Science.gov

Sample records for private overlays secure

  1. Using overlays to improve network security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keromytis, Angelos D.; Misra, Vishal; Rubenstein, Daniel

    2002-07-01

    As we increase our dependency upon networked communication, the incentive to compromise and degrade network performance increases for those who wish to disrupt the flow of information. Attacks that lead to such compromise and degradation can come in a variety of forms, including distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, cutting wires, jamming transmissions, and monitoring/eavesdropping. Users can protect themselves from monitoring by applying cryptographic techniques, and the recent work has explored developing networks that react to DDoS attacks by locating the source(s) of the attack. However, there has been little work that addresses preventing the other kinds of attacks as opposed to reacting to them. Here, we discuss how network overlays can be used to complicate the job of an attacker that wishes to prevent communication. To amplify our point, we focus briefly on a study of preventing DDoS attacks by using overlays.

  2. Using Mobile Agents and Overlay Networks to Secure Electrical Netoworks

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, Neal A.; Prosser, Bryan J.; Fulp, Errin W.; McKinnon, Archibald D.

    2013-04-01

    ABSTRACT The use of wandering, mobile agents can provide a robust approach for managing, monitoring, and securing electrical distribution networks. However, the topological structure of electrical networks can affect system performance. For example, if the multi-agent system relies on a regular inspection rate (on average, points of interest are inspected with equal frequency), then locations that are not well connected will on average be inspected less frequently. This paper discusses creation and use of overlay networks that create a virtual grid graph can provide faster coverage and a more uniform average agent sampling rate. Using overlays agents wander a virtual neighborhood consisting of only points of interest that are interconnected in a regular fashion (each point has the same number of neighbors). Experimental results will show that an overlay can often provide better network coverage and a more uniform inspection rate, which can improve cyber security by providing a faster detection of threats

  3. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  4. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  5. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  6. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  7. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  8. Scalable P2P Overlays of Very Small Constant Degree: An Emerging Security Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelasity, Mrk; Bilicki, Vilmos

    In recent years peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has been adopted by Internet-based malware as a fault tolerant and scalable communication medium for self-organization and survival. It has been shown that malicious P2P networks would be nearly impossible to uncover if they operated in a stealth mode, that is, using only a small constant number of fixed overlay connections per node for communication. While overlay networks of a small constant maximal degree are generally considered to be unscalable, we argue in this paper that it is possible to design them to be scalable, efficient and robust. This is an important finding from a security point of view: we show that stealth mode P2P malware that is very difficult to discover with state-of-the-art methods is a plausible threat. In this paper we discuss algorithms and theoretical results that support the scalability of stealth mode overlays, and we present realistic simulations using an event based implementation of a proof-of-concept system. Besides P2P botnets, our results are also applicable in scenarios where relying on a large number of overlay connections per node is not feasible because of cost or the limited number of communication channels available.

  9. Security of practical private randomness generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pironio, Stefano; Massar, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Measurements on entangled quantum systems necessarily yield outcomes that are intrinsically unpredictable if they violate a Bell inequality. This property can be used to generate certified randomness in a device-independent way, i.e., without making detailed assumptions about the internal working of the quantum devices used to generate the random numbers. Furthermore these numbers are also private; i.e., they appear random not only to the user but also to any adversary that might possess a perfect description of the devices. Since this process requires a small initial random seed to sample the behavior of the quantum devices and to extract uniform randomness from the raw outputs of the devices, one usually speaks of device-independent randomness expansion. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we point out that in most real, practical situations, where the concept of device independence is used as a protection against unintentional flaws or failures of the quantum apparatuses, it is sufficient to show that the generated string is random with respect to an adversary that holds only classical side information; i.e., proving randomness against quantum side information is not necessary. Furthermore, the initial random seed does not need to be private with respect to the adversary, provided that it is generated in a way that is independent from the measured systems. The devices, however, will generate cryptographically secure randomness that cannot be predicted by the adversary, and thus one can, given access to free public randomness, talk about private randomness generation. The theoretical tools to quantify the generated randomness according to these criteria were already introduced in S. Pironio [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature09008 464, 1021 (2010)], but the final results were improperly formulated. The second aim of this paper is to correct this inaccurate formulation and therefore lay out a precise theoretical framework for practical device-independent randomness generation.

  10. Securely measuring the overlap between private datasets with cryptosets.

    PubMed

    Swamidass, S Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data--collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks--into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets--like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data--cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset's contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach "information-theoretic" security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

  11. Securely Measuring the Overlap between Private Datasets with Cryptosets

    PubMed Central

    Swamidass, S. Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data—collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks—into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets—like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data—cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset’s contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach “information-theoretic” security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7039 - Contractors performing private security functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... private security functions. 252.225-7039 Section 252.225-7039 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... security functions. As prescribed in 225.370-6, insert the following clause: CONTRACTORS PERFORMING PRIVATE SECURITY FUNCTIONS (AUG 2011) (a) Definition. Private security functions means activities engaged in by...

  13. Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries

    SciTech Connect

    Olejnik, Lukasz

    2011-08-15

    We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.

  14. Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejnik, Lukasz

    2011-08-01

    We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.230502 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.

  15. Overlay improvement methods with diffraction based overlay and integrated metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Young-Sun; Kim, Sunny; Shin, Ju Hee; Choi, Young Sin; Yun, Sang Ho; Kim, Young Hoon; Shin, Si Woo; Kong, Jeong Heung; Kang, Young Seog; Ha, Hun Hwan

    2015-03-01

    To accord with new requirement of securing more overlay margin, not only the optical overlay measurement is faced with the technical limitations to represent cell pattern's behavior, but also the larger measurement samples are inevitable for minimizing statistical errors and better estimation of circumstance in a lot. From these reasons, diffraction based overlay (DBO) and integrated metrology (IM) were mainly proposed as new approaches for overlay enhancement in this paper.

  16. Cryptanalysis of the secure quantum private comparison protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing-Tong; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing

    2013-06-01

    Recently, Yang et al [2009 Phys. Scr. 80 065002] presented the first quantum private comparison protocol that involves single photons only. This protocol is very promising in practice. However, in this paper, we analyze the security of the protocol and point out a subtle loophole. It is shown that both Eve and Charlie could obtain Bob's secret by launching a special dense-coding attack. Moreover, details of this attack and its correctness are given, and also two solutions are demonstrated to improve the protocol in order to overcome the fatal flaw.

  17. 77 FR 76076 - Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector... committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee. To discuss the... Private Sector Entities. DATES: The meeting will be held on January 30, 2013, 10:00 a.m. to 12:00...

  18. 26 CFR 1.141-4 - Private security or payment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Private security or payment test. 1.141-4 Section 1.141-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Exemption Requirements for State and Local Bonds § 1.141-4 Private security or payment test. (a)...

  19. 76 FR 52133 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractors Performing Private Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... coverage does not apply to the performance of private security functions within the United States or....302 applies to the performance of private security functions in the applicable areas, without regard... contractor to protect its supplies and employees during delivery. Although the supplier of the...

  20. Implementation of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    This report documents implementation strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. This report details some of the efforts that have been implemented to leverage public and private resources, as well as implementation strategies to further leverage public and private resources.

  1. Inter-BSs virtual private network for privacy and security enhanced 60 GHz radio-over-fiber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Wei; Qiu, Kun; Li, Changchun; Jiang, Ning

    2013-06-01

    A novel inter-basestations (inter-BSs) based virtual private network (VPN) for the privacy and security enhanced 60 GHz radio-over-fiber (RoF) system using optical code-division multiplexing (OCDM) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. By establishing inter-BSs VPN overlaying the network structure of a 60 GHz RoF system, the express and private paths for the communication of end-users under different BSs can be offered. In order to effectively establish the inter-BSs VPN, the OCDM encoding/decoding technology is employed in the RoF system. In each BS, a 58 GHz millimeter-wave (MMW) is used as the inter-BSs VPN channel, while a 60 GHz MMW is used as the common central station (CS)-BSs communication channel. The optical carriers used for the downlink, uplink and VPN link transmissions are all simultaneously generated in a lightwave-centralized CS, by utilizing four-wave mixing (FWM) effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The obtained results properly verify the feasibility of our proposed configuration of the inter-BSs VPN in the 60 GHz RoF system.

  2. How to Keep Your Health Information Private and Secure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Secure There are laws that protect the privacy of your health information held by those who ... the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy and Security Rules. These are federal laws that ...

  3. Authenticated, private, and secured smart cards (APS-SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Mehmood, Amir

    2006-04-01

    From historical perspective, the recent advancements in better antenna designs, low power circuitry integrations and inexpensive fabrication materials have made possible a miniature counter-measure against Radar, a clutter behaving like a fake target return called Digital Reflection Frequency Modulation (DRFM). Such a military counter-measure have found its way in the commerce as a near field communication known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a passive or active item tag T attached to every readable-writable Smart Card (SC): Passports ID, medical patient ID, biometric ID, driver licenses, book ID, library ID, etc. These avalanche phenomena may be due to the 3 rd Gen phones seeking much more versatile & inexpensive interfaces, than the line-of-sight bar-code optical scan. Despite of the popularity of RFID, the lacking of Authenticity, Privacy and Security (APS) protection restricted somewhat the wide spread commercial, financial, medical, legal, and militarily applications. Conventional APS approach can obfuscate a private passkey K of SC with the tag number T or the reader number R, or both, i.e. only T*K or R*K or both will appear on them, where * denotes an invertible operation, e.g. EXOR, but not limited to it. Then, only the authentic owner, knowing all, can inverse the operation, e.g. EXOR*EXOR= I to find K. However, such an encryption could be easily compromised by a hacker seeking exhaustively by comparison based on those frequently used words. Nevertheless, knowing biological wetware lesson for power of pairs sensors and Radar hardware counter-measure history, we can counter the counter-measure DRFM, instead using one RFID tag per SD, we follow the Nature adopting two ears/tags, e.g. each one holding portions of the ID or simply two different ID's readable only by different modes of the interrogating reader, followed by brain central processor in terms of nonlinear invertible shufflers mixing two ID bits. We prefer to adopt such a hardware-software combined hybrid approach because of a too limited phase space of a single RFID for any meaningful encryption approach. Furthermore, a useful biological lesson is not to put all eggs in one basket, "if you don't get it all, you can't hack it". According to the Radar physics, we can choose the amplitude, the frequency, the phase, the polarization, and two radiation energy supply principles, the capacitance coupling (~6m) and the inductance coupling (<1m), to code the pair of tags differently. A casual skimmer equipped with single-mode reader can not read all. We consider near-field and mid-field applications each in this paper. The near-field is at check-out counters or the convey-belt inventory involving sensitive and invariant data. The mid-field search & rescue involves not only item/person identification, but also the geo-location. If more RF power becomes cheaper & portable for longer propagation distance in the near future, then a triangulation with pair of secured readers, located at known geo-locations, could interrogate and identify items/persons and their locations in a GPS-blind environment.

  4. Creating conditions for greater private sector participation in achieving contraceptive security.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suneeta; Dayaratna, Varuni

    2005-03-01

    The growing gap between donor/government funding and the expected need for contraceptives is an issue of great concern for most developing countries. Addressing this resource shortfall, and meeting the goals of contraceptive security requires that countries mobilize the full and active participation of the private sector in the contraceptive market. Private sector involvement will not only increase the resource base available for contraceptives, it can also free up scarce donor and government resources to serve those who have the greatest need for public subsidies. This paper provides an overview of policy processes, strategies, and tools that can be used in developing countries to create an enabling environment for greater private sector participation, foster complementary public-private sector roles, and enhance the contribution of the private sector to contraceptive security. PMID:15694501

  5. 48 CFR 52.225-26 - Contractors Performing Private Security Functions Outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... background checks), and security requirements established by 32 CFR part 159, Private Security Contractors... contract comply with 32 CFR part 159, and with any orders, directives, and instructions to Contractors... CFR part 159. Such action may be taken at the Government's discretion without prejudice to its...

  6. 48 CFR 52.225-26 - Contractors Performing Private Security Functions Outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... background checks), and security requirements established by 32 CFR part 159, Private Security Contractors... contract comply with 32 CFR part 159, and with any orders, directives, and instructions to Contractors... CFR part 159. Such action may be taken at the Government's discretion without prejudice to its...

  7. Identification of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This report documents the identification of strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP).There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. The leveraging of dollars serves many purposes. These include increasing the amount of training that can be delivered and therefore increasing the number of people reached, increasing the number and quality of public/private partnerships, and increasing the number of businesses that are involved in the training of their future workforce.

  8. Multi Party Distributed Private Matching, Set Disjointness and Cardinality of Set Intersection with Information Theoretic Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathya Narayanan, G.; Aishwarya, T.; Agrawal, Anugrah; Patra, Arpita; Choudhary, Ashish; Pandu Rangan, C.

    In this paper, we focus on the specific problems of Private Matching, Set Disjointness and Cardinality of Set Intersection in information theoretic settings. Specifically, we give perfectly secure protocols for the above problems in n party settings, tolerating a computationally unbounded semi-honest adversary, who can passively corrupt at most t < n/2 parties. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first such information theoretically secure protocols in a multi-party setting for all the three problems. Previous solutions for Distributed Private Matching and Cardinality of Set Intersection were cryptographically secure and the previous Set Disjointness solution, though information theoretically secure, is in a two party setting. We also propose a new model for Distributed Private matching which is relevant in a multi-party setting.

  9. "i3" Recipients Dash to Secure Private Match

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Winners of the Investing in Innovation (i3) competition scrambled to make a deadline to find private-sector matches for their multimillion-dollar federal awards, meeting the challenge through a mix of cash grants and donations of pricey equipment and services, and by rechanneling previous grants to new purposes. The 49 organizations selected to

  10. Lighten Encryption Schemes for Secure and Private RFID Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canard, Sébastien; Coisel, Iwen; Etrog, Jonathan

    We provide several concrete implementations of a generic method given by Vaudenay to construct secure privacy-preserving RFID authentication and identification systems. More precisely, we give the first instantiation of the Vaudenay's result by using the IND-CCA secure DHAES cryptosystem. Next we argue that weaker cryptosystems can also be used by recalling the WIPR RFID system and giving a new protocol based on the El Gamal encryption scheme. After that, we introduce a new generic construction based on the use of any IND-CPA secure public key cryptosystem together with a MAC scheme and describe a possibility using the Hash El Gamal cryptosystem. We finally compare all these schemes, both in terms of implementation and security, proving that, nowadays the DHAES and our Hash El Gamal based solutions appear as the most promising schemes.

  11. Novel Quantum Virtual Private Network Scheme for PON via Quantum Secure Direct Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Li-Hua; Liu, Ye; Zhou, Nan-Run

    2013-09-01

    Two quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocols with quantum identification (QI) based on passive optical network (PON) architecture are proposed. One QSDC protocol can be implemented between two different optical network units just with simple configurations of PON by optical line terminal when they are in the same virtual private network after optical line terminal performing QI to the optical network units in the given PON architecture. The other QSDC protocol is also implemented between any two legitimated users in the virtual private network but with considerable reduction of workload of the optical line terminal. The security analysis shows that the proposed QSDC schemes with quantum identification are unconditionally secure and allow the legitimate users to exchange their secret information efficiently and to realize a quantum virtual private network in the PON networks ultimately.

  12. Generic Overlay Framework

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-01

    This software provides a framework for building application layter overlay networks. It includes example overlays that can be used without modification. Also provided are example multicast and routing protocols that can be used with the overlays.

  13. The Effectiveness of an Electronic Security Management System in a Privately Owned Apartment Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, David F.; Roush, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Poisson and negative binomial regression methods are used to analyze the monthly time series data to determine the effects of introducing an integrated security management system including closed-circuit television (CCTV), door alarm monitoring, proximity card access, and emergency call boxes to a large privately-owned complex of apartment

  14. The Effectiveness of an Electronic Security Management System in a Privately Owned Apartment Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, David F.; Roush, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Poisson and negative binomial regression methods are used to analyze the monthly time series data to determine the effects of introducing an integrated security management system including closed-circuit television (CCTV), door alarm monitoring, proximity card access, and emergency call boxes to a large privately-owned complex of apartment…

  15. Exploring the Public Health Impacts of Private Security Guards on People Who Use Drugs: a Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Markwick, Nicole; McNeil, Ryan; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Private security guards occupy an increasingly prominent role in the policing of private and public spaces. There are growing concerns regarding security guards' potential to shape violence, discrimination, and adverse health outcomes among vulnerable populations, including people who use drugs (PWUD). This is relevant in Vancouver, Canada, where private security guards have increasingly been employed by private organizations to manage public and private spaces, including those within urban drug scenes. This qualitative study sought to understand interactions between PWUD and private security guards and explore their impacts on health care access, risks, and harms among PWUD. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 PWUD recruited from two ongoing prospective cohort studies. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a coding framework comprised of a priori and emergent categories. Study data indicate that participants experience pervasive, discriminatory profiling and surveillance by security guards, which exacerbates existing social marginalization and structural vulnerability, particularly among PWUD of Aboriginal ancestry. Participants reported that security guards restrict PWUD's access to public and private spaces, including pharmacies and hospitals. PWUD also reported that their interactions with security guards often involved interpersonal violence and aggression, experiences that served to increase their vulnerability to subsequent risks and harms. Our findings highlight that private security forces contribute significantly to the everyday violence experienced by PWUD within drug scenes and elsewhere and do so in a manner very similar to that of traditional police forces. These findings point to the urgent need for greater oversight and training of private security guards in order to protect the health and safety of PWUD. PMID:26453195

  16. Security analysis of multi-party quantum private comparison protocol by model checking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, Guowu; Hao, Yujie; Luo, Qingbin; Wang, Yuqi

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis method for quantum information protocols based on model checking, with special focus on the quantum privacy comparison (QPC). The security properties of these protocols can be proved but in ways with much difficulty. Here we will discuss a probabilistic model checking tool — PRISM to verify specific properties of QPC protocol with multi-body and PRISM to verify specific properties of quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol with multi-party and d-dimensional entangled states.

  17. 17 CFR 239.34 - Form F-4, for registration of securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business combination transactions. 239.34 Section 239... foreign private issuers issued in certain business combination transactions. This form may be used by any... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and...

  18. 17 CFR 239.34 - Form F-4, for registration of securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business combination transactions. 239.34 Section 239... foreign private issuers issued in certain business combination transactions. This form may be used by any... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and...

  19. 17 CFR 239.34 - Form F-4, for registration of securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business combination transactions. 239.34 Section 239... foreign private issuers issued in certain business combination transactions. This form may be used by any... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and...

  20. 17 CFR 239.34 - Form F-4, for registration of securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business combination transactions. 239.34 Section 239... foreign private issuers issued in certain business combination transactions. This form may be used by any... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and...

  1. 17 CFR 239.34 - Form F-4, for registration of securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business combination transactions. 239.34 Section 239... foreign private issuers issued in certain business combination transactions. This form may be used by any... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and...

  2. The effectiveness of an electronic security management system in a privately owned apartment complex.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, David F; Roush, Jeffrey B

    2009-02-01

    Poisson and negative binomial regression methods are used to analyze the monthly time series data to determine the effects of introducing an integrated security management system including closed-circuit television (CCTV), door alarm monitoring, proximity card access, and emergency call boxes to a large privately-owned complex of apartment buildings in New York City. Crime rates in a control apartment complex under the same ownership, and in the police precinct in which the 2 complexes are located, serve as controls. PMID:19001121

  3. SOEMPI: A Secure Open Enterprise Master Patient Index Software Toolkit for Private Record Linkage.

    PubMed

    Toth, Csaba; Durham, Elizabeth; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Xue, Yuan; Malin, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate bias in multi-institutional research studies, healthcare organizations need to integrate patient records. However, this process must be accomplished without disclosing the identities of the corresponding patients. Various private record linkage (PRL) techniques have been proposed, but there is a lack of translation into practice because no software suite supports the entire PRL lifecycle. This paper addresses this issue with the introduction of the Secure Open Enterprise Master Patient Index (SOEMPI). We show how SOEMPI covers the PRL lifecycle, illustrate the implementation of several PRL protocols, and provide a runtime analysis for the integration of two datasets consisting of 10,000 records. While the PRL process is slower than a non-secure setting, our analysis shows the majority of processes in a PRL protocol require several seconds or less and that SOEMPI completes the process in approximately two minutes, which is a practical amount of time for integration. PMID:25954421

  4. Contracting-out in the United Kingdom: a partnership between social security and private pension plans.

    PubMed

    Daykin, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Contracting-out was introduced in the United Kingdom in 1978 as part of the arrangements for the State Earnings-Related Pension Scheme (SERPS) in order to avoid duplication with the existing well-developed defined benefit occupational pension plan sector. Members and sponsors of contracted-out schemes were able to save on their social security contributions in recognition of the fact that they were accruing equivalent benefits through an occupational pension plan. Later on this concept was extended to those with individual money purchase pension plans. This article considers a brief history of contracting-out, the principles of contracting-out, some problems associated with contracting-out, the implications of the introduction of stakeholder pensions and State Second Pension, and the latest rebate review and rebate orders. It examines how U.K. pensions policy since 1978 has been based on a partnership between social security and private pension plans. PMID:12503327

  5. SOEMPI: A Secure Open Enterprise Master Patient Index Software Toolkit for Private Record Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Csaba; Durham, Elizabeth; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Xue, Yuan; Malin, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate bias in multi-institutional research studies, healthcare organizations need to integrate patient records. However, this process must be accomplished without disclosing the identities of the corresponding patients. Various private record linkage (PRL) techniques have been proposed, but there is a lack of translation into practice because no software suite supports the entire PRL lifecycle. This paper addresses this issue with the introduction of the Secure Open Enterprise Master Patient Index (SOEMPI). We show how SOEMPI covers the PRL lifecycle, illustrate the implementation of several PRL protocols, and provide a runtime analysis for the integration of two datasets consisting of 10,000 records. While the PRL process is slower than a non-secure setting, our analysis shows the majority of processes in a PRL protocol require several seconds or less and that SOEMPI completes the process in approximately two minutes, which is a practical amount of time for integration. PMID:25954421

  6. Polymer concrete overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, R. K.; Oconnor, D. L.; Butler, H. D.; Hustace, D.; Craig, F. S.

    1982-01-01

    The status and performance to date of an experimental bridge deck overlay of polymer concrete consisting of 4 courses of polyester styrene resin and sand aggregate are given. The primary purpose of such an overlay is to bar against moisture penetrating into the top surface of the concrete and perpetuating corrosion of the reinforcing steel, and also to keep away further chloride contamination.

  7. Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

    2004-01-01

    With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their offices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (IAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the. target site that is running the . VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

  8. Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications Using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

    2004-01-01

    With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their off ices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (LAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the target site that is running the VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

  9. Campus Public Safety and Security, with Guidance as Well for High Schools and Private Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wensyel, James W.

    Intended for school administrators from the middle school to the university level, the development and maintenance of an effective campus security program are discussed. The leadership role of the school's administrator is stressed and the use of security and safety teams, traffic studies and other measures, to identify security risks and evaluate…

  10. Intention of private hospitals to become contractors in the prepaid social security scheme in Thailand: why and why not?

    PubMed

    Sriratanaban, J; Srichatrapimuk, K; Kositanurit, I

    1998-12-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether private hospitals wanted be main contractors (MCs) under the social security scheme. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 94 private hospitals in Bangkok and its vicinity area conducted between August 1995 and May 1996 using in-person interview and hospital survey forms. The overall response rate was 88.3%. The results showed that some 46 hospitals (55%) expressed their intention to become MCs. However, nearly 40% of MCs in 1995 indicated that they really did not want to join the scheme while several non-MC hospitals said that they wanted to participate. The most prevalent justifications for the intention of the hospitals to become MCs, or not, were operational and marketing-related in nature. While the scheme was considered a profitable market opportunity by many, it affected hospital positioning. Participation in the scheme might also complicate health services delivery. Whether private hospitals wanted, or did not want, to become MCs was associated with ownership status (p = 0.001) and leading competitive strategies of the hospitals (p = 0.041). PMID:10772569

  11. False security or greater social inclusion? Exploring perceptions of CCTV use in public and private spaces accessed by the homeless.

    PubMed

    Huey, Laura

    2010-03-01

    It has been well documented that owing to the vulnerability inherent in their situation and status, the homeless experience high rates of harassment and criminal victimization. And yet, the question of whether CCTV surveillance of public and private spaces - so frequently viewed by the middle classes as a positive source of potential security - might also be viewed by the homeless in similar ways. Within the present paper, I address this issue by considering the possibility that CCTV might be seen by some homeless men and women as offering: a) a measure of enhanced security for those living in the streets and in shelters, and; b) to the extent that security is conceived of as a social good, the receipt of which marks one as a citizen of the state, a means by which they can be reconstituted as something more than 'lesser citizens'. To test these ideas, I rely on data from interviews conducted with homeless service users, service providers for the homeless, and police personnel in three cities. What is revealed is a mixed set of beliefs as to the relative security and meaning of CCTV. PMID:20377597

  12. The application of nuclear and national security safeguard strategies to the insider threat in the private sector

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the insider threat in commercial enterprises represents multi-billion dollar losses on an annual basis. While much of this experience is in low value, theft-related shrinkage, there are a growing number of organizations where the loss or compromise of critical assets or interruption of vital systems cannot be tolerated. In very real ways, the survival of the organization may turn on the hostile acts of knowledgeable insiders. The nuclear and National security information operations environments represents a baseline of experience from which the corporate world can draw for cost-effective, alternative approaches to this threat. However, it is equally clear that there are a variety of subtle and obvious constraints imposed by the private sector's mission, service delivery, lifestyle and cost-benefit requirements which dictate careful planning and user involvement in safeguards development and application. Where protection of our National security assets are grounded in a consequence-driven set of policies and standards, the private sector is often subject to the lack of a similar (but directly analogous) policy foundation.

  13. Electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, J. J.; Webster, R. P.

    1984-08-01

    The use of cathodic protection to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures has been well established. Application of a durable, skid-resistant electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay would advance the use of cathodic protection for the highway industry. Laboratory studies indicate that electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays using conductive fillers, such as calcined coke breeze, in conjunction with polyester or vinyl ester resins have resistivities of 1 to 10 ohm-cm. Both multiple-layer and premixed mortar-type overlays were made. Shear bond strengths of the conductive overlays to concrete substrates vary from 600 to 1300 psi, with the premixed overlays having bond strengths 50 to 100% higher than the multiple-layer overlays.

  14. Critical issues in overlay metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Neal T.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, following an overview of overlay metrology, the difficult relationship of overlay with device performance and yield is discussed and supported with several examples. This is followed by a discussion of the impending collision of metrology equipment performance and "real" process tolerances for sub 0.18 um technologies. This convergence of tolerance and performance is demonstrated to lead to the current emergence of real-time overlay modeling in a feed-forward/feedback process environment and the associated metrology/sampling implications. This modeling takes advantage of the wealth of understanding concerning the systematic behavior of overlay registration errors. Finally, the impact of new process technologies (RET, OAI, CPSM, CMP, & etc.) on the measurement target is discussed and shown to de-stabilize overlay performance on standard overlay measurement target designs.

  15. Weld overlay repairs

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, B.R.

    1995-12-31

    Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) has become a significant threat to the operability of many nuclear generating stations in the United States. The primary adverse effects of MIC are experienced in moderate energy systems (i.e., systems with maximum operating pressure {<=} 275 psig or maximum operating temperature {<=} 200 F) which provide service water for cooling of plant systems and components. Many plants use carbon steel piping (SA-106 Grade B) for the majority of their service water applications, and this piping material is susceptible to NHC attack. The configuration of NRC-related damage varies from localized pitting to general thinning. Discovery of NRC damage frequently occurs when leakage is observed at a through-wall pit. This leakage usually occurs while the plant is on-line, raising immediate NRC concerns regarding system operability--concerns which must be addressed within the confines of a Technical Specification action statement, typically 72 hours. If the piping damage is not addressed or corrected within this limited time frame, the plant must be shut down until corrective actions are completed. Code rules addressing repair of pipe wall thinning are being developed by the ASME Section 11 Task Group on Alternate Repair for Erosion and Corrosion. In conjunction with this Task Group, several test coupons have been developed to provide for analysis of weld overlay repairs. The resulting test data, as well as information available from other industry sources, is being used by the Task Group to develop Code rules that will address weld overlay repairs.

  16. Network security vulnerabilities and personal privacy issues in Healthcare Information Systems: a case study in a private hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Namo?lu, Nihan; Ulgen, Yekta

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare industry has become widely dependent on information technology and internet as it moves from paper to electronic records. Healthcare Information System has to provide a high quality service to patients and a productive knowledge share between healthcare staff by means of patient data. With the internet being commonly used across hospitals, healthcare industry got its own share from cyber threats like other industries in the world. The challenge is allowing knowledge transfer to hospital staff while still ensuring compliance with security mandates. Working in collaboration with a private hospital in Turkey; this study aims to reveal the essential elements of a 21st century business continuity plan for hospitals while presenting the security vulnerabilities in the current hospital information systems and personal privacy auditing standards proposed by regulations and laws. We will survey the accreditation criteria in Turkey and counterparts in US and EU. We will also interview with medical staff in the hospital to understand the needs for personal privacy and the technical staff to perceive the technical requirements in terms of network security configuration and deployment. As hospitals are adopting electronic transactions, it should be considered a must to protect these electronic health records in terms of personal privacy aspects. PMID:23823398

  17. 17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... financial statements, as of a date not more than 16 months preceding the date of sale under the Rule in the... securities holdings in its financial statements on the basis of their market value, and no current... entity that are consolidated with the entity in its financial statements prepared in accordance...

  18. 17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or quoted at the time of issuance and that had an effective conversion premium of less than 10... that warrants that may be exercised for securities so listed or quoted at the time of issuance, for a... further, That the Commission may from time to time, taking into account then-existing market...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7039 - Contractors performing private security functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Security Functions (JUN 2012) (a) Definitions. Full cooperation— (i) Means disclosure to the Government of... functions; and (3) Provide full cooperation with any Government-authorized investigation into incidents... of past performance and may be considered in any responsibility determination or evaluation of...

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7039 - Contractors performing private security functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Security Functions (JUN 2013) (a) Definitions. Full cooperation— (i) Means disclosure to the Government of... functions; and (3) Provide full cooperation with any Government-authorized investigation into incidents... of past performance and may be considered in any responsibility determination or evaluation of...

  1. Enabling private and public sector organizations as agents of homeland security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassco, David H. J.; Glassco, Jordan C.

    2006-05-01

    Homeland security and defense applications seek to reduce the risk of undesirable eventualities across physical space in real-time. With that functional requirement in mind, our work focused on the development of IP based agent telecommunication solutions for heterogeneous sensor / robotic intelligent "Things" that could be deployed across the internet. This paper explains how multi-organization information and device sharing alliances may be formed to enable organizations to act as agents of homeland security (in addition to other uses). Topics include: (i) using location-aware, agent based, real-time information sharing systems to integrate business systems, mobile devices, sensor and actuator based devices and embedded devices used in physical infrastructure assets, equipment and other man-made "Things"; (ii) organization-centric real-time information sharing spaces using on-demand XML schema formatted networks; (iii) object-oriented XML serialization as a methodology for heterogeneous device glue code; (iv) how complex requirements for inter / intra organization information and device ownership and sharing, security and access control, mobility and remote communication service, tailored solution life cycle management, service QoS, service and geographic scalability and the projection of remote physical presence (through sensing and robotics) and remote informational presence (knowledge of what is going elsewhere) can be more easily supported through feature inheritance with a rapid agent system development methodology; (v) how remote object identification and tracking can be supported across large areas; (vi) how agent synergy may be leveraged with analytics to complement heterogeneous device networks.

  2. Anonymity and Censorship Resistance in Unstructured Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Michael; Hamerlik, Marek; Linari, Alessandro; Maffei, Matteo; Tryfonopoulos, Christos; Weikum, Gerhard

    This paper presents Clouds, a peer-to-peer protocol that guarantees both anonymity and censorship resistance in semantic overlay networks. The design of such a protocol needs to meet a number of challenging goals: enabling the exchange of encrypted messages without assuming previously shared secrets, avoiding centralised infrastructures, like trusted servers or gateways, and guaranteeing efficiency without establishing direct connections between peers. Anonymity is achieved by cloaking the identity of protocol participants behind groups of semantically close peers. Censorship resistance is guaranteed by a cryptographic protocol securing the anonymous communication between the querying peer and the resource provider. Although we instantiate our technique on semantic overlay networks to exploit their retrieval capabilities, our framework is general and can be applied to any unstructured overlay network. Experimental results demonstrate the security properties of Clouds under different attacks and show the message overhead and retrieval effectiveness of the protocol.

  3. Secure Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on the Entanglement Swapping Between Three-Particle W-Class State and Bell State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Jia, Lu; Zhou, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Ting-Ting

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new quantum private comparison protocol with the help of a semi-honest third party (TP), enabling two participants to compare the equality of their private inputs without exposing any information about their respective private inputs. Different from previous protocols, our protocol utilizes the properties of entanglement swapping between three-particle W-Class state and Bell state. The presented protocol can ensure correctness, fairness and security. Meanwhile, all the quantum particles undergo a one-way transmission, and all the participants including TP are just required having the ability to perform Bell-state measurement and exclusive-or operation which make our protocol more feasible and efficient. At last, the security of this protocol with respect to various kinds of attacks is analyzed in detail.

  4. Secure Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on the Entanglement Swapping Between Three-Particle W-Class State and Bell State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Jia, Lu; Zhou, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Ting-Ting

    2015-09-01

    We propose a new quantum private comparison protocol with the help of a semi-honest third party (TP), enabling two participants to compare the equality of their private inputs without exposing any information about their respective private inputs. Different from previous protocols, our protocol utilizes the properties of entanglement swapping between three-particle W-Class state and Bell state. The presented protocol can ensure correctness, fairness and security. Meanwhile, all the quantum particles undergo a one-way transmission, and all the participants including TP are just required having the ability to perform Bell-state measurement and exclusive-or operation which make our protocol more feasible and efficient. At last, the security of this protocol with respect to various kinds of attacks is analyzed in detail.

  5. Overlay similarity: a new overlay index for metrology tool and scanner overlay fingerprint methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Chih-Ming; Kao, Ching-Pin; Wang, Yu-Hsi; Hu, Jimmy; Chang, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Ya-Jung; Yen, Anthony; Lin, Burn J.

    2009-03-01

    For different CD metrologies like average CD from CD SEM and optical CD (OCD) from scatterometry, CD point-to-point R2 has been well adopted as the CD correlation index. For different overlay metrologies like image-based box-in-box overlay and scatterometry-based overlay, we propose the cosine similarity as the correlation index of overlay. The cosine similarity is a measure of similarity between two vectors of n dimensions by finding the cosine of the angle between them, often used to compare documents in text mining. It has been widely used in web and document search engines and can be used as the similarity index of overlay tool-to-tool matching and scanner tool-to-tool or day-to-day fingerprint. In this paper, we demonstrate that the cosine similarity has a very high sensitivity to the overly tool performance. We compared the similarities of three generations (A1, A2, A3) of the overlay tools of venders A and B and found that after target re-training and TIS correction on each tool A1 similarity to A3 can be improved from 0.9837 to 0.9951. Overlay point-to-point matching with A3 vs. A1 can be reduced from 4.8 to 2.1 nm. The tool precision similarities, i.e. tool self best similarity, for A1, A2, A3 and B are 0.9986, 0.9990, 0.9995, and 0.9994 respectively. From this table, we demonstrate that we can use old-generation overlay tool with suitable hardware maintenance, to match to the latest-generation overlay tool.

  6. Secure and Robust Overlay Content Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hun Jeong

    2010-01-01

    With the success of applications spurring the tremendous increase in the volume of data transfer, efficient and reliable content distribution has become a key issue. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has gained popularity as a promising approach to large-scale content distribution due to its benefits including self-organizing, load-balancing, and…

  7. Secure and Robust Overlay Content Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hun Jeong

    2010-01-01

    With the success of applications spurring the tremendous increase in the volume of data transfer, efficient and reliable content distribution has become a key issue. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has gained popularity as a promising approach to large-scale content distribution due to its benefits including self-organizing, load-balancing, and

  8. Overlay welding irradiated stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanne, W. R.; Chandler, G. T.; Nelson, D. Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E. A.

    An overlay technique developed for welding irradiated stainless steel may be important for repair or modification of fusion reactor materials. Helium, present due to (n,alpha) reactions, is known to cause cracking using conventional welding methods. Stainless steel impregnated with 3 to 220 appm helium by decay of tritium was used to develop a welding process that could be used for repair. The result was a gas metal arc weld overlay technique with low-heat input and low-penetration into the helium-containing material. Extensive metallurgical and mechanical testing of this technique demonstrated substantial reduction of helium embrittlement damage. The overlay technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel containing 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking, although greater than for tritium charged and aged material, was minimal compared to conventional welding methods.

  9. 32nm overlay improvement capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, Brad; Huang, Kevin; O'Brien, Kelly; Tien, David; Tsai, Frank; Minvielle, Anna; Singh, Lovejeet; Schefske, Jeffrey

    2008-03-01

    The industry is facing a major challenge looking forward on the technology roadmap with respect to overlay control. Immersion lithography has established itself as the POR for 45nm and for the next few nodes. As the gap closes between scanner capability and device requirements new methodologies need to be taken into consideration. Double patterning lithography is an approach that's being considered for 32 and below, but it creates very strict demands for overlay performance. The fact that a single layer device will need to be patterned using two sequential single processes creates a strong coupling between the 1st and 2nd exposure. The coupling effect during the double patterning process results in extremely tight tolerances for overlay error and scanner capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to explore a new modeling method to improve lithography performance for the 32nm node. Not necessarily unique for double patterning, but as a general approach to improve overlay performance regardless of which patterning process is implemented. We will achieve this by performing an in depth source of variance analysis of current scanner performance and project the anticipated improvements from our new modeling approach. Since the new modeling approach will involve 2nd and 3rd order corrections we will also provide and analysis that outlines current metrology capabilities and sampling optimizations to further expand the opportunities of an efficient implementation of such approach.

  10. Quality indicators of image-based overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yen-Liang; Huang, Jacky; Lee, Rita; Wang, Chen-Ming; Ke, Chih-Ming; Gau, Tsai-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    A new method for indicating the image quality of overlay measurement is proposed in this paper. Due to the constraint of the overlay control tolerance, the overlay metrology requirement has become very stringent. Current indicators such as the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) are insufficient to guarantee a good overlay measurement. This paper describes two quality indicators, the contrast index (CI) and the asymmetry index (AI). The CI is a crucial quality indicator that affects the overlay accuracy greatly. The AI, based on an imaging process with modified cross-correlation operation, shows alignment mark robustness in both the x and the y directions. For determination of the best recipe, the box-in-box overlay marks are measured to obtain the images with different conditions. The conventional TMU indicators are used first to sieve out the better choices. Then the CI and AI can help to judge whether the overlay results are reliable and can be applied to monitoring of process variations.

  11. Flutter Analysis of the Shuttle Tile Overlay Repair Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Kim S.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Waters, William A.; Chen, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle tile overlay repair concept, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is designed for on-orbit installation over an area of damaged tile to permit safe re-entry. The thin flexible plate is placed over the damaged area and secured to tile at discreet points around its perimeter. A series of flutter analyses were performed to determine if the onset of flutter met the required safety margins. Normal vibration modes of the panel, obtained from a simplified structural analysis of the installed concept, were combined with a series of aerodynamic analyses of increasing levels of fidelity in terms of modeling the flow physics to determine the onset of flutter. Results from these analyses indicate that it is unlikely that the overlay installed at body point 1800 will flutter during re-entry.

  12. On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Guok, Chin; Jackson, Keith; Kissel, Ezra; Swany, D. Martin; Agarwal, Deborah

    2009-10-12

    Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

  13. Coloured Overlays and Their Benefit for Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Arnold J.; Lewis, Elizabeth; Smith, Fiona; Rowland, Elizabeth; Tweedie, Wendy

    2001-01-01

    Presents three studies where children in mainstream schools compared text on white paper with identical text covered in turn by each of 10 differently-colored plastic overlays. Shows consistency with regard to the proportion of children in mainstream education who report beneficial perceptual effects with colored overlays and who demonstrate

  14. CFDP for Interplanetary Overlay Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol for Interplanetary Overlay Network (CFDP-ION) is an implementation of CFDP that uses IO' s DTN (delay tolerant networking) implementation as its UT (unit-data transfer) layer. Because the DTN protocols effect automatic, reliable transmission via multiple relays, CFDP-ION need only satisfy the requirements for Class 1 ("unacknowledged") CFDP. This keeps the implementation small, but without loss of capability. This innovation minimizes processing resources by using zero-copy objects for file data transmission. It runs without modification in VxWorks, Linux, Solaris, and OS/X. As such, this innovation can be used without modification in both flight and ground systems. Integration with DTN enables the CFDP implementation itself to be very simple; therefore, very small. Use of ION infrastructure minimizes consumption of storage and processing resources while maximizing safety.

  15. Interacting epidemics on overlay networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Sebastian; Jansen, Vincent A. A.

    2010-03-01

    The interaction between multiple pathogens spreading on networks connecting a given set of nodes presents an ongoing theoretical challenge. Here, we aim to understand such interactions by studying bond percolation of two different processes on overlay networks of arbitrary joint degree distribution. We find that an outbreak of a first pathogen providing immunity to another one spreading subsequently on a second network connecting the same set of nodes does so most effectively if the degrees on the two networks are positively correlated. In that case, the protection is stronger the more heterogeneous the degree distributions of the two networks are. If, on the other hand, the degrees are uncorrelated or negatively correlated, increasing heterogeneity reduces the potential of the first process to prevent the second one from reaching epidemic proportions. We generalize these results to cases where the edges of the two networks overlap to arbitrary amount, or where the immunity granted is only partial. If both processes grant immunity to each other, we find a wide range of possible situations of coexistence or mutual exclusion, depending on the joint degree distribution of the underlying networks and the amount of immunity granted mutually. These results generalize the concept of a coexistence threshold and illustrate the impact of large-scale network structure on the interaction between multiple spreading agents.

  16. Diffraction based overlay metrology for ?-carbon applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, Chandra Saru; Tan, Asher; Dasari, Prasad; Goelzer, Gary; Smith, Nigel; Woo, Seouk-Hoon; Shin, Jang Ho; Kang, Hyun Jae; Kim, Ho Chul

    2008-03-01

    Applications that require overlay measurement between layers separated by absorbing interlayer films (such as ?- carbon) pose significant challenges for sub-50nm processes. In this paper scatterometry methods are investigated as an alternative to meet these stringent overlay metrology requirements. In this article, a spectroscopic Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) measurement technique is used where registration errors are extracted from specially designed diffraction targets. DBO measurements are performed on detailed set of wafers with varying ?-carbon (ACL) thicknesses. The correlation in overlay values between wafers with varying ACL thicknesses will be discussed. The total measurement uncertainty (TMU) requirements for these layers are discussed and the DBO TMU results from sub-50nm samples are reviewed.

  17. Scatterometry or imaging overlay: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsing, Henry; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Most fabrication facilities today use imaging overlay measurement methods, as it has been the industry's reliable workhorse for decades. In the last few years, third-generation Scatterometry Overlay (SCOL™) or Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO-1) technology was developed, along another DBO technology (DBO-2). This development led to the question of where the DBO technology should be implemented for overlay measurements. Scatterometry has been adopted for high volume production in only few cases, always with imaging as a backup, but scatterometry overlay is considered by many as the technology of the future. In this paper we compare imaging overlay and DBO technologies by means of measurements and simulations. We outline issues and sensitivities for both technologies, providing guidelines for the best implementation of each. For several of the presented cases, data from two different DBO technologies are compared as well, the first with Pupil data access (DBO-1) and the other without pupil data access (DBO-2). Key indicators of overlay measurement quality include: layer coverage, accuracy, TMU, process robustness and robustness to process changes. Measurement data from real cases across the industry are compared and the conclusions are also backed by simulations. Accuracy is benchmarked with reference OVL, and self-consistency, showing good results for Imaging and DBO-1 technology. Process sensitivity and metrology robustness are mostly simulated with MTD (Metrology Target Designer) comparing the same process variations for both technologies. The experimental data presented in this study was done on ten advanced node layers and three production node layers, for all phases of the IC fabrication process (FEOL, MEOL and BEOL). The metrology tool used for most of the study is KLA-Tencor's Archer 500LCM system (scatterometry-based and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool) another type of tool is used for DBO-2 measurements. Finally, we conclude that both imaging overlay technology and DBO-1 technology are fully successful and have a valid roadmap for the next few design nodes, with some use cases better suited for one or the other measurement technologies. Having both imaging and DBO technology options available in parallel, allows Overlay Engineers a mix and match overlay measurement strategy, providing back up when encountering difficulties with one of the technologies and benefiting from the best of both technologies for every use case.

  18. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  19. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

  20. Solidification of an alloy 625 weld overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, J. N.

    1996-11-01

    The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temperature range) of an Alloy 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr - 1Mo steel by gas metal arc welding was investigated by light and electron optical microscopy, electron microprobe, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The overlay deposit was found to terminate solidification at ≈ 1216 °C by a γ/Laves eutectic-type reaction. The Laves phase was highly enriched in Nb, Mo, and Si. The solidification reaction and microsegregation potential of major alloying elements in the overlay deposit are compared to other Nb-bearing Ni base alloys and found to be very similar to those for Alloy 718. Solidification cracks observed in the overlay were attributed to the wide solidification temperature range (≈170 °C) and formation of interdendritic ( γ+Laves) constituent. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured volume percent ( γ+Laves) constituent with the Scheil equation by treating the overlay system as a simple γ-Nb “binary” and using an experimentally determined k Nb value from electron microprobe data.

  1. Solidification of an alloy 625 weld overlay

    SciTech Connect

    DuPont, J.N.

    1996-11-01

    The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temperature range) of an Alloy 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr-1Mo steel by gas metal arc welding was investigated by light and electron optical microscopy, electron microprobe, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The overlay deposit was found to terminate solidification at {approx}1,216 C by a {gamma}/Laves eutectic-type reaction. The Laves phase was highly enriched in Nb, Mo, and Si. The solidification reaction and microsegregation potential of major alloying elements in the overlay deposit are compared to other Nb-bearing Ni base alloys and found to be very similar to those for Alloy 718. Solidification cracks observed in the overlay were attributed to the wide solidification temperature range ({approx}170 C) and formation of interdendritic ({gamma} + Laves) constituent. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured volume percent ({gamma} + Laves) constituent with the Scheil equation by treating the overlay system as a simple {gamma}-Nb binary and using an experimentally determined k{sub Nb} value from electron microprobe data.

  2. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB`s.

  3. Relativistic quantum private database queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  4. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content

  5. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  6. A spectral overlay method for dissimilar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belytschko, T.; Lu, Y. Y.; Gu, L.

    1992-01-01

    The spectral overlay method is applied to examine the stress distribution along the interface between the two different materials. The essential feature of the spectral overlay method is that the high resolution of localized steep gradients can be achieved by overlaying a spectral interpolant on a standard finite element mesh. In order to evaluate this method and compare it with conventional finite element method, a test problem with high gradients in Poisson equation has been devised. The results show that this method is very powerful in capturing the shape of the gradient field and its peak value. Solutions for two problems with interfaces between dissimilar materials are then given to illustrate the effectiveness of this method.

  7. Weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-03-03

    A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

  8. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  9. Overlay Technique for Transcatheter Left Atrial Appendage Closure.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Zhu, Mengyun; Lu, Yunlan; Tang, Kai; Zhao, Dongdong; Chen, Wei; Xu, Yawei

    2015-08-01

    The Overlay technique is popular in peripheral artery interventions, but not in coronary or cardiac structural procedures. We present an initial experience using three-episode overlays during a transcatheter left atrial appendage closure. The first overlay was applied to facilitate advancement of the delivery sheath into left atrium. The second overlay was used to navigate the advancement of prepped delivery system containing the compressed occluder into its optimal position in the left atrium. The third overlay facilitated the real-time deployment of the closure device. This case report demonstrates the effectiveness of the overlay technique in facilitating each step of the transcatheter left atrial appendage closure. PMID:25921686

  10. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions - e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions - while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature. PMID:25120525

  11. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    PubMed Central

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions while reading. This condition would interest the 1214% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature. PMID:25120525

  12. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, B. F.; Dupont, J. N.; Marder, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400C and their erosion resistance and microstructure evaluated. Steady state erosion rates were similar for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625, Iron-Aluminide, 316L SS, and High Chromium Cast Iron) and were considerably lower than the remaining coating evaluated. These coatings had different base (Co, Fe, Ni-base). No correlations were found between room temperature microhardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature, although this criteria is often thought to be an indicator of erosion resistance. It was suggested that the coatings that showed similar erosion rates may have similar mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates at this temperature. During the past quarter, Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were selected for more detailed investigations based upon the preliminary erosion test results. Microhardness tests were performed on eroded samples to determine the size of the work hardened zone and change in coatings hardness due to erosion. The work hardened zone was correlated with erosion resistance of the coatings. Additional Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates.

  13. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California legislation

  14. Coloured Overlays, Visual Discomfort, Visual Search and Classroom Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrrell, Ruth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    States that 46 children aged 12-16 were shown a page of meaningless text covered with plastic overlays, including 7 that were various colors and 1 that was clear. Explains that each child selected the overlay that made reading easiest. Notes that children who read with a colored overlay complained of visual discomfort when they read without the

  15. 26 CFR 1.141-2 - Private activity bond tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... test and private security or payment test of section 141(b) or the private loan financing test of... and 1.141-4. The private loan financing test is described in 1.141-5. (d) Reasonable expectations... private loan financing test. An issue is also an issue of private activity bonds if the issuer takes...

  16. 26 CFR 1.141-2 - Private activity bond tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... test and private security or payment test of section 141(b) or the private loan financing test of... and 1.141-4. The private loan financing test is described in 1.141-5. (d) Reasonable expectations... private loan financing test. An issue is also an issue of private activity bonds if the issuer takes...

  17. Overlay Tolerances For VLSI Using Wafer Steppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.; Rice, Rory

    1988-01-01

    In order for VLSI circuits to function properly, the masking layers used in the fabrication of those devices must overlay each other to within the manufacturing tolerance incorporated in the circuit design. The capabilities of the alignment tools used in the masking process determine the overlay tolerances to which circuits can be designed. It is therefore of considerable importance that these capabilities be well characterized. Underestimation of the overlay accuracy results in unnecessarily large devices, resulting in poor utilization of wafer area and possible degradation of device performance. Overestimation will result in significant yield loss because of the failure to conform to the tolerances of the design rules. The proper methodology for determining the overlay capabilities of wafer steppers, the most commonly used alignment tool for the production of VLSI circuits, is the subject of this paper. Because cost-effective manufacturing process technology has been the driving force of VLSI, the impact on productivity is a primary consideration in all discussions. Manufacturers of alignment tools advertise the capabilities of their equipment. It is notable that no manufacturer currently characterizes his aligners in a manner consistent with the requirements of producing very large integrated circuits, as will be discussed. This has resulted in the situation in which the evaluation and comparison of the capabilities of alignment tools require the attention of a lithography specialist. Unfortunately, lithographic capabilities must be known by many other people, particularly the circuit designers and the managers responsible for the financial consequences of the high prices of modern alignment tools. All too frequently, the designer or manager is confronted with contradictory data, one set coming from his lithography specialist, and the other coming from a sales representative of an equipment manufacturer. Since the latter generally attempts to make his merchandise appear as attractive as possible, the lithographer is frequently placed in the position of having to explain subtle issues in order to justify his decisions. It is the purpose of this paper to provide that explanation.

  18. Overlay leaves litho: impact of non-litho processes on overlay and compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhm, Matthias; Schulz, Bernd; Cotte, Eric; Seltmann, Rolf; Hertzsch, Tino

    2014-10-01

    According to the ITRS roadmap [1], the overlay requirement for the 28nm node is 8nm. If we compare this number with the performance given by tool vendors for their most advanced immersion systems (which is < 3nm), there seems to remain a large margin. Does that mean that today's leading edge Fab has an easy life? Unfortunately not, as other contributors affecting overlay are emerging. Mask contributions and so-called non-linear wafer distortions are known effects that can impact overlay quite significantly. Furthermore, it is often forgotten that downstream (post-litho) processes can impact the overlay as well. Thus, it can be required to compensate for the effects of subsequent processes already at the lithography operation. Within our paper, we will briefly touch on the wafer distortion topic and discuss the limitations of lithography compensation techniques such as higher order corrections versus solving the root cause of the distortions. The primary focus will be on the impact of the etch processes on the pattern placement error. We will show how individual layers can get affected differently by showing typical wafer signatures. However, in contrast to the above-mentioned wafer distortion topic, lithographic compensation techniques can be highly effective to reduce the placement error significantly towards acceptable levels (see Figure 1). Finally we will discuss the overall overlay budget for a 28nm contact to gate case by taking the impact of the individual process contributors into account.

  19. Privatizing Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

  20. New low-viscosity overlay medium for viral plaque assays

    PubMed Central

    Matrosovich, Mikhail; Matrosovich, Tatyana; Garten, Wolfgang; Klenk, Hans-Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Background Plaque assays in cell culture monolayers under solid or semisolid overlay media are commonly used for quantification of viruses and antiviral substances. To overcome the pitfalls of known overlays, we tested suspensions of microcrystalline cellulose Avicel RC/CL™ as overlay media in the plaque and plaque-inhibition assay of influenza viruses. Results Significantly larger plaques were formed under Avicel-containing media, as compared to agar and methylcellulose (MC) overlay media. The plaque size increased with decreasing Avicel concentration, but even very diluted Avicel overlays (0.3%) ensured formation of localized plaques. Due to their low viscosity, Avicel overlays were easier to use than methylcellulose overlays, especially in the 96-well culture plates. Furthermore, Avicel overlay could be applied without prior removal of the virus inoculum thus facilitating the assay and reducing chances of cross-contamination. Using neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate, we demonstrated applicability of the Avicel-based plaque reduction assay for testing of antiviral substances. Conclusion Plaque assay under Avicel-containing overlay media is easier, faster and more sensitive than assays under agar- and methylcellulose overlays. The assay can be readily performed in a 96-well plate format and seems particularly suitable for high-throughput virus titrations, serological studies and experiments on viral drug sensitivity. It may also facilitate work with highly pathogenic agents performed under hampered conditions of bio-safety labs. PMID:16945126

  1. Overlay tool comparison for sub-130-nm technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Beth; Bishop, Michael; Benoit, David C.; Silver, Richard M.

    2002-07-01

    The Overlay Metrology Advisory Group (OMAG), which includes representatives from International SEMATECH Member Companies and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, has collaborated to create a unified specification for overlay measurement tools [1]. The methodology and results of an overlay benchmarking comparison of several tools are discussed in this paper. As device technologies shrink below the sub-130nm range, a critical need arises to develop more precise tools to measure overlay. Overlay metrology capability needs to be available for detecting and controlling total device overlay regardless of the source of error. The misregistration measurement uncertainty introduced by the overlay tool can be compared for several systems. A benchmarking study is currently underway and focuses on the existing technique of optical measurement of centerline offsets in different target designs. The critical parameters that the study analyzes include precision, accuracy, throughput, through focus measurements, and recipe portability. Imaging issues such as low contrast targets, across wafer thickness variation, CMP effects, and grainy metal targets can contribute greatly to overlay errors. Several process stacks were designed to incorporate some of these imaging issues and test the limitations of the overlay tools. The same set of wafers and test locations were measured at each supplier site and the results were analyzed. This paper focuses on the methodology used for overlay benchmarking and examples of the results generated with respect to the parameters tested.

  2. Secure key storage and distribution

    DOEpatents

    Agrawal, Punit

    2015-06-02

    This disclosure describes a distributed, fault-tolerant security system that enables the secure storage and distribution of private keys. In one implementation, the security system includes a plurality of computing resources that independently store private keys provided by publishers and encrypted using a single security system public key. To protect against malicious activity, the security system private key necessary to decrypt the publication private keys is not stored at any of the computing resources. Rather portions, or shares of the security system private key are stored at each of the computing resources within the security system and multiple security systems must communicate and share partial decryptions in order to decrypt the stored private key.

  3. Protecting embankment dams with concrete stepped overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Frizell, K.H.

    1997-09-01

    Researchers have verified that concrete steps overlaid on an embankment dam can provide protection against overtopping for a wide range of dam heights and overtopping flows. US Bureau of Reclamation studies have led to development of design criteria that address the step shape and thickness, training wall heights, and toe treatment required. A 4-year research study on concrete step overlay is summarized in the article. Information provided from the study includes test setup, establishment of design criteria, and an application of the design guidelines produced by the test, including cost estimation.

  4. Experimental AC (Asphalt Concrete) overlays of PCC pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. D.

    1983-11-01

    A series of experimental asphalt concrete (AC) overlays was constructed over an existing distressed portland cement concrete pavement on Interstate 80 near Boca, California. The experimental overlays included rubberized dense-graded AC, rubberized open-graded AC, a rubber flush coat interlayer, dense-graded AC with short polyester fibers and Bituthene interlayer strips. The report presents a description and discussion of AC mix batching, construction observations, laboratory testing, overlay covering, and initial performance evaluation.

  5. Assessment of a Cambridge Structural Database-driven overlay program.

    PubMed

    Giangreco, Ilenia; Olsson, Tjelvar S G; Cole, Jason C; Packer, Martin J

    2014-11-24

    We recently published an improved methodology for overlaying multiple flexible ligands and an extensive data set for validating pharmacophore programs. Here, we combine these two developments and present evidence of the effectiveness of the new overlay methodology at predicting correct superimpositions for systems with varying levels of complexity. The overlay program was able to generate correct predictions for 95%, 73%, and 39% of systems classified as easy, moderate, and hard, respectively. PMID:25392927

  6. Pragmatic privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, S.

    1995-10-01

    Chile was probably the first country in the world to privatize under a decentralized and competitive framework a former state-owned power sector. Power sector privatization was conducted with pragmatism, particularly in terms of the speed with which the changes occurred. In fact, the earliest privatization did not occur until 1980 and the process was not completed until early 1990. The privatized Chilean electric industry has performed fairly well in terms of the investments carried out not only in the power sector, but also in other economic activities and in foreign countries. The diversification of ownership and the competitive framework have been an incentive to reach efficiency and a guaranty for the stability of the rules of the game in the long run.

  7. Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.B.; Levin, B.F.; Marder, A.R.

    1999-08-02

    Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied. By depositing an alloy that offers better corrosion resistance than the underlying tube material, the wastage rates can be reduced. While Ni-based and stainless steel compositions are presently providing protection, they are expensive and susceptible to failure via corrosion-fatigue due to microsegregation upon solidification. Another material system presently under consideration for use as a coating in the oxidation/sulfidation environments is iron-aluminum. These alloys are relatively inexpensive, exhibit little microsegregation, and show excellent corrosion resistance. However, their use is limited due to weldability issues and their lack of corrosion characterization in simulated low NO(sub)x gas compositions. Therefore a program was initiated in 1996 to evaluate the use of iron-aluminum weld overlay coatings for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in fossil fired boilers with low NO(sub)x burners. Investigated properties included weldability, corrosion behavior, erosion resistance, and erosion-corrosion performance.

  8. Nordic privatization and private healthcare.

    PubMed

    Ovretveit, John

    2003-01-01

    The role of the private sector in public healthcare systems is much debated, but there is little research to inform the debate. In the Nordic countries the extent and type of private sector involvement is largely unknown and the changes and the consequences have not been studied. This paper presents a conceptual framework and some limited data about the changing private-public mix and privatization in the Nordic countries between 1985 and 2000. The data suggest a small increase in both private financing and provision which has accelerated in recent years, especially in specific healthcare fields such as diagnostic centres, dentistry, primary medical care and care for older people. The overall increase is small, but large in certain sectors. Differences between the countries can only be understood in relation to their historical, financial, economic and political context, even though there are many commonalities. Impact also is context dependent, but the findings do show a cross-country pattern of a willingness to experiment and a change in underlying assumptions. The findings show a more extensive interpenetration of private and public than previously recognized but more research is required, especially about changes in recent years about which data are scarce. The paper considers the factors driving these trends, the likely larger changes in the next 10 years and the possible consequences for patients, professionals, managers and governments. It notes the different ways governments can control or influence finance and provision. It proposes that the Nordic and other governments improve regulation and data collection about the private sector and consider influencing private providers through partnership arrangements, rather than leaving the developments to be shaped by growing consumer demands or market logic alone. PMID:12968800

  9. Real cell overlay measurement through design based metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Lee, Taehyeong; Ji, Sunkeun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun

    2014-04-01

    Until recent device nodes, lithography has been struggling to improve its resolution limit. Even though next generation lithography technology is now facing various difficulties, several innovative resolution enhancement technologies, based on 193nm wavelength, were introduced and implemented to keep the trend of device scaling. Scanner makers keep developing state-of-the-art exposure system which guarantees higher productivity and meets a more aggressive overlay specification. "The scaling reduction of the overlay error has been a simple matter of the capability of exposure tools. However, it is clear that the scanner contributions may no longer be the majority component in total overlay performance. The ability to control correctable overlay components is paramount to achieve the desired performance.(2)" In a manufacturing fab, the overlay error, determined by a conventional overlay measurement: by using an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO, often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area of a memory device. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion, caused by etching or CMP, also can be a source of the mismatch. Therefore, the requirement of a direct overlay measurement in the cell pattern gradually increases in the manufacturing field, and also in the development level. In order to overcome the mismatch between conventional overlay measurement and the real placement error of layer to layer in the cell area of a memory device, we suggest an alternative overlay measurement method utilizing by design, based metrology tool. A basic concept of this method is shown in figure1. A CD-SEM measurement of the overlay error between layer 1 and 2 could be the ideal method but it takes too long time to extract a lot of data from wafer level. An E-beam based DBM tool provides high speed to cover the whole wafer with high repeatability. It is enabled by using the design as a reference for overlay measurement and a high speed scan system. In this paper, we have demonstrated that direct overlay measurement in the cell area can distinguish the mismatch exactly, instead of using overlay mark. This experiment was carried out for several critical layer in DRAM and Flash memory, using DBM(Design Based Metrology) tool, NGR2170.

  10. Hybrid overlay metrology with CDSEM in a BEOL patterning scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Jehoul, Christiane; Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    Overlay metrology accuracy is a major concern for our industry. Advanced logic process require more tighter overlay control for multipatterning schemes. TIS (Tool Induced Shift) and WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) are the main issues for IBO (Image Based Overlay) and DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay). Methods of compensation have been introduced, some are even very efficient to reduce these measured offsets. Another related question is about the overlay target designs. These targets are never fully representative of the design rules, strong efforts have been achieved, but the device cannot be completely duplicated. Ideally, we would like to measure in the device itself to verify the real overlay value. Top down CDSEM can measure critical dimensions of any structure, it is not dependent of specific target design. It can also measure the overlay errors but only in specific cases like LELE (Litho Etch Litho Etch) after final patterning. In this paper, we will revisit the capability of the CDSEM at final patterning by measuring overlay in dedicated targets as well as inside a logic and an SRAM design. In the dedicated overlay targets, we study the measurement differences between design rules gratings and relaxed pitch gratings. These relaxed pitch which are usually used in IBO or DBO targets. Beyond this "simple" LELE case, we will explore the capability of the CDSEM to measure overlay even if not at final patterning, at litho level. We will assess the hybridization of DBO and CDSEM for reference to optical tools after final patterning. We will show that these reference data can be used to validate the DBO overlay results (correctables and residual fingerprints).

  11. A map overlay error model based on boundary geometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, D.; Symanzik, J.; Schmidt, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    An error model for quantifying the magnitudes and variability of errors generated in the areas of polygons during spatial overlay of vector geographic information system layers is presented. Numerical simulation of polygon boundary displacements was used to propagate coordinate errors to spatial overlays. The model departs from most previous error models in that it incorporates spatial dependence of coordinate errors at the scale of the boundary segment. It can be readily adapted to match the scale of error-boundary interactions responsible for error generation on a given overlay. The area of error generated by overlay depends on the sinuosity of polygon boundaries, as well as the magnitude of the coordinate errors on the input layers. Asymmetry in boundary shape has relatively little effect on error generation. Overlay errors are affected by real differences in boundary positions on the input layers, as well as errors in the boundary positions. Real differences between input layers tend to compensate for much of the error generated by coordinate errors. Thus, the area of change measured on an overlay layer produced by the XOR overlay operation will be more accurate if the area of real change depicted on the overlay is large. The model presented here considers these interactions, making it especially useful for estimating errors studies of landscape change over time. ?? 2005 The Ohio State University.

  12. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information... information provided. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance...

  13. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information... Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program (PSCP). DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal...

  14. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  15. Overlay Networks: Applications, Coexistence with IP Layer, and Transient Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuah, Chen-Nee; Keralapura, Ram

    Overlay networks have emerged as a promising paradigm for providing customizable and reliable services at the application layer, such as fault-resilient routing, multicast, and content delivery. This chapter focuses on infrastructure-based overlay networks, where pre-selected nodes (located in one or multiple network domains) are connected to one another through application-layer routing. Overlay routing allows individual flows to optimize route selection based on specific metrics like delay, loss rate, or throughput. When different overlays are simultaneously and independently conducting routing control, they may unintentionally interfere with each other, leading to traffic oscillations. Similarly, problematic interactions can occur between IP and overlay networks. For example, traffic matrices become more dynamic and ambiguous, making them harder to estimate, and load-balancing policies at IP layer can be undermined. We will review existing works that model such interactions and provide guidelines to circumvent these problems.

  16. Private advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Marier, D.; Stoiaken, L.

    1988-03-01

    At least a half dozen independent power producers put out initial public offerings in 1985-86 and the experts were projecting more to come. Most executives of private development companies admitted that they had at least taken a hard look at going public. Several quarters worth of disappointing earnings and the October market crash have brought attention back to the activities of private companies. Fortunately for the industry, at about the same time public-equity markets were closing down, new sources of debt and equity were entering the field in a big way-including insurance companies, pension funds, and utilities. While the development should be good news for all companies in the field (private equity is not necessarily earmarked for private companies), the impact of the crash has made it more difficult for public companies to make their case to the new equity players. The newest players, the unregulated utility subsidiaries, the fastest growing segment in the industry, are probably in a position to put a major dent in the business.

  17. Envelopment technique and topographic overlays in bite mark analysis

    PubMed Central

    Djeapragassam, Parimala; Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramanian Vasudevan; Ramadoss, Koliyan; Jimsha, Vannathan Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aims and objectives of our study were to compare four sequential overlays generated using the envelopment technique and to evaluate inter- and intraoperator reliability of the overlays obtained by the envelopment technique. Materials and Methods: Dental stone models were prepared from impressions made from healthy individuals; photographs were taken and computer-assisted overlays were generated. The models were then enveloped in a different-color dental stone. After this, four sequential cuts were made at a thickness of 1mm each. Each sectional cut was photographed and overlays were generated. Thus, 125 overlays were generated and compared. Results: The scoring was done based on matching accuracy and the data were analyzed. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare four sequential overlays and Spearman's rank correlation tests were used to evaluate the inter- and intraoperator reliability of the overlays obtained by the envelopment technique. Conclusion: Through our study, we conclude that the third and fourth cuts were the best among the four cuts and inter- and intraoperator reliability were found to be statistically significant at 5% level that is 95% confidence interval (P < 0.05). PMID:26816458

  18. Governance and Risk Management of Network and Information Security: The Role of Public Private Partnerships in Managing the Existing and Emerging Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navare, Jyoti; Gemikonakli, Orhan

    Globalisation and new technology has opened the gates to more security risks. As the strategic importance of communication networks and information increased, threats to the security and safety of communication infrastructures, as well as information stored in and/or transmitted increased significantly. The development of the self replicating programmes has become a nightmare for Internet users. Leading companies, strategic organisations were not immune to attacks; they were also "hacked" and overtaken by intruders. Incidents of recent years have also shown that national/regional crisis may also trigger cyber attacks at large scale. Experts forecast that cyber wars are likely to take the stage as tension mounts between developed societies. New risks such as cyber-attacks, network terrorism and disintegration of traditional infrastructures has somewhat blurred the boundaries of operation and control. This paper seeks to consider the risk management and governance and looking more specifically at implications for emerging economies.

  19. Asphaltic concrete overlays of rigid and flexible pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinchen, R. W.; Temple, W. H.

    1980-10-01

    The development of a mechanistic approach to overlay thickness selection is described. The procedure utilizes a deflection analysis to determine pavement rehabilitation needs. Design guides for selecting the overlay thickness are presented. Tolerable deflection-traffic load relationships and the deflection attenuation properties of asphaltic concrete were developed, representing the subgrade support conditions and properties of materials used in Louisiana. All deflection measurements on asphaltic concrete were corrected for the effect of temperature. Deflection measurements taken before and after overlay were also adjusted to minimize the effects of seasonal subgrade moisture variation.

  20. The Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Clare, Loren P.

    2008-01-01

    A document describes the Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator (IONAC) an electronic apparatus, now under development, for relaying data at high rates in spacecraft and interplanetary radio-communication systems utilizing a delay-tolerant networking protocol. The protocol includes provisions for transmission and reception of data in bundles (essentially, messages), transfer of custody of a bundle to a recipient relay station at each step of a relay, and return receipts. Because of limitations on energy resources available for such relays, data rates attainable in a conventional software implementation of the protocol are lower than those needed, at any given reasonable energy-consumption rate. Therefore, a main goal in developing the IONAC is to reduce the energy consumption by an order of magnitude and the data-throughput capability by two orders of magnitude. The IONAC prototype is a field-programmable gate array that serves as a reconfigurable hybrid (hardware/ firmware) system for implementation of the protocol. The prototype can decode 108,000 bundles per second and encode 100,000 bundles per second. It includes a bundle-cache static randomaccess memory that enables maintenance of a throughput of 2.7Gb/s, and an Ethernet convergence layer that supports a duplex throughput of 1Gb/s.

  1. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  2. 6. FIRST FLOOR, ROOM 1, BASEBOARD AND PLASTER OVERLAYING SANDSTONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FIRST FLOOR, ROOM 1, BASEBOARD AND PLASTER OVERLAYING SANDSTONE WALLS, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Taylor Run-Yorty Run Schoolhouse, Legislative Routes 62175 (PA Highway 481) & 62161, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  3. Optimization of alignment/overlay sampling and marker layout to improve overlay performance for double patterning technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chue, Chuei-Fu; Chiou, Tsann-Bim; Huang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Alek C.; Shih, Chiang-Lin

    2009-12-01

    Double patterning technology is capable of extending usability of immersion ArF systems for 32nm half-pitch node and below. However, overlay errors between the two patterning steps will directly contribute to critical dimension variation in a dual litho-etch process. The overlay errors need to be reduced significantly to meet the tight critical dimension uniformity requirement in the technology nodes. The present scanners are able to correct intra- and inter-field overlay errors that include not only linear terms but also certain higher-order terms. As a result, a 3nm overlay requirement for DPT becomes feasible by applying the most advanced correction schemes. Overlay modeling with a larger number of sample fields will give a more accurate estimate of the model parameters and will therefore improve the overlay corrections; however, metrology time will increase simultaneously. To balance the correction accuracy and metrology time, the number of fields and its layout on the wafer must be optimized. This also applies to wafer alignment, one of the other factors that determine the overlay performance. A bad alignment sampling scheme will cause a poor overlay performance in the end. Increasing the number of sample fields can improve the alignment performance but wafer throughput will be impacted immediately. Performance of the intra-field correction is dependent on number and distribution of the markers within an exposure field. Correction per field, for instance, is one of the most effective correction schemes. However, it needs to measure extra markers in each field for overlay modeling especially when including high-order terms. To limit the chip area occupied by the markers and the metrology time, it is necessary to well control the number of the markers. Moreover, accuracy of the overlay models is sensitive to layout of the markers. The overlay marker layout hence needs to be optimized to gain a robust correction with a minimum number of markers. In this paper, firstly we developed various geometry-based sampling methods for both alignment and overlay corrections to evaluate correction robustness while keeping the number of sample fields as small as possible. The results show that modeling with a limited number of fields can adequately describe a full-wafer alignment/overlay signature and the errors can be well corrected accordingly. A hybrid sampling approach was then proposed taking into consideration the spatial coverage (geometry-based) as well as the overlay signature of the fields. To improve the intra-field correction, an algorithm to assist in designing the layout of the overlay markers on a mask was developed. The most effective marker layouts with the least number of markers were suggested for different correction schemes. Using the most effective correction scheme as well as the proposed optimization techniques, the overlay performance can be improved to meet the overlay requirement of the 32nm DPT.

  4. Mixing materials within zone boundaries using shape overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.

    1997-04-22

    Shape overlays provide a means of statically imposing a physical region containing specified material properties onto a zoned mesh. In the most general case, material interface boundaries are unrelated to mesh zone boundaries, causing zones to contain a mixture of materials, and the mesh itself is not uniform in physical space. We develop and apply an algorithm for shape overlays on nonorthogonal, nonuniform meshes in two dimensions. Examples of shape generation in a multiblock uid dynamics code are shown.

  5. Augmenting reality in Direct View Optical (DVO) overlay applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Tim; Edwards, Tim

    2014-06-01

    The integration of overlay displays into rifle scopes can transform precision Direct View Optical (DVO) sights into intelligent interactive fire-control systems. Overlay displays can provide ballistic solutions within the sight for dramatically improved targeting, can fuse sensor video to extend targeting into nighttime or dirty battlefield conditions, and can overlay complex situational awareness information over the real-world scene. High brightness overlay solutions for dismounted soldier applications have previously been hindered by excessive power consumption, weight and bulk making them unsuitable for man-portable, battery powered applications. This paper describes the advancements and capabilities of a high brightness, ultra-low power text and graphics overlay display module developed specifically for integration into DVO weapon sight applications. Central to the overlay display module was the development of a new general purpose low power graphics controller and dual-path display driver electronics. The graphics controller interface is a simple 2-wire RS-232 serial interface compatible with existing weapon systems such as the IBEAM ballistic computer and the RULR and STORM laser rangefinders (LRF). The module features include multiple graphics layers, user configurable fonts and icons, and parameterized vector rendering, making it suitable for general purpose DVO overlay applications. The module is configured for graphics-only operation for daytime use and overlays graphics with video for nighttime applications. The miniature footprint and ultra-low power consumption of the module enables a new generation of intelligent DVO systems and has been implemented for resolutions from VGA to SXGA, in monochrome and color, and in graphics applications with and without sensor video.

  6. Peru privatizes

    SciTech Connect

    Suttil, K.R.

    1993-02-01

    Peru has been undergoing a revolution since the election of Alberto Fujimori as president in 1990. A revolution that is reversing many of the policies of the past 25 years and one which aims to bring Peru back into the mainstream of the world economy. All the enterprises nationalized in the heady days of the early 1970s are set up for privatization. The most important are the three mining companies: Hierro-Peru, Centromin, and Mineroo-Peru. It will not be easy to attract foreign investment after such a long period of political and economic instability but the rewards are there for the intrepid.

  7. ``Electric growth`` of metal overlayers on semiconductor substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Cho, J.H. |; Niu, Q.; Shih, C.K.; Suo, Z.

    1998-02-01

    In this article, the authors present the main results from their recent studies of metal overlayer growth on semiconductor substrates. They show that a variety of novel phenomena can exist in such systems, resulting from several competing interactions. The confined motion of the conduction electrons within the metal overlayer can mediate a surprisingly long-range repulsive force between the metal-semiconductor interface and the growth front, acting to stabilize the overlayer. Electron transfer from the overlayer to the substrate leads to an attractive force between the two interfaces, acting to destabilize the overlayer. Interface-induced Friedel oscillations in electron density can further impose an oscillatory modulation onto the two previous interactions. These three competing factors, of all electronic nature, can make a flat metal overlayer critically, marginally, or magically stable, or totally unstable against roughening. The authors further show that, for many systems, these electronic effects can easily win over the effect of stress. First-principles studies of a few representative systems support the main features of the present electronic growth concept.

  8. Residual stresses in weld overlay tubes: A finite element study

    SciTech Connect

    Taljat, B.; Zacharia, T.; Wang, X.L.; Keiser, J.R.; Feng, Z.; Jirinec, M.J.

    1997-01-03

    Residual stresses and strains in a tube with circumferential weld overlay were analyzed by the finite element (FE) method. The objective of this work was to develop and verify a FE model, to determine the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in the weld overlay tube, and to evaluate the significance of two contributing factors to residual stress: (1) difference in material properties between tube and weld material, and (2) thermal gradients in the weld. An axisymmetric FE model was developed to simulate the circumferential two-layer welding process of alloy 625 overlay on SA210 tube. The first layer was modeled as a gas metal arc welding process with filler metal, whereas the autogenous gas tungsten arc welding process was modeled for the second layer. Neutron diffraction technique was used to experimentally determine residual elastic strains in the weld overlay tube. Comparison with the FE results shows overall good agreement. Both the experimental and FE results show high compressive stresses at the inside tube surface and high tensile stresses in the weld overlay. This suggests that weld overlay may be used to relieve tensile or produce compressive stresses at the inside tube surface, which is significant for applications where crack initiation is found at the root pass of the joining weld.

  9. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  10. Overlay budget considerations for an all-scanner fab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltmann, Rolf; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Staples, Marc; Minvielle, Anna Maria; Schulz, Bernd; Muehle, Sven

    2000-07-01

    According to the SIA roadmap an overlay of 65nm is necessary for state of the art 0.18micrometers processes. To meet such tight requirements it is necessary to know the magnitude of all contributions, to understand possible interactions and to try to drive every individual overlay component to its ultimate lower limit. In this experimental study we evaluate the impact of different contributions on the overall overlay performance in a fab equipped exclusively with ASML step and scan systems. First we discuss the overlay performance of advanced step and scan systems in a mix and match scenario, focusing on single machine overlay, long term stability and multiple machine matching. We show that both distortion and stage differences between different tools are typically less than 22nm, justifying a multiple machine scenario without significant loss of overlay performance. In the next step, we discuss the impact of layer deposition and CMP. We include shallow trench isolation, tungsten-CMP as well as conventional aluminum wiring and copper-dual-damascene technology into our examinations. In particular, we discuss the pro's and con's of using a zero-layer-mark-approach, compared to an alignment on marks formed in certain layers for direct layer to layer alignment. Furthermore, we examine the performance of ASMLs 'through-the-lens' (TTL)-alignment system becomes as small as 6nm using TTL-alignment. For marks directly affected by CMP-processes technology impact can be controlled within 13nm. We show that, even in a scenario with multiple tools matched to each other, where alignment marks are directly affected by a CMP process step, and where the standard TTL alignment marks are directly affected by a CMP process step, and where the standard TTL alignment system is used, the overall overlay can be controlled within 60nm. Using the ATHENA alignment system, a further improvement is possible.

  11. Private database queries using one quantum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou; Yang, Rui

    2015-03-01

    A novel private database query protocol with only one quantum state is proposed. The database owner Bob sends only one quantum state to the user Alice. The proposed protocol combines the idea of semiquantum key distribution and private query. It can be implemented in the situation where not all the parties can afford expensive quantum resources and operations. So our proposal is more practical in use. We also prove that the proposed protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  12. 78 FR 41959 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC); Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector... committee meeting. Name of Committee: State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee... for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert...

  13. Overlay metrology solutions in a triple patterning scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Mao, Ming; Baudemprez, Bart; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Overlay metrology tool suppliers are offering today several options to their customers: Different hardware (Image Based Overlay or Diffraction Based Overlay), different target designs (with or without segmentation) or different target sizes (from 5 um to 30 um). All these variations are proposed to resolve issues like robustness of the target towards process variations, be more representative of the design or increase the density of measurements. In the frame of the development of a triple patterning BEOL scheme of 10 nm node layer, we compare IBO targets (standard AIM, AIMid and multilayer AIMid). The metrology tools used for the study are KLA-Tencor's nextgeneration Archer 500 system (scatterometry- and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool). The overlay response and fingerprint of these targets will be compared using a very dense sampling (up to 51 pts per field). The benefit of indie measurements compared to the traditional scribes is discussed. The contribution of process effects to overlay values are compared to the contribution of the performance of the target. Different targets are combined in one measurement set to benefit from their different strengths (performance vs size). The results are summarized and possible strategies for a triple patterning schemes are proposed.

  14. Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

    The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

  15. Privatization and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private

  16. Cooperative Resource Pricing in Service Overlay Networks for Mobile Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Tadashi; Okaie, Yutaka

    The success of peer-to-peer overlay networks depends on cooperation among participating peers. In this paper, we investigate the degree of cooperation among individual peers required to induce globally favorable properties in an overlay network. Specifically, we consider a resource pricing problem in a market-oriented overlay network where participating peers sell own resources (e.g., CPU cycles) to earn energy which represents some money or rewards in the network. In the resource pricing model presented in this paper, each peer sets the price for own resource based on the degree of cooperation; non-cooperative peers attempt to maximize their own energy gains, while cooperative peers maximize the sum of own and neighbors' energy gains. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the network topology is an important factor influencing the minimum degree of cooperation required to increase the network-wide global energy gain.

  17. Tensile Bond Strength of Latex-Modified Bonded Concrete Overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Cameron; Ramseyer, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The tensile bond strength of bonded concrete overlays was tested using the in-situ pull-off method described in ASTM C 1583 with the goal of determining whether adding latex to the mix design increases bond strength. One slab of ductile concrete (f'c > 12,000 psi) was cast with one half tined, i.e. roughened, and one half steel-troweled, i.e. smooth. The slab surface was sectioned off and overlay mixtures containing different latex contents cast in each section. Partial cores were drilled perpendicular to the surface through the overlay into the substrate. A tensile loading device applied a direct tensile load to each specimen and the load was increased until failure occurred. The tensile bond strength was then calculated for comparison between the specimens.

  18. Smaller, smarter, faster, and more accurate: the new overlay metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, Nelson M.; Gabor, Allen H.; Muth, William A.; Ausschnitt, Christopher P.

    2010-03-01

    With the introduction of double patterning, overlay capability below 5nm is required for optical lithography density scaling to the 22nm node and beyond. Commensurate overlay metrology must enable dense sampling of all patterned area to control single-nanometer systematic sources of error among an increasing number of device layers. This translates to the need for sub-second measurement of microscopic targets representing multiple layers within a metrology tool field of view, all while improving accuracy. Blossom (BLO) is the overlay metrology of record for the IBM 32nm technology. As we will describe here, the densely packed array of layers represented in a single BLO target has enabled us to conduct within-field in-line sampling on our most critical layers. We will also report the significant improvements to metrology performance that have resulted from our migration of BLO technology to a new measurement platform. In addition, as 22nm development proceeds, we are shrinking our overlay targets further. A target suitable for within-chip insertion, a 10?m square micro-Blossom (?BLO) target, can accommodate up to 8 layers. Correlation of ?BLO to BLO measurements on a layer pair shows excellent agreement, and despite an approximately 10X area shrink relative to BLO, the ?BLO measurement uncertainty remains comfortably below 0.5nm. Our paper presents details of our target layout, measurement, and analysis approach. In addition, we detail data representative of overlay variation in state-of-the-art lithographic processes, along with our outlook for overlay metrology implementation for future technologies.

  19. Near-Surface Buckling in Strained Metal Overlayer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, R. Q.; Hamilton, J. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Foiles, S. M.

    1995-12-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of Ag films grown on Ru(0001) reveal a periodic unit cell with a structural transformation at silver coverages slightly less than one monolayer. Dislocations in the overlayers are similar to the Au(111) herringbone structure; however, Ag/Ru(0001) exhibits two novel differences from previously observed herringbone structures. First, the unit cell dimensions change dramatically as a function of coverage. Second, STM images of Ag/Ru(0001) are inverted relative to those for Au(111). We show that this image inversion is due to substantial relaxations perpendicular to the surface resulting from local strains in the silver overlayer.

  20. High-frequency nonreciprocal reflection from magnetic films with overlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying; Nie, Yan; Camley, R. E.

    2013-11-14

    We perform a theoretical study of the nonreciprocal reflection of high-frequency microwave radiation from ferromagnetic films with thin overlayers. Reflection from metallic ferromagnetic films is always near unity and shows no nonreciprocity. In contrast, reflection from a structure which has a dielectric overlayer on top of a film composed of insulated ferromagnetic nanoparticles or nanostructures can show significant nonreciprocity in the 75–80 GHz frequency range, a very high value. This can be important for devices such as isolators or circulators.

  1. Measured residual stresses in overlay pipe weldments removed from service

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Surface and throughwall residual stresses were measured on an elbow-to-pipe weldment that had been removed from the Hatch-2 reactor about a year after the application of a weld overlay. The results were compared with experimental measurements on three mock-up weldments and with finite-element calculations. The comparison shows that there are significant differences in the form and magnitude of the residual stress distributions. However, even after more than a year of service, the residual stresses over most of the inner surface of the actual plant weldment with an overlay were strongly compressive. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Flexible TWDM PON with WDM overlay for converged services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ning

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews recent developments of flexible TWDM PON (time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network) with pluggable transceivers for pay-as-you-grow deployment, load balancing, channel protection and power saving. Different architectures for TWDM PON with WDM (wavelength division multiplexed) overlay for converged broadband services are discussed and experimental results are presented for WDM overlay using low-cost self-seeded RSOA (reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers). Challenging issues and possible solutions for future evolution toward software defined flexible PONs (FlexPONs) are also discussed with respect to dynamic lambda flow, elastic bandwidth and flexible reach.

  3. 75 FR 80082 - State, Local, Tribal, And Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, And Private Sector... Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC). The SLTPS-PAC will advise the President, the... classified national security information by U.S. State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities,...

  4. 12. DETAIL INDICATING TRANSITION FROM ORIGINAL SURFACE TO GUNITE OVERLAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL INDICATING TRANSITION FROM ORIGINAL SURFACE TO GUNITE OVERLAY ON UPSTREAM EMBANKMENT OF DAM (FROM REPAIRS COMPLETED IN 1977) - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  5. Forged seal detection based on the seal overlay metric.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joong; Kong, Seong G; Lee, Young-Soo; Moon, Ki-Woong; Jeon, Oc-Yeub; Han, Jong Hyun; Lee, Bong-Woo; Seo, Joong-Suk

    2012-01-10

    This paper describes a method for verifying the authenticity of a seal impression imprinted on a document based on the seal overlay metric, which refers to the ratio of an effective seal impression pattern and the noise in the neighborhood of the reference impression region. A reference seal pattern is obtained by taking the average of a number of high-quality impressions of a genuine seal. A target seal impression to be examined, often on paper with some background texts and lines, is segmented out from the background by an adaptive threshold applied to the histogram of color components. The segmented target seal impression is then spatially aligned with the reference by maximizing the count of matching pixels. Then the seal overlay metric is computed for the reference and the target. If the overlay metric of a target seal is below a predetermined limit for the similarity to the genuine, then the target is classified as a forged seal. To further reduce the misclassification rate, the seal overlay metric is adjusted by the filling rate, which reflects the quality of inked pattern of the target seal. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can detect elaborate seal impressions created by advanced forgery techniques such as lithography and computer-aided manufacturing. PMID:21890293

  6. Semantic overlay network for large-scale spatial information indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yue; Cao, Kai; Qu, Tianshan; Wang, Zhongmin

    2013-08-01

    The increased demand for online services of spatial information poses new challenges to the combined filed of Computer Science and Geographic Information Science. Amongst others, these include fast indexing of spatial data in distributed networks. In this paper we propose a novel semantic overlay network for large-scale multi-dimensional spatial information indexing, called SON_LSII, which has a hybrid structure integrating a semantic quad-tree and Chord ring. The SON_LSII is a small world overlay network that achieves a very competitive trade-off between indexing efficiency and maintenance overhead. To create SON_LSII, we use an effective semantic clustering strategy that considers two aspects, i.e., the semantic of spatial information that peer holds in overlay network and physical network performances. Based on SON_LSII, a mapping method is used to reduce the multi-dimensional features into a single dimension and an efficient indexing algorithm is presented to support complex range queries of the spatial information with a massive number of concurrent users. The results from extensive experiments demonstrate that SON_LSII is superior to existing overlay networks in various respects, including scalability, maintenance, rate of indexing hits, indexing logical hops, and adaptability. Thus, the proposed SON_LSII can be used for large-scale spatial information indexing.

  7. Promoting Learning of Instructional Design via Overlay Design Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Andrew Jacob

    2012-01-01

    I begin by introducing Virtual Design Apprenticeship (VDA), a learning model--built on a solid foundation of education principles and theories--that promotes learning of design skills via overlay design tools. In VDA, when an individual needs to learn a new design skill or paradigm she is provided accessible, concrete examples that have been

  8. Crosslayer Survivability in Overlay-IP-WDM Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacharintanakul, Peera

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet moves towards a three-layer architecture consisting of overlay networks on top of the IP network layer on top of WDM-based physical networks, incorporating the interaction between and among network layers is crucial for efficient and effective implementation of survivability. This dissertation has four major foci as follows:

  9. BWR pipe crack and weld clad overlay studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.E.; Rybicki, E.F.

    1985-10-01

    This paper presents results on (a) the influence of simulated BWR environments and temperature on the intergranular-stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility of sensitized stainless steels (SS), (b) the stress-corrosion susceptibility of alternative piping materials, (c) analysis of field components to assess the effectiveness of in-service inspection techniques and the in-reactor performance of weld overlay repairs, and (d) finite-element analyses and experimental measurement of residual stresses in weldments with weld overlays. Fracture-mechanics crack-growth data are presented to confirm correlations between the critical corrosion potentials required to inhibit IGSCC and the level of impurities in the environment. Slow-strain-rate tests show that very low levels of impurities (25 ppb of sulfate) can produce suseptibility to transgranular-stress-corrosion cracking (TGSCC) in Type 316NG SS and that nitrogen levels is SS above 0.1 wt. % appear to increase susceptibility to TGSCC. Preliminary results on a German Type 347NG SS suggest that it is at least as resistant to TGSCC in impurity environments as Type 316NG SS. Measurements on overlay weldments removed from the Hatch-2 reactor confirm that compressive residual stresses are produced on the inner surface of the weldments by the overlay.

  10. Incidental Learning of Geospatial Concepts across Grade Levels: Map Overlay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battersby, Sarah E.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Marsh, Meredith J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors evaluate map overlay, a concept central to geospatial thinking, to determine how it is naively and technically understood, as well as to identify when it is leaner innately. The evaluation is supported by results from studies at three grade levels to show the progression of incidentally learned geospatial knowledge as

  11. Improved overlay control through automated high order compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamoto, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yasukawa, K.; Sukegawa, A.; Maejima, S.; Kato, A.; Robinson, J. C.; Eichelberger, B. J.; Izikson, P.; Adel, M.

    2007-03-01

    As Moore's Law drives CD smaller and smaller, overlay budget is shrinking rapidly. Furthermore, the cost of advanced lithography tools prohibits usage of latest and greatest scanners on non-critical layers, resulting in different layers being exposed with different tools; a practice commonly known as 'mix and match.' Since each tool has its unique signature, mix and match becomes the source of high order overlay errors. Scanner alignment performance can be degraded by a factor of 2 in mix and match, compared to single tool overlay operation. In a production environment where scanners from different vendors are mixed, errors will be even more significant. Mix and match may also be applied to a single scanner when multiple illumination modes are used to expose critical levels. This is because different illuminations will have different impact to scanner aberration fingerprint. The semiconductor technology roadmap has reached a point where such errors are no longer negligible. Mix and match overlay errors consist of scanner stage grid component, scanner field distortion component, and process induced wafer distortion. Scanner components are somewhat systematic, so they can be characterized on non product wafers using a dedicated reticle. Since these components are known to drift over time it becomes necessary to monitor them periodically, per scanner, per illumination. In this paper, we outline a methodology for automating characterization of mix and match errors, and a control system for real-time correction.

  12. Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, John L.

    2001-01-01

    This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)

  13. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  14. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  15. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  16. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  17. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  18. Impact of overlay metrology on design rule tolerance and shrinkability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasinski, A.; Walker, A. J.

    2005-05-01

    Design rule development for next technology generations depends on the progress in the optical and mechanical properties of steppers and photomasks. For two basic types of design rules: those that define minimum critical dimensions (CD, line and space), and those that define overlay/enclosure (OL) between layers, the shrinkpaths with technology nodes are generally unrelated. The min CD rules are dictated by stepper resolution limits and mask minimum features, the overlay rules - by the respective mechanical tolerances of the printing hardware. However, successful shrinks of design databases to the subsequent technology nodes require that all the design rules be scaled, preferably by the same factor. In this work, we first discuss the impact of the different types of rules on the layout architecture. We then show how one derives OL design rules from alignment tolerances. One method is based on the Lynch numbers (LN), corresponding to the misalignment budget ensuring that the OL yield loss is no more than 0.5% per mask level. However, LN"s are not directly measured in the fab. An alternative method is based on the 3s misregistration error. We demonstrate that these two methods show similar results for several types of masks and steppers. Finally, we show how the trend of overlay tolerance (OL) improvement compares with the trend of min feature size (CD) reduction. The data shows an offset between the OL and the CD trends amounting to 14 nm for the 45 nm technology node. This offset, which we call the overlay tolerance gap, means that enclosure rules would, in general, scale at a slower pace compared to the rules dictated by the linear CD shrink. One should note that the OL tolerance is influenced by matching of reticles and steppers and can be improved by the rework of wafers in line. In summary, we discuss theoretical and manufacturing-related aspects of overlay metrology, to advance design rule shrinks aligned with technology roadmap.

  19. 75 FR 66822 - Study on Extraterritorial Private Rights of Action

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Act'') should be extended to cover transnational securities fraud. The Commission is soliciting... securities fraud. Congress further directed the Commission to conduct a study to determine whether, and to... cases of transnational securities fraud should be extended to private rights of action to the...

  20. 7 CFR 1962.41 - Sale of chattel security or EO property by borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Private sale. The borrower may sell chattel security or EO property at a private sale if: (1)(i) The... liquidation of such security. The County Supervisor will document in the running case record the reasons that... Chattel Security. This form authorizes the agency to sell the security at either public or private...

  1. A finite element overlay technique for modeling pinned composite joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colvin, G. E.; Adams, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    A finite element technique using overlaid plane stress elements is presented for modeling a pinned composite joint. The technique allows for discrete modeling of the pin and web regions of the joint in a two-dimensional (2-D) finite element analysis. Thus, predictive capability is substantially increased without the added complexity of a three-dimensional (3-D) analysis. The overlay technique requires a thorough evaluation of the model constraints between the joint components. Bearing panels are used to account for a reduced compressive modulus under bearing loads. Application of the plane stress overlay technique to the Filament Wound Case (FWC) Program is discussed. The experimental approach to determine bearing panel moduli using a double lap shear test is detailed, and finite element results are correlated with full-scale FWC joint test results.

  2. Near-Surface Buckling in Strained Metal Overlayer Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, R.Q.; Hamilton, J.C.; Stevens, J.L.; Foiles, S.M.

    1995-12-04

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of Ag films grown on Ru(0001) reveal a periodic unit cell with a structural transformation at silver coverages slightly less than one monolayer. Dislocations in the overlayers are similar to the Au(111) herringbone structure; however, Ag/Ru(0001) exhibits two novel differences from previously observed herringbone structures. First, the unit cell dimensions change dramatically as a function of coverage. Second, STM images of Ag/Ru(0001) are inverted relative to those for Au(111). We show that this image inversion is due to substantial relaxations perpendicular to the surface resulting from local strains in the silver overlayer. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital The} {ital American} {ital Physical} {ital Society}.

  3. Ion beam mixing of titanium overlayers with hydroxyapaptite substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, T.E.; Nastasi, M.; Alford, T.L.; Suchicital, C.; Russell, S.; Luptak, K.; Pizziconi, V.; Mayer, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The mixing of titanium overlayers with hydroxyapatite (HA) substrates via ion irradiation has been demonstrated. Analysis via secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) indicates an interfacial broadening of titanium and calcium of the implanted sample compared to that of the unimplanted sample. Attendant to the observed ion beam mixing of titanium into the HA, the oxygen signal of the titanium overlayer increases as a result of ion irradiation. It is supposed that this change is evident of diffusion through the metal layer and possibly from titania formation at the free surface and perovskite formation at the film/substrate interface. This possibility is consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Additionally, the force required to separate the film from the substrate increased as a result of ion irradiation, validating the continued study of ion beam processing of Ti/HA systems towards the improvement of long term fixation of implant devices.

  4. Performance of Superposition Coded Broadcast/Unicast Service Overlay System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seokhyun; Kim, Donghee

    The system level performance of a superposition coded broadcast/unicast service overlay system is considered. Cellular network for unicast service only is considered as interference limited system, where increasing the transmission power does not help improve the network throughput especially when the frequency reuse factor is close to 1. In such cases, the amount of power that does not contribute to improving the throughput can be considered as unused. This situation motivates us to use the unused power for broadcast services, which can be efficiently provided in OFDM based single frequency networks as in digital multimedia broadcast systems. In this paper, we investigate the performance of such a broadcast/unicast overlay system in which a single frequency broadcast service is superimposed over a unicast cellular service. Alternative service multiplexing using FDM/TDM is also considered for comparison.

  5. Efficient overlay of small organic molecules using 3D pharmacophores.

    PubMed

    Wolber, Gerhard; Dornhofer, Alois A; Langer, Thierry

    2006-12-01

    Aligning and overlaying two or more bio-active molecules is one of the key tasks in computational drug discovery and bio-activity prediction. Especially chemical-functional molecule characteristics from the view point of a macromolecular target represented as a 3D pharmacophore are the most interesting similarity measure when describing and analyzing macromolecule-ligand interaction. In this study, a novel approach for aligning rigid three-dimensional molecules according to their chemical-functional pharmacophoric features is presented and compared to the overlay of experimentally determined poses in a comparable macromolecule coordinate frame. The presented approach identifies optimal chemical feature pairs using distance and density characteristics obtained by correlating pharmacophoric geometries and thus proves to be faster than existing combinatorial alignment methods and creates more reasonable alignments than pure atom-based methods. Examples will be provided to demonstrate the feasibility, speed and intuitiveness of this method. PMID:17051340

  6. Daylighting design overlays for equidistant sun-path projections

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, S.

    1981-08-01

    Projections of the Sun's daily and seasonal paths frequently are used to solve building design problems involving site obstructions and shading of fenestration. In the United States, equidistant projections are perhaps the most widely used (compared to other sunpath projections) because of the commercial availability of a complete set of sun-path diagrams for a range of useful latitudes. This paper describes the development of a set of overlays designed for use with sun-path projections to predict illumination on any building surface throughout the year for standard climatological conditions. Illumination is calculated for clear and overcast skies and for direct sunlight using algorithms recommended by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE). Values for illumination incident upon the surface, as well as transmitted through single and double glazing, can be calculated. Similar overlays for solar radiation are being developed.

  7. Chlorine adsorption on Au(111): chlorine overlayer or surface chloride?

    PubMed

    Gao, Weiwei; Baker, Thomas A; Zhou, Ling; Pinnaduwage, Dilini S; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Friend, Cynthia M

    2008-03-19

    We report the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) investigation, combined with density functional theory calculations, to resolve controversy regarding the bonding and structure of chlorine adsorbed on Au(111). STM experiments are carried out at 120 K to overcome instability caused by mobile species upon chlorine adsorption at room temperature. Chlorine adsorption initially lifts the herringbone reconstruction. At low coverages (<0.33 ML), chlorine binds to the top of Au(111)-(1 x 1) surface and leads to formation of an overlayer with (square root(3) x square root(3))R30 degree structure at 0.33 ML. At higher coverages, packing chlorine into an overlayer structure is no longer favored. Gold atoms incorporate into a complex superlattice of a Au-Cl surface compound. PMID:18290645

  8. Modeling the dynamical interaction between epidemics on overlay networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marceau, Vincent; Nol, Pierre-Andr; Hbert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Dub, Louis J.

    2011-08-01

    Epidemics seldom occur as isolated phenomena. Typically, two or more viral agents spread within the same host population and may interact dynamically with each other. We present a general model where two viral agents interact via an immunity mechanism as they propagate simultaneously on two networks connecting the same set of nodes. By exploiting a correspondence between the propagation dynamics and a dynamical process performing progressive network generation, we develop an analytical approach that accurately captures the dynamical interaction between epidemics on overlay networks. The formalism allows for overlay networks with arbitrary joint degree distribution and overlap. To illustrate the versatility of our approach, we consider a hypothetical delayed intervention scenario in which an immunizing agent is disseminated in a host population to hinder the propagation of an undesirable agent (e.g., the spread of preventive information in the context of an emerging infectious disease).

  9. UHV preparation of organic overlayers by a molecular beam technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtkamp, D.; Lange, W.; Jirikowsky, M.; Benninghoven, A.

    Evaporation rates on amino acids are determined by means of a quartz crystal microbalance; from the data vapour pressures are calculated. By exposing a target to a molecular beam, organic overlayers are produced in situ, their thickness being controlled by "static" AES. Regarding organic materials with relatively low vapour pressures, this technique permits the preparation of submono-, mono-, and multilayers in a defined, reproducible manner.

  10. Diffusion Barriers to Increase the Oxidative Life of Overlay Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Lei, Jih-Fen

    1999-01-01

    Currently, most blades and vanes in the hottest section of aero gas turbine engines require some type of coating for oxidation protection. Newly developed single crystal superalloys have the mechanical potential to operate at increasingly higher component temperatures. However, at these elevated temperatures, coating/substrate interdiffusion can shorten the protective life of the coating. Diffusion barriers between overlay coatings and substrates are being examined to extend the protective life of the coating. A previously- developed finite-difference diffusion model has been modified to predict the oxidative life enhancement due to use of a diffusion barrier. The original diffusion model, designated COSIM, simulates Al diffusion in the coating to the growing oxide scale as well as Al diffusion into the substrate. The COSIM model incorporates an oxide growth and spalling model to provide the rate of Al consumption during cyclic oxidation. Coating failure is predicted when the Al concentration at the coating surface drops to a defined critical level. The modified COSIM model predicts the oxidative life of an overlay coating when a diffusion barrier is present eliminating diffusion of Al from the coating into the substrate. Both the original and the modified diffusion models have been used to predict the effectiveness of a diffusion barrier in extending the protective life of a NiCrAl overlay coating undergoing cyclic oxidation at 1100 C.

  11. Hg binding on Pd binary alloys and overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmaz, E.; Aboud, S.; Wilcox, J.

    2009-05-15

    The vast majority of the mercury released from coal combustion is elemental mercury. Noble metals such as Pd, Au, Ag, and Cu have been proposed to capture elemental mercury. Density functional theory calculations are carried out to investigate mercury interactions with Pd binary alloys and overlays in addition to pure Pd, Au, Ag, and Cu surfaces using a projected augmented wave method with the Perdew-Wang generalized 0 gradient approximation. It has been determined that Pd has the highest mercury binding energy in comparison to other noble metals. In addition, Pd is found to be the primary surface atom responsible for improving the interaction of mercury with the surface atoms in both Pd binary alloys and overlays. Deposition of Pd overlays on Au and Ag enhance the reactivity of the surface by shifting the d-states of surface atoms up in energy. Strong mercury binding causes a significant overlap between the s- and p-states of Pd and the d-state of Mercury.

  12. Framework for exploring the interaction between design rules and overlay control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaida, Rani S.; Gupta, Mukul; Gupta, Puneet

    2013-07-01

    Overlay control is becoming increasingly more important with the scaling of technology. It has become even more critical and more challenging with the move toward multiple-patterning lithography, where overlay translates into CD variability. Design rules and overlay have strong interaction and can have a considerable impact on the design area, yield, and performance. We study this interaction and evaluate the overall design impact of rules, overlay characteristics, and overlay control options. For this purpose, we developed a model for yield loss from overlay that considers overlay residue after correction and the breakdown between field-to-field and within-field overlay; the model is then incorporated into a general design-rule evaluation framework to study the overlay/design interaction. The framework can be employed to optimize design rules and more accurately project overlay-control requirements of the manufacturing process. The framework is used to explore the design impact of litho-etch litho-etch double-patterning rules and poly line-end extension rule defined between poly and active layer for different overlay characteristics (i.e., within-field versus field-to-field overlay) and different overlay models at the 14-nm node. Interesting conclusions can be drawn from our results. For example, one result shows that increasing the minimum mask-overlap length by 1 nm would allow the use of a third-order wafer/sixth-order field-level overlay model instead of a sixth-order wafer/sixth-order field-level model with negligible impact on design.

  13. Governance of Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Charles J.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes survey findings from the 50 state departments of education on state accreditation, approval, licensure, and teacher certification of private elementary and secondary schools. Availability: Private School Quarterly, P.O. Box 21587, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33335. (MLF)

  14. 76 FR 6702 - Private Transfer Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... fees for comment on ] August 16, 2010 (75 FR 49932) and requested public comments during a 60-day... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency... transfer fee covenants and in certain related securities. Such covenants are adverse to the liquidity...

  15. Private-Loan Reliance Worries Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2008-01-01

    At many colleges across the nation, as administrators fret about the effects of a worsening economy, students arriving this fall will get more help securing jobs and more advice on paying for their educations. Some students will even find colleges willing to cut their tuition bills. This article reports that as banks tighten standards for private

  16. Case study of virtual private network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Harold; Chung, Ping-Tsai

    2001-07-01

    In this study, business benefits for this Virtual Private Network (VPN) and protocols, techniques, equipments used in this VPN are reported. In addition, our design experience for fault tolerance, security and network management and administration on this VPN are showed. Finally, the issues for future planning of this VPN is addressed.

  17. Motivating the Private vs. Public Sector Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Mak

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards received 362 responses from 380 managers. Pay and security were greater motivators for private than for public sector managers. Recognition had higher motivating potential in the public sector. Both groups were motivated by achievement and advancement. (SK)

  18. Quantum Private Comparison Based on Phase Encoding of Single Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Bing; Ma, Ying-Jie; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Yan-shuo

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme for quantum private comparison using phase encoding. The analysis indicates that the scheme is secure, and can prevent some familiar attacks. With the use of error-correcting code (ECC), it achieves a limited fault tolerant quantum private comparison. The scheme is easy to be realized in current experiments.

  19. Private randomness expansion with untrusted devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

    2011-03-01

    Randomness is an important resource for many applications, from gambling to secure communication. However, guaranteeing that the output from a candidate random source could not have been predicted by an outside party is a challenging task, and many supposedly random sources used today provide no such guarantee. Quantum solutions to this problem exist, for example a device which internally sends a photon through a beamsplitter and observes on which side it emerges, but, presently, such solutions require the user to trust the internal workings of the device. Here, we seek to go beyond this limitation by asking whether randomness can be generated using untrusted deviceseven ones created by an adversarial agentwhile providing a guarantee that no outside party (including the agent) can predict it. Since this is easily seen to be impossible unless the user has an initially private random string, the task we investigate here is private randomness expansion. We introduce a protocol for private randomness expansion with untrusted devices which is designed to take as input an initially private random string and produce as output a longer private random string. We point out that private randomness expansion protocols are generally vulnerable to attacks that can render the initial string partially insecure, even though that string is used only inside a secure laboratory; our protocol is designed to remove this previously unconsidered vulnerability by privacy amplification. We also discuss extensions of our protocol designed to generate an arbitrarily long random string from a finite initially private random string. The security of these protocols against the most general attacks is left as an open question.

  20. Security message exchange interoperability scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, Thomas

    1998-07-01

    This contribution describes three interoperability scenarios for the ATM Security Message Exchange (SME) protocol. These scenarios include network-wide signaling support for the Security Services Information Element, partial signaling support wherethe SSIE is only supported in private or workgroup ATM networks, and the case where the SSIE is nonsupported by any network elements (exceptthosethat implement security services). Explanatory text is proposed for inclusion infection 2.3 of the ATM Security Specification, Version 1.0.

  1. A framework for exploring the interaction between design rules and overlay control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaida, Rani S.; Gupta, Mukul; Gupta, Puneet

    2013-04-01

    Overlay control is becoming increasingly more important with the scaling of technology. It has become even more critical and more challenging with the move toward multiple-patterning lithography, where overlay translates into CD variability. Design rules and overlay have strong interaction and can have a considerable impact on the design area, yield, and performance. This paper offers a framework to study this interaction and evaluate the overall design impact of rules, overlay characteristics, and overlay control options. The framework can also be used for designing informed, design-aware overlay metrology and control strategies. In this work, The framework was used to explore the design impact of LELE doublepatterning rules and poly-line end extension rule defined between poly and active layer for different overlay characteristics (i.e., within-field vs. field-to-field overlay) and different overlay models at the 14nm node. Interesting conclusions can be drawn from our results. For example, one result shows that increasing the minimum mask-overlap length by 1nm would allow the use of a third-order wafer/sixth-order field-level overlay model instead of a sixth-order wafer/sixth-order field-level model with negligible impact on design.

  2. Securing collaborative environments

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah; Jackson, Keith; Thompson, Mary

    2002-05-16

    The diverse set of organizations and software components involved in a typical collaboratory make providing a seamless security solution difficult. In addition, the users need support for a broad range of frequency and locations for access to the collaboratory. A collaboratory security solution needs to be robust enough to ensure that valid participants are not denied access because of its failure. There are many tools that can be applied to the task of securing collaborative environments and these include public key infrastructure, secure sockets layer, Kerberos, virtual and real private networks, grid security infrastructure, and username/password. A combination of these mechanisms can provide effective secure collaboration capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the requirements of typical collaboratories and some proposals for applying various security mechanisms to collaborative environments.

  3. Ductile film delamination from compliant substrates using hard overlayers

    PubMed Central

    Cordill, M.J.; Marx, V.M.; Kirchlechner, C.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible electronic devices call for copper and gold metal films to adhere well to polymer substrates. Measuring the interfacial adhesion of these material systems is often challenging, requiring the formulation of different techniques and models. Presented here is a strategy to induce well defined areas of delamination to measure the adhesion of copper films on polyimide substrates. The technique utilizes a stressed overlayer and tensile straining to cause buckle formation. The described method allows one to examine the effects of thin adhesion layers used to improve the adhesion of flexible systems. PMID:25641995

  4. 21 CFR 1311.30 - Requirements for storing and using a private key for digitally signing orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for storing and using a private key... Certificates for Electronic Orders 1311.30 Requirements for storing and using a private key for digitally... private key. (b) The certificate holder must provide FIPS-approved secure storage for the private key,...

  5. 21 CFR 1311.30 - Requirements for storing and using a private key for digitally signing orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for storing and using a private key... Certificates for Electronic Orders 1311.30 Requirements for storing and using a private key for digitally... private key. (b) The certificate holder must provide FIPS-approved secure storage for the private key,...

  6. 21 CFR 1311.30 - Requirements for storing and using a private key for digitally signing orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for storing and using a private key... Certificates for Electronic Orders 1311.30 Requirements for storing and using a private key for digitally... private key. (b) The certificate holder must provide FIPS-approved secure storage for the private key,...

  7. 21 CFR 1311.30 - Requirements for storing and using a private key for digitally signing orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for storing and using a private key... Certificates for Electronic Orders 1311.30 Requirements for storing and using a private key for digitally... private key. (b) The certificate holder must provide FIPS-approved secure storage for the private key,...

  8. Examination of overlay pipe weldments removed from the Hatch-2 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.Y.; Kupperman, D.S.; Shack, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Laboratory ultrasonic examination (UT), dye penetrant examination (PT), metallography, and sensitization measurements were performed on Type 304 stainless steel overlay pipe weldments from the Hatch-2 BWR to determine the effectiveness of UT through overlays and the effects of the overlays on crack propagation in the weldments. Little correlation was observed between the results of earlier in-service ultrasonic inspection and the results of PT and destructive examination. Considerable difficulty was encountered in correctly detecting the presence of cracks by UT in the laboratory. Blunting of the crack tip by the weld overlay was observed, but there was no evidence of tearing or throughwall extension of the crack beyond the blunted region.

  9. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... private cars, including business/office cars and circus, on or connected to the general railroad system...

  10. 49 CFR 1580.101 - Rail security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars 1580.101 Rail security coordinator. (a) Applicability... private cars, including business/office cars and circus trains, on or connected to the general...

  11. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... private cars, including business/office cars and circus, on or connected to the general railroad system...

  12. 49 CFR 1580.101 - Rail security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars 1580.101 Rail security coordinator. (a) Applicability... private cars, including business/office cars and circus trains, on or connected to the general...

  13. Quantum Mechanically Defined Critical Thickness in Metallic Overlayer Heteroepitaxy^1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Niu, Qian; Shih, Chih-Kang

    1997-03-01

    In a recent study of Ag film growth on GaAs(110), one startling observation was the existence of a critical thickness: an atomically flat overlayer can be formed only if the total Ag coverage exceeds a minimum value of about 7 ML.^2 Here we provide an explanation of the phenomena by invoking the quantum nature of the conduction electrons within an ultrathin metallic overlayer. We show that the discrete levels of the quantum well play a very important role in defining the overall energetics of the system. The critical thickness is found to be the minimal thickness of the film at which the conduction electrons can be truly confined without much charge spilling into the semiconductor. A quantitative comparison with the experiment is made using a thermodynamic analysis based on a simple model. ^1 Supported by DOE, NSF, and the R.A. Welch Foundation. ^2 A. R. Smith, K.-J. Chao, Q. Niu, and C. K. Shih, Science 273, 226 (1996).

  14. Lightweight storage and overlay networks for fault tolerance.

    SciTech Connect

    Oldfield, Ron A.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation of capability-class, massively parallel processing (MPP) systems is expected to have hundreds of thousands to millions of processors, In such environments, it is critical to have fault-tolerance mechanisms, including checkpoint/restart, that scale with the size of applications and the percentage of the system on which the applications execute. For application-driven, periodic checkpoint operations, the state-of-the-art does not provide a scalable solution. For example, on today's massive-scale systems that execute applications which consume most of the memory of the employed compute nodes, checkpoint operations generate I/O that consumes nearly 80% of the total I/O usage. Motivated by this observation, this project aims to improve I/O performance for application-directed checkpoints through the use of lightweight storage architectures and overlay networks. Lightweight storage provide direct access to underlying storage devices. Overlay networks provide caching and processing capabilities in the compute-node fabric. The combination has potential to signifcantly reduce I/O overhead for large-scale applications. This report describes our combined efforts to model and understand overheads for application-directed checkpoints, as well as implementation and performance analysis of a checkpoint service that uses available compute nodes as a network cache for checkpoint operations.

  15. Coded multiple chirp spread spectrum system and overlay service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Junghwan; Pratt, Timothy; Ha, Tri T.

    1988-01-01

    An asynchronous spread-spectrum system called coded multiple chirp is proposed, and the possible spread-spectrum overlay over an analog FM-TV signal is investigated by computer simulation. Multiple single-sloped up and down chirps are encoded by a pseudonoise code and decoded by dechirpers (pulse-compression filters) followed by a digital code correlator. The performance of the proposed system, expressed in terms of in probability of bit error and code miss probability, is similar to that of FSK (frequency shift keying) using codewords if sufficient compression gain is used. When chirp is used to overlay an FM-TV channel, two chirp signals with data rate up to 25 kb/s could be overlaid in a 36-MHz satellite transponder without significant mutual interference. Performance estimates for a VSAT (very small aperture terminal) earth station operating at C-band show that a 2.4-m antenna and 300-mW transmitter could send a 2.4-kb/s signal to a large central earth station over an occupied channel.

  16. Modeling Patterning of Heteroepitaxial Overlayers from Nano to Micron Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2013-03-01

    Thin heteroepitaxial overlayers have been proposed as templates to generate stable, self-organized nanostructures at large length scales, with a variety of important technological applications. However, modeling strain-driven self-organization is a formidable challenge due to a large span of length and time scales involved. In this talk, I will present a method for predicting the patterning of ultrathin films on micron length scales with atomic resolution [K.R. Elder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 226102 (2012)]. It is based on the Phase-Field Crystal model, which allows one to reach diffusive time scales for relaxation of the system. We make quantitative predictions for the type of superstructures (stripes, honeycomb, triangular) and length scales of pattern formation of both compressively strained and tensile overlayers on metal-metal systems, including Cu on Ru(0001), Cu on Pd(111), and Ag on Cu(111). Our findings are in excellent agreement with previous experiments and call for future experimental investigations of such systems.

  17. Quantum private comparison over noisy channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddhu, Vikesh; Arvind

    2015-08-01

    Quantum private comparison (QPC) allows us to protect private information during its comparison. In the past, various three-party quantum protocols have been proposed that claim to work well under noisy conditions. Here, we tackle the problem of QPC under noise. We analyze the EPR-based protocol under depolarizing noise, bit flip and phase flip noise. We show how noise affects the robustness of the EPR-based protocol. We then present a straightforward protocol based on CSS codes to perform QPC which is robust against noise and secure under general attacks.

  18. 77 FR 41204 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector... the committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee. To..., Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. DATES: The meeting will be held on July 25, 2012, 10:00 a.m. to...

  19. 78 FR 75376 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTP-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector..., Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTP-PAC). The meeting will be held to..., and Private Sector Entities. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting will be...

  20. 76 FR 80971 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector... committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee. To discuss the... Private Sector Entities. DATES: The meeting will be held on January 18, 2012, 10 a.m. to 12...

  1. 32 CFR 2001.36 - Classified information in the custody of private organizations or individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified information in the custody of private... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification § 2001.36 Classified information in the custody of private... information by a private organization or individual provided that all access and safeguarding requirements...

  2. 17 CFR 275.202(a)(30)-1 - Foreign private advisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foreign private advisers. 275... private advisers. (a) Client. You may deem the following to be a single client for purposes of section 202...) You are not required to count a private fund as a client if you count any investor, as that term...

  3. 17 CFR 275.202(a)(30)-1 - Foreign private advisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foreign private advisers. 275... private advisers. (a) Client. You may deem the following to be a single client for purposes of section 202...) You are not required to count a private fund as a client if you count any investor, as that term...

  4. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  5. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  6. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  7. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  8. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  9. Virtual overlay metrology for fault detection supported with integrated metrology and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong-Goo; Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Kim, Min-Suk; Han, Sang-Jun; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kwon, Won-Taik; Park, Sung-Ki; Ryan, Kevin; Theeuwes, Thomas; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Lim, Young-Wan; Slotboom, Daan; Kubis, Michael; Staecker, Jens

    2015-03-01

    While semiconductor manufacturing moves toward the 7nm node for logic and 15nm node for memory, an increased emphasis has been placed on reducing the influence known contributors have toward the on product overlay budget. With a machine learning technique known as function approximation, we use a neural network to gain insight to how known contributors, such as those collected with scanner metrology, influence the on product overlay budget. The result is a sufficiently trained function that can approximate overlay for all wafers exposed with the lithography system. As a real world application, inline metrology can be used to measure overlay for a few wafers while using the trained function to approximate overlay vector maps for the entire lot of wafers. With the approximated overlay vector maps for all wafers coming off the track, a process engineer can redirect wafers or lots with overlay signatures outside the standard population to offline metrology for excursion validation. With this added flexibility, engineers will be given more opportunities to catch wafers that need to be reworked, resulting in improved yield. The quality of the derived corrections from measured overlay metrology feedback can be improved using the approximated overlay to trigger, which wafers should or shouldn't be, measured inline. As a development or integration engineer the approximated overlay can be used to gain insight into lots and wafers used for design of experiments (DOE) troubleshooting. In this paper we will present the results of a case study that follows the machine learning function approximation approach to data analysis, with production overlay measured on an inline metrology system at SK hynix.

  10. Quantum private comparison with a malicious third party

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Yu, Jianping; Wang, Ping; Xu, Lingling; Wu, Chunhui

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we will show that quantum private comparison protocol is secure when a malicious third party is presented. The security of the protocol is considered in a cheat-sensitive model, in which the TP is kept honest by the possibility of being caught cheating. Besides, we enhance the privacy of the quantum private comparison protocol, where the participants' inputs and the comparison result can be preserved. Furthermore, in contrast to pervious protocols requiring a large amount of quantum resources, such as entanglement and quantum memory, our protocol is based on BB84 protocol, which is more feasible for practical applications. Finally, we analyze the security of the presented protocol.

  11. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to

  12. The Limits of Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Paul

    Transferring public services and public assets to private ownership is not an entirely new idea. Governments at all levels in the United States have for years contracted out many services. However, under the recently coined label "privatization," such policies now come recommended as a more comprehensive approach to the problems of modern…

  13. Dialogue on Private Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior…

  14. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues

  15. Laboring through Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    Hiring private contractors to manage school support services, such as food, maintenance, and busing, is a growing trend. Companies such as Marriott Corp., ServiceMaster, ARA Services, and Laidlaw Transit report that school business is steadily increasing. Unions staunchly oppose privatization. This article balances advantages and disadvantages,

  16. Fear and Privatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Bruce S.; Randall, E. Vance

    2008-01-01

    Supporters of public education fear attempts to privatize schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educates almost 90% of all K-12 students. This trepidation has recently been intensified by the creation of a "third sector" that includes charter schools, voucher programs, and

  17. Financing Private Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Anthony

    Private schools, which educate about 11 percent of all pupils, provide educational diversity and competition with the public schools. The results often take the forms of educational innovation and progress. Because mounting costs of teacher salaries, educational materials, and teaching aids are currently putting pressure on private school finance,…

  18. The Limits of Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Paul

    Transferring public services and public assets to private ownership is not an entirely new idea. Governments at all levels in the United States have for years contracted out many services. However, under the recently coined label "privatization," such policies now come recommended as a more comprehensive approach to the problems of modern

  19. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  20. Dialogue on private events

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

  1. Questioning the Benefits That Coloured Overlays Can Have for Reading in Students with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lisa M.; Tsogka, Natassa; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Visual stress (the experience of visual distortions and discomfort during prolonged reading) is frequently identified and alleviated with coloured overlays or lenses. Previous studies have associated visual stress with dyslexia and as a consequence, coloured overlays are widely distributed to children and adults with reading difficulty. However,

  2. Characterizing lens distortion to overlay accuracy by using fine measurement pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ronfu; Hsu, Chungwei; Hwang, Tsu-wen

    1999-06-01

    Previous work has shown that the lens distortion will contribute significantly to overlay error. Since the resolution has gone below 0.18 micrometers with 70 nm overlay tolerance, the lens aberration plays a more important role in the tolerance budget. Originally, the line size of overlay measurement target is about 3 micrometers , which is much larger than the circuit dimensions. Because the smaller pattern is more sensitive to lens distortion, an overlay difference may exist between real devices and the measurement target. In this study, we compared the overlay measurement result of fine pattern and traditional box in box target. With strong lens distortion effect, a fine measurement target may result in an overlay value which is close to the image shift of real circuit. Several types of target design were examined using overlay measuring signal, and the COMA effect was detected by the method of line with measurement. Experiments showed that lens aberration might cause over 15 nm overlay displacement. Because the lens distortion is a random error, software should subtract it while analyzing measurement data. Finally, the difficulties is using a fine target were also discussed and possible solutions were derived to increase the measurement accuracy.

  3. The Private User Network Interface--a GMPLS-compliant signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Dimitri; Rousseau, Bart; Krber, Wolfgang; Brockmann, Steffen; Verchre, Dominique

    2004-03-01

    To address the integration of [IP/MPLS (multiprotocol label-switching)] packet and (optical) transport networks, the Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF) has defined a user-to-network interface (UNI) for overlay networks: the OIF UNI version 1.0, also referred to as the Public UNI. However, since its implementation agreement specification, it has become clear that this UNI--based on OIF-specific extensions to the generalized MPLS (GMPLS) protocols--will not be able to meet the future requirements of some operational environments. Hence a flexible, extensible, and fully GMPLS-compliant UNI is being defined at the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): the Private UNI (aka GMPLS for overlay networks). The Private UNI enhances the interaction between the packet and transport network control planes of a multilayer network architecture. This interface is particularly suitable for a control-plane interconnection model in which the equipment belongs to a common administrative entity (i.e., a single carrier environment). Signaling sessions through the Private UNI are used to invoke two main services that require constructive coordination between the network layers: provisioning and network recovery. Here we present the Private UNI specific GMPLS resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions in support of these services in IP/MPLS over SONET/SDH (synchronous optical network/synchronous digital hierarchy) GMPLS multilayer networks and illustrate how Private UNI signaling enhances coordination in multilayer network recovery.

  4. Patterning of Heteroepitaxial Overlayers from Nano to Micron Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, K. R.; Rossi, G.; Kanerva, P.; Sanches, F.; Ying, S.-C.; Granato, E.; Achim, C. V.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2012-06-01

    Thin heteroepitaxial overlayers have been proposed as templates to generate stable, self-organized nanostructures at large length scales, with a variety of important technological applications. However, modeling strain-driven self-organization is a formidable challenge due to different length scales involved. In this Letter, we present a method for predicting the patterning of ultrathin films on micron length scales with atomic resolution. We make quantitative predictions for the type of superstructures (stripes, honeycomb, triangular) and length scale of pattern formation of two metal-metal systems, Cu on Ru(0001) and Cu on Pd(111). Our findings are in excellent agreement with previous experiments and call for future experimental investigations of such systems.

  5. Overlay removable denture for treatment of worn teeth.

    PubMed

    Beyth, Nurit; Tamari, Israel; Buller Sharon, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation of partially edentulous patients with excessively worn dentitions can be challenging. Factors including medical history as well as the cost of the treatment and patient wishes for simpler approaches must be considered. This manuscript describes the use of an overlay partial denture to treat patients with excessive wear of the maxillary teeth. We describe a technique to restore severely worn teeth using heat-cured acrylic as part of a partial or full denture. Minimal preparations of the teeth are required, and the restoration provides protection from further wear, and stabilizes the occlusion. This solution was functionally and esthetically suitable to the patients. The technique can be used in medically complex patients where extractions are contraindicated, such as post radiation therapy or bisphosphonate treatment. PMID:24393072

  6. Extremely fast hydrogen absorption/desorption through platinum overlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Połczyński, Piotr; Jurczakowski, Rafał

    2016-02-01

    The hydrogen electrosorption in thin palladium films (50-1000 nm) was investigated at palladium electrodes covered with platinum overlayers. The results for this model system show that the rates of the hydrogen sorption/desorption are orders of magnitude higher for platinized samples with respect to pure palladium. The highest absorption kinetics have been observed for Pd electrodes fully covered with 1-3 platinum monolayers. By means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) we have shown that the process is diffusion limited at platinized Pd layers. Diffusion coefficient, DH, determined in EIS, is two orders of magnitude higher than that previously reported for thin palladium films and approaches DH for bulk palladium. The system stability after hydrogen absorption was assessed and the sorption mechanism was discussed. Surprisingly high durability of the platinized palladium enables its use in a variety of applications where fast and selective response in the presence of hydrogen is required.

  7. BWR pipe crack and weld clad overlay studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.E.

    1984-10-01

    Leaks and cracks in the heat-affected zones of weldments in austenitic stainless steel piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs) due to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) have been observed since the mid-1960s. Since that time, cracking has continued to occur, and indication have been found in all parts of the recirculation system, including the largest diameter lines. Proposed solutions for the problem include procedures that produce a more favorable residual stress state on the inner surface, materials that are more resistant to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and changes in the reactor environment that decrease the susceptibility to cracking. In addition to the evaluation of these remedies, it is also important to gain a better understanding of the weld overlay procedure, which is the most widely used short-term repair for flawed piping.

  8. Ubiquitous map-image access through wireless overlay networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianfei; Huang, Haijie; Ni, Zefeng; Chen, Chang Wen

    2004-10-01

    With the availability of various wireless link-layer technologies, such as Bluetooth, WLAN and GPRS, in one wireless device, ubiquitous communications can be realized through managing vertical handoff in the environment of wireless overlay networks. In this paper, we propose a vertical handoff management system based on mobile IPv6, which can automatically manage the multiple network interfaces on the mobile device, and make decisions on network interface selection according to the current situation. Moreover, we apply our proposed vertical handoff management with JPEG-2000 codec to the wireless application of map image access. The developed system is able to provide seamless communications, as well as fast retrieve any interested map region with any block size, in different resolutions and different color representations directly from the compressed bitstream.

  9. Overlay improvement by exposure map based mask registration optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Irene; Guo, Eric; Chen, Ming; Lu, Max; Li, Gordon; Li, Rivan; Tian, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Along with the increased miniaturization of semiconductor electronic devices, the design rules of advanced semiconductor devices shrink dramatically. [1] One of the main challenges of lithography step is the layer-to-layer overlay control. Furthermore, DPT (Double Patterning Technology) has been adapted for the advanced technology node like 28nm and 14nm, corresponding overlay budget becomes even tighter. [2][3] After the in-die mask registration (pattern placement) measurement is introduced, with the model analysis of a KLA SOV (sources of variation) tool, it's observed that registration difference between masks is a significant error source of wafer layer-to-layer overlay at 28nm process. [4][5] Mask registration optimization would highly improve wafer overlay performance accordingly. It was reported that a laser based registration control (RegC) process could be applied after the pattern generation or after pellicle mounting and allowed fine tuning of the mask registration. [6] In this paper we propose a novel method of mask registration correction, which can be applied before mask writing based on mask exposure map, considering the factors of mask chip layout, writing sequence, and pattern density distribution. Our experiment data show if pattern density on the mask keeps at a low level, in-die mask registration residue error in 3sigma could be always under 5nm whatever blank type and related writer POSCOR (position correction) file was applied; it proves random error induced by material or equipment would occupy relatively fixed error budget as an error source of mask registration. On the real production, comparing the mask registration difference through critical production layers, it could be revealed that registration residue error of line space layers with higher pattern density is always much larger than the one of contact hole layers with lower pattern density. Additionally, the mask registration difference between layers with similar pattern density could also achieve under 5nm performance. We assume mask registration excluding random error is mostly induced by charge accumulation during mask writing, which may be calculated from surrounding exposed pattern density. Multi-loading test mask registration result shows that with x direction writing sequence, mask registration behavior in x direction is mainly related to sequence direction, but mask registration in y direction would be highly impacted by pattern density distribution map. It proves part of mask registration error is due to charge issue from nearby environment. If exposure sequence is chip by chip for normal multi chip layout case, mask registration of both x and y direction would be impacted analogously, which has also been proved by real data. Therefore, we try to set up a simple model to predict the mask registration error based on mask exposure map, and correct it with the given POSCOR (position correction) file for advanced mask writing if needed.

  10. Exact and reliable overlay metrology in nanoscale semiconductor devices using an image processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jinkook; Shin, ChaeHo; Kim, Minkook; Kim, Junghwan; Park, JeongKyun; Kim, JungSoo; Jun, ChungSam; Yim, Yeny; Lee, Janghee

    2014-10-01

    As semiconductor processing becomes more complicated and pattern sizes shrink, the overlay metrology has become one of the most important issues in the semiconductor industry. Therefore, in order to obtain correct, reliable overlay values in semiconductor fabrication facilities (fab), quantization methods for the efficient management and implementation of a measurement algorithm are required, as well as an understanding of the target structures in the semiconductor device. We implemented correct, reliable overlay values in the pattern using the image processing method. The quantization method, through correlation analysis and a new algorithm for target structures, were able to improve the sensitivity to misalignment in the pattern and enable more stable and credible in-line measurement by decreasing the distribution of the residuals in overlay values. Since overlay values of the pattern in the fab were measured and managed more reliably and quickly, it is expected that our study will be able to contribute to the yield enhancement of semiconductor companies.

  11. Integrated production overlay field-by-field control for leading edge technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Woong Jae; Tristan, John; Gutjahr, Karsten; Subramany, Lokesh; Li, Chen; Sun, Yulei; Yelverton, Mark; Kim, Young Ki; Kim, Jeong Soo; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Pierson, William; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Riggs, Brent; Jug, Sven; Robinson, John C.; Yap, Lipkong; Ramanathan, Vidya

    2014-04-01

    As photolithography will continue with 193nm immersion multiple patterning technologies for the leading edge HVM process node, the production overlay requirement for critical layers in logic devices has almost reached the scanner hardware performance limit. To meet the extreme overlay requirements in HVM production environment, this study investigates a new integrated overlay control concept for leading edge technology nodes that combines the run-to-run (R2R) linear or high order control loop, the periodic field-by-field or correction per exposure (CPE) wafer process signature control loop, and the scanner baseline control loop into a single integrated overlay control path through the fab host APC system. The goal is to meet the fab requirements for overlay performance, lower the cost of ownership, and provide freedom of control methodology. In this paper, a detailed implementation of this concept will be discussed, along with some preliminary results.

  12. Comparison of overlay metrology with analogue and digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigden, Timothy C.; Soroka, Andrew J.; Binns, Lewis A.

    2005-05-01

    Overlay metrology is a very demanding image processing application; current applications are achieving dynamic precision of one hundredth of a pixel or better. As such it requires an accurate image acquisition system, with minimal distortions. Distortions can be physical (e.g. pixel size / shape) or electronic (e.g. clock skew) in nature. They can also affect the image shape, or the gray level intensity of individual pixels, the former causing severe problems to pattern recognition and measurement algorithms, the latter having an adverse effect primarily on the measurement itself. This paper considers the artifacts that are present in a particular analogue camera, with a discussion on how these artifacts translate into a reduction of overlay metrology performance, in particular their effect on precision and tool induced shift (TIS). The observed effects include, but are not limited to, banding and interlacing. This camera is then compared to two digital cameras. The first of these operates at the same frame rate as the analogue camera, and is found to have fewer distortions than the analogue camera. The second camera operates with a frame rate twice that of the other two. It is observed that this camera does not exhibit the distortions of the analogue camera, but instead has some very specific problems, particularly with regards to noise. The quantitative data on the effect on precision and TIS under a wide variety of conditions, is presented. These show that while it is possible to achieve metrology-capable images using an analogue camera, it is preferable to use a digital camera, both from the perspective of overall system performance, and overall system complexity.

  13. Incentive compatible quantum secure division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Huang, L. S.; Zhu, Y. W.; Ye, Y.; Meng, P.; Song, F.; Wang, Q. Y.

    2010-11-01

    Secure division serves as an important primitive for secure multi-party computation and has wide applications in many fields, such as data mining, statistical analysis, collaborative benchmarking, etc. How to collaboratively compute the correct division result without leaking any participants's private data becomes the primary goal of secure division schemes. In this paper, we present a quantum secure division scheme via quantum discrete Fourier transform and quantum measurement. The scheme is proven to be secure against semi-honest parties and colluding parties. Furthermore, under the rational assumption that the first priority for every party is to learn the correct result, our scheme is shown to be incentive compatible.

  14. Multi-Bit Quantum Private Query

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Xu; Liu, Xing-Tong; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing

    2015-09-01

    Most of the existing Quantum Private Queries (QPQ) protocols provide only single-bit queries service, thus have to be repeated several times when more bits are retrieved. Wei et al.'s scheme for block queries requires a high-dimension quantum key distribution system to sustain, which is still restricted in the laboratory. Here, based on Markus Jakobi et al.'s single-bit QPQ protocol, we propose a multi-bit quantum private query protocol, in which the user can get access to several bits within one single query. We also extend the proposed protocol to block queries, using a binary matrix to guard database security. Analysis in this paper shows that our protocol has better communication complexity, implementability and can achieve a considerable level of security.

  15. A Unified Approach to Information Security Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, M. Peter

    2006-01-01

    The increased number of government-mandated and private contractual information security requirements in recent years has caused higher education security professionals to view information security as another aspect of regulatory or contractual compliance. The existence of fines, penalties, or loss (including bad publicity) has also increased the…

  16. A Unified Approach to Information Security Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, M. Peter

    2006-01-01

    The increased number of government-mandated and private contractual information security requirements in recent years has caused higher education security professionals to view information security as another aspect of regulatory or contractual compliance. The existence of fines, penalties, or loss (including bad publicity) has also increased the

  17. 31 CFR 306.90 - Nontransferable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nontransferable securities. 306.90 Section 306.90 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL.... SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations 306.90 Nontransferable securities....

  18. 33 CFR 106.305 - Facility Security Assessment (FSA) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., including computer systems and networks; (vi) Existing agreements with private security companies; (vii) Any... protection systems; (iv) Procedural policies; (v) Radio and telecommunication systems, including computer... access prevention systems; (5) Response capability for security incidents; (6) Threat...

  19. 33 CFR 106.305 - Facility Security Assessment (FSA) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., including computer systems and networks; (vi) Existing agreements with private security companies; (vii) Any... protection systems; (iv) Procedural policies; (v) Radio and telecommunication systems, including computer... access prevention systems; (5) Response capability for security incidents; (6) Threat...

  20. Inventories, arbitrage, and public-private interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, W.D.; Toman, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This paper provides a theoretical analysis of optimal Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) size which explicitly addresses the effect of government storage on private incentives to hold oil inventories. Using a noncooperative game model of stockpiling decisions (in which private parties take into account the impact on oil prices of government stockpile fill and release, and vice versa) the paper develops an analytical framework for assessing how moderation of price upswings reduces private storage incentives. This outcome is shown to follow whether the government takes a ''leadership'' role in stockpiling as the ''dominant player'', while keeping its own intentions confidential, or makes a public commitment to a course of action. The lesson for policy making is that SPR plans which treat private stocks as fixed and thus ignore private responses to public actions are inefficient. Both government agencies and private parties have a role to play in promoting national security through stockpiling, and the public interest is best served when these roles are harmonized. The authors also show how sole reliance on the SPR can never be better than ''second best'' energy policy. While stockpiling can be used to smooth out price fluctuations, it does not exploit the potential transfer of wealth from exporters through monopolistic buying practices. Nor does it lead to cost minimizing capital stock adjustments in the face of uncertain oil prices. Thus there are unresolved questions in the theoretical analysis, particularly when private consumption decisions do not reflect the long run social cost of imports and thus are inefficient from society's point of view. One such question is whether stockpiles should be managed differently when they are the only instrument of energy policy than when they are used in conjunction with other measures. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Quantitative determination of the metastability of flat Ag overlayers on GaAs(110).

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongbin; Jiang, C S; Ebert, Ph; Wang, X D; White, J M; Niu, Qian; Zhang, Zhenyu; Shih, C K

    2002-01-01

    Atomically flat ultrathin Ag films on GaAs(110) can be formed through a kinetic pathway. However, such films are metastable and will transform to 3D islands upon high temperature annealing. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we have measured quantitatively the layer-resolved metastability of flat Ag overlayers as they evolve toward their stable state, and deduced the corresponding kinetic barrier the system has to overcome in reaching the stable state. These results indicate that the metastability of the Ag overlayer is defined by the quantum nature of the conduction electrons confined within the overlayer. PMID:11800970

  2. Ultrasonic Evaluation of Two Dissimilar Metal Weld Overlay Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-06-30

    Two dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe-to-nozzle specimens were implanted with thermal fatigue cracks in the 13% to 90% through-wall depth range. The specimens were ultrasonically evaluated with phased-array probes having center frequencies of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 megahertz (MHz). An Alloy 82/182 weld overlay (WOL) was applied and the specimens were ultrasonically re-evaluated for flaw detection and characterization. The Post-WOL flaw depths were approximately 10% to 56% through-wall. This study has shown the effectiveness of ultrasonic examinations of Alloy 82/182 overlaid DMW specimens. Phased-array probes with center frequency in the 0.8- to 1.0-MHz range provide a strong coherent signal but the greater ultrasonic wavelength and larger beam spot size prevent the reliable detection of small flaws. These small flaws had nominal through-wall depths of less than 15% and length in the 50-60 mm (2-2.4 in.) range. Flaws in the 19% and greater through-wall depth range were readily detected with all four probes. At the higher frequencies, the reflected signals are less coherent but still provide adequate signal for flaw detection and characterization. A single inspection at 2.0 MHz could provide adequate detection and sizing information but a supplemental inspection at 1.0 or 1.5 MHz is recommended.

  3. Deployable Overlay Network for Defense against Distributed SYN Flood Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsita, Yuichi; Ata, Shingo; Murata, Masayuki

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers have recently become more serious. Most of them are SYN flood attacks, since the malicious attackers can easily exploit the TCP specification to generate traffic making public servers unavailable. We need a defense method which can protect legitimate traffic so that end users can connect the target servers during such attacks. In this paper, we propose a new framework, in which all of the TCP connections to the victim servers from a domain are maintained at the gateways of the domain (i. e., near the clients). We call the nodes maintaining the TCP connection defense nodes. The defense nodes check whether arriving packets are legitimate or not by maintaining the TCP connection. That is, the defense nodes delegate reply packets to the received connection request packets and identify the legitimate packets by checking whether the clients reply to the reply packets. Then, only identified traffic are relayed via overlay networks. As a result, by deploying the defense nodes at the gateways of a domain, the legitimate packets from the domain are relayed apart from other packets including attack packets and protected. Our simulation results show that our method can protect legitimate traffic from the domain deploying our method. We also describe the deployment scenario of our defense mechanism.

  4. 64nm pitch metal1 double patterning metrology: CD and OVL control by SEMCD, image based overlay and diffraction based overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducot, Julien; Dettoni, Florent; Bouyssou, Rgis; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Carau, Damien; Dezauzier, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    Patterning process control of advanced nodes has required major changes over the last few years. Process control needs of critical patterning levels since 28nm technology node is extremely aggressive showing that metrology accuracy/sensitivity must be finely tuned. The introduction of pitch splitting (Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch) at 14FDSOInm node requires the development of specific metrologies to adopt advanced process control (for CD, overlay and focus corrections). The pitch splitting process leads to final line CD uniformities that are a combination of the CD uniformities of the two exposures, while the space CD uniformities are depending on both CD and OVL variability. In this paper, investigations of CD and OVL process control of 64nm minimum pitch at Metal1 level of 14FDSOI technology, within the double patterning process flow (Litho, hard mask etch, line etch) are presented. Various measurements with SEMCD tools (Hitachi), and overlay tools (KT for Image Based Overlay - IBO, and ASML for Diffraction Based Overlay - DBO) are compared. Metrology targets are embedded within a block instanced several times within the field to perform intra-field process variations characterizations. Specific SEMCD targets were designed for independent measurement of both line CD (A and B) and space CD (A to B and B to A) for each exposure within a single measurement during the DP flow. Based on those measurements correlation between overlay determined with SEMCD and with standard overlay tools can be evaluated. Such correlation at different steps through the DP flow is investigated regarding the metrology type. Process correction models are evaluated with respect to the measurement type and the intra-field sampling.

  5. Computerized polar plots by a cathode ray tube/grid overlay method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. M.; Shoup, E. L.

    1970-01-01

    Overlay is aligned with four calibration dots so it is not affected by CRT drift or changes in vertical or horizontal gain when producing Nyquist /frequency-response phase/amplitude/ plots. Method produces over 50 plots per hour.

  6. GUC-Secure Set-Intersection Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Hao

    Secure set-intersection computation is one of the important problems in secure multiparty computation. We propose a general protocol construction for secure 2-party set-intersection computation based-on the anonymous IBE scheme and its user private-keys blind generation techniques. Compared with related works, this construction is provably GUC (generalized universally composable) secure in standard model with acceptable efficiency. In addition, an efficient instantiation based-on the Boyen-Waters IBE scheme is also presented.

  7. Private-label manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Lally, R

    1997-12-01

    Private, or own-brand, labelling of products is an attractive proposition for manufacturers who may have unique products but lack access to particular markets, or distributors who may have a strong brand identity but lack a suitable product. However, care must be taken to ensure that private-labelled products comply with the Medical Device Directive and confusion may arise over who takes responsibility for compliance issues. This article looks at the alternative proposals for resolving this confusion and at some of the requirements for compliance. PMID:10176363

  8. Hydrogen electrocatalysis on overlayers of rhodium over gold and palladium substrates--more active than platinum?

    PubMed

    Soldano, G; Schulz, E N; Salinas, D R; Santos, E; Schmickler, W

    2011-09-28

    We have investigated the stability and catalytic activity of epitaxial overlayers of rhodium on Au(111) and Pd(111). Both surfaces show a strong affinity for hydrogen. We have calculated the energy of adsorption both for a strongly and a more weakly adsorbed species; the latter is the intermediate in the hydrogen evolution reaction. Both the energy of activation for hydrogen adsorption (Volmer reaction) and hydrogen recombination (Tafel reaction) are very low, suggesting that these overlayers are excellent catalysts. PMID:21847482

  9. On cooperative and efficient overlay network evolution based on a group selection pattern.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Nakao, Akihiro

    2010-06-01

    In overlay networks, the interplay between network structure and dynamics remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we study dynamic coevolution between individual rational strategies (cooperative or defect) and the overlay network structure, that is, the interaction between peer's local rational behaviors and the emergence of the whole network structure. We propose an evolutionary game theory (EGT)-based overlay topology evolution scheme to drive a given overlay into the small-world structure (high global network efficiency and average clustering coefficient). Our contributions are the following threefold: From the viewpoint of peers' local interactions, we explicitly consider the peer's rational behavior and introduce a link-formation game to characterize the social dilemma of forming links in an overlay network. Furthermore, in the evolutionary link-formation phase, we adopt a simple economic process: Each peer keeps one link to a cooperative neighbor in its neighborhood, which can slightly speed up the convergence of cooperation and increase network efficiency; from the viewpoint of the whole network structure, our simulation results show that the EGT-based scheme can drive an arbitrary overlay network into a fully cooperative and efficient small-world structure. Moreover, we compare our scheme with a search-based economic model of network formation and illustrate that our scheme can achieve the experimental and analytical results in the latter model. In addition, we also graphically illustrate the final overlay network structure; finally, based on the group selection model and evolutionary set theory, we theoretically obtain the approximate threshold of cost and draw the conclusion that the small value of the average degree and the large number of the total peers in an overlay network facilitate the evolution of cooperation. PMID:20199937

  10. On cooperative and efficient overlay network evolution based on a group selection pattern.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Akihiro; Wang, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    In overlay networks, the interplay between network structure and dynamics remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we study dynamic coevolution between individual rational strategies (cooperative or defect) and the overlay network structure, that is, the interaction between peer's local rational behaviors and the emergence of the whole network structure. We propose an evolutionary game theory (EGT)-based overlay topology evolution scheme to drive a given overlay into the small-world structure (high global network efficiency and average clustering coefficient). Our contributions are the following threefold: From the viewpoint of peers' local interactions, we explicitly consider the peer's rational behavior and introduce a link-formation game to characterize the social dilemma of forming links in an overlay network. Furthermore, in the evolutionary link-formation phase, we adopt a simple economic process: Each peer keeps one link to a cooperative neighbor in its neighborhood, which can slightly speed up the convergence of cooperation and increase network efficiency; from the viewpoint of the whole network structure, our simulation results show that the EGT-based scheme can drive an arbitrary overlay network into a fully cooperative and efficient small-world structure. Moreover, we compare our scheme with a search-based economic model of network formation and illustrate that our scheme can achieve the experimental and analytical results in the latter model. In addition, we also graphically illustrate the final overlay network structure; finally, based on the group selection model and evolutionary set theory, we theoretically obtain the approximate threshold of cost and draw the conclusion that the small value of the average degree and the large number of the total peers in an overlay network facilitate the evolution of cooperation. PMID:19726264

  11. Magnetic Proximity Effects between Single-Layer Mn-Doped Titania Nanosheets and Fe Overlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitou, Natsumi; Hirano, Yuki; Sawada, Masahiro; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Taniguchi, Takaaki; Matsumoto, Yasumichi; Hara, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the magnetic behaviors of molecularly thin Mn-doped titanium oxide nanosheets by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Mn atoms in single-layer nanosheets showed a weak ferromagnetic order at room temperature. Fe overlayers deposited on the nanosheets induced a magnetic proximity effect on Mn magnetization. We clearly observed an antiferromagnetic coupling between the Fe overlayers and the Mn-doped nanosheets.

  12. Lemnos Interoperable Security Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, John; Halbgewachs, Ron; Chavez, Adrian; Smith, Rhett; Teumim, David

    2012-01-31

    The manner in which the control systems are being designed and operated in the energy sector is undergoing some of the most significant changes in history due to the evolution of technology and the increasing number of interconnections to other system. With these changes however come two significant challenges that the energy sector must face; 1) Cyber security is more important than ever before, and 2) Cyber security is more complicated than ever before. A key requirement in helping utilities and vendors alike in meeting these challenges is interoperability. While interoperability has been present in much of the discussions relating to technology utilized within the energy sector and especially the Smart Grid, it has been absent in the context of cyber security. The Lemnos project addresses these challenges by focusing on the interoperability of devices utilized within utility control systems which support critical cyber security functions. In theory, interoperability is possible with many of the cyber security solutions available to utilities today. The reality is that the effort required to achieve cyber security interoperability is often a barrier for utilities. For example, consider IPSec, a widely-used Internet Protocol to define Virtual Private Networks, or tunnels , to communicate securely through untrusted public and private networks. The IPSec protocol suite has a significant number of configuration options and encryption parameters to choose from, which must be agreed upon and adopted by both parties establishing the tunnel. The exercise in getting software or devices from different vendors to interoperate is labor intensive and requires a significant amount of security expertise by the end user. Scale this effort to a significant number of devices operating over a large geographical area and the challenge becomes so overwhelming that it often leads utilities to pursue solutions from a single vendor. These single vendor solutions may inadvertently lock utilities into proprietary and closed systems.

  13. 21 CFR 1311.30 - Requirements for storing and using a private key for digitally signing orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for storing and using a private key... Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders 1311.30 Requirements for storing and using a private key for... and private key. (b) The certificate holder must provide FIPS-approved secure storage for the...

  14. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  15. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  16. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  17. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  18. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  19. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  20. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  1. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  2. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  3. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  4. Indistinguishability and semantic security for quantum encryption scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Chong; Yang, Li

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the definition of security for encryption scheme in quantum context. We systematically define the indistinguishability and semantic security for quantum public-key and private-key encryption schemes, and for computational security, physical security and information-theoretic security. Based on our definition, we present a necessary and sufficient condition that leads to information-theoretic indistinguishability for quantum encryption scheme. The equivalence between the indistinguishability and semantic security of quantum encryption scheme is also proved.

  5. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast.

    PubMed

    Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Xinchang; Gong, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member's departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs), i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs) and compensation VMs (CVMs). MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD), and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast). The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution. PMID:26562152

  6. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Xinchang; Gong, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member’s departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs), i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs) and compensation VMs (CVMs). MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD), and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast). The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution. PMID:26562152

  7. Hot cracking susceptibility of Alloy 52M weld overlays onto CF8 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, H. A.; Young, M. C.; Chu, H. C.; Tsay, L. W.; Chen, C.

    2013-02-01

    In this study, weld overlays of Alloy 52M (a nickel-based filler metal) onto CF8 stainless steel (SS) were performed using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Hot cracking in the weld overlays was observed particularly near the interfacial region of the Alloy 52M/CF8 weld overlay. In general, the hot cracks were most likely to occur at the sites with high dilution rates, e.g., at the weld start/end locations of a single pass or in the first and second passes in multi-pass overlays. The region near the weld interface between Alloy 52M and the CF8 SS had a higher hot cracking tendency than the other regions. It was found that the dilution rate and the formation of eutectic-type constituents (i.e., ?/NbC) both played significant roles in the determination of the hot cracking susceptibility of these weld overlays. Nevertheless, hot cracks were entirely eliminated by proper deposition of a SS buffer layer prior to overlaying with Alloy 52M.

  8. Private School Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTighe, Joe

    2004-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act has had a pervasive effect on American education in its drive to bring about improvement in student achievement through assessment and accountability. In its standards-based approach to reform, measurement by standardized tests is everything. In this article, the author discusses the issue of private school

  9. The Private Sector Beckons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Krista

    1998-01-01

    Whether from frustration, ambition, or financial necessity, administrators are inclined to say "yes" when private companies come calling. Sometimes superintendents initiate contacts themselves and begin new careers as well-credentialed salespeople or behind-the-scenes think tanks. At the Edison Project, former superintendents work in curriculum…

  10. Slouching toward Privatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickeson, Robert C.; Figuli, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a significant shift in the financial model of American higher education, laying groundwork for a transformation that could reshape people's understanding of the academy. The shift--toward increasing degrees of privatization--is unmistakable and has affected every American college and university to varying extents.

  11. Privatizing University Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctrow, Jerry; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The University of Maryland at College Park has taken an unusual step in turning over management of some student residences (two graduate student apartment complexes) to a private property management firm. The realty group found ways to convert necessary expenditures for property improvement into substantial revenue for the university. Suggestions…

  12. A Private Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    Fairfax County (Virginia) Public Schools sends up to 100 high-risk/expelled students yearly to two privately operated Richard Milburn campuses. The cost is $3,500 per student. Although these schools lack typical high-school amenities, kids appreciate getting more teacher attention. Houston has a similar, more costly last-resort program. (MLH)

  13. Public Roles, Private Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    The role of a presidential spouse is very complex. Indeed, expectations vary among college governing boards and campus constituencies of what a presidential spouse's responsibilities should be. In this article, the author discusses the role of presidential spouses and how they balance their public roles with their private life.

  14. Privatization and Educational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Myron

    This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out

  15. 17 CFR 239.33 - Form F-3, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form F-3, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain foreign private issuers offered pursuant to certain types of transactions. 239.33 Section 239.33 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER...

  16. 17 CFR 239.33 - Form F-3, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form F-3, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain foreign private issuers offered pursuant to certain types of transactions. 239.33 Section 239.33 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER...

  17. Security sonar for water intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenbuhler, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    The security of the water approaches to nuclear facilities has been largely neglected because of the lack of solutions to the intrusion problem. This paper reviews underwater scanning sonar in general, highlights a number of problems encountered in a threat detection system using sonar and suggests some procedures that can help make such a system workable. Information is drawn from recent experience with several security projects in the governmental and private sectors, one of which was a nuclear facility.

  18. Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourinho, E. Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concepts of "private stimuli," "covert responses," and "private events," emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as…

  19. Domain growth and rate processes in adsorbed overlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, V. P.

    1998-04-01

    Employing Monte Carlo simulations, we show special features of the kinetics of three different surface processes affected by or interfering with domain growth (i.e. with the continuous order-disorder phase transition) in the adsorbed overlayer. (i) The formation of the c(22) A domains is studied in the situation when this process is complicated by the Eley-Rideal A+ B? AB reaction occurring under the steady-state conditions in the gas phase. The reaction mechanism includes A adsorption an vacant sites Agas? Aads, and A consumption in collisions with gas-phase B particles, Aads+ Bgas?( AB) gas. Diffusion of adsorbed A particles is simulated by using the realistic and Metropolis algorithms. In both cases, the reaction terminates the domain growth. The average size, R, of domains formed under the reaction conditions is found to be approximately proportional to 1/ P2, where P<1 is the parameter characterizing the ratio of the rates of reaction and diffusion. If the reaction is switched off, the domain growth is described by the standard Allen-Cahn equation, R( t)? A+ Bt1/2. (ii) Dissociative adsorption, ( A2) gas?2 Aads, occurring via trapping of A2 molecules into precursor states followed by the transitions to the chemisorbed state, is analyzed in the case when adsorbed A particles form domains. The A2 sticking coefficient is demonstrated first to decrease with increasing R and then to become independent of R. The latter is realized in the limit when R2 is much larger than the mean-square displacement of an A2 molecule during its random walk over precursor states. (iii) Tracer diffusion of single B particles, occurring via jumps to nearest-neighbour vacant sites, is studied in the situation when these particles are cooperatively coadsorbed with A particles which form domains. For employed (presumably reasonable) adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, the effective diffusion coefficient of B particles is found to increase with increasing the average size of A domains, because the rate of B diffusion inside the A domains appears to be faster than near the domain boundaries.

  20. Quantum Private Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2008-06-01

    We propose a cheat sensitive quantum protocol to perform a private search on a classical database which is efficient in terms of communication complexity. It allows a user to retrieve an item from the database provider without revealing which item he or she retrieved: if the provider tries to obtain information on the query, the person querying the database can find it out. The protocol ensures also perfect data privacy of the database: the information that the user can retrieve in a single query is bounded and does not depend on the size of the database. With respect to the known (quantum and classical) strategies for private information retrieval, our protocol displays an exponential reduction in communication complexity and in running-time computational complexity.

  1. Asphalt overlay design methods for rigid pavements considering rutting, reflection cracking, and fatigue cracking. Research report September 1996--August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.H.; Liu, C.; Dossey, T.; McCullough, B.F.

    1998-10-01

    An asphalt concrete pavement (ACP) overlay over a rigid pavement represents a viable rehabilitation strategy. It can provide good serviceability at an initial construction cost that is substantially less than that of a rigid overlay rehabilitation. In addition, ACP overlays require less construction time, which can reduce user costs during construction. However, it may not be the most economical solution for long-term rehabilitation. Because of their relatively short service life, ACP overlays may require maintenance sooner than rigid overlays. And one of the more critical distresses that effectively determine the life span of the structure is reflection cracking. This report investigates alternative strategies that seek to prevent reflection cracking on ACP overlays.

  2. Apaches push privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, S.

    1994-03-07

    Trying to drum up business for what would be the first private temporary storage facility for spent nuclear fuel rods, the Mescalero Apaches are inviting officials of 30 utilities to convene March 10 at the tribe`s New Mexico reservation. The state public utilities commission will also attend the meeting, which grew from an agreement the tribe signed last month with Minneapolis-based Northern States Power Co.

  3. His own private hospital

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D

    1997-01-01

    Dr. Brian Day had a simple solution when it became increasingly difficult to book operating room time in Vancouver. He built his own hospital. The Cambie Surgical Centre, which treats patients from BC and around the world, has 2 main operating rooms, 10 recovery beds and 5 private rooms for extended stays. "What I've done," says Day, "is say that if there are no operating rooms at UBC, I'll build my own." PMID:9269202

  4. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  5. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  6. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  7. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  8. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  9. Building multiservice Internet protocol virtual private networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, William

    1999-11-01

    Multiservice Internet Protocol-based Virtual Private Networks (MIP- VPNs) with Quality of Service (QoS) are becoming a reality due to the availability of new standards from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This paper describes how components including security models, IP tunneling protocols, and service differentiation schemes fit together in order to construct such a VPN. First, the concept and rationale of VPN is presented, followed by a discussion of its supporting components. A comparison is made among the various VPN technologies.

  10. Film Images of Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines public debate over private education in the context of the Hollywood dramatic feature film. Analyses four recent films that all portray private schools negatively. Film representation of public schools is more optimistic. Asserts that the films ignore or misrepresent three strengths of private education: effective leadership, small school

  11. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the

  12. Infrared differential interference contrast microscopy for overlay metrology on 3D-interconnect bonded wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Yi-sha; Shyu, Deh-Ming; Lin, Yeou-Sung; Cho, Chia-Hung

    2013-04-01

    Overlay metrology for stacked layers will be playing a key role in bringing 3D IC devices into manufacturing. However, such bonded wafer pairs present a metrology challenge for optical microscopy tools by the opaque nature of silicon. Using infrared microscopy, silicon wafers become transparent to the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, enabling metrology at the interface of bonded wafer pairs. Wafers can be bonded face to face (F2F) or face to back (F2B) which the stacking direction is dictated by how the stacks are carried in the process and functionality required. For example, Memory stacks tend to use F2B stacking enables a better managed design. Current commercial tools use single image technique for F2F bonding overlay measurement because depth of focus is sufficient to include both surfaces; and use multiple image techniques for F2B overlay measurement application for the depth of focus is no longer sufficient to include both stacked wafer surfaces. There is a need to specify the Z coordinate or stacking wafer number through the silicon when visiting measurement wafer sites. Two shown images are of the same (X, Y) but separate Z location acquired at focus position of each wafer surface containing overlay marks. Usually the top surface image is bright and clear; however, the bottom surface image is somewhat darker and noisier as an adhesive layer is used in between to bond the silicon wafers. Thus the top and bottom surface images are further processed to achieve similar brightness and noise level before merged for overlay measurement. This paper presents a special overlay measurement technique, using the infrared differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy technique to measure the F2B wafer bonding overlay by a single shot image. A pair of thinned wafers at 50 and 150 μm thickness is bonded on top of a carrier wafer to evaluate the bonding overlay. It works on the principle of interferometry to gain information about the optical path length of the stacked wafers, to enhance the image contrast of overlay marks features even though they are locating in different Z plane. A two dimensional mirror-symmetric overlay marks for both top and bottom processing wafers is designed and printed in each die in order to know and realize the best achievable wafer to wafer bonding processing. A self-developed analysis algorithms is used to identify the overlay error between the stacking wafers and the interconnect structures. The experimental overlay results after wafer bonding including inter-die and intra-die analysis results will be report in the full paper. Correlation of overlay alignment offset data to electrical yield, provides an early indication of bonded wafer yield.

  13. 31 CFR 306.90 - Nontransferable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nontransferable securities. 306.90 Section 306.90 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private...

  14. 76 FR 46626 - Safety Zone; Discovery World Private Wedding Firework Displays, Milwaukee, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Discovery World Private Wedding Firework... contrary to the public interest. Background and Purpose The Discovery World Private Wedding fireworks are a... will encompass all waters of Milwaukee Harbor in the vicinity of the Discovery World pier in...

  15. 76 FR 60853 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Aboard Private Aircraft AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... concerning the Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft. This request for comment is being made pursuant to... maintenance costs). The comments that are submitted will be summarized and included in the CBP request...

  16. 31 CFR 1023.620 - Due diligence programs for private banking accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. 1023.620 Section 1023.620 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... Dealers in Securities 1023.620 Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. (a) Refer to ...

  17. 31 CFR 1023.620 - Due diligence programs for private banking accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. 1023.620 Section 1023.620 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... Dealers in Securities 1023.620 Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. (a) Refer to ...

  18. 31 CFR 1023.620 - Due diligence programs for private banking accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. 1023.620 Section 1023.620 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... Dealers in Securities 1023.620 Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. (a) Refer to ...

  19. 17 CFR 240.13e-3 - Going private transactions by certain issuers or their affiliates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Going private transactions by... private transactions by certain issuers or their affiliates. (a) Definitions. Unless indicated otherwise... practice, in connection with a Rule 13e-3 transaction, for an issuer which has a class of equity...

  20. 31 CFR 1023.620 - Due diligence programs for private banking accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. 1023.620 Section 1023.620 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... Dealers in Securities § 1023.620 Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. (a) Refer to §...

  1. 76 FR 41826 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector... for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. DATES: The meeting will be held on July...

  2. The challenges of transitioning from linear to high-order overlay control in advanced lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, M.; Izikson, P.; Tien, D.; Huang, C. K.; Robinson, J. C.; Eichelberger, B.

    2008-03-01

    In the lithography section of the ITRS 2006 update, at the top of the list of difficult challenges appears the text "overlay of multiple exposures including mask image placement". This is a reflection of the fact that today overlay is becoming a major yield risk factor in semiconductor manufacturing. Historically, lithographers have achieved sufficient alignment accuracy and hence layer to layer overlay control by relying on models which define overlay as a linear function of the field and wafer coordinates. These linear terms were easily translated to correctibles in the available exposure tool degrees of freedom on the wafer and reticle stages. However, as the 45 nm half pitch node reaches production, exposure tool vendors have begun to make available, and lithographers have begun to utilize so called high order wafer and field control, in which either look up table or high order polynomial models are modified on a product by product basis. In this paper, the major challenges of this transition will be described. It will include characterization of the sources of variation which need to be controlled by these new models and the overlay and alignment sampling optimization problem which needs to be addressed, while maintaining the ever tightening demands on productivity and cost of ownership.

  3. Lateral root morphogenesis is dependent on the mechanical properties of the overlaying tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Mikal; Kenobi, Kim; von Wangenheim, Daniel; Vo?, Ute; Swarup, Kamal; De Smet, Ive; Van Damme, Danil; Lawrence, Tara; Pret, Benjamin; Moscardi, Eric; Barbeau, Daniel; Godin, Christophe; Salt, David; Guyomarch, Soazig; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.; Maizel, Alexis; Laplaze, Laurent; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, lateral root primordia (LRPs) originate from pericycle cells located deep within the parental root and have to emerge through endodermal, cortical, and epidermal tissues. These overlaying tissues place biomechanical constraints on the LRPs that are likely to impact their morphogenesis. This study probes the interplay between the patterns of cell division, organ shape, and overlaying tissues on LRP morphogenesis by exploiting recent advances in live plant cell imaging and image analysis. Our 3D/4D image analysis revealed that early stage LRPs exhibit tangential divisions that create a ring of cells corralling a population of rapidly dividing cells at its center. The patterns of division in the latter population of cells during LRP morphogenesis are not stereotypical. In contrast, statistical analysis demonstrated that the shape of new LRPs is highly conserved. We tested the relative importance of cell division pattern versus overlaying tissues on LRP morphogenesis using mutant and transgenic approaches. The double mutant aurora1 (aur1) aur2 disrupts the pattern of LRP cell divisions and impacts its growth dynamics, yet the new organs dome shape remains normal. In contrast, manipulating the properties of overlaying tissues disrupted LRP morphogenesis. We conclude that the interaction with overlaying tissues, rather than the precise pattern of divisions, is most important for LRP morphogenesis and optimizes the process of lateral root emergence. PMID:23479644

  4. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1994--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1994-04-21

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterwalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds.

  5. Privatization Or Marketization: Educational Development in Post-Mao China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Ka Ho

    1997-09-01

    In the post-Mao era, the reformers have taken significant steps to privatize social policy and social welfare. Revamping the social security system and commodifying social services have become more prominent since the mid-eighties. Despite the post-Mao leaders' discomfort about the term "privatization", signs of state withdrawal from the provision of social policy and welfare are clear. The author argues that the emergence of private educational institutions indicates that China's educational development has gone through a similar process of privatization or quasi-marketization though the Chinese experience is different from that of Western counterparts. Specifically, this paper tries to examine how the flourishing market economy and the policy of decentralization have affected the development of China's higher education. No longer solely relying on public schools, private and minban (people run) educational institutions are becoming more popular in the new socialist market system. This paper attempts to examine how privatization and quasi- marketization have affected educational development in mainland China. The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the privatization of education in China.

  6. Student Experiential Opportunities in National Security Careers

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    This report documents student experiential opportunities in national security careers as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of how experiential opportunities assist students in the selection of a career and a list of opportunities in the private sector and government. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. Workforce development activities will facilitate the hiring of students to work with professionals in both the private and public sectors, as well as assist in preparing a workforce for careers in national security. The goal of workforce development under the NSPP grant is to assess workforce needs in national security and implement strategies to develop the appropriate workforce.

  7. Threshold analysis of the susceptible-infected-susceptible model on overlay networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingchu; Zhang, Haifeng; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on overlay networks in which n multiple sets of links interconnect among the same nodes. By using the microscopic Markov-chain approximation (MMA) approach, we establish the conditions of epidemic outbreak for two kinds of spreading mechanisms in such an overlay network: the concatenation case and the switching case. When a uniform infection rate is set in all the subnetworks, we find the epidemic threshold for the switching case is just n times as large as that of concatenation case. We also find that the overlay network with a uniform infection rate can be considered as an equivalent (in the sense of epidemic dynamics and epidemic threshold) weighted network. To be specific, the concatenation case corresponds to the integer weighted network, while the switching case corresponds to the fractional weighted network. Interestingly, the time-varying unweighted network can be mapped into the static weighted network. Our analytic results exhibit good agreement with numerical simulations.

  8. Practical Process Applications Of A Commercially Available Electrical Overlay And Linewidth Measuring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Gerald A.

    1985-07-01

    This paper deals with characterization of a pilot line photo process using an electrical linewidth measurement system.* A functional process for set up of the system is described, as well as the test structures used. Evaluations conducted include overlay stability of a Perkin-Elmer 542 and adjustment, overlay of a Perkin-Elmer 542 to three Perkin-Elmer 240s, overlay to a Perkin-Elmer 542 in another wafer fab, a daily linewidth evaluation on a Perkin-Elmer 542, and a comparison study of the electrical prober to other types of linewidth measuring systems. It will be shown that this tool, with precision in the .001 pm range (3 Q) is capable of providing correlation data for other types of quick feedback, smaller data base systems for linewidth measurement, as well as providing a data base for the proper evaluation of photolithographic processing.

  9. Residual stress determination in an overlay dissimilar welded pipe by neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Wan Chuck; Em, Vyacheslav; Hubbard, Camden R; Lee, Ho-Jin; Park, Kwang Soo

    2011-01-01

    Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of nuclear power reactors. Two neutron diffractometers with different spatial resolutions have been utilized on the identical specimen for comparison. The macroscopic 'stress-free' lattice spacing (d{sub o}) was also obtained from both using a 2-mm width comb-like coupon. The results show significant changes in residual stresses from tension (300-400 MPa) to compression (-600 MPa) through the thickness of the dissimilar weld overlay pipe specimen.

  10. Weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Task A: Literature review, progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-03-03

    A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

  11. Intermittent-contact scanning capacitance microscopy imaging and modeling for overlay metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, S.; Kopanski, J. J.; Guthrie, W. F.

    1998-11-24

    Overlay measurements of the relative alignment between sequential layers are one of the most critical issues for integrated circuit (IC) lithography. We have implemented on an AFM platform a new intermittent-contact scanning capacitance microscopy (IC-SCM) mode that is sensitive to the tip proximity to an IC interconnect, thus making it possible to image conductive structures buried under planarized dielectric layers. Such measurements can be used to measure IC metal-to-resist lithography overlay. The AFM conductive cantilever probe oscillating in a vertical plane was driven at frequency {omega}, below resonance. By measuring the tip-to-sample capacitance, the SCM signal is obtained as the difference in capacitance, {delta}C({omega}), at the amplitude extremes. Imaging of metallization structures was obtained with a bars-in-bars aluminum structure embedded in a planarized dielectric layer 1 {mu}m thick. We have also modeled, with a two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic field simulator, IC-SCM overlay data of a metallization structure buried under a planarized dielectric having a patterned photoresist layer deposited on it. This structure, which simulates the metal-to-resist overlay between sequential IC levels, allows characterization of the technique sensitivity. The capacitance profile across identical size electrically isolated or grounded metal lines embedded in a dielectric was shown to be different. The floating line shows capacitance enhancement at the line edges, with a minimum at the line center. The grounded line shows a single capacitance maximum located at the line center, with no edge enhancement. For identical line dimensions, the capacitance is significantly larger for grounded lines making them easier to image. A nonlinear regression algorithm was developed to extract line center and overlay parameters with approximately 3 nm resolution at the 95% confidence level, showing the potential of this technique for sub-micrometer critical dimension metrology. Symmetric test structures contribute to facilitate overlay data extraction.

  12. Full chip two-layer CD and overlay process window analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rachit; Shang, Shumay; Sturtevant, John

    2015-03-01

    In-line CD and overlay metrology specifications are typically established by starting with design rules and making certain assumptions about error distributions which might be encountered in manufacturing. Lot disposition criteria in photo metrology (rework or pass to etch) are set assuming worst case assumptions for CD and overlay respectively. For example poly to active overlay specs start with poly endcap design rules and make assumptions about active and poly lot average and across lot CDs, and incorporate general knowledge about poly line end rounding to ensure that leakage current is maintained within specification. There is an opportunity to go beyond generalized guard band design rules to full-chip, design-specific, model-based exploration of worst case layout locations. Such an approach can leverage not only the above mentioned coupling of CD and overlay errors, but can interrogate all layout configurations for both layers to help determine lot-specific, design-specific CD and overlay dispositioning criteria for the fab. Such an approach can elucidate whether for a specific design layout there exist asymmetries in the response to misalignment which might be exploited in manufacturing. This paper will investigate an example of two-layer model-based analysis of CD and overlay errors. It is shown, somewhat non-intuitively, that there can be small preferred misalignment asymmetries which should be respected to protect yield. We will show this relationship for via-metal overlap. We additionally present a new method of displaying edge placement process window variability, akin to traditional CD process window analysis.

  13. A Spatial Overlay Ranking Method for a Geospatial Search of Text Objects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanfear, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    Earth-science researchers need the capability to find relevant information by location and topic. Conventional geographic techniques that simply check whether polygons intersect can efficiently achieve a high recall on location, but can not achieve precision for ranking results in likely order of importance to the reader. A spatial overlay ranking based upon how well an object's footprint matches the search area provides a more effective way to spatially search a collection of reports, and avoids many of the problems associated with an 'in/out' (True/False) boolean search. Moreover, spatial overlay ranking appears to work well even when spatial extent is defined only by a simple bounding box.

  14. An Integrated Dynamic Online Management Framework for QoS-Sensitive Multimedia Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungwook; Choi, Myungwhan; Kim, Sungchun

    New multimedia services over cellular/WLAN overlay networks require different Quality of Service (QoS) levels. Therefore, an efficient network management system is necessary in order to realize QoS sensitive multimedia services while enhancing network performance. In this paper, we propose a new online network management framework for overlay networks. Our online approach to network management exhibits dynamic adaptability, flexibility, and responsiveness to the traffic conditions in multimedia networks. Simulation results indicate that our proposed framework can strike the appropriate balance between performance criteria under widely varying diverse traffic loads.

  15. Wireless Overlay Backhauling over Bidirectional Colorless WDM-PONs: the Impact of the Baseband Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Av, Ricardo; Medeiros, Maria C. R.

    2013-12-01

    Next generation wavelength division multiplexed passive optical access networks (WDM-PON), employing reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOAs), can provide a cost effective solution to jointly support both, classic PON services and transparent overlay wireless backhauling. In this approach, the wireless signals are transparently transmitted over the WDMPON, thus creating a virtual dedicated network without incurring into additional network installation and maintenance costs. In this paper, the performance of a WDM-PON transmitting an overlay orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless signal is assessed analytically and experimentally, with relevant system impairments being identified and system design guidelines are provided.

  16. A safety evaluation for overlay disbonding of high-temperature and pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, Ryuichi; Nakajima; Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kazunori; Murakami, Shunzo; Fujii, Tadaomi

    1995-11-01

    Hydrogen induced disbonding test (autoclave test) of stainless weld-overlaid 2-1/4Cr-1Mo and 2-1/4Cr-1Mo-1/4V steel, and the calculations of residual hydrogen contents at the fusion boundary in the specimens and actual vessels, were performed. The effects of microstructure of weld overlay near the fusion boundary and postweld heat treatment on disbonding resistance were clarified, and critical hydrogen content values in weld overlay to prevent disbonding were obtained. A simple evaluation method for disbonding in actual vessels using Tempering Parameter was established.

  17. Scalable Tool Infrastructure for the Cray XT Using Tree-Based Overlay Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Philip C; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2009-01-01

    Performance, debugging, and administration tools are critical for the effective use of parallel computing platforms, but traditional tools have failed to overcome several problems that limit their scalability, such as communication between a large number of tool processes and the management and processing of the volume of data generated on a large number of compute nodes. A tree-based overlay network has proven effective for overcoming these challenges. In this paper, we present our experiences in bringing our MRNet tree-based overlay network infrastructure to the Cray XT platform, including a description of proof-of-concept tools that use MRNet on the Cray XT.

  18. Investigation on synchronization of the offset printing process for fine patterning and precision overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Eonseok; Kim, Hyunchang; Choi, Young-Man; Lee, Seunghyun; Kim, Inyoung; Yoon, Dukkyun; Jo, Jeongdai; Kim, Bongmin; Lee, Taik-Min

    2014-06-01

    Offset printing processes are promising candidates for producing printed electronics due to their capacity for fine patterning and suitability for mass production. To print high-resolution patterns with good overlay using offset printing, the velocities of two contact surfaces, which ink is transferred between, should be synchronized perfectly. However, an exact velocity of the contact surfaces is unknown due to several imperfections, including tolerances, blanket swelling, and velocity ripple, which prevents the system from being operated in the synchronized condition. In this paper, a novel method of measurement based on the sticking model of friction force was proposed to determine the best synchronized condition, i.e., the condition in which the rate of synchronization error is minimized. It was verified by experiment that the friction force can accurately represent the rate of synchronization error. Based on the measurement results of the synchronization error, the allowable margin of synchronization error when printing high-resolution patterns was investigated experimentally using reverse offset printing. There is a region where the patterning performance is unchanged even though the synchronization error is varied, and this may be viewed as indirect evidence that printability performance is secured when there is no slip at the contact interface. To understand what happens at the contact surfaces during ink transfer, the deformation model of the blanket's surface was developed. The model estimates how much deformation on the blanket's surface can be borne by the synchronization error when there is no slip at the contact interface. In addition, the model shows that the synchronization error results in scale variation in the machine direction (MD), which means that the printing registration in the MD can be adjusted actively by controlling the synchronization if there is a sufficient margin of synchronization error to guarantee printability. The effect of synchronization on the printing registration was verified experimentally using gravure offset printing. The variations in synchronization result in the differences in the MD scale, and the measured MD scale matches exactly with the modeled MD scale.

  19. Investigation on synchronization of the offset printing process for fine patterning and precision overlay

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Eonseok; Kim, Hyunchang; Choi, Young-Man; Lee, Seunghyun; Kim, Inyoung; Yoon, Dukkyun; Jo, Jeongdai; Kim, Bongmin; Lee, Taik-Min

    2014-06-21

    Offset printing processes are promising candidates for producing printed electronics due to their capacity for fine patterning and suitability for mass production. To print high-resolution patterns with good overlay using offset printing, the velocities of two contact surfaces, which ink is transferred between, should be synchronized perfectly. However, an exact velocity of the contact surfaces is unknown due to several imperfections, including tolerances, blanket swelling, and velocity ripple, which prevents the system from being operated in the synchronized condition. In this paper, a novel method of measurement based on the sticking model of friction force was proposed to determine the best synchronized condition, i.e., the condition in which the rate of synchronization error is minimized. It was verified by experiment that the friction force can accurately represent the rate of synchronization error. Based on the measurement results of the synchronization error, the allowable margin of synchronization error when printing high-resolution patterns was investigated experimentally using reverse offset printing. There is a region where the patterning performance is unchanged even though the synchronization error is varied, and this may be viewed as indirect evidence that printability performance is secured when there is no slip at the contact interface. To understand what happens at the contact surfaces during ink transfer, the deformation model of the blanket's surface was developed. The model estimates how much deformation on the blanket's surface can be borne by the synchronization error when there is no slip at the contact interface. In addition, the model shows that the synchronization error results in scale variation in the machine direction (MD), which means that the printing registration in the MD can be adjusted actively by controlling the synchronization if there is a sufficient margin of synchronization error to guarantee printability. The effect of synchronization on the printing registration was verified experimentally using gravure offset printing. The variations in synchronization result in the differences in the MD scale, and the measured MD scale matches exactly with the modeled MD scale.

  20. Evaluation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays for Erosion-Corrosion Resistant Boiler Tube Coatings in Low NOx Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Regina, J.R.; Lim, M.; Barbosa, N., DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    2000-04-28

    Iron aluminide weld overlays containing ternary additions and thermal spray coatings are being investigated for corrosion protection of boiler tubes in Low NO{sub x} burners. The primary objective of the research is to identify overlay and thermal spray compositions that provide corrosion protection of waterwall boiler tubes.

  1. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  2. Computer Security and the Data Encryption Standard. Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Security and the Data Encryption Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branstad, Dennis K., Ed.

    The 15 papers and summaries of presentations in this collection provide technical information and guidance offered by representatives from federal agencies and private industry. Topics discussed include physical security, risk assessment, software security, computer network security, and applications and implementation of the Data Encryption

  3. Private sector involvement in civil space remote sensing. Volume 1: Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A survey of private sector developers, users, and interpreters of Earth resources data was conducted in an effort to encourage private investment and participation in remote sensing systems. Results indicate positive interest in participation beyond the current hardware contracting level, however, there is a substantial gap between current market levels and system costs. Issues identified include the selection process for an operating entity, the public/private interface, data collection and access policies, price and profit regulation in a subsidized system, international participation, and the responsibility for research and development. It was agreed that the cost, complexity, and security implications of integrated systems need not be an absolute bar to their private operation.

  4. Practical private database queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobi, Markus; Simon, Christoph; Gisin, Nicolas; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Branciard, Cyril; Walenta, Nino; Zbinden, Hugo

    2011-02-15

    Private queries allow a user, Alice, to learn an element of a database held by a provider, Bob, without revealing which element she is interested in, while limiting her information about the other elements. We propose to implement private queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol, with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. This approach makes our scheme both easy to implement and loss tolerant. While unconditionally secure private queries are known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by relying on fundamental physical principles instead of unverifiable security assumptions in order to protect both the user and the database. We think that the scope exists for such practical private queries to become another remarkable application of quantum information in the footsteps of quantum key distribution.

  5. TWRS privatization bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information.

  6. TWRS privatization bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety.

  7. Overlay Transmission System on Wireless LAN with RTS/CTS Exchange Taking into Account Timing Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kilsoo; Yano, Kazuto; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Taromaru, Makoto

    This paper proposes a new overlay transmission system for wireless LAN with RTS/CTS exchange. Conventional timing synchronization schemes may fail in the presence of inter-system interference, because they have not been designed for overlay transmission. In the proposed system, a transmitter estimates the transmission timing of the next wireless LAN DATA frame, and then sends its DATA frame at almost the same time as the estimated transmission timing to easily establish timing synchronization at the receiver. Moreover, we employ a tapped delay line adaptive array antenna at both transmitter and receiver to effectively suppress interference due to overlay transmission in a rich multipath propagation environment. The frame error rate performances of the proposed system and the IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN are evaluated through computer simulations that assume an exponentially decaying 8-path non-line-of-sight fading channel and include a timing synchronization process. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve overlay transmission while avoiding interference in a rich multipath propagation environment.

  8. Posterior open occlusion management by registration of overlay removable partial denture: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Nosouhian, Saeid; Davoudi, Amin; Derhami, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of posterior open bite relationship in a patient with several missing teeth and skeletal Class III malocclusion. Primary diagnostic esthetic evaluations were performed by mounting casts in centric relation and estimating lost vertical dimension of occlusion. Exclusive treatments were designated by applying overlay removable partial denture with external attachment systems for higher retentions. PMID:26929544

  9. Semantic Overlays in Educational Content Networks--The hylOs Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Michael; Hildebrand, Arne; Lange, Dagmar; Schmidt, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to introduce an educational content management system, Hypermedia Learning Objects System (hylOs), which is fully compliant to the IEEE LOM eLearning object metadata standard. Enabled through an advanced authoring toolset, hylOs allows the definition of instructional overlays of a given eLearning object mesh.

  10. Assessing the Crossdisciplinarity of Technology-Enhanced Learning with Science Overlay Maps and Diversity Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the assessment of the crossdisciplinarity of technology-enhanced learning (TEL). Based on a general discussion of the concept interdisciplinarity and a summary of the discussion in the field, two empirical methods from scientometrics are introduced and applied. Science overlay maps and the Rao-Stirling diversity index are

  11. Impact of the back side flatness of a mask on the panel overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemmochi, Daisuke; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Iwanaga, Yoshinori; Hirano, Termusa; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Recently, the annual increase in the definition of high-function panels for mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets has led to TFT-LCD and TFT-OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) circuits becoming increasingly miniaturized and densified. TFT circuits are comprised of a superposition of layers such as gates, acts and contact holes, with a certain amount of allowance between each layer. However, that allowance has now disappeared due to the high density of the circuit. Therefore, a high-precision mask overlay is essential in order to realize circuits with even higher density. In the mask manufacturing process, the mask is placed on a writer tool, during which the back side surface of the mask makes contact with the stage. This contact alters the front side flatness of the mask. Moreover, once the circuit pattern has been drawn on the mask, it is removed from the writer tool, thus altering the front side flatness and coordinates of the mask. In this paper, we evaluated the overlay of a panel that underwent exposure using a number of masks with different back side flatness. As a result, we confirmed that deviations in the back side flatness of each mask manifest themselves in the panel overlay. Therefore, we need to improve the flatness of the back side of masks hereafter in order to further enhance the panel overlay.

  12. A new approach to plane-sweep overlay: topological structuring and line-segment classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Roessel, Jan W.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated approach to spatial overlay was developed with the objective of creating a single function that can perform most of the tasks now assigned to discrete functions in current systems. Two important components of this system are a unique method for topological structuring, and a method for attribute propagation and line-segment classification. -Author

  13. Fluorogenic membrane overlays to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and seawater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three assays were developed to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and other foods and in seawater and other environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on non-selective agar plates to detect ß-glucuronidase and lysyl am...

  14. An Appraisal of the Irlen Technique of Correcting Reading Disorders Using Tinted Overlays and Tinted Lenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solan, Harold A.

    1990-01-01

    The article reviews three studies (EC 600 064-066) evaluating the effectiveness of using Irlen tinted lenses or overlays with reading-disabled persons. It is concluded that carefully designed and controlled studies do not currently lend support to the Irlen hypothesis. (DB)

  15. Semantic Overlays in Educational Content Networks--The hylOs Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Michael; Hildebrand, Arne; Lange, Dagmar; Schmidt, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to introduce an educational content management system, Hypermedia Learning Objects System (hylOs), which is fully compliant to the IEEE LOM eLearning object metadata standard. Enabled through an advanced authoring toolset, hylOs allows the definition of instructional overlays of a given eLearning object mesh.…

  16. Arbitration Intervention Worker (AIW) Services: Case Management Overlay in a Juvenile Diversion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G.; Dembo, Richard; DuDell, Gary; Wareham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    In this issue we describe a clinical trials study of the impact of adding specific case manager overlay services to "treatment as usual" services for youths in a Juvenile Arbitration Program. In this first article we describe the experimental intervention, the Arbitration Intervention Worker (AIW) service, which was provided to a randomly selected…

  17. Advanced modeling strategies to improve overlay control for 32-nm lithography processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minvielle, Anna; Singh, Lovejeet; Schefske, Jeffrey; Reiss, Joerg; Kent, Eric; Manchester, Terry; Eichelberger, Brad; O'Brien, Kelly; Manka, Jim; Robinson, John C.; Tien, David

    2009-03-01

    Overlay control is gaining more attention in recent years as technology moves into the 32nm era. Strict overlay requirements are being driven not only by the process node but also the process techniques required to meet the design requirements. Double patterning lithography and spacer pitch splitting techniques are driving innovative thinking with respect to overlay control. As lithographers push the current capabilities of their 193nm immersion exposure tools they are utilizing newly enabled control 'knobs'. 'Knobs' are defined as the adjustment points that add new degrees of freedom for lithographers to control the scanner. Expanded control is required as current scanner capabilities are at best marginal in meeting the performance requirements to support the ever demanding process nodes. This abstract is an extension of the SPIE 2008 paper in which we performed thorough sources of variance analysis to provide insight as to the benefits of utilizing high order scanner control knobs [1]. The extension this year is to expand the modeling strategies and to validate the benefit through carefully designed experiments. The expanded modeling characterization will explore not only high order correction capabilities but also characterize the use of field by field corrections as a means to improve the overlay performance of the latest generation of immersion lithography tools. We will explore various correction strategies for both grid and field modeling using KT AnalyzerTM.

  18. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Final technical progress report, July 1992--July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1995-10-15

    The erosion behavior of weld overlay coatings has been studied. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400{degrees}C at 90{degrees} and 30{degrees} particle impact angles. The microstructure of each coating was characterized before erosion testing. A relative ranking of the coatings erosion resistance was developed by determining the steady state erosion rates. Ultimet, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings showed the best erosion resistance at both impact angles. It was found that weld overlays that exhibit good abrasion resistance did not show good erosion resistance. Erosion tests were also performed for selected wrought materials with chemical composition similar to weld overlays. Eroded surfaces of the wrought and weld alloys were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples below the erosion surface to determine size of the plastically deformed region. It was found that one group of coatings experienced significant plastic deformation as a result of erosion while the other did not. It was also established that, in the steady state erosion regime, the size of the plastically deformed region is constant.

  19. Microstructure and Properties of Nickel-Alloy and Nickel-WC Composite Overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liyanage, Thilan

    The microstructures and performance of Ni-based alloys and Ni-WC (nickel-tungsten carbide) composite overlays deposited by plasma transferred arc welding have been studied. The Ni-alloy overlays had similar microstructures consisting of gamma-Ni dendrites, with interdendritic Ni-based eutectics, borides and carbides. Low hardness alloy overlays contained a smaller fraction of interdendritic phases relative to the high hardness alloys. The interdendritic regions make a significant contribution to the hardness since they are more than twice as hard as primary dendrites. The Ni-WC composites contained similar phases, however WC dissolution was observed leading to the formation of other carbides. Ni-alloys with low carbon and Cr content exhibited the lowest WC dissolution. The Ni-WC overlays produced using these dilute alloys generally performed better in ASTM G65 wear tests. This was likely due to the reduced dissolution which avoided formation of brittle secondary phases, maintaining a short mean free path between WC particles and allowing increased impact energy absorption.

  20. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1994-01-20

    Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in Circulated Fluidized Beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400C and their erosion resistance and microstructure evaluated. Steady state erosion rates were similar for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625, Iron-Aluminide, 316L SS, and High Chromium Cast Iron) and were considerably lower than the remaining coating evaluated. These coatings had different base (Co, Fe, Ni-base). No correlations were found between room temperature microhardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature, although this criteria is often thought to be an indicator of erosion resistance. It was suggested that the coatings that showed similar erosion rates may have similar mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates at this temperature. During the past quarter, Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were selected for more detailed investigations based upon the preliminary erosion test results. Microhardness tests were performed on eroded samples to determine the size of the work hardened zone and change in coatings hardness due to erosion. The work hardened zone was to correlated with erosion resistance of the coatings. Additional Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates.

  1. 78 FR 45059 - Safety Zone; Sherman Private Party Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Winnetka, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sherman Private Party Fireworks, Lake... establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Michigan near Winnetka, IL. This safety zone is intended...

  2. 17 CFR 275.203(m)-1 - Private fund adviser exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 275.203(m)-1 Section 275.203(m)-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.203(m)-1 Private fund adviser exemption. (a) United States investment advisers. For purposes of section 203(m) of the Act (15...

  3. 17 CFR 275.203(m)-1 - Private fund adviser exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 275.203(m)-1 Section 275.203(m)-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.203(m)-1 Private fund adviser exemption. (a) United States investment advisers. For purposes of section 203(m) of the Act (15...

  4. 17 CFR 275.203(m)-1 - Private fund adviser exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... 275.203(m)-1 Section 275.203(m)-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.203(m)-1 Private fund adviser exemption. (a) United States investment advisers. For purposes of section 203(m) of the Act (15...

  5. 78 FR 36429 - Safety Zone; Private Party Fireworks; Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Private Party Fireworks; Lake Michigan... establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Michigan in Chicago, Illinois. This safety zone is intended...

  6. Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho, Emmanuel Zagury

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concepts of private stimuli, covert responses, and private events, emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as private. I argue that the role of private stimuli in the control of self-descriptive verbal responses is dependent on a relation (correlation or equivalence relation) with public stimuli, and that responses vary along a continuum of observability. These remarks on private stimuli and covert responses are introductory to an examination of the varying complexity of phenomena described as private. I argue that private events is a verbal response emitted under the control of phenomena of different degrees of complexity, and I interpret these phenomena, based on the principle of selection by consequences. I introduce the notion of inclusiveness to suggest that some phenomena related to privacy are less or more complex as they include relations of a phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and cultural origin. PMID:22478451

  7. Differentially private distributed logistic regression using private and public data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Privacy protecting is an important issue in medical informatics and differential privacy is a state-of-the-art framework for data privacy research. Differential privacy offers provable privacy against attackers who have auxiliary information, and can be applied to data mining models (for example, logistic regression). However, differentially private methods sometimes introduce too much noise and make outputs less useful. Given available public data in medical research (e.g. from patients who sign open-consent agreements), we can design algorithms that use both public and private data sets to decrease the amount of noise that is introduced. Methodology In this paper, we modify the update step in Newton-Raphson method to propose a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on both public and private data. Experiments and results We try our algorithm on three different data sets, and show its advantage over: (1) a logistic regression model based solely on public data, and (2) a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on private data under various scenarios. Conclusion Logistic regression models built with our new algorithm based on both private and public datasets demonstrate better utility than models that trained on private or public datasets alone without sacrificing the rigorous privacy guarantee. PMID:25079786

  8. High order overlay modeling and APC simulation with Zernike-Legendre polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, JawWuk; Kim, MinGyu; Lee, JuHan; Sherwin, Stuart; Hoo, George; Choi, DongSub; Lee, Dohwa; Jeon, Sanghuck; Lee, Kangsan; Tien, David; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.; Levy, Ady; Smith, Mark D.

    2015-03-01

    Feedback control of overlay errors to the scanner is a well-established technique in semiconductor manufacturing [1]. Typically, overlay errors are measured, and then modeled by least-squares fitting to an overlay model. Overlay models are typically Cartesian polynomial functions of position within the wafer (Xw, Yw), and of position within the field (Xf, Yf). The coefficients from the data fit can then be fed back to the scanner to reduce overlay errors in future wafer exposures, usually via a historically weighted moving average. In this study, rather than using the standard Cartesian formulation, we examine overlay models using Zernike polynomials to represent the wafer-level terms, and Legendre polynomials to represent the field-level terms. Zernike and Legendre polynomials can be selected to have the same fitting capability as standard polynomials (e.g., second order in X and Y, or third order in X and Y). However, Zernike polynomials have the additional property of being orthogonal over the unit disk, which makes them appropriate for the wafer-level model, and Legendre polynomials are orthogonal over the unit square, which makes them appropriate for the field-level model. We show several benefits of Zernike/Legendre-based models in this investigation in an Advanced Process Control (APC) simulation using highly-sampled fab data. First, the orthogonality property leads to less interaction between the terms, which makes the lot-to-lot variation in the fitted coefficients smaller than when standard polynomials are used. Second, the fitting process itself is less coupled - fitting to a lower-order model, and then fitting the residuals to a higher order model gives very similar results as fitting all of the terms at once. This property makes fitting techniques such as dual pass or cascading [2] unnecessary, and greatly simplifies the options available for the model recipe. The Zernike/Legendre basis gives overlay performance (mean plus 3 sigma of the residuals) that is the same as standard Cartesian polynomials, but with stability similar to the dual-pass recipe. Finally, we show that these properties are intimately tied to the sample plan on the wafer, and that the model type and sampling must be considered at the same time to demonstrate the benefits of an orthogonal set of functions.

  9. 17 CFR 240.3b-4 - Definition of “foreign government,” “foreign issuer” and “foreign private issuer”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Definitions § 240.3b-4 Definition of “foreign government,” “foreign issuer” and “foreign private issuer”. (a) The term...

  10. Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP)

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.J.; Papier, I.I.

    1996-06-20

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., (UL) have jointly established the Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP). The goal of this program is to enhance industrial and national security by providing a nationally recognized method for making informed selection and use decisions when buying security equipment and systems. The SESCP will provide a coordinated structure for private and governmental security standardization review. Members will participate in meetings to identify security problems, develop ad-hoc subcommittees (as needed) to address these identified problems, and to maintain a communications network that encourages a meaningful exchange of ideas. This program will enhance national security by providing improved security equipment and security systems based on consistent, reliable standards and certification programs.

  11. Cryptographic Securities Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    While transparency in financial markets should enhance liquidity, its exploitation by unethical and parasitic traders discourages others from fully embracing disclosure of their own information. Traders exploit both the private information in upstairs markets used to trade large orders outside traditional exchanges and the public information present in exchanges' quoted limit order books. Using homomorphic cryptographic protocols, market designers can create "partially transparent" markets in which every matched trade is provably correct and only beneficial information is revealed. In a cryptographic securities exchange, market operators can hide information to prevent its exploitation, and still prove facts about the hidden information such as bid/ask spread or market depth.

  12. Overlay excursion management through sample plan optimization and cycle time reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuemei; Hung, Ming-Yeon; Kuo, Kelly; Fu, Steven; Shanthikumar, Geoge; Mao, Zhoujie; Deng, Shiming; Hazari, Viral; Monahan, Kevin M.; Slessor, Mike D.; Lev, Amir

    2003-05-01

    As fabs transition from 200 to 300mm wafers with shrinking design rules, the risk and cost associated with overlay excursions become more severe. This significantly impacts the overall litho-cell efficiency. Effective detection, identification, and reduction of overlay excursions are essential for realizing the productivity and cost benefits of the technology shifts. We have developed a comprehensive overlay excursion management method that encompasses baseline variation analysis, statistical separation and characterization of excursion signatures and their frequencies, as well as selection of sampling plans and control methods that minimize material at risk due to excursion. A novel baseline variance estimation method is developed that takes into account the spatial signature and temporal behavior of the litho-cell overlay correction mechanisms. Spatial and temporal excursion signatures are identified and incorporated in a cost model that estimates the material at risk in an excursion cycle. The material at risk associated with various sampling plans, control charts, and cycle times is assessed considering various lot disposition and routing decisions. These results are then used in determining an optimal sampling and control strategy for effective excursion management. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the effectiveness of the methods using actual 300mm fab overlay data from several critical layers. With a thorough assessment of the actual baseline and excursion distributions, we quantify the amount of wafer-to-wafer and within-wafer sampling necessary for detecting excursions with minimal material at risk. We also evaluate the impact of shorter cycle time and faster response to excursion, which is made possible through automation and alternative metrology configurations.

  13. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, James M.; Anderson, Dustin D.

    2010-01-01

    Privatization of support services has been a method that Michigan school districts have used for several years to lower costs. More than ever before, Michigan school districts are privatizing the three main support services they offer--food, custodial and transportation. The annual survey finds that 48.8 percent of Michigan school districts are…

  14. Private Loans: Facts and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Private loans are one of the riskiest ways to finance a college education. Like credit cards, they typically have variable interest rates. Both variable and fixed rates are higher for those who can least afford them--as high as 13% in June 2014. Private loans are not eligible for the important deferment, income-based repayment, or loan forgiveness…

  15. Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.

  16. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, James M.; Freeland, William L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Privatization of school support services is a time-tested means for lowering educational costs. The three major services that school districts in Michigan contract out for are food, custodial and transportation. The Mackinac Center for Public Policy's survey of privatization is the longest running and most comprehensive source of school support

  17. The Law and Private Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is

  18. IMPERMEABLE THIN AL2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2003-12-16

    To improve the hot corrosion resistance of YSZ thermal barrier coatings, a 25 {micro}m and a 2 {micro}m thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay were deposited by HVOF thermal spray and by sol-gel coating method, respectively, onto to the surface of YSZ coating. Indenter test was employed to investigate the spalling of YSZ with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay after hot corrosion. The results showed that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay acted as a barrier against the infiltration of the molten salt into the YSZ coating during exposure, thus significantly reduced the amount of M-phase of ZrO{sub 2} in YSZ coating. However, a thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay was harmful for TBC by increasing compressive stress which causes crack and spalling of YSZ coating. As a result, a dense and thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay is critical for simultaneously preventing YSZ from hot corrosion and spalling. In the next reporting period, we will measure or calculate the residue stress within Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay and YSZ coating to study the mechanism of effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay on spalling of YSZ coating.

  19. British coal privatization procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The form in which British Coal is to be privatized has finally been announced. Offers are to be invited for the operating underground and opencast mines which will be grouped into five regionally based companies. Additionally, offers will be invited for a number of collieries which are currently under care and maintenance. The five Regional Coal Companies to be formed are Central North, which will comprise the assets in the Yorkshire and Durham coalfields, including the five collieries in the Selby Complex; Central South, which will contain the assets located in the Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire, and Warwickshire coalfields; North East, which has four opencast sites, Scotland, which has nine operating open-cast sites and a single underground mine, Longannet; and South Wales with its nine operating opencast sites. Tower colliery, the last underground mine in South Wales, was finally put on care and maintenance on April 20, 1994. Details of the five Regional Coal Companies are given. A new public sector body, the Coal Authority will be set up to which all British Coal's title to unworked coal and coal mines will be transferred. All the relevant property rights and liabilities of British Coal will be transferred into the Regional Coal Companies prior to their sun.

  20. Privatization and management development in the healthcare sector of Georgia.

    PubMed

    West, Daniel J; Costello, Michael; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare reforms in Georgia parallel some of the major changes made by other Central and Eastern European countries. This is especially true of efforts to privatize the health sector and secure capital investments from Western Europe. Privatization of Georgian healthcare requires an understanding of the Soviet-era healthcare system and ideological orientation. Many of the issues and problems of privatization in Georgia require new knowledge to enhance equity outcomes, improve financial performance, increase access to care and encourage healthcare competition. Training existing and future healthcare leaders in modern management theory and practice is paramount. A university based health-management education partnership model was developed and implemented between several universities in the United States and Europe, along with two Georgian universities, to address workforce demands, changing market conditions, management knowledge and leadership competencies. Health-management education concentrations were developed and implemented along with several short courses to meet market demand for trained leaders and managers. PMID:21677531

  1. Security Locks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions affected--perhaps the

  2. Security Locks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions affected--perhaps the…

  3. IMPERMEABLE THIN Al2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2002-11-30

    In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating has been successfully produced on the surface of YSZ by the Sol-gel route. The YSZ substrates were coated with boehmite sol by dip coating process, dried to form a gel film and calcined at 1200 C to form {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. The microstructures of TBC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that micro-pores ranged from 3 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and micro-cracks could be clearly seen on the surface of APS YSZ coating. The thickness of alumina overlay increased with increasing the number of dip coating circles. The small microcracks (0.5-1.0 {micro}m width) on the YSZ surface could be filled and blocked by calcined alumina particles, whereas large pores remained empty and the alumina overlay was un-continuous after one time dip coating circle. Alumina overlay thicker than 5 m m obtained by five times dip coating circles largely cracked after calcinations. As a result, multiple dip coatings up to three times were ideal for getting high quality, crack- free and continuous overlay. The optimal thickness of alumina overlay was in the range of 2.5-3.5 {micro}m. In the next reporting period, we will study the hot corrosion behaviors of YSZ TBC with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating produced by sol gel route by exposure the samples to molten salts mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C.

  4. A novel approach for latent print identification using accurate overlays to prioritize reference prints.

    PubMed

    Gantz, Daniel T; Gantz, Donald T; Walch, Mark A; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-10-24

    A novel approach to automated fingerprint matching and scoring that produces accurate locally and nonlinearly adjusted overlays of a latent print onto each reference print in a corpus is described. The technology, which addresses challenges inherent to latent prints, provides the latent print examiner with a prioritized ranking of candidate reference prints based on the overlays of the latent onto each candidate print. In addition to supporting current latent print comparison practices, this approach can make it possible to return a greater number of AFIS candidate prints because the ranked overlays provide a substantial starting point for latent-to-reference print comparison. To provide the image information required to create an accurate overlay of a latent print onto a reference print, "Ridge-Specific Markers" (RSMs), which correspond to short continuous segments of a ridge or furrow, are introduced. RSMs are reliably associated with any specific local section of a ridge or a furrow using the geometric information available from the image. Latent prints are commonly fragmentary, with reduced clarity and limited minutiae (i.e., ridge endings and bifurcations). Even in the absence of traditional minutiae, latent prints contain very important information in their ridges that permit automated matching using RSMs. No print orientation or information beyond the RSMs is required to generate the overlays. This automated process is applied to the 88 good quality latent prints in the NIST Special Database (SD) 27. Nonlinear overlays of each latent were produced onto all of the 88 reference prints in the NIST SD27. With fully automated processing, the true mate reference prints were ranked in the first candidate position for 80.7% of the latents tested, and 89.8% of the true mate reference prints ranked in the top ten positions. After manual post-processing of those latents for which the true mate reference print was not ranked first, these frequencies increased to 90.9% (1st rank) and 96.6% (top ten), respectively. Because the computational process is highly parallelizable, it is feasible for this method to work with a reference corpus of several thousand prints. PMID:25447189

  5. Information Security Awareness On-Line Materials Design with Knowledge Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang; Keh, Huan-Chao; Huang, Nan-Ching; Huang, Tien-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Information Security Awareness, though known as a primary and important issue in the domain of Information Security, CSI computer crime and security survey showed poor security awareness training in public and private sectors. In many studies, the authors have found that the usage of knowledge maps helps the process of learning and conception…

  6. Information Security Awareness On-Line Materials Design with Knowledge Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang; Keh, Huan-Chao; Huang, Nan-Ching; Huang, Tien-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Information Security Awareness, though known as a primary and important issue in the domain of Information Security, CSI computer crime and security survey showed poor security awareness training in public and private sectors. In many studies, the authors have found that the usage of knowledge maps helps the process of learning and conception

  7. Security in Full-Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    When fully developed for NASA, Vanguard Enforcer(TM) software-which emulates the activities of highly technical security system programmers, auditors, and administrators-was among the first intrusion detection programs to restrict human errors from affecting security, and to ensure the integrity of a computer's operating systems, as well as the protection of mission critical resources. Vanguard Enforcer was delivered in 1991 to Johnson Space Center and has been protecting systems and critical data there ever since. In August of 1999, NASA granted Vanguard exclusive rights to commercialize the Enforcer system for the private sector. In return, Vanguard continues to supply NASA with ongoing research, development, and support of Enforcer. The Vanguard Enforcer 4.2 is one of several surveillance technologies that make up the Vanguard Security Solutions line of products. Using a mainframe environment, Enforcer 4.2 achieves previously unattainable levels of automated security management.

  8. Private Information and Insurance Rejections

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets. PMID:24187381

  9. Improvements to the materials characterization and fatigue life prediction methods of the Texas rigid pavement overlay design procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taute, A.; McCullough, B. F.; Hudon, W. R.

    1981-11-01

    Certain improvements to the Texas Rigid Pavement Overlay Procedure (RPOD2) with regard to materials characterization and fatigue life predictions are presented. Suggestions are made for characterizing rigid pavement layers from Dynaflect deflections and material tests, and some guidelines for selecting design sections along the length of a road are presented. Finite element analysis is used to quantify the effect of pavement discontinuities on the tresses obtained from layered theory. Further finite element analysis is used in an attempt to relate the critical reflection stresses in an ac overlay to deflection measurements obtained before overlaying.

  10. 49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Historic and Excursion Operators, and Private Cars 1580.201 Rail security coordinator. (a) Applicability..., including heavy rail transit, light rail transit, automated guideway, cable car, inclined plane, funicular, and monorail systems. (4) Each operator of private cars, including business/office cars and...

  11. 49 CFR 1580.203 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Scenic, Historic and Excursion Operators, and Private Cars 1580.203 Reporting significant security... transportation. (4) Each operator of private cars, including business/office cars and circus trains, on or... heavy rail transit, light rail transit, automated guideway, cable car, inclined plane, funicular,...

  12. 49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Historic and Excursion Operators, and Private Cars 1580.201 Rail security coordinator. (a) Applicability..., including heavy rail transit, light rail transit, automated guideway, cable car, inclined plane, funicular, and monorail systems. (4) Each operator of private cars, including business/office cars and...

  13. 49 CFR 1580.203 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Scenic, Historic and Excursion Operators, and Private Cars 1580.203 Reporting significant security... transportation. (4) Each operator of private cars, including business/office cars and circus trains, on or... heavy rail transit, light rail transit, automated guideway, cable car, inclined plane, funicular,...

  14. Secure authenticated video equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Doren, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized panics. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

  15. 3 CFR 13549 - Executive Order 13549 of August 18, 2010. Classified National Security Information Program for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., the Central Intelligence Agency, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Members shall also include... National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities 13549 Order... Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities By...

  16. 75 FR 49932 - Private Transfer Fee Covenants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... AGENCY Private Transfer Fee Covenants AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Guidance, ``Guidance on Private Transfer Fee Covenants,'' to the Federal National Mortgage Association... mortgages on properties encumbered by private transfer fee covenants. Such covenants appear adverse...

  17. Private Schools and Public School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    1999-01-01

    Effects of private schools on public elementary-secondary achievement in Illinois were estimated using percentage of students in private schools as an endogenous variable. Results show private schools have no direct effect on public school achievement. (SK)

  18. Peru turnaround tied to privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-19

    Petroleos del Peru predicts a 10% increase in Peru's oil production this year and a further increase in 1994. Petroperu also forecasts a sharp increase in drilling in Peru this year. After several years of declining oil production, a gradual turnaround in the cash strapped country's petroleum industry is largely tied to its progress in privatization. The government last year began a campaign to privatize all state owned companies by the end of July 1995. The paper discusses forecasts by Petroperu; the contract of Occidental del Amazonas Inc.; the Petromar privatization; Great Western's contract; development of the Aguaytia gas field; and refinery contracts.

  19. A hierarchical P2P overlay network for interest-based media contents lookup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, HyunRyong; Kim, JongWon

    2006-10-01

    We propose a P2P (peer-to-peer) overlay architecture, called IGN (interest grouping network), for contents lookup in the DHC (digital home community), which aims to provide a formalized home-network-extended construction of current P2P file sharing community. The IGN utilizes the Chord and de Bruijn graph for its hierarchical overlay network construction. By combining two schemes and by inheriting its features, the IGN efficiently supports contents lookup. More specifically, by introducing metadata-based lookup keyword, the IGN offers detailed contents lookup that can reflect the user interests. Moreover, the IGN tries to reflect home network environments of DHC by utilizing HG (home gateway) of each home network as a participating node of the IGN. Through experimental and analysis results, we show that the IGN is more efficient than Chord, a well-known DHT (distributed hash table)-based lookup protocol.

  20. Overlay metrology for dark hard mask process: simulation and experiment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jangho; Chalykh, Roman; Kang, Hyunjae; Kim, SeongSue; Lee, SukJoo; Cho, Han-Ku

    2007-03-01

    Simulation and experimental study results are reported to solve align/overlay problem in dark hard mask process in lithography. For simulation part, an in-house simulator, which is based on rigorous coupled wave analysis and Fourier optics method of high NA imaging, is used. According to the simulation and experiment study, image quality of alignment and overlay marks can be optimized by choosing hard mask and sub-film thickness carefully for a given process condition. In addition, it is important to keep the specification of film thickness uniformity within a certain limit. Simulation results are confirmed by experiment using the state of art memory process in Samsung semiconductor R&D facility.

  1. Automatic Generation of Overlays and Offset Values Based on Visiting Vehicle Telemetry and RWS Visuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunne, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of computer software as a tool to generate visual displays has led to an overall expansion of automated computer generated images in the aerospace industry. These visual overlays are generated by combining raw data with pre-existing data on the object or objects being analyzed on the screen. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) uses this computer software to generate on-screen overlays when a Visiting Vehicle (VV) is berthing with the International Space Station (ISS). In order for Mission Control Center personnel to be a contributing factor in the VV berthing process, computer software similar to that on the ISS must be readily available on the ground to be used for analysis. In addition, this software must perform engineering calculations and save data for further analysis.

  2. The Effects of a Dynamic Spectrum Access Overlay in LTE-Advanced Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Ryan E. Irwin; Luiz A. DaSilva

    2011-05-01

    As early as 2014, mobile network operators’ spectral capacity will be overwhelmed by the demand brought on by new devices and applications. To augment capacity and meet this demand, operators may choose to deploy a Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) overlay. The signaling and functionality required by such an overlay have not yet been fully considered in the architecture of the planned Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE+) networks. This paper presents a Spectrum Accountability framework to be integrated into LTE+ architectures, defining specific element functionality, protocol interfaces, and signaling flow diagrams required to enforce the rights and responsibilities of primary and secondary users. We also quantify, through integer programs, the benefits of using DSA channels to augment capacity under a scenario in which LTE+ network can opportunistically use TV and GSM spectrum. The framework proposed here may serve as a guide in the development of future LTE+ network standards that account for DSA.

  3. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. [Quarterly report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-10-20

    In the previous period of work, twelve overlay hardfacing alloys were selected for erosion testing based upon a literature review. All twelve coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. The coating deposition and sample preparation procedures were described in the previous quarterly report. During the past quarter, all the coatings were erosion tested at 400 C. The erosion resistance of each coating was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. In addition, the microstructure of each coating was characterized before and after the erosion tests. This progress report describes the erosion test results and coating microstructures. Also, a preliminary analysis on the relationships, between weld overlay coating hardness, microstructure, and erosion resistance will be discussed.

  4. Surface structure of niobium-dioxide overlayer on niobium(100) identified by scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; An, B.; Xu, X.; Fukuyama, S.; Yokogawa, K.; Yoshimura, M.

    2001-05-01

    The surface structures of an oxide overlayer on Nb(100) single crystal formed by numerous cycles of Ar-ion sputtering and flash annealing at 1973 K in an ultra-high-vacuum chamber have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. Flat terraces with a monatomic step height of Nb(100) are observed; where two orthogonal domains are alternately evident. A ladder-like (310) structure of Nb(100) with no long-range order is identified at atomic resolution in the domain on the terrace. The ladder-like (310) structure is interpreted to be a modulated NbO2(010) overlayer on the Nb(100) surface and an atomic structural model of the ladder-like (310) structure is proposed.

  5. Relative humidity sensor based on an optical microfiber knot resonator with a polyvinyl alcohol overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Min-Seok; Yoo, Kwang Wook; Han, Young-Geun

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive RH sensor based on the MKR with the PVA overlay is investigated. After making a tie using the microfiber with a diameter of 2 μm, the MRK with a loop diameter of 90 μm is fabricated and coated by using a PVA which can absorb humidity. The optical spectra of the MRK with the PVA overlay are converted to the spatial frequency spectra by using the FFT for precise measurement. The absorption of humidity in the proposed MKR-based sensing probe effectively changes the spatial frequency of the MKR. The RH sensitivities of the proposed MKR-based RH sensing prober with higher order modes can be dramatically improved.

  6. Combined Conjunctival Autograft and Overlay Amniotic Membrane Transplantation; a Novel Surgical Treatment for Pterygium

    PubMed Central

    Ghanavati, Siamak Zarei; Shousha, Mohamed Abou; Betancurt, Carolina; Perez, Victor L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors report the long-term results of combined conjunctival autograft and overlay amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for treatment of pterygium as a new surgical technique. Nineteen patients including 12 male and 7 female subjects with pterygium (primary, 14 cases; recurrent, 5 cases) underwent combined conjunctival autograft and overlay AMT and were followed from 10 to 26 months. Mean age was 44.2112.49 (range, 29.0-73.0) years. In one patient with grade T3 primary pterygium, the lesion recurred (5.2%, recurrence rate). No intra-and postoperative complication developed. This procedure seems a safe and effective surgical technique for pterygium treatment. Protection of the ocular surface during the early postoperative period reduces the friction-induced inflammation and might be helpful to prevent the recurrence. PMID:25667744

  7. 20 CFR 404.112 - When we consider certain employees of private nonprofit organizations to be fully insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When we consider certain employees of private nonprofit organizations to be fully insured. 404.112 Section 404.112 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Coverage Fully Insured Status 404.112 When we consider certain employees of private...

  8. 20 CFR 404.112 - When we consider certain employees of private nonprofit organizations to be fully insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When we consider certain employees of private nonprofit organizations to be fully insured. 404.112 Section 404.112 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Coverage Fully Insured Status 404.112 When we consider certain employees of private...

  9. 20 CFR 404.112 - When we consider certain employees of private nonprofit organizations to be fully insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When we consider certain employees of private nonprofit organizations to be fully insured. 404.112 Section 404.112 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Coverage Fully Insured Status 404.112 When we consider certain employees of private...

  10. 20 CFR 404.112 - When we consider certain employees of private nonprofit organizations to be fully insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When we consider certain employees of private nonprofit organizations to be fully insured. 404.112 Section 404.112 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Coverage Fully Insured Status 404.112 When we consider certain employees of private...

  11. 77 FR 49851 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Security and Antiterrorism Act of 1986), as amended; Public Law 107-56 (USA Patriot Act); and Executive.... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of Public Meeting of the... Private International Law, Department of State, hereby gives notice of a public meeting of the Study...

  12. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  13. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  14. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  15. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  16. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  17. The Corrosion and Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Nickel Based Alloy Weld Overlay and Coextruded Claddings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockdale, Andrew

    The use of low NOx boilers in coal fired power plants has resulted in sulfidizing corrosive conditions within the boilers and a reduction in the service lifetime of the waterwall tubes. As a solution to this problem, Ni-based weld overlays are used to provide the necessary corrosion resistance however; they are susceptible to corrosion fatigue. There are several metallurgical factors which give rise to corrosion fatigue that are associated with the localized melting and solidification of the weld overlay process. Coextruded coatings offer the potential for improved corrosion fatigue resistance since coextrusion is a solid state coating process. The corrosion and corrosion fatigue behavior of alloy 622 weld overlays and coextruded claddings was investigated using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator retrofitted with a retort. The experiments were conducted at a constant temperature of 600C using a simulated combustion gas of N2-10%CO-5%CO2-0.12%H 2S. An alternating stress profile was used with a minimum tensile stress of 0 MPa and a maximum tensile stress of 300 MPa (ten minute fatigue cycles). The results have demonstrated that the Gleeble can be used to successfully simulate the known corrosion fatigue cracking mechanism of Ni-based weld overlays in service. Multilayer corrosion scales developed on each of the claddings that consisted of inner and outer corrosion layers. The scales formed by the outward diffusion of cations and the inward diffusion of sulfur and oxygen anions. The corrosion fatigue behavior was influenced by the surface finish and the crack interactions. The initiation of a large number of corrosion fatigue cracks was not necessarily detrimental to the corrosion fatigue resistance. Finally, the as-received coextruded cladding exhibited the best corrosion fatigue resistance.

  18. In-die photomask registration and overlay metrology with PROVE using 2D correlation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, D.; Arnz, M.; Beyer, D.

    2011-11-01

    According to the ITRS roadmap, semiconductor industry drives the 193nm lithography to its limits, using techniques like double exposure, double patterning, mask-source optimization and inverse lithography. For photomask metrology this translates to full in-die measurement capability for registration and critical dimension together with challenging specifications for repeatability and accuracy. Especially, overlay becomes more and more critical and must be ensured on every die. For this, Carl Zeiss SMS has developed the next generation photomask registration and overlay metrology tool PROVE which serves the 32nm node and below and which is already well established in the market. PROVE features highly stable hardware components for the stage and environmental control. To ensure in-die measurement capability, sophisticated image analysis methods based on 2D correlations have been developed. In this paper we demonstrate the in-die capability of PROVE and present corresponding measurement results for shortterm and long-term measurements as well as the attainable accuracy for feature sizes down to 85nm using different illumination modes and mask types. Standard measurement methods based on threshold criteria are compared with the new 2D correlation methods to demonstrate the performance gain of the latter. In addition, mask-to-mask overlay results of typical box-in-frame structures down to 200nm feature size are presented. It is shown, that from overlay measurements a reproducibility budget can be derived that takes into account stage, image analysis and global effects like mask loading and environmental control. The parts of the budget are quantified from measurement results to identify critical error contributions and to focus on the corresponding improvement strategies.

  19. Microeconomics-based resource allocation in overlay networks by using non-strategic behavior modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Morteza; Rezvani, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Behavior modeling has recently been investigated for designing self-organizing mechanisms in the context of communication networks in order to exploit the natural selfishness of the users with the goal of maximizing the overall utility. In strategic behavior modeling, the users of the network are assumed to be game players who seek to maximize their utility with taking into account the decisions that the other players might make. The essential difference between the aforementioned researches and this work is that it incorporates the non-strategic decisions in order to design the mechanism for the overlay network. In this solution concept, the decisions that a peer might make does not affect the actions of the other peers at all. The theory of consumer-firm developed in microeconomics is a model of the non-strategic behavior that we have adopted in our research. Based on it, we have presented distributed algorithms for peers' "joining" and "leaving" operations. We have modeled the overlay network as a competitive economy in which the content provided by an origin server can be viewed as commodity and the origin server and the peers who multicast the content to their downside are considered as the firms. On the other hand, due to the dual role of the peers in the overlay network, they can be considered as the consumers as well. On joining to the overlay economy, each peer is provided with an income and tries to get hold of the service regardless to the behavior of the other peers. We have designed the scalable algorithms in such a way that the existence of equilibrium price (known as Walrasian equilibrium price) is guaranteed.

  20. Effect of oil overlay on inhibition potential of roscovitine in sheep cumulus-oocyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Crocomo, L F; Marques Filho, W C; Ulian, C M V; Branchini, N S; Silva, D T; Ackermann, C L; Landim-Alvarenga, F C; Bicudo, S D

    2015-06-01

    Inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, as roscovitine, have been used to prevent the spontaneous resumption of meiosis in vitro and to improve the oocyte developmental competence. In this study, the interference of oil overlay on the reversible arrest capacity of roscovitine in sheep oocytes as well as its effects on cumulus expansion was evaluated. For this, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured for 20h in TCM 199 with 10% foetal bovine serum (Control) containing 75?m roscovitine (Rosco). Subsequently, they were in vitro matured (IVM) for further 18h in inhibitor-free medium with LH and FSH. The culture was performed in Petri dishes under mineral oil (+) or in 96 well plates without oil overlay (-) at 38.5C and 5% CO2 . At 20 and 38h, the cumulus expansion and nuclear maturation were evaluated under stereomicroscope and by Hoechst 33342 staining, respectively. No group presented cumulus expansion at 20h. After additional culture with gonadotrophins, a significant rate of COCs from both Control groups (+/-) exhibited total expansion while in both Rosco groups (+/-) the partial expansion prevailed. Among the oocytes treated with roscovitine, 65.2% were kept at GV in the absence of oil overlay while 40.6% of them reached MII under oil cover (p<0.05). This meiotic arrest was reversible, and proper meiosis progression also occurred in the Control groups (+/-). So, the culture system without oil overlay improved the meiotic inhibition promoted by roscovitine without affecting the cumulus expansion rate or the subsequent meiosis progression. PMID:25726754

  1. RESTORING A DAMAGED 16-YEAR -OLD INSULATING POLYMER CONCRETE DIKE OVERLAY: REPAIR MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this program was to design and formulate organic polymer-based material systems suitable for repairing and restoring the overlay panels of insulating lightweight polymer concrete (ILPC) from the concrete floor and slope wall of a dike at KeySpan liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, NY, just over sixteen years ago. It also included undertaking a small-scale field demonstration to ensure that the commercial repairing technologies were applicable to the designed and formulated materials.

  2. What Future for Private Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cath Sch J, 1970

    1970-01-01

    After examining a small private school (Norwood Academy, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia) a group of leading educators give their answers to questions about its future and the future of such schools in general. (Editor)

  3. State Regulation of Private Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines state laws and the actions of various courts on home instruction and unauthorized educational programs. Suggests reforming the regulation of private education through legislative action that requires periodic testing as an alternative to compulsory school attendance. (Author/MLF)

  4. Private Colleges Headed for Extinction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Without additional public support, the 1500 private colleges and universities in America will drop to 170 in the next 30 years, according to a forecast by Donald A. Pyke, coordinator of academic planning, University of Southern California. (Author)

  5. Is there a human right to private health care?

    PubMed

    Gross, Aeyal

    2013-01-01

    In recent years we have noticed an increase in the turn to rights analysis in litigation relating to access to health care. Examining litigation, we can notice a contradiction between on the one hand the ability of the right to health to reinforce privatization and commodification of health care, by rearticulating claims to private health care in terms of human rights, and on the other hand, its ability to reinforce and reinstate public values, especially that of equality, against the background of privatization and commodification. While many hope that rights discourse will do the latter, and secure that access to health care should occur on the basis of need as opposed to ability to pay, it has actually been used to attempt to advance arguments that will allow access to private or semiprivate health insurance in ways that may exacerbate inequality. These types of arguments won ground in the Canadian Supreme Court, but were rejected by the Israeli Supreme Court. In order to avoid this co-optation of right to health, a notion of rights that incorporates the principles of substantive equality is required. Otherwise, one of the unintended consequences of inserting rights analysis into public health care may be that it will reinforce rather than challenge privatization in a way that may increase inequalities. PMID:23581662

  6. Epicardial ablation guidance using coronary arterial models and live fluoroscopic overlay registrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzke, R.; Thiagalingam, A.; Movassaghi, B.; d'Avila, A.; Reddy, V. Y.; Chan, R. C.

    2008-03-01

    Knowledge of patient-specific cardiac anatomy is required for catheter-based ablation in epicardial ablation procedures such as ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation interventions. In particular, knowledge of critical structures such as the coronary arteries is essential to avoid collateral damage. In such ablation procedures, ablation catheters are brought in via minimally-invasive subxiphoid access. The catheter is then steered to ablation target sites on the left ventricle (LV). During the ablation and catheter navigation it is of vital importance to avoid damage of coronary structures. Contrast-enhanced rotational X-ray angiography of the coronary arteries delivers a 3D impression of the anatomy during the time of intervention. Vessel modeling techniques have been shown to be able to deliver accurate 3D anatomical models of the coronary arteries. To simplify epicardial navigation and ablation, we propose to overlay coronary arterial models, derived from rotational X-ray angiography and vessel modeling, onto real-time X-ray fluoroscopy. In a preclinical animal study, we show that overlay of intra-operatively acquired 3D arterial models onto X-ray helps to place ablation lesions at a safe distance from coronary structures. Example ablation lesions have been placed based on the model overlay at reasonable distances between key arterial vessels and on top of marginal branches.

  7. Image overlay solution based on threshold detection for a compact near infrared fluorescence goggle system

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shengkui; Mondal, Suman B.; Zhu, Nan; Liang, RongGuang; Achilefu, Samuel; Gruev, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has shown great potential for various clinical procedures, including intraoperative image guidance. However, existing NIR fluorescence imaging systems either have a large footprint or are handheld, which limits their usage in intraoperative applications. We present a compact NIR fluorescence imaging system (NFIS) with an image overlay solution based on threshold detection, which can be easily integrated with a goggle display system for intraoperative guidance. The proposed NFIS achieves compactness, light weight, hands-free operation, high-precision superimposition, and a real-time frame rate. In addition, the miniature and ultra-lightweight light-emitting diode tracking pod is easy to incorporate with NIR fluorescence imaging. Based on experimental evaluation, the proposed NFIS solution has a lower detection limit of 25nM of indocyanine green at 27fps and realizes a highly precise image overlay of NIR and visible images of mice in vivo. The overlay error is limited within a 2-mm scale at a 65-cm working distance, which is highly reliable for clinical study and surgical use. PMID:25607724

  8. Structural evolution of the Pb/Si(111) interface with metal overlayer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto-Casares, Jaime; Chan, Tzu-Liang; Chelikowsky, James R.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Zhang, S. B.

    2015-09-01

    We employ a real-space pseudopotential method to compute the structural energies of a prototypical metal-semiconductor interface. Specifically, we examine a Pb(111) film overlaid on a Si(111) substrate as a function of the metal thickness. For each layer of Pb, we fully relax the atomic coordinates and determine the lowest-energy structure. Owing to the lattice mismatch between the Pb and Si crystal structures, we consider a large supercell containing up to 1505 atoms for the largest system. Systems of this size remain challenging for most current computational approaches and require algorithms specifically designed for highly parallel computational platforms. We examine the structural properties of the interface with respect to the thickness of the metal overlayer, e.g., the corrugation of the profile of the Pb overlayer. The combined influence of the Si substrate and quantum confinement results in a rich profile for a transition between a thin overlayer (less than a few monolayers), where the corrugation is strong, and the bulk region (more than a half-dozen layers), where the overlaid Pb film is atomically flat. This work proves the feasibility of handling systems with such a level of complexity.

  9. Image overlay solution based on threshold detection for a compact near infrared fluorescence goggle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shengkui; Mondal, Suman B.; Zhu, Nan; Liang, RongGuang; Achilefu, Samuel; Gruev, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has shown great potential for various clinical procedures, including intraoperative image guidance. However, existing NIR fluorescence imaging systems either have a large footprint or are handheld, which limits their usage in intraoperative applications. We present a compact NIR fluorescence imaging system (NFIS) with an image overlay solution based on threshold detection, which can be easily integrated with a goggle display system for intraoperative guidance. The proposed NFIS achieves compactness, light weight, hands-free operation, high-precision superimposition, and a real-time frame rate. In addition, the miniature and ultra-lightweight light-emitting diode tracking pod is easy to incorporate with NIR fluorescence imaging. Based on experimental evaluation, the proposed NFIS solution has a lower detection limit of 25 nM of indocyanine green at 27 fps and realizes a highly precise image overlay of NIR and visible images of mice in vivo. The overlay error is limited within a 2-mm scale at a 65-cm working distance, which is highly reliable for clinical study and surgical use.

  10. Study of spread spectrum multiple access systems for satellite communications with overlay on current services: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Tri T.; Pratt, Timothy

    1987-01-01

    Two different methods of generating spread spectrum signals for an overlay service are discussed, and the data rate and efficiency which can be achieved while maintaining low interference with existing traffic are examined.

  11. Ellipsometric study of ambient-produced overlayer growth rate on YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieg, Robert M.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Warner, Joseph D.

    1993-01-01

    An ellipsometric study of ambient-reaction-produced BaCO3 overlayer growth on laser-ablated YBCO is presented as a function of time. The effects of the anisotropy of YBCO on the ellipsometric data inversion process are discussed, and it is concluded that with certain restrictions on the data acquisition method, the anisotropic substrate can be adequately modeled by its isotropic pseudodielectric function for the purpose of overlayer thickness estimation. It is found that after an initial period of rapid growth attributed to the chemical reaction of the exposed surface bonds, the BaCO3 overlayer growth is linear at 1-2 A per day. This slow growth rate is attributed to the complexity of the BaCO3-forming reaction, together with the need for ambient reactants to diffuse through the overlayer.

  12. Crevice corrosion properties of weld overlays of Ni-based alloys compared to 6Mo stainless steels for seawater applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rogne, T.; Drugli, J.M.; Solem, T.; Salbu, H.; Skjellevik, H.

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion properties of weld overlays of Ni-based alloys have been investigated using different test methods. Of the different weld overlays tested, only the alloy 59 types seems to be beneficial with respect to crevice corrosion initiation compared with 6Mo base material. Both alloy C-22 and alloy C-276 weld overlays have slightly lower critical crevice temperatures (CCT`s) while alloy 625 and C-4 weld overlays have considerably lower CCT`s than the 6Mo base material. Applying a test method or using a gasket material giving less critical crevice geometry than PTFE does, the critical crevice corrosion temperature increases considerably. Care must be taken when evaluating results from testing and when specifying test temperature and test method for quality control. A crevice corrosion test method simulating the condition when starting up a chlorinated seawater system has been developed.

  13. Intra-field on-product overlay improvement by application of RegC and TWINSCAN corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharoni, Ofir; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Graitzer, Erez; Perets, Yuval; Gorhad, Kujan; van Haren, Richard; Cekli, Hakki E.; Mulkens, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The on product overlay specification and Advanced Process Control (APC) is getting extremely challenging particularly after the introduction of multi-patterning applications like Spacer Assisted Double Patterning (SADP) and multipatterning techniques like N-repetitive Litho-Etch steps (LEN, N >= 2). When the latter is considered, most of the intrafield overlay contributors drop out of the overlay budget. This is a direct consequence of the fact that the scanner settings (like dose, illumination settings, etc.) as well as the subsequent processing steps can be made very similar for two consecutive Litho-Etch layers. The major overlay contributor that may require additional attention is the Image Placement Error (IPE). When the inter-layer overlay is considered, controlling the intra-field overlay contribution gets more complicated. In addition to the IPE contribution, the TWINSCANTM lens fingerprint in combination with the exposure settings is going to play a role as well. Generally speaking, two subsequent functional layers have different exposure settings. This results in a (non-reticle) additional overlay contribution. In this paper, we have studied the wafer overlay correction capability by RegC in addition to the TWINSCANTM intrafield corrections to improve the on product overlay performance. RegC is a reticle intra-volume laser writing technique that causes a predictable deformation element (RegC deformation element) inside the quartz (Qz) material of a reticle. This technique enables to post-process an existing reticle to correct for instance for IPE. Alternatively, a pre-determined intra-field fingerprint can be added to the reticle such that it results in a straight field after exposure. This second application might be very powerful to correct for instance for (cold) lens fingerprints that cannot be corrected by the scanner itself. Another possible application is the intra-field processing fingerprint. One should realize that a RegC treatment of a reticle generally results in global distortion of the reticle. This is not a problem as long as these global distortions can be corrected by the TWINSCANTM system (currently up to the third order). It is anticipated that the combination of the RegC and the TWINSCANTM corrections act as complementary solutions. These solutions perfectly fit into the ASML Litho InSight (LIS) product in which feedforward and feedback corrections based on YieldStar overlay measurements are used to improve the on product overlay.

  14. IMPERMEABLE THIN Al2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2003-03-10

    In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, a thin and dense {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay has been deposited on the YSZ surface by the composite-sol-gel route (CSG). The YSZ substrates were dipped with boehmite sol containing calcined {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles, dried to form a gel film and calcined at 1200 C to form {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. Hot corrosion tests were carried out on the TBCs with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in molten salt mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5% V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C for 10 hours. The results showed that besides a thin and dense alumina overlay with the thickness of about 100-500 nm formed on the YSZ surface, the microcracks and porous near the surface in YSZ was also occupied by alumina because of penetration of the low viscosity precursor. As a result, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay remarkably refrained the infiltration of the molten salt into the YSZ coating. The amount of M-phase in the TBC coating with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay was substantially reduced comparing to that without alumina overlay. In the next reporting period, we will prepare the alumina overlay by CSG route with different thickness and study the hot corrosion mechanism of YSZ TBC with thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating produced by CSG.

  15. Robust Public Key Cryptography — A New Cryptosystem Surviving Private Key Compromise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaik, Cheman

    A weakness of the present-day public key cryptosystems is that these cryptosystems do not survive private-key compromise attacks resulting from an internal breach of trust. In a competitive business environment, private key compromise is a common incident that voids the strength of public key cryptosystems such as RSA and ECC. Bribing corporate employees to disclose their secret keys and inadvertently disclosing secret information are among a plethora of practical attacks that occur at the implementation level. Once a breach of trust takes place and subsequently the private key is revealed, any public key cryptosystem fails to secure electronic data in Internet communications. The revealed key may be used by an attacker to decipher the intercepted data at an intermediary router. This weakness of public key cryptography calls for an additional security measure that enables encryptions to survive private key compromise attacks.

  16. Administering a healthy dose of security.

    PubMed

    Berry, D; Mullen, M; Murray, T

    The article describes how a hospital located in a poor, crime-ridden section of a large city has made the most of in-house resources and public-private liaisons to improve security at its 113-acre campus. Details on the facility's double-pronged approach--tight internal security and strong external liaisons with businesses, law enforcement, and community groups--are provided. PMID:10346268

  17. Implementing a secure client/server application

    SciTech Connect

    Kissinger, B.A.

    1994-08-01

    There is an increasing rise in attacks and security breaches on computer systems. Particularly vulnerable are systems that exchange user names and passwords directly across a network without encryption. These kinds of systems include many commercial-off-the-shelf client/server applications. A secure technique for authenticating computer users and transmitting passwords through the use of a trusted {open_quotes}broker{close_quotes} and public/private keys is described in this paper.

  18. Secure sequential transmission of quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan

    2015-09-01

    We propose a quantum communication protocol that can be used to transmit any quantum state, one party to another via several intermediate nodes, securely on quantum communication network. The scheme makes use of the sequentially chained and approximate version of private quantum channels satisfying certain commutation relation of n-qubit Pauli operations. In this paper, we study the sequential structure, security analysis, and efficiency of the quantum sequential transmission protocol in depth.

  19. Adsorption and Formation of BaO Overlayers on Gamma-Al2O3 Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Donghai; Ge, Qingfeng; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2008-10-29

    First-principles density functional theory slab calculations were used to investigate adsorption, clustering and overlayer formation of BaO on the gamma-Al2O3 surfaces. Multiple stable adsorption configurations were identified for the adsorbed BaO molecule and (BaO)2 on both (100) and (110) surfaces of gamma-Al2O3. Adsorption of BaO and (BaO)2 induces significant relaxation of the gamma-Al2O3 surfaces. At high BaO coverage, up to the ratio of BaO units to surface Al atoms being unity, the adsorbed BaO molecules were organized to form a buckled monolayer-like overlayer on the surface. Aggregation energy was used to characterize the organization of adsorbed BaO on the surface. Our results showed that the initial BaO adsorption configuration had a strong effect on clustering and overlayer formation. A weakly adsorbed BaO molecule will thermodynamically favor clustering over being isolated. On the fully dehydrated gamma-Al2O3(100) surface, the formation of BaO overlayer was thermodynamically unfavorable until 4.26 BaO/nm2 if the additional BaO was from the most stable site, corresponding to a low BaO loading, whereas aggregation became favorable if the additional BaO was from less stable sites, corresponding to a high BaO loading. On the fully dehydrated gamma-Al2O3(110) surface, the formation of a BaO dimer was found to have the highest energy cost. On the other hand, the presence of hydroxyls on the surface enhances the stability of the adsorbed BaO molecules. As such, isolated BaO islands, rather than a complete BaO overlayer, were expected on the hydroxylated gamma-Al2O3 surfaces, consistent with recent experimental observations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operated by Battelle for the U. S. Department of Energy.

  20. Pattern recognition and data mining techniques to identify factors in wafer processing and control determining overlay error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Auguste; Ypma, Alexander; Gatefait, Maxime; Deckers, David; Koopman, Arne; van Haren, Richard; Beltman, Jan

    2015-03-01

    On-product overlay can be improved through the use of context data from the fab and the scanner. Continuous improvements in lithography and processing performance over the past years have resulted in consequent overlay performance improvement for critical layers. Identification of the remaining factors causing systematic disturbances and inefficiencies will further reduce overlay. By building a context database, mappings between context, fingerprints and alignment & overlay metrology can be learned through techniques from pattern recognition and data mining. We relate structure (`patterns') in the metrology data to relevant contextual factors. Once understood, these factors could be moved to the known effects (e.g. the presence of systematic fingerprints from reticle writing error or lens and reticle heating). Hence, we build up a knowledge base of known effects based on data. Outcomes from such an integral (`holistic') approach to lithography data analysis may be exploited in a model-based predictive overlay controller that combines feedback and feedforward control [1]. Hence, the available measurements from scanner, fab and metrology equipment are combined to reveal opportunities for further overlay improvement which would otherwise go unnoticed.

  1. Cryptanalysis and improvement of quantum private comparison of equality protocol without a third party

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Xingtong; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chaojing

    2015-12-01

    Recently, Lin et al. proposed a novel quantum private comparison protocol without a third party (Quantum Inf. Process. 13:239-247, 2014). This paper points out two security loopholes in Lin et al.'s protocol, in which one dishonest party can disclose the other's private information without being detected and the comparison result can be manipulated completely by either party. In addition, improvements are proposed to avoid these loopholes.

  2. An Analysis of Private School Closings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Lakshmi; Sjoquist, David L.; Walker, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    We add to the small literature on private school supply by exploring exits of K-12 private schools. We find that the closure of private schools is not an infrequent event and use national survey data from the National Center for Education Statistics to study closures of private schools. We assume that the probability of an exit is a function of

  3. Resources to Manage a Private Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aigner, John; Cheek, Fredricka; Donati, Georgia; Zuravicky, Dori

    1997-01-01

    Includes four theme articles: "The Digital Toolkit: Electronic Necessities for Private Practice" (John Aigner); "Organizing a Private Practice: Forms, Fees, and Physical Set-up (Fredricka Cheek); "Career Development Resources: Guidelines for Setting Up a Private Practice Library" (Georgia Donati); and "Books to Enhance Private Practice Management

  4. Student Housing: Is It Time To Privatize?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeatts, G. Dewey

    2001-01-01

    Explores the issue of university-owned and managed student housing and how to decide whether to shift to privatization. How privatization works, identification of current and future student housing needs, the cost of privatization, and issues to consider when privatization is pursued are examined. (GR)

  5. An Analysis of Private School Closings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Lakshmi; Sjoquist, David L.; Walker, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    We add to the small literature on private school supply by exploring exits of K-12 private schools. We find that the closure of private schools is not an infrequent event and use national survey data from the National Center for Education Statistics to study closures of private schools. We assume that the probability of an exit is a function of…

  6. Conflicting interests in private hospital care.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Mary Ann

    2002-01-01

    This article looks at key changes impacting on private hospital care: the increasing corporate ownership of private hospitals; the Commonwealth Government's support for private health; the significant increase in health fund membership; and the contracting arrangements between health funds and private hospitals. The changes highlight the often conflicting interests of hospitals, doctors, Government, health funds and patients in the provision of private hospital care. These conflicts surfaced in the debate around allegations of 'cherry picking' by private hospitals of more profitable patients. This is also a good illustration of the increasing entanglement of the Government in the fortunes of the private health industry. PMID:12474506

  7. Physical Security

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    The future of physical security at government facilities and national laboratories is rapidly progressing beyond the cliché of gates, guns and guards, and is quickly being replaced by radars, sensors and cameras. Learn more about INL's security research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  8. IMPERMEABLE THIN Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2004-06-30

    In order to further improve the hot corrosion resistance of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay of 58 {micro}m thick was deposited on the surface of YSZ by electron-beam physical vapor deposition. Hot corrosion tests were performed on the YSZ coatings with {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay in molten salt mixture (Na2SO4 + 5wt%V2O5) at 950 C. The {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay was obtained by the post-annealing of g-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay at 1200 C for 1h. The results showed that compared with the hot corrosion resistance of YSZ coating with 25 {micro}m thick {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay, either thickening {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay or employing {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay could impair the hot corrosion resistance of YSZ coating, because the tensile stresses developed in the alumina overlay in both cases due to the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) between alumina and zirconia resulted in cracking of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. The formation of cracks increased contact area between molten salt and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay, and also the penetration rate of molten salt into Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay and YSZ coating, leading a faster and greater degradation of YSZ coating upon exposure. In the next reporting period, we will study the effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay thickness on hot corrosion and spalling of YSZ coatings.

  9. Technical means for securing health information.

    PubMed

    de Roulet, D; Scherrer, J R

    1996-10-01

    Securing health information is an application domain which can learn more from other environments like airlines and banking than from military formalism or academic freedom. The techniques of the 80s using clear separation between public and private areas have to be upgraded. Propositions are made. Costs are evaluated. PMID:8960920

  10. Speeding decisions. Social security's information exchange program.

    PubMed

    Winter, Kitt; Hastings, Bob

    2011-05-01

    The Social Security Administration has plenty of reasons to streamline its records request process-more than 15 million reasons each year, in fact. That's why it has been pioneering information exchange projects with the private sector, including use of the Nationwide Health Information Network. PMID:21667864

  11. Harden Security of High-Risk and Critical Supply Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Glen

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the security risk in the container supply chain. It provides an overview of the technical and policy initiatives that are being implemented by international organizations, governments, and the private sector to enhance security in the container supply chain.

  12. The Graduate MIS Security Course: Objectives and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Bradley K.; Guynes, Carl S.; Nyaboga, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Given the magnitude of real and potential losses, both private and public employers increasingly expect graduates of management information systems (MIS) programs to understand information security concepts. The infrastructure requirements for the course includes setting up a secure laboratory environment to accommodate the development of viruses…

  13. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  14. Tighter security for electronic information

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.

    1996-11-01

    Responding to interest expressed by many member utilities, EPRI is launching strategic core research in information security to help companies better protect power system operations, business-sensitive and private customer data, and networks from unauthorized access or use. Although the threat of computer security breaches has been relatively low and isolated in the past and break-ins have been few, the increasing use of networks for various business activities suggests that such risks will rise. EPRI expects to work through an existing strategic alliance with the Department of Energy to tap the expertise of the national laboratories in beefing up utilities` information security systems and practices. This paper describes these potential threats and strategies to combat them.

  15. Public Schools, Private Markets: A Reporter's Guide to Privatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Scott

    2005-01-01

    More and more, private for-profit and non-profit organizations are involved in schools. No longer limited to support services like transportation and food services, companies are providing tutoring, directing classroom instruction and managing public and charter schools. School reform has raised the stakes for schools and students, asking for…

  16. By Private Arrangement? Safeguarding the Welfare of Private Foster Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostock, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    A key characteristic of debates on caring for children has been the distinction made between the public and the private or formal and informal sector of care. In particular, the impact on adult relationships of the material, emotional and moral dimensions of this division has been highlighted. What are the implications for children, however, of

  17. Secure Objectives for School Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Noblitt, April

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their

  18. Secure Objectives for School Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Noblitt, April

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

  19. A Production Proven Technique For Machine-To-Machine Overlay Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Michael J.; Haley, Norman J.; Ngo, Ken T.; Schaller, John W.

    1989-07-01

    The natural progression of today's semiconductor industry is toward smaller geometric features and registration requirements. Typically, this progression results in high capital equipment investments, along with a large capacity reduction per investment dollar for most lithographic exposure processes. One major cause for the capacity loss is the industry's willingness to migrate from full-field scanning projection printers to a lower throughput field-by-field alignment step-and-repeat exposure system. Standard Microsystems Corporation (SMC) sought to achieve higher performance on its scanners without compromising throughput. The original goal at SMC was to improve Perkin-Elmer's Micralign 641 HT machine-to-machine registration specification of 0.30 micron to less than 0.25 micron. With this in mind, we set out to investigate the true alignment and registration limitations of a Micralign Model 600 HT Series Projection Aligner. Although SMC was apparently successful at matching two Micralign 641 HT systems to 0.25 micron by manually reading verniers, this technique proved to be time consuming and prone to human error. Electrical probing of wafers was considered, but the special masks and processing steps and its destructive nature were considered undesirable. For this study, an automatic optical overlay measurement system was used to optimize overlay on the SMC Micralign systems. The results were enlightening. The specified overlay of 0.30 micron for 98% of the data improved to better than 0.25 micron, 3 sigma. These results were achieved without the use of Automatic Magnification Compensation (AVM/AMC). We also discovered that many otherwise transparent mechanical/optical anomalies, such as contamination and scan interference, could be readily identified. Experimental data is presented and the beneficial application of this technique to a production process is discussed.

  20. A Production Proven Technique For Machine-To-Machine Overlay Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Michael J.; Haley, Norman; Ngo, Ken; Schaller, John

    1989-01-01

    The natural progression of today's semiconductor industry is toward smaller device features and tighter registration requirements. Typically, this progression results in high capital equipment investments, along with a large capacity reduction per investment dollar for most lithographic exposure processes. One major cause for the capacity loss is the industry's willingness to migrate from full-field scanning projection printers to a lower throughput field-by-field alignment step-and-repeat exposure system. Standard Microsystems Corporation (SMC) sought to achieve higher performance on its scanners without compromising throughput. The original goal at SMC was to improve Perkin-Elmer's specified Micralign 641 HT machine-to-machine registration performance from 0.30 micron to less than 0.25 micron. With this in mind, we set out to investigate the true alignment and registration limitations of a Micralign Model 600 HT Series Projection Aligner. Although SMC was apparently successful at matching two Micralign 641 HT systems to 0.25 micron by manually reading verniers, this technique proved to be time consuming and prone to human error. Electrical probing of wafers was considered, but the special masks and processing steps and its destructive nature were considered undesirable. For this study, an automatic optical overlay measurement system was used to optimize overlay on the SMC Micralign systems. The results were enlightening. The specified overlay of 0.30 micron for 98% of the data improved to better than 0.25 micron, 3 sigma. These results were achieved without the use of Automatic Magnification Compensation (AVM/AMC). We.also discovered that many otherwise transparent mechanical/optical anomalies, such as contamination and scan interference, could be readily identified. Experimental data is presented and the beneficial application of this technique to a production process is discussed.

  1. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1995-01-25

    Research is presently being conducted to develop a criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in Circulated Fluidized Beds. Initially, eleven weld overlay alloys were selected for erosion testing based upon a literature review. All eleven coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. The coating deposition and sample preparation procedures were described in the second quarterly report. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400{degree}C and their erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. In addition, the microstructure of each coating was characterized before and after the erosion tests. The results of the tests are discussed in the third quarterly report. No correlations were found between room temperature hardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature. During the last quarter tensile tests were performed at 400{degree}C for the Ultimet, Inconel-625, 316L SS, C-22, and Stellite-6 wrought alloys. The erosion tests for these materials at 400{degree}C are in progress. The results of mechanical and erosion tests will be used to correlate mechanical properties of selected wrought alloys such as tensile toughness, ductility, strain hardening coefficient and yield strength to their erosion resistance at 400{degree}C. Also, the erosion behavior of the wrought alloys compared with similar weld alloys will be analyzed. The experimental procedure and results of the tensile tests are presented in this progress report.

  2. Secure PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

    1996-09-01

    This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

  3. Modeling degradation and failure of Ni-Cr-Al overlay coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Heckel, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Degradation of a Ni-16Cr-25Al-0.06Zr overlay coating on a Ni-22Cr substrate was examined after oxidation accompanied by thermal cycling. Concentration/distance profiles were measured in the coating and substrate after various one-hour cycles at 1150 C. A numerical model was developed to simulate coating degradation by simultaneous oxidation and coating/substrate interdiffusion. The validity of the model was confirmed by comparison of predicted and measured concentration/distance profiles. The ability of the model to identify critical system parameters was demonstrated for the case of the initial Al and Cr content of the coating and substrate.

  4. Nasal bone grafts from the removed hump used as overlay grafts to camouflage concave lateral crura.

    PubMed

    Kubilay, Utku; Erdogdu, Suleyman; Sezen, Ozan Seymen

    2014-01-01

    Alar cartilage consists of a medial crus, middle crus and lateral crus. The lateral crus is an important aesthetic and functional structure of the nose. A 32-year-old male patient with concave lateral crura was operated by the authors. An open rhinoplasty with a dorsal approach to the septum is preferred. The nasal bones harvested from the hump, which is an autogenous graft trimmed and sutured on both concave lateral crura as an overlay camouflage grafts. Satisfactory result was achieved. PMID:24533419

  5. Two-dimensional Ostwald ripening on a patterned support and in a mixed overlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2016-02-01

    The author presents lattice Monte Carlo simulations of Ostwald ripening of islands formed of monomers with attractive nearest-neighbor interaction in two situations. The first one implies that monomers of one kind are located on a heterogeneous support which itself includes embedded frozen patterns of the Ostwald type. This feature is demonstrated to be able to terminate the island ripening. In the second case, the support is considered to be uniform while the overlayer is assumed to contain monomers of two kinds. This complicating factor is found to nearly not modify the ripening kinetics or make it somewhat slower despite appreciable correlations in the arrangement of different monomers.

  6. Surface states of clean and metal-overlayer-covered Cr(001) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feibelman, Peter J.; Hamann, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Electronic-structure calculations for a clean Cr(001) film and for Cr(001) films covered with Au, Pt, or Ir monolayers predict a surface band localized on the outer Cr layer near the Fermi level. The high density of surface states in the Au adsorption case may help explain the recent observation of 3-K superconductivity in Au-Cr-Au sandwiches. The stability of the surface band against overlayer adsorption indicates the necessity of refining the test usually used to identify spectroscopic peaks as surface states.

  7. Overlay of multicast service in WDM-PON based on dynamic wavelength reflection scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Xiao, Shilin; Guo, Wei; Chen, He; Wei, Anne; Jin, Yaohui; Hu, Weisheng; Geller, Benoit

    2009-11-01

    We propose a novel scheme to overlay multicast service over a wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) passive optical network (PON) based on dynamic wavelength reflection scheme. At the optical line terminal (OLT), for each WDM channel, a dynamic wavelength reflector is used to selectively bypass the corresponding optical carrier to avoid multicast data superimposition, while the remaining optical carriers go through the dynamic wavelength reflector and simultaneously carry the multicast data. The proposed scheme is experimentally demonstrated with 5-Gb/s downstream unicast, multicast data and 625-Mb/s upstream re-modulated data.

  8. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-07-20

    Twelve weld overlay hardfacing alloys have been selected for preliminary erosion testing based upon a literature review. Four of the selected coatings were deposited on a 1018 steel substrate using plasma arc welding process. During the past quarter, the remaining eight coatings were deposited in the same manner. Ten samples from each coatings were prepared for erosion testing. Microstructural characterization of each coating is in progress. This progress report describes coating deposition and sample preparation procedures. Relation between coatings hardness and formation of cracks in coatings is discussed.

  9. Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic ( ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

  10. Small private key MQPKS on an embedded microprocessor.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic (MQ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key MQ scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing MQ on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key MQ scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

  11. Financing a Private School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    A recent National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) survey of more than 1,200 individuals who filed financial aid forms underscores the central role financial aid plays in their ability to pursue a private education for their children. This article highlights the survey findings, demonstrating why school leaders need to thoroughly analyze

  12. The Privatization of Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    For-profit education is not a new focus for public schools in the United States. It has been around for several decades, has stimulated considerable controversy, and has been heralded by some as a panacea for improving learning for the nation's public school students. For-profit schools are run by private, for-profit companies or organizations

  13. Financing a Private School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    A recent National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) survey of more than 1,200 individuals who filed financial aid forms underscores the central role financial aid plays in their ability to pursue a private education for their children. This article highlights the survey findings, demonstrating why school leaders need to thoroughly analyze…

  14. Privatization and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    After two centuries of public higher education in the United States, the covenant between public colleges and universities and the public that created and funded them is under strain. In a time of scarce resources and changing policy in many corners of the country and around the globe, privatization has emerged as a possible replacement for the

  15. Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

  16. Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development. However,

  17. The Administration's Private Pension Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    This report examines legislation proposed by the Nixon administration to (1) make available to employed workers a new type of personal retirement plan having tax-deferral advantages, (2) apply pre-retirement vesting requirements to the private pension system, and (3) broaden tax-deferred retirement plans presently available to the self-employed

  18. Public-Private Manpower Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Arnold R., Ed.; And Others

    This book deals with the question of identifying the optimal mix between public and private programs and provides some guides concerning the appropriate role of government in the manpower area. There is a need for public manpower programs which give some long range direction to manpower policies and which give continuing emphasis to the…

  19. Security Detail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marc A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes problems of maintaining discipline and security at Jamaica High School in Queens, New York. Argues that court decisions and school regulations have allowed minority of aggressive and disruptive students to destabilize the learning environment. (PKP)

  20. Secure portal.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2007-09-01

    There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing the secure portal concept.

  1. Impermeable thin AI2O3 overlay for TBC protection from sulfate and vanadate attack in gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2005-01-31

    25 {micro}m and a 2 {micro}m thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay were deposited by HVOF thermal spray and by sol-gel coating method, respectively, onto to the surface of YSZ coating. Indenter test was employed to investigate the spalling of YSZ with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay after hot corrosion. The results showed that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay acted as a barrier against the infiltration of the molten salt into the YSZ coating during exposure, thus significantly reduced the amount of M-phase of ZrO{sub 2} in YSZ coating. Thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay will increase compressive stress and failure in TBC. During next reporting time, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay will be deposited on the YSZ surface by the composite-sol-gel route (CSG). Hot corrosion tests will be carried out on the TBC.

  2. Assessment of Potential Location of High Arsenic Contamination Using Fuzzy Overlay and Spatial Anisotropy Approach in Iron Mine Surrounding Area

    PubMed Central

    Wirojanagud, Wanpen; Srisatit, Thares

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy overlay approach on three raster maps including land slope, soil type, and distance to stream can be used to identify the most potential locations of high arsenic contamination in soils. Verification of high arsenic contamination was made by collection samples and analysis of arsenic content and interpolation surface by spatial anisotropic method. A total of 51 soil samples were collected at the potential contaminated location clarified by fuzzy overlay approach. At each location, soil samples were taken at the depth of 0.00-1.00 m from the surface ground level. Interpolation surface of the analysed arsenic content using spatial anisotropic would verify the potential arsenic contamination location obtained from fuzzy overlay outputs. Both outputs of the spatial surface anisotropic and the fuzzy overlay mapping were significantly spatially conformed. Three contaminated areas with arsenic concentrations of 7.19 ± 2.86, 6.60 ± 3.04, and 4.90 ± 2.67 mg/kg exceeded the arsenic content of 3.9 mg/kg, the maximum concentration level (MCL) for agricultural soils as designated by Office of National Environment Board of Thailand. It is concluded that fuzzy overlay mapping could be employed for identification of potential contamination area with the verification by surface anisotropic approach including intensive sampling and analysis of the substances of interest. PMID:25110751

  3. IMPERMEABLE THIN Al2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2003-06-10

    In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay has been deposited on the surface of YSZ by electron-beam physical vapor deposition. Currently, hot corrosion tests were performed on the YSZ coatings with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay in molten salt mixture (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0 {approx} 15wt%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C in order to investigate the effect of amount of vanadate on the hot corrosion behaviors. The results showed that the presence of in V{sub 2}O{sub 5} the molten salt exacerbates the degradation of both the monolithic YSZ coating and the composite YSZ/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The formation of low-melting Na{sub 2}O-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} liquid phase is responsible for degradation of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay acts as a barrier against the infiltration of the molten salt into the YSZ coating during exposure to the molten salt mixture with <5wt% vanadate. In the next reporting period, we will use XPS and SIMS to study the interactions between alumina overlay and molten salt containing vanadate.

  4. Hydrogen on and in Selected Overlayer Near-Surface Alloys and the Effect of Subsurface Hydrogen on the Reactivity of Alloy Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kandoi, Shampa; Ferrin, Peter A.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2010-05-01

    The interaction of hydrogen with the closepacked facets of seventeen transition metals overlaid with 1 ML of five transition metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, and Pd) has been studied using periodic self-consistent (GGA-PW91) density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For noble metal overlayers (Au, Ag, and Cu), hydrogen at the hostmetal/ overlayer interface (subsurface hydrogen) is more stable than subsurface hydrogen in the pure host. For certain Au and Ag overlayers, subsurface hydrogen is more stable than surface hydrogen in the same system. The presence of subsurface hydrogen was found to have a significant effect on the electronic structure of the overlayer, resulting in its modified surface reactivity.

  5. Secure Multiparty Quantum Computation for Summation and Multiplication.

    PubMed

    Shi, Run-Hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental primitive, Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication can be used to build complex secure protocols for other multiparty computations, specially, numerical computations. However, there is still lack of systematical and efficient quantum methods to compute Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient quantum approach to securely compute the summation and multiplication of multiparty private inputs, respectively. Compared to classical solutions, our proposed approach can ensure the unconditional security and the perfect privacy protection based on the physical principle of quantum mechanics. PMID:26792197

  6. Secure Multiparty Quantum Computation for Summation and Multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Run-Hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental primitive, Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication can be used to build complex secure protocols for other multiparty computations, specially, numerical computations. However, there is still lack of systematical and efficient quantum methods to compute Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient quantum approach to securely compute the summation and multiplication of multiparty private inputs, respectively. Compared to classical solutions, our proposed approach can ensure the unconditional security and the perfect privacy protection based on the physical principle of quantum mechanics.

  7. Secure Multiparty Quantum Computation for Summation and Multiplication

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental primitive, Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication can be used to build complex secure protocols for other multiparty computations, specially, numerical computations. However, there is still lack of systematical and efficient quantum methods to compute Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient quantum approach to securely compute the summation and multiplication of multiparty private inputs, respectively. Compared to classical solutions, our proposed approach can ensure the unconditional security and the perfect privacy protection based on the physical principle of quantum mechanics. PMID:26792197

  8. Practical Private Set Intersection Protocols with Linear Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cristofaro, Emiliano; Tsudik, Gene

    The constantly increasing dependence on anytime-anywhere availability of data and the commensurately increasing fear of losing privacy motivate the need for privacy-preserving techniques. One interesting and common problem occurs when two parties need to privately compute an intersection of their respective sets of data. In doing so, one or both parties must obtain the intersection (if one exists), while neither should learn anything about other set elements. Although prior work has yielded a number of effective and elegant Private Set Intersection (PSI) techniques, the quest for efficiency is still underway. This paper explores some PSI variations and constructs several secure protocols that are appreciably more efficient than the state-of-the-art.

  9. Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Cluster States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Long, Dongyang

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol, enabling two players to compare the equality of their information without revealing any information about their respective private inputs, in which the four-particle cluster states as the information carriers are used. The presented protocol can ensure correctness, privacy, and fairness with the assistance of a semi-trusted third party (TP). Meanwhile, the participants including the TP are just required having the ability to perform single-particle measurements, which make the presented protocol more feasible in technique. Furthermore, the photon transmission is a one-way distribution; the Trojan horse attacks can be automatically avoided. The security of this protocol is also analyzed.

  10. Snore related signals processing in a private cloud computing system.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun; Guo, Jian; Xu, Huijie; Zhu, Zhaomeng; Zhang, Gongxuan

    2014-09-01

    Snore related signals (SRS) have been demonstrated to carry important information about the obstruction site and degree in the upper airway of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) patients in recent years. To make this acoustic signal analysis method more accurate and robust, big SRS data processing is inevitable. As an emerging concept and technology, cloud computing has motivated numerous researchers and engineers to exploit applications both in academic and industry field, which could have an ability to implement a huge blue print in biomedical engineering. Considering the security and transferring requirement of biomedical data, we designed a system based on private cloud computing to process SRS. Then we set the comparable experiments of processing a 5-hour audio recording of an OSAHS patient by a personal computer, a server and a private cloud computing system to demonstrate the efficiency of the infrastructure we proposed. PMID:25205499

  11. The Effects of a Dynamic Spectrum Access Overlay in LTE-Advanced Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Ryan E. lrwin; Luiz A. DaSilva

    2011-05-01

    As early as 2014, wireless network operators spectral capacity will be overwhelmed by a data tsunami brought on by new devices and applications. To augment spectral capacity, operators could deploy a Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) overlay. In the light of the many planned Long Term Evolution (LTE) network deployments, the affects of a DSA overlay have not been fully considered into the existing LTE standards. Coalescing many different aspects of DSA, this paper develops the Spectrum Accountability (SA) framework. The SA framework defines specific network element functionality, protocol interfaces, and signaling flow diagrams for LTE to support service requests and enforce rights of responsibilities of primary and secondary users, respectively. We also include a network simulation to quantify the benefits of using DSA channels to augment capacity. Based on our simulation we show that, network operators can benefit up to %40 increase in operating capacity when sharing DSA bands to augment spectral capacity. With our framework, this paper could serve as an guide in developing future LTE network standards that include DSA.

  12. Study of spread spectrum multiple access systems for satellite communications with overlay on current services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Tri T.; Pratt, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using spread spectrum techniques to provide a low-cost multiple access system for a very large number of low data terminals was investigated. Two applications of spread spectrum technology to very small aperture terminal (VSAT) satellite communication networks are presented. Two spread spectrum multiple access systems which use a form of noncoherent M-ary FSK (MFSK) as the primary modulation are described and the throughput analyzed. The analysis considers such factors as satellite power constraints and adjacent satellite interference. Also considered is the effect of on-board processing on the multiple access efficiency and the feasibility of overlaying low data rate spread spectrum signals on existing satellite traffic as a form of frequency reuse is investigated. The use of chirp is examined for spread spectrum communications. In a chirp communication system, each data bit is converted into one or more up or down sweeps of frequency, which spread the RF energy across a broad range of frequencies. Several different forms of chirp communication systems are considered, and a multiple-chirp coded system is proposed for overlay service. The mutual interference problem is examined in detail and a performance analysis undertaken for the case of a chirp data channel overlaid on a video channel.

  13. Overlay coating degradation by simultaneous oxidation and coating/substrate interdiffusion. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Degradation of NiCrAlZr overlay coatings on various NiCrAl substrates was examined after cyclic oxidation. Concentration/distance profiles were measured in the coating and substrate after various oxidation exposures at 1150 C. For each stubstrate, the Al content in the coating decreased rapidly. The concentration/distance profiles, and particularly that for Al, reflected the oxide spalling resistance of each coated substrate. A numerical model was developed to simulate diffusion associated with overlay-coating degradation by oxidation and coating/substrate interdiffusion. Input to the numerical model consisted of the Cr and Al content of the coating and substrate, ternary diffusivities, and various oxide spalling parameters. The model predicts the Cr and Al concentrations in the coating and substrate after any number of oxidation/thermal cycles. The numerical model also predicts coating failure based on the ability of the coating to supply sufficient Al to the oxide scale. The validity of the model was confirmed by comparison of the predicted and measured concentration/distance profiles. The model was subsequently used to identify the most critical system parameters affecting coating life.

  14. Hot Corrosion of Inconel 625 Overlay Weld Cladding in Smelting Off-Gas Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi Zahrani, E.; Alfantazi, A. M.

    2013-10-01

    Degradation mechanisms and hot corrosion behavior of weld overlay alloy 625 were studied. Phase structure, morphology, thermal behavior, and chemical composition of deposited salt mixture on the weld overlay were characterized utilizing XRD, SEM/EDX, DTA, and ICP/OES, respectively. Dilution level of Fe in the weldment, dendritic structure, and degradation mechanisms of the weld were investigated. A molten phase formed on the weld layer at the operating temperature range of the boiler, which led to the hot corrosion attack in the water wall and the ultimate failure. Open circuit potential and weight-loss measurements and potentiodynamic polarization were carried out to study the hot corrosion behavior of the weld in the simulated molten salt medium at 873 K, 973 K, and 1073 K (600 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C). Internal oxidation and sulfidation plus pitting corrosion were identified as the main hot corrosion mechanisms in the weld and boiler tubes. The presence of a significant amount of Fe made the dendritic structure of the weld susceptible to preferential corrosion. Preferentially corroded (Mo, Nb)-depleted dendrite cores acted as potential sites for crack initiation from the surface layer. The penetration of the molten phase into the cracks accelerated the cracks' propagation mainly through the dendrite cores and further crack branching/widening.

  15. A high-accuracy surgical augmented reality system using enhanced integral videography image overlay.

    PubMed

    Xinran Zhang; Guowen Chen; Hongen Liao

    2015-08-01

    Image guided surgery has been used in clinic to improve the surgery safety and accuracy. Augmented reality (AR) technique, which can provide intuitive image guidance, has been greatly evolved these years. As one promising approach of surgical AR systems, integral videography (IV) autostereoscopic image overlay has achieved accurate fusion of full parallax guidance into surgical scene. This paper describes an image enhanced high-accuracy IV overlay system. A flexible optical image enhancement system (IES) is designed to increase the resolution and quality of IV image. Furthermore, we introduce a novel IV rendering algorithm to promote the spatial accuracy with the consideration of distortion introduced by micro lens array. Preliminary experiments validated that the image accuracy and resolution are improved with the proposed methods. The resolution of the IV image could be promoted to 1 mm for a micro lens array with pitch of 2.32 mm and IES magnification value of 0.5. The relative deviation of accuracy in depth and lateral directions are -4.68±0.83% and -9.01±0.42%. PMID:26737223

  16. Unravelling the hydrogen absorption process in Pd overlayers on a Au(111) surface.

    PubMed

    Quaino, Paola M; Nazmutdinov, Renat; Peiretti, Leonardo F; Santos, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    The hydrogen absorption into overlayers of Pd deposited on Au(111) has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT). Hydrogen concentrations, absorption environments, and geometrical and electronic effects have been analyzed, seeking for a better understanding of the general principles governing the process and the effect of foreign supports. The results show that the absorption is more favored than in pure Pd leading to lower absorption energies and less repulsive interactions due to the surface expansion induced by the gold larger lattice constant. Our findings also suggest that the hydrogen absorption process is more favorable for a less number of Pd overlayers. This situation changes gradually until the substrate influence is no longer detected and the pure palladium nature appears. An entangled combination of repulsive forces, strain effect, structural ordering and chemical affinity has been found. The kinetics of hydrogen absorption has been studied as well. Two cases were explored: (1) the absorption of an adsorbed hydrogen atom and (2) the bond-breaking and penetration of a H2 molecule. PMID:26758287

  17. An efficient mechanism for dynamic multicast traffic grooming in overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaojun; Xiao, Gaoxi; Cheng, Tee Hiang

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes an efficient overlay multicast provisioning (OMP) mechanism for dynamic multicast traffic grooming in overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks. To facilitate request provisioning, OMP jointly utilizes a data learning (DL) scheme on the IP/MPLS layer for logical link cost estimation, and a lightpath fragmentation (LPF) based method on the WDM layer for improving resource sharing in grooming process. Extensive simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of OMP mechanism under different traffic loads, with either limited or unlimited port resources. Simulation results demonstrate that OMP significantly outperforms the existing methods. To evaluate the respective influences of the DL scheme and the LPF method on OMP performance, provisioning mechanisms only utilizing either the IP/MPLS layer DL scheme or the WDM layer LPF method are also devised. Comparison results show that both DL and LPF methods help improve OMP blocking performance, and contribution from the DL scheme is more significant when the fixed routing and first-fit wavelength assignment (RWA) strategy is adopted on the WDM layer. Effects of a few other factors, including definition of connection cost to be reported by the WDM layer to the IP/MPLS layer and WDM-layer routing method, on OMP performance are also evaluated.

  18. Historical data learning based dynamic LSP routing for overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaojun; Xiao, Gaoxi; Cheng, Tee Hiang

    2013-08-01

    Overlay IP/MPLS over WDM network is a promising network architecture starting to gain wide deployments recently. A desirable feature of such a network is to achieve efficient routing with limited information exchanges between the IP/MPLS and the WDM layers. This paper studies dynamic label switched path (LSP) routing in the overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks. To enhance network performance while maintaining its simplicity, we propose to learn from the historical data of lightpath setup costs maintained by the IP-layer integrated service provider (ISP) when making routing decisions. Using a novel historical data learning scheme for logical link cost estimation, we develop a new dynamic LSP routing method named Existing Link First (ELF) algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms the existing ones under different traffic loads, with either limited or unlimited numbers of optical ports. Effects of the number of candidate routes, add/drop ratio and the amount of historical data are also evaluated.

  19. Proteins detection by polymer optical fibers sensitised with overlayers of block and random copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sachat, Alexandros; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Markos, Christos; Pispas, Stergios; Riziotis, Christos

    2014-03-01

    A low cost and low complexity optical detection method of proteins is presented by employing a detection scheme based on electrostatic interactions, and implemented by sensitization of a polymer optical fibers' (POF) surface by thin overlayers of properly designed sensitive copolymer materials with predesigned charges. This method enables the fast detection of proteins having opposite charge to the overlayer, and also the effective discrimination of differently charged proteins like lysozyme (LYS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). As sensitive materials the block and the random copolymers of the same monomers were employed, namely the block copolymer poly(styrene-b-2vinylpyridine) (PS-b- P2VP) and the corresponding random copolymer poly(styrene-r-2vinylpyridine) (PS-r-P2VP), of similar composition and molecular weights. Results show systematically different response between the block and the random copolymers, although of the same order of magnitude, drawing thus important conclusions on their applications' techno-economic aspects given that they have significantly different associated manufacturing method and costs. The use of the POF platform, in combination with those adaptable copolymer sensing materials could lead to efficient low cost bio-detection schemes.

  20. Weldability of Fe-Al-Cr Overlay Coatings for CorrosionProtection in Oxidizing/Sulfidizing Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Regina, JR

    2003-03-04

    The effect of chromium additions to the weldability of Fe-Al based overlay claddings are currently being investigated for the corrosion protection of boiler tubes in Low NOx furnaces. The primary objective of this research is to identify weldable (crack-free) Fe-Al-Cr weld overlay coating compositions that provide corrosion resistance over long exposure times. During the current project phase, preliminary corrosion testing was conducted on several ternary Fe-Al-Cr alloys in two types of gaseous corrosion environments. These long-term corrosion tests were used to develop a target weld composition matrix and serve as a base line for future corrosion tests. Preliminary Fe-Al based welds with various aluminum concentrations and one ternary Fe-Al-Cr weld overlay were successfully deposited using a Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process and cracking susceptibility was evaluated on these coatings.

  1. Private Schools and Private School Teachers: Final Report of the 1985-86 Private School Study. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This report updates information on private schools and provides nationally representative data on private school teachers. Two separate questionnaires were administered, one collecting information on school characteristics from administrators in a nationally representative sample of 1,174 private schools, and the second collecting information from

  2. Private genome analysis through homomorphic encryption

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid development of genome sequencing technology allows researchers to access large genome datasets. However, outsourcing the data processing o the cloud poses high risks for personal privacy. The aim of this paper is to give a practical solution for this problem using homomorphic encryption. In our approach, all the computations can be performed in an untrusted cloud without requiring the decryption key or any interaction with the data owner, which preserves the privacy of genome data. Methods We present evaluation algorithms for secure computation of the minor allele frequencies and χ2 statistic in a genome-wide association studies setting. We also describe how to privately compute the Hamming distance and approximate Edit distance between encrypted DNA sequences. Finally, we compare performance details of using two practical homomorphic encryption schemes - the BGV scheme by Gentry, Halevi and Smart and the YASHE scheme by Bos, Lauter, Loftus and Naehrig. Results The approach with the YASHE scheme analyzes data from 400 people within about 2 seconds and picks a variant associated with disease from 311 spots. For another task, using the BGV scheme, it took about 65 seconds to securely compute the approximate Edit distance for DNA sequences of size 5K and figure out the differences between them. Conclusions The performance numbers for BGV are better than YASHE when homomorphically evaluating deep circuits (like the Hamming distance algorithm or approximate Edit distance algorithm). On the other hand, it is more efficient to use the YASHE scheme for a low-degree computation, such as minor allele frequencies or χ2 test statistic in a case-control study. PMID:26733152

  3. Privatization and the Globalization of Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Discusses recent efforts at privatization in petroleum, electricity, and coal, as well as the impetus that privatization has provided in fostering the evolution of the multinational and multidimensional energy company.

  4. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... procedures to be used in applications for exemption under the Airport Privatization Pilot Program (62 FR... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Gwinnett County Airport Briscoe Field (LZU), Lawrenceville, Georgia. SUMMARY: The Federal...

  5. Investigation of privatization by level crossing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahabi, M.; Jafari, G. R.

    2009-09-01

    Privatization - a political as well as an economic policy - is generally defined as the transfer of a property or the responsibility for it from the public to the private sector. But privatization is not merely the transfer of the ownership and efficiency of the market should be considered. A successful privatization program induces better profitability and efficiency, higher output, more investment, etc. The main method of privatization is through introducing new stocks to the market to motivate competition. However, for a successful privatization the capability of a market for absorbing the new stock should also be considered. Without paying attention to this aspect, privatization through the introduction of new stocks may lead to reduced market efficiency. We study, based on the complexity theory and in particular the concept of Level Crossing, the effect of the stages of the development, activity, risk, and the waiting times for special events on the privatization.

  6. Education and the Private Finance Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Clive

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

  7. NASA and Public-Private Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews ways to build public-private partnerships with NASA, and the many efforts that Ames Research Center is engaged in in building partnerships with private businesses, not profit organizations and universities.

  8. Security in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jesse

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of school library security, software security, and computer security systems. Describes specific products for each type of security system. A sidebar lists names and addresses of security manufacturers and distributors. (AEF)

  9. LBNL SecureMessaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-03-17

    The LBNLSecureMessaging application enables collaboration among colocated or geograhically dispersed users by supporting secure synchronous and asynchronous communication. This application is the graphical user interface client that is meant to be used in conjunction with servers (LBNL's PCCEServer and a customized IRC server) to allow group and one-to-one conversations via text-based instant messaging. Conversations may be private (by invitation only) or public (open to any member of a collaboratory group_ and they may be permanentmore » and on-going or temporary and ad hoc. Users may leave notes for other people who are online or offline. By providing presence and awareness information, collaborators can easily locate each other and rendezvous. Written in Java/Swing, this application is cross-platform. To gain access to functionality, users have to be registered with an authorization server (PCCEServer) that maintains an access control list. Thus a collaboration group is comprised of a set of PCCE-registered users. Registered users can log in via either X.509 certificate or a username and password combination. PKI and SSL are used to authenticate servers and clients and to encrypt messages sent over the network. The LBNLSecureMessaging application offers instant messaging capabilities in a secure environment that provides data integrity, privacyk authorization, and authentication.« less

  10. LBNL SecureMessaging

    SciTech Connect

    2003-03-17

    The LBNLSecureMessaging application enables collaboration among colocated or geograhically dispersed users by supporting secure synchronous and asynchronous communication. This application is the graphical user interface client that is meant to be used in conjunction with servers (LBNL's PCCEServer and a customized IRC server) to allow group and one-to-one conversations via text-based instant messaging. Conversations may be private (by invitation only) or public (open to any member of a collaboratory group_ and they may be permanent and on-going or temporary and ad hoc. Users may leave notes for other people who are online or offline. By providing presence and awareness information, collaborators can easily locate each other and rendezvous. Written in Java/Swing, this application is cross-platform. To gain access to functionality, users have to be registered with an authorization server (PCCEServer) that maintains an access control list. Thus a collaboration group is comprised of a set of PCCE-registered users. Registered users can log in via either X.509 certificate or a username and password combination. PKI and SSL are used to authenticate servers and clients and to encrypt messages sent over the network. The LBNLSecureMessaging application offers instant messaging capabilities in a secure environment that provides data integrity, privacyk authorization, and authentication.

  11. Citrate-stabilized large Au nanoparticles: Seed-mediated synthesis and their size-optimized enhanced Raman at Pd overlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jinli; Zhang, Ting; Li, Huanhuan; Cui, Ying; Hu, Jiawen

    2015-05-01

    We report seed-mediated synthesis of large (up to 180 nm) Au nanoparticles (NPs) for size-optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) at Pd overlayers. Our results reveal that overmuch produced electrolyte during synthesis may destabilize the growing particles, making them failure to grow freely. This understanding guides the synthesis of large Au NPs with a large range of sizes, thereby allowing exploiting their size-optimized properties, including borrowed SERS achieved at ultrathin, pinhole-free Pd overlayers. The high quality borrowed SERS achieved is important for in situ extracting of vibrational information for species on catalytic Pd surfaces.

  12. IMPERMEABLE THIN AL2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2004-08-31

    To improve the hot corrosion resistance of YSZ thermal barrier coatings, a 25 {micro}m and a 2 {micro}m thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay were deposited by HVOF thermal spray onto to the surface of YSZ coating. Oxidation at high temperature and hot corrosion tests showed that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay deposited on the YSZ TBCs surface can not only reduce the hot corrosion rate, but also significantly prevents the bond coat from oxidation.

  13. IMPERMEABLE THIN AL2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2002-01-31

    In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, the overlay of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating was deposited on the TBC by EB-PVD techniques. Hot corrosion tests were carried out on the TBC with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in molten salts mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C for 10h. The microstructures of TBC and overlay before and after exposure were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It has been found that TBC will react with V{sub 2}O{sub 5} to form YVO{sub 4}. A substantial amount of M-phase was formed due to the leaching of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} from YSZ. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating deposited by EB-PVD was dense, continues and adherent to the TBC. As a result, overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can prevent the YSZ from the attack by molten salts containing vanadium and arrest the penetration of salts into the YSZ along porous and cracks in the YSZ TBC, although there were some cracks in overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating and at the interface between alumina and zirconia formed during hot corrosion tests due to the presence of tensile stress in the alumina coating. In the next reporting period, we will study the mechanisms of cracking of the overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer and finish the hot corrosion tests of TBC with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating deposited by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) technique. The hot corrosion test of TBC with EB-PVD deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating will be again performed. However before hot corrosion tests, a post-annealing will be carried out in vacuum (residual pressure 10{sup -3} Pa) at 1273K for 1h in order to transform the as-sputtered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay to crystalline {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay.

  14. IMPERMEABLE THIN AL2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2002-08-31

    In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, the overlay of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating was deposited on the TBC by EB-PVD techniques. Hot corrosion tests were carried out on the TBC with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in molten salts mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C for different time up to 100h. The microstructures of TBC and overlay before and after exposure were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It has been found that TBC will react with V{sub 2}O{sub 5} to form YVO{sub 4}. The amount of M-phase, which was formed due to the leaching of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} from YSZ, was increased with corrosion time. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating deposited by EB-PVD was dense, continues and adherent to the TBC. As a result, overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can prevent the YSZ from the attack by molten salts containing vanadium and decrease the penetration of salts into the YSZ along porous and cracks in the YSZ TBC. The amount of M-phase formed in YSZ covered with an overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is substantially lower than that formed in conventional YSZ TBC, even after 100h exposure to the molten salts. In the next reporting period, the hot corrosion test of TBC with EB-PVD deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating will be again performed. However before hot corrosion tests, the post-annealing will be carried out in vacuum (residual pressure 10 -3 Pa) at 1273K for 1h in order to transform the as-sputtered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay to crystalline {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. In addition, the effect of the thickness of overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on corrosion resistance will also be investigated.

  15. A Survey of Private Ohio Academic Libraries' Physical Processing Practices for Circulating Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Factor, Olivia Spaid

    Little guidance is given in today's general technical services or cataloging textbooks to assist librarians in making decisions on procedures for the physical preparation of materials prior to placement on the shelves for public access. As small, private academic libraries face automation of circulation, addition of security systems, and debates

  16. 44 CFR 5.84 - Production of documents in private litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Production of documents in private litigation. 5.84 Section 5.84 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Subpoenas...

  17. 44 CFR 5.84 - Production of documents in private litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Production of documents in private litigation. 5.84 Section 5.84 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Subpoenas...

  18. 32 CFR 2001.36 - Classified information in the custody of private organizations or individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified information in the custody of private organizations or individuals. 2001.36 Section 2001.36 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION...

  19. Second Line of Defense Virtual Private Network Guidance for Deployed and New CAS Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Surya V.; Thronas, Aaron I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of remote access via virtual private network (VPN) for the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Central Alarm System (CAS) sites, the requirements for maintaining secure channels while using VPN and implementation requirements for current and future sites.

  20. 31 CFR 306.86 - Change of name and succession of private organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Change of name and succession of private organizations. 306.86 Section 306.86 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES...