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1

Secure routing for structured peer-to-peer overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured peer-to-peer overlay networks provide a substrate for the construction of large-scale, decentralized applications, including distributed storage, group communication, and content distribution. These overlays are highly resilient; they can route messages correctly even when a large fraction of the nodes crash or the network partitions. But current overlays are not secure; even a small fraction of malicious nodes can prevent

Miguel Castro; Peter Druschel; Ayalvadi J. Ganesh; Antony I. T. Rowstron; Dan S. Wallach

2002-01-01

2

Private Security Office Curriculum Framework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prepared by the Florida Department of Education, this 24-page pdf document details the curriculum for the training and education of private security officers. Down to very specific tasks, this document could be useful for educators and administrators working in security or loss prevention training as a ready-to-use guide for course or syllabus creation. Here, visitors will find recommendations for the major concepts students should understand before entering the workforce, laboratory activities to teach those concepts, and the specific skills needed to obtain certification. These skills include recognizing criminal procedures for common crimes, defining a crime scene, and demonstrating firearms skills.

2007-07-14

3

Using overlays to improve network security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we increase our dependency upon networked communication, the incentive to compromise and degrade network performance increases for those who wish to disrupt the flow of information. Attacks that lead to such compromise and degradation can come in a variety of forms, including distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, cutting wires, jamming transmissions, and monitoring/eavesdropping. Users can protect themselves from monitoring by applying cryptographic techniques, and the recent work has explored developing networks that react to DDoS attacks by locating the source(s) of the attack. However, there has been little work that addresses preventing the other kinds of attacks as opposed to reacting to them. Here, we discuss how network overlays can be used to complicate the job of an attacker that wishes to prevent communication. To amplify our point, we focus briefly on a study of preventing DDoS attacks by using overlays.

Keromytis, Angelos D.; Misra, Vishal; Rubenstein, Daniel

2002-07-01

4

Privatizing Social Security: The Wall Street Fix  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Privatizing Social Security: The Wall Street Fix," by Dean Baker of the Economic Policy Institute, argues that "Social Security is sound now and will continue to be sound indefinitely," and sees privatization as a serious threat. The Social Security system currently collects more in taxes than benefits paid out, with the excess held in the Trust Fund. But this is expected to change in 2014 when the baby boomers and increased longevity of retirees is likely to result in benefits exceeding taxes collected. By 2031, the Trust Fund is expected to be exhausted. Suggestions for reforming Social Security include minor changes to the eligibility requirement or tax rates, allowing part of Social Security contributions to be invested freely, and totally privatizing Social Security.

Baker, Dean.

1996-04-29

5

COMMENT: SOCIAL SECURITY AND PRIVATE SAVINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

* Abstract - From estimates of a modified life-cycle consumer expenditure function (LCF), Feldstein (1996) concluded that Social Security old age benefits reduced 1992 private saving by more than $400 billion. (1992 net (gross) private saving was $425 ($1,474) billion.) I confirm this finding, and show that it is more than three times its standard error but entirely due to

PHILIP MEGUIRE

1998-01-01

6

32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Physical Security of Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in...

2010-07-01

7

Social Security or Private Security Social security reform remains an important, controversial topic. This short essay  

E-print Network

Social Security or Private Security Social security reform remains an important, controversial stumbling block to social security reform. The interest rate, not income growth, provides the return within topic. This short essay provides a primer about the current social security system and its primary

Ahmad, Sajjad

8

48 CFR 252.225-7039 - Contractors performing private security functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Contractors performing private security functions. 252.225-7039 Section 252...Contractors performing private security functions. As prescribed in 225.370-6...CONTRACTORS PERFORMING PRIVATE SECURITY FUNCTIONS (AUG 2011) (a) Definition....

2011-10-01

9

Privatizing Social Security: The Troubling Trade-Offs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Privatizing Social Security: The Troubling Trade-Offs," by Gary Burtless and Barry Bosworth of the Brookings Institution, argues that most of the "economic advantages of privatization can be obtained in either a public or a private retirement system." The Social Security system currently collects more in taxes than benefits paid out, with the excess held in the Trust Fund. But this is expected to change in 2014 when the baby boomers and increased longevity of retirees is likely to result in benefits exceeding taxes collected. By 2031, the Trust Fund is expected to be exhausted. Suggestions for reforming Social Security include minor changes to the eligibility requirement or tax rates, allowing part of Social Security contributions to be invested freely, and totally privatizing Social Security.

Bosworth, Barry.

10

Study of Cloud Computing Security Based on Private Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supporting study of a method to solve cloud computing security issue with private face recognition. The method has three parts: user part provides face images; cloud initialization part has a face subspace and templates database; cloud private matching identification part contains the core algorithm of the method, comparing two encrypted numbers under double-encrypted conditions. The experimental results show the method

Chenguang Wang; Huaizhi Yan

2010-01-01

11

Social Security Privatization in Britain: Key Lessons for America's Reformers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Heritage Foundation article, "Social Security Privatization in Britain: Key Lessons for America's Reformers," by Louis D. Enoff and Robert E. Moffit, looks at Britain's effort to privatize its pension system and what lessons it holds for Americans. The Social Security system currently collects more in taxes than benefits paid out, with the excess held in the Trust Fund. But this is expected to change in 2014 when the baby boomers and increased longevity of retirees is likely to result in benefits exceeding taxes collected. By 2031, the Trust Fund is expected to be exhausted. Suggestions for reforming Social Security include minor changes to the eligibility requirement or tax rates, allowing part of Social Security contributions to be invested freely, and totally privatizing Social Security.

Enoff, Louis D.

1997-01-01

12

Scalable P2P Overlays of Very Small Constant Degree: An Emerging Security Threat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has been adopted by Internet-based malware as a fault tolerant and scalable communication medium for self-organization and survival. It has been shown that malicious P2P networks would be nearly impossible to uncover if they operated in a stealth mode, that is, using only a small constant number of fixed overlay connections per node for communication. While overlay networks of a small constant maximal degree are generally considered to be unscalable, we argue in this paper that it is possible to design them to be scalable, efficient and robust. This is an important finding from a security point of view: we show that stealth mode P2P malware that is very difficult to discover with state-of-the-art methods is a plausible threat. In this paper we discuss algorithms and theoretical results that support the scalability of stealth mode overlays, and we present realistic simulations using an event based implementation of a proof-of-concept system. Besides P2P botnets, our results are also applicable in scenarios where relying on a large number of overlay connections per node is not feasible because of cost or the limited number of communication channels available.

Jelasity, Márk; Bilicki, Vilmos

13

Social security reform: Does partial privatization make sense for China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the year 2025, one quarter of the world's population over age 60 will be living in China, a nation in the process of partially privatizing its social security system. This article presents a brief history of social security policy in China, describes the current scheme, presents an analysis of the pros and cons of this scheme, and asks why

John B. Williamson; Catherine Deitelbaum

2005-01-01

14

76 FR 49650 - Private Security Contractors (PSCs) Operating in Contingency Operations, Combat Operations or...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...available to Private Security Contractors through the GCC Web site. Comment...publication on this same Web site. Areas for...Comment: ``Private Security Functions'' needs...include an Internet Web site, consistent with security considerations...

2011-08-11

15

17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Private resales of securities to institutions. 230.144A Section 230.144A Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

2012-04-01

16

17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Private resales of securities to institutions. 230.144A Section 230.144A Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

2011-04-01

17

17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Private resales of securities to institutions. 230.144A Section 230.144A Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

2014-04-01

18

17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Private resales of securities to institutions. 230.144A Section 230.144A Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

2013-04-01

19

Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries  

SciTech Connect

We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.

Olejnik, Lukasz [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland and Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center, Noskowskiego 12/14, PL-61-704 Poznan (Poland)

2011-08-15

20

Cryptanalysis of the secure quantum private comparison protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Yang et al [2009 Phys. Scr. 80 065002] presented the first quantum private comparison protocol that involves single photons only. This protocol is very promising in practice. However, in this paper, we analyze the security of the protocol and point out a subtle loophole. It is shown that both Eve and Charlie could obtain Bob's secret by launching a special dense-coding attack. Moreover, details of this attack and its correctness are given, and also two solutions are demonstrated to improve the protocol in order to overcome the fatal flaw.

Liu, Xing-Tong; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing

2013-06-01

21

Public and private old-age security arrangements in Asia and Europe 5 7 September 2007  

E-print Network

Public and private old-age security arrangements in Asia and Europe 5 ­ 7 September 2007 Den Haag, the Netherlands Preliminary Programme NSC-IIAS conference Public and private old-age security arrangements in Asia Kingdom Maintaining Socio-economic Security in Old Age - A European Perspective 10.45 ­ 11.00 hrs Coffee

Galis, Frietson

22

Enforcing Private Policy via Security-by-Contract1 Gabriele CostaA,B  

E-print Network

by components. Moreover, we present an extension of the Security-by-Contract for dealing with trust. Trust want to measure its trust level. Keywords: Private Policy Enforcement, Security1 Enforcing Private Policy via Security-by-Contract1 Gabriele CostaA,B , Ilaria Matteucci

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Civil liability of private security: Enforcer of moral obligations to right legal wrongs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The private security industry in the United States now has approximately twice as many personnel as does the public police.\\u000a Private Security personnel have authority over the liberty, and sometimes the lives, of customers and employees. Often they\\u000a exercise this awesome responsibility with little if any background and training.\\u000a \\u000a In most instances private security personnel are not considered law officers

Richter H. Moore

1987-01-01

24

75 FR 51609 - Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...The Information Security Oversight Office...Administrator of General Services in accordance...by the General Services Administration...Department of Homeland Security to perform some...monitoring of all private sector facilities...

2010-08-23

25

FACT SHEET: Fusion Center Assessment emergency response, public health and private sector security personnel to understand local intelligence  

E-print Network

FACT SHEET: Fusion Center Assessment emergency response, public health and private sector security and private sector partners on emergencies such as blizzards, hurricanes, floods, or other major natural

26

Private Security Contractors in the Debate about Darfur: Reflecting and Reinforcing Neo-Liberal Governmentality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the loud presence of private security contractors in the evolving and buoyant discussion surrounding Darfur. Relying primarily on statements by security contractors and industry lobby organizations, this article suggests that neo-liberal governmentality has bolstered the expert status of security contractors in the discussions surrounding Darfur. Both in Darfur and more widely, neo-liberal governmentality tends to `depoliticize' security

Anna Leander; Rens van Munster

2007-01-01

27

A framework for Secure and Private P2P Publish\\/Subscribe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel and totally decentralized strategy for private and secure data exchange in peer-to-peer systems. Our scheme outperforms Diffie-Hellman scheme and is particularly appealing for point-to-point exchanges with zero-knowledge. Furthermore, we show how to plug our private and secure data exchange module in existing publish\\/subscribe architectures. Our proposal enriches the original system with security and privacy making it

Samuel Bernard; Maria Gradinariu Potop-Butucaru; S'ebastien Tixeuil

2010-01-01

28

A Secure and Private Clarke Tax Voting Protocol without Trusted Authorities  

E-print Network

A Secure and Private Clarke Tax Voting Protocol without Trusted Authorities Changjie Wang and Ho popular activities over the Internet. Security and privacy are always regarded as crucial factors in electronic voting system design. Various secure voting schemes have been proposed in the past several years

Fiat, Amos

29

Implementation of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development  

SciTech Connect

This report documents implementation strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. This report details some of the efforts that have been implemented to leverage public and private resources, as well as implementation strategies to further leverage public and private resources.

None

2009-04-01

30

Vulnerabilities and Security Threats in Structured Overlay Networks: A Quantitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent applications have been built on distributed hash tables (DHTs) based overlay networks. Almost all DHT-based schemes employ a tight determin- istic data placement and ID mapping schemes. This fea- ture on one hand provides assurance on location of data if it exists, within a bounded number of hops, and on the other hand, opens doors for

Mudhakar Srivatsa; Ling Liu

2004-01-01

31

Social Security Privatization Reform and Labor Markets: The Case of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the way in which social security privatization reform affects labor market outcomes. We develop a model of the labor market where we assume that, as is the case in most emerging markets, a formal and an informal sectors coexist side by side. According to our model, a social security reform that reduces the implicit tax on labor in

Sebastian Edwards; Alejandra Cox Edwards

2002-01-01

32

The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995: the stock market casts its vote…  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 1995, Congress overrode a presidential veto to enact the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act. This legislation was aimed at curbing abuses in class action securities litigation, and providing firms with relief from frivolous lawsuits brought on the basis of stock price volatility. While the intent of lawmakers in drafting this legislation was clear, the impact of the Reform

D. Katherine Spiess; Paula A. Tkac

1997-01-01

33

Identification of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the identification of strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP).There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. The leveraging of dollars serves many purposes. These include increasing the amount of training that can be delivered and therefore increasing the number of people reached, increasing the number and quality of public/private partnerships, and increasing the number of businesses that are involved in the training of their future workforce.

None

2009-02-01

34

An Overlay Photonic Layer Security Approach Scalable to 100 Gb\\/s  

Microsoft Academic Search

As data rates outpace the capabilities of electronic encryption schemes, photonic layer security may fill the gap in providing a communication security solution at high data rates. In this article we review and highlight the advantages of our proposed optical code-division multiplexed (OCDM)-based photonic layer security (PLS) system based on high-resolution control of the optical phase of tightly spaced phase

Shahab Etemad; Anjali Agarwal; Thomas Banwell; G. Crescenzo; J. Jackel; R. Menendez; P. Toliver

2008-01-01

35

Secure Distributed Constraint Satisfaction: Reaching Agreement without Revealing Private Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a secure distributed Constraint Satisfaction algorithm. A Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problem\\u000a (DisCSP) is a CSP in which variables and constraints are distributed among multiple agents. A major motivation for solving\\u000a a DisCSP without gathering all information in one server is the concern about privacy\\/security. However, existing DisCSP algorithms\\u000a leak some information during the search process and privacy\\/security

Makoto Yokoo; Koutarou Suzuki; Katsutoshi Hirayama

2002-01-01

36

Novel Quantum Virtual Private Network Scheme for PON via Quantum Secure Direct Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocols with quantum identification (QI) based on passive optical network (PON) architecture are proposed. One QSDC protocol can be implemented between two different optical network units just with simple configurations of PON by optical line terminal when they are in the same virtual private network after optical line terminal performing QI to the optical network units in the given PON architecture. The other QSDC protocol is also implemented between any two legitimated users in the virtual private network but with considerable reduction of workload of the optical line terminal. The security analysis shows that the proposed QSDC schemes with quantum identification are unconditionally secure and allow the legitimate users to exchange their secret information efficiently and to realize a quantum virtual private network in the PON networks ultimately.

Gong, Li-Hua; Liu, Ye; Zhou, Nan-Run

2013-09-01

37

European Private Security, Corporate Investigation and Military Services: Collective Security, Market Regulation and Structuring the Public Sphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the private security industry and public institutions and agencies is complex and by no means one-way. The industry assists and acts as a substitute for the public sphere, is governed by it, albeit in a partial and uneven manner, whilst restructuring the public sphere in pursuit of commercial advantage at home and abroad. This paper explores aspects

Nicholas Dorn; Michael Levi

2007-01-01

38

Privatize  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Privatize site is a great place to create tweets with private links that can only be viewed by the people you mention. It's a nice way to share information with only a set few and it's a good way to create discrete offerings. Users simply need to login with their Twitter account to get started. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

Jackson, Bryn

39

Effective Ways of Secure, Private and Trusted Cloud Computing  

E-print Network

Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing, where shared resources, software and information, are provided to computers and devices on-demand. It provides people the way to share distributed resources and services that belong to different organization. Since cloud computing uses distributed resources in open environment, thus it is important to provide the security and trust to share the data for developing cloud computing applications. In this paper we assess how can cloud providers earn their customers' trust and provide the security, privacy and reliability, when a third party is processing sensitive data in a remote machine located in various countries? A concept of utility cloud has been represented to provide the various services to the users. Emerging technologies can help address the challenges of Security, Privacy and Trust in cloud computing.

Kumar, Pardeep; Chauhan, Durg Singh; Gupta, P K; Diwakar, Manoj

2011-01-01

40

Borrowing to Save: A Critique of Recent Proposals to Partially Privatize Social Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concern over Social Security's forecasted long-run deficit is occurring at a time when the program has a short-term surplus. One proposed strategy to address this forecasted deficit is to allow the investment of a portion of payroll taxes into private savings accounts (PSAs). The author analyzes recent proposals for PSAs and concludes that PSAs…

Dattalo, Patrick

2007-01-01

41

The Effectiveness of an Electronic Security Management System in a Privately Owned Apartment Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poisson and negative binomial regression methods are used to analyze the monthly time series data to determine the effects of introducing an integrated security management system including closed-circuit television (CCTV), door alarm monitoring, proximity card access, and emergency call boxes to a large privately-owned complex of apartment buildings in New York City. Crime rates in a control apartment complex under

David F. Greenberg; Jeffrey B. Roush

2009-01-01

42

PUF-Based RFID Authentication Secure and Private under Complete Memory Leakage  

E-print Network

PUF-Based RFID Authentication Secure and Private under Complete Memory Leakage Daisuke Moriyama1, Japan {dmoriyam, smatsuo}@nict.go.jp 2 Columbia University 3 Google, inc. Abstract. RFID tags-channel) attacks become a criti- cal threat. Another well known threat to RFID devices is tag tracing implying

43

Do Institutions Matter? The Impact of the Lead Plaintiff Provision of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Congress enacted the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act in 1995 (“PSLRA”), the Act's “lead plaintiff” provision was the centerpiece of its efforts to increase investor control over securities fraud class actions. The lead plaintiff provision alters the balance of power between investors and class counsel by creating a presumption that the investor with the largest financial stake in the

Stephen J. Choi; A. C. Pritchard; Jill E. Fisch

2005-01-01

44

Parenting from the Pocket: Value Tensions and Technical Directions for Secure and Private Parent-Teen Mobile Safety  

E-print Network

Parenting from the Pocket: Value Tensions and Technical Directions for Secure and Private Parent-Teen, are advertised as useful or even necessary for good parenting of teens. Simultaneously, there is a growing market for parent-teen relationships, af- fecting domains such as privacy, trust, and maturation. Not only the teen

Anderson, Richard

45

Implementing Virtual Private Networking for Enabling Lower Cost, More Secure Wide Area Communications at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Virtual Private Networking is a new communications technology that promises lower cost, more secure wide area communications by leveraging public networks such as the Internet. Sandia National Laboratories has embraced the technology for interconnecting remote sites to Sandia's corporate network, and for enabling remote access users for both dial-up and broadband access.

MILLER,MARC M.; YONEK JR.,GEORGE A.

2001-08-01

46

Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their offices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (IAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the. target site that is running the . VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

2004-01-01

47

Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications Using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their off ices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (LAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing acceptance. The user computer running the VPN client and the target site that is running the VPN firewall exchange this encryption key and therefore are the only ones that are able to decipher the data. The level of encryption offered by the VPN is making it possible for wireless networks to pass the strict security policies that have kept them from being used in the past. Now people will be able to benefit from the many advantages that wireless networking has to offer in the area of mission critical applications.

Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

2004-01-01

48

Measuring fab overlay programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a methodology for measuring and improving the effectiveness of stepper overlay management on product wafers in the semiconductor industry. The research that supports this measurement approach encompasses over 12 fabs with over 30 technologies. Overlay performance, stepper deployment, stepper productivity and die yield loss due to overlay error were studied. To provide an objective measurement of a fab overlay methodology and performance, measurements were made of the overall overlay design rule compliance and distribution and of the overlay variance and distribution by stepper field location. Modeled data analysis was used to assess and validate the effectiveness of the stepper control methodology, sampling level and field/target locations. Balancing stepper productivity and overlay results is a problem in most fabs. An overlay 'opportunity box' is defined that allows a fab to explore overlay error ranges, lost stepper productivity, and product overlay design rule requirement by stepper deployment. Stepper deployment decision tend to be digital - 'engineering' or 'manufacturing' - quantification of die yield loss as a function of overlay error is usually required to make deployment changes. Several examples of die yield loss, as a function of overlay error and distribution, are presented. A brief introduction of the yield analysis technique used is provided.

Martin, Richard J.; Chen, Xuemei; Goldberger, Itzik

1999-06-01

49

Enforcing Private Policy via Security-by-Contract1 Gabriele CostaA,B  

E-print Network

to systems in which components trust to each other but they do not trust to enabler. The Security Security-by-Contract1 Gabriele CostaA,B , Ilaria MatteucciB A Dipartimento di Informatica -UniversitĂ  di.Matteucci}@iit.cnr.it Abstract. This work aims to investigate how the Security-by-Contract (SxC) paradigm, developed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

50

78 FR 37670 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Contractors Performing Private Security Functions Outside the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...responsibilities under the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 644) or...training, equipping, and conduct of personnel performing private...FAR 52.203- 13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct, in the definition of...

2013-06-21

51

Network security vulnerabilities and personal privacy issues in Healthcare Information Systems: a case study in a private hospital in Turkey.  

PubMed

Healthcare industry has become widely dependent on information technology and internet as it moves from paper to electronic records. Healthcare Information System has to provide a high quality service to patients and a productive knowledge share between healthcare staff by means of patient data. With the internet being commonly used across hospitals, healthcare industry got its own share from cyber threats like other industries in the world. The challenge is allowing knowledge transfer to hospital staff while still ensuring compliance with security mandates. Working in collaboration with a private hospital in Turkey; this study aims to reveal the essential elements of a 21st century business continuity plan for hospitals while presenting the security vulnerabilities in the current hospital information systems and personal privacy auditing standards proposed by regulations and laws. We will survey the accreditation criteria in Turkey and counterparts in US and EU. We will also interview with medical staff in the hospital to understand the needs for personal privacy and the technical staff to perceive the technical requirements in terms of network security configuration and deployment. As hospitals are adopting electronic transactions, it should be considered a must to protect these electronic health records in terms of personal privacy aspects. PMID:23823398

Namo?lu, Nihan; Ulgen, Yekta

2013-01-01

52

Resilient overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Resilient Overlay Network (RON) is an architecture that allows distributed Internet applications to detect and recover from path outages and periods of degraded performance within several seconds, improving over today's wide-area routing protocols that take at least several minutes to recover. A RON is an application-layer overlay on top of the existing Internet routing substrate. The RON nodes monitor

David Andersen; Hari Balakrishnan; Frans Kaashoek; Robert Morris

2001-01-01

53

Older workers' progression from private disability benefits to Social Security disability benefits.  

PubMed

People with medical conditions that limit their ability to work tend to receive short-term disability benefits initially and may then move to long-term and eventually to permanent disability benefits. The progression of older workers (those aged 55 to 64) along that continuum of benefits is documented here with data from a large disability insurance company. The data show that older workers who receive short-term medical disability benefits are three times as likely as younger workers to progress to receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits, although a slight reversal of that trend occurs as workers pass age 62. Musculoskeletal conditions are the most frequent basis of short-term disability claims among older workers, with circulatory conditions running a close second. Furthermore, although all medical conditions are more likely to lead to SSDI benefits among older workers, circulatory conditions do so most frequently. This article discusses industry standards for the management of disability claims at each level of severity. It also addresses common and emerging disability management practices that may reduce the likelihood of impaired workers developing long-term or permanent financial dependence on disability benefits programs. PMID:11641986

Wagner, C C; Danczyk-Hawley, C E; Mulholland, K; Flynn, B G

2000-01-01

54

Characterization of overlay mark fidelity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this publication we introduce a new metric for process robustness of overlay metrology in microelectronic manufacturing. By straightforward statistical analysis of overlay metrology measurements on an array of adjacent, nominally identical overlay targets the Overlay Mark Fidelity (OMF) can be estimated. We present the results of such measurements and analysis on various marks, which were patterned using a DUV scanner. The same reticle set was used to pattern wafers on different process layers and process conditions. By appropriate statistical analysis, the breakdown of the total OMF into a reticle-induced OMF component and a process induced OMF component was facilitated. We compare the OMF of traditional box-in-box overlay marks with that of new gratingbased overlay marks and show that in all cases the grating marks are superior. The reticle related OMF showed an improvement of 30 % when using the new grating-based overlay mark. Furthermore, in a series of wafers run through an STI-process with different Chemical Mechanical Polish (CMP) times, the random component of the OMF of the new grating-based overlay mark was observed to be 40% lower and 50% less sensitive to process variation compared with Box in Box marks. These two observations are interpreted as improved process robustness of the grating mark over box in box, specifically in terms of reduced site by site variations and reduced wafer to wafer variations as process conditions change over time. Overlay Mark Fidelity, as defined in this publication, is a source of overlay metrology uncertainty, which is statistically independent of the standard error contributors, i.e. precision, TIS variability, and tool to tool matching. Current overlay metrology budgeting practices do not take this into consideration when calculating total measurement uncertainty (TMU). It is proposed that this be reconsidered, given the tightness of overlay and overlay metrology budgets at the 70 nm design rule node and below.

Adel, Mike; Ghinovker, Mark; Poplawski, Jorge M.; Kassel, Elyakim; Izikson, Pavel; Pollentier, Ivan K.; Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David W.

2003-05-01

55

Target noise in overlay metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a method for calculating the statistical effects of spatial noise on the overlay measurement extracted from a given overlay target. The method has been applied to two kinds of overlay targets on three process layers, and the new metric, Target Noise, has been shown to correlate well to the random component of Overlay Mark Fidelity. A significant difference in terms of robustness has been observed between AIM targets and conventional Frame-in-Frame targets. The results fit well into the spatial noise hierarchy presented in this paper.

Seligson, Joel L.; Adel, Mike E.; Izikson, Pavel; Levinski, Vladimir; Yaffe, Dan

2004-05-01

56

ENGINEERINGEnsuring the security of complex systems is a vital objective for all enterprises in the private and public sector. Increasing interconnectedness of critical infrastructures used by the  

E-print Network

goals for systems security and information assurance. Graduates will be qualified to seek positions, information systems security manager, information systems security officer, information security manager, security system engineering, secure system architecture, information assurance, and technology governance

Yang, Eui-Hyeok

57

Grid Computing Security Lecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grid Computing Lecture~~Security: secure connection, authentication and authorization, password authentication, symmetric (secret) and asymmetric (public/private) key cyptography, RSA algorithm.

Ferner, Clayton; Wilkinson, Barry

2011-07-05

58

Defending against eclipse attacks on overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks are widely used to deploy functionality at edge nodes without changing network routers. Each node in an overlay network maintains pointers to a set of neighbor nodes. These pointers are used both to maintain the overlay and to implement application functionality, for example, to locate content stored by overlay nodes. If an attacker controls a large fraction of

Atul Singh; Miguel Castro; Peter Druschel; Antony I. T. Rowstron

2004-01-01

59

Optimized Overlay Metrology Marks: Theory and Experiment  

E-print Network

1 Optimized Overlay Metrology Marks: Theory and Experiment M. Adel, M. Ghinovker, B. Golovanevsky a detailed analysis of overlay metrology mark and find the mapping between various properties of mark. Keywords Overlay metrology, overlay mark, Cramer-Rao lower bound, Fisher information matrix, box

Markovitch, Shaul

60

Secure and Robust Overlay Content Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the success of applications spurring the tremendous increase in the volume of data transfer, efficient and reliable content distribution has become a key issue. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has gained popularity as a promising approach to large-scale content distribution due to its benefits including self-organizing, load-balancing, and…

Kang, Hun Jeong

2010-01-01

61

Overlay similarity: a new overlay index for metrology tool and scanner overlay fingerprint methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For different CD metrologies like average CD from CD SEM and optical CD (OCD) from scatterometry, CD point-to-point R2 has been well adopted as the CD correlation index. For different overlay metrologies like image-based box-in-box overlay and scatterometry-based overlay, we propose the cosine similarity as the correlation index of overlay. The cosine similarity is a measure of similarity between two vectors of n dimensions by finding the cosine of the angle between them, often used to compare documents in text mining. It has been widely used in web and document search engines and can be used as the similarity index of overlay tool-to-tool matching and scanner tool-to-tool or day-to-day fingerprint. In this paper, we demonstrate that the cosine similarity has a very high sensitivity to the overly tool performance. We compared the similarities of three generations (A1, A2, A3) of the overlay tools of venders A and B and found that after target re-training and TIS correction on each tool A1 similarity to A3 can be improved from 0.9837 to 0.9951. Overlay point-to-point matching with A3 vs. A1 can be reduced from 4.8 to 2.1 nm. The tool precision similarities, i.e. tool self best similarity, for A1, A2, A3 and B are 0.9986, 0.9990, 0.9995, and 0.9994 respectively. From this table, we demonstrate that we can use old-generation overlay tool with suitable hardware maintenance, to match to the latest-generation overlay tool.

Ke, Chih-Ming; Kao, Ching-Pin; Wang, Yu-Hsi; Hu, Jimmy; Chang, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Ya-Jung; Yen, Anthony; Lin, Burn J.

2009-03-01

62

Mitigating Denial-of-Service Attacks on the Chord Overlay Network  

E-print Network

presents LocationGuard--a location hiding technique for securing overlay file storage systems from targeted file attacks. LocationGuard has three essential components: 1) location key, consisting of a random bit string (e.g., 128 bits) that serves as the key to the location of a file, 2) routing guard, a secure

Liu, Ling

63

New analytical algorithm for overlay accuracy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extension of optical lithography to 2Xnm and beyond is often challenged by overlay control. With reduced overlay measurement error budget in the sub-nm range, conventional Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) data is no longer sufficient. Also there is no sufficient criterion in overlay accuracy. In recent years, numerous authors have reported new method of the accuracy of the overlay metrology: Through focus and through color. Still quantifying uncertainty in overlay measurement is most difficult work in overlay metrology. According to the ITRS roadmap, total overlay budget is getting tighter than former device node as a design rule shrink on each device node. Conventionally, the total overlay budget is defined as the square root of square sum of the following contributions: the scanner overlay performance, wafer process, metrology and mask registration. All components have been supplying sufficiently performance tool to each device nodes, delivering new scanner, new metrology tools, and new mask e-beam writers. Especially the scanner overlay performance was drastically decreased from 9nm in 8x node to 2.5nm in 3x node. The scanner overlay seems to reach the limitation the overlay performance after 3x nod. The importance of the wafer process overlay as a contribution of total wafer overlay became more important. In fact, the wafer process overlay was decreased by 3nm between DRAM 8x node and DRAM 3x node. We develop an analytical algorithm for overlay accuracy. And a concept of nondestructive method is proposed in this paper. For on product layer we discovered the layer has overlay inaccuracy. Also we use find out source of the overlay error though the new technique. In this paper, authors suggest an analytical algorithm for overlay accuracy. And a concept of non-destructive method is proposed in this paper. For on product layers, we discovered it has overlay inaccuracy. Also we use find out source of the overlay error though the new technique. Furthermore total overlay error data is decomposed into two parts: the systematic error and the random error. And we tried to show both error components characteristic, systematic error has a good correlation with residual error by scanner condition, whereas, random error has a good correlation with residual error as going process steps. Furthermore, we demonstrate the practical using case with proposed method that shows the working of the high order method through systematic error. Our results show that to characterize an overlay data that is suitable for use in advanced technology nodes requires much more than just evaluating the conventional metrology metrics of TIS and TMU.

Ham, Boo-Hyun; Yun, Sangho; Kwak, Min-Cheol; Ha, Soon Mok; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Nam, Suk-Woo

2012-03-01

64

Privatizing Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California legislation…

Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

2012-01-01

65

Is Private Speech Really Private  

E-print Network

This study sought to answer the question “is private speech really private?” by assessing if participants spoke more to themselves when in the company of the experimenter or when they were alone. The similarity between ...

Smith, Ashley

2011-01-01

66

76 FR 6702 - Private Transfer Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency...encumbered by certain types of private transfer fee covenants and in certain related securities...proposed rule would except private transfer fees paid to homeowner associations,...

2011-02-08

67

77 FR 15566 - Private Transfer Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency...encumbered by certain types of private transfer fee covenants and in certain related securities...encumbered by certain private transfer fees. To allow full public participation...

2012-03-16

68

Lawless Privatization?  

E-print Network

; transformation of ministries into conglomerates. 1991 – 1994 Public mass privatization. Voucher auctions Development of private banking sector and financial market infrastructure; mass privatization of small and medium-sized enterprises 1995 – 1998... of complete buyout by their employees. Large and medium sized state enterprises were to be transformed into joint-stock companies with the government initially retaining control by owning a stake of shares to be sold later. Some shares were given away...

Medova, Elena; Tischenko, Larissa

2006-01-01

69

Flutter Analysis of the Shuttle Tile Overlay Repair Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle tile overlay repair concept, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is designed for on-orbit installation over an area of damaged tile to permit safe re-entry. The thin flexible plate is placed over the damaged area and secured to tile at discreet points around its perimeter. A series of flutter analyses were performed to determine if the onset of flutter met the required safety margins. Normal vibration modes of the panel, obtained from a simplified structural analysis of the installed concept, were combined with a series of aerodynamic analyses of increasing levels of fidelity in terms of modeling the flow physics to determine the onset of flutter. Results from these analyses indicate that it is unlikely that the overlay installed at body point 1800 will flutter during re-entry.

Bey, Kim S.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Waters, William A.; Chen, Roger

2007-01-01

70

On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers  

SciTech Connect

Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Guok, Chin; Jackson, Keith; Kissel, Ezra; Swany, D. Martin; Agarwal, Deborah

2009-10-12

71

Overlay metrology for double patterning processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The double patterning (DPT) process is foreseen by the industry to be the main solution for the 32 nm technology node and even beyond. Meanwhile process compatibility has to be maintained and the performance of overlay metrology has to improve. To achieve this for Image Based Overlay (IBO), usually the optics of overlay tools are improved. It was also demonstrated that these requirements are achievable with a Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) technique named SCOLTM [1]. In addition, we believe that overlay measurements with respect to a reference grid are required to achieve the required overlay control [2]. This induces at least a three-fold increase in the number of measurements (2 for double patterned layers to the reference grid and 1 between the double patterned layers). The requirements of process compatibility, enhanced performance and large number of measurements make the choice of overlay metrology for DPT very challenging. In this work we use different flavors of the standard overlay metrology technique (IBO) as well as the new technique (SCOL) to address these three requirements. The compatibility of the corresponding overlay targets with double patterning processes (Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE); Litho-Freeze-Litho-Etch (LFLE), Spacer defined) is tested. The process impact on different target types is discussed (CD bias LELE, Contrast for LFLE). We compare the standard imaging overlay metrology with non-standard imaging techniques dedicated to double patterning processes (multilayer imaging targets allowing one overlay target instead of three, very small imaging targets). In addition to standard designs already discussed [1], we investigate SCOL target designs specific to double patterning processes. The feedback to the scanner is determined using the different techniques. The final overlay results obtained are compared accordingly. We conclude with the pros and cons of each technique and suggest the optimal metrology strategy for overlay control in double patterning processes.

Leray, Philippe; Cheng, Shaunee; Laidler, David; Kandel, Daniel; Adel, Mike; Dinu, Berta; Polli, Marco; Vasconi, Mauro; Salski, Bartlomiej

2009-03-01

72

Privatizing Australia  

SciTech Connect

The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

Burr, M.T.

1995-07-01

73

Social Security: Cato Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Social Security Privatization is a web site developed by the Cato Institute that argues for privatizing Social Security to prevent future insolvency. The Social Security system currently collects more in taxes than benefits paid out, with the excess held in the Trust Fund. But this is expected to change in 2014 when the baby boomers and increased longevity of retirees is likely to result in benefits exceeding taxes collected. By 2031, the Trust Fund is expected to be exhausted. Suggestions for reforming Social Security include minor changes to the eligibility requirement or tax rates, allowing part of Social Security contributions to be invested freely, and totally privatizing Social Security.

74

Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

Technology & Learning, 2008

2008-01-01

75

Corporate Security and Conflict Outcomes  

E-print Network

This dissertation investigates the effects of private security firms (PSFs) on conflict outcomes. PSFs are corporations that are publicly or individually owned that provide security services for hire. Security services include, but are not limited...

Tkach, Benjamin K

2013-10-21

76

TES overlayed on MOLA DEM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is TES thermal data (Orbit 222) overlayed on the MOLA DEM. The color scale is TES T18-T25, which is a cold spot index. The grey scale is MOLA elevation in kilometers. Most cold spots can be attributed to surface spectral emissivity effects. Regions that are colored black-violet-blue have near unity emissivity and are coarse grained CO2. Regions that are yellow-red are fined grained CO2. The red-white spot located approximately 300W85N is our most likely candidate for a CO2 snow storm.

1999-01-01

77

Private Virtual Infrastructure for Cloud Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing places an organization's sensitive data in the control of a third party, introducing a significant level of risk on the privacy and security of the data. We propose a new management and security model for cloud computing called the Private Virtual Infrastructure (PVI) that shares the responsibility of security in cloud computing between the service provider and client,

F. John Krautheim

78

Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Because everything about the design and operation of Windows Phone 7 targets consumers, it is only natural that Microsoft\\u000a has carefully thought through the ways to protect consumers from both intended and unintentional harm. Windows Phone 7 ships\\u000a with a compelling set of built-in security features that go towards accomplishing that goal. The capabilities of the Windows\\u000a Phone 7 platform

Henry Lee; Eugene Chuvyrov

79

Censorship resistant overlay publishing Technical Report  

E-print Network

storage systems to resist state-level Internet censorship, construct a system that fulfills thoseCensorship resistant overlay publishing Technical Report Department of Computer Science-027 Censorship resistant overlay publishing Eugene Y. Vasserman, Victor Heorhiadi, Yongdae Kim, and Nicholas J

Minnesota, University of

80

Optimal Rate Allocation in Overlay Content Distribution  

E-print Network

Optimal Rate Allocation in Overlay Content Distribution Chuan Wu and Baochun Li Department. This paper addresses the optimal rate allocation problem in overlay content distribution for efficient, these scenarios reflect the contrast between elastic and streaming content distribution, with either per

Li, Baochun

81

Overcast: Reliable Multicasting with an Overlay Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overcast is an application-level multicasting system that can be incrementally deployed using today's Internet infrastructure. These properties stem from Overcast's implementation as an overlay network. An overlay network consists of a collection of nodes placed at strategic locations in an existing network fabric. These nodes implement a network abstrac- tion on top of the network provided by the under- lying

John Jannotti; David K. Gifford; Kirk L. Johnson; M. Frans Kaashoek; James W. O'Toole Jr.

2000-01-01

82

Private Property Rights: An Indispensable Moral Foundation of Society.  

E-print Network

??The philosophic justifications of private property reach back to the ancient world. Aristotle regarded secure possessions as necessary for successful social functioning, and Cicero understood… (more)

Ogunshola, Ayokunle

2014-01-01

83

CFDP for Interplanetary Overlay Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol for Interplanetary Overlay Network (CFDP-ION) is an implementation of CFDP that uses IO' s DTN (delay tolerant networking) implementation as its UT (unit-data transfer) layer. Because the DTN protocols effect automatic, reliable transmission via multiple relays, CFDP-ION need only satisfy the requirements for Class 1 ("unacknowledged") CFDP. This keeps the implementation small, but without loss of capability. This innovation minimizes processing resources by using zero-copy objects for file data transmission. It runs without modification in VxWorks, Linux, Solaris, and OS/X. As such, this innovation can be used without modification in both flight and ground systems. Integration with DTN enables the CFDP implementation itself to be very simple; therefore, very small. Use of ION infrastructure minimizes consumption of storage and processing resources while maximizing safety.

Burleigh, Scott C.

2011-01-01

84

In field overlay uncertainty contributors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this publication, the contributors to in-field overlay metrology uncertainty have been parsed and quantified in a specific case study. Particular focus is placed on the unmodeled systematics, i.e. the components which contribute to residuals in a linear model after removal of random errors. These are the contributors which are often the most challenging to quantify and are suspected to be significant in the model residuals. The results show that even in a relatively "clean" front end process, the unmodeled systematics are the dominant residual contributor, accounting for 60 to 70% of the variance. Given the above results, new sampling and modeling methods are proposed which have the potential to improve the accuracy of modeled correctibles and lot dispositioning parameters.

Frommer, Aviv; Kassel, Elyakim; Izikson, Pavel; Adel, Mike; Leray, Philippe; Schulz, Bernd

2005-05-01

85

Occupational Culture in Policing Reviewed: A Comparison of Values in the Public and Private Police  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen an increasing privatization of the security sector, leading to an intermingling of private and public policing and a possible “value-shift” for the overall security policy. Systematic comparative research between police and private security values is, however, still lacking. This article intends to help filling this void by giving an overview of literature on values and occupational

Kim Loyens

2009-01-01

86

Cooperative Private SearchingCooperative Private SearchingCooperative Private SearchingCooperative Private Searching in Cloudsin Cloudsin Cloudsin Clouds  

E-print Network

computing Utility computing #12;Cloud adopters' priorities 8 IEEE Computer 2011 Vol 44 Issue3 #12;CloudCooperative Private Searching in Cloudsin Cloudsin Cloudsin Clouds Jie Wu Department of Computer and Information Sciences Temple University #12;Road Map Cloud Computing Basics Cloud Computing Security Privacy vs

Wu, Jie

87

Governance and Risk Management of Network and Information Security: The Role of Public Private Partnerships in Managing the Existing and Emerging Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Globalisation and new technology has opened the gates to more security risks. As the strategic importance of communication\\u000a networks and information increased, threats to the security and safety of communication infrastructures, as well as information\\u000a stored in and\\/or transmitted increased significantly. The development of the self replicating programmes has become a nightmare\\u000a for Internet users. Leading companies, strategic organisations were

Jyoti Navare; Orhan Gemikonakli

2010-01-01

88

An update on the DPL overlay discontinuity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It could be argued that the biggest challenge of the 32 nm half pitch node is the production implementation of double patterning lithography. Within the framework of this broad domain, a specific challenge which has been highlighted is overlay control due to the sharing between two exposures the overlay control allocation of a single patterning step. The models used in the literature to support this assertion are reviewed and compared with recent results. An analysis of the implications for overlay metrology performance and cost of ownership is presented and compared with actual capabilities currently available with both imaging and scatterometry sensor technology. Technology matching between imaging and scatterometry emerges as a requirement to enable combined imaging scatterometry overlay control use cases.

Adel, Mike

2008-11-01

89

Design For Manufacture In Overlay Metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay metrology has become a cornerstone requirement which enables modern lithographic patterning. The mantra of metrology engineers in the litho cell and tool vendors alike has traditionally been TMU — Total Measurement Uncertainty — a metric which combines all sources of metrology tool related uncertainty. Although relentless TMU reduction is essential, it is certainly not a sufficient condition to meet the overlay control needs for the 32 nm node and below. Many other "on wafer" contributors must be factored into the uncertainty equation. A wider scope in the definition of the overlay metrology process is required which views it as part of the greater IC manufacturing process. Current and emerging overlay metrology industry practices will be reviewed in light of the increasing complexity associated with the interactions between metrology tool, target design and the sampling plan.

Adel, Mike

2005-09-01

90

Solidification of an alloy 625 weld overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temperature range) of an Alloy 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr - 1Mo steel by gas metal arc welding was investigated by light and electron optical microscopy, electron microprobe, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The overlay deposit was found to terminate solidification at ≈ 1216 °C by a gamma\\/Laves eutectic-type reaction.

J. N. Dupont

1996-01-01

91

Solidification of an alloy 625 weld overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temperature range) of an Alloy\\u000a 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr - 1Mo steel by gas metal arc welding was investigated by light and electron optical microscopy,\\u000a electron microprobe, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The overlay deposit was found to terminate solidification\\u000a at ? 1216 C by a?\\/Laves eutectic-type reaction. The

J. N. DuPont

1996-01-01

92

A moving overlay shrinks the attentional blink.  

PubMed

This report describes a study examining the effects of overlaying a veil of spots on the letters in a central rapid serial visual presentation stream. Observers identified two target letters (T1 and T2, respectively) embedded in a stream of distractor letters printed in a different color. In Experiment 1, the attentional blink (AB) diminished when a different overlay veiled each letter, such that the spots appeared to move as the letters changed. Experiment 2 concerned whether the performance enhancement occurred because the overlay hampered processing of the lag 1 distractor, thus weakening the distractor's interference with T1. Experiment 3 focused on how changing the overlay at or around T1 affected the AB. The attention disengagement hypothesis was proposed to explain the common theme in the results-that performance was only enhanced when different overlays were applied to the T1 and lag 1 frames. The claim is that the AB reflects a failure of prompt attentional disengagement from T1, which, in turn, delays reengagement when T2 appears shortly thereafter. When T1's disappearance is accompanied by an overlay change, the perceptual system gets an additional cue signaling that the visual scene has changed, thereby inducing attentional disengagement. Apart from facilitating prompt reengagement at the next target, earlier disengagement also improves target recovery by excluding features of the trailing item, likely to be a distractor, from working memory. PMID:25245077

Chua, Fook K

2015-01-01

93

26 CFR 1.141-5 - Private loan financing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the private loan financing test. (2) Tax assessment loan...Coordination with private business tests. See §§ 1.141-3 and...private security or payment tests. (e) Examples. The following...the H contribution, and the balance of the notes will be...

2013-04-01

94

26 CFR 1.141-5 - Private loan financing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the private loan financing test. (2) Tax assessment loan...Coordination with private business tests. See §§ 1.141-3 and...private security or payment tests. (e) Examples. The following...the H contribution, and the balance of the notes will be...

2011-04-01

95

Blocking-aware private record linkage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the problem of quickly matching records (i.e., record linkage problem) from two autonomous sources without revealing privacy to the other parties is considered. In particular, our focus is to devise secure blocking scheme to improve the performance of record linkage significantly while being secure. Although there have been works on private record linkage, none has considered adopting

Ali Al-Lawati; Dongwon Lee; Patrick McDaniel

2005-01-01

96

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

97

Solidification of an alloy 625 weld overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temperature range) of an Alloy 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr - 1Mo steel by gas metal arc welding was investigated by light and electron optical microscopy, electron microprobe, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The overlay deposit was found to terminate solidification at ? 1216 °C by a ?/Laves eutectic-type reaction. The Laves phase was highly enriched in Nb, Mo, and Si. The solidification reaction and microsegregation potential of major alloying elements in the overlay deposit are compared to other Nb-bearing Ni base alloys and found to be very similar to those for Alloy 718. Solidification cracks observed in the overlay were attributed to the wide solidification temperature range (?170 °C) and formation of interdendritic ( ?+Laves) constituent. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured volume percent ( ?+Laves) constituent with the Scheil equation by treating the overlay system as a simple ?-Nb “binary” and using an experimentally determined k Nb value from electron microprobe data.

Dupont, J. N.

1996-11-01

98

Governance and Risk Management of Network and Information Security: The Role of Public Private Partnerships in Managing the Existing and Emerging Risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globalisation and new technology has opened the gates to more security risks. As the strategic importance of communication networks and information increased, threats to the security and safety of communication infrastructures, as well as information stored in and/or transmitted increased significantly. The development of the self replicating programmes has become a nightmare for Internet users. Leading companies, strategic organisations were not immune to attacks; they were also "hacked" and overtaken by intruders. Incidents of recent years have also shown that national/regional crisis may also trigger cyber attacks at large scale. Experts forecast that cyber wars are likely to take the stage as tension mounts between developed societies. New risks such as cyber-attacks, network terrorism and disintegration of traditional infrastructures has somewhat blurred the boundaries of operation and control. This paper seeks to consider the risk management and governance and looking more specifically at implications for emerging economies.

Navare, Jyoti; Gemikonakli, Orhan

99

Differential signal scatterometry overlay metrology: an accuracy investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overlay control budget for the 32nm technology node will be 5.7nm according to the ITRS. The overlay metrology budget is typically 1/10 of the overlay control budget resulting in overlay metrology total measurement uncertainty (TMU) requirements of 0.57nm for the most challenging use cases of the 32nm node. The current state of the art imaging overlay metrology technology does not meet this strict requirement, and further technology development is required to bring it to this level. In this work we present results of a study of an alternative technology for overlay metrology - Differential signal scatterometry overlay (SCOL). Theoretical considerations show that overlay technology based on differential signal scatterometry has inherent advantages, which will allow it to achieve the 32nm technology node requirements and go beyond it. We present results of simulations of the expected accuracy associated with a variety of scatterometry overlay target designs. We also present our first experimental results of scatterometry overlay measurements, comparing this technology with the standard imaging overlay metrology technology. In particular, we present performance results (precision and tool induced shift) and address the issue of accuracy of scatterometry overlay. We show that with the appropriate target design and algorithms scatterometry overlay achieves the accuracy required for future technology nodes.

Kandel, Daniel; Adel, Mike; Dinu, Berta; Golovanevsky, Boris; Izikson, Pavel; Levinski, Vladimir; Vakshtein, Irina; Leray, Philippe; Vasconi, Mauro; Salski, Bartlomiej

2007-06-01

100

Patent Overlay Mapping: Visualizing Technological Distance  

E-print Network

The purpose of this paper is to present a new global patent map that represents all technological categories, and a method to locate patent data of individual organizations and technological fields on the global map. This second patent overlay map technique is shown to be of potential interest to support competitive intelligence and policy decision-making. The global patent map is based on similarities in citing-to-cited relationships between categories of the International Patent Classification (IPC) of European Patent Office (EPO) patents from 2000 to 2006. This patent dataset, extracted from PatStat database, represents more than 760,000 patent records in more than 400 IPC categories. To illustrate the kind of analytical support offered by this approach, the paper shows the overlay of nanotechnology-related patenting activities of two companies and two different nanotechnology subfields on to the global patent map. The exercise shows the potential of patent overlay maps to visualize technological areas and...

Kay, Luciano; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L; Rafols, Ismael

2012-01-01

101

Weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

SciTech Connect

A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-03-03

102

Privatization and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private

Dash, Neena

2009-01-01

103

A location-aware peer-to-peer overlay network  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This work describes a novel location-aware, self-organizing, fault-tolerant peer-to-peer (P2P) overlay network, referred to as Laptop. Network locality-aware considerations are a very important metric for designing a P2P overlay network. Several network proximity schemes have been proposed to enhance the routing efficiency of existing DHT-based overlay networks. However, these schemes have some drawbacks such as high overlay network and

Chi-jen Wu; De-kai Liu; Ren-hung Hwang

2007-01-01

104

Impact of reticle writing errors on the on-product overlay performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The on-product overlay specification and Advanced Process Control (APC) are getting extremely challenging particularly after the introduction of multi-patterning applications like Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE). While the Reticle Writing Error (RWE) contribution could be marginalized for quite some time in the layer-to-layer overlay budget, it will become one of the dominating overlay contributors when the intra-layer overlay budget is considered. While most of the overlay contributors like wafer processing, scanner status, reticle transmission, dose, illumination conditions drop out of the intra-layer overlay budget, this is certainly not the case for reticle to reticle writing differences. In this work, we have studied the impact of the RWE on the on-product overlay performance. We show that the RWE can be characterized by an off-line mask registration tool and the modelled results can be sent as feed-forward corrections to the ASML TWINSCANTM. By doing so, the overlay control complexity (e.g. send-ahead wafers, APC settling time) can be reduced significantly. Off-line characterization enables that all reticles virtually become equal after correction (at least to the level of correction capability of the scanner). This means that all higher order RWE contributions (currently up to a third order polynomial) can be removed from the fingerprint. We show that out of 50 production reticles (FEOL, 28-nm technology), 30% can be improved on residual level when non-linear feed-forward corrections are considered as well. The additional benefit of feeding forward linear corrections to the scanner is even higher: it is anticipated that a large portion of the APC variation might find its origin in the RWE contribution. In order to send feed-forward corrections to the scanner, we obviously rely on the quality of the off-line RWE measurements. These measurements are usually provided by a registration tool at the mask shop. To secure the quality, an independent experimental verification test was developed to check if off-line RWE measurements can be used as feed-forward corrections to the scanner. The test has been executed on an ASML NXT: 1950i scanner and was designed such to isolate the reticle writing error contribution. The match between the off-line measurements and the experiment is striking.

van Haren, Richard; Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Liu, Xing Lan; Beltman, Jan; Pastol, Anne; Massin, Jean; Dupre La Tour, Emilie; Gatefait, Maxime; Sundermann, Frank

2014-10-01

105

Private Information Advisory Protecting the personal private information of our students, faculty and staff is of  

E-print Network

, driver's license or non driver identification card numbers, credit, debit, or other financial account Security Policies. Examples of private information includes, but is not limited to, social security numbers numbers in combination with access codes permitting access to an individual's accounts. The disclosure

Qiu, Weigang

106

Summary of Concrete Overlays Existing concrete pavement  

E-print Network

Summary of Concrete Overlays Existing concrete pavement with surface distresses Prepared surface Monolithic pavement with new concrete surface Existing asphalt pavement with surface distresses Milled pavement with asphalt surface distresses Milled and cleaned surface New 2­5 in. (5.1­12.7 cm) bonded

107

Overlay Alignment Using Two Photonic Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we proposed a novel overlay alignment method using two sets of identical photonic crystals (PhCs). In this method the reflection or transmission spectrum of the two overlaid photonic crystals is measured to help wafer tilt, yaw rotation, and translation aligning. The initial testing results with two 1D photonic crystals and analysis of the alignment accuracy are presented.

Can Peng; Keith Morton; Zhaoning Yu; Stephen Y. Chou

2005-01-01

108

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400C and their erosion resistance and microstructure evaluated. Steady state erosion rates were similar for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625, Iron-Aluminide, 316L SS, and High Chromium Cast Iron) and were considerably lower than the remaining coating evaluated. These coatings had different base (Co, Fe, Ni-base). No correlations were found between room temperature microhardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature, although this criteria is often thought to be an indicator of erosion resistance. It was suggested that the coatings that showed similar erosion rates may have similar mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates at this temperature. During the past quarter, Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were selected for more detailed investigations based upon the preliminary erosion test results. Microhardness tests were performed on eroded samples to determine the size of the work hardened zone and change in coatings hardness due to erosion. The work hardened zone was correlated with erosion resistance of the coatings. Additional Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates.

Levin, B. F.; Dupont, J. N.; Marder, A. R.

1994-01-01

109

Genlocked digital overlay on a video signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synchronization problems involved in mixing computer graphics with a video signal are outlined, and it is shown how two components solve them. The components, a video encoder and a genlocking digitizer facilitate overlays of digital computer graphics and\\/or text data onto a standard analog NTSC (National Television System Committee) or PAL baseband television signal. The mapping of the clock

John A. Eldon

1993-01-01

110

Bundle Security Protocol for ION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

2011-01-01

111

Security Informatics Security Informatics  

E-print Network

Security Informatics Security Informatics Security Informatics is the study and design of information security technologies within social and economic contexts. Security Informatics builds upon strong of security and privacy. Security Informatics addresses both immediate problems of today, such as phishing

Camp, L. Jean

112

75 FR 22545 - Safety Zone; Private Fireworks, Wilson Creek, Gloucester, VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard...Safety Zone; Private Fireworks...Division, Sector Hampton...facilities or services for individuals...requirements, Security measures...Department of Homeland Security Delegation...Safety Zone; Private Fireworks...through the Sector Duty...

2010-04-29

113

33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2011-07-01

114

33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2010-07-01

115

33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2013-07-01

116

33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2012-07-01

117

33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2014-07-01

118

33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2014-07-01

119

33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2012-07-01

120

33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2013-07-01

121

33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other than State owned. 66.05-35... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2011-07-01

122

33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2010-07-01

123

Overlay leaves litho: impact of non-litho processes on overlay and compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the ITRS roadmap [1], the overlay requirement for the 28nm node is 8nm. If we compare this number with the performance given by tool vendors for their most advanced immersion systems (which is < 3nm), there seems to remain a large margin. Does that mean that today's leading edge Fab has an easy life? Unfortunately not, as other contributors affecting overlay are emerging. Mask contributions and so-called non-linear wafer distortions are known effects that can impact overlay quite significantly. Furthermore, it is often forgotten that downstream (post-litho) processes can impact the overlay as well. Thus, it can be required to compensate for the effects of subsequent processes already at the lithography operation. Within our paper, we will briefly touch on the wafer distortion topic and discuss the limitations of lithography compensation techniques such as higher order corrections versus solving the root cause of the distortions. The primary focus will be on the impact of the etch processes on the pattern placement error. We will show how individual layers can get affected differently by showing typical wafer signatures. However, in contrast to the above-mentioned wafer distortion topic, lithographic compensation techniques can be highly effective to reduce the placement error significantly towards acceptable levels (see Figure 1). Finally we will discuss the overall overlay budget for a 28nm contact to gate case by taking the impact of the individual process contributors into account.

Ruhm, Matthias; Schulz, Bernd; Cotte, Eric; Seltmann, Rolf; Hertzsch, Tino

2014-10-01

124

Overlay-Netze als Innovationsmotor im Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Das Internet ist heute eine globale Infrastruktur, deren ständige Verfügbarkeit mehr oder weniger als gegeben angenommen wird.\\u000a Die Einführung neuer Technologien (z.?B. Multicast, IPv6) in diese Infrastruktur erweist sich aus unterschiedlichen Gründen\\u000a als schwierig. Vielmehr haben sich Overlay-Netze in diesem Kontext als Innovationsmotor etabliert. Diese werden von Endgeräten\\u000a am Netzrand aufgespannt, benötigen somit keine neuen Komponenten in der Netzinfrastruktur und

Oliver P. Waldhorst; Roland Bless; Martina Zitterbart

2010-01-01

125

New foundations for efficient authentication, commutative cryptography, and private disjointness testing  

E-print Network

This dissertation presents new constructions and security definitions related to three areas: authentication, cascadable and commutative crytpography, and private set operations. Existing works relevant to each of these ...

Weis, Stephen August, 1978-

2006-01-01

126

33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED...

2012-07-01

127

33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED...

2011-07-01

128

33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED...

2013-07-01

129

33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED...

2010-07-01

130

33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED...

2014-07-01

131

CYCLON: Inexpensive Membership Management for Unstructured P2P Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unstructured overlays form an important class of peer-to-peer networks, notably when content-based searching is at stake. The construction of these overlays, which is es- sentially a membership management issue, is crucial. Ideally, the resulting overlays should have low diameter and be resilient to massive node failures, which are both characteristic properties of random graphs. In addition, they should be able

Spyros Voulgaris; Daniela Gavidia; Maarten Van Steen

2005-01-01

132

Molecular Dynamics study of Pb overlayer on Cu(100)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isothermal-isobaric Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation of a submonolayer Pb film in c(2x2) ordered structure adsorbed on a Cu(100) substrate showed retention of order to high T. The Embedded Atom Method (EAM) calculated the energy of atoms of overlayer and substrate. The time-averaged squared modulus of the two dimensional structure factor for the Pb overlayer measured the order of the overlayer. The results are for increasing T only, and require verification by simulated cooling.

Karimi, M.; Tibbits, P.; Ila, D.; Dalins, I.; Vidali, G.

1991-01-01

133

Highly corrosion resistant weld overlay for oil patch applications  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum equipment companies currently sell 4130 and 4140 steel pipe with alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay for Oil Patch applications. Alloy 686 (UNS N06686), because of it`s superior corrosion resistance, is currently being evaluated as a replacement material for alloy 625. Mechanical properties and Slow Strain Rate test results for the alloy 686 weld overlay are discussed relative to the alloy 625 weld overlay.

Hibner, E.L. [Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States); Maligas, M.N.; Vicic, J.C. [FMC Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

134

A work domain analysis for virtual private networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

For businesses, virtual private networking has become a new method of building corporate communication networks. In addition to providing improved flexibility, security and global reach, virtual private networks (VPNs) can offer substantial cost-savings by reducing the dependence on expensive, private leased-line networks and troublesome remote-access solutions. Unfortunately, the deployment and management of such systems may come at a high cost.

Johnson Kuo; Catherine M. Burns

2000-01-01

135

Private-Loan Reliance Worries Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At many colleges across the nation, as administrators fret about the effects of a worsening economy, students arriving this fall will get more help securing jobs and more advice on paying for their educations. Some students will even find colleges willing to cut their tuition bills. This article reports that as banks tighten standards for private

Basken, Paul

2008-01-01

136

Privatizing Public Forums to Eliminate Dissent  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the 2008 presidential campaign gets underway, the candidates may be tempted to suppress dissent at public forum rallies by using a tactic that Ronald Reagan pioneered and George W. Bush perfected. Under this tactic, the candidate's advance team “privatizes” a public square or public park by securing a municipal permit for the rally date that authorizes the expulsion of

Kevin F ONeill

2007-01-01

137

33 CFR 106.305 - Facility Security Assessment (FSA) requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (iv) Existing security measures and procedures...computer systems and networks; (vi) Existing agreements with private security companies; (vii...facility: (i) Physical security; (ii) Structural...computer systems and networks; and (vi)...

2010-07-01

138

76 FR 41278 - Cargo Security Risk Reduction; Public Listening Sessions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard...development of a CDC Security National Strategy...facilities or services for individuals...Guard held a Cargo Security Symposium in Reston...between public and private sector...

2011-07-13

139

Quantum Private Comparison Based on Phase Encoding of Single Photons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a scheme for quantum private comparison using phase encoding. The analysis indicates that the scheme is secure, and can prevent some familiar attacks. With the use of error-correcting code (ECC), it achieves a limited fault tolerant quantum private comparison. The scheme is easy to be realized in current experiments.

Li, Yan-Bing; Ma, Ying-Jie; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Yan-shuo

2014-09-01

140

Private Quantum Subsystems  

E-print Network

We investigate the most general notion of a private quantum code, which involves the encoding of qubits into quantum subsystems and subspaces. We contribute to the structure theory for private quantum codes by deriving testable conditions for private quantum subsystems in terms of Kraus operators for channels; establishing an analogue of the Knill-Laflamme conditions in this setting. For a large class of naturally arising quantum channels, we show that private subsystems can exist even in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also discover the first examples of private subsystems that are not complemented by operator quantum error correcting codes; implying that the complementarity of private codes and quantum error correcting codes fails for the general notion of private quantum subsystem.

Tomas Jochym-O'Connor; David W. Kribs; Raymond Laflamme; Sarah Plosker

2013-01-24

141

Private Drinking Water Wells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency, contains information from the on testing and protecting private water sources. The site can be helpful for persons having a private well or simply those interested in water science.

2008-10-06

142

Private randomness expansion with untrusted devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Randomness is an important resource for many applications, from gambling to secure communication. However, guaranteeing that the output from a candidate random source could not have been predicted by an outside party is a challenging task, and many supposedly random sources used today provide no such guarantee. Quantum solutions to this problem exist, for example a device which internally sends a photon through a beamsplitter and observes on which side it emerges, but, presently, such solutions require the user to trust the internal workings of the device. Here, we seek to go beyond this limitation by asking whether randomness can be generated using untrusted devices—even ones created by an adversarial agent—while providing a guarantee that no outside party (including the agent) can predict it. Since this is easily seen to be impossible unless the user has an initially private random string, the task we investigate here is private randomness expansion. We introduce a protocol for private randomness expansion with untrusted devices which is designed to take as input an initially private random string and produce as output a longer private random string. We point out that private randomness expansion protocols are generally vulnerable to attacks that can render the initial string partially insecure, even though that string is used only inside a secure laboratory; our protocol is designed to remove this previously unconsidered vulnerability by privacy amplification. We also discuss extensions of our protocol designed to generate an arbitrarily long random string from a finite initially private random string. The security of these protocols against the most general attacks is left as an open question.

Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

2011-03-01

143

Privatization and Public Enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers whether privatization is an appropriate response to the problems associated with large public enterprise sectors in industrial and developing countries. It is argued that privatization is likely to be the source of some gains in efficiency, as privatized enterprises are less susceptible to political interference, management incentives are improved, and government financial backing is withdrawn. However, more

Richard Hemming; Ali Mansoor

1987-01-01

144

Privatization in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Privatization calls for substantially trimming the scope and breadth of government services, replacing them with private or other nongovernmental operators. The attraction of privatization is reduced costs and increased management flexibility. To date, the arrangement has received substantial support from students and parents in situations that…

Rehfuss, John

1995-01-01

145

Privatization: an economic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of selling assests and enterprises to the private sector raises questions about natural monopolies, the efficiency and equity of state-owned versus privately owned enterprises, and industrial policy. This comprehensive analysis of the British privatization program explores these questions both theoretically and empirically.

John Vickers; George Yarrow

1988-01-01

146

Investigation of dielectric overlay microstrip circuits  

E-print Network

, h& ? 60 mils, s = 60 mils, and w = 160 mils. 26. Theoretical values of effective permittivity for c?& = 10. 5, e?z = 10. 5, hz = 25 mils, s = 10 mils, and w = 30 mils. 27. Field ratio for even- and odd-mode coupled microstrip lines. 28. Coupled... frequency. 32. Effective permittivity as a function of dielectric overlay thickness for e?r = c?z = 2 33, h = s = 60 mils, w = 160 mils. 33. Experimental values of isolation for compensated and uncompensated coupler. 34. Characteristic impedance...

Klein, James Louis

2012-06-07

147

Privatization of Social Security: Lessons from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chile, all covered workers must place 10% of monthly earnings in a savings account with a highly regulated intermediary that manages a single fund and provides survivors and disability insurance. Workers pay a commission charge, in addition to the mandatory 10%, to finance this insurance and to cover the costs and profits of the intermediaries. On becoming eligible to

Peter Diamond

1993-01-01

148

Privacy Amplification, Private States, and the Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

We show that three principle means of treating privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, private state distillation, classical privacy amplification, and via the uncertainty principle, are equivalent and interchangeable. By adapting the security proof based on the uncertainty principle, we construct a new protocol for private state distillation which we prove is identical to standard classical privacy amplification. Underlying this approach is a new characterization of private states, related to their standard formulation by the uncertainty principle, which gives a more physical understanding of security in quantum key distribution.

Joseph M. Renes; Jean-Christian Boileau

2007-02-19

149

A map overlay error model based on boundary geometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An error model for quantifying the magnitudes and variability of errors generated in the areas of polygons during spatial overlay of vector geographic information system layers is presented. Numerical simulation of polygon boundary displacements was used to propagate coordinate errors to spatial overlays. The model departs from most previous error models in that it incorporates spatial dependence of coordinate errors at the scale of the boundary segment. It can be readily adapted to match the scale of error-boundary interactions responsible for error generation on a given overlay. The area of error generated by overlay depends on the sinuosity of polygon boundaries, as well as the magnitude of the coordinate errors on the input layers. Asymmetry in boundary shape has relatively little effect on error generation. Overlay errors are affected by real differences in boundary positions on the input layers, as well as errors in the boundary positions. Real differences between input layers tend to compensate for much of the error generated by coordinate errors. Thus, the area of change measured on an overlay layer produced by the XOR overlay operation will be more accurate if the area of real change depicted on the overlay is large. The model presented here considers these interactions, making it especially useful for estimating errors studies of landscape change over time. ?? 2005 The Ohio State University.

Gaeuman, D.; Symanzik, J.; Schmidt, J.C.

2005-01-01

150

Optical fibre long period gratings with a photochromic overlayer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on the all-optical tuning of the attenuation bands of an optical fiber long period grating utilizing a photochromic outcladding overlayer. The outcladding overlayer consists of PMMA polymer doped with the photochromic molecule of spiropyran. The spectral transmission characteristics of the long period grating are reversibly altered using sequential exposures of 355 nm and 532 nm, Nd:YAG laser

Maria Konstantaki; Stavros Pissadakis

2010-01-01

151

Improving the Fault Resilience of Overlay Multicast for Media Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key technical challenge for overlay multicast is that the highly dynamic multicast members can make data delivery unreliable. In this paper, we address this issue in the context of live media streaming by exploring 1) how to construct a stable multicast tree that minimizes the negative impact of frequent member departures on an existing overlay and 2) how to

Guang Tan; Stephen A. Jarvis

2007-01-01

152

Virtual TCP Offload: Optimizing Ethernet Overlay Performance on Advanced Interconnects  

E-print Network

performance on high-speed Ethernet networks [6,17]. Providing the same Ethernet abstraction on high-end dataVirtual TCP Offload: Optimizing Ethernet Overlay Performance on Advanced Interconnects Zheng Cui@northwestern.edu ABSTRACT Ethernet overlay networks are a powerful tool for virtu- alizing networked applications

Dinda, Peter A.

153

Verme: Worm Containment in Overlay Networks Filipe Freitas1  

E-print Network

Verme: Worm Containment in Overlay Networks Filipe Freitas1 , Edgar Marques1 , Rodrigo Rodrigues2 Max Planck Institute for Software Systems (MPI-SWS) Abstract Topological worms, such as those random scanning worms be- cause they have knowledge of a subset of the overlay nodes, and choose

Ferreira, Paulo

154

Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks are widely used to deploy func- tionality at edge nodes without changing network routers. Each node in an overlay network maintains connections with a number of peers, forming a graph upon which a distributed application or service is implemented. In an \\

Atul Singh; Tsuen-wan Ngan; Peter Druschel; Dan S. Wallach

2006-01-01

155

Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh  

E-print Network

Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh½£ Miguel Castro¾ Peter Druschel, it can "eclipse" correct nodes and pre- vent correct overlay operation. This Eclipse attack is more general than the Sybil attack. Attackers can use a Sybil attack to launch an Eclipse attack by inventing

Hunt, Galen

156

Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh1  

E-print Network

Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh1 Miguel Castro2 Peter Druschel1, it can "eclipse" correct nodes and pre- vent correct overlay operation. This Eclipse attack is more general than the Sybil attack. Attackers can use a Sybil attack to launch an Eclipse attack by inventing

157

NEBLO: Anonymity in a Structured Overlay Giuseppe Ciaccio  

E-print Network

it impossible for a "small" coalition of malicious peers to correlate overlay addresses to hosts for censorship, censorship-resistant 1. Introduction and motivation Overlay networks have been receiving a lot of atten- tion to the physical Internet address of the destination host. It must be made difficult for an adversary to build

Ciaccio, Giuseppe

158

Topology-aware overlay networks for group communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an application level multicast approach, Topology Aware Grouping (TAG), which exploits underlying network topology information to build efficient overlay networks among multicast group members. TAG uses information about path overlap among members to construct a tree that reduces the overlay relative delay penalty, and reduces the number of duplicate copies of a packet on the same link. We

Minseok Kwon; Sonia Fahmy

2002-01-01

159

Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers W. Randolph Franklin  

E-print Network

Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers W. Randolph Franklin ECSE Dept, 6026 JEC://wrfranklin.org/ Keywords: overlay, roundoff error, rational numbers, topology, intersection We present a solution as rational numbers, or vulgar fractions composed of a numerator divided by a denominator. Because the result

Franklin, W. Randolph

160

Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays  

SciTech Connect

Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied. By depositing an alloy that offers better corrosion resistance than the underlying tube material, the wastage rates can be reduced. While Ni-based and stainless steel compositions are presently providing protection, they are expensive and susceptible to failure via corrosion-fatigue due to microsegregation upon solidification. Another material system presently under consideration for use as a coating in the oxidation/sulfidation environments is iron-aluminum. These alloys are relatively inexpensive, exhibit little microsegregation, and show excellent corrosion resistance. However, their use is limited due to weldability issues and their lack of corrosion characterization in simulated low NO(sub)x gas compositions. Therefore a program was initiated in 1996 to evaluate the use of iron-aluminum weld overlay coatings for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in fossil fired boilers with low NO(sub)x burners. Investigated properties included weldability, corrosion behavior, erosion resistance, and erosion-corrosion performance.

Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.B.; Levin, B.F.; Marder, A.R.

1999-08-02

161

Overlay metrology simulations: analytical and experimental validations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously reported on an overlay metrology simulation platform, used for modeling both the effects of overlay metrology tool behavior and the impact of target design on the ultimate metrology performance. Since our last report, the simulation platform has been further enhanced, consisting now of eleven PCs and running commercial software both for lithography (PROLITH) and rigorous Maxwell calculations (EM-Suite). In this paper we report on the validation of the metrology simulations by comparing them to both analytical calculations and to experimental results. The analytical validation is based on the classical calculation of the diffraction of a polarized plane wave from a perfectly conducting half plane. For the experimental validation, we chose an etched silicon wafer manufactured by International SEMATECH (ISMT) and characterized at National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST). The advantages of this wafer are its well known topography and its suite of different metrology targets. A good fit to both analytical and experimental results is demonstrated, attesting to the capabilities of our enhanced simulation platform. The results for both the analytical and experimental validations are presented.

Seligson, Joel L.; Golovanevsky, Boris; Poplawski, Jorge M.; Adel, Michael E.; Silver, Richard M.

2003-05-01

162

Effect of confining overlay in micro scale laser bulge forming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro scale laser bulge forming (?LBF) shows great potential in fabricating high precision and high-aspect-ratio metallic micro components. The present paper investigated the effect of the confining overlay in ?LBF experimentally. The surface morphology of micro bulged parts of pure copper foils with and without confining overlay was explored through the scanning electron microscope. The surface features of quartz glasses with different thickness shocked by single and multiple laser pulses were observed using the optical microscope. The effect of thickness of the confining overlay on the maximum bulging height of micro parts was investigated. Experiments reveal that the application of the confining overlay in ?LBF has significant influence on both the surface morphology and plastic deformation of micro bulged parts. The change of laser ablation mode is responsible for forming results. In addition, there is a moderate thickness of the confining overlay to induce noticeable plastic deformation without failure.

Zheng, Chao; Sun, Sheng; Zhang, Guofang; Song, Libin; Ji, Zhong

2013-11-01

163

33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2013-07-01

164

33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation §...

2010-07-01

165

A constitutive model for an overlay coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coatings are frequently applied to gas turbine blades and vanes to provide protection against oxidation and corrosion. The results of an experimental and analytical study to develop a constitutive model for an overlay coating is presented. Specimens were machined from a hot isostatically pressed billet of PWA 286. The tests consisted of isothermal stress relaxation cycles with monotonically increasing maximum strain and were conducted at various temperatures. The results were used to calculate the constants for various constitutive models, including the classical, the Walker isotropic, a simplified Walker, and Stowell models. A computerized regression analysis was used to calculate model constants from the data. The best fit was obtained for the Walker model, with the simplified Walker and classical models close behind.

Nissley, D. M.; Swanson, G. A.

1988-01-01

166

166 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, VOL. 17, NO. 2, MAY 2004 Optimized Overlay Metrology Marks  

E-print Network

Metrology Marks: Theory and Experiment Mike Adel, Mark Ghinovker, Boris Golovanevsky, Pavel Izikson, Elyakim--In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of overlay metrology mark and find the mapping between various, Fisher information matrix, grating marks, overlay mark, overlay mark fidelity, overlay metrology. I

Bruckstein, Alfred M.

167

When security meets software engineering: A case of modelling secure information systems  

E-print Network

When security meets software engineering: A case of modelling secure information systems Engineering: towards the Modeling of Secure Information Systems" paper presented at the 15th International. This is mainly because private information is stored in computer systems and without security, organisations (and

168

PRIVATE SCHOLARSHIP INFORMATION  

E-print Network

PRIVATE SCHOLARSHIP INFORMATION Truman State University Financial Aid Office 100 E. Normal, MC 103 Kirksville, MO 63501 6607854130 Please complete this form if you will receive any private scholarships for the upcoming year. DO NOT list any Truman State University academic scholarships, including Truman Foundation

Gering, Jon C.

169

The Limits of Privatization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transferring public services and public assets to private ownership is not an entirely new idea. Governments at all levels in the United States have for years contracted out many services. However, under the recently coined label "privatization," such policies now come recommended as a more comprehensive approach to the problems of modern…

Starr, Paul

170

Dialogue on private events  

PubMed Central

In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

2004-01-01

171

6. FIRST FLOOR, ROOM 1, BASEBOARD AND PLASTER OVERLAYING SANDSTONE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. FIRST FLOOR, ROOM 1, BASEBOARD AND PLASTER OVERLAYING SANDSTONE WALLS, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Taylor Run-Yorty Run Schoolhouse, Legislative Routes 62175 (PA Highway 481) & 62161, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

172

Overlay metrology: the systematic, the random and the ugly  

SciTech Connect

Typical advanced lithographic processes require an overlay tolerance that is approximately 30% of the minimum feature size. To achieve this metrology must be limited to an error budget of 3-5% of the minimum feature size. A discussion of the general use of overlay data for assessment of stepper performance is followed by an overview of key overlay metrology equipment performance parameters (Tool Induced Shift-TIS) and the interaction with the process (Wafer Induced Shift-WIS). The interactions between the target, the process and the equipment will also be reviewed. Finally, use of this information in a case study of overlay target design for Tungsten Chemical Mechanical Planarization (W CMP) will be presented. Relevant process data will demonstrate how such targets can be used to effectively monitor both stepper (systematic error) and metrology tool (random error) performance.

Sullivan, Neal; Shin, Jennifer [Advanced Process Tool Development Group, Digital Semiconductor, Hudson, Massachusetts 01749 (United States)

1998-11-24

173

Mixing materials within zone boundaries using shape overlays  

SciTech Connect

Shape overlays provide a means of statically imposing a physical region containing specified material properties onto a zoned mesh. In the most general case, material interface boundaries are unrelated to mesh zone boundaries, causing zones to contain a mixture of materials, and the mesh itself is not uniform in physical space. We develop and apply an algorithm for shape overlays on nonorthogonal, nonuniform meshes in two dimensions. Examples of shape generation in a multiblock uid dynamics code are shown.

Grandy, J.

1997-04-22

174

Tolerable Strains for HMA Overlays over Concrete Pavements  

E-print Network

Tolerable Strains for HMA Overlays over Concrete Pavements By Ashwani Gautam Submitted to the graduate degree program in Civil Engineering and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas School of Engineering in partial fulfillment.../23/09 ii The Thesis Committee for Ashwani Gautam certifies That this is the approved version of the following thesis: Tolerable Strains for HMA Overlays over Concrete Pavements Committee: _______________________ Dr. Jie Han, Chairperson...

Gautam, Ashwani

2009-06-10

175

Rehabilitation of continuously reinforced concrete pavements using overlays  

E-print Network

REHABILITATION OF CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS USING OVERLAYS A Thesis by SOUMYA SRIRAMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1993 Major Subject: Civil Engineering REHABILITATION OF CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS USING OVERLAYS A Thesis by SOUMYA SRIRAMAN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Sriraman, Soumya

1993-01-01

176

Augmenting reality in Direct View Optical (DVO) overlay applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of overlay displays into rifle scopes can transform precision Direct View Optical (DVO) sights into intelligent interactive fire-control systems. Overlay displays can provide ballistic solutions within the sight for dramatically improved targeting, can fuse sensor video to extend targeting into nighttime or dirty battlefield conditions, and can overlay complex situational awareness information over the real-world scene. High brightness overlay solutions for dismounted soldier applications have previously been hindered by excessive power consumption, weight and bulk making them unsuitable for man-portable, battery powered applications. This paper describes the advancements and capabilities of a high brightness, ultra-low power text and graphics overlay display module developed specifically for integration into DVO weapon sight applications. Central to the overlay display module was the development of a new general purpose low power graphics controller and dual-path display driver electronics. The graphics controller interface is a simple 2-wire RS-232 serial interface compatible with existing weapon systems such as the IBEAM ballistic computer and the RULR and STORM laser rangefinders (LRF). The module features include multiple graphics layers, user configurable fonts and icons, and parameterized vector rendering, making it suitable for general purpose DVO overlay applications. The module is configured for graphics-only operation for daytime use and overlays graphics with video for nighttime applications. The miniature footprint and ultra-low power consumption of the module enables a new generation of intelligent DVO systems and has been implemented for resolutions from VGA to SXGA, in monochrome and color, and in graphics applications with and without sensor video.

Hogan, Tim; Edwards, Tim

2014-06-01

177

Bayesian networks in overlay recipe optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, overlay measurements are characterized by "recipe", which defines both physical parameters such as focus, illumination et cetera, and also the software parameters such as algorithm to be used and regions of interest. Setting up these recipes requires both engineering time and wafer availability on an overlay tool, so reducing these requirements will result in higher tool productivity. One of the significant challenges to automating this process is that the parameters are highly and complexly correlated. At the same time, a high level of traceability and transparency is required in the recipe creation process, so a technique that maintains its decisions in terms of well defined physical parameters is desirable. Running time should be short, given the system (automatic recipe creation) is being implemented to reduce overheads. Finally, a failure of the system to determine acceptable parameters should be obvious, so a certainty metric is also desirable. The complex, nonlinear interactions make solution by an expert system difficult at best, especially in the verification of the resulting decision network. The transparency requirements tend to preclude classical neural networks and similar techniques. Genetic algorithms and other "global minimization" techniques require too much computational power (given system footprint and cost requirements). A Bayesian network, however, provides a solution to these requirements. Such a network, with appropriate priors, can be used during recipe creation / optimization not just to select a good set of parameters, but also to guide the direction of search, by evaluating the network state while only incomplete information is available. As a Bayesian network maintains an estimate of the probability distribution of nodal values, a maximum-entropy approach can be utilized to obtain a working recipe in a minimum or near-minimum number of steps. In this paper we discuss the potential use of a Bayesian network in such a capacity, reducing the amount of engineering intervention. We discuss the benefits of this approach, especially improved repeatability and traceability of the learning process, and quantification of uncertainty in decisions made. We also consider the problems associated with this approach, especially in detailed construction of network topology, validation of the Bayesian network and the recipes it generates, and issues arising from the integration of a Bayesian network with a complex multithreaded application; these primarily relate to maintaining Bayesian network and system architecture integrity.

Binns, Lewis A.; Reynolds, Greg; Rigden, Timothy C.; Watkins, Stephen; Soroka, Andrew

2005-05-01

178

Residual stresses in weld overlay tubes: A finite element study  

SciTech Connect

Residual stresses and strains in a tube with circumferential weld overlay were analyzed by the finite element (FE) method. The objective of this work was to develop and verify a FE model, to determine the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in the weld overlay tube, and to evaluate the significance of two contributing factors to residual stress: (1) difference in material properties between tube and weld material, and (2) thermal gradients in the weld. An axisymmetric FE model was developed to simulate the circumferential two-layer welding process of alloy 625 overlay on SA210 tube. The first layer was modeled as a gas metal arc welding process with filler metal, whereas the autogenous gas tungsten arc welding process was modeled for the second layer. Neutron diffraction technique was used to experimentally determine residual elastic strains in the weld overlay tube. Comparison with the FE results shows overall good agreement. Both the experimental and FE results show high compressive stresses at the inside tube surface and high tensile stresses in the weld overlay. This suggests that weld overlay may be used to relieve tensile or produce compressive stresses at the inside tube surface, which is significant for applications where crack initiation is found at the root pass of the joining weld.

Taljat, B.; Zacharia, T.; Wang, X.L.; Keiser, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Feng, Z. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Jirinec, M.J. [Welding Services, Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

1997-01-03

179

The Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes the Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator (IONAC) an electronic apparatus, now under development, for relaying data at high rates in spacecraft and interplanetary radio-communication systems utilizing a delay-tolerant networking protocol. The protocol includes provisions for transmission and reception of data in bundles (essentially, messages), transfer of custody of a bundle to a recipient relay station at each step of a relay, and return receipts. Because of limitations on energy resources available for such relays, data rates attainable in a conventional software implementation of the protocol are lower than those needed, at any given reasonable energy-consumption rate. Therefore, a main goal in developing the IONAC is to reduce the energy consumption by an order of magnitude and the data-throughput capability by two orders of magnitude. The IONAC prototype is a field-programmable gate array that serves as a reconfigurable hybrid (hardware/ firmware) system for implementation of the protocol. The prototype can decode 108,000 bundles per second and encode 100,000 bundles per second. It includes a bundle-cache static randomaccess memory that enables maintenance of a throughput of 2.7Gb/s, and an Ethernet convergence layer that supports a duplex throughput of 1Gb/s.

Pang, Jackson; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Clare, Loren P.

2008-01-01

180

Overlay Text Retrieval From Video Scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.

Manohar, K.; Irfan, S.; Sravani, K.

2013-03-01

181

Electronic information security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Defense (DoD), civilian agencies, and private corporations, which process vast amounts of information, share the same problems but perceive and emphasize them differently. DoD wants the exclusive right to develop technology and establish guidelines; the primary need is for products that focus on the secure disclosure of information. Civilian agencies do not care about who administers

E. A. Gifford

1988-01-01

182

Securing Untrustworthy Software Using  

E-print Network

#12;Information Flow Control Private User Files Virus Scanner /tmp Update Process Virus DatabaseSecuring Untrustworthy Software Using Information Flow Control Nickolai Zeldovich Joint work with-00-0000, no password CardSystems loses 40,000,000 CC numbers Secret service mail stolen from T-mobile 10,000 users

183

Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

Burleigh, Scott C.

2011-01-01

184

The structure of privatization plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years a vast transfer of state-owned assets to the private sector has taken place in many countries, irrespective of their level of development or the political affiliation of their government. Privatization is believed to improve economic incentives; attract managerial and technological resources from the private sector; broaden share ownership; and reduce public sector borrowing. In fact, privatization can

E. C. Perotti; S. E. Guney

1992-01-01

185

Overlay control using scatterometry based metrology (SCOMTM) in production environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The newly emerging lithographic technologies related to the 32nm node and below will require a step function in the overlay metrology performance, due to the dramatic shrinking of the error budgets. In this work, we present results of an emerging alternative technology for overlay metrology - Differential signal scatterometry overlay (SCO TM). The technique is based on spectroscopic analysis of polarized light, reflected from a "grating-on-grating" target. Based on theoretical analysis and initial data, this technology, as well as broad band bright field overlay, is a candidate technology that will allow achieving the requirements of the 32nm node and beyond it. We investigate the capability of SCOL TM to control overlay in a production environment, on complex stacks and process, in the context of advanced DRAM and Flash technologies. We evaluate several metrology mark designs and the effect on the metrology performance, in view of the tight TMU requirements of the 32nm node. The results - achieved on the KLA-Tencor's Archer tool, equipped with both broad band bright field AIM TM and scatterometry SCOL TM sensors - indicate the capability of the SCOL TM technology to satisfy the advanced nodes requirements.

Dinu, Berta; Fuchs, Stefan; Kramer, Uwe; Kubis, Michael; Marchelli, Anat; Navarra, Alessandra; Sparka, Christian; Widmann, Amir

2008-03-01

186

Peruvian projects, privatization proceeding  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program.

Not Available

1992-10-19

187

WEB SERVICES MANAGEMENT NETWORK An Overlay Network for Federated Service Management  

E-print Network

services, operational management becomes exceedingly important and challenging (and thus interestingWEB SERVICES MANAGEMENT NETWORK An Overlay Network for Federated Service Management Vijay Machiraju, and protocols of a management overlay for federated service management, called Web Services Management Network

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

188

Simplified Solution for Periodic Thermal Discontinuities in Asphalt Overlays Bonded to Rigid Pavements  

E-print Network

Simplified Solution for Periodic Thermal Discontinuities in Asphalt Overlays Bonded to Rigid discontinuities distributed in a hot mix asphalt overlay bonded to a rigid pavement, where the length Database subject headings: Thermal stresses; Fracture mechanics; Asphalt pavements; Rigid pavements

Paulino, Glaucio H.

189

High-frequency nonreciprocal reflection from magnetic films with overlayers  

SciTech Connect

We perform a theoretical study of the nonreciprocal reflection of high-frequency microwave radiation from ferromagnetic films with thin overlayers. Reflection from metallic ferromagnetic films is always near unity and shows no nonreciprocity. In contrast, reflection from a structure which has a dielectric overlayer on top of a film composed of insulated ferromagnetic nanoparticles or nanostructures can show significant nonreciprocity in the 75–80?GHz frequency range, a very high value. This can be important for devices such as isolators or circulators.

Wang, Ying; Nie, Yan; Camley, R. E. [Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States)

2013-11-14

190

Performance Evaluation and Comparison of Tree and Ring Application-Layer Multicast Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application-layer multicast (ALM) protocols differ in, among other aspects, the topology of the underlying overlay network (e.g., tree, mesh or ring). Therefore, comparing the performance of ALM overlay networks is an important step to- wards assessing the inherent advantages and\\/or limitations of each overlay network topology. In particular, ring-based ALM overlay networks have the advantages of (a) providing a con-

Ahmed Sobeih; Jun Wang; William Yurcik

191

Test of a new sub-90-nm DR overlay mark for DRAM production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved overlay mark design was applied in high end semiconductor manufacturing to increase the total overlay measurement accuracy with respect to the standard box-in-box target. A comprehensive study has been conducted on the basis of selected front-end and back-end DRAM layers (short loop) to characterize contributors to overlay error. This analysis is necessary to keep within shrinking overlay budget requirements.

Gruss, Stefan; Teipel, Ansgar; Fuelber, Carsten; Kassel, Elyakim; Adel, Mike; Ghinovker, Mark; Izikson, Pavel

2004-05-01

192

26 CFR 1.141-3 - Definition of private business use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vending machines, advertising displays, and use for television cameras, but incidental uses may not include output purchases. ...into account under section 141(b)(2)(A) (the private security test); and (iv) No more than 15 percent of the...

2012-04-01

193

13 CFR 107.1560 - Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA. 107...Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1560 Distributions by Licensee—required Distributions...

2014-01-01

194

13 CFR 107.1560 - Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA. 107...Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1560 Distributions by Licensee—required Distributions...

2013-01-01

195

13 CFR 107.1560 - Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA. 107...Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1560 Distributions by Licensee—required Distributions...

2011-01-01

196

13 CFR 107.1560 - Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA. 107...Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1560 Distributions by Licensee—required Distributions...

2010-01-01

197

13 CFR 107.1560 - Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA. 107...Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1560 Distributions by Licensee—required Distributions...

2012-01-01

198

13 CFR 107.1570 - Distributions by Licensee-optional Distribution to private investors and SBA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Distributions by Licensee-optional Distribution to private investors and SBA. 107.1570...Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1570 Distributions by Licensee—optional Distribution to...

2012-01-01

199

Privatized Communities and the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay, I will reflect on how common interest developments, and their privatized spaces, are contributing to a broader phenomenon of civic secession, primarily by affluent property owners. In particular, I will analyze the way in which CIDs may affect electoral politics and the allocation of public resources by federal and state government. The chief threat of CIDs is

Sheryll Cashin

2001-01-01

200

Going-Private \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article is a response to Bradley R. Aronstam, R. Franklin Balotti & Timo Rehbock, Delaware's Going-Private Dilemma: Fostering Protections for Minority Shareholder in the Wake of Siliconix and Unocal Exploration, 58 Bus. LAW. 519 (Feb. 2003), the lead article in the February 2003 edition of The Business Lawyer, in which the authors contend that Delaware law does not adequately

Jon E. Abramczyk; Jason A. Cincilla; James D. Honaker

2003-01-01

201

Privatization and Educational Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out…

Lieberman, Myron

202

Private Information Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe schemes that enable a user to access repli- cated copies of a database ( ) and privately retrieve information stored in the database. This means that each individual database gets no information on the identity of the item retrieved by the user. For a single database, achieving this type of privacy requires com- municating the whole database, or

Benny Chorf; Oded Goldreichf; Eyal Kushilevitz; Madhu Sudan

1995-01-01

203

Public Roles, Private Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of a presidential spouse is very complex. Indeed, expectations vary among college governing boards and campus constituencies of what a presidential spouse's responsibilities should be. In this article, the author discusses the role of presidential spouses and how they balance their public roles with their private life.

Lum, Lydia

2008-01-01

204

Private Ground Water Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... water is consumed, it could cause illness. Ground water pollution can be caused by seepage through landfills, failed septic tanks, underground fuel tanks, fertilizers and pesticides, and runoff from ... that private ground water wells are checked regularly to ensure that the ...

205

An integrated life cycle assessment and life cycle analysis model for pavement overlay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pavement systems have significant impacts on the environment and economy due to large material consumption, energy input, and capital investment. To evaluate the sustainability of rigid pavement overlay designs, an integrated life cycle assessment and life cycle cost analysis model was developed to calculate the environmental impacts and costs of overlay systems resulting from material production and distribution, overlay construction

H. Zhang; G. A. Keoleian; M. D. Lepech

206

RESEARCH REPORT 987-9 ASPHALT OVERLAY DESIGN METHODS FOR RIGID  

E-print Network

RESEARCH REPORT 987-9 ASPHALT OVERLAY DESIGN METHODS FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS CONSIDERING RUTTING's Catalog No. 5. Report Date October 1998 4. Title and Subtitle ASPHALT OVERLAY DESIGN METHODS FOR RIGID of this study were (1) to provide basic performance evaluation of asphalt overlays on rigid pavements and (2

Texas at Austin, University of

207

Overlay excursion management through sample plan optimization and cycle time reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

As fabs transition from 200 to 300mm wafers with shrinking design rules, the risk and cost associated with overlay excursions become more severe. This significantly impacts the overall litho-cell efficiency. Effective detection, identification, and reduction of overlay excursions are essential for realizing the productivity and cost benefits of the technology shifts. We have developed a comprehensive overlay excursion management method

Xuemei Chen; Ming-Yeon Hung; Kelly Kuo; Steven Fu; Geoge Shanthikumar; Zhoujie Mao; Shiming Deng; Viral Hazari; Kevin M. Monahan; Mike D. Slessor; Amir Lev

2003-01-01

208

The privatization age? : which services are privatized and why  

E-print Network

This dissertation examines the determinants of the extent of privatization of service delivery. Despite the fact that right-wing governments extolling neo-liberal policies have placed privatization at the top of the policy ...

Zehavi, Amos J., 1968-

2005-01-01

209

Gallium Arsenide Surfaces with Thin Silicon Overlayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the surface properties of GaAs with thin (6 to 100 A) epitaxial Si layers grown by MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy). The results indicate that the GaAs surface potential, which is commonly pinned at around the center of the energy gap, can be varied over a wide range of positions in the GaAs gap. Schottky barrier structures grown in-situ in the MBE with Al as a contact metal and thin Si layers grown between Al and GaAs were shown to have near-ideal thermionic emission characteristics and effective barrier heights in the range 0.3 overlayers and a SiO_2 insulator deposited by PECVD (Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition) were also fabricated and shown to have improved modulation of the surface potential in GaAs, although further improvements are needed in these latter devices in both the SiO_2 insulator deposition and characterization of the surface state density. Calculations involving realistic distribution of interface states in GaAs are presented to serve as a measure of the amount of improvement needed to achieve good quality MOS structures.

Costa, Julio Carlos

210

26 CFR 514.6 - Private pensions and life annuities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...United States tax—Form to use. To secure...of private pensions and life annuities, the nonresident...resident of France shall file Form 1001A-F, in duplicate...period, and disposal of Form 1001A-F are equally...received, and the term “life annuities” means a...

2010-04-01

211

ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES  

E-print Network

ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES LEVAN ELBAKIDZE Assistant of Homeland Security National Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Disease Defense. The conclusions are those of the author and not necessarily the sponsor." #12;ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY

McCarl, Bruce A.

212

Private Yet Abuse Resistant Open Publishing (Position Paper)  

E-print Network

Private Yet Abuse Resistant Open Publishing (Position Paper) George Danezis K.U. Leuven, ESAT@links.org Abstract We present the problem of abusive, off-topic or repetitive postings on open publishing websites and Retrieval]: On- line Information Services General Terms Security Keywords Open publishing, abuse resistance

Danezis, George

213

31 CFR 1023.620 - Due diligence programs for private banking accounts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. 1023.620 Section 1023.620 Money and Finance...Securities § 1023.620 Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. (a) Refer to § 1010.620 of this...

2012-07-01

214

31 CFR 1023.620 - Due diligence programs for private banking accounts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. 1023.620 Section 1023.620 Money and Finance...Securities § 1023.620 Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. (a) Refer to § 1010.620 of this...

2011-07-01

215

31 CFR 1023.620 - Due diligence programs for private banking accounts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. 1023.620 Section 1023.620 Money and Finance...Securities § 1023.620 Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. (a) Refer to § 1010.620 of this...

2013-07-01

216

31 CFR 1023.620 - Due diligence programs for private banking accounts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. 1023.620 Section 1023.620 Money and Finance...Securities § 1023.620 Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. (a) Refer to § 1010.620 of this...

2014-07-01

217

Improving Quality and Access in Private Sector Primary Health Care—The Role of Business Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper discusses the economic,rationale for alternative business models in private sector health care delivery. “Social franchising” and other business models of health care delivery secure cooperation between providers, and coordinating agencies in order to improve quality, access, and efficiency of primary health care (PHC) in the private sector. The paper develops a simple economic,theory of health care production

David Bishai

218

Constraints on short-selling and asset price adjustment to private information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper models effects of short-sale constraints on the speed of adjustment (to private information) of security prices. Constraints eliminate some informative trades, but do not bias prices upward. Prohibiting traders from shorting reduces the adjustment speed of prices to private information, especially to bad news. Non-prohibitive costs can have the reverse effect, but this is unlikely. Implications are developed

Douglas W. Diamond; Robert E. Verrecchia

1987-01-01

219

Security issues with the IP multimedia subsystem (IMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is the basis for a signif- icant new architecture for mobile applications incorporating voice, video and data services. The IMS is an overlay net- work on top of IP that uses SIP as the primary signaling mechanism. The IMS presents several new security chal- lenges for both network providers and network users. This paper provides

Michael T. Hunter; Russell J. Clark; Frank S. Park

2007-01-01

220

Promoting Learning of Instructional Design via Overlay Design Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I begin by introducing Virtual Design Apprenticeship (VDA), a learning model--built on a solid foundation of education principles and theories--that promotes learning of design skills via overlay design tools. In VDA, when an individual needs to learn a new design skill or paradigm she is provided accessible, concrete examples that have been…

Carle, Andrew Jacob

2012-01-01

221

Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)

McKillip, John L.

2001-01-01

222

Efficient Overlay Multicast Strategy for Wireless Mesh Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicast support is critical and a desirable feature of wireless mesh networks (WMNs). In this paper, we propose an approach to joint optimizing rate allocation of flows and power consumption of links for forwarding data flows for overlay multicast in WMNs. We develop a distributed algorithm based on pricing scheme by using dual decomposition technique. The \\

Cuitao Zhu; Di Wu; Wenqing Cheng; Zongkai Yang

2008-01-01

223

Needle Insertion in CT Scanner with Image Overlay Cadaver Studies  

E-print Network

, such as head-mounted displays [1,2], video projections [3], and volumetric image overlay [4] have been human trials. 2. SystemDesign A flat LCD display and a semi- transparent mirror are mounted placement in conventional CT scanners. The device consisting of a flat LCD display and a half mirror

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

224

T-Man: Gossip-based Overlay Topology Mark Jelasity  

E-print Network

T-Man: Gossip-based Overlay Topology Management M´ark Jelasity and Ozalp Babaoglu University of nodes can also be interpreted as a topology. In this paper we propose a generic protocol, T-Man, intuitive and flexible manner. At the same time, the T-Man protocol involves only local communication

Jelasity, Márk

225

Etherlay: An Overlay Enhancement for Metro Ethernet Networks  

E-print Network

Etherlay: An Overlay Enhancement for Metro Ethernet Networks Minh Huynh and Prasant Mohapatra}@ucdavis.edu Abstract-- The ubiquitous Ethernet technology has propelled itself into a wide-scale adoption for Metro Ethernet Networks (MEN). Despite recent advancements in Ethernet and commercialization of the first

California at Davis, University of

226

PAVEMENT OVERLAY THICKNESS EVALUATION USING GROUND PENTRATING RADAR (GPR)  

E-print Network

PAVEMENT OVERLAY THICKNESS EVALUATION USING GROUND PENTRATING RADAR (GPR) Dwayne Harris, M.Sc., PG University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 jshan@ecn.purdue.edu ABSTRACT Accurate knowledge of pavement thickness is important information to have both at a network and project level. This information aids in pavement

Shan, Jie

227

Refined Overlay Power Management in the Home Environment  

E-print Network

power consumption makes up a large part of global energy consumption. These home appliances are not only efficient power management. Index Terms--Home network, Energy saving, Green network- ing, Overlay control communication [1]. Energy saving is recognized as a key issue in global warming and climate change. According

Boyer, Edmond

228

Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses  

E-print Network

Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses Atul Singh, Tsuen-Wan "Johnny" Ngan of peers, forming a graph upon which a distributed application or service is implemented. In an "Eclipse of malicious nodes can eclipse a large number of correct victim nodes. This paper studies the impact of Eclipse

Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

229

Investigations of Magnetic Overlayers at the Advanced Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic overlayers of Fe and Co have been investigated with X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism in X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XMCD-ABS) and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES), including Spin-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SRPES), at Beamline 4 at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the interrogation of the 2p levels of the Fe.

Tobin, J G; Yu, S; Butterfield, M T

2009-06-26

230

Crosslayer Survivability in Overlay-IP-WDM Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the Internet moves towards a three-layer architecture consisting of overlay networks on top of the IP network layer on top of WDM-based physical networks, incorporating the interaction between and among network layers is crucial for efficient and effective implementation of survivability. This dissertation has four major foci as follows:…

Pacharintanakul, Peera

2010-01-01

231

Recipient Anonymity in a Structured Overlay Giuseppe Ciaccio  

E-print Network

to request messages. Such a feature is of main concerns when designing censorship-resistant distributed of malicious peers to correlate overlay addresses to hosts for censorship or auditing purposes. 1. Introduction and message routing on top of the Internet addressing and packet routing scheme. Each host participating

Ciaccio, Giuseppe

232

Research on overlaying welding rod of high hardness maraging steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new maraging steel overlaying welding rod, which contains Co, Mo, W and V alloy, solved the problems of\\u000a poor homogeneity of hardness and mechanical process, prolonged the service life of wear-resistant components and increased\\u000a the productive efficiency of repairing, greatly benefiting the national economy.

Yong-ming Pan; Shao-wei Chen

2006-01-01

233

Chapter 1433 HILLSIDE OVERLAY DISTRICTS 1433-01. Specific Purposes.  

E-print Network

Chapter 1433 HILLSIDE OVERLAY DISTRICTS § 1433-01. Specific Purposes. § 1433-03. Definitions regulations may precipitate landslides or excessive soil erosion. The additional regulations embodied-03. Definitions. For purposes of this chapter, words and phrases defined below have the meanings ascribed to them

234

Improved overlay control through automated high order compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Moore's Law drives CD smaller and smaller, overlay budget is shrinking rapidly. Furthermore, the cost of advanced lithography tools prohibits usage of latest and greatest scanners on non-critical layers, resulting in different layers being exposed with different tools; a practice commonly known as 'mix and match.' Since each tool has its unique signature, mix and match becomes the source of high order overlay errors. Scanner alignment performance can be degraded by a factor of 2 in mix and match, compared to single tool overlay operation. In a production environment where scanners from different vendors are mixed, errors will be even more significant. Mix and match may also be applied to a single scanner when multiple illumination modes are used to expose critical levels. This is because different illuminations will have different impact to scanner aberration fingerprint. The semiconductor technology roadmap has reached a point where such errors are no longer negligible. Mix and match overlay errors consist of scanner stage grid component, scanner field distortion component, and process induced wafer distortion. Scanner components are somewhat systematic, so they can be characterized on non product wafers using a dedicated reticle. Since these components are known to drift over time it becomes necessary to monitor them periodically, per scanner, per illumination. In this paper, we outline a methodology for automating characterization of mix and match errors, and a control system for real-time correction.

Wakamoto, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yasukawa, K.; Sukegawa, A.; Maejima, S.; Kato, A.; Robinson, J. C.; Eichelberger, B. J.; Izikson, P.; Adel, M.

2007-03-01

235

APPLICATION OF NELSON'S SORPTION ISOTHERM TO WOOD COMPOSITES AND OVERLAYS'  

E-print Network

APPLICATION OF NELSON'S SORPTION ISOTHERM TO WOOD COMPOSITES AND OVERLAYS' Qinglin Wu Assistant. It was found that Nelson's model can be used to describe the experimental data from different composite composite materials (Suchsland 1972). These relationships, known as sorption isotherms, greatly affect

236

Private information via the Unruh effect  

E-print Network

In a relativistic theory of quantum information, the possible presence of horizons is a complicating feature placing restrictions on the transmission and retrieval of information. We consider two inertial participants communicating via a noiseless qubit channel in the presence of a uniformly accelerated eavesdropper. Owing to the Unruh effect, the eavesdropper's view of any encoded information is noisy, a feature the two inertial participants can exploit to achieve perfectly secure quantum communication. We show that the associated private quantum capacity is equal to the entanglement-assisted quantum capacity for the channel to the eavesdropper's environment, which we evaluate for all accelerations.

Kamil Bradler; Patrick Hayden; Prakash Panangaden

2008-07-28

237

Analysis of privatization: Different approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented paper strives to elaborate privatization as one of national economy development tools. Performance of privatized enterprises has been taken into consideration. The authors examine different opinions about privatization process and its efficiency taking a close look at the researches that have been already made. Analysis has been targeted to implications’ diversity due to foresee those in transition countries. Governance

Manuela Tvaronavi?iene; Kristina Kalašinskaite

2005-01-01

238

Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same…

Nevin, John A.

2008-01-01

239

Quantum Private Queries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a cheat sensitive quantum protocol to perform a private search on a classical database which is efficient in terms of communication complexity. It allows a user to retrieve an item from the database provider without revealing which item he or she retrieved: if the provider tries to obtain information on the query, the person querying the database can find it out. The protocol ensures also perfect data privacy of the database: the information that the user can retrieve in a single query is bounded and does not depend on the size of the database. With respect to the known (quantum and classical) strategies for private information retrieval, our protocol displays an exponential reduction in communication complexity and in running-time computational complexity.

Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo

2008-06-01

240

Security sonar for water intakes  

SciTech Connect

The security of the water approaches to nuclear facilities has been largely neglected because of the lack of solutions to the intrusion problem. This paper reviews underwater scanning sonar in general, highlights a number of problems encountered in a threat detection system using sonar and suggests some procedures that can help make such a system workable. Information is drawn from recent experience with several security projects in the governmental and private sectors, one of which was a nuclear facility.

Rothenbuhler, D.E.

1987-07-01

241

Private sector involvement in civil space remote sensing. Volume 1: Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of private sector developers, users, and interpreters of Earth resources data was conducted in an effort to encourage private investment and participation in remote sensing systems. Results indicate positive interest in participation beyond the current hardware contracting level, however, there is a substantial gap between current market levels and system costs. Issues identified include the selection process for an operating entity, the public/private interface, data collection and access policies, price and profit regulation in a subsidized system, international participation, and the responsibility for research and development. It was agreed that the cost, complexity, and security implications of integrated systems need not be an absolute bar to their private operation.

1979-01-01

242

Practical private database queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol  

SciTech Connect

Private queries allow a user, Alice, to learn an element of a database held by a provider, Bob, without revealing which element she is interested in, while limiting her information about the other elements. We propose to implement private queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol, with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. This approach makes our scheme both easy to implement and loss tolerant. While unconditionally secure private queries are known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by relying on fundamental physical principles instead of unverifiable security assumptions in order to protect both the user and the database. We think that the scope exists for such practical private queries to become another remarkable application of quantum information in the footsteps of quantum key distribution.

Jakobi, Markus [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Simon, Christoph [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Institute for Quantum Information Science and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 1N4, Alberta (Canada); Gisin, Nicolas; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Branciard, Cyril; Walenta, Nino; Zbinden, Hugo [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

2011-02-15

243

Modeling the dynamical interaction between epidemics on overlay networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epidemics seldom occur as isolated phenomena. Typically, two or more viral agents spread within the same host population and may interact dynamically with each other. We present a general model where two viral agents interact via an immunity mechanism as they propagate simultaneously on two networks connecting the same set of nodes. By exploiting a correspondence between the propagation dynamics and a dynamical process performing progressive network generation, we develop an analytical approach that accurately captures the dynamical interaction between epidemics on overlay networks. The formalism allows for overlay networks with arbitrary joint degree distribution and overlap. To illustrate the versatility of our approach, we consider a hypothetical delayed intervention scenario in which an immunizing agent is disseminated in a host population to hinder the propagation of an undesirable agent (e.g., the spread of preventive information in the context of an emerging infectious disease).

Marceau, Vincent; Noël, Pierre-André; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Dubé, Louis J.

2011-08-01

244

Improved overlay metrology device correlation on 90-nm logic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated and dense patterns were formed at process layers from gate through to back-end on wafers using a 90 nm logic device process utilizing ArF lithography under various lithography conditions. Pattern placement errors (PPE) between AIM grating and BiB marks were characterized for line widths varying from 1000nm to 140nm. As pattern size was reduced, overlay discrepancies became larger, a tendency which was confirmed by optical simulation with simple coma aberration. Furthermore, incorporating such small patterns into conventional marks resulted in significant degradation in metrology performance while performance on small pattern segmented grating marks was excellent. Finally, the data also show good correlation between the grating mark and specialized design rule feature SEM marks, with poorer correlation between conventional mark and SEM mark confirming that new grating mark significantly improves overlay metrology correlation with device patterns.

Ueno, Atsushi; Tsujita, Kouichirou; Kurita, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Yasuhisa; Ghinovker, Mark; Poplawski, Jorge M.; Kassel, Elyakim; Adel, Mike E.

2004-05-01

245

Information-Theoretically Secure Number-Product Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secure multiparty number-product protocol is an important building block in the area of secure multiparty computation. With proper composition of the building block, most applications, such as circuit evaluation, data mining, and private information retrieval, can be executed securely and collaboratively by potentially dishonest parties. In this work, we propose a commodity-based secure number-product protocol, the security of which

Chih-Hao Shen; Justin Zhan; Da-Wei Wang; Tsan-Sheng Hsu; Churn-Jung Liau

2007-01-01

246

Private health care in Britain.  

PubMed

Private medicine has been growing rapidly in Great Britian, a trend the author says indicates dissatisfaction with the National Health Service (NHS). Spivak notes that even when free medical treatment is available, citizens will pay for a private room, quicker treatment, and the chance to choose their own physicians and hospitals. Membership in private health plans has increased 15 fold since the inception of NHS 30 years ago. These plans are adding over 100,000 members a year so that the private sector now accounts for about $550 million, or 2-3% of Britian's annual outlay on medical care. The author attributes this trend to three factors: (1) private medicine is now generating enough capital to finance a substantial expansion of its own facilities; (2) deterioration in NHS; and (3) the low price of private health plans. Critics of private health care have described it as an alternative restricted to the affluent; the author counters that private plans are beginning to enroll blue-collar workers for the first time. He cites the opinions of experts who foresee the private sector covering for NHS shortcomings in non-emergency care until a full-fledged partnership develops. Spivak concludes by pointing to a conservative plan, now in its early stages, to promote a move in this direction. Whether or not this scheme comes to fruition, he adds, private medicine is beginning to flourish in a socialized system. PMID:10247824

Spivak, J

1979-08-21

247

A Concrete Security Treatment of Symmetric Encryption  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study notions and schemes for symmetric (ie. private key) encryption in a concrete security framework. We give four different notions of security against chosen plaintext attack and analyze the concrete complexity of reductions among them, providing both upper and lower bounds, and obtaining tight relations. In this way we classify notions (even though polynomially reducible to each other) as

Mihir Bellare; Anand Desai; E. Jokipii; Phillip Rogaway

1997-01-01

248

Non-Detrimental Web Application Security Scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web has become a sophisticated platform capable of delivering a broad range of applications. However, its rapid growth has resulted in numerous security problems that current technologies cannot address. Researchers from both academic and private sector are devoting a considerable amount of resources to the development of Web application security scanners (i.e., automated software testing platforms for

Yao-wen Huang; Chung-hung Tsai; D. T. Lee; Sy-yen Kuo

2004-01-01

249

A reputation-based anonymous communication strategy in overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to degrade the self participants in the peer-to-peer overlay networks, a rerouting-based anonymous communication strategy respect with reputation mechanism, which does not need an administrating node, is put forward in this paper. The degree of anonymity of the inactive participant is degraded by the value of reputation, and the active participants achieve better degree of anonymity in the

Yanhui Wu; Sichun Wang

2010-01-01

250

Topologically-Aware Overlay Construction and Server Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of large-scale distributed Internet applications could potentially benefit from some level of knowledge about the relative proximity between its participating host nodes. For example, the perfor- mance of large overlay networks could be improved if the application-level connectivity between the nodes in these networks is congruent with the un- derlying IP-level topology. Similarly, in the case of replicated

Sylvia Ratnasamy; Mark Handley; Richard M. Karp; Scott Shenker

2002-01-01

251

A distributed topology-aware overlays construction algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing systems are rapidly growing in importance as the medium of choice for the mass storage. Peers in the most P2P systems randomly choose logical neighbors without any knowledge about underlying physical topology. This mechanism can cause a serious topology mismatch between the P2P overlay network and the underlying network. It greatly limits the performance gain from various

Xiaoming Zhang; Zhoujun Li; Yijie Wang

2008-01-01

252

Overlay mark optimization using the KTD signal simulation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the overlay performance and accuracy requirements become tighter, the impact of process parameters on the target signal becomes more significant. Traditionally, in order to choose the optimum overlay target, several candidates are placed in the kerf area. The candidate targets are tested under different process conditions, before the target to be used in mass production is selected. The varieties of targets are left on the mass production mask and although they will not be used for overlay measurements they still consume kerf real estate. To improve the efficiency of the process we are proposing the KTD (KLA-Tencor Target Designer). It is an easy to use system that enables the user to select the optimum target based on advanced signal simulation. Implementing the KTD in production is expected to save 30% of kerf real estate due to more efficient target design process as well as reduced engineering time. In this work we demonstrate the capability of the KTD to simulate the Archer signal in the context of advanced DRAM processes. For several stacks we are comparing simulated target signals with the Archer100 signals. We demonstrate the robustness feature in the KTD application that enables the user to test the target sensitivity to process changes. The results indicate the benefit of using KTD in the target optimization process.

Marchelli, Anat; Gutjahr, Karsten; Kubis, Michael; Sparka, Christian; Ghinovker, Mark; Navarra, Alessandra; Widmann, Amir

2009-03-01

253

Diffusion Barriers to Increase the Oxidative Life of Overlay Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, most blades and vanes in the hottest section of aero gas turbine engines require some type of coating for oxidation protection. Newly developed single crystal superalloys have the mechanical potential to operate at increasingly higher component temperatures. However, at these elevated temperatures, coating/substrate interdiffusion can shorten the protective life of the coating. Diffusion barriers between overlay coatings and substrates are being examined to extend the protective life of the coating. A previously- developed finite-difference diffusion model has been modified to predict the oxidative life enhancement due to use of a diffusion barrier. The original diffusion model, designated COSIM, simulates Al diffusion in the coating to the growing oxide scale as well as Al diffusion into the substrate. The COSIM model incorporates an oxide growth and spalling model to provide the rate of Al consumption during cyclic oxidation. Coating failure is predicted when the Al concentration at the coating surface drops to a defined critical level. The modified COSIM model predicts the oxidative life of an overlay coating when a diffusion barrier is present eliminating diffusion of Al from the coating into the substrate. Both the original and the modified diffusion models have been used to predict the effectiveness of a diffusion barrier in extending the protective life of a NiCrAl overlay coating undergoing cyclic oxidation at 1100 C.

Nesbitt, James A.; Lei, Jih-Fen

1999-01-01

254

Multicast Routing in Structured Overlays and Hybrid Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key-based routing has enabled efficient group communication on the application or service middleware layer, stimulated by the need of applications to access multicast. These developments follow a continuous debate about network layer multicast that had lasted for about 30 years history of the Internet. The IP host group model today still faces a strongly divergent state of deployment. In this chapter, we first review the key concepts of multicast and broadcast data distribution on structured overlays. Second, we perform a comprehensive theoretical analysis examining the different distribution trees constructed on top of a key-based routing layer. Characteristic performance measures of the multicast approaches are compared in detail and major structural differences are identified. Overlay multicast overcomes deployment problems on the price of a performance penalty. Hybrid approaches, which dynamically combine multicast in overlay and underlay, adaptively optimize group communication. We discuss current schemes along with its integration in common multicast routing protocols in the third part of this chapter. Finally, we reconsider and enhance approaches to a common API for group communication, which serves the requirements of data distribution and maintenance for multicast and broadcast on a middleware abstraction layer, and in particular facilitates hybrid multicast schemes.

Wählisch, Matthias; Schmidt, Thomas C.

255

Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay.  

PubMed

Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:25267257

Ibáńez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I

2014-09-30

256

Quantum Oblivious Transfer Based on a Quantum Symmetrically Private Information Retrieval Protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Private information retrieval implies oblivious transfer in classical cryptography. Following this clue, we present a novel quantum one-out-of-two OT protocol based on a practical quantum symmetrically private information retrieval protocol Jakobi et al. (Phys. Rev. A 83, 022301 2011), with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. While unconditionally secure oblivious transfer is known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by means of quantum physical principles instead of unproven security assumptions in order to protect both the sender and the receiver. The proposed OT protocol is loss tolerant, practical and robust against quantum memory attack.

Yang, Yu-Guang; Sun, Si-Jia; Wang, Yan

2014-08-01

257

A Brief Guide to Social Security Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"A Brief Guide to Social Security Reform," by Daniel J. Mitchell of the Heritage Foundation, argues for the need to privatize the Social Security system in the US. The Social Security system currently collects more in taxes than benefits paid out, with the excess held in the Trust Fund. But this is expected to change in 2014 when the baby boomers and increased longevity of retirees is likely to result in benefits exceeding taxes collected. By 2031, the Trust Fund is expected to be exhausted. Suggestions for reforming Social Security include minor changes to the eligibility requirement or tax rates, allowing part of Social Security contributions to be invested freely, and totally privatizing Social Security.

Mitchell, Daniel J.

1997-01-01

258

Student Experiential Opportunities in National Security Careers  

SciTech Connect

This report documents student experiential opportunities in national security careers as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of how experiential opportunities assist students in the selection of a career and a list of opportunities in the private sector and government. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. Workforce development activities will facilitate the hiring of students to work with professionals in both the private and public sectors, as well as assist in preparing a workforce for careers in national security. The goal of workforce development under the NSPP grant is to assess workforce needs in national security and implement strategies to develop the appropriate workforce.

None

2007-12-31

259

What Works in Securities Laws?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effect of securities laws on stock market development in 49 countries. We find little evidence that public enforcement benefits stock markets, but strong evidence that laws mandating disclosure and facilitating private enforcement through liability rules benefit stock markets. Copyright 2006 by The American Finance Association.

RAFAEL LA PORTA; FLORENCIO LOPEZ-DE-SILANES; ANDREI SHLEIFER

2006-01-01

260

A Tale of Three Cities. Security Education Employment Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the Security Education Employment Program (SEEP), an employment and training program for high school students that matches students with opportunities in private security. It outlines the seven objectives established for the three-city test--job placements, exposure to the security profession, enhanced job skills, development…

National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC.

261

Liquid securityManaging the market for crime control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid security captures the shift from the solid-state technology of the criminal justice state to the more fluid, transient and dispersed operations of the private security industry. Despite its promise to sell security, the industry is often better known for the dangers it poses to the safety of people and property. Marked by high levels of corruption, violence, rapid staff

Nalucia Zedner

2006-01-01

262

On Security RequirementsAnalysis for Multi-Agent Systems  

E-print Network

and social care information system is used as a case study throughout this paper. Keywords Security analysis that becomes more and more reliant on software systems, security is an important concern. Private information is stored in computer systems and without security, organizations are not willing to share information

263

Innovative fast technique for overlay accuracy estimation using archer self calibration (ASC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As overlay margins shrink for advanced process nodes, a key overlay metrology challenge is finding the measurement conditions which optimize the yield for every device and layer. Ideally, this setup should be found in-line during the lithography measurements step. Moreover, the overlay measurement must have excellent correlation to the device electrical behavior. This requirement makes the measurement conditions selection even more challenging since it requires information about the response of both the metrology target and device to different process variations. In this work a comprehensive solution for overlay metrology accuracy, used by UMC, is described. This solution ranks the different measurement setups by their accuracy, using Qmerit, as reported by the Archer 500. This ranking was verified to match device overlay using electrical tests. Moreover, the use of Archer Self Calibration (ASC) allows further improvement of overlay measurement accuracy.

Hsu, Simon C. C.; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Pai, Yuan Chi; Amit, Eran; Yap, Lipkong; Itzkovich, Tal; Tien, David; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

2014-04-01

264

78 FR 24669 - Reorganization of Regulations on the Adjudication of Department of Homeland Security Practitioner...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...The Homeland Security Act of 2002...Naturalization Service (INS) to DHS...pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002...aggregate, or by the private sector, of $100 million...Immigration, Legal Services,...

2013-04-26

265

WIRELESS LAN SECURITY PROGRAM An eight-week in-depth program covering the latest solutions to wireless LAN security issues  

E-print Network

Access® (WPA) 1.0 and WPA® 2.0 · Wireless LAN performance and security management · Security policy-based Virtual Private Network (VPN), Port-based Access Control (802.1X), RADIUS service for authentication the performance of various WLAN security technologies. YOU WILL LEARN ABOUT: · Common security attacks against

Schaefer, Marcus

266

Lemnos Interoperable Security Program  

SciTech Connect

The manner in which the control systems are being designed and operated in the energy sector is undergoing some of the most significant changes in history due to the evolution of technology and the increasing number of interconnections to other system. With these changes however come two significant challenges that the energy sector must face; 1) Cyber security is more important than ever before, and 2) Cyber security is more complicated than ever before. A key requirement in helping utilities and vendors alike in meeting these challenges is interoperability. While interoperability has been present in much of the discussions relating to technology utilized within the energy sector and especially the Smart Grid, it has been absent in the context of cyber security. The Lemnos project addresses these challenges by focusing on the interoperability of devices utilized within utility control systems which support critical cyber security functions. In theory, interoperability is possible with many of the cyber security solutions available to utilities today. The reality is that the effort required to achieve cyber security interoperability is often a barrier for utilities. For example, consider IPSec, a widely-used Internet Protocol to define Virtual Private Networks, or â?? tunnelsâ?ť, to communicate securely through untrusted public and private networks. The IPSec protocol suite has a significant number of configuration options and encryption parameters to choose from, which must be agreed upon and adopted by both parties establishing the tunnel. The exercise in getting software or devices from different vendors to interoperate is labor intensive and requires a significant amount of security expertise by the end user. Scale this effort to a significant number of devices operating over a large geographical area and the challenge becomes so overwhelming that it often leads utilities to pursue solutions from a single vendor. These single vendor solutions may inadvertently lock utilities into proprietary and closed systems Lemnos is built on the successes of Open PCS Security Architecture for Interoperable Design (OPSAID), a previous DOE National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) project. It enhances security interoperability by identifying basic cyber security functions based on utility requirements and then selecting open source solutions, namely Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) RFCs, to support these functions. Once identified, specific configuration parameters for each RFC suitable for the electric utility control system environment are identified and documented. These configuration parameters are referred to as Interoperable Configuration Profiles (ICP) and their effectiveness within the utility control systems environment is verified with comprehensive testing as the final step in the process. The project focused on development of ICPs for four security protocols (IPsec, SSH, LDAP, and Syslog) which represent fundamental building blocks which can be utilized for securing utility control systems. These ICPs are product agnostic and can be applied modularly to any device (router, substation gateway, intelligent electronic device, etc.) within the utility control system as the end user deems necessary for their unique system architecture. The Lemnos Interoperable Security Program is a public-private partnership under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability's Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program and supports The Roadmap to Secure Energy Delivery Systems. In addition to EnerNex, the core team supporting the effort includes Tennessee Valley Authority, Sandia National Laboratories, and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories. Adding to the core team effort is collaboration from additional industry participants in the project including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Alien Vault, Cisco, Encore Networks, GarrettCom, Industrial Defender, N-Dimension Solutions, Phoenix Contact, RuggedCom, and Siemens.

John Stewart; Ron Halbgewachs; Adrian Chavez; Rhett Smith; David Teumim

2012-01-31

267

Differentially private distributed logistic regression using private and public data  

PubMed Central

Background Privacy protecting is an important issue in medical informatics and differential privacy is a state-of-the-art framework for data privacy research. Differential privacy offers provable privacy against attackers who have auxiliary information, and can be applied to data mining models (for example, logistic regression). However, differentially private methods sometimes introduce too much noise and make outputs less useful. Given available public data in medical research (e.g. from patients who sign open-consent agreements), we can design algorithms that use both public and private data sets to decrease the amount of noise that is introduced. Methodology In this paper, we modify the update step in Newton-Raphson method to propose a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on both public and private data. Experiments and results We try our algorithm on three different data sets, and show its advantage over: (1) a logistic regression model based solely on public data, and (2) a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on private data under various scenarios. Conclusion Logistic regression models built with our new algorithm based on both private and public datasets demonstrate better utility than models that trained on private or public datasets alone without sacrificing the rigorous privacy guarantee. PMID:25079786

2014-01-01

268

Boston Private Industry Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1979 by a banker and education advocate, the Boston Private Industry Council's (PIC) Boston's Workforce Investment Board is a valuable program that pairs Boston businesses with Boston high school students to give the students valuable experience and jobs, while helping the businesses develop a skilled workforce. Visitors should definitely take a look at the "Research" tab to read about research on "Drop Out Studies", "Labor Market Studies", and "College Going Studies" that the PIC has produced with the Center for Labor Market Studies at Northeastern University. Under the "Programs" tab visitors can choose from career programs for youth, adults, and out-of-school youth (those who have not finished high school or finished without passing state requirements). Under the same tab, visitors will find the "Career Exploration for Youth" program provides career exploration programs including "Job Shadow Day", "Mock Interviews", and "Career Speakers".

269

Private Sector Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank is perhaps one of the world's premier organizations regarding development opportunities, and they are widely recognized for their work in the developing world. With this latest outing, they have created the Private Sector Development (PSD) Blog, which is designed to be both quirky and opinionated, qualities which are never in short supply as one wanders around the web. Having said that, the site is rather erudite, as it provides intelligent comments on topics that include disaster recovery, foreign direct investment, and corporate governance. New users will want to browse through some of the recent posts, and then perhaps look at the "Categories" section on the left-hand side of the page for future explorations. As might be expected, each post also contains links to external readings from a diverse set of publications, such as the Financial Times and like-minded ventures.

270

On the prediction of ferromagnetism and meta-magnetism in 2d transitional-metal overlayers  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors present theoretical evidence for ferromagnetism in Ru and Rh overlayers on Ag(001). These predictions are based on ab-initio, spin-polarized, electronic-structure calculations within the framework of the local spin-density approximation. For Tc, Ru, Rh, and Pd overlayers chemisorbed on Ag(001), only Ru and Rh exhibited ferromagnetism. Several metamagnetic spin states were found for the Ru overlayers.

Eriksson, O.; Albers, R.C.; Boring, A.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.); Fernando, G.W. (Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics); Cooper, B.R. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Physics)

1992-05-10

271

Infrared differential interference contrast microscopy for 3D interconnect overlay metrology.  

PubMed

One of the main challenges for 3D interconnect metrology of bonded wafers is measuring through opaque silicon wafers using conventional optical microscopy. We demonstrate here the use infrared microscopy, enhanced by implementing the differential interference contrast (DIC) technique, to measure the wafer bonding overlay. A pair of two dimensional symmetric overlay marks were processed at both the front and back sides of thinned wafers to evaluate the bonding overlay. A self-developed analysis algorithm and theoretical fitting model was used to map the overlay error between the bonded wafers and the interconnect structures. The measurement accuracy was found to be better than 1.0 micron. PMID:23938801

Ku, Yi-sha; Shyu, Deh-Ming; Lin, Yeou-Sung; Cho, Chia-Hung

2013-08-12

272

20 CFR 404.112 - When we consider certain employees of private nonprofit organizations to be fully insured.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Insured Status and Quarters of Coverage Fully Insured Status § 404.112 When we consider certain employees of private nonprofit organizations...

2010-04-01

273

US Government Outsourcing, the Private Military Industry, and Operation Iraqi Freedom: A Case Study in Conflict Contracting  

E-print Network

This thesis analyzes state utilization of private military and security companies (PMSC), using United States Government (USG) outsourcing during Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) as a case study to investigate how PMSCs influence interstate conflicts...

Halpin, Allison Ann

2011-12-31

274

Attracting Foreign Investment Through Privatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privatization serves as a potential source of foreign direct investment in Africa. During the Chiluba era (1991–2001), Zambia conducted one of Africa's most sweeping privatization programs. Accordingly, direct investment swelled with the sale of state enterprises. This paper explores foreign and domestic ownership patterns following investor purchases of Zambian state-owned assets. Previous foreign owners of mining and manufacturing companies represent

Robert J. Rolfe; Douglas P. Woodward

2004-01-01

275

The structure of privatization plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, large-scale privatization programs have transformed the structure of corporate ownership in many countries, and are a major cause of the development of their capital markets. They have contributed to nondebt financing of the public deficit, attracted foreign capital and technology, and promoted the return of flight capital. Finally, the large task of privatization of state-owned enterprises

Enrico C. Perotti; Serhat E. Guney

1993-01-01

276

Privatization of airports in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been claimed that Asia lags behind the rest of the world in the privatization of airports. At the same time, the air transport sector has been growing quickly and this has placed enormous pressure on airport infrastructure. This paper reviews the situation and finds that the private sector is involved extensively with new airports and the upgrading of

Paul Hooper

2002-01-01

277

Cryptographically private support vector machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose private protocols implementing the Kernel Ada- tron and Kernel Perceptron learning algorithms, give pri- vate classication protocols and private polynomial ker- nel computation protocols. The new protocols return their outputs|either the kernel value, the classier or the classications|in encrypted form so that they can be de- crypted only by a common agreement by the protocol par- ticipants. We

Sven Laur; Helger Lipmaa; Taneli Mielikäinen

2006-01-01

278

The Law and Private Police.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is…

Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

279

Michigan School Privatization Survey 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Privatization of support services has been a method that Michigan school districts have used for several years to lower costs. More than ever before, Michigan school districts are privatizing the three main support services they offer--food, custodial and transportation. The annual survey finds that 48.8 percent of Michigan school districts are…

Hohman, James M.; Anderson, Dustin D.

2010-01-01

280

Private Faith and Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Must faith be privatized? Taken at face value, this could seem a curious question, since no one is in a position to "sell off" any religion to private interests, in the way that, for example, British Rail was dismembered. Yet the question is an important one in a contemporary society, characterized as it is by a significant divergence of views…

Trigg, Roger

2008-01-01

281

Quantum private comparison protocol with d-dimensional Bell states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a quantum private comparison protocol with Bell states is proposed. In the protocol, two participants can determine the relationship between their secret inputs in size, with the assistance of a semi-trusted third party. The presented protocol can ensure fairness, correctness, and security. Meanwhile, all the particles undergo only a one-way trip, which improves the efficiency and security of the communication. Furthermore, only Bell states are exploited in the implementation of the protocol, and two participants are just required having the ability to perform single particle operations, which make the presented protocol more feasible in technique.

Lin, Song; Sun, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Fen; Yao, Zhi-Qiang

2013-01-01

282

Noisy Preprocessing and the Distillation of Private States  

E-print Network

We provide a simple security proof for prepare & measure quantum key distribution protocols employing noisy processing and one-way postprocessing of the key. This is achieved by showing that the security of such a protocol is equivalent to that of an associated key distribution protocol in which, instead of the usual maximally-entangled states, a more general {\\em private state} is distilled. Besides a more general target state, the usual entanglement distillation tools are employed (in particular, Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS)-like codes), with the crucial difference that noisy processing allows some phase errors to be left uncorrected without compromising the privacy of the key.

Joseph M. Renes; Graeme Smith

2006-03-28

283

A method for secure communications over a public fiber-optical network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a spread-spectrum based approach to secure communications over existing fiber-optical networks. Secure transmission for a dedicated user is achieved by overlaying a covert channel onto a host channel in the existing active fiber link. The covert channel is optically encoded and temporally spread, and has average power below the noise floor in the fiber, making it hidden for a direct detection thus allowing for cryptographic and steganographic security capabilities. The presence for the host channel in the network provides an ad hoc security expansion and increases the difficulty for an eavesdropper to intercept and decode the secure signal.

Wu, Bernard B.; Narimanov, Evgenii E.

2006-05-01

284

RFID Security: Tradeoffs between Security and Ivan Damgard and Michael stergaard Pedersen  

E-print Network

RFID Security: Tradeoffs between Security and Efficiency Ivan Damg°ard and Michael �stergaard privacy for RFID tags. We add to this definition a completeness and a soundness require- ment, i prove a conjecture by Juels and Weis, namely in a strongly private and sound RFID system using only

285

33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2010-07-01

286

33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2014-07-01

287

33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2013-07-01

288

33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2011-07-01

289

33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than...

2012-07-01

290

Security Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

De Patta, Joe

2003-01-01

291

Ductile film delamination from compliant substrates using hard overlayers  

PubMed Central

Flexible electronic devices call for copper and gold metal films to adhere well to polymer substrates. Measuring the interfacial adhesion of these material systems is often challenging, requiring the formulation of different techniques and models. Presented here is a strategy to induce well defined areas of delamination to measure the adhesion of copper films on polyimide substrates. The technique utilizes a stressed overlayer and tensile straining to cause buckle formation. The described method allows one to examine the effects of thin adhesion layers used to improve the adhesion of flexible systems. PMID:25641995

Cordill, M.J.; Marx, V.M.; Kirchlechner, C.

2014-01-01

292

01/giu/2006 15/ott/2013Localit Overlay mappa  

E-print Network

01/giu/2006 15/ott/2013LocalitĂ  Paese/zona Overlay mappa Riepilogo Acquisizione Comportamento,43% 43 51,43% 3,46 00:01:41 0,00% 0 US$ 0,00 7. Switzerland 57 77,19% 44 43,86% 4,95 00:02:19 0,00% 0 US,00 27. Dominican Republic 4 100,00% 4 75,00% 4,00 00:02:51 0,00% 0 US$ 0,00 28. Japan 4 50,00% 2 50

Robbiano, Lorenzo

293

Characterization of wafer geometry and overlay error on silicon wafers with nonuniform stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Process-induced overlay errors are a growing problem in meeting the ever-tightening overlay requirements for integrated circuit production. Although uniform process-induced stress is easily corrected, nonuniform stress across the wafer is much more problematic, often resulting in noncorrectable overlay errors. Measurements of the wafer geometry of free, unchucked wafers give a powerful method for characterization of such nonuniform stress-induced wafer distortions. Wafer geometry data can be related to in-plane distortion of the wafer pulled flat by an exposure tool vacuum chuck, which in turn relates to overlay error. This paper will explore the relationship between wafer geometry and overlay error by the use of silicon test wafers with deliberate stress variations, i.e., engineered stress monitor (ESM) wafers. A process will be described that allows the creation of ESM wafers with nonuniform stress and includes many thousands of overlay targets for a detailed characterization of each wafer. Because the spatial character of the stress variation is easily changed, ESM wafers constitute a versatile platform for exploring nonuniform stress. We have fabricated ESM wafers of several different types, e.g., wafers where the center area has much higher stress than the outside area. Wafer geometry is measured with an optical metrology tool. After fabrication of the ESM wafers including alignment marks and first level overlay targets etched into the wafer, we expose a second level resist pattern designed to overlay with the etched targets. After resist patterning, relative overlay error is measured using standard optical methods. An innovative metric from the wafer geometry measurements is able to predict the process-induced overlay error. We conclude that appropriate wafer geometry measurements of in-process wafers have strong potential to characterize and reduce process-induced overlay errors.

Brunner, Timothy A.; Menon, Vinayan C.; Wong, Cheuk Wun; Gluschenkov, Oleg; Belyansky, Michael P.; Felix, Nelson M.; Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Vukkadala, Pradeep; Veeraraghavan, Sathish; Sinha, Jaydeep K.

2013-10-01

294

Information Security Awareness On-Line Materials Design with Knowledge Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information Security Awareness, though known as a primary and important issue in the domain of Information Security, CSI computer crime and security survey showed poor security awareness training in public and private sectors. In many studies, the authors have found that the usage of knowledge maps helps the process of learning and conception…

Shaw, Ruey-Shiang; Keh, Huan-Chao; Huang, Nan-Ching; Huang, Tien-Chuan

2011-01-01

295

THE ADVANCED COURSE IN ENGINEERING ON CYBER A Learning Community for Developing Cyber-Security Leaders  

E-print Network

THE ADVANCED COURSE IN ENGINEERING ON CYBER SECURITY A Learning Community for Developing Cyber-Security: The Advanced Course in Engineering on Cyber Security (ACE-CS) is a public-private partnership to develop top ROTC cadets into the next generation of cyber security leaders. Modeled after the General Electric

296

Private Information and Insurance Rejections  

PubMed Central

Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets. PMID:24187381

Hendren, Nathaniel

2013-01-01

297

Stimuli, reinforcers, and private events.  

PubMed

Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same quantitative relations that characterize public operant behavior. This approach is illustrated by a model of attending to stimuli and to anticipated reinforcers in delayed matching to sample, in which the probabilities of attending are related to reinforcer rates by an expression derived from research on behavioral momentum. PMID:22478505

Nevin, John A

2008-01-01

298

Embedding a Cluster-Based Overlay Mesh in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks without Cluster Heads  

Microsoft Academic Search

One strategy to tackle the complexity and scalability issue in large-scale mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is to use extra layers of abstraction. A common tactic is to group the nodes in the network into clusters. The clusters and the paths between them constitute an extra layer of overlay abstraction. To maintain the overlay structure, a head node is often

Amit Banerjee; Chung-ta King; Hung-chang Hsiao

2005-01-01

299

Conjoining Speeds up Information Diffusion in Overlaying Social-Physical Networks  

E-print Network

1 Conjoining Speeds up Information Diffusion in Overlaying Social-Physical Networks Osman Yagan, junshan.zhang, cochran}@asu.edu Abstract--We study the diffusion of information in an overlay- ing social-physical network. Specifically, we consider the following set-up: There is a physical information network where

Yagan, Osman

300

SUBMITTED TO IEEE INFOCOM 2005 1 Fast Replication in Content Distribution Overlays  

E-print Network

, Akhilesh Saxena, Sudeept Bhatnagar, Suman Banerjee, Rauf Izmailov Abstract-- We present SPIDER ­ a system, SPIDER uses an overlay structure composed of dedicated Transit Nodes (TNs). The data transport mechanism in SPIDER leverages this overlay structure to provide a coordinated approach that minimizes the maximum time

Banerjee, Suman

301

Combining Computer and Manual Overlays--Willamette River Greenway Study1  

E-print Network

Combining Computer and Manual Overlays-- Willamette River Greenway Study1 Asa Hanamoto and Lucille of the Visual Resource, Incline Village, Nevada, April 23-25, 1979. 2/ Principal, and Staff Member, Royston computer mapping with manual overlays. An example of its use is the Willamette River Greenway Study

Standiford, Richard B.

302

Towards a Common API for Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an ongoing effort to define com- mon APIs for structured peer-to-peer overlays and the key abstractions that can be built on them. In doing so, we hope to facilitate independent innovation in overlay pro- tocols, services, and applications, to allow direct experi- mental comparisons, and to encourage application devel- opment by third parties. We provide

Frank Dabek; Ben Y. Zhao; Peter Druschel; John Kubiatowicz; Ion Stoica

2003-01-01

303

OMAN -A Management Architecture for P2P Service Overlay Networks  

E-print Network

OMAN - A Management Architecture for P2P Service Overlay Networks Adriano Fiorese1,2 , Paulo Sim Overlay Net- works (SON). The architecture, named OMAN, takes into account the formation of the P2P SON as pointing the overall potential of the OMAN archi- tecture. Keywords:Services Management, P2P, Service

Boyer, Edmond

304

A new approach for overlay text detection and extraction from complex video scene.  

PubMed

Overlay text brings important semantic clues in video content analysis such as video information retrieval and summarization, since the content of the scene or the editor's intention can be well represented by using inserted text. Most of the previous approaches to extracting overlay text from videos are based on low-level features, such as edge, color, and texture information. However, existing methods experience difficulties in handling texts with various contrasts or inserted in a complex background. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to detect and extract the overlay text from the video scene. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background, a transition map is first generated. Then candidate regions are extracted by a reshaping method and the overlay text regions are determined based on the occurrence of overlay text in each candidate. The detected overlay text regions are localized accurately using the projection of overlay text pixels in the transition map and the text extraction is finally conducted. The proposed method is robust to different character size, position, contrast, and color. It is also language independent. Overlay text region update between frames is also employed to reduce the processing time. Experiments are performed on diverse videos to confirm the efficiency of the proposed method. PMID:19095537

Kim, Wonjun; Kim, Changick

2009-02-01

305

Wafer based aberration metrology for lithographic systems using overlay measurements on targets  

E-print Network

Wafer based aberration metrology for lithographic systems using overlay measurements on targets projection system from wafer metrology data. For this, new types of phase-shift gratings (PSG) are introduced metrology tool. In this way, the overlay error can be used as a measurand based on which the phase

306

Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers Salles V. G. Maghales and W Randolph Franklin  

E-print Network

Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers Salles V. G. MaghalĂŁes and W Randolph by representing coordinates as rational numbers. Now, intersections have no roundoff errors. Rational numbers for different kinds of soil. This paper presents Rat-overlay, an algorithm that uses rational numbers to perform

Franklin, W. Randolph

307

Effect of Chip-Level Asynchronism on an Overlay System for Optical Networks  

E-print Network

It is expected that routing on long-haul optical networks will migrate from the electronic domain to the optical]. The system consists of a method for overlaying information onto a payload stream, and a low cost decoding is that of overlaying a low- rate multiple access channel on a high-rate payload channel in a very specific way

Fisher, Kathleen

308

Replication in Overlay Networks: A Multi-objective Optimization Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, overlay network-based collaborative applications such as instant messaging, content sharing, and Internet telephony are becoming increasingly popular. Many of these applications rely upon data-replication to achieve better performance, scalability, and reliability. However, replication entails various costs such as storage for holding replicas and communication overheads for ensuring replica consistency. While simple rule-of-thumb strategies are popular for managing the cost-benefit tradeoffs of replication, they cannot ensure optimal resource utilization. This paper explores a multi-objective optimization approach for replica management, which is unique in the sense that we view the various factors influencing replication decisions such as access latency, storage costs, and data availability as objectives, and not as constraints. This enables us to search for solutions that yield close to optimal values for these parameters. We propose two novel algorithms, namely multi-objective Evolutionary (MOE) algorithm and multi-objective Randomized Greedy (MORG) algorithm for deciding the number of replicas as well as their placement within the overlay. While MOE yields higher quality solutions, MORG is better in terms of computational efficiency. The paper reports a series of experiments that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

Al-Haj Hassan, Osama; Ramaswamy, Lakshmish; Miller, John; Rasheed, Khaled; Canfield, E. Rodney

309

The interfacial microstructure of weld overlay of corrosion resistant alloys  

SciTech Connect

For reasons of economy, hydrogenation pressure vessels of heavy wall sections are fabricated by cladding with one or more layers of austenitic stainless steel on the inside of the vessel wall. Submerged Arc Welding with strip-electrode technology is used in this process because of its ability to combine excellent deposit properties and controllable penetration with high deposition rates. However, hydrogen-related disbonding of the clad-overlay is a problem remaining in the use of the composite pressure vessels in petrochemical industries. One of the major factors contributing to the disbonding is the microstructure developed during solidification of the weld metal. It is unclear what kind of microstructure is most susceptible to disbonding and how the microstructure develops. Marshall and Lazor et al. believed that martensitic structures were the culprit for the initiation of disbonding. Ohnishi et al. concluded from their investigation that a layer of martensite adjacent to the fusion line would reduce the disbonding. Recently, Godden et al. found that a so-called Type 2 grain boundary was the most susceptible structure to the disbonding, but the mechanism is not clear. This study investigated the microstructures along the interface between overlays and base steel and established the mechanism of the formation of crack-susceptible microstructures.

Wu, Yunjian; Patchett, B.M.; Bicknell, C. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

1994-05-01

310

In-field overlay uncertainty contributors: a back end study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this publication, the contributors to in-field overlay metrology uncertainty have been parsed and quantified on a back end process and compared with results from a previous front end study1. Particular focus is placed on the unmodeled systematics, i.e. the components which contribute to residuals in a linear model after removal of random errors. These are the contributors which are often the most challenging to quantify and are suspected to be significant in the model residuals. The results show that in both back and front end processes, the unmodeled systematics are the dominant residual contributor, accounting for 60 to 70% of the variance, even when subsequent exposures are on the same scanner. A higher order overlay model analysis demonstrates that this element of the residuals can be further dissected into correctible and non-correctible high order systematics. A preliminary sampling analysis demonstrates a major opportunity to improve the accuracy of lot dispositioning parameters by transitioning to denser sample plans compared with standard practices. Field stability is defined as a metric to quantify the field to field variability of the intrafield correctibles.

Adel, Mike; Frommer, Aviv; Kassel, Elyakim; Izikson, Pavel; Leray, Philippe; Schulz, Bernd; Seltmann, Rolf; Busch, Jens

2006-03-01

311

Distributional Effects in a General Equilibrium Analysis of Social Security Laurence J. Kotlikoff  

E-print Network

Security's privatization can substantiallyraise long-run living standards. But achieving these gains will take advocated by the World Bank (1994), that provide a flat (minimum) benefit can actuallymake the long-run poor Security's privatization helps the long-run poor even absent any explicit redistribution mechanism

Spence, Harlan Ernest

312

Secure multi-party protocols under a modern lens  

E-print Network

A secure multi-party computation (MPC) protocol for computing a function f allows a group of parties to jointly evaluate f over their private inputs, such that a computationally bounded adversary who corrupts a subset of ...

Boyle, Elette Chantae

2013-01-01

313

49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Including Passenger Railroad Carriers, Rail Transit Systems, Tourist, Scenic, Historic and Excursion Operators, and Private Cars...security threat exists concerning that operation. (5) Each tourist, scenic, historic, or excursion operations, whether...

2011-10-01

314

49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Including Passenger Railroad Carriers, Rail Transit Systems, Tourist, Scenic, Historic and Excursion Operators, and Private Cars...security threat exists concerning that operation. (5) Each tourist, scenic, historic, or excursion operations, whether...

2010-10-01

315

Innovative techniques for improving overlay accuracy by using DCM (device correlated metrology) targets as reference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay metrology performance as Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), design rule compatibility, device correlation and measurement accuracy are been challenged at 2x nm node and below. Process impact on overlay metrology becoming critical, and techniques to improve measurement accuracy becomes increasingly important. In this paper, we present an innovative methodology for improving overlay accuracy. A propriety quality metric, Qmerit, is used to identify overlay metrology measurement settings with least process impacts and reliable accuracies. Using the quality metric, an innovative calibration method, ASC (Archer Self Calibration) is then used to remove the inaccuracies. Accuracy validation can be achieved by correlation to reference overlay data from another independent metrology source such as CDSEM data collected on DCM (Device Correlated Metrology) hybrid target or electrical testing. Additionally, reference metrology can also be used to verify which measurement conditions are the most accurate. In this paper we bring an example of such use case.

Tzai, Wei-Jhe; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Chen, Howard; Chen, Charlie; Pai, Yuan Chi; Yu, Chun-Chi; Lin, Chia Ching; Itzkovich, Tal; Yap, Lipkong; Amit, Eran; Tien, David; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

2014-04-01

316

Strain Response of Hot-Mix Asphalt Overlays for Bottom-Up Reflective Cracking  

E-print Network

This paper examines the strain response of typical HMA overlays above jointed PCC slabs prone to bottom-up reflective cracking. The occurrence of reflective cracking under the combined effect of traffic and environmental loading significantly reduces the design life of the HMA overlays and can lead to its premature failure. In this context, viscoelastic material properties combined with cyclic vehicle loadings and pavement temperature distribution were implemented in a series of FE models in order to study the evolution of horizontal tensile and shear strains at the bottom of the HMA overlay. The effect of several design parameters, such as subbase and subgrade moduli, vehicle speed, overlay thickness, and temperature condition, on the horizontal and shear strain response was investigated. Results obtained show that the rate of horizontal and shear strain increase at the bottom of the HMA overlay drop with higher vehicle speed, higher subgrade modulus, and higher subbase modulus. Moreover, the rate of horizon...

Ghauch, Ziad G

2011-01-01

317

State Regulation of Private Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines state laws and the actions of various courts on home instruction and unauthorized educational programs. Suggests reforming the regulation of private education through legislative action that requires periodic testing as an alternative to compulsory school attendance. (Author/MLF)

Lines, Patricia M.

1982-01-01

318

Private Well Water and Fluoride  

MedlinePLUS

... Infant Formula and Fluorosis Scientific Reviews Fluoride in Drinking Water Health Effects and Environmental Impact Data & Statistics 2012 ... that are not regulated by the EPA Safe Drinking Water Act. In most states, private wells are not ...

319

PRIVATIZED PENSIONS: An Irrational Choice?  

E-print Network

PRIVATIZED PENSIONS: An Irrational Choice? ETHICS AFTER ENRON: Restoring Accountability and Trust Timothy Akin Director of Marketing and Communications CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Shannon Tanguay Alumni First-Ever Student Fellowships . . . . . . . . . . 11 Distinguished Speaker Ethics After Enron

California at Davis, University of

320

What Future for Private Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After examining a small private school (Norwood Academy, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia) a group of leading educators give their answers to questions about its future and the future of such schools in general. (Editor)

Cath Sch J, 1970

1970-01-01

321

Computer vision and soft computing for automatic skull-face overlay in craniofacial superimposition.  

PubMed

Craniofacial superimposition can provide evidence to support that some human skeletal remains belong or not to a missing person. It involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. Within the craniofacial superimposition process, the skull-face overlay stage just focuses on achieving the best possible overlay of the skull and a single ante mortem image of the suspect. Although craniofacial superimposition has been in use for over a century, skull-face overlay is still applied by means of a trial-and-error approach without an automatic method. Practitioners finish the process once they consider that a good enough overlay has been attained. Hence, skull-face overlay is a very challenging, subjective, error prone, and time consuming part of the whole process. Though the numerical assessment of the method quality has not been achieved yet, computer vision and soft computing arise as powerful tools to automate it, dramatically reducing the time taken by the expert and obtaining an unbiased overlay result. In this manuscript, we justify and analyze the use of these techniques to properly model the skull-face overlay problem. We also present the automatic technical procedure we have developed using these computational methods and show the four overlays obtained in two craniofacial superimposition cases. This automatic procedure can be thus considered as a tool to aid forensic anthropologists to develop the skull-face overlay, automating and avoiding subjectivity of the most tedious task within craniofacial superimposition. PMID:25447179

Campomanes-Álvarez, B Rosario; Ibáńez, O; Navarro, F; Alemán, I; Botella, M; Damas, S; Cordón, O

2014-10-18

322

Security Issues with the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS): A White Paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is the basis for a significant new architecture for mobile applications incorporating voice, video and data services. The IMS is an overlay network on top of IP that uses SIP as the primary signaling mechanism. The IMS presents several new security challenges for both network providers and network users. This paper provides an overview of

Michael T. Hunter; Russell J. Clark; Frank S. Park

323

RELIABLE PROCESS FOR SECURITY POLICY DEPLOYMENT Stere Preda  

E-print Network

, such as Fire- walls, Virtual Private Network (VPN) tunnels, and Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs). Our tunnels match the same traffic; and intrusion detection system anomalies, which refer to those con- flicts implemented by different security devices, such as firewalls, virtual private network (VPN) tunnels

Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin

324

78 FR 15889 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Privacy Office, Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528. SUPPLEMENTARY...C. 552a, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Customs and...innovative, voluntary government/private sector partnership program....

2013-03-13

325

76 FR 10205 - Department of Homeland Security Implementation of OMB Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...governments, or the private sector. Because this...Department of Homeland Security Management Directive...that provides services instead of money...virtue of the service of a veteran...Department of Homeland Security. [FR...

2011-02-24

326

Quantum Private Comparison of Equality with ?-Type Entangled States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a quantum private comparison protocol with ?-type entangled states is proposed. In the protocol, two users can determine whether their secret inputs are equal, with the help of a semi-trusted third party. Here, the only constraint condition of this third party is that he could not collude with one user. Although the third party takes part in the whole process of the presented protocol, a feature of ?-type entangled state is utilized to design a eavesdropping check method to stand against his attack. Security analysis showed that the presented protocol is secure against some well-known attacks. Meanwhile, all the particles undergo only a one-way trip, which improves the efficiency and security of the presented protocol. Furthermore, only two-particle measurement is required in the implementation of the protocol, which make it more feasible in technique.

Lin, Song; Guo, Gong-De; Liu, Xiao-Fen

2013-11-01

327

Network Security  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course on Network Security is provided by the Cyber Security Education Consortium (CSEC). The course requires students to perform laboratory assignments in securing networks and operating systems to learn about "network communications from a security standpoint" and "hardware and software security solutions." Links are provided to learn more about the Major Topics Covered, Course Learning Objectives, and Course Outline. The Course Outline includes a list of careers that require the knowledge from this course and related textbooks.

328

Resources to Manage a Private Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes four theme articles: "The Digital Toolkit: Electronic Necessities for Private Practice" (John Aigner); "Organizing a Private Practice: Forms, Fees, and Physical Set-up (Fredricka Cheek); "Career Development Resources: Guidelines for Setting Up a Private Practice Library" (Georgia Donati); and "Books to Enhance Private Practice Management…

Aigner, John; Cheek, Fredricka; Donati, Georgia; Zuravicky, Dori

1997-01-01

329

Student Housing: Is It Time To Privatize?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the issue of university-owned and managed student housing and how to decide whether to shift to privatization. How privatization works, identification of current and future student housing needs, the cost of privatization, and issues to consider when privatization is pursued are examined. (GR)

Yeatts, G. Dewey

2001-01-01

330

Survey Article: Progress on Privatization in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulgaria began its privatization program following independence in 1989 by establishing a privatization agency to guide privatization priorities, levels of government responsibility for sales, and valuation procedures. While many small businesses have been privatized, sales in the medium and large-scale sector have been slow and few in number despite a voucher system introduced in 1994. Government policy may have deterred

Jean M Due; Stephen C Schmidt

331

Survey Article: Progress on Privatization in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulgaria began its privatization program following independence in 1989 by establishing a privatization agency to guide privatization priorities, levels of government responsibility for sales, and valuation procedures. While many small businesses have been privatized, sales in the medium and large-scale sector have been slow and few in number despite a voucher system introduced in 1994. Government policy may have deterred

Jean M Due; Stephen C Schmidt

1995-01-01

332

Lipid adlayer organization mediated by a liquid overlayer.  

PubMed

We report on the formation of a chemically bound 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) monolayer on modified Au and silica surfaces, and changes in the organization of the interfacial lipid layer associated with immersion in aqueous solution. We have studied the interface using steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, water contact angle and optical ellipsometry measurements, and electrochemical methods. Our data reveal that the DMPC adlayer in contact with air forms a relatively well organized interface that mediates the rotational motion of perylene. In the presence of an aqueous overlayer, perylene reorientation becomes more rapid, consistent with a reduction in the organization of the interfacial lipid adlayer. One implication of this finding is that the interfacial adlayer is less than a uniform monolayer, which is confirmed by electrochemical data. Our data underscore the importance of water in mediating the organization of interfacial lipid adlayers. PMID:22995467

Baumler, S M; Blanchard, G J

2012-12-01

333

Security in Full-Force  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When fully developed for NASA, Vanguard Enforcer(TM) software-which emulates the activities of highly technical security system programmers, auditors, and administrators-was among the first intrusion detection programs to restrict human errors from affecting security, and to ensure the integrity of a computer's operating systems, as well as the protection of mission critical resources. Vanguard Enforcer was delivered in 1991 to Johnson Space Center and has been protecting systems and critical data there ever since. In August of 1999, NASA granted Vanguard exclusive rights to commercialize the Enforcer system for the private sector. In return, Vanguard continues to supply NASA with ongoing research, development, and support of Enforcer. The Vanguard Enforcer 4.2 is one of several surveillance technologies that make up the Vanguard Security Solutions line of products. Using a mainframe environment, Enforcer 4.2 achieves previously unattainable levels of automated security management.

2002-01-01

334

Comparison of overlay metrology with analogue and digital cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay metrology is a very demanding image processing application; current applications are achieving dynamic precision of one hundredth of a pixel or better. As such it requires an accurate image acquisition system, with minimal distortions. Distortions can be physical (e.g. pixel size / shape) or electronic (e.g. clock skew) in nature. They can also affect the image shape, or the gray level intensity of individual pixels, the former causing severe problems to pattern recognition and measurement algorithms, the latter having an adverse effect primarily on the measurement itself. This paper considers the artifacts that are present in a particular analogue camera, with a discussion on how these artifacts translate into a reduction of overlay metrology performance, in particular their effect on precision and tool induced shift (TIS). The observed effects include, but are not limited to, banding and interlacing. This camera is then compared to two digital cameras. The first of these operates at the same frame rate as the analogue camera, and is found to have fewer distortions than the analogue camera. The second camera operates with a frame rate twice that of the other two. It is observed that this camera does not exhibit the distortions of the analogue camera, but instead has some very specific problems, particularly with regards to noise. The quantitative data on the effect on precision and TIS under a wide variety of conditions, is presented. These show that while it is possible to achieve metrology-capable images using an analogue camera, it is preferable to use a digital camera, both from the perspective of overall system performance, and overall system complexity.

Rigden, Timothy C.; Soroka, Andrew J.; Binns, Lewis A.

2005-05-01

335

Alignment system and process optimization for improvement of double patterning overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a design rule shrink down aggressively, various RETs (Resolution Enhancement Technology) have been developed to extend the resolution limits of lithography. Until now, next generation lithography has been focused on EUV technology. But no one can assure when EUV will be implemented. So, we must develop new technology with current immersion tool to catch up with aggressive design rule. One of those is DPT (Double Patterning Technology), however there are also many challenges to overcome such as patterning, overlay, hard mask etch and so on. The most critical issue would be overlay, because it affects CD (Critical dimension) uniformity directly. Therefore, overlay control is very important between 1 st DP layer and 2 nd DP layer. We utilized ArF immersion scanners for this experiment. In this paper, DP process flow, hard mask film dependency, align method dependency, efforts of new align key design and direct align analysis in DP overlay will be reported to understand and get better overlay accuracy than tool specification. It is needed to be verified that how much they take an effect on improving the DP overlay. Continuously we can conclude that most efforts in DPT should be focused on overlay control issue.

Ma, Won-kwang; Kang, Jung-hyun; Lim, Chang-moon; Kim, HyeongSoo; Moon, Seung-chan; Lalbahadoersing, Sanjay; Oh, Seung-chul

2008-03-01

336

Diffraction based overlay metrology: accuracy and performance on front end stack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overlay metrology budget is typically 1/10 of the overlay control budget resulting in overlay metrology total measurement uncertainty requirements of 0.57 nm for the most challenging use cases of the 32nm technology generation. Theoretical considerations show that overlay technology based on differential signal scatterometry (SCOL TM) has inherent advantages, which will allow it to achieve the 32nm technology generation requirements and go beyond it. In this work we present results of an experimental and theoretical study of SCOL. We present experimental results, comparing this technology with the standard imaging overlay metrology. In particular, we present performance results, such as precision and tool induced shift, for different target designs. The response to a large range of induced misalignment is also shown. SCOL performance on these targets for a real stack is reported. We also show results of simulations of the expected accuracy and performance associated with a variety of scatterometry overlay target designs. The simulations were carried out on several stacks including FEOL and BEOL materials. The inherent limitations and possible improvements of the SCOL technology are discussed. We show that with the appropriate target design and algorithms, scatterometry overlay achieves the accuracy required for future technology generations.

Leray, Philippe; Cheng, Shaunee; Kandel, Daniel; Adel, Michael; Marchelli, Anat; Vakshtein, Irina; Vasconi, Mauro; Salski, Bartlomiej

2008-03-01

337

Peer-to-Peer Overlays for Real-Time Communication: Security Issues and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer to peer (P2P) networks offer higher robustness against failure, easier configuration and are generally more economical as compared to their client-server counterparts. This has made it reasonable for resource consuming and typically centralized applications like voice over IP (VoIP) and, in general, real-time communication to adapt and exploit the benefits of P2P. Such a migration needs to address a

Dhruv Chopra; Henning Schulzrinne; Enrico Marocco; Emil Ivov

2009-01-01

338

Scalable P2P Overlays of Very Small Constant Degree: an Emerging Security Threat  

E-print Network

P) technology has been adopted by Internet-based malware as a fault tolerant and scalable be nearly impossible to uncover if they operated in a stealth mode, that is, using only a small constant point of view: we show that stealth mode P2P malware that is very dif- ficult to discover with state

Jelasity, Márk

339

As privatization of libraries continues, some grow concerned  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

San Joaquin County to consider privatizing librarieshttp://www.lodinews.com/news/article_14f6af7a-9175-549a-bb11-bb28778d8252.htmlShould public libraries be put in private hands?http://www.scpr.org/programs/patt-morrison/2010/09/27/privatization-of-libraries/Library Systems & Serviceshttp://www.lssi.com/Carnegie Libraries: The Future Made Brighthttp://www.nps.gov/history/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/50carnegie/50carnegie.htmBoston Athenaeumhttp://www.bostonathenaeum.org/Public-private partnerships in cities are nothing new, and many cities and political units have had experiences with partial or complete privatization of various services over the years. A recent wrinkle in this process is raising eyebrows across the country, as a number of public libraries in cities with struggling economies have been taken over by the Library Systems & Services (LSSI) company. Recently, the company was approached with and accepted an offer to run the libraries in the city of Santa Clarita, California for $4 million, a city that is relatively healthy economically. The company claims that they are able to reign in costs, and in an interview with the New York Times, their chief executive, Frank A. Pezzanite, noted, "A lot of libraries are atrocious. Their policies are all about job security. That is why the profession is nervous about us." Obviously, there are many people who are incensed by Pezzanite's comments and his approach to management, and a number of library employees are quite upset about the terms of the company's contract. Others believe that libraries are a public service that is too important to be handed over to a private, profit-driven company. It remains to be seen whether this trend will continue, but for now the number of libraries managed by LSSI constitute the country's fifth-largest library system.The first link will take users to an article from this Monday's New York Times about this recent library privatization in California. The second link leads to a recent piece in the Lodi News-Sentinel about the proposed privatization of libraries in San Joaquin County. Moving on, the third link leads to a conversation about the privatization of public libraries recently featured on Southern California Public Radio. The fourth link whisks users away to the homepage of LSSI. The fifth link leads to a lovely set of educational resources about the Carnegie libraries in the United States, courtesy of the National Park Service's Teaching with Historic Places Lesson Plans program. The final link leads to the homepage of the Boston Athenaeum, which is a different type of membership library entirely, founded in 1807.

Grinnell, Max

2010-10-01

340

Dynamic trust domains for secure, private, technology-assisted living  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large scale distributed systems comprising many admin- istration domains have been well-researched. An example is a national health service, with domains such as primary care practices, hospitals, specialist clinics, etc. A new and relatively unexplored scenario is technology-assisted living, in which domains are small, dynamically created, and are associated with units of personal living. There is a great deal of

Jatinder Singh; Jean Bacon; Ken Moody

2007-01-01

341

How to Keep Your Health Information Private and Secure  

MedlinePLUS

... Information The Federal Trade Commission (FTC), the national consumer protection agency that works to prevent fraudulent, deceptive and unfair business practices, has information on how consumers can protect ...

342

The performances of different overlay mark types at 65nm node on 300-mm wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing factories have measured overlay with conventional "box-in-box" (BiB) or "frame-in-frame" (FiF) structures for many years. Since UMC played as a roll of world class IC foundry service provider, tighter and tighter alignment accuracy specs need to be achieved from generation to generation to meet any kind of customers' requirement, especially according to International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) 2003 METROLOGY section1. The process noises resulting from dishing, overlay mark damaging by chemical mechanism polishing (CMP), and the variation of film thickness during deposition are factors which can be very problematic in mark alignment. For example, the conventional "box-in-box" overlay marks could be damaged easily by CMP, because the less local pattern density and wide feature width of the box induce either dishing or asymmetric damages for the measurement targets, which will make the overlay measurement varied and difficult. After Advanced Imaging Metrology (AIM) overlay targets was introduced by KLA-Tencor, studies in the past shown AIM was more robust in overlay metrology than conventional FiF or BiB targets. In this study, the applications of AIM overlay marks under different process conditions will be discussed and compared with the conventional overlay targets. To evaluate the overlay mark performance against process variation on 65nm technology node in 300-mm wafer, three critical layers were chosen in this study. These three layers were Poly, Contact, and Cu-Metal. The overlay targets used for performance comparison were BiB and Non-Segmented AIM (NS AIM) marks. We compared the overlay mark performance on two main areas. The first one was total measurement uncertainty (TMU)3 related items that include Tool Induced Shift (TIS) variability, precision, and matching. The other area is the target robustness against process variations. Based on the present study AIM mark demonstrated an equal or better performance in the TMU related items under our process conditions. However, when non-optimized tungsten CMP was introduced in the tungsten contact process, due to the dense grating line structure design, we found that AIM mark was much more robust than BiB overlay target.

Tseng, H. T.; Lin, Ling-Chieh; Huang, I. H.; Lin, Benjamin S.; Huang, Chin-Chou K.; Huang, Chien-Jen

2005-05-01

343

TWRS privatization process technical baseline  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

Orme, R.M.

1996-09-13

344

Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor  

PubMed Central

Multivariate quadratic ( ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

2014-01-01

345

Secure authenticated video equipment  

SciTech Connect

In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized panics. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

Doren, N.E.

1993-07-01

346

Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Cluster States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol, enabling two players to compare the equality of their information without revealing any information about their respective private inputs, in which the four-particle cluster states as the information carriers are used. The presented protocol can ensure correctness, privacy, and fairness with the assistance of a semi-trusted third party (TP). Meanwhile, the participants including the TP are just required having the ability to perform single-particle measurements, which make the presented protocol more feasible in technique. Furthermore, the photon transmission is a one-way distribution; the Trojan horse attacks can be automatically avoided. The security of this protocol is also analyzed.

Sun, Zhiwei; Long, Dongyang

2013-01-01

347

Snore related signals processing in a private cloud computing system.  

PubMed

Snore related signals (SRS) have been demonstrated to carry important information about the obstruction site and degree in the upper airway of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) patients in recent years. To make this acoustic signal analysis method more accurate and robust, big SRS data processing is inevitable. As an emerging concept and technology, cloud computing has motivated numerous researchers and engineers to exploit applications both in academic and industry field, which could have an ability to implement a huge blue print in biomedical engineering. Considering the security and transferring requirement of biomedical data, we designed a system based on private cloud computing to process SRS. Then we set the comparable experiments of processing a 5-hour audio recording of an OSAHS patient by a personal computer, a server and a private cloud computing system to demonstrate the efficiency of the infrastructure we proposed. PMID:25205499

Qian, Kun; Guo, Jian; Xu, Huijie; Zhu, Zhaomeng; Zhang, Gongxuan

2014-09-01

348

Perfectly-Secure Key Distribution for Dynamic Conferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key distribution scheme for dynamic conferences is a method by which initiallyan (off-line) trusted server distributes private individual pieces of informationto a set of users. Later, each member of any group of users of a given size (a dynamicconference) can compute a common secure group key. In this paper westudy the theory and applications of such perfectly secure systems.

Carlo Blundo; Alfredo De Santis; Amir Herzberg Shay Kutten; Ugo Vaccaro

1993-01-01

349

TASTY: tool for automating secure two-party computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secure two-party computation allows two untrusting parties to jointly compute an arbitrary function on their respective private inputs while revealing no information beyond the outcome. Existing cryptographic compilers can automatically generate secure computation protocols from high-level specifications, but are often limited in their use and efficiency of generated protocols as they are based on either garbled circuits or (additively) homomorphic

Wilko Henecka; Stefan K ögl; Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi; Thomas Schneider; Immo Wehrenberg

2010-01-01

350

Cryptanalysis and Improvement of an Efficient CCA Secure PKE Scheme  

E-print Network

that it is more efficient in the public/private keys than the famous CS98 and BMW05 CCA secure public key-time signature based on the BMW05 paradigm [2]. The third way owns to the concept of lossy trapdoor function than the famous CS98 and BMW05 CCA secure public key encryption scheme. However we will show

351

Characterisation of hydrocarbonaceous overlayers important in metal-catalysed selective hydrogenation reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrogenation of alkynes to alkenes over supported metal catalysts is an important industrial process and it has been shown that hydrocarbonaceous overlayers are important in controlling selectivity profiles of metal-catalysed hydrogenation reactions. As a model system, we have selected propyne hydrogenation over a commercial Pd(5%)/Al2O3 catalyst. Inelastic neutron scattering studies show that the C-H stretching mode ranges from 2850 to 3063 cm-1, indicating the mostly aliphatic nature of the overlayer and this is supported by the quantification of the carbon and hydrogen on the surface. There is also a population of strongly hydrogen-bonded hydroxyls, their presence would indicate that the overlayer probably contains some oxygen functionality. There is little evidence for any olefinic or aromatic species. This is distinctly different from the hydrogen-poor overlayers that are deposited on Ni/Al2O3 catalysts during methane reforming.

Lennon, David; Warringham, Robbie; Guidi, Tatiana; Parker, Stewart F.

2013-12-01

352

An Evaluation Framework for Structured Peer-to-Peer (Overlay) Networks  

E-print Network

September, 2004 Thesis Supervisor: Vladimir Vlassov Associate Professor IMIT / KTH #12;Abstract An overlay of the writing of the thesis. I would also like to thanks my parents for make and effort to let me expend

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

353

Origin of spurious ultrasonic echoes in stainless steel piping with weld overlay  

SciTech Connect

The initiation and growth of intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of stainless steel reactor piping welds has been a subject of concern to electric utilities for over ten years. This type of crack can be detected with ultrasonic shear waves during normal maintenance periods with a reliability of up to 80%. Often after an inspection indicating cracks, a utility has been allowed to administer a temporary fix to a pipe which is suspected of being cracked. This fix is a weld metal overlay. The repaired pipes often have to be inspected after the overlay has been put on the pipe. The overlay with a complex, elastically anisotropic microstructure, considerably reduces the reliability of the ultrasonic inspection. This paper addresses the problems arising because of the overlay.

Kupperman, D.S.

1986-08-01

354

Imaging simulations of optimized overlay marks with deep sub-resolution features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bright field imaging based metrology performance enhancement is essential in the quest to meet lithography process control requirements below 65 nm half pitch. Recent work has shown that, in parallel to the lithographic processes themselves, the metrology tools are able to continue to perform despite the fact that the size of the features under test are often below the classical Rayleigh resolution limit of the optical system. Full electromagnetic simulation is a mandatory tool in the investigation and optimization of advanced metrology tool and metrology target architectures. In this paper we report on imaging simulations of overlay marks. We benchmark different simulation platforms and methods, focusing in particular on the challenges associated with bright-field imaging overlay metrology of marks with feature sizes below the resolution limit. In particular, we study the dependence of overlay mark contrast and information content on overlay mark pitch and feature size.

Kandel, Daniel; Adel, Michael E.; Frommer, Aviv; Levinski, Vladimir; Rapoport, Alexandra; Silver, Richard M.

2006-03-01

355

Practical Private Regular Expression Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular expressions are a frequently used tool to search in large texts. They provide the ability to compare against a structured pat- tern that can match many text strings and are common to many applica- tions, even programming languages. This paper extends the problem to the private two-party setting where one party has the text string and the other party

Florian Kerschbaum

2006-01-01

356

MANAGEMENT IN PRIVATE CARE ENTERPRISES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the management of private care enterprises in Finland. Management is viewed from an interaction paradigm point of view. Its bases and components are sought from both classic and current management theories as well as from some approaches related to social constructionism. A preliminary survey study was conducted that focused on interactive and discursive practices in the

ANNELI HUJALA; SARI RISSANEN

357

Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development. However,…

Heyneman, Stephen P.

2011-01-01

358

Financing a Private School Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) survey of more than 1,200 individuals who filed financial aid forms underscores the central role financial aid plays in their ability to pursue a private education for their children. This article highlights the survey findings, demonstrating why school leaders need to thoroughly analyze…

Torres, Amanda

2014-01-01

359

Public vs. Private (and beyond)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different types of schools make for different experiences. Pros and cons abound, whether one teaches at a public, private, magnet, or charter school. Although it's certainly true that some individual schools may offer better environments for music education than others, no type of school is categorically the "best." Still, it can be instructive to…

Poliniak, Susan

2012-01-01

360

Interface evaluations of overlay-concrete bi-layer composites by a direct shear test method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interface evaluations of four high-performance concrete overlays cast on top of one type of normal concrete substrate were made by a new direct shear test method. Two different surface preparations such as mechanical abrasion and chemical etching were followed to manufacture 64 overlay–substrate bi-layer specimens. This paper discusses the material properties and fabrication and evaluations of bi-layer specimens. Results show

Indrajit Ray; Julio F. Davalos; Shiwei Luo

2005-01-01

361

Self-aligned double patterning decomposition for overlay minimization and hot spot detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-aligned double patterning (SADP) lithography is a promising technology which can reduce the overlay and print 2D features for sub-32nm process. Yet, how to decompose a layout to minimize the overlay and perform hot spot detection is still an open problem. In this paper, we present an algorithm that can optimally solve the SADP decomposition problem. For a decomposable layout,

Hongbo Zhang; Yuelin Du; Martin D. F. Wong; Rasit Topaloglu

2011-01-01

362

Proximity Neighbor Selection in Tree-Based Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured peer-to-peer (p2p) overlay networks provide a useful substrate for building distributed applications. They assign object keys to overlay nodes and provide a primitive to route a message to the node responsible for a key. Proximit neighbor selection (PNS) can be used to achieve both low delay routes and low bandwidth usage but it introduces high overhead. This paper presents

Miguel Castro; Peter Druschel; Y. Charlie Hu; Antony Rowstron

2003-01-01

363

Security Locks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions affected--perhaps the…

Hart, Kevin

2010-01-01

364

75 FR 80350 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized; Miscellaneous Amendments; Correction AGENCY: Office of...

2010-12-22

365

Private and Oblivious Set and Multiset Operations Marina Blanton and Everaldo Aguiar  

E-print Network

that each participant has access to her private set in the clear. The recent emergence of cloud computing demands techniques for secure outsourcing that will allow the benefits of available cloud services of Computer Science and Engineering University of Notre Dame {mblanton,eaguiar}@nd.edu Abstract Privacy

366

Second Line of Defense Virtual Private Network Guidance for Deployed and New CAS Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the importance of remote access via virtual private network (VPN) for the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Central Alarm System (CAS) sites, the requirements for maintaining secure channels while using VPN and implementation requirements for current and future sites.

Singh, Surya V.; Thronas, Aaron I.

2010-01-01

367

Deploying IP-based Virtual Private Network Across the Global Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discribes an implementation of the VPN (Virtual Private Network) over the Internet for a large-scale customer as a service provider managed service. Furnishing a global corporation with turnkey solution for it's inter and intrabusiness communication needs delivered security, quality and cost efficiencies. The accompanied highly reliable professional customer support further assisted the client in bringing the new applications

STANISLAV MILANOVIC; ZORAN PETROVIC

2001-01-01

368

Strain Response of Hot-Mix Asphalt Overlays for Bottom-Up Reflective Cracking  

E-print Network

This paper examines the strain response of typical HMA overlays above jointed PCC slabs prone to bottom-up reflective cracking. The occurrence of reflective cracking under the combined effect of traffic and environmental loading significantly reduces the design life of the HMA overlays and can lead to its premature failure. In this context, viscoelastic material properties combined with cyclic vehicle loadings and pavement temperature distribution were implemented in a series of FE models in order to study the evolution of horizontal tensile and shear strains at the bottom of the HMA overlay. The effect of several design parameters, such as subbase and subgrade moduli, vehicle speed, overlay thickness, and temperature condition, on the horizontal and shear strain response was investigated. Results obtained show that the rate of horizontal and shear strain increase at the bottom of the HMA overlay drop with higher vehicle speed, higher subgrade modulus, and higher subbase modulus. Moreover, the rate of horizontal strain accumulation increases with higher overlay thickness. Although initial strain values were higher at positive pavement temperature distributions, the corresponding rate of strain increase were higher at negative pavement temperatures. Finally, an extrapolation of the strain history curve for various pavement design parameters was used to estimate the number of cycles for bottom-up crack initiation.

Ziad G. Ghauch; Grace G. Abou Jaoude

2012-03-30

369

Hot cracking susceptibility of Alloy 52M weld overlays onto CF8 stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, weld overlays of Alloy 52M (a nickel-based filler metal) onto CF8 stainless steel (SS) were performed using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Hot cracking in the weld overlays was observed particularly near the interfacial region of the Alloy 52M/CF8 weld overlay. In general, the hot cracks were most likely to occur at the sites with high dilution rates, e.g., at the weld start/end locations of a single pass or in the first and second passes in multi-pass overlays. The region near the weld interface between Alloy 52M and the CF8 SS had a higher hot cracking tendency than the other regions. It was found that the dilution rate and the formation of eutectic-type constituents (i.e., ?/NbC) both played significant roles in the determination of the hot cracking susceptibility of these weld overlays. Nevertheless, hot cracks were entirely eliminated by proper deposition of a SS buffer layer prior to overlaying with Alloy 52M.

Chu, H. A.; Young, M. C.; Chu, H. C.; Tsay, L. W.; Chen, C.

2013-02-01

370

Improved CD and overlay metrology using an optical Fourier transform instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an innovating method to measure the overlay by scatterometry using an optical Fourier transform (OFT) based system. In order to measure the overlay of patterned layers ? and ?, one line grating is placed in layer ? and another in layer ?. The two gratings have the same pitch and their lines are parallel. The whole scattering pattern of the double grating structure is then measured at fixed wavelength in a large range of incidence (0 to 80°) and for all the azimuth angles. This measurement is very rapid thanks to the OFT and not sensitive to vibration. The main advantage of OFT compared to standard OCD techniques like normal incidence reflectometry or spectroscopic ellipsometry is that the scattering pattern is more sensitive to overlay at an azimuth depending on the pitch value which is never parallel or perpendicular to the grooves of the gratings. In addition, the optical response is also sensitive to the sign of the overlay in addition to its amplitude. In a second method, we propose to measure the overlay simultaneously along the two directions of the plane using two bi-periodic structures patterned in layer ? and ?. By using OFT it is possible to deduce directly from the whole diffracted pattern, the overlay signs and amplitudes along both directions of the plane. The paper presents some simulations and some experimental results to illustrate this new method.

Petit, J.; Boher, P.; Leroux, T.; Barritault, P.; Hazart, J.; Chaton, P.

2005-05-01

371

Assessment and prediction of drying shrinkage cracking in bonded mortar overlays  

SciTech Connect

Restrained drying shrinkage cracking was investigated on composite beams consisting of substrate concrete and bonded mortar overlays, and compared to the performance of the same mortars when subjected to the ring test. Stress development and cracking in the composite specimens were analytically modeled and predicted based on the measurement of relevant time-dependent material properties such as drying shrinkage, elastic modulus, tensile relaxation and tensile strength. Overlay cracking in the composite beams could be very well predicted with the analytical model. The ring test provided a useful qualitative comparison of the cracking performance of the mortars. The duration of curing was found to only have a minor influence on crack development. This was ascribed to the fact that prolonged curing has a beneficial effect on tensile strength at the onset of stress development, but is in the same time not beneficial to the values of tensile relaxation and elastic modulus. -- Highlights: •Parameter study on material characteristics influencing overlay cracking. •Analytical model gives good quantitative indication of overlay cracking. •Ring test presents good qualitative indication of overlay cracking. •Curing duration has little effect on overlay cracking.

Beushausen, Hans, E-mail: hans.beushausen@uct.ac.za; Chilwesa, Masuzyo

2013-11-15

372

45-nm design rule in-die overlay metrology on immersion lithography processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layer to layer alignment in optical lithography is controlled by feedback of scanner correctibles provided by analysis of in-line overlay metrology data from product wafers. There is mounting evidence that the "high order" field dependence, i.e. the components which contribute to residuals in a linear model of the overlay across the scanner field will likely need to be measured in production scenarios at the 45 and 32 nm half pitch nodes. This is in particular true in immersion lithography where thermal issues are likely to impact intrafield overlay and double pitch patterning scenarios where the high order reticle feature placement error contribution to the in-die overlay is doubled. Production monitoring of in-field overlay must be achieved without compromise of metrology performance in order to enable sample plans with viable cost of ownership models. In this publication we will show new results of in-die metrology, which indicate that metrology performance comparable with standard scribeline metrology required for the 45 nm node is achievable with significantly reduced target size. Results from dry versus immersion on poly to active 45 nm design rule immersion lithography process layers indicate that a significant reduction in model residuals can be achieved when HO intrafield overlay models are enabled.

Shih, Yu-Hao; Huang, George KC; Yu, Chun-Chi; Adel, Mike; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Izikson, Pavel; Kassel, Elyakim; Mathur, Sameer; Huang, Chien-Jen; Tien, David; Avrahamov, Yosef

2007-03-01

373

Discount rate heterogeneity and social security reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many countries consider the privatization of existing pay-as-you-go Social Security systems, the option to make participation in the new system voluntary may appeal to policy makers who need to obtain the political support of their workers. A critical issue in evaluating such a reform and its economic consequences is the unobserved heterogeneity in households' preferences for consumption. This paper

Andrew A. Samwick

1998-01-01

374

Discount Rate Heterogeneity and Social Security Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many countries consider the privatization of existing pay-as-you-go Social Security systems, the option to make participation in the new system voluntary may appeal to policy makers who need to obtain the political support of their workers. A critical issue in evaluating such a reform and its economic consequences is the unobserved heterogeneity in households' preferences for consumption. This paper

Andrew A. Samwick

1997-01-01

375

STATUS QUO PROBLEM IN SOCIAL SECURITY REFORMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several papers show that a privatization of the social security system will not be politically supported by the current generations. The asymmetry in the timing of welfare gains and losses is what generates a status quo bias in favor of the unfunded system. We explore a simple mechanism to offset the status quo problem using a general-equilibrium overlapping generations model

JUAN CARLOS CONESA; CARLOS GARRIGA

2003-01-01

376

VCSELs with nematic and cholesteric liquid crystal overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study theoretically the spectral and polarization threshold characteristics of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with nematic and cholesteric liquid crystal overlay: LC-VCSELs. In the first case, we demonstrate the possibility of selecting between two orthogonal directions of linear polarization (LP) of the fundamental mode (x or y LP) by choosing appropriate NLC length and to achieve strong polarization discrimination: threshold gain difference as large as several times the threshold gain. We also demonstrate an active control of light polarization by electro-optically tuning the LC director and show that either polarization switching between x and y LP modes or continuous change of the LP direction is possible. For cholesteric LC-VCSEL we show that it becomes a coupled system with different spectral, threshold and polarization characteristics than the ones of the stand-alone VCSEL. Due to the existence of a band gap for circularly polarized light in the liquid crystal, lasing occurs in almost circularly polarized modes at the LC side.

Panajotov, K.; Dems, M.; Belmonte, C.; Thienpont, H.; Xie, Y.; Beeckman, J.; Neyts, K.

2013-03-01

377

Deployable Overlay Network for Defense against Distributed SYN Flood Attacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers have recently become more serious. Most of them are SYN flood attacks, since the malicious attackers can easily exploit the TCP specification to generate traffic making public servers unavailable. We need a defense method which can protect legitimate traffic so that end users can connect the target servers during such attacks. In this paper, we propose a new framework, in which all of the TCP connections to the victim servers from a domain are maintained at the gateways of the domain (i. e., near the clients). We call the nodes maintaining the TCP connection defense nodes. The defense nodes check whether arriving packets are legitimate or not by maintaining the TCP connection. That is, the defense nodes delegate reply packets to the received connection request packets and identify the legitimate packets by checking whether the clients reply to the reply packets. Then, only identified traffic are relayed via overlay networks. As a result, by deploying the defense nodes at the gateways of a domain, the legitimate packets from the domain are relayed apart from other packets including attack packets and protected. Our simulation results show that our method can protect legitimate traffic from the domain deploying our method. We also describe the deployment scenario of our defense mechanism.

Ohsita, Yuichi; Ata, Shingo; Murata, Masayuki

378

ATR studies of evaporated silver films and molecular overlayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Kretschmann geometry consisting of a hemicylindrical glass prism and an evaporated film of Ag on a flat surface, we have studied the attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectra of the Ag film by itself and with molecular overlayers of pyridine and water. The entire experiment including Ag evaporation was carried out in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber. The surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in a "cold evaporated" Ag film are heavily damped, and annealing of the film decreases the damping appreciably. When the annealing temperature exceeds 220 K the optical properties of the film change irreversibly. A fraction of a monolayer of pyridine or water on the Ag film can be easily detected by changes in the ATR spectrum. Both pyridine and water are adsorbed in a smooth monolayer. Above the first monolayer the pyridine film develops surface roughness, while the water film grows with a smooth surface. The implications of these findings on the mechanism of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are discussed.

Giergiel, J.; Reed, C. E.; Ushioda, S.; Hemminger, J. C.

1985-07-01

379

33 CFR 125.17 - Persons eligible for Coast Guard Port Security Cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for Coast Guard Port Security Cards. (a) Only the following...issued Coast Guard Port Security Cards: (1) Persons regularly...having regular public or private business connected with the operation...not be issued a Port Security Card, unless his Merchant...

2011-07-01

380

33 CFR 125.17 - Persons eligible for Coast Guard Port Security Cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for Coast Guard Port Security Cards. (a) Only the following...issued Coast Guard Port Security Cards: (1) Persons regularly...having regular public or private business connected with the operation...not be issued a Port Security Card, unless his Merchant...

2013-07-01

381

33 CFR 125.17 - Persons eligible for Coast Guard Port Security Cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for Coast Guard Port Security Cards. (a) Only the following...issued Coast Guard Port Security Cards: (1) Persons regularly...having regular public or private business connected with the operation...not be issued a Port Security Card, unless his Merchant...

2012-07-01

382

33 CFR 125.17 - Persons eligible for Coast Guard Port Security Cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for Coast Guard Port Security Cards. (a) Only the following...issued Coast Guard Port Security Cards: (1) Persons regularly...having regular public or private business connected with the operation...not be issued a Port Security Card, unless his Merchant...

2014-07-01

383

THE ADVANCED COURSE IN ENGINEERING ON CYBER A Learning Community for Developing Cyber-Security Leaders  

E-print Network

THE ADVANCED COURSE IN ENGINEERING ON CYBER SECURITY A Learning Community for Developing Cyber in Engineering on Cyber Security (ACE-CS) is a public- private partnership to develop top ROTC cadets into the next generation of cyber security leaders. Modeled after the General Electric Advanced Course

Older, Susan

384

Trusted virtual domains on OKL4: secure information sharing on smartphones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flexibility and computing power of modern smartphones to install and execute various applications allows for a rich user experience but also imposes several security concerns. Smartphones that are used both for private and corporate purposes do not separate the data and applications of different security domains, and users are usually too unskilled to deploy and configure extra security mechanisms.

Lucas Davi; Alexandra Dmitrienko; Christoph Kowalski; Marcel Winandy

2011-01-01

385

The Effect of State-Legalized Same-Sex Marriage on Social Security Benefits and Pensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the 2004 legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts, many have questioned how the legalization of such marriages at the state level may affect the eligibility for and payment of federal Social Security benefits and private pensions. Social Security benefits are currently paid to the spouses of disabled, retired, or deceased workers entitled to Social Security. However, under current law,

Laura Haltzel; Patrick Purcell

2008-01-01

386

Security Intrusion & Detection Security Intrusion  

E-print Network

intrusions, log suspicious events, and send alerts ­ can detect both external and internal intrusions · two" (argument: ""): initialization failed. 23 Anomaly Detection: threshold detection · checks "excessive" events1 16 Security Intrusion & Detection · Security Intrusion ­ One or combination of security events

Dong, Yingfei

387

Governmental-Owner Power Imbalance and Privatization  

E-print Network

of privatization from an organizational perspective. This dissertation proposes that privatization decisions of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) are influenced by different interests in governmental agencies. Using the resource dependence theory, I studied the power...

Xu, Kehan

2011-10-21

388

NASA and Public-Private Partnerships  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews ways to build public-private partnerships with NASA, and the many efforts that Ames Research Center is engaged in in building partnerships with private businesses, not profit organizations and universities.

Martin, Gary L.

2010-01-01

389

Asphalt overlay design methods for rigid pavements considering rutting, reflection cracking, and fatigue cracking. Research report September 1996--August 1997  

SciTech Connect

An asphalt concrete pavement (ACP) overlay over a rigid pavement represents a viable rehabilitation strategy. It can provide good serviceability at an initial construction cost that is substantially less than that of a rigid overlay rehabilitation. In addition, ACP overlays require less construction time, which can reduce user costs during construction. However, it may not be the most economical solution for long-term rehabilitation. Because of their relatively short service life, ACP overlays may require maintenance sooner than rigid overlays. And one of the more critical distresses that effectively determine the life span of the structure is reflection cracking. This report investigates alternative strategies that seek to prevent reflection cracking on ACP overlays.

Cho, Y.H.; Liu, C.; Dossey, T.; McCullough, B.F.

1998-10-01

390

Why Do Governments Privatize Abroad&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privatization through global equity market placement has largely contributed to financial market development and integration. Despite the relevance of the fact, the reasons underlying governments' choice to sell shares of privatized companies abroad are still poorly understood. This paper presents new evidence for a sample of 233 share issue privatizations in 20 OECD countries, showing that redistribution concerns and the

Bernardo Bortolotti; Marcella Fantini; Carlo Scarpa

2002-01-01

391

An Alternative Instrument for Private School Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical studies estimating the effect of private school competition on student outcomes commonly use the share of Catholics in the local population as an instrument for private school competition. I show that this is not a valid instrument since it is endogenous to private school competition and suggest using instead the local share of Catholics…

Cohen-Zada, D.

2009-01-01

392

Private Fingerprint Matching Siamak F. Shahandashti1  

E-print Network

Private Fingerprint Matching Siamak F. Shahandashti1 , Reihaneh Safavi-Naini2 , and Philip Ogunbona private fingerprint matching protocol that compares two fin- gerprints based on the most widely-used minutia-based fingerprint matching algorithm. The protocol enables two parties, each holding a private

393

22 CFR 216.4 - Private applicants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from A.I.D. is sought by private applicants, such as PVOs...for financing submitted by private applicants shall be...I.D. Missions with total life of project costs less than...or activities submitted by private applicants. The final...

2010-04-01

394

Private Manned Space Plane Unveiled  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 18, 2003, an historic event in space travel was marked by the unveiling of the first private manned spacecraft and launch platform (called SpaceShipOne and White Knight, respectively). Already constructed and in the test flight stage of its development, the project was hidden from the public in order to reveal a finished product rather than just schematics. The news article describes the in-flight demonstration of White Knight and the systems testing of SpaceShipOne. Scaled Composites, the private company that developed the spacecraft, gives data sheets and photos on its homepage. A detailed list of frequently asked questions addresses many issues regarding the project and its implications.

Bonne, Jon.

2003-01-01

395

Private Mineral Project - Part 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this semester-long private mineral project, students become experts on one mineral. They write a paper about their mineral and use key information about it to publish a web page. Information should include provenance, physical properties, composition, recent related literature, photos of samples, optical properties, x-ray pattern, crystallography, economic value, atomic structure, other closely related minerals, associated myths, and a complete list of references based on GSA format.

Dexter Perkins

396

A report the difference features of a multi-agent using an overlay knowledge in the fire panic problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

his report of this paper shows a performance of the heterogeneous multi-agent system using the overlay knowledge technique. The overlay knowledge is one kind of layered rule- based system. Basic idea is the tile-coding rule on reinforcement learning. But In the tile-coding rule, all reinforced rules are spread any categorical states of rule table. Proposal style of overlay knowledge is

Yukinobu Hoshino

2011-01-01

397

Simultaneous overlay and CD measurement for double patterning: scatterometry and RCWA approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As optical lithography advances to 32 nm technology node and beyond, double patterning technology (DPT) has emerged as an attractive solution to circumvent the fundamental optical limitations. DPT poses unique demands on critical dimension (CD) uniformity and overlay control, making the tolerance decrease much faster than the rate at which critical dimension shrinks. This, in turn, makes metrology even more challenging. In the past, multi-pad diffractionbased overlay (DBO) using empirical approach has been shown to be an effective approach to measure overlay error associated with double patterning [1]. In this method, registration errors for double patterning were extracted from specially designed diffraction targets (three or four pads for each direction); CD variation is assumed negligible within each group of adjacent pads and not addressed in the measurement. In another paper, encouraging results were reported with a first attempt at simultaneously extracting overlay and CD parameters using scatterometry [2]. In this work, we apply scatterometry with a rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) approach to characterize two double-patterning processes: litho-etch-litho-etch (LELE) and litho-freeze-litho-etch (LFLE). The advantage of performing rigorous modeling is to reduce the number of pads within each measurement target, thus reducing space requirement and improving throughput, and simultaneously extract CD and overlay information. This method measures overlay errors and CDs by fitting the optical signals with spectra calculated from a model of the targets. Good correlation is obtained between the results from this method and that of several reference techniques, including empirical multi-pad DBO, CD-SEM, and IBO. We also perform total measurement uncertainty (TMU) analysis to evaluate the overall performance. We demonstrate that scatterometry provides a promising solution to meet the challenging overlay metrology requirement in DPT.

Li, Jie; Liu, Zhuan; Rabello, Silvio; Dasari, Prasad; Kritsun, Oleg; Volkman, Catherine; Park, Jungchul; Singh, Lovejeet

2009-03-01

398

Using the overlay assay to qualitatively measure bacterial production of and sensitivity to pneumococcal bacteriocins.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the highly diverse polymicrobial community of the nasopharynx where it must compete with resident organisms. We have shown that bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) dictate the outcome of these competitive interactions. All fully-sequenced pneumococcal strains harbor a bacteriocin-like peptide (blp) locus. The blp locus encodes for a range of diverse bacteriocins and all of the highly conserved components needed for their regulation, processing, and secretion. The diversity of the bacteriocins found in the bacteriocin immunity region (BIR) of the locus is a major contributor of pneumococcal competition. Along with the bacteriocins, immunity genes are found in the BIR and are needed to protect the producer cell from the effects of its own bacteriocin. The overlay assay is a quick method for examining a large number of strains for competitive interactions mediated by bacteriocins. The overlay assay also allows for the characterization of bacteriocin-specific immunity, and detection of secreted quorum sensing peptides. The assay is performed by pre-inoculating an agar plate with a strain to be tested for bacteriocin production followed by application of a soft agar overlay containing a strain to be tested for bacteriocin sensitivity. A zone of clearance surrounding the stab indicates that the overlay strain is sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by the pre-inoculated strain. If no zone of clearance is observed, either the overlay strain is immune to the bacteriocins being produced or the pre-inoculated strain does not produce bacteriocins. To determine if the blp locus is functional in a given strain, the overlay assay can be adapted to evaluate for peptide pheromone secretion by the pre-inoculated strain. In this case, a series of four lacZ-reporter strains with different pheromone specificity are used in the overlay. PMID:25350516

Maricic, Natalie; Dawid, Suzanne

2014-01-01

399

Spidercast: A scalable interest aware overlay for topic-based pub/sub communication  

E-print Network

We introduce SpiderCast, a distributed protocol for constructing scalable churn-resistant overlay topologies for supporting decentralized topic-based pub/sub communication. SpiderCast is designed to effectively tread the balance between average overlay degree and communication cost of event dissemination. It employs a novel coverage-optimizing heuristic in which the nodes utilize partial subscription views (provided by a decentralized membership service) to reduce the average node degree while guaranteeing (with high probability) that the events posted on each topic can be routed solely through the nodes interested in this topic (in other words, the overlay is topic-connected). SpiderCast is unique in maintaining an overlay topology that scales well with the average number of topics a node is subscribed to, assuming the subscriptions are correlated insofar as found in most typical workloads. Furthermore, the degree grows logarithmically in the total number of topics, and slowly decreases as the number of nodes increases. We show experimentally that, for many practical workloads, the SpiderCast overlays are both topic-connected and have a low per-topic diameter while requiring each node to maintain a low average number of connections. These properties are satisfied even in very large settings involving up to 10, 000 nodes, 1, 000 topics, and 70 subscriptions per-node, and under high churn rates. In addition, our results demonstrate that, in a large setting, the average node degree in SpiderCast is at least 45 % smaller than in other overlays typically used to support decentralized pub/sub communication (such as e.g., similarity-based, rings-based, and random overlays).

Gregory Chockler; Roie Melamed; Yoav Tock

2006-01-01

400

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Research is presently being conducted to develop a criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in Circulated Fluidized Beds. Initially, eleven weld overlay alloys were selected for erosion testing based upon a literature review. All eleven coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400 C and their erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. In addition, the microstructure of each coating was characterized before and after the erosion tests. No correlations were found between room temperature hardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature. It was suggested that weld overlays mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates may contributed to their erosion resistance. During the previous two quarters the microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples in order to determine the size of the work hardened zone and the change in the coatings hardness due to erosion. As a result of these measurements it was established that one group of coatings deformed plastically, while another did not. In addition, the measurements of the weld overlays microhardness at 400 C were made. The coatings microhardness at 400 C was plotted versus their volume erosion rates. During the last quarter, erosion tests were performed for Inconel-625, 316L SS, and Iron-Aluminide wrought alloys in order to compare their erosion behavior with similar weld overlays. The results of microhardness profile measurements for all weld overlay coatings were analyzed. The factors that contribute to the erosion resistance of the coatings that deformed plastically are discussed in this progress report.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1994-10-26

401

49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.201 Security of the secured...

2010-10-01

402

49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.201 Security of the secured...

2011-10-01

403

49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.201 Security of the secured...

2012-10-01

404

49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.201 Security of the secured...

2014-10-01

405

49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.201 Security of the secured...

2013-10-01

406

Infrared differential interference contrast microscopy for overlay metrology on 3D-interconnect bonded wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay metrology for stacked layers will be playing a key role in bringing 3D IC devices into manufacturing. However, such bonded wafer pairs present a metrology challenge for optical microscopy tools by the opaque nature of silicon. Using infrared microscopy, silicon wafers become transparent to the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, enabling metrology at the interface of bonded wafer pairs. Wafers can be bonded face to face (F2F) or face to back (F2B) which the stacking direction is dictated by how the stacks are carried in the process and functionality required. For example, Memory stacks tend to use F2B stacking enables a better managed design. Current commercial tools use single image technique for F2F bonding overlay measurement because depth of focus is sufficient to include both surfaces; and use multiple image techniques for F2B overlay measurement application for the depth of focus is no longer sufficient to include both stacked wafer surfaces. There is a need to specify the Z coordinate or stacking wafer number through the silicon when visiting measurement wafer sites. Two shown images are of the same (X, Y) but separate Z location acquired at focus position of each wafer surface containing overlay marks. Usually the top surface image is bright and clear; however, the bottom surface image is somewhat darker and noisier as an adhesive layer is used in between to bond the silicon wafers. Thus the top and bottom surface images are further processed to achieve similar brightness and noise level before merged for overlay measurement. This paper presents a special overlay measurement technique, using the infrared differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy technique to measure the F2B wafer bonding overlay by a single shot image. A pair of thinned wafers at 50 and 150 ?m thickness is bonded on top of a carrier wafer to evaluate the bonding overlay. It works on the principle of interferometry to gain information about the optical path length of the stacked wafers, to enhance the image contrast of overlay marks features even though they are locating in different Z plane. A two dimensional mirror-symmetric overlay marks for both top and bottom processing wafers is designed and printed in each die in order to know and realize the best achievable wafer to wafer bonding processing. A self-developed analysis algorithms is used to identify the overlay error between the stacking wafers and the interconnect structures. The experimental overlay results after wafer bonding including inter-die and intra-die analysis results will be report in the full paper. Correlation of overlay alignment offset data to electrical yield, provides an early indication of bonded wafer yield.

Ku, Yi-sha; Shyu, Deh-Ming; Lin, Yeou-Sung; Cho, Chia-Hung

2013-04-01

407

Health care privatization in latin america: comparing divergent privatization approaches in chile, Colombia, and Mexico.  

PubMed

The public-private mix in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico was very similar until the early 1980s when Chile undertook health care privatization as part of comprehensive health care reform. Since then, health care privatization policies have diverged in these countries. In this study we characterize health care privatization in Latin America and identify the main factors that promoted and hindered privatization by comparing the experiences of these countries. We argue that policy elites took advantage of specific policy environments and the diffusion of privatization policies to promote health care privatization while political mobilization against privatization, competing policy priorities, weak market and government institutions, and efforts to reach universal health insurance hindered privatization. The privatization approaches of Chile and Colombia were classified as "big-bang," since these countries implemented health care privatization more rapidly and with a wider scope compared with the case of Mexico, which was classified as gradualist, since the privatization path followed by this country adopted a slower pace and became more limited and focalized over time. We conclude that the emphasis on policy-driven privatization diminished in the 1990s and 2000s because of increased public health care financing and a shift in health care reform priorities. Health care privatization in the region, however, continued as a consequence of demand-driven privatization. PMID:24842976

Bustamante, Arturo Vargas; Méndez, Claudio A

2014-08-01

408

[Personalized medicine, privatized medicine? Legal and public health stakes].  

PubMed

Personalized medicine is booming. It tends to provide a medical management "tailored" for groups of patients, or for one unique patient, but also to identify risk groups to develop public health strategies. In this context, some radicalization phenomenon can emerge, leading to not only personalized medicine but also privatized medicine, which can lead to a capture of the medical public resource. If the "privatization" of medicine is not limited to producing adverse effects, several potentially destabilizing phenomena for patients still remain. First, some objective factors, like the adjustment of scientific prerequisites, are emerging from personalized medicine practices (clinical trial, public health policy) and are interfering with the medical doctor/patient relationship. Another risk emerges for patients concomitantly to their demand for controlling their own health, in terms of patients' security although these risks are not clearly identified and not effectively communicated. These practices, related to a privatized medicine, develop within the healthcare system but also outside, and the government and legislators will have to take into account these new dimensions in drafting their future regulations and policies. PMID:25407457

Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle

2014-11-01

409

A comparison of methods for in-chip overlay control at the 65-nm node  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay metrology for production line-monitor and advanced process control (APC) has been dominated by 4-corner box-in-box (BiB) methods for many years. As we proceed following the ITRS roadmap with the development of 65 nm technologies and beyond, it becomes apparent that current overlay methodologies are becoming inadequate for the stringent requirements that lie ahead. It is already apparent that kerf metrology of large scale BiB structures does not correlate well with in-chip design-rule features. The recent introduction of the Advanced Imaging Metrology (AIM) target, utilizing increased information content and advanced design and process compatibility, has demonstrated significant improvements in precision and overlay mark fidelity (OMF) in advanced processes. This paper compares methodologies and strategies for addressing cross-field variation of overlay and pattern placement issues. We compare the trade-offs of run-time intra-field sampling plans and the use of off-line lithography characterization and advanced modeling analysis, and propose new methodologies to address advanced overlay metrology and control.

Robinson, John C.; Stakely, Mark; Poplawski, Jorge M.; Izikson, Pavel; Kassel, Elyakim; Adel, Mike E.

2004-05-01

410

The challenges of transitioning from linear to high-order overlay control in advanced lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the lithography section of the ITRS 2006 update, at the top of the list of difficult challenges appears the text "overlay of multiple exposures including mask image placement". This is a reflection of the fact that today overlay is becoming a major yield risk factor in semiconductor manufacturing. Historically, lithographers have achieved sufficient alignment accuracy and hence layer to layer overlay control by relying on models which define overlay as a linear function of the field and wafer coordinates. These linear terms were easily translated to correctibles in the available exposure tool degrees of freedom on the wafer and reticle stages. However, as the 45 nm half pitch node reaches production, exposure tool vendors have begun to make available, and lithographers have begun to utilize so called high order wafer and field control, in which either look up table or high order polynomial models are modified on a product by product basis. In this paper, the major challenges of this transition will be described. It will include characterization of the sources of variation which need to be controlled by these new models and the overlay and alignment sampling optimization problem which needs to be addressed, while maintaining the ever tightening demands on productivity and cost of ownership.

Adel, M.; Izikson, P.; Tien, D.; Huang, C. K.; Robinson, J. C.; Eichelberger, B.

2008-03-01

411

A new method for generating an invariant iris private key based on the fuzzy vault system.  

PubMed

Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment. PMID:18784013

Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie

2008-10-01

412

Physical Security  

SciTech Connect

The future of physical security at government facilities and national laboratories is rapidly progressing beyond the cliché of gates, guns and guards, and is quickly being replaced by radars, sensors and cameras. Learn more about INL's security research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2008-01-01

413

34 CFR 600.31 - Change in ownership resulting in a change in control for private nonprofit, private for-profit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...control for private nonprofit, private for-profit and public institutions. 600.31...control for private nonprofit, private for-profit and public institutions. (a...a private nonprofit, private for-profit, or public institution that...

2012-07-01

414

34 CFR 600.31 - Change in ownership resulting in a change in control for private nonprofit, private for-profit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...control for private nonprofit, private for-profit and public institutions. 600.31...control for private nonprofit, private for-profit and public institutions. (a...a private nonprofit, private for-profit, or public institution that...

2013-07-01

415

34 CFR 600.31 - Change in ownership resulting in a change in control for private nonprofit, private for-profit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...control for private nonprofit, private for-profit and public institutions. 600.31...control for private nonprofit, private for-profit and public institutions. (a...a private nonprofit, private for-profit, or public institution that...

2011-07-01

416

34 CFR 600.31 - Change in ownership resulting in a change in control for private nonprofit, private for-profit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...control for private nonprofit, private for-profit and public institutions. 600.31...control for private nonprofit, private for-profit and public institutions. (a...a private nonprofit, private for-profit, or public institution that...

2010-07-01

417

34 CFR 600.31 - Change in ownership resulting in a change in control for private nonprofit, private for-profit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...control for private nonprofit, private for-profit and public institutions. 600.31...control for private nonprofit, private for-profit and public institutions. (a...a private nonprofit, private for-profit, or public institution that...

2014-07-01

418

Weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Task A: Literature review, progress report  

SciTech Connect

A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-03-03

419

Threshold analysis of the susceptible-infected-susceptible model on overlay networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on overlay networks in which n multiple sets of links interconnect among the same nodes. By using the microscopic Markov-chain approximation (MMA) approach, we establish the conditions of epidemic outbreak for two kinds of spreading mechanisms in such an overlay network: the concatenation case and the switching case. When a uniform infection rate is set in all the subnetworks, we find the epidemic threshold for the switching case is just n times as large as that of concatenation case. We also find that the overlay network with a uniform infection rate can be considered as an equivalent (in the sense of epidemic dynamics and epidemic threshold) weighted network. To be specific, the concatenation case corresponds to the integer weighted network, while the switching case corresponds to the fractional weighted network. Interestingly, the time-varying unweighted network can be mapped into the static weighted network. Our analytic results exhibit good agreement with numerical simulations.

Wu, Qingchu; Zhang, Haifeng; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu

2014-07-01

420

High strength and corrosion resistant alloys weld overlays for oil patch applications  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion resistant alloys (CRAs) are specified for oilfield applications where severe environments cause general corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, chloride stress corrosion cracking and more importantly sulfide stress cracking. Historically, alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay has successfully been used in severely corrosive environments. Alloy 686 (UNS N06686) and alloy 725 (UNS N07725) have recently been evaluated as replacement materials for alloy 625. Alloy 686, because of it`s high alloying content, exhibits superior corrosion resistance to alloy 625. And, alloy 725 is a highly corrosion resistant alloy capable of being age hardened to 0.2% yield strengths of above 827 MPa (120 ksi) Mechanical properties and Slow Strain Rate test results for the alloy 686 and alloy 725 weld overlays are discussed relative to alloy 625, alloy C-22 (UNS N06622) and alloy 59 (UNS N06059) weld overlays.

Hibner, E.L. [Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States); Maligas, M.N.; Vicic, J.C. [FMC Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-10-01

421

40-Gb/s FSK modulated WDM-PON with variable-rate multicast overlay.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a novel conjugate-driven frequency shift keying (FSK) modulated wavelength division multiplexing passive network (WDM-PON) with variable-rate multicast services. Optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is adopted for multicast overlay services with different rate requirements. A differential detection is used for the demodulation of FSK signal, which can eliminate the crosstalk from the OFDM signal. A total 40-Gb/s FSK point to point (P2P) signal and 6.3-Gb/s OFDM overlay with three kinds of variable-rate multicast services are experimentally demonstrated. A physical-layer adaptive identification is proposed for the variable-rate multicast services. After 25 km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission, the power penalties of FSK P2P signal and OFDM multicast overlay are 1.3 dB and 1.7 dB respectively. PMID:21716492

Xin, Xiangjun; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Yu, Jianjun

2011-06-20

422

Investigation on synchronization of the offset printing process for fine patterning and precision overlay  

SciTech Connect

Offset printing processes are promising candidates for producing printed electronics due to their capacity for fine patterning and suitability for mass production. To print high-resolution patterns with good overlay using offset printing, the velocities of two contact surfaces, which ink is transferred between, should be synchronized perfectly. However, an exact velocity of the contact surfaces is unknown due to several imperfections, including tolerances, blanket swelling, and velocity ripple, which prevents the system from being operated in the synchronized condition. In this paper, a novel method of measurement based on the sticking model of friction force was proposed to determine the best synchronized condition, i.e., the condition in which the rate of synchronization error is minimized. It was verified by experiment that the friction force can accurately represent the rate of synchronization error. Based on the measurement results of the synchronization error, the allowable margin of synchronization error when printing high-resolution patterns was investigated experimentally using reverse offset printing. There is a region where the patterning performance is unchanged even though the synchronization error is varied, and this may be viewed as indirect evidence that printability performance is secured when there is no slip at the contact interface. To understand what happens at the contact surfaces during ink transfer, the deformation model of the blanket's surface was developed. The model estimates how much deformation on the blanket's surface can be borne by the synchronization error when there is no slip at the contact interface. In addition, the model shows that the synchronization error results in scale variation in the machine direction (MD), which means that the printing registration in the MD can be adjusted actively by controlling the synchronization if there is a sufficient margin of synchronization error to guarantee printability. The effect of synchronization on the printing registration was verified experimentally using gravure offset printing. The variations in synchronization result in the differences in the MD scale, and the measured MD scale matches exactly with the modeled MD scale.

Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Eonseok; Kim, Hyunchang; Choi, Young-Man; Lee, Seunghyun; Kim, Inyoung; Yoon, Dukkyun; Jo, Jeongdai; Kim, Bongmin; Lee, Taik-Min, E-mail: taikmin@kimm.re.kr [Advanced Manufacturing Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Gajeongbuk-Ro 156, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-06-21

423

Investigation on synchronization of the offset printing process for fine patterning and precision overlay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offset printing processes are promising candidates for producing printed electronics due to their capacity for fine patterning and suitability for mass production. To print high-resolution patterns with good overlay using offset printing, the velocities of two contact surfaces, which ink is transferred between, should be synchronized perfectly. However, an exact velocity of the contact surfaces is unknown due to several imperfections, including tolerances, blanket swelling, and velocity ripple, which prevents the system from being operated in the synchronized condition. In this paper, a novel method of measurement based on the sticking model of friction force was proposed to determine the best synchronized condition, i.e., the condition in which the rate of synchronization error is minimized. It was verified by experiment that the friction force can accurately represent the rate of synchronization error. Based on the measurement results of the synchronization error, the allowable margin of synchronization error when printing high-resolution patterns was investigated experimentally using reverse offset printing. There is a region where the patterning performance is unchanged even though the synchronization error is varied, and this may be viewed as indirect evidence that printability performance is secured when there is no slip at the contact interface. To understand what happens at the contact surfaces during ink transfer, the deformation model of the blanket's surface was developed. The model estimates how much deformation on the blanket's surface can be borne by the synchronization error when there is no slip at the contact interface. In addition, the model shows that the synchronization error results in scale variation in the machine direction (MD), which means that the printing registration in the MD can be adjusted actively by controlling the synchronization if there is a sufficient margin of synchronization error to guarantee printability. The effect of synchronization on the printing registration was verified experimentally using gravure offset printing. The variations in synchronization result in the differences in the MD scale, and the measured MD scale matches exactly with the modeled MD scale.

Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Eonseok; Kim, Hyunchang; Choi, Young-Man; Lee, Seunghyun; Kim, Inyoung; Yoon, Dukkyun; Jo, Jeongdai; Kim, Bongmin; Lee, Taik-Min

2014-06-01

424

Domain growth and rate processes in adsorbed overlayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Employing Monte Carlo simulations, we show special features of the kinetics of three different surface processes affected by or interfering with domain growth (i.e. with the continuous order-disorder phase transition) in the adsorbed overlayer. (i) The formation of the c(2×2) A domains is studied in the situation when this process is complicated by the Eley-Rideal A+ B? AB reaction occurring under the steady-state conditions in the gas phase. The reaction mechanism includes A adsorption an vacant sites Agas? Aads, and A consumption in collisions with gas-phase B particles, Aads+ Bgas?( AB) gas. Diffusion of adsorbed A particles is simulated by using the realistic and Metropolis algorithms. In both cases, the reaction terminates the domain growth. The average size, R, of domains formed under the reaction conditions is found to be approximately proportional to 1/ P2, where P<1 is the parameter characterizing the ratio of the rates of reaction and diffusion. If the reaction is switched off, the domain growth is described by the standard Allen-Cahn equation, R( t)? A+ Bt1/2. (ii) Dissociative adsorption, ( A2) gas?2 Aads, occurring via trapping of A2 molecules into precursor states followed by the transitions to the chemisorbed state, is analyzed in the case when adsorbed A particles form domains. The A2 sticking coefficient is demonstrated first to decrease with increasing R and then to become independent of R. The latter is realized in the limit when R2 is much larger than the mean-square displacement of an A2 molecule during its random walk over precursor states. (iii) Tracer diffusion of single B particles, occurring via jumps to nearest-neighbour vacant sites, is studied in the situation when these particles are cooperatively coadsorbed with A particles which form domains. For employed (presumably reasonable) adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, the effective diffusion coefficient of B particles is found to increase with increasing the average size of A domains, because the rate of B diffusion inside the A domains appears to be faster than near the domain boundaries.

Zhdanov, V. P.

1998-04-01

425

Structure and properties of citrate overlayers adsorbed at the aqueous au(111) interface.  

PubMed

One of the most common means of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) biofunctionalization involves the manipulation of precursor citrate-capped AuNPs via ligand displacement. However, the molecular-level structural characteristics of the citrate overlayer adsorbed at the aqueous Au interface at neutral pH remain largely unknown. Access to atomistic-scale details of these interfaces will contribute much needed insight into how AuNPs can be manipulated and exploited in aqueous solution. Here, the structures of such citrate overlayers adsorbed at the aqueous Au(111) interface at pH 7 are predicted and characterized using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, for a range of citrate surface densities. We find that the overlayers are disordered in the surface density range considered, and that many of their key characteristics are invariant with surface density. In particular, we predict the overlayers to have 3-D, rather than 2-D, morphologies, with the anions closest to the gold surface being oriented with their carboxylate groups pointing away from the surface. We predict both striped and island morphologies for our overlayers, depending on the citrate surface density, and in all cases we find bare patches of the gold surface are present. Our simulations suggest that both citrate-gold adsorption and citrate-counterion pairing contribute to the stability of these citrate overlayer morphologies. We also calculate the free energy of adsorption at the aqueous Au(111) interface of a single citrate molecule, and compare this with the corresponding value for a single arginine molecule. These findings enable us to predict the conditions under which ligand displacement of surface-adsorbed citrate by arginine may take place. Our findings represent the first steps toward elucidating a more elaborate, detailed atomistic-scale model relating to the biofunctionalization of citrate-capped AuNPs. PMID:25454252

Wright, Louise B; Rodger, P Mark; Walsh, Tiffany R

2014-12-23

426

Secure Objectives for School Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

Dalton-Noblitt, April

2012-01-01

427

Improving the Fault Resilience of Overlay Multicast for Media Streaming Guang Tan, Stephen A. Jarvis and Daniel P. Spooner  

E-print Network

Improving the Fault Resilience of Overlay Multicast for Media Streaming Guang Tan, Stephen A resilience of overlay-based live media streaming from two aspects: (1) how to construct a stable multicast techniques to enhance the fault resilience of live media streaming: the Reliability-Oriented Switching Tree

Jarvis, Stephen

428

O3: Optimized Overlay-based Opportunistic Routing Mi Kyung Han Apurv Bhartia Lili Qiu Eric Rozner  

E-print Network

) opportunistic routing is beneficial under high loss rates, whereas inter-flow coding is more effective under low this goal is a strong tension between oppor- tunistic routing and inter-flow network coding: to achieve high routing and rate limiting to pro- vide efficient and reliable overlay links for the overlay network

Qiu, Lili

429

Supporting Rapid Mobility via Locality in an Overlay Network Ben Y. Zhao, Anthony D. Joseph and John Kubiatowicz  

E-print Network

routed to their new location. While the total number of cell crossings per minute is relatively smallSupporting Rapid Mobility via Locality in an Overlay Network Ben Y. Zhao, Anthony D. Joseph Berkeley, California 94720 #12; Supporting Rapid Mobility via Locality in an Overlay Network Ben Y. Zhao

Zhao, Ben Y.

430

Supporting Rapid Mobility via Locality in an Overlay Network Ben Y. Zhao, Anthony D. Joseph and John Kubiatowicz  

E-print Network

routed to their new location. While the total number of cell crossings per minute is relatively smallSupporting Rapid Mobility via Locality in an Overlay Network Ben Y. Zhao, Anthony D. Joseph Berkeley, California 94720 #12;Supporting Rapid Mobility via Locality in an Overlay Network Ben Y. Zhao

Kubiatowicz, John D.

431

Theory of spin-polarized metastable-He deexcitation on a metal surface with an overlayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent experiment by Hart et al. the spin-polarization and energy distribution of electrons emitted in the interaction between metastable He(2 3S) and Cu with a K overlayer was measured as a function of their kinetic energy. The ejected electron energy distribution is found to be sharply peaked at the highest energies with a spin-polarization around 75%. The purpose of this work is to show the crucial role played by Auger deexcitation and secondary electrons to explain both the energy distribution and the spin-polarization. Using a simple model for Cu with an overlayer our calculation shows a good agreement with the experimental results.

Salmi, L. A.

1992-09-01

432

A Spatial Overlay Ranking Method for a Geospatial Search of Text Objects  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earth-science researchers need the capability to find relevant information by location and topic. Conventional geographic techniques that simply check whether polygons intersect can efficiently achieve a high recall on location, but can not achieve precision for ranking results in likely order of importance to the reader. A spatial overlay ranking based upon how well an object's footprint matches the search area provides a more effective way to spatially search a collection of reports, and avoids many of the problems associated with an 'in/out' (True/False) boolean search. Moreover, spatial overlay ranking appears to work well even when spatial extent is defined only by a simple bounding box.

Lanfear, Kenneth J.

2006-01-01

433

A safety evaluation for overlay disbonding of high-temperature and pressure vessels  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen induced disbonding test (autoclave test) of stainless weld-overlaid 2-1/4Cr-1Mo and 2-1/4Cr-1Mo-1/4V steel, and the calculations of residual hydrogen contents at the fusion boundary in the specimens and actual vessels, were performed. The effects of microstructure of weld overlay near the fusion boundary and postweld heat treatment on disbonding resistance were clarified, and critical hydrogen content values in weld overlay to prevent disbonding were obtained. A simple evaluation method for disbonding in actual vessels using Tempering Parameter was established.

Horita, Ryuichi; Nakajima; Hiroyuki [Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Osaka (Japan). Technical Research Institute; Tanaka, Kazunori; Murakami, Shunzo [Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Kumamoto (Japan). Ariake Works; Fujii, Tadaomi [Nichizo Tech Incorporation, Osaka (Japan). Technology Headquarters

1995-11-01

434

Wireless Overlay Backhauling over Bidirectional Colorless WDM-PONs: the Impact of the Baseband Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Next generation wavelength division multiplexed passive optical access networks (WDM-PON), employing reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOAs), can provide a cost effective solution to jointly support both, classic PON services and transparent overlay wireless backhauling. In this approach, the wireless signals are transparently transmitted over the WDMPON, thus creating a virtual dedicated network without incurring into additional network installation and maintenance costs. In this paper, the performance of a WDM-PON transmitting an overlay orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless signal is assessed analytically and experimentally, with relevant system impairments being identified and system design guidelines are provided.

Avó, Ricardo; Medeiros, Maria C. R.

2013-12-01

435

Learning from social security reforms: Two different cases, Chile and Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares two of the most important structural reforms of social security in Latin America: the Chilean private fully funded system, and the public\\/private Argentinean “integrated” (pay-as-you-go\\/fully funded) program. Chile was the first country in the world to completely privatize the old public pension system. This landmark reform has had a strong influence on other pension reforms, not only

Fabio Bertranou

1997-01-01

436

Short-ciphertext and BDH-based CCA2 secure certificateless encryption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certificateless public key cryptosystem actually belongs to identity based cryptography, with an attractive characteristic\\u000a that the private key generator does not have access to any user’s full private key. Most of the existing certificateless encryption\\u000a schemes employ the FO-technique and\\/or strong assumptions, for example GBDH, Gap-BDH and BDHI, to achieve adaptive chosen\\u000a ciphertext security (CCA2 security). However, FO-technique introduces redundancy

YinXia Sun; Hui Li

2010-01-01

437

Your mission-critical workloads require the highest levels of performance and security,  

E-print Network

, performance, data availability and control of a private cloud. With this fully managed hybrid solution from Managed Services with AT&T NetBond unites the multi-layered security of AT&T MPLS private network have the enterprise- class performance you need without worrying about the latency issues of a public

Fisher, Kathleen

438

A Secure Web-based Global Management System For Firewall\\/VPN Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A firewall is a security device placed between a private network and a public network such as the Internet. It is designed to protect the private network resources from unauthorized user access. Today, various firewalls are widely used in many places (e.g., Internet data centers, company headquarters, branch office, telecommuters' homes). What is desperately needed is a management system that

Mi-Joung Choi; James W. Hong

2001-01-01

439

Security Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeastern State University at Tahlequah introduces security personnel to a vast collection of recourses appropriate for almost any situation. Among their valuable list of legal and expert guidelines are suggestions for working with people with special needs, fire, airport security, terrorism, floods, loss prevention, mountain rescue, safety, and workplace violence. The advice on searching and monitoring is particularly tactful yet thorough. This comprehensive and diverse collection would enable anyone to protect a home, office space, or larger institution, and will even improve the skills of security personnel with years of experience.

Dreveskracht, Charles L.

440

Secure PVM  

SciTech Connect

This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

1996-09-01

441

Energy Security  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson plan on US energy security and independence. Teaches different ways to reduce American dependence on foreign sources of energy, focusing on the plans offered by both Democratic and Republican politicians.

Institute, Levin

442

Modeling and control of network traffic for performance and secure communications  

E-print Network

Illustration of depth-?rst permutation ring. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 79 29 An overlay ring vs. a TCP session. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 83 30 Tra?c volume statistics at each node. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 90 31 Simulation topology... of Department) December 2004 Major Subject: Computer Science iii ABSTRACT Modeling and Control of Network Tra?c for Performance and Secure Communications. (December 2004) Yong Xiong, B.S., Tsinghua University (China); M.S., Chinese Academy of Space Technology...

Xiong, Yong

2005-02-17

443

Secure portal.  

SciTech Connect

There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing the secure portal concept.

Nelson, Cynthia Lee

2007-09-01

444

Workstation Security  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Monica King, the Head of Reference at Ouachita Parish (LA) Public Library, put together this site, which is based on a paper she delivered at a recent Louisiana Library Association (LLA) Conference. The paper and the site address security issues for publicly accessed workstations. King outlines five broad security issues for libraries that offer Internet access and describes the hardware, software, and policy solutions her library system implemented. Additional resources include a modest bibliography and a collection of related links.

King, Monica.

1998-01-01

445

Session 1Session 1 Public Private Partnerships: GlobalPublic Private Partnerships: Global  

E-print Network

Session 1Session 1 Public Private Partnerships: GlobalPublic Private Partnerships: Global Not So Poor Poor Poorest Can pay full cost Need financing assistance Need subsidies #12;e7/UNEPRural a public body and a private company to address specific issue and/or implement a common venture ­ Key

446

Private Scholarships Count: Access to Higher Education and the Critical Role of the Private Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first comprehensive study of private scholarship aid, this report provides an understanding of this type of aid, and examines its importance to students and to private aid providers. Key findings from the study indicate that over 3 billion dollars in private scholarship aid was awarded in 2003-04, that approximately one hundred million dollars…

McSwain, Courtney; Cunningham, Alisa; Keselman, Yuliya; Merisotis, Jamie

2005-01-01

447

The Face of Private Tutoring in Russia: Evidence from Online Marketing by Private Tutors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Private tutoring is a common and worldwide phenomenon. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date research on private tutoring compared with that on institutional one-to-one teaching, which could be explained by challenges associated with data collection. This article proposes using publicly available online advertisements of private tutors as a…

Kozar, Olga

2013-01-01

448

17 CFR 239.33 - Form F-3, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain foreign...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form F-3, for registration under the Securities...Registration Statements § 239.33 Form F-3, for registration under the Securities...transaction requirements for the use of Form F-3. Any foreign private issuer, as...

2010-04-01

449

Title: Experimental Fracture Mechanics for the Bond between Composite Overlays and Concrete Substrate  

E-print Network

environmental attacks, and as a quality control tool. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND The durability of the adhesion the fracture toughness of adhesive bonds between symmetric metallic plates using the double cantilever beam1 Title: Experimental Fracture Mechanics for the Bond between Composite Overlays and Concrete

Giurgiutiu, Victor

450

Double patterning overlay and CD budget for 32 nm technology node  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double patterning is the best technique which allows 193nm immersion lithography to anticipate the 32 nm node, before EUV lithography. The final device pattern is formed by two independent patterning steps where the dense pitch is doubled. This allows printing each patterning step with higher k1 imaging factor. In this paper we present the overlay and CD budget applied to

Umberto Iessi; Sara Loi; Antonio Salerno; Pierluigi Rigolli; Elio De Chiara; Catia Turco; Roberto Colombo; Marco Polli; Antonio Mani

2008-01-01

451

Dynamics of Spheroid Self-Assembly in Liquid-Overlay Culture of DU 145 Human  

E-print Network

, and a ripening phase of estab- lished spheroid growth. In contrast to the diffusion- controlled aggregation of the self- aggregation of DU 145 human prostate carcinoma cells in liquid-overlay culture to elucidate some of the physical parameters affecting homotypic aggregation in attachment-dependent cells. Experimental results

O'Connor, Kim Claire

452

Microstructure and Properties of Nickel-Alloy and Nickel-WC Composite Overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructures and performance of Ni-based alloys and Ni-WC (nickel-tungsten carbide) composite overlays deposited by plasma transferred arc welding have been studied. The Ni-alloy overlays had similar microstructures consisting of gamma-Ni dendrites, with interdendritic Ni-based eutectics, borides and carbides. Low hardness alloy overlays contained a smaller fraction of interdendritic phases relative to the high hardness alloys. The interdendritic regions make a significant contribution to the hardness since they are more than twice as hard as primary dendrites. The Ni-WC composites contained similar phases, however WC dissolution was observed leading to the formation of other carbides. Ni-alloys with low carbon and Cr content exhibited the lowest WC dissolution. The Ni-WC overlays produced using these dilute alloys generally performed better in ASTM G65 wear tests. This was likely due to the reduced dissolution which avoided formation of brittle secondary phases, maintaining a short mean free path between WC particles and allowing increased impact energy absorption.

Liyanage, Thilan

453

Colored Overlays Enhance Visual Perceptual Performance in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), together with controls matched for age and ability participated in three experiments that assessed the therapeutic benefit of colored overlays. The findings from the first experiment showed that a significantly greater proportion of children with ASD, than controls, increased reading speed when using…

Ludlow, A. K.; Wilkins, A. J.; Heaton, P.

2008-01-01

454

Science overlay maps: a new tool for research policy and library management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to visually locate bodies of research within the sciences, both at each moment of time and dynamically. This article describes how this approach fits with other efforts to locally and globally map scientific outputs. We then show how these science overlay maps help benchmark, explore collaborations, and track temporal changes, using examples of universities, corporations,

Ismael Rafols; Alan L. Porter; Loet Leydesdorff

2009-01-01

455

Fluorogenic membrane overlays to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and seawater  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three assays were developed to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and other foods and in seawater and other environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on non-selective agar plates to detect ß-glucuronidase and lysyl am...

456

A Novel Approach to Overlay Multicasting Schemes for Multi-Hop Ad-Hoc Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multicast is an efficient transport mechanism for group-based community communications and mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET) is recently regarded as a promising solution for supporting ubiquitous computing as an underlying network technology. However, it is challenging to deploy the multicast mechanism used in a wired network directly into MANET owing to scarce resources in wireless networks and unpredictable changes in network topology. Several multicast mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to overcome these limitations. In MANET, especially, overlay multicasting schemes present several advantages over network-based multicasting schemes. However we have observed a common limitation of previously proposed overlay multicasting schemes. They introduce redundant data transmissions that waste network bandwidth and the battery of relay nodes. The observation motivated us to propose an efficient way to create and maintain a “semi-overlay structure” that utilizes a few nonmember nodes selected as branch nodes. The proposed scheme, called “SOMRP (Semi-overlay multicast routing protocol),” has been evaluated by using extensive network simulation in two different scenarios, comparing the performance of SOMRP with two previously proposed schemes. Simulation results show that SOMRP outperforms the two schemes in terms of the packet delivery ratio, transmission cost and end-to-end delay.

Kang, Namhi; Oh, Jejun; Kim, Younghan

457

Arbitration Intervention Worker (AIW) Services: Case Management Overlay in a Juvenile Diversion Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue we describe a clinical trials study of the impact of adding specific case manager overlay services to "treatment as usual" services for youths in a Juvenile Arbitration Program. In this first article we describe the experimental intervention, the Arbitration Intervention Worker (AIW) service, which was provided to a randomly selected…

Poythress, Norman G.; Dembo, Richard; DuDell, Gary; Wareham, Jennifer

2006-01-01

458

Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) for Long-Delay Communications with Asymmetric Channel Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) is an implementation of delay\\/disruption tolerant networking (DTN) developed as infrastructure for space communications in interplanetary flight mission systems. To date, no work has been done in evaluating the effectiveness of ION when it is applied to an interplanetary Internet involving very long link delay and highly asymmetric channel rates. In this paper, we present an

Ruhai Wang; Vivek Dave; Bin Ren; Ramakrishna Bhavanthula; Qinyu Zhang; Jia Hou; Liulei Zhou

2011-01-01

459

Power Control in Spectrum Overlay Networks: How to Cross a Multi-Lane Highway  

E-print Network

Power Control in Spectrum Overlay Networks: How to Cross a Multi-Lane Highway Wei Ren, Qing Zhao Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 Email: aswami@arl.army.mil Abstract--We consider power control interference to primary users. We quantify the impact of the transmission power of secondary users

Islam, M. Saif

460

Charge transfer, surface charging, and overlayer-induced faceting J. G. Che* and C. T. Chan  

E-print Network

Charge transfer, surface charging, and overlayer-induced faceting J. G. Che* and C. T. Chan to analyze the change of surface energy of metallic surfaces upon surface charging. We then studied surface charging is main driving mechanism in view of such an empirical correlation. Our results show

Che, Jingguang

461

Fault Tolerant Network Routing through Software Overlays for Intelligent Power Grids  

E-print Network

control on the device side. In an intelligent power system, power management of energy is provided, system reconfigurations, or degradation of system performance. In modern network topologies, networkFault Tolerant Network Routing through Software Overlays for Intelligent Power Grids Christopher

Mueller, Frank

462

Scalable Stealth Mode P2P Overlays of Very Small Constant Degree  

E-print Network

Scalable Stealth Mode P2P Overlays of Very Small Constant Degree Márk Jelasity University of Szeged Abstract P2P technology has recently been adopted by Internet-based malware as a fault tolerant and robust. An important implication is that stealth mode P2P malware that is very difficult to discover

Jelasity, Márk

463

A new approach to plane-sweep overlay: topological structuring and line-segment classification  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An integrated approach to spatial overlay was developed with the objective of creating a single function that can perform most of the tasks now assigned to discrete functions in current systems. Two important components of this system are a unique method for topological structuring, and a method for attribute propagation and line-segment classification. -Author

van Roessel, J.W.

1991-01-01

464

A quantitative comet assay: imaging and analysis of virus plaques formed with a liquid overlay.  

PubMed

Although the plaque assay defines a "gold-standard" for measuring virus infectivity, its reliance on plaque counting limits its sensitivity. When the assay is performed with a liquid overlay, instead of agar overlay, spontaneous flows can promote a uni-directional spread of infection, creating elongated regions of cytopathology that resemble comets. As a model system comet and plaque cultures of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) on baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells were compared. Host-cell monolayers were infected with VSV particles, incubated 15 h in the presence of liquid or agar overlays and stained. VSV formed significantly larger comets than plaques, consistent with a mechanism of flow-enhanced spread. When antiviral drug (5-fluorouracil) was incorporated into the liquid overlay, comet sizes were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Images of infected monolayers, acquired using a simple digital scanner, enabled a quantification of the inhibitory effect of the drug on infectivity. The resulting measure of drug susceptibility was found to be 18-fold more sensitive than the IC(50) measure attained by the traditional plaque-reduction assay. This quantitative comet assay has the potential to similarly enhance the sensitivity of infection measures for other plaque-forming viruses. PMID:17092573

Zhu, Ying; Yin, John

2007-01-01

465

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly progress report, October 1993--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in Circulated Fluidized Beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400C and their erosion resistance and microstructure evaluated. Steady state erosion rates were similar for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625, Iron-Aluminide, 316L SS, and High Chromium Cast Iron) and were considerably lower than the remaining coating evaluated. These coatings had different base (Co, Fe, Ni-base). No correlations were found between room temperature microhardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature, although this criteria is often thought to be an indicator of erosion resistance. It was suggested that the coatings that showed similar erosion rates may have similar mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates at this temperature. During the past quarter, Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were selected for more detailed investigations based upon the preliminary erosion test results. Microhardness tests were performed on eroded samples to determine the size of the work hardened zone and change in coatings hardness due to erosion. The work hardened zone was to correlated with erosion resistance of the coatings. Additional Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates.

Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1994-01-20

466

Performance study of new segmented overlay marks for advanced wafer processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the implementation of improved overlay mark designs increasing mark fidelity and device correlation for advanced wafer processing. The effect of design rule segmentation on overlay mark performance is studied. Short loop wafers with 193 nm lithography for front-end (poly to STI active) as well as back-end (via to metal) were processed and evaluated. A comparison of 6 different box-in-box (BiB) overlay marks, including non-segmented, multi bar, and design-rule segmented were compared to several types of AIM (Advanced Imaging Metrology) grating targets which were non-segmented and design rule segmented in various ways. The key outcomes of the performance study include the following: the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) was estimated by the RMS of the precision, TIS 3-sigma and overlay mark fidelity (OMF). The TMU calculated in this way show a 40% reduction for the grating marks compared to BiB. The major contributors to this performance improvement were OMF and precision, which were both improved by nearly a factor of 2 on the front-end layer. TIS-3-sigma was observed to improve when design rule segmentation was implemented, while OMF was marginally degraded. Similar results were found for the back end wafers. Several different pitches and segmentation schemes were reviewed and this has allowed the development of a methodology for target design optimization. Resulting improvements in modeled residuals were also achieved.

Adel, Mike; Allgair, John A.; Benoit, David C.; Ghinovker, Mark; Kassel, Elyakim; Nelson, C.; Robinson, John C.; Seligman, Gary S.

2003-05-01

467

QoE in Pull Based P2PTV Systems: Overlay Topology Design Tradeoffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a systematic performance analysis of pull P2P video streaming systems for live applications, providing guidelines for the design of the overlay topology and the chunk scheduling algorithm. The contribution of the paper is threefold: (1) we propose a realistic simulative model of the system that represents the effects of access bandwidth heterogeneity, latencies, peculiar characteristics of the

R. Fortuna; Emilio Leonardi; Marco Mellia; Michela Meo; Stefano Traverso

2010-01-01

468

Performance Analysis and Improvement of Overlay Construction for Peer-to-Peer  

E-print Network

performance in terms of reliability and service delay. While the short tree directly benefits delay optimization, it is unclear whether such a structure maximizes tree reliability, which is sometimes more critical for a streaming Internet service.This article studies several prevalent overlay construction

Jarvis, Stephen

469

Assessing the Crossdisciplinarity of Technology-Enhanced Learning with Science Overlay Maps and Diversity Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the assessment of the crossdisciplinarity of technology-enhanced learning (TEL). Based on a general discussion of the concept interdisciplinarity and a summary of the discussion in the field, two empirical methods from scientometrics are introduced and applied. Science overlay maps and the Rao-Stirling diversity index are…

Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

2014-01-01

470

Surface electronic structures of Ba overlayers on W(100), W(110), and W(111)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total energy distributions (TEDs) in field emission (FE) and photofield emission (PFE) and the work functions have been measured at room temperature for Ba adsorbed on W(100), W(110), and W(111) in the range of coverage from 0 to 1 ML (monolayer). We observe two initial state peaks and three final state peaks on W(100)/Ba , six initial state peaks and one final state peak on W(110)/Ba , and two initial state peaks and two final state peaks on W(111)/Ba . We extend the full-potential linear augmented plane wave method for the electronic structures of periodic lattices to calculate the emission current in FE and surface PFE at a metal-adsorbate-vacuum interface. Our calculations account for the energies of all of the initial state features observed experimentally in FE and surface PFE from clean W(100), in PFE and angle-resolved inverse photoemission spectroscopy from W(100)/Ba at 1 ML, and for all of the peaks observed in FE, surface PFE, and photoemission from W(110)/Ba at 0.6 ML and from W(111)/Ba at 1 ML. The dz2 -like surface states of the Swanson hump [L. W. Swanson and L. C. Crouser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 389 (1966)] of clean W(100) hybridize with s -like states of the c(2×2) overlayer and are shifted by -1.60eV to yield a prominent peak in PFE. An isolated Ba c(2×2) layer is found to be weakly metallic; the metallicity is greatly enhanced when it is adsorbed on a W(100) substrate. The TEDs in PFE from the atomically less dense overlayer W(110)/Ba (2×2) are dominated by substrate-overlayer interactions, while those from the atomically denser overlayer W(111)/Ba (1×1) are dominated by interactions within the overlayer. Our results yield evidence that above 1/3 ML Ba coverage on W(111), which corresponds to a commensurate (31/2×31/2)R30° overlayer, the interstitial sites fill in randomly to form a commensurate (1×1) overlayer at 1 ML coverage.

Ibrahim, Z. A.; Lee, M. J. G.

2007-10-01

471

Bank Privatization, Finance, and Growth Daniel Berkowitz*  

E-print Network

Bank Privatization, Finance, and Growth Daniel Berkowitz* University of Pittsburgh Mark Hoekstra whether privatizing state-owned banks improves finance and economic growth. To do so, we exploit regional banking variation in Russia induced by the idiosyncratic creation of "specialized banks" in the last years

Behmer, Spencer T.

472

Private Source Funding for FCS Units  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Financial difficulties have prompted institutions of higher education to explore private sources of funding. In recent years, public institutions have significantly increased their focus on private giving, with several campaigns having more than $1 billion as a goal. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals need to be actively involved in…

Winchip, Susan M.

2004-01-01

473

Private Enterprise's Response to Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failures of FEMA and other government agencies during Hurricane Katrina have been widely acknowledged in both the popular press and academic literature. However, much less attention has been paid to the successful private sector response during the storm and its aftermath. Wal-Mart and other private retailers played an extraordinarily effective role in the disaster relief process. This paper describes

Steven Horwitz

474

Private Room as a Test Accommodation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of a private vs. group test setting were examined on a reading comprehension test for a sample of typical college students. Participants took Forms G and H of the Nelson Denny Reading Comprehension Test in both private and group (classroom) settings. Contrary to expectations, performance was slightly better in the group setting.…

Lewandowski, Lawrence; Wood, Whitney; Lambert, Tonya

2015-01-01

475

Testing the limits of privatization: Argentine railroads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just how far can privatization be pushed, and with what consequences? Based on a study of Argentine railroads, this paper concludes that even large, unprofitable firms in developing countries faced with market failures can be privatized, but the gains from doing so depend on how badly the state enterprise was performing to begin with, and the potential for introducing competition

Ravi Ramamurti

1997-01-01

476

Prospects of Private Education in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Private education contributes a great deal to education in China, but people are confused about the prospects of teacher development, tax problems, property rights problems, remunerations, and so forth. Legal provisions stipulate that private education and public education have the same legal status and rights, but there is still a long way to go…

Hua, Wu

2009-01-01

477

Credit Risk in Private Debt Portfolios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Default, loss severity, and average loss rates for a large sample of privately placed bonds are presented and compared with loss experience for publicly issued bonds. The chance of very large portfolio losses is estimated and some determinants of such losses are analyzed. Results show ex ante riskier classes of private debt perform better on average than public debt. Both

Mark Carey

1998-01-01

478

Philanthropy and Private Foundations: Expanding Revenue Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As community colleges seek new revenue streams, philanthropic organizations, including college foundations and private funders, have already begun to influence both revenues and college programming. This chapter discusses the current role of philanthropy, especially private foundations such as the Lumina Foundation for Education and the Bill and…

Drummer, Carlee; Marshburn, Roxann

2014-01-01

479

Using Pesticides: Private Applicator Manual, Texas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed by the Texas Department of Agriculture as a training program for private pesticide applicators to certify them on a voluntary basis, and to apply restricted-use pesticides in compliance with federal law. An introduction with federal and state laws and regulations regarding pesticide use and private applicators is presented.…

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

480

Microsoft Private Cloud-Making It Real  

E-print Network

it Real Page 4 The Microsoft Cloud OS Cloud computing is happening. It is being driven by the exponential. To meet these challenges, a new modern platform is required. In the era of cloud computing, MicrosoftClouds Microsoft Private Cloud- Making It Real IT #12;Microsoft Private Cloud: Making it Real Page

Chaudhuri, Surajit

481

The Economics of the Major Private Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major public and private universities need substantial amounts of additional income to meet rapidly rising operating costs. After World War II, total educational and general expenditures in all universities went up from less than $1 billion in 1945-46 to more than $7 billion in 1963-64. Some private university operating deficits indicate that…

Bowen, William G.

482

Privatization techniques for software transactional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early implementations of software transactional memory (STM) assumed that sharable data would be accessed only within transactions. Memory may appear inconsistent in programs that violate this assumption, even when program logic would seem to make extra-transactional accesses safe. Designing STM systems that avoid such inconsistency has been dubbed the privatization problem. We argue that privatization comprises a pair of symmetric

Michael F. Spear; Virendra J. Marathe; Luke Dalessandro; Michael L. Scott

2007-01-01

483

Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

Holman, Lance S.

2010-01-01

484

Toward 3nm overlay and critical dimension uniformity: an integrated error budget for double patterning lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double patterning has emerged as the likely lithography technology to bridge the gap between water-based ArF immersion lithography and EUV. The adoption of double patterning is driven by the accelerated timing of the introduction of device shrinks below 40nm half pitch, especially for NAND flash. With scaling, increased device sensitivity to parameter variations puts extreme pressure on controlling overlay and critical dimension uniformity. Double patterning also makes unique demands on overlay and CDU. Realizing that there is no further increase in NA past the current 1.35 on the horizon, the focus has shifted from a straight shrink using the newest tool to learning how to reduce the effective k I through improvements to the tool's control of CDU and overlay, as well as innovative RET, mask, and process technology. In double patterning lithography, CDU and overlay are complex and entangled errors. In an approach where the pattern is split into two masks and recombined in successive lithography and etch steps, a line or space width is defined by edges placed at separate masks. In an approach where double patterning is achieved by self-aligned processes, CD error at the first sacrificial mask will translate into pattern placement errors in the final pattern. In all approaches, it is crucial to understand how these errors interact so that the combined effects can be minimized through proper tool controls, mask OPC and split algorithms, and process choices. Without aggressive actions, the complexity of this problem combined with the economic drawbacks of using multiple masking steps to define critical device layers threaten to slow overall device shrink rates. This paper will explore the main sources of critical dimension and overlay errors in double patterning lithography and will point out directions we may follow to make this an effective manufacturing solution.

Arnold, William H.

2008-03-01

485

The effects of September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on public and private information infrastructures: a preliminary assessment of lessons learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of the September 11, 2001, attacks on public and private information infrastructures. As the events of the day demonstrated, information technology promises to play a critical role in future homeland security initiatives. Over the past two decades, information technology has become increasingly integrated into the day-to-day operations of most organizations. The

Jeffrey W Seifert

2002-01-01

486

The Effects of September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on Public and Private Information Infrastructures: A Preliminary Assessment of Lessons Learned.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of the September 11 attacks on public and private information infrastructures. Topics include the role of information technology in future homeland security initiatives; continuity and recovery plans; decentralization of operations; and the development of system redundancies to eliminate single…

Seifert, Jeffrey W.

2002-01-01

487

Non-private power aggregation: New markets for public-private partnerships  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by needs to survive the twin thrusts of deregulation and privatization, the non-private sector is beginning to take the initiative in the energy aggregation field. Success in establishing public-private partnerships with it requires appreciation of the legal and also the institutional survival issues with which they are dealing. The results can be creative uses of municipal franchises, a renaissance of non profit power firms, and the continuing financial vitality of the seriously threatened and socially valuable not-for-profit public sector. From the perspective of private firms, aggregation by non-private firms can be a portal to response to the electric power deregulation revolution.

Feldman, R.D. [Bingham Dana LLP, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-07-01

488

IMPERMEABLE THIN AL2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES  

SciTech Connect

To improve the hot corrosion resistance of YSZ thermal barrier coatings, a 25 {micro}m and a 2 {micro}m thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay were deposited by HVOF thermal spray and by sol-gel coating method, respectively, onto to the surface of YSZ coating. Indenter test was employed to investigate the spalling of YSZ with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay after hot corrosion. The results showed that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay acted as a barrier against the infiltration of the molten salt into the YSZ coating during exposure, thus significantly reduced the amount of M-phase of ZrO{sub 2} in YSZ coating. However, a thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay was harmful for TBC by increasing compressive stress which causes crack and spalling of YSZ coating. As a result, a dense and thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay is critical for simultaneously preventing YSZ from hot corrosion and spalling. In the next reporting period, we will measure or calculate the residue stress within Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay and YSZ coating to study the mechanism of effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay on spalling of YSZ coating.

Scott X. Mao

2003-12-16

489

Two Dimensional Array Based Overlay Network for Balancing Load of Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper.

Faruq Ibn Ibrahimy, Abdullah; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibn Ibrahimy, Muhammad

2013-12-01

490

Another look at the strategic petroleum reserve: Should its oil holdings be privatized?  

SciTech Connect

The sharp increases in crude oil prices in the 1970`s unleashed a gusher of economic and policy analyses concerning energy security. A consensus emerged concerning the desirability of building and using a large stock of oil to cushion the effects of a sudden loss of oil supply. The author examines the validity of this large stock of oil considering changes in the oil market and whether the oil holdings of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve should be privatized. 12 refs.

Blumstein, C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Komor, P. [E Source, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)] [E Source, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

491

Proposed of a GIS Cloud (GIS-C) System Architecture in Private Used  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper discusses a proposed model for designing & implementing cloud computing paradigm in GIS field in a bid to better\\u000a serve the interest of GIS clients. The system provides efficient resource exchange, performance and highly secured data storage\\u000a and information, by hosting resource repository within private service oriented environments. By combining GIS and Cloud techniques,\\u000a we were able to

Aissatou Diasse; Foroski Kone

492

CAMPUS SECURITY REPORT 2009  

E-print Network

CAMPUS SECURITY REPORT 2009 San Francisco State University University Police Department 1600 & Procedure Concerning Security, Access & Maintenance of Campus Facilities & Weapons Policies........................................................... 6 g. Safety & Security

493

INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY Security Models  

E-print Network

INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY 1 Security Models: Past, Present and Future Prof. Ravi Sandhu Executive Director and Endowed Chair Institute for Cyber Security University of Texas at San Antonio August 2010 ravi.sandhu@utsa.edu www.profsandhu.com © Ravi Sandhu #12;INSTITUTE FOR CYBER SECURITY Security

Sandhu, Ravi

494

Cyber Security: Are Economic Incentives Adequate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract,Protecting national critical infrastructure,assets from cyber incidents is an important,challenge. One facet of this challenge,is that the vast ma- jority of the owners,and,operators,of critical infrastructure components are public or private companies.,This paper examines,the threats faced by for-profit critical infrastructure entities, the incentives and drivers that influence investment in cyber security measures, and how policy initiatives might,influence cyber preparedness,in critical infrastructure

Scott Dynes; Eric Goetz; Michael Freeman

2007-01-01

495

Bounds on the sample complexity for private learning and private data release  

SciTech Connect

Learning is a task that generalizes many of the analyses that are applied to collections of data, and in particular, collections of sensitive individual information. Hence, it is natural to ask what can be learned while preserving individual privacy. [Kasiviswanathan, Lee, Nissim, Raskhodnikova, and Smith; FOCS 2008] initiated such a discussion. They formalized the notion of private learning, as a combination of PAC learning and differential privacy, and investigated what concept classes can be learned privately. Somewhat surprisingly, they showed that, ignoring time complexity, every PAC learning task could be performed privately with polynomially many samples, and in many natural cases this could even be done in polynomial time. While these results seem to equate non-private and private learning, there is still a significant gap: the sample complexity of (non-private) PAC learning is crisply characterized in terms of the VC-dimension of the concept class, whereas this relationship is lost in the constructions of private learners, which exhibit, generally, a higher sample complexity. Looking into this gap, we examine several private learning tasks and give tight bounds on their sample complexity. In particular, we show strong separations between sample complexities of proper and improper private learners (such separation does not exist for non-private learners), and between sample complexities of efficient and inefficient proper private learners. Our results show that VC-dimension is not the right measure for characterizing the sample complexity of proper private learning. We also examine the task of private data release (as initiated by [Blum, Ligett, and Roth; STOC 2008]), and give new lower bounds on the sample complexity. Our results show that the logarithmic dependence on size of the instance space is essential for private data release.

Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beime, Amos [BEN-GURION UNIV.; Nissim, Kobbi [BEN-GURION UNIV.

2009-01-01

496

Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization  

PubMed Central

Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ?-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance. PMID:21892342

Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D.

2011-01-01

497

42 CFR 440.80 - Private duty nursing services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private duty nursing services. 440.80 Section 440.80 Public...PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.80 Private duty nursing services. Private duty nursing services means nursing services for...

2012-10-01

498

42 CFR 440.80 - Private duty nursing services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private duty nursing services. 440.80 Section 440.80 Public...PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.80 Private duty nursing services. Private duty nursing services means nursing services for...

2013-10-01

499

42 CFR 440.80 - Private duty nursing services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private duty nursing services. 440.80 Section 440.80 Public...PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.80 Private duty nursing services. Private duty nursing services means nursing services for...

2010-10-01

500

42 CFR 440.80 - Private duty nursing services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private duty nursing services. 440.80 Section 440.80 Public...PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.80 Private duty nursing services. Private duty nursing services means nursing services for...

2014-10-01