for both top and bottom processing wafers is designed and printed in each die in order to know and realize the best achievable wafer to wafer bonding processing. A self-developed analysis algorithms is used to identify the overlay error between the stacking wafers and the interconnect structures. The experimental overlay results after wafer bonding including inter-die and intra-die analysis results will be report in the full paper. Correlation of overlay alignment offset data to electrical yield, provides an early indication of bonded wafer yield.

Ku, Yi-sha; Shyu, Deh-Ming; Lin, Yeou-Sung; Cho, Chia-Hung

2013-04-01

340

security guru  

E-print Network

security guru By: Virginia Scott Posted: 4/17/07 UTSA has received a grant from the Texas Emerging Fund to create an institute for cyber security research. According to UTSA industry and educational initiatives in Texas. The creation of UTSA's Institute for Cyber Security Research

Sandhu, Ravi

341

Secure multi-party protocols under a modern lens  

E-print Network

A secure multi-party computation (MPC) protocol for computing a function f allows a group of parties to jointly evaluate f over their private inputs, such that a computationally bounded adversary who corrupts a subset of ...

Boyle, Elette Chantae

2013-01-01

342

Security in Full-Force  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When fully developed for NASA, Vanguard Enforcer(TM) software-which emulates the activities of highly technical security system programmers, auditors, and administrators-was among the first intrusion detection programs to restrict human errors from affecting security, and to ensure the integrity of a computer's operating systems, as well as the protection of mission critical resources. Vanguard Enforcer was delivered in 1991 to Johnson Space Center and has been protecting systems and critical data there ever since. In August of 1999, NASA granted Vanguard exclusive rights to commercialize the Enforcer system for the private sector. In return, Vanguard continues to supply NASA with ongoing research, development, and support of Enforcer. The Vanguard Enforcer 4.2 is one of several surveillance technologies that make up the Vanguard Security Solutions line of products. Using a mainframe environment, Enforcer 4.2 achieves previously unattainable levels of automated security management.

2002-01-01

343

Emerging Issues of Privatized Prisons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, posted May 14, 2001, from the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), prepared by the National Council on Crime and Delinquency, presents the results of a national study to examine the efficacy of prison privatization. The report looks at the factors that have contributed to the increase in prison populations (which has in turn fueled the movement to privatize prisons) as well as the role the private sector currently plays in the prison system. "It outlines the arguments, both in support of and opposition to, privatized prisons, reviews current literature on the subject, and examines issues that will have an impact on future privatizations." Overall, the study found that private prisons operate much the same as public ones, with only marginal cost savings, and those savings mostly gleaned from reduction in labor costs. Note that graphical elements such as figures and charts are not available in the text version of the report.

Austin, James, 1948-; Coventry, Garry.

2001-01-01

344

A comparison of methods for in-chip overlay control at the 65-nm node  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay metrology for production line-monitor and advanced process control (APC) has been dominated by 4-corner box-in-box (BiB) methods for many years. As we proceed following the ITRS roadmap with the development of 65 nm technologies and beyond, it becomes apparent that current overlay methodologies are becoming inadequate for the stringent requirements that lie ahead. It is already apparent that kerf metrology of large scale BiB structures does not correlate well with in-chip design-rule features. The recent introduction of the Advanced Imaging Metrology (AIM) target, utilizing increased information content and advanced design and process compatibility, has demonstrated significant improvements in precision and overlay mark fidelity (OMF) in advanced processes. This paper compares methodologies and strategies for addressing cross-field variation of overlay and pattern placement issues. We compare the trade-offs of run-time intra-field sampling plans and the use of off-line lithography characterization and advanced modeling analysis, and propose new methodologies to address advanced overlay metrology and control.

Robinson, John C.; Stakely, Mark; Poplawski, Jorge M.; Izikson, Pavel; Kassel, Elyakim; Adel, Mike E.

2004-05-01

345

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1994--March 1994  

SciTech Connect

The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterwalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1994-04-21

346

TWRS privatization bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety.

NONE

1996-02-01

347

Private concordat. Flexible friends.  

PubMed

A survey of acute trusts and health authorities suggests that expenditure in the private sector has more than doubled since the signing of the concordat in October 2000. But it still represents less than 1 per cent of total acute spending. Most of the spending was for orthopaedic surgery, made under short-term, cost-per-case deals. The need for increased capacity was the main motive for using the independent sector. More than three-quarters of respondents cited prices in the independent sector as a barrier to greater collaboration. There is little evidence of NHS organisations and those in the independent sector forming partnerships for long-term service planning. PMID:12068469

Sussex, Jon; Goddard, Maria

2002-05-23

348

TWRS privatization bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information.

NONE

1996-03-01

349

Private Sector Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank is perhaps one of the world's premier organizations regarding development opportunities, and they are widely recognized for their work in the developing world. With this latest outing, they have created the Private Sector Development (PSD) Blog, which is designed to be both quirky and opinionated, qualities which are never in short supply as one wanders around the web. Having said that, the site is rather erudite, as it provides intelligent comments on topics that include disaster recovery, foreign direct investment, and corporate governance. New users will want to browse through some of the recent posts, and then perhaps look at the "Categories" section on the left-hand side of the page for future explorations. As might be expected, each post also contains links to external readings from a diverse set of publications, such as the Financial Times and like-minded ventures.

350

Boston Private Industry Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1979 by a banker and education advocate, the Boston Private Industry Council's (PIC) Boston's Workforce Investment Board is a valuable program that pairs Boston businesses with Boston high school students to give the students valuable experience and jobs, while helping the businesses develop a skilled workforce. Visitors should definitely take a look at the "Research" tab to read about research on "Drop Out Studies", "Labor Market Studies", and "College Going Studies" that the PIC has produced with the Center for Labor Market Studies at Northeastern University. Under the "Programs" tab visitors can choose from career programs for youth, adults, and out-of-school youth (those who have not finished high school or finished without passing state requirements). Under the same tab, visitors will find the "Career Exploration for Youth" program provides career exploration programs including "Job Shadow Day", "Mock Interviews", and "Career Speakers".

351

Differentially private distributed logistic regression using private and public data  

PubMed Central

Background Privacy protecting is an important issue in medical informatics and differential privacy is a state-of-the-art framework for data privacy research. Differential privacy offers provable privacy against attackers who have auxiliary information, and can be applied to data mining models (for example, logistic regression). However, differentially private methods sometimes introduce too much noise and make outputs less useful. Given available public data in medical research (e.g. from patients who sign open-consent agreements), we can design algorithms that use both public and private data sets to decrease the amount of noise that is introduced. Methodology In this paper, we modify the update step in Newton-Raphson method to propose a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on both public and private data. Experiments and results We try our algorithm on three different data sets, and show its advantage over: (1) a logistic regression model based solely on public data, and (2) a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on private data under various scenarios. Conclusion Logistic regression models built with our new algorithm based on both private and public datasets demonstrate better utility than models that trained on private or public datasets alone without sacrificing the rigorous privacy guarantee. PMID:25079786

2014-01-01

352

Residual stress determination in an overlay dissimilar welded pipe by neutron diffraction  

SciTech Connect

Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of nuclear power reactors. Two neutron diffractometers with different spatial resolutions have been utilized on the identical specimen for comparison. The macroscopic 'stress-free' lattice spacing (d{sub o}) was also obtained from both using a 2-mm width comb-like coupon. The results show significant changes in residual stresses from tension (300-400 MPa) to compression (-600 MPa) through the thickness of the dissimilar weld overlay pipe specimen.

Woo, Wan Chuck [ORNL; Em, Vyacheslav [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Lee, Ho-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Park, Kwang Soo [Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction

2011-01-01

353

Characterizing the Global Impact of P2P Overlays on the AS-Level Underlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the problem of characterizing and assessing the global impact of the load imposed by a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) overlay on the AS-level underlay. In particular, we capture Gnutella snapshots for four consecutive years, obtain the corresponding AS-level topology snapshots of the Internet and infer the AS-paths associated with each overlay connection. Assuming a simple model of overlay traffic, we analyze the observed load imposed by these Gnutella snapshots on the AS-level underlay using metrics that characterize the load seen on individual AS-paths and by the transit ASes, illustrate the churn among the top transit ASes during this 4-year period, and describe the propagation of traffic within the AS-level hierarchy.

Rasti, Amir Hassan; Rejaie, Reza; Willinger, Walter

354

High strength and corrosion resistant alloys weld overlays for oil patch applications  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion resistant alloys (CRAs) are specified for oilfield applications where severe environments cause general corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, chloride stress corrosion cracking and more importantly sulfide stress cracking. Historically, alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay has successfully been used in severely corrosive environments. Alloy 686 (UNS N06686) and alloy 725 (UNS N07725) have recently been evaluated as replacement materials for alloy 625. Alloy 686, because of it`s high alloying content, exhibits superior corrosion resistance to alloy 625. And, alloy 725 is a highly corrosion resistant alloy capable of being age hardened to 0.2% yield strengths of above 827 MPa (120 ksi) Mechanical properties and Slow Strain Rate test results for the alloy 686 and alloy 725 weld overlays are discussed relative to alloy 625, alloy C-22 (UNS N06622) and alloy 59 (UNS N06059) weld overlays.

Hibner, E.L. [Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States); Maligas, M.N.; Vicic, J.C. [FMC Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-10-01

355

Weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Task A: Literature review, progress report  

SciTech Connect

A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-03-03

356

US Government Outsourcing, the Private Military Industry, and Operation Iraqi Freedom: A Case Study in Conflict Contracting  

E-print Network

This thesis analyzes state utilization of private military and security companies (PMSC), using United States Government (USG) outsourcing during Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) as a case study to investigate how PMSCs influence interstate conflicts...

Halpin, Allison Ann

2011-12-31

357

Investigation on synchronization of the offset printing process for fine patterning and precision overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offset printing processes are promising candidates for producing printed electronics due to their capacity for fine patterning and suitability for mass production. To print high-resolution patterns with good overlay using offset printing, the velocities of two contact surfaces, which ink is transferred between, should be synchronized perfectly. However, an exact velocity of the contact surfaces is unknown due to several imperfections, including tolerances, blanket swelling, and velocity ripple, which prevents the system from being operated in the synchronized condition. In this paper, a novel method of measurement based on the sticking model of friction force was proposed to determine the best synchronized condition, i.e., the condition in which the rate of synchronization error is minimized. It was verified by experiment that the friction force can accurately represent the rate of synchronization error. Based on the measurement results of the synchronization error, the allowable margin of synchronization error when printing high-resolution patterns was investigated experimentally using reverse offset printing. There is a region where the patterning performance is unchanged even though the synchronization error is varied, and this may be viewed as indirect evidence that printability performance is secured when there is no slip at the contact interface. To understand what happens at the contact surfaces during ink transfer, the deformation model of the blanket's surface was developed. The model estimates how much deformation on the blanket's surface can be borne by the synchronization error when there is no slip at the contact interface. In addition, the model shows that the synchronization error results in scale variation in the machine direction (MD), which means that the printing registration in the MD can be adjusted actively by controlling the synchronization if there is a sufficient margin of synchronization error to guarantee printability. The effect of synchronization on the printing registration was verified experimentally using gravure offset printing. The variations in synchronization result in the differences in the MD scale, and the measured MD scale matches exactly with the modeled MD scale.

Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Eonseok; Kim, Hyunchang; Choi, Young-Man; Lee, Seunghyun; Kim, Inyoung; Yoon, Dukkyun; Jo, Jeongdai; Kim, Bongmin; Lee, Taik-Min

2014-06-01

358

Wireless Overlay Backhauling over Bidirectional Colorless WDM-PONs: the Impact of the Baseband Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Next generation wavelength division multiplexed passive optical access networks (WDM-PON), employing reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOAs), can provide a cost effective solution to jointly support both, classic PON services and transparent overlay wireless backhauling. In this approach, the wireless signals are transparently transmitted over the WDMPON, thus creating a virtual dedicated network without incurring into additional network installation and maintenance costs. In this paper, the performance of a WDM-PON transmitting an overlay orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless signal is assessed analytically and experimentally, with relevant system impairments being identified and system design guidelines are provided.

Avó, Ricardo; Medeiros, Maria C. R.

2013-12-01

359

A safety evaluation for overlay disbonding of high-temperature and pressure vessels  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen induced disbonding test (autoclave test) of stainless weld-overlaid 2-1/4Cr-1Mo and 2-1/4Cr-1Mo-1/4V steel, and the calculations of residual hydrogen contents at the fusion boundary in the specimens and actual vessels, were performed. The effects of microstructure of weld overlay near the fusion boundary and postweld heat treatment on disbonding resistance were clarified, and critical hydrogen content values in weld overlay to prevent disbonding were obtained. A simple evaluation method for disbonding in actual vessels using Tempering Parameter was established.

Horita, Ryuichi; Nakajima; Hiroyuki [Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Osaka (Japan). Technical Research Institute; Tanaka, Kazunori; Murakami, Shunzo [Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Kumamoto (Japan). Ariake Works; Fujii, Tadaomi [Nichizo Tech Incorporation, Osaka (Japan). Technology Headquarters

1995-11-01

360

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1993--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Twelve weld overlay hardfacing alloys have been selected for preliminary erosion testing based on a literature review These alloys have been separated into three major groups: (1) Cobalt containing alloys, (2) Nickel-base alloys, (3) Iron base alloys. These alloys are being applied to carbon steel substrates and will undergo preliminary erosion testing to identify candidates weld overlay alloys for erosion control in CFB boilers. The candidate alloys selected from the preliminary erosion tests will then undergo more detailed evaluations in future research.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-04-18

361

Change in the electronic states of graphite overlayers depending on thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic states of graphite overlayers formed on the TaC(111) surface have been investigated with the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. The graphite film grows on the substrate layer by layer. The thickness of the overlayer has been adjusted precisely to be either one or two monolayers. The physical properties of the monolayer graphite film are modified by chemical bonding at the interface. This interfacial bonding becomes weak upon the formation of the second layer of graphite, which makes the properties of the double-layer graphite film similar to those of bulk graphite.

Nagashima, A.; Itoh, H.; Ichinokawa, T.; Oshima, C.; Otani, S.

1994-08-01

362

A Spatial Overlay Ranking Method for a Geospatial Search of Text Objects  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earth-science researchers need the capability to find relevant information by location and topic. Conventional geographic techniques that simply check whether polygons intersect can efficiently achieve a high recall on location, but can not achieve precision for ranking results in likely order of importance to the reader. A spatial overlay ranking based upon how well an object's footprint matches the search area provides a more effective way to spatially search a collection of reports, and avoids many of the problems associated with an 'in/out' (True/False) boolean search. Moreover, spatial overlay ranking appears to work well even when spatial extent is defined only by a simple bounding box.

Lanfear, Kenneth J.

2006-01-01

363

Michigan School Privatization Survey 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Privatization of school support services is a time-tested means for lowering educational costs. The three major services that school districts in Michigan contract out for are food, custodial and transportation. The Mackinac Center for Public Policy's survey of privatization is the longest running and most comprehensive source of school support…

Hohman, James M.; Freeland, William L. E.

2008-01-01

364

Public/Private Partnership Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the Public/Private Partnership Programs, a school-community project developed in 1981 by the District of Columbia public schools and the private sector community to provide career-focused high school programs. The project was designed to motivate and support young people to stay in school, graduate from high school, and…

District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.

365

Privatization of airports in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been claimed that Asia lags behind the rest of the world in the privatization of airports. At the same time, the air transport sector has been growing quickly and this has placed enormous pressure on airport infrastructure. This paper reviews the situation and finds that the private sector is involved extensively with new airports and the upgrading of

Paul Hooper

2002-01-01

366

Private Funding of the Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workshop, concerning private funding for the arts, resulted from a previous research workshop (Munich, 1983) which had concluded that growth in public sector arts financing in Europe had ceased. A major conclusion of the 1985 workshop was that private funding had entered a high development phase, but participants were encouraged to develop…

Myerscough, John

1987-01-01

367

Motives for Private Income Transfers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private income transfers are becoming increasingly recognized as a key aspect of the U.S. economy. The majority of private income transfers occur inter vivos (i.e., between living persons), but very little is known about this type of transfer behavior. This paper tests alternative hypotheses concerning motivation for inter vivos transfers. Two motives are considered: altruism and exchange. Evidence presented here

Donald Cox

1987-01-01

368

Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.…

Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

2013-01-01

369

Private Computing with Untrustworthy Proxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this thesis is to preserve privacy for the user while untrustworthy proxies are involved in the communication and computation i.e. private computing. A basic example of private computing is an access control system (proxy) which grants access (or not) to users based on fingerprints. For privacy reasons the user does not want to reveal his fingerprint to

B. Gedrojc

2011-01-01

370

Private Faith and Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Must faith be privatized? Taken at face value, this could seem a curious question, since no one is in a position to "sell off" any religion to private interests, in the way that, for example, British Rail was dismembered. Yet the question is an important one in a contemporary society, characterized as it is by a significant divergence of views…

Trigg, Roger

2008-01-01

371

Interaction of nanostructured metal overlayers with oxide surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between metals and oxides are key factors to determine the performance of metal/oxide heterojunctions, particularly in nanotechnology, where the miniaturization of devices down to the nanoregime leads to an enormous increase in the density of interfaces. One central issue of concern in engineering metal/oxide interfaces is to understand and control the interactions which consist of two fundamental aspects: (i) interfacial charge redistribution — electronic interaction, and (ii) interfacial atom transport — chemical interaction. The present paper focuses on recent advances in both electronic and atomic level understanding of the metal-oxide interactions at temperatures below 1000 ?C, with special emphasis on model systems like ultrathin metal overlayers or metal nanoclusters supported on well-defined oxide surfaces. The important factors determining the metal-oxide interactions are provided. Guidelines are given in order to predict the interactions in such systems, and methods to desirably tune them are suggested. The review starts with a brief summary of the physics and chemistry of heterophase interface contacts. Basic concepts for quantifying the electronic interaction at metal/oxide interfaces are compared to well-developed contact theories and calculation methods. The chemical interaction between metals and oxides, i.e., the interface chemical reaction, is described in terms of its thermodynamics and kinetics. We review the different chemical driving forces and the influence of kinetics on interface reactions, proposing a strong interplay between the chemical interaction and electronic interaction, which is decisive for the final interfacial reactivity. In addition, a brief review of solid-gas interface reactions (oxidation of metal surfaces and etching of semiconductor surfaces) is given, in addition to a comparison of a similar mechanism dominating in solid-solid and solid-gas interface reactions. The main body of the paper reviews experimental and theoretical results from the literature concerning the interactions between metals and oxides (TiO 2, SrTiO 3, Al 2O 3, MgO, SiO 2, etc.). Chemical reactions, e.g., redox reactions, encapsulation reactions, and alloy formation reactions, are highlighted for metals in contact with mixed conducting oxides of TiO 2 and SrTiO 3. The dependence of the chemical interactions on the electronic structure of the contacting metal and oxide phases is demonstrated. This dependence originates from the interplay between interfacial space charge transfer and diffusion of ionic defects across interfaces. Interactions between metals and insulating oxides, such as Al 2O 3, MgO, and SiO 2, are strongly confined to the interfaces. Literature results are cited which discuss how the metal/oxide interactions vary with oxide surface properties (surface defects, surface termination, surface hydroxylation, etc.). However, on the surfaces of thin oxide films grown on conducting supports, the effect of the conducting substrates on metal-oxide interactions should be carefully considered. In the summary, we conclude how variations in the electronic structure of the metal/oxide junctions enable one to tune the interfacial reactivity and, furthermore, control the macroscopic properties of the interfaces. This includes strong metal-support interactions (SMSI), catalytic performance, electrical, and mechanical properties.

Fu, Qiang; Wagner, Thomas

2007-11-01

372

Moat: a Virtual Private Network Appliance and Services Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have implemented a system for virtual private networking, with special attention to theneeds of telecommuters. In particular, we used off-the-shelf hardware and open-source softwareto create a platform to provide IP security and other services for in-home networks.Our experience has taught us a number of things about the scalability of the FreeS\\/WANIPsec system, about the widespread mis-handling of path-MTU discovery

John S. Denker; Steven M. Bellovin; Hugh Daniel; Nancy L. Mintz; Tom Killian; Mark Plotnick

1999-01-01

373

3612--VOLUME 27A, NOVEMBER 1996 METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A Solidification of an Alloy 625 Weld Overlay  

E-print Network

of an Alloy 625 Weld Overlay J.N. DuPONT The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temper- ature range) of an Alloy 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr-1Mo, and Si. The solidification reaction and microsegregation potential of major alloying elements

DuPont, John N.

374

C-arm Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Needle Path Overlay for Fluoroscopic-Guided Placement of Translumbar Central Venous Catheters  

SciTech Connect

C-arm cone beam computed tomography is an advanced 3D imaging technology that is currently available on state-of-the-art flat-panel-based angiography systems. The overlay of cross-sectional imaging information can now be integrated with real-time fluoroscopy. This overlay technology was used to guide the placement of three percutaneous translumbar inferior vena cava catheters.

Tam, Alda, E-mail: alda.tam@di.mdacc.tmc.ed [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Unit 325 (United States); Mohamed, Ashraf [Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. (United States); Pfister, Marcus; Rohm, Esther [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, AX Division (Germany); Wallace, Michael J. [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Unit 325 (United States)

2009-07-15

375

Scalable multicasting with network-aware geometric overlay Eng Keong Lua a,b,*, Xiaoming Zhou c,d  

E-print Network

Building, 15 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FD, United Kingdom b Nippon Telegraph and Telephone for overlay multicasting. This low-latency and high-bandwidth multicast back- bone infrastructure will serve in the underlying network. The basic principle of building overlay multicast net- work is to organize nodes

Van Mieghem, Piet

376

Dynamic trust domains for secure, private, technology-assisted living  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large scale distributed systems comprising many admin- istration domains have been well-researched. An example is a national health service, with domains such as primary care practices, hospitals, specialist clinics, etc. A new and relatively unexplored scenario is technology-assisted living, in which domains are small, dynamically created, and are associated with units of personal living. There is a great deal of

Jatinder Singh; Jean Bacon; Ken Moody

2007-01-01

377

A Distributed Key Based Security Framework for Private Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing in its various forms continues to grow in popularity as organizations of all sizes seek to capitalize on the cloud’s scalability, externalization of infrastructure and administration and generally reduced application deployment costs. But while the attractiveness of these public cloud services is obvious, the ability to capitalize on these benefits is significantly limited for those organization requiring high

Ali Shahbazi; Julian Brinkley; Ali Karahroudy; Nasseh Tabrizi

2013-01-01

378

33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2013-07-01

379

33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2011-07-01

380

33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2012-07-01

381

33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2010-07-01

382

Differential phase shift quantum private comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel quantum private comparison protocol based on a differential phase shift scheme is presented in this paper. In our protocol, two distrustful participants can compare the equality of information with the help of a semi-honest third party. Taking advantages of differential phase shift scheme, this protocol employs weak coherent pulses instead of single photons and can be implemented without expensive and impractical quantum devices, such as entangled photon source and quantum memory. Therefore, it is simpler and more flexible than previous protocols. Moreover, in principle, nearly 100 % qubit efficiency can be achieved because all photon counts obtained by TP contribute to the comparison. The correctness and security of the protocol are also discussed.

Liu, Xing-tong; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-jing; Zhao, Jing-jing

2014-01-01

383

Private pensions. A less taxing alternative.  

PubMed

The results of the Joneses' coordinated retirement income and estate planning strategies are as follows: 1. The Joneses maximized their estate assets by converting an inefficient estate asset (the qualified retirement plan) into an efficient estate asset (the income-tax-free death benefit) without jeopardizing their current or future standard of living or the value passed on to their heirs. This allows them to satisfy their conflicting objectives. 2. They added flexibility to their future family gifting plans by providing themselves a secure income for the rest of their lives. 3. They fulfilled their desire to protect their family against government confiscation of retirement plan assets in the event they both die before using all their qualified retirement assets. This private pension plan strategy is obviously not available to everyone, nor is it appropriate for everyone. This solution worked well for this client, but everyone's situation is unique. Before creating such a plan, it is important to review all the factors in an individual's financial picture, including financial and retirement objectives and investment risk tolerance. Although this is an innovative idea that may solve a pension dilemma, it should not be used in place of qualified retirement plans but, rather, used in conjunction with such a plan. The private pension plan does not work with all insurance products or all insurance companies. Choosing the right company and product for each client requires care and expertise. PMID:1406518

Schalkle, B L; Dyrhaug, K J

1992-07-01

384

Private Information and Insurance Rejections  

PubMed Central

Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets. PMID:24187381

Hendren, Nathaniel

2013-01-01

385

Analytical Study of Adversarial Strategies in Cluster-based Overlays E. Anceaume  

E-print Network

. Brasiliero Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, LSD Laboratory, Brazil Abstract Scheideler has shown to predict what is going to be the topology of the network for a given sequence of join and leave oper to predict what will be the topology of the overlay for a given sequence of join and leave operations. Hence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

Characterizing and Mitigating Inter-domain Policy Violations in Overlay Routes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó The Internet is a complex structure arising from the interconnection of numerous autonomous systems (AS), each exercising its own administrative policies to reect the commercial agreements behind the interconnection. However, routing in service overlay networks is quite capable of violating these policies to its advantage. To prevent these violations, we see an impending drive in the current Internet to

Srinivasan Seetharaman; Mostafa H. Ammar

2006-01-01

387

Dynamic Bandwidth Auctions in Multi-overlay P2P Streaming with Network Coding  

E-print Network

evaluation, we show that these local games converge to an optimal topology for each overlay in realistic recently become a reality in the Internet [1], [2], [3], in which large numbers of peers self) in such applications, each of which corresponds to a channel of television programming or live events. Generated

Li, Zongpeng

388

Arbitration Intervention Worker (AIW) Services: Case Management Overlay in a Juvenile Diversion Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue we describe a clinical trials study of the impact of adding specific case manager overlay services to "treatment as usual" services for youths in a Juvenile Arbitration Program. In this first article we describe the experimental intervention, the Arbitration Intervention Worker (AIW) service, which was provided to a randomly selected…

Poythress, Norman G.; Dembo, Richard; DuDell, Gary; Wareham, Jennifer

2006-01-01

389

A Novel Approach to Overlay Multicasting Schemes for Multi-Hop Ad-Hoc Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multicast is an efficient transport mechanism for group-based community communications and mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET) is recently regarded as a promising solution for supporting ubiquitous computing as an underlying network technology. However, it is challenging to deploy the multicast mechanism used in a wired network directly into MANET owing to scarce resources in wireless networks and unpredictable changes in network topology. Several multicast mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to overcome these limitations. In MANET, especially, overlay multicasting schemes present several advantages over network-based multicasting schemes. However we have observed a common limitation of previously proposed overlay multicasting schemes. They introduce redundant data transmissions that waste network bandwidth and the battery of relay nodes. The observation motivated us to propose an efficient way to create and maintain a “semi-overlay structure” that utilizes a few nonmember nodes selected as branch nodes. The proposed scheme, called “SOMRP (Semi-overlay multicast routing protocol),” has been evaluated by using extensive network simulation in two different scenarios, comparing the performance of SOMRP with two previously proposed schemes. Simulation results show that SOMRP outperforms the two schemes in terms of the packet delivery ratio, transmission cost and end-to-end delay.

Kang, Namhi; Oh, Jejun; Kim, Younghan

390

gradienTv: Market-based P2P live media streaming on the Gradient overlay  

E-print Network

gradienTv: Market-based P2P live media streaming on the Gradient overlay Amir H. Payberah1,2 , Jim - Royal Institute of Technology Abstract. This paper presents gradienTv, a distributed, market-based approach to live streaming. In gradienTv, multiple streaming trees are constructed using a market

Boyer, Edmond

391

Ad-hoc Storage Overlay System (ASOS): A Delay-Tolerant Approach in MANETs  

E-print Network

1 Ad-hoc Storage Overlay System (ASOS): A Delay-Tolerant Approach in MANETs Guang Yang, Ling Angeles {yangg, cclljj, tonysun, zhb, gerla}@cs.ucla.edu Abstract-- Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs that extends the conventional end-to-end data commu- nication model in MANETs, and can significantly improve

Chen, Ling-Jyh

392

Overlay Transmission System on Wireless LAN with RTS/CTS Exchange Taking into Account Timing Synchronization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new overlay transmission system for wireless LAN with RTS/CTS exchange. Conventional timing synchronization schemes may fail in the presence of inter-system interference, because they have not been designed for overlay transmission. In the proposed system, a transmitter estimates the transmission timing of the next wireless LAN DATA frame, and then sends its DATA frame at almost the same time as the estimated transmission timing to easily establish timing synchronization at the receiver. Moreover, we employ a tapped delay line adaptive array antenna at both transmitter and receiver to effectively suppress interference due to overlay transmission in a rich multipath propagation environment. The frame error rate performances of the proposed system and the IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN are evaluated through computer simulations that assume an exponentially decaying 8-path non-line-of-sight fading channel and include a timing synchronization process. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve overlay transmission while avoiding interference in a rich multipath propagation environment.

Jeong, Kilsoo; Yano, Kazuto; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Taromaru, Makoto

393

Fracture properties of a neutron-irradiated stainless steel submerged arc weld cladding overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of stainless steel cladding to increase the resistance of an operating nuclear reactor pressure vessel to extension of surface flaws depends greatly on the properties of the irradiated cladding. Therefore, weld overlay cladding irradiated at temperatures and fluences relevant to power reactor operation was examined. The cladding was applied to a pressure vessel steel plate by the submerged

W. R. Corwin; R. G. Berggren; R. K. Nanstad

1984-01-01

394

Mapping the PPLive Network: Studying the Impacts of Media Streaming on P2P Overlays  

E-print Network

Mapping the PPLive Network: Studying the Impacts of Media Streaming on P2P Overlays Long Vu-based investigation of PPLive, the largest live multimedia streaming system in the world today. It is important of their conclusions may be false for p2p applications that stream media instead. Speci cally, we undertake a crawler

Nahrstedt, Klara

395

STUDY ON OVERLAYING REMOTE SENSING IMAGE ON SURFACE UNDERGROUND CONTRAST PLAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface-underground contrast plan, as one of the most important engineering maps in the general safety management and production of the coalmine, overlays both topographical map and underground mining engineering plan together, and means to describe the mining area, underground roadway layout, location of working face, rock movement, hydrological distribution, the impact of excavation on the environment and much else during

S. J. Mao

396

A Network Coding Approach to Overlay Network Monitoring Christina Fragouli Athina Markopoulou  

E-print Network

A Network Coding Approach to Overlay Network Monitoring Christina Fragouli Athina Markopoulou@stanfordalumni.org September 28, 2005 Abstract Monitoring and diagnosis of network conditions is a central problem in networking. As such, it has received a lot of attention in the Internet community in general

Markopoulou, Athina

397

Overlaying” in 19th-century England: Infant mortality or infanticide?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines a prevailing cultural interpretation of high infant mortality rates among the 19th-century English working class. It argues that most deaths attributed to overlaying or smothering were probably not the results of infanticide but rather due to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Recent research on SIDS is discussed in support of this hypothesis, followed by a description of

Elizabeth G. R. de Hansen

1979-01-01

398

Overlay versus underlay myringoplasty: report of outcomes considering closure of perforation and hearing function.  

PubMed

In this series of patients, the underlay or overlay positioning of a graft achieves successful outcome for both repair of perforation and hearing function, with better hearing gain in the underlay group. In myringoplasty, the two most common techniques for positioning the graft relative to the remnant of both the tympanic membrane and the annulus are the "overlay" and the "underlay" techniques. 115 patients who underwent myringoplasty for tympanic membrane perforation secondary to chronic otitis media and/or trauma were included, and hearing function was evaluated. We prefer an overlay technique in subtotal perforations, in those involving the anterior and antero-inferior parts of the ear drum with respect to the handle of the malleus and in revision surgery. We reserve an underlay technique for smaller perforations and for those limited to the posterior part of the tympanic membrane. Of 115 cases, 63 underwent an overlay myringoplasty and 52 underlay myringoplasty. In the former group, five cases were anatomically unsuccessful, whereas in the second group there were three failures. The air bone gap improved significantly in both groups with a better hearing gain in the underlay group. PMID:22323847

Sergi, B; Galli, J; De Corso, E; Parrilla, C; Paludetti, G

2011-12-01

399

Scalable Video transmission on overlay networks Tien Anh Le, and Hang Nguyen  

E-print Network

Scalable Video transmission on overlay networks Tien Anh Le, and Hang Nguyen Department of Wireless.Nguyen}@it-sudparis.eu Abstract--Scalable Video Coding is the multi-layer extension of Advanced Video Coding with the advantage. In this research, ad- vanced features of Scalable Video Coding are investigated and compared with Advanced Video

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

400

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly progress report, October 1993--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in Circulated Fluidized Beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400C and their erosion resistance and microstructure evaluated. Steady state erosion rates were similar for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625, Iron-Aluminide, 316L SS, and High Chromium Cast Iron) and were considerably lower than the remaining coating evaluated. These coatings had different base (Co, Fe, Ni-base). No correlations were found between room temperature microhardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature, although this criteria is often thought to be an indicator of erosion resistance. It was suggested that the coatings that showed similar erosion rates may have similar mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates at this temperature. During the past quarter, Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were selected for more detailed investigations based upon the preliminary erosion test results. Microhardness tests were performed on eroded samples to determine the size of the work hardened zone and change in coatings hardness due to erosion. The work hardened zone was to correlated with erosion resistance of the coatings. Additional Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates.

Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1994-01-20

401

3D reconstruction of the operating field for image overlay in 3D-endoscopic surgery.  

E-print Network

and are not designed for robotically-assisted surgery. Because of the displacement of organs during operation3D reconstruction of the operating field for image overlay in 3D-endoscopic surgery. Fabien Mourgues, Fr´ed´eric Devernay, `Eve Coste-Mani`ere CHIR Medical Robotics Team www.inria.fr/chir, INRIA, BP

Boyer, Edmond

402

Improvement of aluminum interconnect overlay measurement capability through metrology and hardmask process development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay measurement of metal interconnect layers that exhibit contrast variation has historically been problematic. The appearance of random grain structure surrounding the overlay target obscures the edge contrast, leading to significant noise in measurement and residual error of fit. Large residuals reduce confidence in modeled scanner correctable terms, increasing the likelihood of false scanner corrections which can lead to poor process control. We have developed a new measurement methodology that minimizes the effect of grain-induced noise for overlay metrology. Measurements which utilize the new parameters have shown a 30% reduction in mean-square (MS) residual error and a 39% reduction in variance. In addition, predicted wafer maximum overlay error has decreased by 14%, with a 16% improvement in wafer-to-wafer variance. This type of performance improvement is expected to have a significant impact on rework reduction. The primary source of visible grain structure in the aluminum interconnect layer has been attributed to the metal hardmask deposition process. By moving to a lower temperature hardmask deposition, the grain has been significantly reduced. This has resulted in a 15% further reduction of MS residual error.

Ihochi, Albert L.; Ross, Matthew E.

2004-05-01

403

Theoretical simulations of atomic and polyatomic bombardment of an organic overlayer on a metallic substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous molecular dynamics simulations on initial test systems have laid the foundation for understanding some of the effects of polyatomic bombardment. In this paper, we describe simulations of the bombardment of a more realistic model system, an overlayer of sec-butyl-terminated polystyrene tetramers on a Ag{111} substrate. We have used this model system to study the bombardment with Xe and

K. D. Krantzman; R. Fenno; A. Delcorte; B. J. Garrison

2003-01-01

404

KNOWLEDGE SHARING OVER P2P KNOWLEDGE NETWORKS: A PEER ONTOLOGY AND SEMANTIC OVERLAY DRIVEN APPROACH  

E-print Network

1 KNOWLEDGE SHARING OVER P2P KNOWLEDGE NETWORKS: A PEER ONTOLOGY AND SEMANTIC OVERLAY DRIVEN 1W5, Canada Effective knowledge sharing between communities of knowledge workers impacts has provided some solutions to knowledge sharing amongst peers. In this paper we present

Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

405

Robust Public Key Cryptography — A New Cryptosystem Surviving Private Key Compromise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A weakness of the present-day public key cryptosystems is that these cryptosystems do not survive private-key compromise attacks resulting from an internal breach of trust. In a competitive business environment, private key compromise is a common incident that voids the strength of public key cryptosystems such as RSA and ECC. Bribing corporate employees to disclose their secret keys and inadvertently disclosing secret information are among a plethora of practical attacks that occur at the implementation level. Once a breach of trust takes place and subsequently the private key is revealed, any public key cryptosystem fails to secure electronic data in Internet communications. The revealed key may be used by an attacker to decipher the intercepted data at an intermediary router. This weakness of public key cryptography calls for an additional security measure that enables encryptions to survive private key compromise attacks.

Shaik, Cheman

406

New Look: going private with private equity support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of UK fashion retailer New Look and focuses on the impact of private equity on corporate governance, employment and leverage after the public-to-private conversion in 2003. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study follows a case study approach to offer in-depth insights into the role of different parties in the

Ann-Kristin Achleitner; Eva Lutz; Kerry Herman; Josh Lerner

2010-01-01

407

75 FR 39091 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 2009-1144] Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation...application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U...C. 47134 establishes an airport privatization pilot program and authorizes the...

2010-07-07

408

75 FR 68018 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 2010-1052] Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation...application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U...Section 47134 establishes an airport privatization pilot program and authorizes the...

2010-11-04

409

Is there a human right to private health care?  

PubMed

In recent years we have noticed an increase in the turn to rights analysis in litigation relating to access to health care. Examining litigation, we can notice a contradiction between on the one hand the ability of the right to health to reinforce privatization and commodification of health care, by rearticulating claims to private health care in terms of human rights, and on the other hand, its ability to reinforce and reinstate public values, especially that of equality, against the background of privatization and commodification. While many hope that rights discourse will do the latter, and secure that access to health care should occur on the basis of need as opposed to ability to pay, it has actually been used to attempt to advance arguments that will allow access to private or semiprivate health insurance in ways that may exacerbate inequality. These types of arguments won ground in the Canadian Supreme Court, but were rejected by the Israeli Supreme Court. In order to avoid this co-optation of right to health, a notion of rights that incorporates the principles of substantive equality is required. Otherwise, one of the unintended consequences of inserting rights analysis into public health care may be that it will reinforce rather than challenge privatization in a way that may increase inequalities. PMID:23581662

Gross, Aeyal

2013-01-01

410

Perfectly-Secure Key Distribution for Dynamic Conferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key distribution scheme for dynamic conferences is a method by which initiallyan (off-line) trusted server distributes private individual pieces of informationto a set of users. Later, each member of any group of users of a given size (a dynamicconference) can compute a common secure group key. In this paper westudy the theory and applications of such perfectly secure systems.

Carlo Blundo; Alfredo De Santis; Amir Herzberg Shay Kutten; Ugo Vaccaro

1993-01-01

411

Future Internet Security Services Enabled by Sharing of Anonymized Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As security monitoring grows more complicated, there is an increased demand for outsourcing these tasks for to Managed Security Service Providers (MSSPs). However, the core problem of sharing private data creates a barrier to the widespread adoption of this business model. In this position paper we propose an anonymization solution that promotes sharing logs with MSSPs while simultaneously protecting privacy.

Jianqing Zhang; Nikita Borisov; William Yurcik; Adam J. Slagell; Matthew Smith

412

The adsorption and decomposition of methanol on copper overlayers on the Rh(100) surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption and decomposition of methanol on copper overlayers on the Rh(100) surface have been studied using thermal desorption mass spectrometry (TDMS) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The reaction scheme of methanol on this model bimetallic catalyst is similar to that on the clean Rh(100) surface, but with a number of important differences. First, the presence of a monolayer or more of copper on the Rh(100) surface greatly inhibits methanol decomposition and also reduces the binding energy of molecularly adsorbed methanol. That portion of the methanol monolayer that desorbs reversibly desorbs near 200 K on a Rh(100) surface with a pseudomorphic copper monolayer and at ~ 180 K when two or more monolayers of copper are present, compared with approximately 210 K on clean Rh(100). Second, formation of methoxy via OH bond cleavage of the adsorbed methanol occurs on the copper overlayer as on the clean surface, but to a reduced extent. Compared with methoxy formed on clean Rh(100), which decomposes completely by 320 K, methoxy formed on the copper overlayers is substantially more stable. On a pseudomorphic copper monolayer, the methoxy is stable up to ~ 370 K; when two or more monolayers of copper are present, the methoxy decomposition is complete only near 400 K. Unlike the case of methoxy on clean Rh(100), decomposition of methoxy on the copper overlayers is accompanied by formaldehyde evolution. Third, the methoxy on the copper overlayers exhibits a metal-oxygen stretching frequency that is substantially reduced compared with the frequency of this mode on clean Rh(100). These observations are discussed in relation to the chemistry of methanol on various copper surfaces, and in terms of the electronic and structural effects which may lead to such changes.

Jiang, Xudong; Parmeter, John E.; Estrada, Cesar A.; Goodman, D. Wayne

1991-06-01

413

Practical and Secure Solutions for Integer Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yao's classical millionaires' problem is about securely deter- mining whether x > y, given two input values x,y, which are held as private inputs by two parties, respectively. The output x > y becomes known to both parties. In this paper, we consider a variant of Yao's problem in which the in- puts x,y as well as the output bit

Juan A. Garay; Berry Schoenmakers; José Villegas

2007-01-01

414

Security for the cloud infrastructure: Trusted  

E-print Network

a network, public or private. Computing clouds can achieve economies of scale, thus providing servicesSecurity for the cloud infrastructure: Trusted virtual data center implementation S. Berger R. Ca. Valdez The trusted virtual data center (TVDc) is a technology developed to address the need for strong

Sandhu, Ravi

415

What Future for Private Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After examining a small private school (Norwood Academy, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia) a group of leading educators give their answers to questions about its future and the future of such schools in general. (Editor)

Cath Sch J, 1970

1970-01-01

416

Equitable regulation of private forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of forested ecosystems often requires cross-boundary management at large spatial scales. This can be challenging,\\u000a however, in landscapes where forests are primarily under small-scale, private ownership. Consequently, in many areas of the\\u000a world private forest practices are governmentally regulated to promote more consistent cross-boundary outcomes and better\\u000a protection of large-scale ecological integrity. In this qualitative, ‘grounded theory’ study,

Roje S. Gootee; Keith A. Blatner; David M. Baumgartner; Matthew S. Carroll; Edward P. Weber

417

Secure Objectives for School Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

Dalton-Noblitt, April

2012-01-01

418

Two Dimensional Array Based Overlay Network for Balancing Load of Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper.

Faruq Ibn Ibrahimy, Abdullah; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibn Ibrahimy, Muhammad

2013-12-01

419

he National Cybersecurity Center of Ex-cellence (NCCoE) is a public-private col-  

E-print Network

cyber- security approaches that address the real world needs of complex information technology (IT, job-creating cyber- security products and services. Expected to be located near Gaithersburg, Md for protecting everything from an individual's private information to corporate data that is the backbone

420

Security Model with Tunnel-mode IPsec for NAT Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a variety of NAT flavors, as described in (Ref 1). Of the domains supported by NATs, only Realm-Specific IP clients are able to pursue end-to-end IPsec secure sessions. However, all flavors of NAT are capable of offering tunnel-mode IPsec security to private domain hosts peering with nodes in external realm. This document describes a security model by which

P. Srisuresh

1999-01-01

421

IMPERMEABLE THIN Al2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES  

SciTech Connect

In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating has been successfully produced on the surface of YSZ by the Sol-gel route. The YSZ substrates were coated with boehmite sol by dip coating process, dried to form a gel film and calcined at 1200 C to form {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. The microstructures of TBC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that micro-pores ranged from 3 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and micro-cracks could be clearly seen on the surface of APS YSZ coating. The thickness of alumina overlay increased with increasing the number of dip coating circles. The small microcracks (0.5-1.0 {micro}m width) on the YSZ surface could be filled and blocked by calcined alumina particles, whereas large pores remained empty and the alumina overlay was un-continuous after one time dip coating circle. Alumina overlay thicker than 5 m m obtained by five times dip coating circles largely cracked after calcinations. As a result, multiple dip coatings up to three times were ideal for getting high quality, crack- free and continuous overlay. The optimal thickness of alumina overlay was in the range of 2.5-3.5 {micro}m. In the next reporting period, we will study the hot corrosion behaviors of YSZ TBC with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating produced by sol gel route by exposure the samples to molten salts mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C.

Scott X. Mao

2002-11-30

422

Secure PVM  

SciTech Connect

This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

1996-09-01

423

Weekly Security Incident Log Period of Feb 11 -Feb 17, 2013  

E-print Network

:02 AM Theft, Under 2013-000294 TATHAM HALL RESIDENCE Malicious Activation Security and Toronto Fire LEARNING BUILDING University Property Security responded to a report of the theft of an exam booklet left-000314 PASSY CRESCENT Private Property Security and Toronto Police responded to a report of a vehicle theft

424

Weekly Security Incident Log Period of Jun 16 -Jun 22, 2014  

E-print Network

was notified. 6/17/2014 09:32 AM Mischief, Under 2014-001032 FARQUHARSON BUILDING Mech\\Electrical Security RESIDENCE Private Property Complainant reported the theft of a bicycle that had been secured outsideWeekly Security Incident Log Period of Jun 16 - Jun 22, 2014 Incident No. Reported Date Building

425

The Effect of State-Legalized Same-Sex Marriage on Social Security Benefits and Pensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the 2004 legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts, many have questioned how the legalization of such marriages at the state level may affect the eligibility for and payment of federal Social Security benefits and private pensions. Social Security benefits are currently paid to the spouses of disabled, retired, or deceased workers entitled to Social Security. However, under current law,

Laura Haltzel; Patrick Purcell

2008-01-01

426

Residential Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an assessment of alternative approaches to crime prevention in residential settings, paying particular attention to the problem of burglary. It provides a framework for evaluating security measures and identifies some of their policy implica...

A. Sagalyn, R. L. Emrich, A. Hassan, J. R. Labovitz, P. C. Labovitz

1973-01-01

427

Workstation Security  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Monica King, the Head of Reference at Ouachita Parish (LA) Public Library, put together this site, which is based on a paper she delivered at a recent Louisiana Library Association (LLA) Conference. The paper and the site address security issues for publicly accessed workstations. King outlines five broad security issues for libraries that offer Internet access and describes the hardware, software, and policy solutions her library system implemented. Additional resources include a modest bibliography and a collection of related links.

King, Monica.

1998-01-01

428

Secure portal.  

SciTech Connect

There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing the secure portal concept.

Nelson, Cynthia Lee

2007-09-01

429

Security in the Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the benefits of school library security, software security, and computer security systems. Describes specific products for each type of security system. A sidebar lists names and addresses of security manufacturers and distributors. (AEF)

Nelson, Jesse

1997-01-01

430

Annotating Attributions and Private States Theresa Wilson  

E-print Network

, optionally toward targets. For example, for the private state in the sentence John hates Mary, the ex- periencer is "John," the attitude is "hate," and the target is "Mary." We create private state frames for three main types of private state expressions in text: · explicit mentions of private states · speech

Wiebe, Janyce M.

431

Resources to Manage a Private Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes four theme articles: "The Digital Toolkit: Electronic Necessities for Private Practice" (John Aigner); "Organizing a Private Practice: Forms, Fees, and Physical Set-up (Fredricka Cheek); "Career Development Resources: Guidelines for Setting Up a Private Practice Library" (Georgia Donati); and "Books to Enhance Private Practice Management…

Aigner, John; Cheek, Fredricka; Donati, Georgia; Zuravicky, Dori

1997-01-01

432

The "Decline" of Private Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No topic in private higher education study has attracted as great attention globally as has growth. This is appropriate as private growth has soared to nearly a third of the world's total higher education enrolment. But while private growth continues to be the dominant trend, important declines in private shares have emerged. These must be…

Levy, Daniel C.

2013-01-01

433

An Analysis of Private School Closings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We add to the small literature on private school supply by exploring exits of K-12 private schools. We find that the closure of private schools is not an infrequent event and use national survey data from the National Center for Education Statistics to study closures of private schools. We assume that the probability of an exit is a function of…

Pandey, Lakshmi; Sjoquist, David L.; Walker, Mary Beth

2009-01-01

434

As privatization of libraries continues, some grow concerned  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

San Joaquin County to consider privatizing librarieshttp://www.lodinews.com/news/article_14f6af7a-9175-549a-bb11-bb28778d8252.htmlShould public libraries be put in private hands?http://www.scpr.org/programs/patt-morrison/2010/09/27/privatization-of-libraries/Library Systems & Serviceshttp://www.lssi.com/Carnegie Libraries: The Future Made Brighthttp://www.nps.gov/history/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/50carnegie/50carnegie.htmBoston Athenaeumhttp://www.bostonathenaeum.org/Public-private partnerships in cities are nothing new, and many cities and political units have had experiences with partial or complete privatization of various services over the years. A recent wrinkle in this process is raising eyebrows across the country, as a number of public libraries in cities with struggling economies have been taken over by the Library Systems & Services (LSSI) company. Recently, the company was approached with and accepted an offer to run the libraries in the city of Santa Clarita, California for $4 million, a city that is relatively healthy economically. The company claims that they are able to reign in costs, and in an interview with the New York Times, their chief executive, Frank A. Pezzanite, noted, "A lot of libraries are atrocious. Their policies are all about job security. That is why the profession is nervous about us." Obviously, there are many people who are incensed by Pezzanite's comments and his approach to management, and a number of library employees are quite upset about the terms of the company's contract. Others believe that libraries are a public service that is too important to be handed over to a private, profit-driven company. It remains to be seen whether this trend will continue, but for now the number of libraries managed by LSSI constitute the country's fifth-largest library system.The first link will take users to an article from this Monday's New York Times about this recent library privatization in California. The second link leads to a recent piece in the Lodi News-Sentinel about the proposed privatization of libraries in San Joaquin County. Moving on, the third link leads to a conversation about the privatization of public libraries recently featured on Southern California Public Radio. The fourth link whisks users away to the homepage of LSSI. The fifth link leads to a lovely set of educational resources about the Carnegie libraries in the United States, courtesy of the National Park Service's Teaching with Historic Places Lesson Plans program. The final link leads to the homepage of the Boston Athenaeum, which is a different type of membership library entirely, founded in 1807.

Grinnell, Max

2010-10-01

435

Automatic Generation of Overlays and Offset Values Based on Visiting Vehicle Telemetry and RWS Visuals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of computer software as a tool to generate visual displays has led to an overall expansion of automated computer generated images in the aerospace industry. These visual overlays are generated by combining raw data with pre-existing data on the object or objects being analyzed on the screen. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) uses this computer software to generate on-screen overlays when a Visiting Vehicle (VV) is berthing with the International Space Station (ISS). In order for Mission Control Center personnel to be a contributing factor in the VV berthing process, computer software similar to that on the ISS must be readily available on the ground to be used for analysis. In addition, this software must perform engineering calculations and save data for further analysis.

Dunne, Matthew J.

2011-01-01

436

Overlay metrology for dark hard mask process: simulation and experiment study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulation and experimental study results are reported to solve align/overlay problem in dark hard mask process in lithography. For simulation part, an in-house simulator, which is based on rigorous coupled wave analysis and Fourier optics method of high NA imaging, is used. According to the simulation and experiment study, image quality of alignment and overlay marks can be optimized by choosing hard mask and sub-film thickness carefully for a given process condition. In addition, it is important to keep the specification of film thickness uniformity within a certain limit. Simulation results are confirmed by experiment using the state of art memory process in Samsung semiconductor R&D facility.

Shin, Jangho; Chalykh, Roman; Kang, Hyunjae; Kim, SeongSue; Lee, SukJoo; Cho, Han-Ku

2007-03-01

437

Localized electron states and spin polarization in Co/Ni(111) overlayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used a surface-dedicated first-principles method to calculate the electronic structure in Co/Ni(111) overlayers with a Co thickness varying between 1 and 5 monolayers. We describe the majority and minority spin surface states, resonances, and quantum-well states and their dispersion, the energy and the number of these states depending on the Co-layer thickness. The difference between the total density of states and spin polarization of the different overlayers is found to be more important above the Fermi level. These results could be useful to analyze the surface-state spectra (spin-resolved direct and inverse photoemission, scanning tunneling spectroscopy) recorded in situ during the growth of Ni/Co multilayers for spintronic and nanomagnetism applications.

Gimbert, F.; Calmels, L.; Andrieu, S.

2011-09-01

438

Effect of Al overlayers on the magnetic properties of Fe thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we report on the effect of Al overlayers on the magnetic properties of Fe thin films. In-plane ferromagnetic resonance has been used to measure the resonance field and linewidth, as a function of the azimuthal angle, ? H, and Al layer thickness, tAl. The data are interpreted in the framework of a model that includes cubic magnetocrystalline and out-of-plane uniaxial anisotropies, and dispersions of the cubic axes. The main effect of the Al overlayer is to enhance the cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the Fe film and to reduce the out-of-plane uniaxial anisotropy. The Al layer also induces angular dispersion in the cubic axes. We found no clear evidence of a 1/ tAl dependence of the sample parameters, as expected for interface effects.

Fermin, J. R.; Azevedo, A.; de Aguiar, F. M.; Machado, F. L. A.; Rezende, S. M.

2001-05-01

439

TWRS privatization process technical baseline  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

Orme, R.M.

1996-09-13

440

Understanding the effect of P2P overlay on the AS-level underlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few years, Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications have become increasingly popular over the Internet. In these applications, a large number (e.g., millions) of geographically distributed end-systems (or peers) form an overlay to exchange content and share their resources. Several recent studies have observed the network traffic at one or few vantage points and shown that P2P applications significantly contribute

Amir H. Rasti; Reza Rejaie; Walter Willinger

2007-01-01

441

Screening for antimicrobial activity of some essential oils by the agar overlay technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-three essential oils were tested against five micro-organisms (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans) using the agar overlay technique. The essential oils were randomly selected and not on the basis of a supposed activity. It was found that all oils showed an activity against at least one micro-organism, and that substantial activities againstP. aeruginosa were scarce.

A. M. Janssen; N. L. J. Chin; J. J. C. Scheffer; A. Baerheim Svendsen

1986-01-01

442

Local reactivity of ultrathin platinum overlayers and surface alloys on a gold surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometric and electronic structure, the stability, and CO adsorption properties of pseudomorphic Pt overlayers and PtAu surface alloys on a Au(111) substrate have been addressed on the basis of first-principles calculations. We have found that two-monolayer thick surface alloys are more stable than one-monolayer thick alloys. The CO binding energies at the top sites of two-monolayer thick surface alloys

Y. Gohda; A. Groß

2007-01-01

443

Effects of irradiation on the fracture properties of stainless steel weld overlay cladding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel weld overlay cladding was fabricated using the submerged arc, single-wire, oscillating-electrode, and the three-wire, series-arc methods. Three layers of cladding were applied to a pressure vessel plate to provide adequate thickness for fabrication of test specimens, and irradiations were conducted at temperatures and to fluences relevant to power reactor operation. For the first single-wire method, the first layer

F. M. Haggag; W. R. Corwin; R. K. Nanstad

1989-01-01

444

Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications consisting of few to many resources with features including self-configuration, scalability, and resilience to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale Internet services for content delivery networks, file sharing, and data storage. In small-scale systems, they can be useful to address privacy concerns as well as support

David Isaac Wolinsky; Pierre St. Juste; P. Oscar Boykin; Renato J. O. Figueiredo

2010-01-01

445

Real-Time Video Filtering and Overlay Character Generation on FPGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time video processing is a rapidly evolving field with growing applications in science and engineering. Portable video processing systems require design which reduces the power, memory usage, and resource utilization while maintaining real-time operation. General system architecture for real-time video filtering and overlay character generation, based on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is presented and evaluated. After initial configuration

Babu T Chacko; Siddharth Shelly

2010-01-01

446

Understanding overlay characteristics of a large-scale peer-to-peer IPTV system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents results from our measurement and modeling efforts on the large-scale peer-to-peer (p2p) overlay graphs spanned by the PPLive system, the most popular and largest p2p IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) system today. Unlike other previous studies on PPLive, which focused on either network-centric or user-centric measurements of the system, our study is unique in (a) focusing on PPLive

Long Vu; Indranil Gupta; Klara Nahrstedt; Jin Liang

2010-01-01

447

A survey and comparison of peer-to-peer overlay network schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the Internet today, computing and communi- cations environments are significantly more complex and chaotic than classical distributed systems, lacking any centralized orga- nization or hierarchical control. There has been much interest in emerging Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network overlays because they provide a good substrate for creating large-scale data sharing, content distribution and application-level multicast applications. These P2P networks try to

Eng Keong Lua; Jon Crowcroft; Marcelo Pias; Ravi Sharma; Steven Lim

2005-01-01

448

In-die photomask registration and overlay metrology with PROVE using 2D correlation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the ITRS roadmap, semiconductor industry drives the 193nm lithography to its limits, using techniques like double exposure, double patterning, mask-source optimization and inverse lithography. For photomask metrology this translates to full in-die measurement capability for registration and critical dimension together with challenging specifications for repeatability and accuracy. Especially, overlay becomes more and more critical and must be ensured on every die. For this, Carl Zeiss SMS has developed the next generation photomask registration and overlay metrology tool PROVE® which serves the 32nm node and below and which is already well established in the market. PROVE® features highly stable hardware components for the stage and environmental control. To ensure in-die measurement capability, sophisticated image analysis methods based on 2D correlations have been developed. In this paper we demonstrate the in-die capability of PROVE® and present corresponding measurement results for shortterm and long-term measurements as well as the attainable accuracy for feature sizes down to 85nm using different illumination modes and mask types. Standard measurement methods based on threshold criteria are compared with the new 2D correlation methods to demonstrate the performance gain of the latter. In addition, mask-to-mask overlay results of typical box-in-frame structures down to 200nm feature size are presented. It is shown, that from overlay measurements a reproducibility budget can be derived that takes into account stage, image analysis and global effects like mask loading and environmental control. The parts of the budget are quantified from measurement results to identify critical error contributions and to focus on the corresponding improvement strategies.

Seidel, D.; Arnz, M.; Beyer, D.

2011-11-01

449

A Loss-Based Utility Function for Predicting IPTV Quality of Experience over an Overlay Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) over broadband networks offers more services and flexibility, such as time-shifted TV and video-on-demand (VoD), than the traditional broadcast TV. Unfortunately, IP offers best effort service and Quality of Service (QoS) is not guaranteed. In order to provide QoS guarantees over the Internet, overlay networks are used. Impairments happening at the network layer such as delays

Imad Abdeljaouad; Gajaruban Kandavanam; Ahmed Karmouch

2011-01-01

450

Field emission characteristics of CVD diamond thin films with SnO2 as overlayer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the field emission characteristics of CVD diamond thin films deposited on silicon substrate with tin-oxide (SnO2) as a overlayer. The diamond thin films were synthesized by Hot Filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (HFCVD) method. The SnO2 coating on silicon substrate was prepared using Spray Pyrolysis technique. The field emission current-voltage (I-V) measurements were performed in 'diode' configuration at

P. M. Koinkar; J. R. Mahajan; P. P. Patil; M. A. More

2003-01-01

451

Flexible Calibration of Actuated Stereoscopic Endoscope for Overlay in Robot Assisted Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic assistance have greatly benefited the operative gesture in mini-invasive surgery. Nevertheless, the surgeon is still\\u000a suffering from the restricted vision of the operating field through the endoscope. We thus propose to augment the endoscopic\\u000a images with preoperative data.\\u000a \\u000a This paper focuses on the use of a priori information to initialise the overlay by a precise calibration of the actuated

Fabien Mourgues; Čve Coste-maničre

2002-01-01

452

Modal behavior of novel silicon-overlay LiNbO3 waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

LiNbO3 waveguides with Si overlays are emerging as a basic building block for a variety of integrated-optic components. However, the development and optimization of these devices are, in large part, hindered by the lack of understanding of the specifics of the Si-on-LiNbO3 structure which appear to differ dramatically from those of the Si and LiNbO3 waveguides, considered separately. In this

Tiziana Conese; Robert Tavlykaev; Ramu V. Ramaswamy

1997-01-01

453

Microeconomics-based resource allocation in overlay networks by using non-strategic behavior modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behavior modeling has recently been investigated for designing self-organizing mechanisms in the context of communication networks in order to exploit the natural selfishness of the users with the goal of maximizing the overall utility. In strategic behavior modeling, the users of the network are assumed to be game players who seek to maximize their utility with taking into account the decisions that the other players might make. The essential difference between the aforementioned researches and this work is that it incorporates the non-strategic decisions in order to design the mechanism for the overlay network. In this solution concept, the decisions that a peer might make does not affect the actions of the other peers at all. The theory of consumer-firm developed in microeconomics is a model of the non-strategic behavior that we have adopted in our research. Based on it, we have presented distributed algorithms for peers' "joining" and "leaving" operations. We have modeled the overlay network as a competitive economy in which the content provided by an origin server can be viewed as commodity and the origin server and the peers who multicast the content to their downside are considered as the firms. On the other hand, due to the dual role of the peers in the overlay network, they can be considered as the consumers as well. On joining to the overlay economy, each peer is provided with an income and tries to get hold of the service regardless to the behavior of the other peers. We have designed the scalable algorithms in such a way that the existence of equilibrium price (known as Walrasian equilibrium price) is guaranteed.

Analoui, Morteza; Rezvani, Mohammad Hossein

2011-01-01

454

Overlay Structure for Large Scale Content Sharing: Leveraging Geography as the Basis for Routing Locality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we place our arguments on two related issues in the design of generalized structured peer-to-peer overl ays. First, we argue that for the large-scale content-sharing ap - plications, lookup and content transport functions need tobe treated separately. Second, to create a location-based rou t- ing overlay suitable for content sharing and other applica- tions, we argue that

Shah Asaduzzaman; Gregor Von Bochmann

2009-01-01

455

Impact of Path Diversity on Multi-homed and Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-homed and overlay networks are two widely stud- ied approaches aimed at leveraging the inherent redun- dancy of the Internet's underlying routing infrastructure to enhance end-to-end application performance and availabil- ity. However, the effectiveness of these approaches depends on the natural diversity of redundant paths between two endhosts in terms of physical links, routing infrastructure, administrative control and geographical distribution.

Junghee Han; Farnam Jahanian

2004-01-01

456

Outage probability based comparison of underlay and overlay spectrum sharing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three spectrum sharing schemes-spreading-based underlay, interference avoidance (IA) based overlay and spreading-based underlay that implements IA, are compared in this paper. The comparison is based on the influence of these techniques on the performance of an existing legacy static radio system with which the spectrum-sharing radios coexist. Outage probability is used to evaluate the performance of the static radio system.

Rekha Menon; R. Michael Buehrer; Jeffrey H. Reed

2005-01-01

457

Load Balancing Techniques for Distributed Stream Processing Applications in Overlay Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service overlays that support distributed stream pro- cessing applications are increasingly being deployed in wide-area environments. The inherent heterogeneous, dynamic and large-scale nature of these systems makes it difficult to meet the Quality of Service (QoS) require- ments of the distributed stream processing applications. In this paper we address the load balancing problem for distributed stream processing applications and present

Yannis Drougas; Thomas Repantis; Vana Kalogeraki

2006-01-01

458

SpiderCast: a scalable interest-aware overlay for topic-based pub\\/sub communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce SpiderCast, a distributed protocol for con- structing scalable churn-resistant overlay topologies for sup- porting decentralized topic-based pub\\/sub communication. SpiderCast is designed to efiectively tread the balance be- tween average overlay degree and communication cost of event dissemination. It employs a novel coverage-optimizing heuristic in which the nodes utilize partial subscription views (provided by a decentralized membership service) to

Gregory Chockler; Roie Melamed; Yoav Tock; Roman Vitenberg

2007-01-01

459

Alignment and overlay accuracy of an advanced x-ray stepper using an improved alignment system (Poster Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demands on advanced exposure tools for ULSI applications have increased rapidly during the last few years. Overlay accuracy, one of the key subjects, has been under continuous development. In X-ray lithography the overlay is mainly determined by pattern displacement on X-ray masks, by process-induced wafer distortions and by stepper-related contributions, generated by a limited alignment accuracy and displacements during the

F. Gabeli; Hans L. Huber; A. Kucinski; H.-U. Scheunemann; Klaus Simon; Elmar Cullmann

1992-01-01

460

IMPERMEABLE THIN AL2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the hot corrosion resistance of YSZ thermal barrier coatings, a 25 ÎĽm and a 2 ÎĽm thick AlâOâ overlay were deposited by HVOF thermal spray and by sol-gel coating method, respectively, onto to the surface of YSZ coating. Indenter test was employed to investigate the spalling of YSZ with and without AlâOâ overlay after hot corrosion. The results

Scott X. Mao

2003-01-01

461

IMPERMEABLE THIN AL2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, the overlay of AlâOâ coating was deposited on the TBC by EB-PVD techniques. Hot corrosion tests were carried out on the TBC with and without AlâOâ coating in molten salts mixtures (NaâSOâ + 5%VâOâ) at 950 C for 10h. The microstructures of TBC and overlay before and

Scott X. Mao

2002-01-01

462

IMPERMEABLE THIN AlâOâ OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the hot corrosion resistance of YSZ thermal barrier coatings, a 25 ÎĽm and a 2 ÎĽm thick AlâOâ overlay were deposited by HVOF thermal spray and by sol-gel coating method, respectively, onto to the surface of YSZ coating. Indenter test was employed to investigate the spalling of YSZ with and without AlâOâ overlay after hot corrosion. The results

Scott X. Mao

2003-01-01

463

Public Schools, Private Markets: A Reporter's Guide to Privatization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More and more, private for-profit and non-profit organizations are involved in schools. No longer limited to support services like transportation and food services, companies are providing tutoring, directing classroom instruction and managing public and charter schools. School reform has raised the stakes for schools and students, asking for…

Elliott, Scott

2005-01-01

464

Scanner overlay mix and match matrix generation: capturing all sources of variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although lithography equipment and alignment capabilities have evolved significantly since the early stepper days of the 1980"s, the techniques for generating overlay mix and match matrices have remained virtually unchanged. The underlying assumption for traditional mix and match matrices is that the lens signature is the dominant influence in total overlay, and that metrology errors need to be averaged out of the raw data. As step and scan systems were introduced in mid 1990s, improved lens quality has reduced the lens signature errors significantly. However, improvements in stepping accuracy and precision did not keep pace with the rapid reduction in lens distortions. As a result, lens distortion signatures, combined with stepping and scanning repeatability issues, render the traditional "lens distortion matrix" methods for generating mix and match matrices invalid. In this paper several metrology sampling layouts were generated, and demonstrated that with appropriate sampling across known degrees of freedom, it is possible to create a mix and match matrix and modeling more appropriate for 65 nm node alignment tolerances. The mix and match approach captures worst case overlay errors in the matching matrix, and also identifies the root causes of the mix and match error sources between scanners.

DeMoor, Stephen J.; Brown, Jay M.; Robinson, John C.; Chang, Simon; Tan, Colin

2004-05-01

465

Epicardial ablation guidance using coronary arterial models and live fluoroscopic overlay registrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of patient-specific cardiac anatomy is required for catheter-based ablation in epicardial ablation procedures such as ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation interventions. In particular, knowledge of critical structures such as the coronary arteries is essential to avoid collateral damage. In such ablation procedures, ablation catheters are brought in via minimally-invasive subxiphoid access. The catheter is then steered to ablation target sites on the left ventricle (LV). During the ablation and catheter navigation it is of vital importance to avoid damage of coronary structures. Contrast-enhanced rotational X-ray angiography of the coronary arteries delivers a 3D impression of the anatomy during the time of intervention. Vessel modeling techniques have been shown to be able to deliver accurate 3D anatomical models of the coronary arteries. To simplify epicardial navigation and ablation, we propose to overlay coronary arterial models, derived from rotational X-ray angiography and vessel modeling, onto real-time X-ray fluoroscopy. In a preclinical animal study, we show that overlay of intra-operatively acquired 3D arterial models onto X-ray helps to place ablation lesions at a safe distance from coronary structures. Example ablation lesions have been placed based on the model overlay at reasonable distances between key arterial vessels and on top of marginal branches.

Manzke, R.; Thiagalingam, A.; Movassaghi, B.; d'Avila, A.; Reddy, V. Y.; Chan, R. C.

2008-03-01

466

Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor  

PubMed Central

Multivariate quadratic ( ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

2014-01-01

467

Security Systems Consideration: A Total Security Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "safety" problem for protection systems is to determine in a given situation whether a subject can acquire a particular right to an object. Security and audit operation face the process of securing the application on computing and network environment; however, storage security has been somewhat overlooked due to other security solutions. This paper identifies issues for data security, threats and attacks, summarizes security concepts and relationships, and also describes storage security strategies. It concludes with recommended storage security plan for a total security solution.

Margariti, S. V.; Meletiou, G.; Stergiou, E.; Vasiliadis, D. C.; Rizos, G. E.

2007-12-01

468

Education Private Practice. Fastback 451.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fastback document examines small education businesses that provide direct and personal instructional service to clients. Although education private-practice enterprises have not received the attention that high-profile companies have commanded, there are thousands of such one- and two-person enterprises. These practices work with and support…

Zuelke, Dennis C.

469

The Changing Private Market System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that a fundamental change is taking place in the concept of the market system from one of private interests to one of public interests, and discusses the approach that companies may take in developing their marketing plans within the framework of the public market system. (MB)

Cardinal, Robert J.; And Others

1977-01-01

470

Public Schools: Make Them Private.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A voucher system enabling parents to choose freely the schools their children attend is the most feasible way to improve education. Vouchers will encourage privatization. That will unleash the drive, imagination, and energy of competitive free enterprise to revolutionize the education process. Government schools will be forced to improve to retain…

Friedman, Milton

1997-01-01

471

Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

472

What Can We Learn Privately?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning problems form an important category of com- putational tasks that generalizes many of the computations researchers apply to large real-life data sets. We ask: what concept classes can be learned privately, namely, by an al- gorithm whose output does not depend too heavily on any one input or specific training example? More precisely, we investigate learning algorithms that satisfydifferential

Shiva Prasad Kasiviswanathan; Homin K. Lee; Kobbi Nissim; Sofya Raskhodnikova; Adam Smith

2008-01-01

473

Identity and private forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonindustrial private forests (NIPF) comprise 60 percent of the commercial forest land of the United States and contribute significantly to the country's demand for timber, recreational opportunities, and other forest?related products and amenities. Despite numerous NIPF owner surveys, ownership and management motivations remain poorly understood, thus hampering design of effective NIPF policy and programs. In this study, a qualitative approach

John C. Bliss; A. Jeff Martin

1988-01-01

474

SCADA System Security ECE 478 Network Security  

E-print Network

SCADA System Security ECE 478 ­ Network Security Oregon State University March 7, 2005 David Goeke water treatment systems; electric power transmission, distribution, and generation; petroleum storage . . . . . . 4 2. Security Overview . . . . . 5 2.1. RTU Security . . . . . 6 2.2. Server Security . . . . 6 2

475

INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY Security Models  

E-print Network

INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY 1 Security Models: Past, Present and Future Prof. Ravi Sandhu Executive Director and Endowed Chair Institute for Cyber Security University of Texas at San Antonio August 2010 ravi.sandhu@utsa.edu www.profsandhu.com © Ravi Sandhu #12;INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY Security

Sandhu, Ravi

476

INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY Cyber Security  

E-print Network

INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY 1 Cyber Security: Past, Present and Future Prof. Ravi Sandhu Executive Director and Endowed Chair Institute for Cyber Security (ICS) University of Texas at San Antonio August-world impact #12;INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY Institute for Cyber Security Founded June 2007: still in start

Sandhu, Ravi

477

Private Education in Chile under the Military Regime (1973-1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the development of private education in Chile since the military coup of 1973, in the context of the military regime's neoconservative political and ideological aims. Despite these professed aims, copious evidence is presented to suggest that the need of an authoritarian state to maintain "national security" by suppressing all…

Magendzo, Abraham; And Others

478

When Private Set Intersection Meets Big Data: An Efficient and Scalable Protocol  

E-print Network

, Liqun Chen2 , Zikai Wen1 1Dept. of Computer and Information Sciences, 2Cloud & Security Lab, University.strath.ac.uk Abstract Large scale data processing brings new challenges to the design of privacy-preserving protocols for privacy preserving protocols in the age of Big Data. In this paper, we present a new Private Set

479

IP mobility support for IPsec-based virtual private networks: an architectural solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seamless mobility and security are two of the main issues interesting those users, who need to keep working while travelling. Making a careful use of existing standard layer 3 protocols IPsec and mobile IP (MoIP), this paper provides a solution to integrate mobility at IP layer and virtual private network (VPN) services. The solution applies to a wide range of

Matteo Berioli; Francesco Trotta

2003-01-01

480

Resource management with hoses: point-to-cloud services for virtual private networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As IP technologies providing both tremendous capacity and the ability to establish dynamic security associations between endpoints emerge, virtual private networks (VPNs) are going through dramatic growth. The number of endpoints per VPN is growing and the communication pattern between endpoints is becoming increasingly hard to predict. Consequently, users are demanding dependable, dynamic connectivity between endpoints, with the network expected

Nick G. Duffield; Pawan Goyal; Albert G. Greenberg; Partho Pratim Mishra; K. K. Ramakrishnan; Jacobus E. van der Merwe

2002-01-01

481

Deploying IP-based Virtual Private Network Across the Global Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discribes an implementation of the VPN (Virtual Private Network) over the Internet for a large-scale customer as a service provider managed service. Furnishing a global corporation with turnkey solution for it's inter and intrabusiness communication needs delivered security, quality and cost efficiencies. The accompanied highly reliable professional customer support further assisted the client in bringing the new applications

STANISLAV MILANOVIC; ZORAN PETROVIC

2001-01-01

482

Resource optimization algorithms for virtual private networks using the hose model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual private networks (VPNs) provide a secure and reliable communication between customer sites over a shared network. With increase in number and size of VPNs, service providers need efficient provisioning techniques that adapt to customer demands. The recently proposed hose model for VPN alleviates the scalability problem of the pipe model by reserving for aggregate ingress and egress bandwidths instead

Monia Ghobadi; Sudhakar Ganti; Gholamali C. Shoja

2008-01-01

483

44 CFR 5.84 - Production of documents in private litigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production of documents in private litigation...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Subpoenas...Other Legal Demands for Testimony or the Production or Disclosure of Records or Other...

2010-10-01

484

Caring for our seniors – private issue or public? The Asian scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author put forward a framework in which the five domains of care needs of older people, that is, financial security, health and personal care, housing, psychosocial emotional care and seniors as ‘resources’, should be provided with a shared responsibility between public and private domains. The public domain denotes the State's indispensable role in developing viable legislations and policies, whereas

Ernest Wing-Tak Chui

2012-01-01

485

Factors affecting nonindustrial private forest landowners' willingness to supply woody biomass for bioenergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioenergy is a renewable form of potential alternative to traditional fossil fuels that has come to the forefront as a result of recent concerns over high price of fuels, national security, and climate change. Nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) landowners form the dominant forest ownership group in the southern United States. These forests often tend to have large quantities of small

Omkar Joshi; Sayeed R. Mehmood

2011-01-01

486

Second Line of Defense Virtual Private Network Guidance for Deployed and New CAS Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the importance of remote access via virtual private network (VPN) for the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Central Alarm System (CAS) sites, the requirements for maintaining secure channels while using VPN and implementation requirements for current and future sites.

Singh, Surya V.; Thronas, Aaron I.

2010-01-01

487

CAMPUS SECURITY REPORT 2009  

E-print Network

CAMPUS SECURITY REPORT 2009 San Francisco State University University Police Department 1600 & Procedure Concerning Security, Access & Maintenance of Campus Facilities & Weapons Policies........................................................... 6 g. Safety & Security

488

Cyber security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network infrastructure with reliable communications and processing capabilities is key to commerce. In this note, different techniques for improving cybers security of data and wireless networks are described. First, network survivability, along with cost, is included in the objective function for network design algorithms. Second, persistent monitoring capabilities are added to network management protocols to provide early detection of network

On-Ching Yue

2003-01-01

489

75 FR 80350 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized; Miscellaneous Amendments; Correction AGENCY: Office of...

2010-12-22

490

A exible model for resource management in virtual private networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract As IP technologies,providing,both tremendous,capacity,and the ability to establish dynamic,secure associations between endpoints emerge, Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are go- ing through,dramatic,growth. The number,of endpoints,per VPN is growing,and,the communication,pattern,between endpoints,is becoming,increasingly,hard,to forecast. Con- sequently, users are demanding dependable, dynamic con- nectivity between endpoints, with the network expected to accommodate any traffic matrix, as long as the traffic to the endpoints,does,not,overwhelm,the

N. G. Dueld; P. Goyal; A. Greenberg; P. Mishra; K. K. Ramakrishnan; J. E. Van Der Merwe

1998-01-01

491

17 CFR 240.15d-16 - Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K [17 CFR 249.306].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K [17 CFR 249.306]. 240.15d-16 Section...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K [17 CFR 249.306]. (a) Every foreign...

2013-04-01

492

17 CFR 240.13a-16 - Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K (17 CFR 249.306).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K (17 CFR 249.306). 240.13a-16 Section...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K (17 CFR 249.306). (a) Every foreign...

2010-04-01

493

17 CFR 240.13a-16 - Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K (17 CFR 249.306).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K (17 CFR 249.306). 240.13a-16 Section...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K (17 CFR 249.306). (a) Every foreign...

2012-04-01

494

17 CFR 240.15d-16 - Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K [17 CFR 249.306].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K [17 CFR 249.306]. 240.15d-16 Section...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K [17 CFR 249.306]. (a) Every foreign...

2011-04-01

495

17 CFR 240.15d-16 - Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K [17 CFR 249.306].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K [17 CFR 249.306]. 240.15d-16 Section...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K [17 CFR 249.306]. (a) Every foreign...

2012-04-01

496

17 CFR 240.13a-16 - Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K (17 CFR 249.306).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K (17 CFR 249.306). 240.13a-16 Section...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K (17 CFR 249.306). (a) Every foreign...

2013-04-01

497

17 CFR 240.13a-16 - Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K (17 CFR 249.306).  

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K (17 CFR 249.306). 240.13a-16 Section...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K (17 CFR 249.306). (a) Every foreign...

2014-04-01

498

17 CFR 240.15d-16 - Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K [17 CFR 249.306].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K [17 CFR 249.306]. 240.15d-16 Section...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K [17 CFR 249.306]. (a) Every foreign...

2010-04-01

499

17 CFR 240.13a-16 - Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K (17 CFR 249.306).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K (17 CFR 249.306). 240.13a-16 Section...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K (17 CFR 249.306). (a) Every foreign...

2011-04-01

500

17 CFR 240.15d-16 - Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K [17 CFR 249.306].  

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K [17 CFR 249.306]. 240.15d-16 Section...Reports of foreign private issuers on Form 6-K [17 CFR 249.306]. (a) Every foreign...

2014-04-01