Science.gov

Sample records for prize winner positron

  1. 1993 Gordon Bell Prize Winners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, Alan H.; Simon, Horst; Heller, Don; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Gordon Bell Prize recognizes significant achievements in the application of supercomputers to scientific and engineering problems. In 1993, finalists were named for work in three categories: (1) Performance, which recognizes those who solved a real problem in the quickest elapsed time. (2) Price/performance, which encourages the development of cost-effective supercomputing. (3) Compiler-generated speedup, which measures how well compiler writers are facilitating the programming of parallel processors. The winners were announced November 17 at the Supercomputing 93 conference in Portland, Oregon. Gordon Bell, an independent consultant in Los Altos, California, is sponsoring $2,000 in prizes each year for 10 years to promote practical parallel processing research. This is the sixth year of the prize, which Computer administers. Something unprecedented in Gordon Bell Prize competition occurred this year: A computer manufacturer was singled out for recognition. Nine entries reporting results obtained on the Cray C90 were received, seven of the submissions orchestrated by Cray Research. Although none of these entries showed sufficiently high performance to win outright, the judges were impressed by the breadth of applications that ran well on this machine, all nine running at more than a third of the peak performance of the machine.

  2. Special issue: Culham Thesis Prize winners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Culham Thesis Prize is awarded annually to the nominee who has displayed an excellence in the execution of the scientific method as witnessed by the award of Doctor of Philosophy in Plasma Science from a UK or Irish university. The thesis content should exhibit significant new work and originality, clearly driven by the nominee, be well explained and demonstrate a good understanding of the subject. The prize is awarded at the Institute of Physics Plasma Physics Group Spring Conference and the prize winner gives an invited talk about their thesis work. The prize is sponsored by Culham Centre for Fusion Energy.

  3. [Surgeons and Neurosurgeons as Nobel Prize Winners].

    PubMed

    Chrastina, Jan; Jančálek, Radim; Hrabovský, Dušan; Novák, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Since 1901 Nobel Prize is awarded for exceptional achievements in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, economy (since 1968) and medicine or physiology. The first aim of the paper is to provide an overview of surgeons - winners of Nobel Prize for medicine or physiology. Although the prominent neurosurgeons were frequently nominated as Nobel Prize candidates, surprisingly no neurosurgeon received this prestigious award so far despite that the results of their research transgressed the relatively narrow limits of neurosurgical speciality.The most prominent leaders in the field of neurosurgery, such as Victor Horsley, Otfrid Foerster, Walter Dandy and Harvey Cushing are discussed from the point of their nominations. The overview of the activity of the Portuguese neurologists and Nobel Prize Winter in 1949 Egas Moniz (occasionally erroneously reported as neurosurgeon) is also provided. Although his work on brain angiography has fundamentally changed the diagnostic possibilities in neurology and neurosurgery, he was eventually awarded Nobel Prize for the introduction of the currently outdated frontal lobotomy.The fact that none of the above mentioned prominent neurosurgeons has not been recognised by Nobel Prize, may be attributed to the fact that their extensive work cannot be captured in a short summary pinpointing its groundbreaking character. PMID:27256150

  4. Grand Prize and Citation Winners: Ten School with Soaring Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design features of the grand prize winners of the 2002 "Learning by Design" contest--an addition to West Linn High School in West Linn, Oregon, and the renovation of Beaver Brook Academic Center/The Ethel Walker School in Simsbury, Connecticut. Also describes the designs of the eight citation winners. (EV)

  5. Inaugural Climate Communications Prize winner announced

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Chris; Fine, Rana

    2011-10-01

    In recognition of Gavin Schmidt's exceptional work as a climate communicator, AGU has selected him as the recipient of its inaugural Climate Communications Prize. Schmidt is a climate scientist at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and cofounder of the RealClimate.org blog. RealClimate.org covers areas of science related to climate—from present-day measurements to paleoclimate proxies, from natural climate variation to anthropogenic change. Schmidt has also worked with photographers on a popular science book, on museum exhibits, and on online courses and has often appeared on TV and radio and in print.

  6. [Women in natural sciences--Nobel Prize winners].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Lipozencić, Jasna; Kolcić, Ivana; Spoljar-Vrzina, Sanja; Polasek, Ozren

    2006-01-01

    Alfred Bernhard Nobel was the founder of the Nobel Foundation, which has been awarding world-known scientists since 1901, for their contribution to the welfare of mankind. The life and accomplishments of Alfred Bernhard Nobel are described as well as scientific achivements of 11 women, Nobel prize winners in the field of physics, chemistry, physiology and/or medicine. They are Marie Sklodowska Curie, Maria Goeppert Mayer, Irene Joliot-Curie, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Gerty Theresa Radnitz Cori, Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, Barbara McClintock, Rita Levi-Montalcini, Gertrude Elion, Christine Nusslein-Volhard and Linda B. Buck. PMID:16802565

  7. Pat Thiel talks about Nobel Prize winner Dan Shechtman

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Pat Thiel talks about her friend and colleague Dan Shechtman who received the 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

  8. Pat Thiel talks about Nobel Prize winner Dan Shechtman

    ScienceCinema

    Thiel, Pat

    2013-03-01

    Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Pat Thiel talks about her friend and colleague Dan Shechtman who received the 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

  9. Modular Curriculum: English, American Nobel Prize Winners in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, James A.

    This independent study module treats those Americans who have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. They include Sinclair Lewis, Eugene O'Neill, T. S. Eliot, William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, John Steinbeck, and Pearl Buck. Selections from the writings of these authors are included. Their works represent many literary genres and also…

  10. Sources of Financial Support for Research Prize Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The principal objective of this study was to determine the organizational sources of support for the scientists and engineers who have received the Nobel and other major scientific prizes. A secondary objective was to determine what role the National Science Foundation (NSF) may have played in the recipients' research careers. The results of the…

  11. Peter Agre, 2003 Nobel Prize winner in chemistry.

    PubMed

    Knepper, Mark A; Nielsen, Soren

    2004-04-01

    Peter C. Agre, an American Society of Nephrology member, is the recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of the aquaporin water channels. The function of many cells requires that water move rapidly into and out of them. There was only indirect evidence that proteinaceous channels provide this vital activity until Agre and colleagues purified aquaporin-1 from human erythrocytes and reported its cDNA sequence. They proved that aquaporin-1 is a specific water channel by cRNA expression studies in Xenopus oocytes and by functional reconstitution of transport activity in liposomes after the incorporation of the purified protein. These findings sparked a veritable explosion of work that affects several long-standing areas of investigation such as the biophysics of water permeation across cell membranes, the structural biology of integral membrane proteins, the physiology of fluid transport in the kidney and other organs, and the pathophysiological basis of inherited and acquired disorders of water balance. Agre's discovery of the first water channel has spurred a revolution in animal and plant physiology and in medicine. PMID:15034115

  12. Announcing the winner of the John J. Sciarra IJGO Prize Paper Award for 2014.

    PubMed

    Adanu, Richard M K

    2015-06-01

    The editors of the International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics (IJGO) are pleased to announce the winner of the prize paper award for the best clinical research paper from a low- or middle-income country published in the IJGO during 2014. The winning paper is: Dan K. Kaye, Othman Kakaire, Annettee Nakimuli, Scovia N. Mbalinda,Michael O. Osinde, Nelson Kakande. Survivors' understanding of vulnerability and resilience to maternal near-miss obstetric events in Uganda. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2014;127(3):265–8. It was published in the December 2014 issue of the IJGO. PMID:25920580

  13. More than Prize Lists: Head Teachers, Student Prize Winners, School Ceremonies and Educational Promotion in Colonial South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Marisa

    2007-01-01

    Australian educators now operate in environments that frequently stress marketing activities. This article highlights the ways that colonial school prize ceremonies were deliberately developed to promote teaching activities. These ceremonies were part of carefully considered strategies that helped to boost the status of entrepreneurial teachers…

  14. Following Zahka: Using Nobel Prize Winners' Speeches and Ideas to Teach Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Martin P.; Wilson, John K.; Becker, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the late William Zahka (1990, 1998) outlined how the acceptance speeches of those who received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science could be used to teach undergraduates. This article updates and expands Zahka's work, identifying some of the issues discussed by recent Nobel Laureates, classifying their speeches by topic…

  15. Theodore William Richards: apostle of atomic weights and Nobel Prize winner in 1914.

    PubMed

    Herschbach, Dudley R

    2014-12-15

    In recognition of his exact determinations of the atomic weights of a large number of the chemical elements, T. W. Richards received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1914. His meticulous techniques resulted in "a degree of accuracy never before attained". This Essay follows Richards from his precocious youth to becoming a celebrated chemist and emphasizes his dedication to forseeing likely sources of error and how to avoid them. PMID:25323411

  16. Nils Gustav Dalén, the Unknown Nobel Prize Winner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Hanging on the wall of my museum is a large "Map of Physics" published by the Central Scientific Company in 1938. On it is a list of the Nobel Prizes in physics, starting with Roentgen in 1901 and ending with Fermi in 1938. I can recognize every name except the one for 1912: Nils Gustav Dalén. Perhaps you have had the same experience when looking through the updated list.

  17. Radiation risk and nuclear medicine: An interview with a Nobel Prize winner

    SciTech Connect

    Yalow, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    In a speech given years ago at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY, Rosalyn S. Yalow, 1977 Nobel Prize recipient for her invention of radioimmunoassay, made several salient points on the perception of fear or hazards from exposure to low-level radiation and low-level radioactive wastes. For the past three years, Yalow has been concerned with the general fear of radiation. In this interview, Newsline solicited Yalow`s views on public perceptions on radiation risk and what the nuclear medicine community can do to emphasize the fact that, if properly managed, the use of isotopes in medicine and other cases is not dangerous.

  18. Selman A. Waksman, Winner of the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The history of the discovery and development of streptomycin is reviewed here from the personal standpoint of a member of Dr. Selman Waksman's antibiotic screening research team. The team approach of eight individuals illustrates how the gradual enhancement of the screening methodology was developed. I illustrate three study periods with key aspects in the development of streptomycin which led to a Nobel Prize being granted to Professor Waksman. One item not previously emphasized is the employment of a submerged culture technique for large-scale production of streptomycin, thus enabling rapid animal testing and human clinical trials with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Another is that purified streptomycin was shown by Dr. Waksman to be distinctly different from the substances called natural products, which are no longer patentable in the United States; therefore, streptomycin was found to be patentable. A third item not previously emphasized is his emphasis on the screening of actinomycetes, including the newly named Streptomyces genus. All of these factors contributed to the success of streptomycin in the treatment of tuberculosis. In combination, their successes led to Dr. Waksman's department becoming a new pharmacological research area, specializing in drug discovery. These unique accomplishments all burnish the prior rationales used by the Karolinska Institute in granting Dr. Waksman alone the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. PMID:24162573

  19. Emil Theodor Kocher (25/8/1841-27/7/1917)--A Swiss (neuro-)surgeon and Nobel Prize winner.

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Hildebrandt, Gerhard

    2009-06-01

    January 9, 2009 commemorates the 100-year anniversary of the Swiss surgeon Emil Theodor Kocher's first performance of the surgical removal of a pituitary adenoma by a trans-nasal approach. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1909 for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland. He was the first Swiss citizen and the first surgeon to ever receive such an award. He was a pioneer and a world leader in the surgical revolution of the end of the nineteenth century. Over a period of 45 years, Kocher developed a considerable activity in various fields of surgery leading to worldwide acclaim and renown. Kocher's most significant contribution to medicine concerned the thyroid and pituitary gland. Additionally, he developed or modified many surgical instruments. In total, he published 249 articles and books, the majority based on his own experimental studies. His devotion to his patients, his mentoring of students, his service and loyalty to his university hospital was widely recognized and came to epitomize what society wants and needs in its medical practitioners as well as providing example and motivation to young doctors. PMID:19533456

  20. Improbable Research and the Ig Nobel Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The Ig Nobel Prizes honor achievements that first make people laugh, then make them think. Marc Abrahams, father of the Ig Nobel Prize ceremony and editor of the magazine Annals of Improbable Research, will show us some of the most outstanding Ig Nobel winners. He will also discuss why Ohio has been such a good producer of Ig Nobel Prize winners, and of improbable research.

  1. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  2. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  3. Heroes in endocrinology: Nobel Prizes

    PubMed Central

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2014-01-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was first awarded in 1901. Since then, the Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine, Chemistry and Physics have been awarded to at least 33 distinguished researchers who were directly or indirectly involved in research into the field of endocrinology. This paper reflects on the life histories, careers and achievements of 11 of them: Frederick G Banting, Roger Guillemin, Philip S Hench, Bernardo A Houssay, Edward C Kendall, E Theodor Kocher, John J R Macleod, Tadeus Reichstein, Andrew V Schally, Earl W Sutherland, Jr and Rosalyn Yalow. All were eminent scientists, distinguished lecturers and winners of many prizes and awards. PMID:25055817

  4. Heroes in endocrinology: Nobel Prizes.

    PubMed

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2014-09-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was first awarded in 1901. Since then, the Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine, Chemistry and Physics have been awarded to at least 33 distinguished researchers who were directly or indirectly involved in research into the field of endocrinology. This paper reflects on the life histories, careers and achievements of 11 of them: Frederick G Banting, Roger Guillemin, Philip S Hench, Bernardo A Houssay, Edward C Kendall, E Theodor Kocher, John J R Macleod, Tadeus Reichstein, Andrew V Schally, Earl W Sutherland, Jr and Rosalyn Yalow. All were eminent scientists, distinguished lecturers and winners of many prizes and awards. PMID:25055817

  5. Citations Prize 2010 Citations Prize 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2010-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2010 Citations Prize winners The winning authors Fernando Rannou (left), George Alexandrakis (holding the Rotblat Medal) and Arion Chatziioannou (right). The winner of the 2010 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2005-2009) is Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study Authors: George Alexandrakis, Fernando R Rannou and Arion F Chatziioannou Reference: George Alexandrakis et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4225-41 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/44334). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

  6. Winners love winning and losers love money.

    PubMed

    Kassam, Karim S; Morewedge, Carey K; Gilbert, Daniel T; Wilson, Timothy D

    2011-05-01

    Salience and satisfaction are important factors in determining the comparisons that people make. We hypothesized that people make salient comparisons first, and then make satisfying comparisons only if salient comparisons leave them unsatisfied. This hypothesis suggests an asymmetry between winning and losing. For winners, comparison with a salient alternative (i.e., losing) brings satisfaction. Therefore, winners should be sensitive only to the relative value of their outcomes. For losers, comparison with a salient alternative (i.e., winning) brings little satisfaction. Therefore, losers should be drawn to compare outcomes with additional standards, which should make them sensitive to both relative and absolute values of their outcomes. In Experiment 1, participants won one of two cash prizes on a scratch-off ticket. Winners were sensitive to the relative value of their prizes, whereas losers were sensitive to both the relative and the absolute values of their prizes. In Experiment 2, losers were sensitive to the absolute value of their prize only when they had sufficient cognitive resources to engage in effortful comparison. PMID:21515740

  7. Citations Prize 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon; Ruffle, Jon

    2014-06-01

    Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat, a Nobel Prize winner who also was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winner of the 2013 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous five years (2008-2012) is Figure. Figure. Four of the prize winning authors. From left to right: Thomas Istel (Philips), Jens-Peter Schlomka (with medal, MorphoDetection), Ewald Roessl (Philips), and Gerhard Martens (Philips). Title: Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography Authors: Jens Peter Schlomka1, Ewald Roessl1, Ralf Dorscheid2, Stefan Dill2, Gerhard Martens1, Thomas Istel1, Christian Bäumer3, Christoph Herrmann3, Roger Steadman3, Günter Zeitler3, Amir Livne4 and Roland Proksa1 Institutions: 1 Philips Research Europe, Sector Medical Imaging Systems, Hamburg, Germany 2 Philips Research Europe, Engineering & Technology, Aachen, Germany 3 Philips Research Europe, Sector Medical Imaging Systems, Aachen, Germany 4 Philips Healthcare, Global Research and Advanced Development, Haifa, Israel Reference: Schlomka et al 2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 4031-47 This paper becomes the first to win both this citations prize and also the PMB best paper prize (The Roberts Prize), which it won for the year 2008. Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found in this medicalphysicsweb article from the time of the Roberts Prize win (http://medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/39907). The author's enthusiasm for their prototype spectral CT system has certainly been reflected in the large number of citations the paper subsequently has

  8. Nobel prize awarded to pioneers in ozone research

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This article details the achievements of the three individuals who shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry - Paul Crutzen, Mario Molina, and F. Sherwood Rowland - for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly the chemical processes that deplete the ozone layer. Background information about the ozone layer is presented as well as highlights of the ozone research done by the prize winners.

  9. L Prize Drives Technology Innovation, Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-30

    Fact sheet that provides an overview of DOE's L Prize competition, which challenges industry to develop high-quality, high-efficiency SSL products to replace 60W incandescent and PAR38 halogen light bulbs, and highlights the competition's first 60W winner from Philips Lighting North America.

  10. Is the Nobel Prize good for science?

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2013-12-01

    The Nobel Prize is arguably the best known and most prestigious award in science. Here we review the effect of the Nobel Prize and acknowledge that it has had many beneficial effects on science. However, ever since its inaugural year in 1901, the Nobel Prize has also been beset by controversy, mostly involving the selection of certain individuals and the exclusion of others. In this regard, the Nobel Prize epitomizes the winner-takes-all economics of credit allocation and distorts the history of science by personalizing discoveries that are truly made by groups of individuals. The limitation of the prize to only 3 individuals at a time when most scientific discovery is the result of collaborative and cooperative research is arguably the major cause of Nobel Prize controversies. A simple solution to this problem would be to eliminate the restriction on the number of individuals who could be awarded the prize, a measure that would recognize all who contribute, from students to senior investigators. There is precedent for such a change in the Nobel Peace Prize, which has often gone to organizations. Changing the Nobel Prize to more fairly allocate credit would reduce the potential for controversy and directly benefit the scientific enterprise by promoting cooperation and collaboration of scientists within a field to reduce the negative consequences of competition between individual scientists. PMID:24008752

  11. Citations Prize 2011 Citations Prize 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Susan Hagness (left) receiving the Rotblat Medal from Robert Jeraj of PMB's Editorial Board (right) on behalf of Mariya Lazebnik. The winner of the 2011 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2006-2010) is A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries Authors: Mariya Lazebnik, Dijana Popovic, Leah McCartney, Cynthia B Watkins, Mary J Lindstrom, Josephine Harter, Sarah Sewall, Travis Ogilvie, Anthony Magliocco, Tara M Breslin, Walley Temple, Daphne Mew, John H Booske, Michal Okoniewski and Susan C Hagness Reference: Mariya Lazebnik et al 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 6093-115 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/47814). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

  12. Citations Prize 2012 Citations Prize 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-01-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The authors of the winning paper. The authors of the winning paper. The winner of the 2012 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2007-2011) is Image reconstruction in circular cone-beam computed tomography by constrained, total-variation minimization Authors: Emil Y Sidky and Xiaochuan Pan Reference: Emil Y Sidky and Xiaochuan Pan 2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 4777-807 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/51868). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Simon Cherry Editor-in-Chief Jon Ruffle Publisher

  13. Citations Prize 2009 Citations Prize 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2009 Citations Prize winners Some of the winning authors with their certificates, and Christian Morel with the Rotblat Medal, at the award ceremony in Orsay, near Paris. From left to right are Corinne Groiselle, Lydia Maigne, David Brasse, Irène Buvat, Dimitris Visvikis, Giovanni Santin, Uwe Pietrzyk, Pierre-François Honore, Christian Morel, Sébastien Jan and Arion Chatziioannou. The winner of the 2009 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2004-2008) is GATE: a simulation toolkit for PET and SPECT Authors: S Jan, G Santin, D Strul, S Staelens, K Assié, D Autret, S Avner, R Barbier, M Bardiès, P M Bloomfield, D Brasse, V Breton, P Bruyndonckx, I Buvat, A F Chatziioannou, Y Choi, Y H Chung, C Comtat, D Donnarieix, L Ferrer, S J Glick, C J Groiselle, D Guez, P-F Honore, S Kerhoas-Cavata, A S Kirov, V Kohli, M Koole, M Krieguer, D J van der Laan, F Lamare, G Largeron, C Lartizien, D Lazaro, M C Maas, L Maigne, F Mayet, F Melot, C Merheb, E Pennacchio, J Perez, U Pietrzyk, F R Rannou, M Rey, D R Schaart, C R Schmidtlein, L~Simon, T Y Song, J-M Vieira, D Visvikis, R Van de Walle, E Wieörs and C Morel Reference: S Jan et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4543-61 Since its publication in 2004 this article has received over 200 citations. This extremely high figure is a testament to the great influence and usefulness of the work to the nuclear medicine community. More discussion of the winning paper can be found on

  14. Plyler Prize and APS Fellow Introductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathanson, Gilbert

    2014-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Physics is delighted to announce the 2013 APS Fellows sponsored by DCP and to honor the 2014 Earl K. Plyler Prize Award winner. The new APS Fellows are: Ilan Benjamin, Hua Guo, Manos Mavrikakis, Josef Paldus, Joern Siepmann, Hans-Peter Steinrueck, Douglas Tobias, Angela Wilson, and Yijing Yan. The citations for each awardee will be read out loud. I will also introduce Prof. Lai-Sheng Wang of the Department of Chemistry at Brown University, who was awarded the 2014 Plyler Prize for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics. Please come learn about these extraordinary scientists during this prize session. Prof. Wang's Plyler Prize talk will follow immediately after this introduction. For more information, see http://www.aps.org/units/dcp/.

  15. Pennies from heaven? Conceptions and earmarking of lottery prize money.

    PubMed

    Hedenus, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The source of money has been shown to be important for how money is spent. In addition, sudden wealth is often associated with social and psychological risks. This article investigates if conceptions of lottery prize money--as a special kind of money--imply restrictions on how it can be spent. Analysis of interviews with lottery winners shows that interviewees use earmarking of the prize money as a strategy for avoiding the pitfalls associated with a lottery win. Conceptions of lottery prize money as 'a lot' or as 'a little', as shared or personal, and as an opportunity or a risk, influences the ends for which it is earmarked: for self-serving spending, a 'normal' living standard, paying off loans, saving for designated purposes, or for economic security and independence. Clearly defining and earmarking lottery prize money thus helps lottery winners construe their sudden wealth, not as a risk, but as 'pennies from heaven.' PMID:24661232

  16. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Nomination Archive Ceremonies Ceremonies Ceremony Archive Nobel ...

  17. Prize Recipients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    The John Bardeen Prize is awarded for theoretical work that has provided significant insights on the nature of superconductivity and has led to verifiable predictions. It is sponsored by the Dresdner Bank.

  18. Arthroscopy Journal Prizes Are Major Decisions.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    According to the Harvard Business Review, the optimal number of people in a decision-making group is no more than 8. Thus, it is no surprise that 18 Arthroscopy journal associate editors had difficulty making a major decision. In the end, 18 editors did successfully select the 2015 winner of the Best Comparative Study Prize. All studies have limitations, but from a statistical standpoint, the editors believe that the conclusions of the winning study are likely correct. PMID:26743401

  19. What Is Community College Excellence? Lessons from the Aspen Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyner, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Over the past year, in a process to select the winner of the Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence, the Aspen Institute has convened national experts to define and determine how to measure "excellence," to identify community colleges with high levels of student success, and to help more community colleges understand what can be done to…

  20. Society News: RAS Fellows are honoured with awards; Patrick Moore Medal; Best theses win prizes; New Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    Congratulations to several Fellows of the RAS who have received prestigious awards this year. Congratulations to the winners of the annual prizes for the best PhD theses in astronomy and geophysics, awarded by the RAS and sponsored by Wiley-Blackwell. Winners receive a cheque for £1000, runners-up £50.

  1. The Nobel Peace Prize and Peace Studies. "Styles of Leadership: An Undergraduate Course Based upon the Prize."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merikangas, Robert J.

    An undergraduate honors course on the Nobel Peace Prize winners at the University of Maryland focuses on styles of leadership and includes three main areas of attention: (1) the inner journey, or heart of the peacemaker, (2) leadership exercised through organizations and movements, and (3) the rhetoric of the leader. The course was divided into a…

  2. In the Words of the Winners: The Newbery and Caldecott Medals, 2001-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALA Editions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Winners of the most respected prizes in children's literature speak out in an exclusive collection of acceptance speeches, culled from the archives of the Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) and "The Horn Book" magazine. Featuring authors and illustrators selected during the past 10 years, the book includes speeches by: (1) Neil…

  3. Subsequent dental research output of South African division of the IADR Colgate Prize entrants.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michelle I; McAlpine, Alistair J; Mkhaliphi, Diana S; Grossman, Elly S

    2005-11-01

    This study recorded the research output of all participants for the IADR (South African Division; SA) Colgate Prize for 1967-2004 to establish whether, in their later careers, prize winners had a greater research output than runners-up. Using a list of all entrants, each individual was classified as winner or runner-up and by gender, race, and research field of presentation. The publication output for each individual was obtained from PubMed. A Poisson regression set at P < 0.05 compared publication numbers between winners and runners-up. There were two groups of entrants: 101 participated once, and twenty-two participated twice or thrice. Winners had significantly more publications than runners-up, more so for the multiple entrants (winners 27.5+/-22.4; runners-up 16.5+/-25.5) than single entrants (winners 16.0+/-40.8; runners-up 12.0+/-27.7). The number of individuals participating in the Colgate Prize has declined, but representivity for race and gender is improving. This is the first study to establish that SA IADR Colgate Prize participants fulfil the long-term IADR ideal of research promotion among young investigators. PMID:16275690

  4. 1989 Architectural Exhibition Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Winners of the 1989 Architectural Exhibition sponsored annually by the ASBO International's School Facilities Research Committee include the Brevard Performing Arts Center (Melbourne, Florida), the Capital High School (Santa Fe, New Mexico), Gage Elementary School (Rochester, Minnesota), the Lakewood (Ohio) High School Natatorium, and three other…

  5. These Projects are WINNERS!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Tricia

    1995-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Prentice Hall/National Middle School Association Teaching Team Awards (established to recognize exceptional interdisciplinary projects by middle school teaching teams). Students designed a new school, simulated a journey over the Oregon trail, conducted oral histories, and turned a local river into a learning…

  6. Top STS Winners Chosen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the first, second, and third place winners in the 47th annual Westinghouse Science Talent Search. Describes student research projects dealing with electromagnetic and gravitational fields, cryptosporidiosis (a chronic diarrhea), and genetic factors of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. (TW)

  7. 2016 ISCB Overton Prize awarded to Debora Marks.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Christiana N; Kovats, Diane E

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) recognizes the achievements of an early- to mid-career scientist with the Overton Prize each year. The Overton Prize was established to honor the untimely loss of Dr. G. Christian Overton, a respected computational biologist and founding ISCB Board member. Winners of the Overton Prize are independent investigators in the early to middle phases of their careers who are selected because of their significant contributions to computational biology through research, teaching, and service. 2016 will mark the fifteenth bestowment of the ISCB Overton Prize.  ISCB is pleased to confer this award the to Debora Marks, Assistant Professor of Systems Biology and director of the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Computational Biology at Harvard Medical School. PMID:27429747

  8. 2016 ISCB Overton Prize awarded to Debora Marks

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Christiana N.; Kovats, Diane E.

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) recognizes the achievements of an early- to mid-career scientist with the Overton Prize each year. The Overton Prize was established to honor the untimely loss of Dr. G. Christian Overton, a respected computational biologist and founding ISCB Board member. Winners of the Overton Prize are independent investigators in the early to middle phases of their careers who are selected because of their significant contributions to computational biology through research, teaching, and service. 2016 will mark the fifteenth bestowment of the ISCB Overton Prize.  ISCB is pleased to confer this award the to Debora Marks, Assistant Professor of Systems Biology and director of the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Computational Biology at Harvard Medical School. PMID:27429747

  9. Male entertainment award winners are older than female winners.

    PubMed

    Gilberg, M; Hines, T

    2000-02-01

    It has been said that in the entertainment industry after a certain age women have a harder time being as successful as men. Four analyses of the ages of male and female Oscar winners, Oscar nominees, Emmy winners, and Grammy winners over the past 25 years showed that in all four groups women were, on the average, younger than the men. Two interpretations of these differences are delineated. PMID:10778267

  10. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  11. Metropolis Prize Winner: Numerical Hydrodynamics at Gravity's Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, William

    2015-04-01

    Einstein's theory of general relativity is currently our best understanding of how gravity works. However, there are a very limited number of analytically-known solutions to the set of coupled, non-linear PDEs that make up the field equations. This means numerical methods are essential to understanding many interesting strong-field phenomena like black hole formation or the generation of gravitational waves. There has been great progress in the field of numerical relativity, especially in the past decade, not only in terms of being able to accurately simulate the mergers of compact objects like black holes or neutron stars, but beyond. I will discuss some recent work developing computational methods for simulating hydrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity, and applying them to new regimes and problems in high-energy astrophysics, gravitational-wave astronomy, and theoretical general relativity. This includes developing flexible and robust methods for solving the constraint part of the Einstein field equations in order to specify initial data for an evolution, as well as an algorithm for efficiently evolving the full non-linear evolution equations when the solution is dominated by a known background solution. I will emphasize how these computational tools allow us to push the domain of numerical relativity into more extreme regimes of gravity: exploring mergers of black holes and neutron stars with high orbital eccentricity; simulating the extreme-mass-ratios involved in the tidal disruption of a star by a black hole using full relativity; and studying ultrarelativistic collisions, where the gravitational pull of kinetic energy is strong enough to form a black hole.

  12. Nobel Prize winners for literature as palliative for scientific English.

    PubMed

    Sri Kantha, Sachi

    2003-02-01

    Plagiarism causes a serious concern in scientific literature. I distinguish two types of plagiarism. What is routinely highlighted and discussed is the reprehensible type of stealing another author's ideas and words. This type I categorize as "heterotrophic" plagiarism. A more prevalent and less-discussed type of plagiarism is the verbatim use of same sentences repetitively by authors in their publications. This I categorize as "autotrophic" plagiarism. Though harmless per se, autotrophic plagiarism is equally taxing on the readers. The occurrence of autotrophic plagiarism is mainly caused by the lack of proficiency in the current lingua franca of science, ie, English. The writings of 22 Nobel literature laureates who wrote in English, especially their travelogues, essays, and letters to the press can be used for benefit of improving one's own vocabulary and writing skills and style. I suggest the writings of three literati--Bernard Shaw, Bertrand Russell, and Ernest Hemingway--as palliatives for autotrophic plagiarism in scientific publishing. PMID:12590423

  13. In Sciences, the Reflected Prestige of the Nobel Prize Extends Far Beyond Anything Its Creator Imagined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kim

    1987-01-01

    As the ultimate symbol of excellence, the Nobel Prize has had a tremendous effect on scholars, institutions, and national pride. Topics discussed include: recruitment and fund raising, salaries and other perks, "raids" from other institutions, students seeking out winners, publication declines, etc. (MLW)

  14. IT Summit 2010 - Award Winners

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA CIO Linda Cureton announces this year’s IT Summit award winners. These awards recognize achievement in six key areas for contributions that have aided in NASA achieving mission goals and objec...

  15. Stellar students win fantastic prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    will meet astronomers and be present during a night of observations. Learning that they won, the team was enthusiastic: "We are very pleased to hear this fantastic news and are looking forward to the trip!" Another winner was Marta Kotarba, with her teacher Grzegorz Sęk, from the school IV Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Tadeusza Kościuszki, Poland. Her prize is a trip to the Hispano-German Astronomical Observatory of Calar Alto in Almeria, Spain, kindly donated by the Spanish Council for Scientific Research. Marta's project "Galaxy Zoo and I" tells how she joined the website "Galaxy Zoo" to study galaxies and help astronomical researchers understand the structure of the Universe. Galaxy Zoo volunteers classify galaxies into different types, such as spiral or elliptical - a task much more easily done by humans than computers. Marta explains that the project "is like an adventure to me. Galaxy Zoo gives me abilities to enlarge my knowledge about the Universe and to gain new skills." Her winning entry also shows how anyone can get involved in the world of real astronomical research, simply by using the Internet. A third winner, of a trip to Königsleiten Observatory in Austria, is Andreia Nascimento with her teacher Leonor Cabral, from Escola Secundária da Cidadela in Portugal. Her project, on "Hunting for Open Star Clusters" near young stars, used data from the robotic Faulkes Telescope in Hawaii, which is used for research-based science education. "Catch a Star" also includes an artwork competition, for which students created artwork with an astronomical theme. This competition, through which students can get involved with astronomy even outside of science classes, has become increasingly popular, with over one thousand entries this year from around the world. Not only were prizes awarded by public votes in a web gallery, but special prizes were awarded by Garry Harwood, a Fellow and life member of the International Association of Astronomy Artists. Harwood said: "It

  16. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Cancer.gov

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  17. Stellar students win fantastic prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    will meet astronomers and be present during a night of observations. Learning that they won, the team was enthusiastic: "We are very pleased to hear this fantastic news and are looking forward to the trip!" Another winner was Marta Kotarba, with her teacher Grzegorz Sęk, from the school IV Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Tadeusza Kościuszki, Poland. Her prize is a trip to the Hispano-German Astronomical Observatory of Calar Alto in Almeria, Spain, kindly donated by the Spanish Council for Scientific Research. Marta's project "Galaxy Zoo and I" tells how she joined the website "Galaxy Zoo" to study galaxies and help astronomical researchers understand the structure of the Universe. Galaxy Zoo volunteers classify galaxies into different types, such as spiral or elliptical - a task much more easily done by humans than computers. Marta explains that the project "is like an adventure to me. Galaxy Zoo gives me abilities to enlarge my knowledge about the Universe and to gain new skills." Her winning entry also shows how anyone can get involved in the world of real astronomical research, simply by using the Internet. A third winner, of a trip to Königsleiten Observatory in Austria, is Andreia Nascimento with her teacher Leonor Cabral, from Escola Secundária da Cidadela in Portugal. Her project, on "Hunting for Open Star Clusters" near young stars, used data from the robotic Faulkes Telescope in Hawaii, which is used for research-based science education. "Catch a Star" also includes an artwork competition, for which students created artwork with an astronomical theme. This competition, through which students can get involved with astronomy even outside of science classes, has become increasingly popular, with over one thousand entries this year from around the world. Not only were prizes awarded by public votes in a web gallery, but special prizes were awarded by Garry Harwood, a Fellow and life member of the International Association of Astronomy Artists. Harw

  18. The Hermann Weyl Prize - Laudatio for Guilio Chiribella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Olmo, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    The Hermann Weyl Prize was created in 2000 by the Standing Committee of the International Group Theory Colloquium. The purpose of the Weyl Prize is to provide recognition for young scientists (younger than 35) who have performed original work of significant scientific quality in the area of understanding physics through symmetries. The Hermann Weyl Prize consists of a certificate citing the accomplishments of the recipient, prize money of $500 and an allowance towards the attendance of the bi-annual International Group Theory Colloquium at which the award is presented. The previous winners of the award were: Edward Frenkel (2002), Nikita A Nekrasov (2004), Boyko Bakalov (2006) and Mohammad M Sheikh-Jabbari (2008). The Selection Committee of the Weyl Prize 2010 consisted of S T Ali (Concordia University), E Corrigan (Durham Univeristy), P Kulish (St Petersburg Mathematical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences), R Mosseri (CNRS Paris) and M A del Olmo (University of Valladolid, chairman). This committee has made the following announcement: The Weyl Prize for the year 2010 was awarded to Dr Giulio Chiribella, in recognition of his pioneering work on the application of group theoretical methods in Quantum Information Theory. In particular, for providing a general solution to the problem of optimal estimation of symmertry transformations based on the notion of quantum entanglement between representation and multiplicity spaces, for the derivation of optimal protocols for the alignment of quantum reference frames, for the characterization of extreme quantum measurements in finite dimensions, for the proof of equivalence between asymptotic cloning and state estimation and for the proof of the optimality of measure-and-reprepare for quantum learning of unitary transformations. The Laudatio of Guilio Chiribella, delivered by M A del Olmo, is included in the PDF.

  19. Positron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Xu, J.

    1995-02-01

    The negative work function property that some materials have for positrons make possible the development of positron reemission microscopy (PRM). Because of the low energies with which the positrons are emitted, some unique applications, such as the imaging of defects, can be made. The history of the concept of PRM, and its present state of development will be reviewed. The potential of positron microprobe techniques will be discussed also.

  20. Our Own Pulitzer Prizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmon, Stephen L.

    1996-01-01

    A school board member in Gilman, Wisconsin, started a literary awards program to improve student writing. Students compete for prizes, and at the end of each year the winning entries are published in a literary magazine. (MLF)

  1. Breakthrough Prize for LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-06-01

    A special Breakthrough Prize has been awarded to the 1000 scientists and engineers working on the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO) for the discovery of gravitational waves.

  2. Exhibition of School Architecture, 1998. Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Architect, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents selected winners of 1998 Texas Association of School Boards and Texas Association of School Administrators school architecture competition. Award winners are listed in following categories: Caudill Award; educational appropriateness; innovation and design; value and planning; and value. Facility photos, brief descriptions, project…

  3. The 2010 Broad Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  4. Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy has awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Ahmed H. Zewail (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA) "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy". Zewail's work has taken the study of the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions to the ultimate degree of detail - the time scale of bond making and bond breaking.

  5. EDITORIAL: Annual prizes for best papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    2006 Roberts Prize The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) in association with the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) jointly award an annual prize for an article published in PMB during the previous year. The following ten articles, listed below in chronological order, were rated the best of 2006 based on the (two or three) referees' assessments: D W Mundy et al 2006 Radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers: assumptions, theoretical assessment and future directions Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1377-91 Y Yang et al 2006 Investigation of optical coherence tomography as an imaging modality in tissue engineering Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1649-59 M Krämer and M Scholz 2006 Rapid calculation of biological effects in ion radiotherapy Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1959-70 P Crespo et al 2006 On the detector arrangement for in-beam PET for hadron therapy monitoring Phys. Med. Biol. 51 2143-63 R J Senden et al 2006 Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose-response using different monomers Phys. Med. Biol. 51 3301-14 J Wang et al 2006 FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4119-27 C A T Van den Berg et al 2006 The use of MR B+1 imaging for validation of FDTD electromagnetic simulations of human anatomies Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4735-46 S Qin and K W Ferrara 2006 Acoustic response of compliable microvessels containing ultrasound contrast agents Phys. Med. Biol. 51 5065-88 R Kramer et al 2006 Skeletal dosimetry in the MAX06 and the FAX06 phantoms for external exposure to photons based on vertebral 3D-microCT images Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6265-89 R Leiderman et al 2006 Coupling between elastic strain and interstitial fluid flow: ramifications for poroelastic imaging Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6291-313 An IPEM college of jurors then assessed and rated these papers in order to choose a winner. We have much

  6. EDITORIAL: Annual prizes for best papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4409-28 Z Cao et al 2005 Optimal number of pinholes in multi-pinhole SPECT for mouse brain imaging---a simulation study Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4609-24 R Dharmakumar et al 2005 A novel microbubble construct for intracardiac or intravascular MR manometry: a theoretical study Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4745-62 R Chopra et al 2005 Method for MRI-guided conformal thermal therapy of prostate with planar transurethral ultrasound heating applicators Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4957-75 The IPEM Publications Committee then assessed and rated these papers in order to choose a winner. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the 2005 Roberts Prize is awarded to: J S Dysart and M S Patterson 2005 Characterization of Photofrin photobleaching for singlet oxygen dose estimation during photodynamic therapy of MLL cells in vitro Phys. Med. Biol. 50 2597-616 2006 Prize for the Highest Cited Paper The annual prize for the most highly cited paper is awarded by the journal publishers to the article published in PMB that has received the most citations1 in the previous 5 years (in this case for the period 2001 to 2005 inclusive). We have much pleasure in advising readers that the 2006 prize is awarded to: P J Keall, V R Kini, S S Vedam and R Mohan 2001 Motion adaptive x-ray therapy: a feasibility study Phys. Med. Biol. 46 1-10 Simon Harris, Publisher Steve Webb, Editor-in-Chief 1 Figures taken from Thomson/ISI

  7. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award winners 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The 1989 Malcolm Baldrige award winners - Milliken and Company; and Xerox Business Products and Services are highlighted in this video. Their strategies for producing quality products are discussed, along with their applications and importance in today's competitive workplace.

  8. Positron Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    I will give a review of the history of low-energy positron physics, experimental and theoretical, concentrating on the type of work pioneered by John Humberston and the positronics group at University College. This subject became a legitimate subfield of atomic physics under the enthusiastic direction of the late Sir Harrie Massey, and it attracted a diverse following throughout the world. At first purely theoretical, the subject has now expanded to include high brightness beams of low-energy positrons, positronium beams, and, lately, experiments involving anti-hydrogen atoms. The theory requires a certain type of persistence in its practitioners, as well as an eagerness to try new mathematical and numerical techniques. I will conclude with a short summary of some of the most interesting recent advances.

  9. In Brief: Trieste Prize nominations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Nominations for the 2008 Trieste Science Prize in Earth, space, ocean, and atmospheric sciences and in engineering sciences are being accepted through 31 January 2008. The prize has been established to give international recognition and visibility to outstanding scientific achievements made by scientists from developing countries. Candidates must be nationals of developing countries, and the prizes will only be awarded to individuals for scientific research of outstanding international merit carried out at institutions in developing countries. The prizes, each of which carries a US$50,000 monetary award, are administered by the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) and funded by Illycaffè in collaboration with the Trieste (Italy) Town Council and the Trieste International Foundation for Scientific Progress and Freedom. For more information, contact the TWAS Secretariat at prizes@twas.org.

  10. The Brain Prize 2011

    PubMed Central

    Soltesz, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Foundation awarded the inaugural Brain Prize 2011 to Péter Somogyi, Tamás Freund and György Buzsáki ‘for their wide-ranging, technically and conceptually brilliant research on the functional organization of neuronal circuits in the cerebral cortex, especially in the hippocampus, a region that is crucial for certain forms of memory’. The present article highlights key findings and major conceptual contributions by these three scientists that were recognized by the award. PMID:21917323

  11. Winners of student essay contest receive awards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    George Meguiar (left) presents a scholarship award to Kyla Davis Horn, of Cocoa Beach, one of the winners of an essay contest related to the 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11. Meguiar and George English (second from right) head the Apollo 11 Commemoration Association who sponsored the contest in conjunction with Florida Today newspaper. The other scholarship winner is Kyle Rukaczewski, of Satellite Beach (far right). A third winner, Jason Gagnon, of Viera, was unable to attend. The presentation was made at the Apollo/Saturn V Center during an anniversary banquet that honored all the people who made the Apollo Program possible. Special guests included former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham, who shared their experiences with the audience.

  12. Youyou Tu: significance of winning the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxiu; Liu, Yue

    2016-02-01

    Youyou Tu, a female scientist at the China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Beijing, is the first Chinese winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Based on the study of recipes which had been used for thousands of years to treat fever, Tu's group discovered that the plant artemesia annua, sweet wormwood, showed substantial inhibition of rodent malaria parasites. Her achievement and experience have inspired other researchers and emphasized the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Her award has led to a heated discussion about scientific research investment, fair treatment of research staff, and intellectual property right (IPR) protection in China. PMID:26885485

  13. Youyou Tu: significance of winning the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenxiu

    2016-01-01

    Youyou Tu, a female scientist at the China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Beijing, is the first Chinese winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Based on the study of recipes which had been used for thousands of years to treat fever, Tu’s group discovered that the plant artemesia annua, sweet wormwood, showed substantial inhibition of rodent malaria parasites. Her achievement and experience have inspired other researchers and emphasized the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Her award has led to a heated discussion about scientific research investment, fair treatment of research staff, and intellectual property right (IPR) protection in China. PMID:26885485

  14. The mantle of the heavens: Reflections on the 2014 Nobel Prize for medicine or physiology.

    PubMed

    Morris, Richard G M

    2015-06-01

    The award of the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 2014 for the discovery of place and grid cells was both a personal award to three great scientists and also a mark of the maturity of systems neuroscience as a discipline. This article offers both personal and scientific reflections on these discoveries, detailing both how getting to know all three winners had an impact on my life and the research questions that we shared in common work together. It ends with brief reflections on three important outstanding questions. PMID:25786661

  15. Optics pioneers scoop Nobel prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Three physicists who carried out pioneering work in former industrial research labs have picked up this year's Nobel Prize for Physics. One half of the SEK 10m prize has been awarded to Charles Kao, 75, for his work at the UK-based Standard Telephones and Cables (STC) on the transmission of light in optical fibres, which underpinned the telecommunications revolution. The other half of the prize is shared between Willard Boyle, 85, and George Smith, 79, of Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, US, for inventing the charge-coupled device (CCD) - an imaging semiconductor circuit that forms the basis of most digital cameras.

  16. EDITORIAL: The FDR Prize The FDR Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, Shigeo

    2009-06-01

    From the 45 papers published in the year 2008 in Fluid Dynamics Research the following paper has been selected for the second FDR prize: 'Propagation of very long water waves, with vorticity, over variable depth, with applications to tsunamis' by Adrian Constantin and Robin S Johnson, published in volume 40 (March 2008) pp 175-211. This paper takes, as its main theme, the analysis of the propagation of very long gravity waves in the ocean environment, with the possibility of applying the results to tsunamis. Both variable depth and some pre-existing vorticity are allowed in the model, but under the over-arching assumption of long waves; indeed, it is argued, the waves are so long that it is impossible for classical soliton theory to be the appropriate description of a developing tsunami. This aspect is supported by some simple scaling arguments, together with some observations associated with the tsunami of Boxing Day 2004. The formulation is based on two small scales: the slow scale on which the depth varies and the small amplitude of the wave (as initially generated in deep water). The technique adopted is that of matched asymptotic expansions. The solution, constructed for deep water, is not valid in suitably reduced depth of water; the solution in this shallow region (close inshore) is then matched to the deep-water solution. A novel feature of this work is the inclusion of a general distribution of vorticity in the absence of waves—intended to model the realistic ocean—which is based on the slow evolution scale for the bottom topography. Some general properties of such background flows are proved, and two specific examples have been obtained: constant vorticity everywhere (as far as the shoreline), and regions of isolated vorticity (for appropriate bottom profiles). The way in which the wave properties are modified in the presence of vorticity is described. The significant overall proposal in this theory, specifically applicable to tsunamis, is that it is

  17. The social implications of winner and loser effects.

    PubMed Central

    Dugatkin, Lee Alan; Druen, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Winner and loser effects have now been documented in a number of species. To our knowledge, experimental work, however, has focused exclusively on pairwise interactions, and not the extent to which winner and loser effects impact hierarchy formation. We report the results of experimentally manipulated winner and loser effects on hierarchy formation in a socially living species, the green swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri. Our results demonstrate that randomly chosen winners in pairwise aggressive contests were more likely to emerge as top-ranked individuals in a hierarchy, whereas randomly chosen losers were more likely to emerge as the lowest-ranking individuals, and that 'winner-neutral-loser' hierarchies were significantly overrepresented. PMID:15801612

  18. 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers (J3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the winners of the 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest. They are Naim Owens from Washington, DC, and Colissa Menke from Warrensburg, Missouri. The 2012 essay topic is "How do you feel CTE prepares individuals, including yourself, for a future career?"

  19. Creating healthy futures. 2000 NOVA Award winners.

    PubMed

    Larson, L

    2000-05-01

    Winners of this year's NOVA awards, sponsored by the American Hospital Association and H&HN magazine, all share a broad definition of health. These five stars of community benefit also understand that a community and a health care organization share responsibility for what creates health, and that collaborative efforts are the only way to sustain innovative programs. PMID:11785219

  20. Nobel Prize 2012: Haroche & Wineland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Iulia

    2012-11-01

    The 2012 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems".

  1. 2014 Lush Science Prize.

    PubMed

    McCann, Terry

    2015-11-01

    The Lush Prize supports animal-free testing by rewarding the most effective projects and individuals who have been working toward the goal of replacing animals in product or ingredient safety testing. A Background Paper is prepared each year, prior to the judging process, to provide the panel with a brief overview of current developments in the field of Replacement alternatives, particularly those relevant to the concept of toxicity pathways. This Background Paper includes information on recent work by the relevant scientific institutions and projects in this area, including AXLR8, OECD, CAAT, The Hamner Institutes, the Human Toxome Project, EURL ECVAM, ICCVAM, the US Tox21 Programme, the ToxCast programme, and the Human Toxicology Project Consortium. Recent developments in toxicity pathway research are also assessed by reviewing the relevant literature, with a view to presenting the two papers receiving the highest score to the judges for consideration. PMID:26551288

  2. Haagen-Smit Prize 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    The Executive Editors and the Publisher of Atmospheric Environment take great pleasure in announcing the 2015 ''Haagen-Smit Prize", designed to recognize outstanding papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The Prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution and one of the first editors of the International Journal of Air Pollution, a predecessor to Atmospheric Environment.

  3. Haagen-Smit Prize 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    The Executive Editors and the Publisher of Atmospheric Environment take great pleasure in announcing the 2014 ''Haagen-Smit Prize", designed to recognize outstanding papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The Prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution and one of the first editors of the International Journal of Air Pollution, a predecessor to Atmospheric Environment.

  4. The new date, new format, new goals and new sponsor of the Archon Genomics X PRIZE competition.

    PubMed

    Kedes, Larry; Campany, Grant

    2011-11-01

    The Archon Genomics X PRIZE presented by MEDCO is a $10 million prize for whole human genome sequencing that will test 100 samples and establish a defined method for determining quality and cost per genome. The contest will entail a head-to-head competition starting on 3 January 2013. The $10 million grand prize will be awarded to the first team to meet all the quality standards. If there is no grand prize winner, lesser awards will be made for single achievements in the three categories of accuracy, completeness and haplotype phasing. Similar to the open comment period offered earlier this year for the validation protocol, the X PRIZE Foundation seeks commentary from the scientific community on the revised competition format and judging criteria prior to publishing final rules as part of a master agreement with competing teams next year. The official validation protocol will make the competition judging transparent and fair using multiple standard techniques and robust bioinformatics. With sponsorship from Medco Health Solutions (MEDCO), the 100 samples will be derived from genomes of appropriately consented centenarian subjects. At the conclusion of the contest, the data from the redundantly sequenced genomes will be deposited into a scientific database and provide a heretofore unrealized depth of sequence data based on multiple technologies. The sample set and the bioinformatic pipeline will also be made available to the scientific community. PMID:22030612

  5. James P. Allison received the 2014 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie; Scully, Peter; Ba, Sujuan

    2014-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)—a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting innovative cancer research on the global scale that aims to cure cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher whose original discoveries have expanded our understanding of cancer and resulted in notable advances in cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. The prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the history and mission of the Szent-Györgyi Prize, its role in promoting discovery-oriented cancer research, and the pioneering work led by the 2014 prize winner, Dr. James Allison. Dr. Allison's work in the area of cancer immunotherapy led to the successful development of immune checkpoint therapy, and the first drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:25189714

  6. The First Printz Award Designations: Winners All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmitt, Jean Pollard

    2001-01-01

    Explains a major new book award, the Michael L. Printz Award honoring the best young adult book. Discusses the first prize-winning book: "Monster" by Walter Dean Myers, and three honor books. Discusses how these books are unusual and outstanding examples of young adult literature--structurally sophisticated with memorable characters who deal with…

  7. 77 FR 64851 - Announcement Date Postponed for the Grand Prize Winner Announcement for the America COMPETES...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... the Federal Register (77 FR 16895) to announce the launch of VA's Project REACH Homelessness Mobile App Contest, authorized under section 105 of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2011. Project... Reauthorization Act of 2011: Project REACH Homelessness Mobile App Contest AGENCY: Department of Veterans...

  8. Children's Literature Awards and Winners: A Directory of Prizes, Authors, and Illustrators. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dolores Blythe

    Updating and augmenting a first edition published in 1983, this book provides a comprehensive guide to awards granted in English-speaking countries for excellence in children's literature. Included in the book are awards presented to an author or illustrator for his or her body of work, awards presented for a particular title, and awards presented…

  9. Winners of student essay contest receive awards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, George Meguiar (center left) and George English (center right) present scholarships to two students who entered an essay contest in conjunction with the 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11. The winners shown are Kyla Davis Horn, of Cocoa Beach, and Kyle Rukaczewski, of Satellite Beach. A third winner, Jason Gagnon, of Viera, was unable to attend. Meguiar and English head the Apollo 11 Commemoration Association which sponsored the contest in conjunction with Florida Today newspaper. The presentation was made at the Apollo/Saturn V Center during an anniversary banquet that honored all the people who made the Apollo Program possible. Special guests included former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham, who shared their experiences with the audience.

  10. Mrs. Chandrasekhar poses with contest winners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mrs. Lalitha Chandrasekhar (left), wife of the late Indian- American Nobel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, poses with a model of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the winners of the contest to rename the telescope in the TRW Media Hospitality Tent at the NASA Press Site at KSC. The winners of the contest are Jatila van der Veen (center), academic coordinator and lecturer, Physics Dept., University of Santa Barbara, Calif., and Tyrel Johnson (right), high school student, Laclede, Idaho. The name 'Chandra,' a shortened version of Chandrasekhar's name which he preferred among friends and colleagues, was chosen to honor the Nobel Laureate. 'Chandra' also means 'Moon' or 'luminous' in Sanskrit. The observatory is scheduled to be launched aboard Columbia on Space Shuttle mission STS-93.

  11. ACS Community Activities Contest: NCW 2008 Winners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Stacy

    2009-03-01

    The winners of the annual National Chemistry Week (NCW) poster contest were announced on November 14, 2008. The contest, held during the fourth week in October, invites K-12 students to display artistically the impact of chemistry in their lives. The 2008 theme focused on the chemistry of sports. Students were encouraged to emphasize the chemical principles connected with different sports, sports materials, safety equipment, and how the body performs during physical activity.

  12. Particle theorists scoop Nobel prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Every year the award of the Nobel Prize for Physics goes through a familiar pattern - a few days' heightened speculation, a warm congratulation and, more often than not, a trailing dispute. This year has been no exception. The three new laureates, whose predictions and concepts on symmetry breaking have become cornerstones of the Standard Model, had long been tipped to win at some point. Makoto Kobayashi, 64, of the KEK lab, and Toshihide Maskawa, 68, of the University of Kyoto, both in Japan, share one half of the SwKr 10m (about £800 000) prize for their work in 1972 on the mechanism of broken symmetry, which led to the prediction of a new family of quarks. Yoichiro Nambu, 87, of the University of Chicago in the US, wins the other half of the prize for realizing in 1960 how to apply spontaneous symmetry breaking to particle physics.

  13. Positron Interactions with Atoms and Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Anand K.

    2012-01-01

    Dirac, in 1928, combining the ideas of quantum mechanics and the ideas of relativity invented the well-known relativistic wave equation. In his formulation, he predicted an antiparticle of the electron of spin n-bar/2. He thought that this particle must be a proton. Dirac published his interpretation in a paper 'A theory of electrons and protons.' It was shown later by the mathematician Hermann Weyl that the Dirac theory was completely symmetric between negative and positive particles and the positive particle must have the same mass as that of the electron. In his J. Robert Oppenheimer Memorial Prize Acceptance Speech, Dirac notes that 'Blackett was really the first person to obtain hard evidence for the existence of a positron but he was afraid to publish it. He wanted confirmation, he was really over cautious.' Positron, produced by the collision of cosmic rays in a cloud chamber, was detected experimentally by Anderson in 1932. His paper was published in Physical Review in 1933. The concept of the positron and its detection were the important discoveries of the 20th century. I have tried to discuss various processes involving interactions of positrons with atoms and ions. This includes scattering, bound states and resonances. It has not been possible to include the enormous work which has been carried out during the last 40 or 50 years in theory and measurements.

  14. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2009 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2010-07-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award an annual prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner has been made as thorough as possible, to try to ensure that an outstanding paper wins the prize. We started off with a shortlist of the 10 research papers published in 2009 which were rated the best based on the referees' quality assessments. Following the submission of a short 'case for winning' document by each of the shortlisted authors, an IPEM college of jurors of the status of FIPEM assessed and rated these 10 papers in order to choose a winner, which was then endorsed by the Editorial Board. We have a clear, and very worthy, winner this year. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the 2009 Roberts Prize is awarded to E Z Zhang et al from University College London for their paper on photoacoustic tomography. In vivo high resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy E Z Zhang, J G Laufer, R B Pedley and P C Beard 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1035-46 Our congratulations go to these authors. Of course all of the shortlisted papers were of great merit, and the full top-10 is listed below (in alphabetical order). Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher References Cheng Y-C N , Neelavalli J and Haacke E M 2009 Limitations of calculating field distributions and magnetic susceptibilities in MRI using a Fourier based method Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1169-89 Cho S, Ahn S, Li Q and Leahy R M 2009 Exact and approximate Fourier rebinning of PET data from time-of-flight to non time-of-flight 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 467-84 Davidson S R H, Weersink R A, Haider M A, Gertner M R, Bogaards A, Giewercer D, Scherz A, Sherar M D, Elhilali M, Chin J L, Trachtenberg J and Wilson B C 2009 Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial

  15. The Netherlands' School Building Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents awardees of the Netherland's School Building Prize: those schools that have shown they can embrace new directions in school building design while adhering to budgetary limitations. Highlights general findings of the judges on school design and construct as presented by the 41 participating schools. (GR)

  16. A prize for membrane magic.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to James Rothman, Randy Schekman, and Thomas Südhof "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells". I present a personal view of the membrane trafficking field, highlighting the contributions of these three Nobel laureates in a historical context. PMID:24315088

  17. Cosmic pioneers scoop Nobel prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 Nobel Prize for Physics has been awarded to Saul Perlmutter from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US, Adam Riess at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and Brian Schmidt from the Australian National University, Weston Creek, "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe through observations of distant supernovae".

  18. [Two Nobel prizes for psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Knezević, Aleksandar; Knezević, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    It was pointed out that both Nobel prizes for medicine in the field of psychiatry have lost their importance in contemporary medicine. Modern achievements in psychiatry have suppresed both psychosurgery of Egas Moniz and malaria treatment of Wagner-Jauregg as methods in the treatment of mental diseases. PMID:19368289

  19. A Prize for Membrane Magic

    PubMed Central

    Pfeffer, Suzanne R.

    2016-01-01

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to James Rothman, Randy Schekman, and Thomas Südhof “for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”. I present a personal view of the membrane trafficking field, highlighting the contributions of these three Nobel laureates in a historical context. PMID:24315088

  20. Meet the 2008 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers (J3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the winners of the 2008 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest and their winning essays. The winners are Spencer Terry of Tulsa, Oklahoma (secondary), and Carrie Snyder-Renfro of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (postsecondary). The topic for secondary students is "How would you communicate the impact and importance of CTE related to your…

  1. 40 CFR 105.14 - How are award winners notified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How are award winners notified? 105.14 Section 105.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.14 How are award winners notified?...

  2. 40 CFR 105.11 - Who selects the award winners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who selects the award winners? 105.11 Section 105.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.11 Who selects the award winners?...

  3. Occupational Aspirations of State FFA Contest and Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E.; Doerfert, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A study explored the occupational aspirations of 300 (of 503) students with high levels of participation in Future Farmers of America's (FFA) Computers in Agriculture (CIA), Proficiency Award (PA), and Prepared and Extemporaneous Speaking (PES) contests. CIA and PES winners aspired to professional occupations more than PA winners. PES winners…

  4. 40 CFR 105.14 - How are award winners notified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are award winners notified? 105.14 Section 105.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.14 How are award winners notified?...

  5. 40 CFR 105.14 - How are award winners notified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are award winners notified? 105.14 Section 105.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.14 How are award winners notified?...

  6. 40 CFR 105.14 - How are award winners notified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are award winners notified? 105.14 Section 105.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.14 How are award winners notified?...

  7. 40 CFR 105.11 - Who selects the award winners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who selects the award winners? 105.11 Section 105.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.11 Who selects the award winners?...

  8. 40 CFR 105.11 - Who selects the award winners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who selects the award winners? 105.11 Section 105.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.11 Who selects the award winners?...

  9. 40 CFR 105.11 - Who selects the award winners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Who selects the award winners? 105.11 Section 105.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.11 Who selects the award winners?...

  10. 40 CFR 105.14 - How are award winners notified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true How are award winners notified? 105.14 Section 105.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.14 How are award winners notified?...

  11. 40 CFR 105.11 - Who selects the award winners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who selects the award winners? 105.11 Section 105.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.11 Who selects the award winners?...

  12. CIP's Eighth Annual Educational Software Contest: The Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Denis

    1997-01-01

    Announces the winners of an annual software contest for innovative software in physics education. Winning entries include an application to help students visualize the origin of energy bands in a solid, a package on the radioastronomy of pulsars, and a school-level science simulation program. Also includes student winners, honorable mentions,…

  13. Bernard Lerer: recipient of the 2014 inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine (Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Vural; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Aynacıoğlu, Sükrü; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dove, Edward S; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hafen, Ernst; Kesim, Belgin Eroğlu; Kolker, Eugene; Lee, Edmund J D; Llerena, Adrian; Nacak, Muradiye; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Someya, Toshiyuki; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tomlinson, Brian; Vayena, Effy; Warnich, Louise; Yaşar, Umit

    2014-04-01

    This article announces the recipient of the 2014 inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine by the Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics (PRACP): Bernard Lerer, professor of psychiatry and director of the Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. The Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize is given to an exceptional interdisciplinary scholar who has made highly innovative and enduring contributions to global omics science and personalized medicine, with both vertical and horizontal (transdisciplinary) impacts. The prize is established in memory of a beloved colleague, mentor, and friend, the late Professor Werner Kalow, who cultivated the idea and practice of pharmacogenetics in modern therapeutics commencing in the 1950s. PRACP, the prize's sponsor, is one of the longest standing learned societies in the Asia-Pacific region, and was founded by Kalow and colleagues more than two decades ago in the then-emerging field of pharmacogenetics. In announcing this inaugural prize and its winner, we seek to highlight the works of prize winner, Professor Lerer. Additionally, we contextualize the significance of the prize by recalling the life and works of Professor Kalow and providing a brief socio-technical history of the rise of pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine as a veritable form of 21(st) century scientific practice. The article also fills a void in previous social science analyses of pharmacogenetics, by bringing to the fore the works of Kalow from 1995 to 2008, when he presciently noted the rise of yet another field of postgenomics inquiry--pharmacoepigenetics--that railed against genetic determinism and underscored the temporal and spatial plasticity of genetic components of drug response, with invention of the repeated drug administration (RDA) method that estimates the dynamic heritabilities of drug response. The prize goes a long way

  14. Next X-Prize: L1 Base with Linked Asteroid Mining as Prime Catalyst for Space Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Ken R.

    2006-01-01

    We are at a cusp in our emergence as a space-faring race. Development of space resources offers unparalleled economic opportunities. Entrepreneurs with fortunes from the computer and internet revolutions are heavily investing in space. Their goal: to make space accessible to civilians at affordable prices, and build their next fortunes off-planet. The Ansari X-Prize showed that economic incentives can augment the pace and efficiency of this venture. Lunar and Martian missions are being touted as the top priorities by the US and other nations. However, serious and profitable expansion into space is best achieved by the establishment of an L1 base, its economic lifeblood based on processing asteroidal materials to provide the staples of all human space enterprise: oxygen, water, fuel and shielding. This paper outlines the components of an ``L1-prize'' modeled on the Ansari X-prize competition that led to the first private manned flight into space by Scaled Composites. The economic costs, crucial components and profit potential of a primary L1 base with asteroid mining technology intimately tied to it are detailed. The technical and economic benefits of the L1 location are contrasted to alternatives. The likely revenue sources are estimated, including contracting nations and industries; and orbital, lunar and Martian interplanetary enterprises. These are discussed as realistically and conservatively as possible in terms of the potential future profits for the winner of the prize.

  15. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Scully, Peter; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2016-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)-a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientific research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, significant research to the fight against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pioneering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt's work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene amplification and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine. PMID:26843073

  16. Landau's Nobel Prize in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, M.; Balatsky, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Work of Lev Landau had a profound impact on the physics in 20th century. Landau had created the paradigms that had framed the conversations on the outstanding problems in physics for decades. He had laid foundations for our understanding of quantum matter like superfluidity, superconductivity and the theory of Fermi liquid. Here we present some Nobel Archive data on the winning nomination that led to the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1962.

  17. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2010 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2011-08-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award an annual prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner has been made as thorough as possible, to try to ensure that an outstanding paper wins the prize. We started off with a shortlist of the 10 research papers published in 2010 which were rated the best based on the referees' quality assessments. Following the submission of a short 'case for winning' document by each of the shortlisted authors, an IPEM college of jurors of the status of FIPEM assessed and rated these 10 papers in order to choose a winner, which was then endorsed by the Editorial Board. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2010 is awarded to M M Paulides et al from Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, for their paper on hyperthermia treatment: The clinical feasibility of deep hyperthermia treatment in the head and neck: new challenges for positioning and temperature measurement M M Paulides, J F Bakker, M Linthorst, J van der Zee, Z Rijnen, E Neufeld, P M T Pattynama, P P Jansen, P C Levendag and G C van Rhoon 2010 Phys. Med. Biol. 55 2465 Our congratulations go to these authors. Of course all of the shortlisted papers were of great merit, and the full top-10 is listed below (in alphabetical order). Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher References Alonzo-Proulx O, Packard N, Boone J M, Al-Mayah A, Brock K K, Shen S Z and Yaffe M J 2010 Validation of a method for measuring the volumetric breast density from digital mammograms Phys. Med. Biol. 55 3027 Bian J, Siewerdsen J H, Han X, Sidky E Y, Prince J L, Pelizzari C A and Pan X 2010 Evaluation of sparse-view reconstruction from flat-panel-detector cone-beam CT Phys. Med. Biol. 55 6575 Brun M-A, Formanek F, Yasuda A, Sekine M, Ando N

  18. The 2006 Broad Prize for Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad Foundation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The $1 million Broad Prize in Urban Education is the nation's largest award in K-12 public education. The Broad Prize is given annually by The Broad Foundation in the form of scholarships to urban school districts that demonstrate the greatest overall performance and improvement in student achievement while reducing achievement gaps among ethnic…

  19. Innovation Inducement Prizes: Connecting Research to Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Williams, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change--the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010--clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design…

  20. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  1. Interview With the 2002 Caldecott Medal Winner, David Wiesner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses David Wiesner, the 2002 Caldecott Medal Winner, and includes excerpts of an interview with him. Notes that Wiesner's books appeal to the imagination and often use art elements such as scale. Details the winning book, "The Three Pigs." (PM)

  2. Which are the best nations and institutions for revolutionary science 1987-2006? Analysis using a combined metric of Nobel prizes, Fields medals, Lasker awards and Turing awards (NFLT metric).

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    I have previously suggested that Nobel prizes can be used as a scientometric measurement of 'revolutionary science'; and that for this purpose it would be better if more Nobel prizes were awarded, especially in three new subjects of mathematics, medicine and computing science which have become major sciences over recent decades. In the following analysis of the last 20 years from 1987 to 2006, I use three prestigious prizes in mathematics (Fields medal), medicine (Lasker award for Clinical Medical Research) and computing science (A.M. Turing award) which are plausible surrogates for Nobel prizes. The combined Nobel-Fields-Lasker-Turing (NFLT) metric is strongly dominated by the USA. However the distribution implies that revolutionary science may be somewhat more broadly distributed than the pure Nobel metric suggests. The UK and France seem to be significant nations in some types of revolutionary science (although the UK has declined substantially as a centre of revolutionary science); and Germany, Switzerland, Japan, Russia, Denmark and Norway also feature. The top world institutions for revolutionary science according to NFLT are MIT, Stanford and Princeton - all in the USA - and the USA has 19 institutions with at least three prize-winners. Second is France, with three institutions having three or more winners; the UK and Norway have one each. The NFLT metric confirms previous observations that many public universities in the Western USA have now become a major focus of revolutionary science; and that Harvard has declined from its previous status as the top world centre of revolutionary science to about seventh-place. This analysis confirms the potential value of increasing the number of Nobel prizes as a means of identifying and monitoring centres of excellence in revolutionary science. PMID:17234353

  3. Positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, E J; Phelps, M E

    1979-01-01

    Conventional nuclear imaging techniques utilizing lead collimation rely on radioactive tracers with little role in human physiology. The principles of imaging based on coincidence detection of the annihilation radiation produced in positron decay indicate that this mode of detection is uniquely suited for use in emission computed tomography. The only gamma-ray-emitting isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are positron emitters, which yield energies too high for conventional imaging techniques. Thus development of positron emitters in nuclear medicine imaging would make possible the use of a new class of physiologically active, positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The application of these principles is described in the use of a physiologically active compound labeled with a positron emitter and positron-emission computed tomography to measure the local cerebral metabolic rate in humans. PMID:440173

  4. Positron-rubidium scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    A 5-state close-coupling calculation (5s-5p-4d-6s-6p) was carried out for positron-Rb scattering in the energy range 3.7 to 28.0 eV. In contrast to the results of similar close-coupling calculations for positron-Na and positron-K scattering the (effective) total integrated cross section has an energy dependence which is contrary to recent experimental measurements.

  5. [Karl Sudhoff and the Nobel Prize].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on files in the Nobel Prize archive for Physiology or Medicine in Solna, Sweden, this paper illuminates the Nobel Prize nominations for and by Karl Sudhoff from 1918 to 1923. He was nominated by Max Cloetta and Max Neuburger, and Sudhoff himself put forward Julius Hirschberg, Erwin Payr and Georg Sticker. Even though none of the proposals led to a prize, the nomination letters offer insights in the relationships between leading historians of medicine in the immediate post-war years. The study is part of a project exploring the construction and enactment of scientific excellence. PMID:26821496

  6. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, Addison

    2002-05-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded shares of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the year 2001 to three scientists for their development of methods for the efficient catalytic production of just one member of a pair of enantiomers. One-half of the prize was divided equally between William S. Knowles and Ryoji Noyori. The other half of the prize was awarded to K. Barry Sharpless. This paper briefly discusses their discoveries and the significance of the discoveries. It includes an annotated bibliography of their most relevant and easily obtained publications.

  7. The matilda effect in science: awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Anne E; Pincus, Stephanie; Koster, Janet Bandows; Leboy, Phoebe S

    2012-04-01

    Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Awards and prizes, which are critical for shaping scientific career trajectories, play a role in this stratification when they differentially enhance the status of scientists who already have large reputations: the 'Matthew Effect'. Contrary to the Mertonian norm of universalism--the expectation that the personal attributes of scientists do not affect evaluations of their scientific claims and contributions--in practice, a great deal of evidence suggests that the scientific efforts and achievements of women do not receive the same recognition as do those of men: the 'Matilda Effect'. Awards in science, technology, engineering and medical (STEM) fields are not immune to these biases. We outline the research on gender bias in evaluations of research and analyze data from 13 STEM disciplinary societies. While women's receipt of professional awards and prizes has increased in the past two decades, men continue to win a higher proportion of awards for scholarly research than expected based on their representation in the nomination pool. The results support the powerful twin influences of implicit bias and committee chairs as contributing factors. The analysis sheds light on the relationship of external social factors to women's science careers and helps to explain why women are severely underrepresented as winners of science awards. The ghettoization of women's accomplishments into a category of 'women-only' awards also is discussed. PMID:22849001

  8. Positron microprobe at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Asoka, P; Howell, R; Stoeffl, W

    1998-11-01

    The electron linac based positron source at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides the world's highest current beam of keV positrons. We are building a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with sub-micron resolution. The widely spaced and intense positron packets from the tungsten moderator at the end of the 100 MeV LLNL linac are captured and trapped in a magnetic bottle. The positrons are then released in 1 ns bunches at a 20 MHz repetition rate. With a three-stage re-moderation we will compress the cm-sized original beam to a 1 micro-meter diameter final spot on the target. The buncher will compress the arrival time of positrons on the target to less than 100 ps. A detector array with up to 60 BaF2 crystals in paired coincidence will measure the annihilation radiation with high efficiency and low background. The energy of the positrons can be varied from less than 1 keV up to 50 keV.

  9. 1998 federal energy and water management award winners

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-28

    Energy is a luxury that no one can afford to waste, and many Federal Government agencies are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of using energy wisely. Thoughtful use of energy resources is important, not only to meet agency goals, but because energy efficiency helps improve air quality. Sound facility management offers huge savings that affect the agency`s bottom line, the environment, and workplace quality. In these fiscally-modest times, pursuing sound energy management programs can present additional challenges for energy and facility managers. The correct path to take is not always the easiest. Hard work, innovation, and vision are characteristic of those who pursue energy efficiency. That is why the Department of energy, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is proud to salute the winners of the 1998 Federal Energy and Water Management Award. The 1998 winners represent the kind of 21st century thinking that will help achieve widespread Federal energy efficiency. In one year, the winners, through a combination of public and private partnerships, saved more than $222 million and 10.5 trillion Btu by actively identifying and implementing energy efficiency, water conservation, and renewable energy projects. Through their dedication, hard work, ingenuity, and success, the award winners have also inspired others to increase their own efforts to save energy and water and to more aggressively pursue the use of renewable energy sources. The Federal Energy and Water Management Awards recognize the winners` contributions and ability to inspire others to take action.

  10. Positrons for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Ecklund, S.

    1987-11-01

    The requirements of a positron source for a linear collider are briefly reviewed, followed by methods of positron production and production of photons by electromagnetic cascade showers. Cross sections for the electromagnetic cascade shower processes of positron-electron pair production and Compton scattering are compared. A program used for Monte Carlo analysis of electromagnetic cascades is briefly discussed, and positron distributions obtained from several runs of the program are discussed. Photons from synchrotron radiation and from channeling are also mentioned briefly, as well as positron collection, transverse focusing techniques, and longitudinal capture. Computer ray tracing is then briefly discussed, followed by space-charge effects and thermal heating and stress due to showers. (LEW)

  11. The Orthoworld Specialist Practitioner Prize Cases 2000.

    PubMed

    Johal, A

    2002-12-01

    This paper describes the orthodontic management of three diverse malocclusions that were awarded the Orthoworld Specialist Practitioner Prize (2000) and presented at the British Orthodontic Conference in Harrogate 2001. PMID:12444265

  12. Scientists share nobel prize for "nanoscopy".

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    Three scientists were awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their contributions to developing super-resolved fluorescence microscopy, which allows biologists to study cells on a nanometer scale. PMID:25477087

  13. Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Celebrating optical nanoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrit, Michel

    2014-12-01

    The award of this year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry to the pioneers of various optical schemes capable of achieving super-resolution and single-molecule detection is recognition of a revolution in optical imaging.

  14. Nobel Prize 2014: Akasaki, Amano & Nakamura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, Joerg

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources."

  15. Nobel Prize 2011: Perlmutter, Schmidt & Riess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Alison

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt and Adam Riess, "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae".

  16. Fishman Receives the Shaw Prize for Astronomy

    NASA Video Gallery

    In the video, Dr. Jerry Fishman discusses his career as a scientist, his lifelong interest in science and his recognition as the 2011 Shaw Prize Recipient for Astronomy. Fishman is being recognized...

  17. Perspectives on 2014 Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2015-06-01

    In celebration of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, this issue of Hippocampus includes a collection of commentaries from a broad range of perspectives on the significance of position coding neurons in the hippocampal region. From the perspective of this student of hippocampal physiology, it is argued that place cells and grid cells reflect the outcome of experiments that strongly select the information available and correspondingly observe singular "trigger features" of these neurons. Notably, however, in more naturalistic situations where multiple dimensions of information are available, hippocampal neurons have mixed selectivity wherein population-firing patterns reflect the organization of many features of experience. Thus, while discoveries on position coding were major breakthroughs in penetrating the hippocampal code, future studies exploring more complex behaviors hold the promise of revealing the full contribution of the hippocampal region to cognition and memory. PMID:25787853

  18. Fullerene discoverers win nobel prize

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1996-10-16

    Two Rice University (Houston) chemists, Robert F. Curl and Richard E. Smalley, and a scientist at the University of Sussex (Brighton, U.K.), Harold W. Kroto, have won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the joint discovery of buckminsterfullerenes - soccer ball-shaped carbon molecules. The novel form of carbon, which was initially synthesized by the scientists in 1985 as C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} has led to the development of {open_quotes}an entirely new branch of chemistry... with consequences in such diverse areas as astrochemistry, superconductivity, and material chemistry/physics,{close_quotes} according to the Swedish Academy of Sciences (Stockholm). For chemists, the structure is {open_quotes}uniquely beautiful and satisfying,{close_quotes} the academy says.

  19. Science Underlying 2008 Nobel Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Bernadette A.

    2009-01-01

    JCE offers a wealth of materials for teaching and learning chemistry that you can explore online. In the list below, Bernadette Caldwell of the Editorial Staff suggests additional resources that are available through JCE for teaching the science behind some of the 2008 Nobel Prizes . Discovering and Applying the Chemistry of GFP The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP to three scientists: Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, and Roger Y. Tsien. These scientists led the field in discovering and introducing a fluorescing protein from jellyfish into cells and genes under study, which allows researchers to witness biochemistry in action. Now tags are available that emit light in different colors, revealing myriad biological processes and their interactions simultaneously. Identifying HPV and HIV, HIV's Replication Cycle, and HIV Virus-Host Interactions The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to two scientists: Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier; and for his discovery of human papilloma viruses [HPV] causing cervical cancer to one scientist, Harald zur Hausen. Diseases caused by these infectious agents significantly affect global health. While isolating and studying the virus, researchers discovered HIV is an uncommon retrovirus that infects humans and relies on the host to make its viral DNA, infecting and killing the host's white blood cells, ultimately destroying the immune systems of infected humans. Related Resources at JCE Online The Journal has published articles relating to GFP specifically, and more generally to fluorescing compounds applied to biochemistry. The Journal has also published an article and a video on protease inhibition—a strategy to suppress HIV's biological processes. With the video clips, an accompanying guide

  20. Templeton Prize again goes to physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeandron, Michelle

    2008-04-01

    The Polish mathematical physicist and former priest Michael Heller has been awarded this year's Templeton Prize. Heller, whose more than 40-year-long career has encompassed research in theology, philosophy, mathematics and cosmology, intends to use the £820 000 prize to found an interuniversity institute in Poland to investigate questions in science, theology and philosophy. Dubbed the "Copernicus Centre", the institute will be affiliated to the Jagiellonian University and the Pontifical Academy of Theology in Cracow.

  1. Individual recognition, dominance hierarchies and winner and loser effects.

    PubMed Central

    Dugatkin, Lee Alan; Earley, Ryan L.

    2004-01-01

    Winner and loser effects are defined as an increased probability of winning an aggressive interaction at time T, based on victories at time T-1, T-2, etc., and an increased probability of losing at time T, based on losses at time T-1, T-2, etc., respectively. Prior theoretical work on dominance hierarchy formation has demonstrated that when players are not capable of individual recognition, loser effects always produce a clear top-ranked (alpha) individual, but all other ranks in a group remain unclear; whereas winner effects always produce strict linear hierarchies in which the rank of each individual is clear. Paradoxically, however, when individual recognition--a phenomenon long thought to stabilize hierarchies--is possible, winner and loser effects have no impact on the probability of forming strict linear hierarchies. PMID:15306327

  2. The 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: a large-scale prize for achievements on the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Choquet, Daniel

    2014-12-17

    The 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell, and William E. Moerner "for the development of superresolved fluorescence microscopy" can be seen as a combined prize for single-molecule detection and superresolution imaging. Neurons, arguably the most morphologically complex cell type, are the subject of choice for this application, now generically called "nanoscopy." PMID:25521373

  3. Positron binding to molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    While there is theoretical evidence that positrons can bind to atoms, calculations for molecules are much less precise. Unfortunately, there have been no measurements of positron-atom binding, due primarily to the difficulty in forming positron-atom bound states in two-body collisions. In contrast, positrons attach to molecules via Feshbach resonances (VFR) in which a vibrational mode absorbs the excess energy. Using a high-resolution positron beam, this VFR process has been studied to measure binding energies for more than 40 molecules. New measurements will be described in two areas: positron binding to relatively simple molecules, for which theoretical calculations appear to be possible; and positron binding to molecules with large permanent dipole moments, which can be compared to analogous, weakly bound electron-molecule (negative-ion) states. Binding energies range from 75 meV for CS2 (no dipole moment) to 180 meV for acetonitrile (CH3CN). Other species studied include aldehydes and ketones, which have permanent dipole moments in the range 2.5 - 3.0 debye. The measured binding energies are surprisingly large (by a factor of 10 to 100) compared to those for the analogous negative ions, and these differences will be discussed. New theoretical calculations for positron-molecule binding are in progress, and a recent result for acetonitrile will be discussed. This ability to compare theory and experiment represents a significant step in attempts to understand positron binding to matter. In collaboration with A. C. L. Jones, J. J. Gosselin, and C. M. Surko, and supported by NSF grant PHY 07-55809.

  4. Advanced positron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variola, A.

    2014-03-01

    Positron sources are a critical system for the future lepton colliders projects. Due to the large beam emittance at the production and the limitation given by the target heating and mechanical stress, the main collider parameters fixing the luminosity are constrained by the e+ sources. In this context also the damping ring design boundary conditions and the final performance are given by the injected positron beam. At present different schemes are being taken into account in order to increase the production and the capture yield of the positron sources, to reduce the impact of the deposited energy in the converter target and to increase the injection efficiency in the damping ring. The final results have a strong impact not only on the collider performance but also on its cost optimization. After a short introduction illustrating their fundamental role, the basic positron source scheme and the performance of the existing sources will be illustrated. The main innovative designs for the future colliders advanced sources will be reviewed and the different developed technologies presented. Finally the positrons-plasma R&D experiments and the futuristic proposals for positron sources will reviewed.

  5. Positrons from supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1993-01-01

    Positrons are produced in the ejecta of supernovae by the decay of nucleosynthetic Co-56, Ti-44, and Al-26. We calculate the probability that these positrons can survive without annihilating in the supernova ejecta, and we show that enough of these positrons should escape into the interstellar medium to account for the observed diffuse Galactic annihilation radiation. The surviving positrons are carried by the expanding ejecta into the interstellar medium where their annihilation lifetime of 10 exp 5 - 10 exp 6 yr is much longer than the average supernovae occurrence time of about 100 yr. Thus, annihilating positrons from thousands of supernovae throughout the Galaxy produce a steady diffuse flux of annihilation radiation. We further show that combining the calculated positron survival fractions and nucleosynthetic yields for current supernova models with the estimated supernova rates and the observed flux of diffuse Galactic annihilation radiation suggests that the present Galactic rate of Fe-56 nucleosynthesis is about 0.8 +/- 0.6 solar mass per 100 yr.

  6. TEAMS Award Winners Honored at AASL in Reno, Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Carol

    2008-01-01

    At the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) conference in Reno, Linworth Publishing and Thomson/Gale announced the winners of the third annual TEAMS awards. TEAMS stands for TEachers And Media Specialists influencing student achievement. The award recognizes the critical collaboration between teachers and media specialists in promoting…

  7. Chapter Innovators Guide, 2000: Models of Innovation Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National FFA Organization, Indianapolis, IN.

    This guide presents the Future Farmers of America (FFA) 2000 Model of Innovation award winners' projects. Chapters demonstrated abilities to identify goals and objectives, create a workable plan of action, attain and evaluate results, and identify items learned and ways to improve. Chapter 1 discusses the FFA National Chapter Award program that…

  8. Chapter Innovators Guide, 2001: Models of Innovation Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National FFA Organization, Indianapolis, IN.

    This document presents the activities that received Future Farmers of America's (FFA's) Model of Innovation awards in 2001. The booklet begins with an overview of the FFA National Chapter Award program and a list of the 2001 Models of Innovation Winners. The next three sections profile award-winning activities in the following areas of the three…

  9. Superhydrophobic Coating (2008 R&D 100 Winner)

    SciTech Connect

    Sandia

    2008-07-28

    A transparent coating that is not just impermeable to water, but actually makes it bounce off a surface to help prevent corrosion, protect electronic and antiquities, or provide a new, more efficient surface to collect pure water. 2008 R&D 100 winner (SAND2008-2215W)

  10. 40 CFR 105.15 - How are award winners recognized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How are award winners recognized? 105.15 Section 105.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.15 How are award...

  11. 40 CFR 105.16 - How are award winners publicized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How are award winners publicized? 105.16 Section 105.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.16 How are award...

  12. Global Power Play--Competition Winners Light Up the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This year's "Tech Directions" Inventors Competition asked students to come up with ways to provide electricity to remote villages that traditional electrical utilities have not yet reached. This article presents the results of the judging by inventor/electrical engineer Harry T. Roman. The winners are: (1) First Place--Scott Hulver, Lakewood…

  13. Stay a Winner: A Model for Drop Out Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burden, Ann S.

    This document describes "Stay a Winner," a program designed to reduce the dropout rate at North Pitt High School in Bethel, North Carolina by providing a focused, more meaningful curriculum; improved instructional processes; use of multimedia technology; and an emphasis on multicultural diversity. It is noted that funding for the program has been…

  14. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  15. 40 CFR 105.15 - How are award winners recognized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are award winners recognized? 105.15 Section 105.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.15 How are award...

  16. 40 CFR 105.16 - How are award winners publicized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are award winners publicized? 105.16 Section 105.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.16 How are award...

  17. 40 CFR 105.15 - How are award winners recognized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are award winners recognized? 105.15 Section 105.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.15 How are award...

  18. 40 CFR 105.15 - How are award winners recognized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true How are award winners recognized? 105.15 Section 105.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.15 How are award...

  19. 40 CFR 105.15 - How are award winners recognized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are award winners recognized? 105.15 Section 105.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.15 How are award...

  20. 40 CFR 105.16 - How are award winners publicized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are award winners publicized? 105.16 Section 105.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.16 How are award...

  1. 40 CFR 105.16 - How are award winners publicized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are award winners publicized? 105.16 Section 105.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.16 How are award...

  2. 40 CFR 105.16 - How are award winners publicized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true How are award winners publicized? 105.16 Section 105.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.16 How are award...

  3. Superhydrophobic coating (2008 R&D 100 winner)

    ScienceCinema

    Jeff Brinker

    2010-01-08

    A transparent coating that is not just impermeable to water, but actually makes it bounce off a surface to help prevent corrosion, protect electronic and antiquities, or provide a new, more efficient surface to collect pure water. 2008 R&D 100 winner (SAND2008-2215W)

  4. An Interview with Toni Watt, 2004 Award Winner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Toni Austin Watt, the winner of the 2004 James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching says that she was always an average student and had to invest more time in improving her skills and getting experiences, thus she is exhilarated that her efforts have received such acclaim and is honored that people thought her efforts were…

  5. Superhydrophobic coating (2008 R&D 100 winner)

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Brinker

    2008-07-28

    A transparent coating that is not just impermeable to water, but actually makes it bounce off a surface to help prevent corrosion, protect electronic and antiquities, or provide a new, more efficient surface to collect pure water. 2008 R&D 100 winner (SAND2008-2215W)

  6. Superhydrophobic Coating (2008 R&D 100 Winner)

    ScienceCinema

    Sandia

    2009-09-01

    A transparent coating that is not just impermeable to water, but actually makes it bounce off a surface to help prevent corrosion, protect electronic and antiquities, or provide a new, more efficient surface to collect pure water. 2008 R&D 100 winner (SAND2008-2215W)

  7. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  8. Children's Books: Awards and Prizes. 1975 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Book Council, New York, NY.

    This is a compilation of honors awarded in the children's book field including major international and foreign awards of English-speaking countries. It is revised biennially. The awards are arranged alphabetically. Each entry includes a brief history of the award. With a few exceptions, all the winners from the first to the most recent as of June…

  9. Children's Books: Awards & Prizes. 1975 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Book Council, New York, NY.

    A biennial compilation of honors awarded in the children's book field, this book includes major international and foreign awards of English-speaking countries. The awards are arranged alphabetically. Each entry includes a brief history of the award and, with a few exceptions, the titles of all winners from the first to the most recent, as of June…

  10. 26 CFR 1.74-1 - Prizes and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... all types, as well as any prizes and awards from an employer to an employee in recognition of some... received as a prize or award, if (1) such prize or award was made primarily in recognition of past... fields; (2) the recipient was selected without any action on his part to enter the contest or...

  11. 26 CFR 1.74-1 - Prizes and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... all types, as well as any prizes and awards from an employer to an employee in recognition of some... received as a prize or award, if (1) such prize or award was made primarily in recognition of past... fields; (2) the recipient was selected without any action on his part to enter the contest or...

  12. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  13. PREFACE 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, Stephen; Sullivan, James; White, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Preface These proceedings arose from the 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques (SLOPOS12), which was held on Magnetic Island, North Queensland, Australia, between 1-6th August 2010. Meetings in the SLOPOS series are held (roughly) every three years and have now been held on (almost) all continents, indicating the truly international nature of the field. SLOPOS12 marked the second time that the Workshop had been held in the southern hemisphere, and the first time in Australia. SLOPOS12 attracted 122 delegates from 16 countries. Most encouraging was the attendance of 28 student delegates, and that about half of the overall delegates were early career researchers - a good sign for the future of our field. We also enjoyed the company of more than a dozen partners and families of delegates. In a slight departure from previous SLOPOS meetings, the International Advisory Committee approved a broader scope of scientific topics for inclusion in the program for the 2010 Workshop. This broader scope was intended to capture the applications of positrons in atomic, molecular and biomedical areas and was encapsulated in the byeline for SLOPOS-12: The 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids, Surfaces, Atoms and Molecules. The scientific and social program for the meeting ran over 6 days with delegates gathering on Sunday August 1st and departing on August 6th. The scientific program included plenary, invited, contributed and student lectures, the latter being the subject of a student prize. In all there were 53 oral presentations during the week. There were also two poster sessions, with 63 posters exhibited, and a prize was awarded for the best poster by a student delegate. The standard of the student presentations, both oral and posters, was outstanding, so much so that the judging panel recommended an additional number of prizes be awarded. Topics that were the focus of invited presentations and contributed papers at

  14. Roy Porter Student Essay Prize WinnerPsychiatry Limited: Hyperactivity and the Evolution of American Psychiatry, 1957–1980

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Summary Hyperactivity is the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder in north America. Most physicians believe that the disorder is a neurological dysfunction which is best treated with stimulants, such as ritalin. Accounts of the history of hyperactivity written by physicians, psychologists and even historians suggest that the disorder was always conceived as such. This paper argues that, on the contrary, the notion that hyperactivity was a neurological condition only emerged after vigorous debate during the 1960s between three competing fields within American psychiatry: specifically psychoanalysis, social psychiatry and biological psychiatry. Biological psychiatry won the debate, not because its approach to hyperactivity was more scientifically valid, but rather because its explanations and methods fit the prevailing social context more readily than that of its rivals. American psychiatry's refusal to draw pluralistic conclusions about hyperactivity undermined the development of a deeper understanding of the disorder. The history of hyperactivity provides an ideal lens through which to view the evolution of psychiatry from a field dominated by Freudian psychoanalysis to one rooted in the neurosciences.

  15. Announcing the winner of the IJGO prize paper award for 1999. Estrogen replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed

    Guidozzi

    2000-05-01

    Objective: To determine whether estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) adversely affected outcome of breast cancer survivors. Method: A prospective descriptive study of all breast cancer survivors who requested ERT because of intractable menopausal symptoms. All patients presented voluntarily as gynecological outpatients and were all given oral continuous opposed ERT: 20 premarin and medroxyprogesterone and four tibolone. Results: Twenty-four patients who had previously been treated for breast cancer 8-91 months prior to their initiating ERT have been observed for 24-44 months. There were 15 patients with stage 1, eight with stage 2 and one with stage 4 breast cancer. The mean age of the patients at commencement of ERT was 48 years (range 42-161). Two patients had a biopsy of a suspicious breast nodule: both of which were benign. There have not been any recurrences to date. Conclusion: Breast cancer survivors did not have their outcome adversely affected by ERT during an observation period of 24-44 months. PMID:10802075

  16. [Space coding: a Nobel prize diary].

    PubMed

    Rondi-Reig, Laure

    2015-02-01

    The Nobel Prize in Medecine or Physiology for 2014 has been awarded to three neuroscientists: John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser for "their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain". This rewards innovative ideas which led to the development of intracerebral recording techniques in freely moving animals, thus providing links between behavior and physiology. This prize highlights how neural activity sustains our ability to localize ourselves and move around in the environment. This research provides key insights on how the brain drives behavior. PMID:25744268

  17. CMA Announces the 1996 Responsible Care Catalyst Awards Winners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-06-01

    Eighteen exceptional teachers of science, chemical technology, chemistry, and chemical engineering have been selected to receive a Responsible Care Chemical Manufacturers Association's 1996 Catalyst Award. The Responsible Care Catalyst Awards Program honors individuals who have the ability to inspire students toward careers in chemistry and science-related fields through their excellent teaching ability in and out of the classroom. The program also seeks to draw public attention to the importance of quality chemistry and science teaching at the undergraduate level. Since the award was established in 1957, 502 teachers of science, chemistry, and chemical engineering have been honored. Winners are selected from a wide range of nominations submitted by colleagues, friends, and administrators. All pre-high school, high school, two and four-year college, or university teachers in the United States and Canada are eligible. Each award winner will be presented with a medal and citation. National award winners receive 5,000; regional award winners receive 2,500. National Winners. Martin N. Ackermann, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH Kenneth R. Jolls, Iowa State University, Ames, IA Suzanne Zobrist Kelly, Warren H. Meeker Elementary School, Ames, IA John V. Kenkel, Southeast Community College, Lincoln, NE George C. Lisensky, Beloit College, Beloit, WI James M. McBride, Yale University, New Haven, CT Marie C. Sherman, Ursuline Academy, St. Louis, MO Dwight D. Sieggreen, Cooke Middle School, Northville, MI Regional Winners Two-Year College. East-Georgianna Whipple-VanPatter, Central Community College, Hastings, NE West-David N. Barkan, Northwest College, Powell, WY High School. East-John Hnatow, Jr., Emmaus High School, Northampton, PA South-Carole Bennett, Gaither High School, Tampa, FL Midwest-Kenneth J. Spengler, Palatine High School, Palatine, IL West-Ruth Rand, Albuquerque, Albuquerque, NM Middle School. East-Thomas P. Kelly, Grandville Public Schools, Grandville, NH

  18. Positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y. Lucas; Thompson, Christopher J.; Diksic, Mirko; Meyer, Ernest; Feindel, William H.

    One of the most exciting new technologies introduced in the last 10 yr is positron emission tomography (PET). PET provides quantitative, three-dimensional images for the study of specific biochemical and physiological processes in the human body. This approach is analogous to quantitative in-vivo autoradiography but has the added advantage of permitting non-invasive in vivo studies. PET scanning requires a small cyclotron to produce short-lived positron emitting isotopes such as oxygen-15, carbon-11, nitrogen-13 and fluorine-18. Proper radiochemical facilities and advanced computer equipment are also needed. Most important, PET requires a multidisciplinary scientific team of physicists, radiochemists, mathematicians, biochemists and physicians. This review analyzes the most recent trends in the imaging technology, radiochemistry, methodology and clinical applications of positron emission tomography.

  19. Alternative positron-target design for electron-positron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, R.J. ); Nelson, W.R. )

    1991-04-01

    Current electron-positron linear colliders are limited in luminosity by the number of positrons which can be generated from targets presently used. This paper examines the possibility of using an alternate wire-target geometry for the production of positrons via an electron-induced electromagnetic cascade shower. 39 refs., 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. The 2007 Broad Prize for Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The $1 million Broad Prize in Urban Education, the nation's largest K-12 public education award given annually by The Broad Foundation, is awarded to urban school districts that demonstrate the greatest overall performance and improvement in student achievement while reducing income and ethnic achievement gaps. One hundred of the largest urban…

  1. Therapeutic Pneumothorax and the Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Polianski, Igor J

    2015-08-01

    At the turn of the 20th century, the epidemic proportions of tuberculosis puzzled great parts the scientific community. Thus it is not surprising that well-known scholars who worked on particularly promising solutions to fight the disease were nominated for the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, perhaps the most prestigious benchmark of scientific excellence. The authors have gathered files on the Italian phtisiologist Carlo Forlanini (1847 to 1918) at the Nobel Prize archive for Physiology or Medicine in Solna, Sweden. Drawing on these files and contemporary publications, the authors discuss the origin of artificial pneumothorax for treating pulmonary tuberculosis, show how it became an international gold standard operation, and trace why the Nobel committee finally chose not to award Forlanini. Twenty Nobel Prize nominations for Forlanini were submitted from 1912 to 1919 exclusively by Italian scholars. In 1913 and 1914, Forlanini was on the shortlist of the Nobel Committee and thus one of the prime candidates for the prestigious prize. Important aspects of the rise, fall, and revival of the artificial pneumothorax from 1815 to 2015 are highlighted along with its benefits and risks. PMID:26234863

  2. NVVC/NHJ Durrer prizes 2014.

    PubMed

    Wall, E E van der; Umans, V A W M

    2015-06-01

    At the annual 2015 Spring Congress of the NVVC, the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of two of the best original/review articles published in the year 2014, one paper being more basically oriented and one paper being more clinically oriented. This has been an annual tradition since the year 2006. PMID:25894471

  3. NVVC/NHJ Durrer prizes 2013.

    PubMed

    van der Wall, E E; Umans, V A W M

    2014-05-01

    At the annual Spring Congress of the NVVC, the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of two of the best original/review articles published in the year 2013, one paper being more basically oriented and one paper being more clinically oriented. This annual tradition has existed since the year 2006. PMID:24668222

  4. NVVC/NHJ Durrer prizes 2015.

    PubMed

    van der Wall, E E

    2016-05-01

    At the annual 2016 Spring Congress of the NVVC, the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of two of the best original articles published in the year 2015, one paper being more basically oriented and one paper being more clinically oriented. This annual tradition has existed since the year 2006. PMID:27040677

  5. NVVC/NHJ Durrer Prizes 2012.

    PubMed

    van der Wall, E E; Schalij, M J; Umans, V A W M

    2013-06-01

    At the annual Spring Congress of the NVVC the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of the best original/review articles published in the year 2012, one paper being more basically-oriented and one paper being more clinically-oriented. This annual tradition exists already since the year 2006. PMID:23579987

  6. It's No Secret: Progress Prized in Brownsville

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    This article features Brownsville Independent School District which was awarded the prestigious 2008 Broad Prize for Urban Education for being the nation's most improved urban school district. The Texas border district sees teacher training and data-based instruction as paths to learning gains--and the $1 million Broad award adds validation. In…

  7. How Einstein Got the Nobel Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pais, Abraham

    1982-01-01

    Discusses why the Nobel Committee for Physics waited so long before giving Einstein the Nobel Prize and why they did not award it for relativity, but for the photoelectric effect instead. Focuses on the judgments of leading scientists who made nominations as well as committee members' decisions. (Author/JN)

  8. Nobel Prize 2013: Englert and Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Alison

    2013-11-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 has been awarded to François Englert and Peter Higgs "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider".

  9. Publication selection in health policy research: the winner's curse hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair; Stanley, Tom

    2013-01-01

    There is a widely discussed problem of publication bias in medical and health services research. Where quantitative effects form the basis of a publication a 'winner's curse' curse may apply. This phenomenon may occur as prospective authors of research papers compete by reporting 'more extreme and spectacular results' in order to increase the chances of their paper being accepted for publication. This paper examines this phenomenon using quantitative findings on income and price elasticities as reported in health economics research. We find robust statistical evidence that higher-impact journals preferentially report larger empirical estimates of these elasticities. That is, we find robust evidence of a winner's curse hypothesis contributing to the existence of publication bias found in both the income and the price elasticities of health care and drugs, as well as value of life research. PMID:23182564

  10. Bernard Lerer: Recipient of the 2014 Inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine (Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics)

    PubMed Central

    Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dove, Edward S.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hafen, Ernst; Kesim, Belgin Eroğlu; Kolker, Eugene; Lee, Edmund J.D.; LLerena, Adrian; Nacak, Muradiye; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Someya, Toshiyuki; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tomlinson, Brian; Vayena, Effy; Warnich, Louise; Yaşar, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article announces the recipient of the 2014 inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine by the Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics (PRACP): Bernard Lerer, professor of psychiatry and director of the Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. The Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize is given to an exceptional interdisciplinary scholar who has made highly innovative and enduring contributions to global omics science and personalized medicine, with both vertical and horizontal (transdisciplinary) impacts. The prize is established in memory of a beloved colleague, mentor, and friend, the late Professor Werner Kalow, who cultivated the idea and practice of pharmacogenetics in modern therapeutics commencing in the 1950s. PRACP, the prize's sponsor, is one of the longest standing learned societies in the Asia-Pacific region, and was founded by Kalow and colleagues more than two decades ago in the then-emerging field of pharmacogenetics. In announcing this inaugural prize and its winner, we seek to highlight the works of prize winner, Professor Lerer. Additionally, we contextualize the significance of the prize by recalling the life and works of Professor Kalow and providing a brief socio-technical history of the rise of pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine as a veritable form of 21st century scientific practice. The article also fills a void in previous social science analyses of pharmacogenetics, by bringing to the fore the works of Kalow from 1995 to 2008, when he presciently noted the rise of yet another field of postgenomics inquiry—pharmacoepigenetics—that railed against genetic determinism and underscored the temporal and spatial plasticity of genetic components of drug response, with invention of the repeated drug administration (RDA) method that estimates the dynamic heritabilities of drug response. The prize goes a

  11. Intense positron beam at KEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Toshikazu; Yagishita, Akira; Enomoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Shidara, Tetsuo; Shirakawa, Akihiro; Nakahara, Kazuo; Saitou, Haruo; Inoue, Kouji; Nagashima, Yasuyuki; Hyodo, Toshio; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Hasegawa, Masayuki; Inoue, Yoshi; Kogure, Yoshiaki; Doyama, Masao

    2000-08-01

    A positron beam is a useful probe for investigating the electronic states in solids, especially concerning the surface states. The advantage of utilizing positron beams is in their simpler interactions with matter, owing to the absence of any exchange forces, in contrast to the case of low-energy electrons. However, such studies as low-energy positron diffraction, positron microscopy and positronium (Ps) spectroscopy, which require high intensity slow-positron beams, are very limited due to the poor intensity obtained from a conventional radioactive-isotope-based positron source. In conventional laboratories, the slow-positron intensity is restricted to 10 6 e +/s due to the strength of the available radioactive source. An accelerator based slow-positron source is a good candidate for increasing the slow-positron intensity. One of the results using a high intensity pulsed positron beam is presented as a study of the origins of a Ps emitted from SiO 2. We also describe the two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) measurement system with slow-positron beams and a positron microscope.

  12. Spring Research Festival and NICBR Collaboration Winners Announced | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer, and Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer The winners of the 2014 Spring Research Festival (SRF), held May 7 and 8, were recognized on July 2, and included 20 NCI at Frederick researchers: Matthew Anderson, Victor Ayala, Matt Bess, Cristina Bergamaschi, Charlotte Choi, Rami Doueiri, Laura Guasch Pamies, Diana Haines, Saadia Iftikhar, Maria Kaltcheva, Wojciech Kasprzak, Balamurugan Kuppusamy, James Lautenberger, George Lountos, Megan Mounts, Uma Mudunuri, Martha Sklavos, Gloriana Shelton, Alex Sorum, and Shea Wright.

  13. Pulse-firing winner-take-all networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Jack L.

    1991-01-01

    Winner-take-all (WTA) neural networks using pulse-firing processing elements are introduced. In the pulse-firing WTA (PWTA) networks described, input and activation signal shunting is controlled by one shared lateral inhibition signal. This organization yields an O(n) area complexity that is convenient for integrated circuit implementation. Appropriately specified network parameters allow for the accurate continuous evaluation of inputs using a signal representation compatible with established pulse-firing neural network implementations.

  14. Nobel Prizes and the emerging virus concept.

    PubMed

    Norrby, Erling

    2008-01-01

    The existence of infectious agents smaller than bacteria was demonstrated already during the 1890s. After this discovery it took more than 50 years before a resilient definition of viruses could be given. There were separate developments of knowledge concerning plant viruses, bacterial viruses and animal viruses. In the mid-1930s, Wendell Stanley at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research at Princeton described the purification and crystallization of tobacco mosaic virus. The finding of an "infectious protein" led to him receiving a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1946. In studies initiated at the end of the 1930s, bacteriophages were used as a model for replicating genes. They led to important insights into the unique characteristics of virus-cell interactions. However, an understanding of the chemical nature of animal virus particles and their mode of replication was slow in coming. Not until the early 1950s did tissue culture techniques become available, which allowed studies also of an extended number of animal viruses. This article discusses the emergence of concepts which eventually allowed a description of viruses. The unique real-time analyses of the state of knowledge provided by the Nobel Prize archives were used in the investigation. These archives remain secret for 50 years. Besides all of the underlying documents of the Prize to Stanley, comprehensive investigations made in the mid 1950s of Seymour E. Cohen, Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador D. Luria (the latter three received a Prize in Medicine in 1969) and of André Lwoff (he shared a Prize in Medicine with Francois Jacob and Jaques Monod in 1965) were reviewed. The final phase of the evolution of our understanding of the virus concept closely paralleled the eventual insight into the chemical nature of the genetic material. Understanding the principle nature of barriers to the development of new concepts is of timeless value for fostering and facilitating new discoveries in science

  15. Positron clouds within thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Joseph R.; Smith, David M.; Hazelton, Bryna J.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Kelley, Nicole A.; Lowell, Alexander W.; Schaal, Meagan M.; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2015-08-01

    We report the observation of two isolated clouds of positrons inside an active thunderstorm. These observations were made by the Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE), an array of six gamma-ray detectors, which flew on a Gulfstream V jet aircraft through the top of an active thunderstorm in August 2009. ADELE recorded two 511 keV gamma-ray count rate enhancements, 35 s apart, each lasting approximately 0.2 s. The enhancements, which were approximately a factor of 12 above background, were both accompanied by electrical activity as measured by a flat-plate antenna on the underside of the aircraft. The energy spectra were consistent with a source mostly composed of positron annihilation gamma rays, with a prominent 511 keV line clearly visible in the data. Model fits to the data suggest that the aircraft was briefly immersed in clouds of positrons, more than a kilometre across. It is not clear how the positron clouds were created within the thunderstorm, but it is possible they were caused by the presence of the aircraft in the electrified environment.

  16. Positron excitation of neon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parcell, L. A.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    The differential and total cross section for the excitation of the 3s1P10 and 3p1P1 states of neon by positron impact were calculated using a distorted-wave approximation. The results agree well with experimental conclusions.

  17. Positron implantation in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, V.J.; Lynn, K.G.; Welch, D.O.

    1993-12-31

    The Monte Carlo technique for modeling positron prior to annihilation and electron implantation in semi-infinite metals is described. Particle implantation is modelled as a multistep process, a series of collisions with the atoms of the host material. In elastic collisions with neutral atoms there is no transfer of energy. The particle loses energy by several different channels, excitation of the electron gas, ionization of the ion cores, or, at low energies, by phonon excitation. These competing scattering mechanisms have been incorporated into the Monte Carlo framework and several different models are being used. Brief descriptions of these Monte Carlo schemes, as well as an analytic model for positron implantation are included. Results of the Monte Carlo simulations are presented and compared with expermental data. Problems associated with modeling positron implantation are discuss and the need for more expermental data on energy-loss in different materials is stressed. Positron implantation in multilayers of different metals is briefly described and extensions of this work to include a study of multilayers and heterostructures is suggested.

  18. The Japanese Positron Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, S.; Sunaga, H.; Kaneko, H.; Takizawa, H.; Kawasuso, A.; Yotsumoto, K.; Tanaka, R.

    1999-06-01

    The Positron Factory has been planned at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The factory is expected to produce linac-based monoenergetic positron beams having world-highest intensities of more than 1010e+/sec, which will be applied for R&D of materials science, biotechnology and basic physics & chemistry. In this article, results of the design studies are demonstrated for the following essential components of the facilities: 1) Conceptual design of a high-power electron linac with 100 MeV in beam energy and 100 kW in averaged beam power, 2) Performance tests of the RF window in the high-power klystron and of the electron beam window, 3) Development of a self-driven rotating electron-to-positron converter and the performance tests, 4) Proposal of multi-channel beam generation system for monoenergetic positrons, with a series of moderator assemblies based on a newly developed Monte Carlo simulation and the demonstrative experiment, 5) Proposal of highly efficient moderator structures, 6) Conceptual design of a local shield to suppress the surrounding radiation and activation levels.

  19. First Calderón Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundell, William; Somersalo, Erkki

    2008-07-01

    The Inverse Problems International Association (IPIA) awarded the first Calderón Prize to Matti Lassas for his outstanding contributions to the field of inverse problems, especially in geometric inverse problems. The Calderón Prize is given to a researcher under the age of 40 who has made distinguished contributions to the field of inverse problems broadly defined. The first Calderón Prize Committee consisted of Professors Adrian Nachman, Lassi Päivärinta, William Rundell (chair), and Michael Vogelius. William Rundell For the Calderón Prize Committee Prize ceremony The ceremony awarding the Calderón Prize. Matti Lassas is on the left. He and William Rundell are on the right. Photos by P Stefanov. Brief Biography of Matti Lassas Matti Lassas was born in 1969 in Helsinki, Finland, and studied at the University of Helsinki. He finished his Master's studies in 1992 in three years and earned his PhD in 1996. His PhD thesis, written under the supervision of Professor Erkki Somersalo was entitled `Non-selfadjoint inverse spectral problems and their applications to random bodies'. Already in his thesis, Matti demonstrated a remarkable command of different fields of mathematics, bringing together the spectral theory of operators, geometry of Riemannian surfaces, Maxwell's equations and stochastic analysis. He has continued to develop all of these branches in the framework of inverse problems, the most remarkable results perhaps being in the field of differential geometry and inverse problems. Matti has always been a very generous researcher, sharing his ideas with his numerous collaborators. He has authored over sixty scientific articles, among which a monograph on inverse boundary spectral problems with Alexander Kachalov and Yaroslav Kurylev and over forty articles in peer reviewed journals of the highest standards. To get an idea of the wide range of Matti's interests, it is enough to say that he also has three US patents on medical imaging applications. Matti is

  20. Prizes for innovation of new medicines and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Love, James; Hubbard, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that prizes can help stimulate medical innovation, control costs and ensure greater access to new medicines and vaccines. The authors explore four increasingly ambitious prize options to reward medical innovation, each addressing flaws in the current patent system. The first option promotes innovation through a large prize fund linked to the impact on health outcomes; the second option rewards the sharing of knowledge, data, and technology with open source dividends; the third option awards prizes for interim benchmarks and discrete technical problems; and the final option removes the exclusive right to use patented inventions in upstream research in favor of prizes. The authors conclude that a system of prizes to reward drug development would break the link between R&D incentives and product prices, and that such a reform is needed to improve innovation and access to new medicines and vaccines. PMID:21950238

  1. [The 2008 Nobel Prizes in medicine and physiology].

    PubMed

    Valdespino, José Luis; Ponce-de-León, Samuel; de Lourdes Garcia, María

    2009-01-01

    For the last century, the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine has been awarded worldwide to significant discoveries. The prize allows the dissemination of information on the achievements of recipients, promotes understanding of scientific knowledge among the public and attracts young students to biomedical research. This paper briefly describes the prizes granted to the fields of physiology and medicine, emphasizing those that related to development of vaccines. PMID:19685833

  2. Cardiac positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.

    1985-12-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a new technique for noninvasively assessing myocardial metabolism and perfusion. It has provided new insight into the dynamics of myocardial fatty acid and glucose metabolism in normal subjects, patients with ischemic heart disease and those with cardiomyopathies, documenting regionally depressed fatty acid metabolism during myocardial ischemia and infarction and spatial heterogeneity of fatty acid metabolism in patients with cardiomyopathy. Regional myocardial perfusion has been studied with PET using water, ammonia and rubidium labeled with positron emitters, permitting the noninvasive detection of hypoperfused zones at rest and during vasodilator stress. With these techniques the relationship between perfusion and the metabolism of a variety of substrates has been studied. The great strides that have been made in developing faster high-resolution instruments and producing new labeled intermediates indicate the promise of this technique for facilitating an increase in the understanding of regional metabolism and blood flow under normal and pathophysiologic conditions. 16 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  3. A new prize system for drug innovation.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin; Chernyak, Nadja

    2011-10-01

    We propose a new prize (reward) system for drug innovation which pays a price based on the value of health benefits accrued over time. Willingness to pay for a unit of health benefit is determined based on the cost-effectiveness ratio of palliative/nursing care. We solve the problem of limited information on the value of health benefits by mathematically relating reward size to the uncertainty of information including information on potential drug overuse. The proposed prize system offers optimal incentives to invest in research and development because it rewards the innovator for the social value of drug innovation. The proposal is envisaged as a non-voluntary alternative to the current patent system and reduces excessive marketing of innovators and generic drug producers. PMID:21724290

  4. New AGU Climate Communication Prize: Call for nominations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael J.

    2011-08-01

    AGU is pleased to announce the newly launched AGU Climate Communication Prize. This new Union prize, generously funded by Nature's Own, a purveyor of fossils, minerals, and handcrafted jewelry in Boulder, Colo., will honor an AGU member-scientist for the communication of climate science. The prize highlights the importance of promoting scientific literacy, clarity of message, and efforts to foster respect and understanding of science-based values as they relate to the implications of climate change. The prize will be awarded annually and will be presented at AGU's Fall Meeting. It will carry a cash award of $25,000.

  5. Positrons at Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, A W

    2009-09-01

    We review the compelling case for establishing a capability to accelerate positrons at Jefferson Lab. The potential appplications range from the study of two-photon exchange and deeply-virtual Compton scattering to exploiting the charge current weak interaction to probe the flavor structure of hadrons and nuclei. There are also fascinating ideas for using such a capability to discover new physics beyond the Standard Model of nuclear and particle physics.

  6. [A Nobel Prize for DNA repair].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    This year's Nobel Prize for chemistry recognizes the seminal contributions of three researchers who discovered the existence and the basic mechanisms of DNA repair: base excision repair, mismatch repair, and nucleotide excision repair. They have since been joined by many scientists elucidating diverse aspects of these complex mechanisms that now constitute a thriving research field with many applications, notably for understanding oncogenesis and devising more effective therapies. PMID:26850617

  7. Positron fraction, electron and positron spectra measured by AMS-02

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzolotto, Cecilia

    2016-07-01

    A precise measurement by AMS-02 of the electron spectrum up to 700 GeV and of the positron spectrum and positron fraction in primary cosmic rays up 500 GeV are presented. The combined measurement of the cosmic-ray electron and positron energy spectra and fraction provide a unique tool to improve our understanding of the production, acceleration and propagation mechanism of cosmic rays.

  8. A review of Nobel prizes in medicine or physiology, 1901-87.

    PubMed

    Kantha, S S

    1989-03-01

    This review examines the awards of Nobel Prizes for Medicine or Physiology discipline between 1901 and 1987, in order to evaluate the advances made in biomedical sciences in the twentieth century. A total of 78 awards had been made amounting to 144 laureates. Countrywise, scientists from the USA lead the tally of Nobelists with 62 laureates, followed by those from Britain and Germany. In the first quarter (1901-25), majority of the awards were given to pioneering studies in microbiology and physiology. Following three decades (1926-55) show the emergence of biochemists as preferred winners with many of the nutrition-related discoveries receiving the recognition. During and immediately after the Second World War (between 1939 and 1957), pharmacology related studies were also awarded Nobel merit. Molecular biology, genetics and immunology had become the prime areas for recipients during the last three decades beginning with 1958. Apart from these four distinct speciality areas, classic discoveries in the fields of neurosciences and behavior, clinical medicine, experimental biology endocrinology had also been recognized at regular intervals. PMID:2654450

  9. Maria Goeppert Mayer and the Nobel Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Karen E.

    2013-04-01

    When Maria Goeppert Mayer was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963, she was only the second woman to receive that award and there have been no additional female physics laureates since. Mayer was uniquely prepared to carry out her prize-winning work on the nuclear shell model. Furthermore, she worked with some of the most well-known figures in mid-twentieth century physics, and her award came at a time when American science was in ascendance. Why, then, is her name so little known beyond the physics community? There are several possible answers to this question, ranging from the personal (her modest reaction to public acclaim) and the scientific (the mathematically abstract nature of her prize-winning work), to the national (the nature of the issues commanding public attention in the 1960s). In this talk I will present an overview of the circumstances that enabled Mayer to make exceptional contributions to nuclear physics, and then examine some of the possible reasons why her exceptional status is not more widely known.

  10. First AGU Climate Communication Prize awarded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Christine

    2012-02-01

    Gavin Schmidt, a climate scientist at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and cofounder of the RealClimate blog (http://www.realclimate.org/), received the first AGU Climate Communication Prize at the honors ceremony. The prize recognizes excellence in climate communication as well as the promotion of scientific literacy, clarity of messaging, and efforts to foster respect and understanding for science-based values related to climate change. Sponsored by Nature's Own—a Boulder, Colo.-based company specializing in the sale of minerals, fossils, and decorative stone specimens—the prize comes with a $25,000 cash award. "AGU created this award to raise the visibility of climate change as a critical issue facing the world today, to demonstrate our support for scientists who commit themselves to the effective communication of climate change science, and to encourage more scientists to engage with the public and policy makers on how climate research can contribute to the sustainability of our planet," said AGU president Michael Mc Phaden. "That's why we are so pleased to recognize Gavin for his dedicated leadership and outstanding scientific achievements. We hope that his work will serve as an inspiration for others."

  11. Positron lifetime spectrometer using a DC positron beam

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Jun; Moxom, Jeremy

    2003-10-21

    An entrance grid is positioned in the incident beam path of a DC beam positron lifetime spectrometer. The electrical potential difference between the sample and the entrance grid provides simultaneous acceleration of both the primary positrons and the secondary electrons. The result is a reduction in the time spread induced by the energy distribution of the secondary electrons. In addition, the sample, sample holder, entrance grid, and entrance face of the multichannel plate electron detector assembly are made parallel to each other, and are arranged at a tilt angle to the axis of the positron beam to effectively separate the path of the secondary electrons from the path of the incident positrons.

  12. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2012 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon; Ruffle, Jon

    2013-08-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award the Roberts prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner is a two-stage process. First, a shortlist of contenders is drawn up based on those papers that had the best referees' quality assessments, with a further quality check and endorsement by the Editorial Board. The papers on the shortlist are then reviewed by a specially convened IPEM committee consisting of members with fellow status. This committee reads the shortlisted papers and selects the winner. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2012 is awarded to Michel Defrise, Ahmadreza Rezaei and Johan Nuyts from the Vrije Universiteit Brussels and the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium for their breakthrough paper that describes how the information needed for attenuation correction in PET imaging can be extracted, to within a constant, from time-of-flight emission data: Time-of-flight PET data determine the attenuation sinogram up to a constant 2012 Phys. Med. Biol. 57 885 Michel Defrise1, Ahmadreza Rezaei2 and Johan Nuyts2 1Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1090 Brussels, Belgium 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium This paper represents an important and timely contribution to the literature as time-of-flight PET scanners are now offered by several manufacturers. In hybrid PET/CT scanners, the PET attenuation correction, necessary for quantitative reconstruction of the tracer distribution, can be derived directly from the CT data. Sometimes, however, the PET and CT scans may be poorly aligned due to patient motion and other approaches are needed. In addition, hybrid PET/MRI scanners also, have been developed recently, and in

  13. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2011 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon; Ruffle, Jon

    2012-08-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award an annual prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner is a two-stage process. First, a shortlist of contenders is drawn up based on those papers that had the best referees' quality assessments, with a further quality check and endorsement by the Editorial Board. The papers on the shortlist are then reviewed by a specially convened IPEM committee consisting of members with fellow status. This committee reads the shortlisted papers and selects the winner. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2011 is awarded to Matthew Hough et al from the University of Florida, the Francis Marion University and the National Cancer Institute, USA for their paper on a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of skeletal tissues in the adult male: An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male—internal electron sources 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 2309 Matthew Hough1, Perry Johnson1, Didier Rajon2, Derek Jokisch3, Choonsik Lee4 and Wesley Bolch1,5 1Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA 2Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA 3Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC, USA 4Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Bone marrow is one of the more radiosensitive tissues in the human body and is housed within a complex structure of bone. This paper describes a comprehensive model of energy deposition by internal electron or beta particle emitters for the ICRP reference adult male based upon ex vivo CT and microCT images of

  14. Mentoring, Self-Awareness, and Collaboration. The 2012 EDUCAUSE Award Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Earving L.; Swartz, David; Woo, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE Awards Program, under the guidance of the EDUCAUSE Recognition Committee, has announced the three 2012 winners who are recognized for their peer endorsement and distinction to professional accomplishments in higher education information technology. Winner Melissa Woo is recognized as a strong leader and one who is expected to achieve…

  15. Numbers And Gains Of Neurons In Winner-Take-All Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Timothy X.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of gains required in neurons to implement winner-take-all electronic neural network of given size and related question of maximum size of winner-take-all network in which neurons have specified sigmoid transfer or response function with specified gain.

  16. Characteristics of Korean International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) Winners and Various Developmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kyong Mi

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated characteristics of five IMO winners and influences from their formal and informal educational experiences. In particular, this study provides in-depth understanding of former Korean IMO winners' characteristics and environmental influences. Also, implications including education for parents of the gifted, professional…

  17. 1984 Winners of the Cost Reduction Incentive Awards. NACUBO/USSF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Abstracts of college projects that were winners of the ninth annual Cost Reduction Incentive Awards Program are presented, including 47 programs that received monetary awards and 11 that received honorable mentions. One of the three top winners was Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, which used an ultrasound device to detect…

  18. The Evolution of Creativity, Giftedness, and Multiple Intelligences: An Interview with Ellen Winner and Howard Gardner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Ellen Winner and Howard Gardner. Winner is Professor of Psychology at Boston College, and Senior Research Associate at Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education. Her research focuses on learning and cognition in the arts in typical and gifted children. She is the author of over 100 articles and…

  19. How Public Relations Practitioners Measure Success: A Critical Analysis of Silver Anvil Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissland, James H.

    A study examined the evaluation methods used in 58 top public relation projects, specifically the Silver Anvil winners of 1984 and 1985, to discover how well public relations practitioners are measuring and reporting success. Results indicated that measures of communication effect were most likely to be employed by Silver Anvil winners, measures…

  20. Reward or Award? Reflections on the Initial Experiences of Winners of a National Teaching Fellowship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Philip; Johnson, Margaret; Rosie, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the impact on winners of achieving a National Teaching Fellowship. We begin by outlining the genesis and development of the award scheme and touch on the limited literature which is available in this area. Following a description of our methodology, we then present our data. Firstly we focus on who the winners are and then on…

  1. Nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves

    SciTech Connect

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Aoutou, Kamel; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia

    2009-07-15

    The problem of nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves involving the dynamics of mobile cold positrons is addressed. A theoretical work is presented to show their existence and possible realization in a simple four-component plasma model. The results should be useful for the understanding of the localized structures that may occur in space and laboratory plasmas as new sources of cold positrons are now well developed.

  2. Positron Implantation Profile in Kapton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dryzek, J.; Dryzek, E.

    2006-11-01

    The discussion presented in the paper focuses on processes accompanying positron implantation in condensed matter. They finally constitute the positron implantation profile which generally does not exhibit the exponential behavior as it is concluded from the Monte Carlo simulation made using the EGSnrc 4.0 code. The simulation was performed for the kapton and two commonly used positron sources 22Na and 68Ge\\68Ga. New formula for the implantation profile was proposed.

  3. Laser Created Relativistic Positron Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Meyerhofer, D D; Bonlie, J; Chen, C D; Chen, S N; Courtois, C; Elberson, L; Gregori, G; Kruer, W; Landoas, O; Mithen, J; Murphy, C; Nilson, P; Price, D; Scheider, M; Shepherd, R; Stoeckl, C; Tabak, M; Tommasini, R; Beiersdorder, P

    2009-10-08

    Electron-positron jets with MeV temperature are thought to be present in a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena such as active galaxies, quasars, gamma ray bursts and black holes. They have now been created in the laboratory in a controlled fashion by irradiating a gold target with an intense picosecond duration laser pulse. About 10{sup 11} MeV positrons are emitted from the rear surface of the target in a 15 to 22-degree cone for a duration comparable to the laser pulse. These positron jets are quasi-monoenergetic (E/{delta}E {approx} 5) with peak energies controllable from 3-19 MeV. They have temperatures from 1-4 MeV in the beam frame in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. Positron production has been studied extensively in recent decades at low energies (sub-MeV) in areas related to surface science, positron emission tomography, basic antimatter science such as antihydrogen experiments, Bose-Einstein condensed positronium, and basic plasma physics. However, the experimental tools to produce very high temperature positrons and high-flux positron jets needed to simulate astrophysical positron conditions have so far been absent. The MeV temperature jets of positrons and electrons produced in our experiments offer a first step to evaluate the physics models used to explain some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe.

  4. The ATLAS Positron Experiment -- APEX

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.; Dunford, R.; Kutschera, W.; Rhein, M.D.; Schiffer, J.P.; Wilt, P.; Wuosmaa, A.; Austin, S.M.; Kashy, E.; Winfield, J.S.; Yurkon, J.E.; Bazin, D.; Calaprice, F.P.; Young, A.; Chan, K.C.; Chisti, A.; Chowhury, P.; Greenberg, J.S.; Kaloskamis, N.; Lister, C.J.; Fox, J.D.; Roa, E.; Freedman, S.; Maier, M.R.; Freer, M.; Gazes, S.; Hallin, A.L.; Liu, M.; Happ, T.; Perera, A.; Wolfs, F.L.H.; Trainor, T.; Wolanski, M. |

    1994-03-01

    APEX -- the ATLAS Positron Experiment -- is designed to measure electrons and positrons emitted in heavy-ion collisions. Its scientific goal is to gain insight into the puzzling positron-line phenomena observed at the GSI Darmstadt. It is in operation at the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Lab. The assembly of the apparatus is finished and beginning 1993 the first positrons produced in heavy-ion collisions were observed. The first full scale experiment was carried out in December 1993, and the data are currently being analyzed. In this paper, the principles of operation are explained and a status report on the experiment is given.

  5. Cell competition time line: winners kill losers, which are extruded and engulfed by hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Lolo, Fidel-Nicolás; Casas-Tintó, Sergio; Moreno, Eduardo

    2012-09-27

    Cell competition is a mechanism that eliminates slow dividing cells from a growing population. It is believed that the genes wasp, psr, and draper are active in the cells that win the competition ("winner cells") and that they are essential in the winner cells for the induction of apoptosis and for the elimination of the "loser cells." Here, we show that lack of those genes in winner cells appears to be dispensable for cell-competition-induced apoptosis and during dmyc-induced supercompetition. Moreover, winner clones do not need those genes in order to preserve their growth advantage. Finally, we find that most of the clearance of the apoptotic debris is not performed by winners but by recruited hemocytes, which are required for the removal of the apoptotic corpses at the very end. Therefore, engulfment is a consequence-not a cause-of loser cells' death. PMID:22981235

  6. 2008 Nobel prize in Medicine for discoverers of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Lever, Andrew ML; Berkhout, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier, codiscoverers of HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, have been awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. They share this prize with Harald zur Hausen who was responsible for establishing the link between human papilloma virus infection and cervical carcinoma. PMID:18854052

  7. 29 CFR 778.330 - Prizes or contest awards generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prizes or contest awards generally. 778.330 Section 778.330 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Special Problems Prizes As Bonuses § 778.330...

  8. 26 CFR 1.74-1 - Prizes and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prizes and awards. 1.74-1 Section 1.74-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.74-1 Prizes and awards. (a) Inclusion in gross income. (1) Section...

  9. Nobel physics prize to Charpak for inventing particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzschild, B.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the work of Georges Charpak of France leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics. The Nobel Prize was awarded to Charpak [open quotes]for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.[close quotes] Historical aspects of Charpak's life and research are given.

  10. Nominations sought for the 2016 Haagen-Smit Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-09-01

    We, the editors and publishers of Atmospheric Environment invite our readers to nominate papers for the 2016 "Haagen-Smit Prize". The prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution.

  11. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  12. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  13. Quantum positron acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Metref, Hassina; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2014-12-15

    Nonlinear quantum positron-acoustic (QPA) waves are investigated for the first time, within the theoretical framework of the quantum hydrodynamic model. In the small but finite amplitude limit, both deformed Korteweg-de Vries and generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations governing, respectively, the dynamics of QPA solitary waves and double-layers are derived. Moreover, a full finite amplitude analysis is undertaken, and a numerical integration of the obtained highly nonlinear equations is carried out. The results complement our previously published results on this problem.

  14. Positron production within our atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Positrons are commonly produced within our atmosphere by cosmic rays and the decay radioactive isotopes. Energetic positrons are also produced by pair production from the gamma rays generated by relativistic runaway electrons. Indeed, such positrons have been detected in Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs) in the inner magnetosphere by Fermi/GBM. In addition, positrons play an important role in relativistic feedback discharges (also known as dark lightning). Relativistic feedback models suggest that these discharges may be responsible for Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) and some gamma-ray glows. When producing TGFs, relativistic feedback discharges may generate large, lightning-like currents with current moments reaching hundreds of kA-km. In addition, relativistic feedback discharges also may limit the electric field that is possible in our atmosphere, affecting other mechanisms for generating runaway electrons. It is interesting that positrons, often thought of as exotic particles, may play an important role in thunderstorm processes. In this presentation, the role of positrons in high-energy atmospheric physics will be discussed. The unusual observation of positron clouds inside a thunderstorm by the ADELE instrument on an NCAR/NSF Gulfstream V aircraft will also be described. These observations illustrate that we still have much to learn about positron production within our atmosphere.

  15. Portable Positron Measurement System (PPMS)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Portable Positron Measurement System (PPMS) is an automated, non-destructive inspection system based on positron annihilation, which characterizes a material's in situatomic-level properties during the manufacturing processes of formation, solidification, and heat treatment. Simultaneous manufacturing and quality monitoring now are possible. Learn more about the lab's project on our facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  16. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs. (ACR)

  17. Portable Positron Measurement System (PPMS)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    Portable Positron Measurement System (PPMS) is an automated, non-destructive inspection system based on positron annihilation, which characterizes a material's in situatomic-level properties during the manufacturing processes of formation, solidification, and heat treatment. Simultaneous manufacturing and quality monitoring now are possible. Learn more about the lab's project on our facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. Plasma Wakefield Acceleration of Positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, Spencer

    2016-03-01

    Recent particle beam and laser-driven plasma wakefield experiments have produced high-quality electron beams accelerated by a GeV or more in less than a meter. Efforts are underway to put these beams to work as sources for free-electron lasers. By contrast, little work has been done to demonstrate the tractability of plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) of positrons beams. The reasons for this are threefold: 1) positron beams are only useful for high-energy physics experiments, whereas electron beams are also useful as light sources, 2) there is a dearth of positron sources for PWFA experiments, and 3) the dynamics of accelerating positron beams in plasma is fundamentally different than that of electron beams. This talk will focus on the physics of accelerating positrons in plasma and contrast the dynamics of electron and positron beam-driven nonlinear plasma wakes. We describe recent experiments at the FACET test facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory that for the first time demonstrate high-gradient acceleration of a positron beams in plasma. We also discuss an alternative acceleration technique called hollow channel acceleration that aims to symmetrize the dynamics of electron and positron beam-driven wakes.

  19. Effect of Reinforcement Probability and Prize Size on Cocaine and Heroin Abstinence in Prize-Based Contingency Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2008-01-01

    Although treatment outcome in prize-based contingency management has been shown to depend on reinforcement schedule, the optimal schedule is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial (Ghitza et al., 2007) to determine the effects of the probability of winning a prize (low vs. high) and…

  20. Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Lameka, Katherine; Farwell, Michael D; Ichise, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a minimally invasive imaging procedure with a wide range of clinical and research applications. PET allows for the three-dimensional mapping of administered positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals such as (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (for imaging glucose metabolism). PET enables the study of biologic function in both health and disease, in contrast to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), that are more suited to study a body's morphologic changes, although functional MRI can also be used to study certain brain functions by measuring blood flow changes during task performance. This chapter first provides an overview of the basic physics principles and instrumentation behind PET methodology, with an introduction to the merits of merging functional PET imaging with anatomic CT or MRI imaging. We then focus on clinical neurologic disorders, and reference research on relevant PET radiopharmaceuticals when applicable. We then provide an overview of PET scan interpretation and findings in several specific neurologic disorders such as dementias, epilepsy, movement disorders, infection, cerebrovascular disorders, and brain tumors. PMID:27432667

  1. Positron driven plasma wakefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, S.; Shi, Y.; Huang, C.; An, W.; Mori, W. B.; Muggli, P.

    2010-11-01

    The LHC is producing high-energy, high-charge proton bunches (1e11 protons at 1-7 TeV each) that could be used to accelerate ``witness'' electron bunches to TeV range eneregies via a plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA). Simulations [1] suggest that a proton ``drive'' bunch is able to excite large wakefields if the bunch size is on the order of 100 μm; however, the LHC paramters are currently on the 1 cm scale. SLAC'S FACET is able to supply positorn bunchs with the ideal parameters for driving a PWFA. Although at lower energy (2e10 positrons at 23 GeV each), initial simiulations in QuickPIC show that the physics of a positron drive bunch is very similar to that of a proton drive bunch. Differences in the physics arise from the mass difference: slower dephasing but faster transverse bunch evolution. Other considerations include driver head erosion and purity of the wakefield ion column. The physics of positive drivers for PWFA and the viability of this scheme for future high-energy colliders will be investigated at SLAC's FACET.[4pt] [1] Caldwell, et al. Nature Physics 5, 363 (2009).[0pt] [2] C.H. Huang, et al., J. Comp. Phys., 217(2), 658, (2006).

  2. Society News: Welcome to Griffiths Bay; RAS Associate wins Shaw Prize; Postgraduate prize preparations; Council minutes on-line; Birthday Honours; Kavli Prize; New Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    The late Donald Griffiths will be commemorated in the name of a bay on the Antarctic Peninsula. Prof. Reinhard Genzel, Associate of the Society since 1994, Darwin Lecturer in 2007, and Director of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics has been awarded the Shaw Prize in Astronomy for 2008. While postgrad students complete their PhD theses, supervisors should note the deadline for submissions to the annual Michael Penston and Keith Runcorn Prizes.

  3. Characterizing and modelling persistence in the number of lottery winners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio, Fernando J.; Mendes, Renio S.; Itami, Andreia S.; Picoli, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    Lottery is the most famous branch among all the games of chance. By analysing data from Mega-Sena, the major lottery in Brazil, we investigated the presence of persistent behaviour in the time series of the number of winners. We found that the demand for tickets grew collectively as an exponential driven by the size of the accumulated jackpot. Finally, we identified that a stochastic model grounded on the rolling-over feature of lotteries can generate correlations qualitatively similar to those observed empirically. The model is consistent with the idea that the growth in the number of bets, motivated by the size of the expected jackpot, is a mechanism generator of correlations in an apparently random scenario.

  4. Modelling Dominance Hierarchies Under Winner and Loser Effects.

    PubMed

    Kura, Klodeta; Broom, Mark; Kandler, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Animals that live in groups commonly form themselves into dominance hierarchies which are used to allocate important resources such as access to mating opportunities and food. In this paper, we develop a model of dominance hierarchy formation based upon the concept of winner and loser effects using a simulation-based model and consider the linearity of our hierarchy using existing and new statistical measures. Two models are analysed: when each individual in a group does not know the real ability of their opponents to win a fight and when they can estimate their opponents' ability every time they fight. This estimation may be accurate or fall within an error bound. For both models, we investigate if we can achieve hierarchy linearity, and if so, when it is established. We are particularly interested in the question of how many fights are necessary to establish a dominance hierarchy. PMID:25739931

  5. Positron-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma with nonthermal electrons and positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. M.; Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Obliquely propagating positron-acoustic solitary waves (PASWs) in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma (containing nonthermal hot positrons and electrons, inertial cold positrons, and immobile positive ions) are precisely investigated by deriving the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation. It is found that the characteristics of the PASWs are significantly modified by the effects of external magnetic field, obliqueness, nonthermality of hot positrons and electrons, temperature ratio of hot positrons and electrons, and respective number densities of hot positrons and electrons. The findings of our results can be employed in understanding the localized electrostatic structures and the characteristics of PASWs in various space and laboratory plasmas.

  6. Who can get the next Nobel Prize in infectious diseases?

    PubMed

    Ergonul, Onder; Yalcin, Can Ege; Erkent, Mahmut Alp; Demirci, Mert; Uysal, Sanem Pinar; Ay, Nur Zeynep; Omeroglu, Asena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to deliver a perspective on future Nobel prizes by reviewing the features of Nobel prizes awarded in the infectious diseases-related (IDR) field over the last 115 years. Thirty-three out of 106 Nobel prizes (31%) in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded for IDR topics. Out of 58 Nobel laureates for IDR topics, two have been female; 67% have been medical doctors. The median age of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine was found to be lower than the median age of laureates in Literature (p<0.001). Since the Second World War, US-affiliated scientists have dominated the Nobel prizes (53%); however before 1945, German scientists did so (p=0.005). The new antimicrobials received Nobel prizes until 1960; however no treatment study was awarded the Prize until the discovery of artemisinin and ivermectin, for which the Nobel Prize was awarded in 2015. Collaborative works have increasingly been appreciated. In the future, more female laureates would be expected in the IDR field. Medical graduates and scientists involved in multi-institutional and multidisciplinary collaborative efforts seem to have an advantage. PMID:26945715

  7. Prize level and debt size: impact on gambling behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crewe-Brown, Courtney; Blaszczynski, Alex; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    No studies to date have specifically determined the relationship between prize levels, debt size, and impulsivity on reported gambling behaviour on Electronic Gaming Machines (EGM). The present study reports the findings of a pilot study designed to investigate whether or not the likelihood of increasing the size of a bet was related to the level of prize offered and personal debt. The sample consisted of 171 first year psychology students (61 males and 120 females). Participants completed a series of gambling vignettes designed to elicit data on reported bet size according to different prize levels and debt sizes; the Eysenck Impulsivity Scale (Eysenck and Eysenck 1977); the Canadian Problem Gambling Index; and an author-constructed questionnaire eliciting data on demographic and gambling behaviours. Results indicated that as prize levels increase the odds (relative risk) of an individual placing a bet on an EGM and the amount of money reportedly bet tends to increase. A negative relationship between debt size and reported gambling behaviour moderated by prize level was found. No differences were found in the odds of placing a bet according to impulsivity. It was concluded that prize and debt sizes do influence propensities to gamble and level of bets. The findings have implications for restricting jackpot and general prize levels as a responsible gambling strategy designed to reduce motivations to gamble. PMID:23543350

  8. Positron emission mammography imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    2003-10-02

    This paper examines current trends in Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) instrumentation and the performance tradeoffs inherent in them. The most common geometry is a pair of parallel planes of detector modules. They subtend a larger solid angle around the breast than conventional PET cameras, and so have both higher efficiency and lower cost. Extensions to this geometry include encircling the breast, measuring the depth of interaction (DOI), and dual-modality imaging (PEM and x-ray mammography, as well as PEM and x-ray guided biopsy). The ultimate utility of PEM may not be decided by instrument performance, but by biological and medical factors, such as the patient to patient variation in radiotracer uptake or the as yet undetermined role of PEM in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Intense source of slow positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, P.; Rosowsky, A.

    2004-10-01

    We describe a novel design for an intense source of slow positrons based on pair production with a beam of electrons from a 10 MeV accelerator hitting a thin target at a low incidence angle. The positrons are collected with a set of coils adapted to the large production angle. The collection system is designed to inject the positrons into a Greaves-Surko trap (Phys. Rev. A 46 (1992) 5696). Such a source could be the basis for a series of experiments in fundamental and applied research and would also be a prototype source for industrial applications, which concern the field of defect characterization in the nanometer scale.

  10. [Fundamentals of positron emission tomography].

    PubMed

    Ostertag, H

    1989-07-01

    Positron emission tomography is a modern radionuclide method of measuring physiological quantities or metabolic parameters in vivo. The method is based on: (1) radioactive labelling with positron emitters; (2) the coincidence technique for the measurement of the annihilation radiation following positron decay; (3) analysis of the data measured using biological models. The basic aspects and problems of the method are discussed. The main fields of future research are the synthesis of new labelled compounds and the development of mathematical models of the biological processes to be investigated. PMID:2667029

  11. Cosmic Ray Positrons from Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2010-01-01

    Pulsars are potential Galactic sources of positrons through pair cascades in their magnetospheres. There are, however, many uncertainties in establishing their contribution to the local primary positron flux. Among these are the local density of pulsars, the cascade pair multiplicities that determine the injection rate of positrons from the pulsar, the acceleration of the injected particles by the pulsar wind termination shock, their rate of escape from the pulsar wind nebula, and their propagation through the interstellar medium. I will discuss these issues in the context of what we are learning from the new Fermi pulsar detections and discoveries.

  12. Jeffrey T. Kiehl Receives 2012 Climate Communication Prize: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurrell, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Jeffrey T. Kiehl was awarded the 2012 Climate Communication Prize at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 5 December 2012 in San Francisco, Calif. The Climate Communication Prize is funded by Nature's Own, a purveyor of fossils, minerals, and handcrafted jewelry based in Boulder, Colo. The prize honors an "AGU member-scientist for the communication of climate science, and highlights the importance of promoting scientific literacy, clarity of message, and efforts to foster respected and understanding of science-based values as they relate to the implications of climate change."

  13. Defining physics: The Nobel Prize selection process, 1901-1937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLachlan, James

    1991-02-01

    The great prestige of the Nobel Prizes has come virtually to define physics in the public mind. An examination of the nominations and the selections in the first 37 years of Nobel awards shows that those in charge of the selections went through a process of development as they refined their conceptions of the kind of work appropriate to be rewarded. Analyses are presented of the 1800 nominations made by 448 nominators for 213 scientists, of whom 44 received physics prizes between 1901 and 1937, 10 more who were awarded Nobel Prizes in physics after 1937, and 12 in chemistry, although nominated also in physics.

  14. OHIO INTERNATIONAL TELEVISION AND VIDEO FESTIVAL AWARD WINNERS FROM THE IMAGING TECHNOLOGY CENTER IT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    OHIO INTERNATIONAL TELEVISION AND VIDEO FESTIVAL AWARD WINNERS FROM THE IMAGING TECHNOLOGY CENTER ITC KEVIN BURKE - BILL FLETCHER - GARY NOLAN - EMERY ADANICH FOR THE VIDEO ENTITLED ICING FOR REGIONAL AND CORPORATE PILOTS

  15. Space Day 2002; Directors Breakfast @ NASA Ames Visitors Center for student Winners of Santa Clara

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Space Day 2002; Directors Breakfast @ NASA Ames Visitors Center for student Winners of Santa Clara Valley Science & Engineering Fair and San Francisco Bay Aera Science Fair (Students are addressed by Bob Rosen, Ames Associate Director for Aerospace Programs)

  16. Positron annihilation spectroscopy with magnetically analyzed beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Holt, W. H.; Mock, W., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Lifetime measurements with magnetically analyzed positron beams were made in condensed media with uniform and non-uniform properties. As expected, the lifetime values with magnetically analyzed positron beams in uniform targets are similar to those obtained with conventional positron sources. The lifetime values with magnetically analyzed beams in targets which have non-uniform properties vary with positron energy and are different from the conventional positron source derived lifetime values in these targets.

  17. Resolvability of positron decay channels

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M.J.; Howell, R.H.; Rosenberg, I.J.; Meyer, P.

    1985-03-07

    Many data analysis treatments of positron experiments attempt to resolve two or more positron decay or exist channels which may be open simultaneously. Examples of the need to employ such treatments of the experimental results can be found in the resolution of the constituents of a defect ensemble, or in the analysis of the complex spectra which arise from the interaction of slow positrons at or near the surfaces of solids. Experimental one- and two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation experiments in Al single crystals have shown that two defect species (mono- and divacancies) can be resolved under suitable conditions. Recent experiments at LLNL indicate that there are a variety of complex exit channels open to positrons interacting at surfaces, and ultimely these decay channels must also be suitably resolved from one another. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  18. High Power Polarized Positron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailichenko, Alexander

    2009-09-01

    We discuss the basics of polarized positron production by low energy polarized electrons. Efficiency of conversion ˜0.1-1% might be interesting for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and the International Linear Collider (ILC).

  19. Positrons from accelerated particle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.

    1987-01-01

    Positron production from the decay of radioactive nuclei produced in nuclear interactions of accelerated particles is treated in detail. Laboratory data as well as theoretical considerations are used to construct energy-dependent cross sections for the production of a large number of radioactive positron emitters resulting from proton and alpha-particle interactions with ambient cosmic matter. Using these cross sections, positron production rates are calculated for a variety of energetic particle spectra, assuming solar abundances for both the energetic particles and the ambient medium. These results can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which emit annihilation radiation. In particular, the results have been applied to solar flares, where the observed 0.511 MeV line is shown to be due to positrons resulting from accelerated particle reactions.

  20. Bites and B-Roll: Announcments of the Architecture Contest Winners

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-09-01

    Broadcast-quality downloads of this video are available free and unrestricted at http://stratacomm.net/solar-decathlon... Video contains announcements of the architecture awards announcement at the 2009 Solar Decathlon. Includes announcement and house b-roll of 1st place winner Team California and 2nd place winner Rice University's houses, general Solar Village b-roll, and bites from students and architecture experts

  1. Bites and B-Roll: Announcments of the Architecture Contest Winners

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-14

    Broadcast-quality downloads of this video are available free and unrestricted at http://stratacomm.net/solar-decathlon... Video contains announcements of the architecture awards announcement at the 2009 Solar Decathlon. Includes announcement and house b-roll of 1st place winner Team California and 2nd place winner Rice University's houses, general Solar Village b-roll, and bites from students and architecture experts

  2. Stickleback fights: why do winners win? Influence of metabolic and morphometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Guderley, Helga; Couture, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Pairs of reproductively mature male three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were introduced into unfamiliar aquaria and observed until one male became dominant. Skin carotenoid content, morphometric indexes, and metabolic capacities of the axial and pectoral muscles were examined to establish whether morphological or physiological parameters differentiated winners and losers. Stickleback that initiated fights typically won. Quick initiation led to quick victory. Overall, winners and losers differed in few morphological or metabolic characteristics, but these properties and the differences between these attributes for losers and winners of specific fights were linked with initiation time and fight duration. Morphometric indexes of losers were the primary determinants of initiation time and fight duration, whereas for winners muscle metabolic capacities were linked to these fight characteristics. The greater the hepatosomatic index (HSI) of losers, the longer the fight initiation times. Similarly, losers with high HSI and carotenoid levels resisted defeat longer. In winners, initiation time decreased as axial muscle phosphofructokinase levels increased and citrate synthase levels decreased, whereas the metabolic capacities of the pectoral muscle were linked with time to achieve victory. When losers had greater HSI values than the winners of a specific fight, fight initiation was delayed and fights lasted longer. When losers had higher carotenoid levels than winners, fights also lasted longer. On the other hand, when losers had more visceral fat (fat body mass over somatic mass) than winners, both initiation time and combat duration were reduced. These results suggest that male stickleback assess their physiological status and that of their opponents, in particular the HSI, and adjust their combat strategies accordingly. PMID:15778937

  3. PREFACE 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, Stephen; Sullivan, James; White, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Preface These proceedings arose from the 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques (SLOPOS12), which was held on Magnetic Island, North Queensland, Australia, between 1-6th August 2010. Meetings in the SLOPOS series are held (roughly) every three years and have now been held on (almost) all continents, indicating the truly international nature of the field. SLOPOS12 marked the second time that the Workshop had been held in the southern hemisphere, and the first time in Australia. SLOPOS12 attracted 122 delegates from 16 countries. Most encouraging was the attendance of 28 student delegates, and that about half of the overall delegates were early career researchers - a good sign for the future of our field. We also enjoyed the company of more than a dozen partners and families of delegates. In a slight departure from previous SLOPOS meetings, the International Advisory Committee approved a broader scope of scientific topics for inclusion in the program for the 2010 Workshop. This broader scope was intended to capture the applications of positrons in atomic, molecular and biomedical areas and was encapsulated in the byeline for SLOPOS-12: The 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids, Surfaces, Atoms and Molecules. The scientific and social program for the meeting ran over 6 days with delegates gathering on Sunday August 1st and departing on August 6th. The scientific program included plenary, invited, contributed and student lectures, the latter being the subject of a student prize. In all there were 53 oral presentations during the week. There were also two poster sessions, with 63 posters exhibited, and a prize was awarded for the best poster by a student delegate. The standard of the student presentations, both oral and posters, was outstanding, so much so that the judging panel recommended an additional number of prizes be awarded. Topics that were the focus of invited presentations and contributed papers at

  4. Modelling Positron Interactions with Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; White, R.; Buckman, S.

    2011-05-01

    In this work we link fundamental measurements of positron interactions with biomolecules, with the development of computer codes for positron transport and track structure calculations. We model positron transport in a medium from a knowledge of the fundamental scattering cross section for the atoms and molecules comprising the medium, combined with a transport analysis based on statistical mechanics and Monte-Carlo techniques. The accurate knowledge of the scattering is most important at low energies, a few tens of electron volts or less. The ultimate goal of this work is to do this in soft condensed matter, with a view to ultimately developing a dosimetry model for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The high-energy positrons first emitted by a radionuclide in PET may well be described by standard formulas for energy loss of charged particles in matter, but it is incorrect to extrapolate these formulas to low energies. Likewise, using electron cross-sections to model positron transport at these low energies has been shown to be in serious error due to the effects of positronium formation. Work was supported by the Australian Research Council, the Serbian Government, and the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain.

  5. Neuronal networks with NMDARs and lateral inhibition implement winner-takes-all

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Patrick A.

    2015-01-01

    A neural circuit that relies on the electrical properties of NMDA synaptic receptors is shown by numerical and theoretical analysis to be capable of realizing the winner-takes-all function, a powerful computational primitive that is often attributed to biological nervous systems. This biophysically-plausible model employs global lateral inhibition in a simple feedback arrangement. As its inputs increase, high-gain and then bi- or multi-stable equilibrium states may be assumed in which there is significant depolarization of a single neuron and hyperpolarization or very weak depolarization of other neurons in the network. The state of the winning neuron conveys analog information about its input. The winner-takes-all characteristic depends on the nonmonotonic current-voltage relation of NMDA receptor ion channels, as well as neural thresholding, and the gain and nature of the inhibitory feedback. Dynamical regimes vary with input strength. Fixed points may become unstable as the network enters a winner-takes-all regime, which can lead to entrained oscillations. Under some conditions, oscillatory behavior can be interpreted as winner-takes-all in nature. Stable winner-takes-all behavior is typically recovered as inputs increase further, but with still larger inputs, the winner-takes-all characteristic is ultimately lost. Network stability may be enhanced by biologically plausible mechanisms. PMID:25741276

  6. Shaw Prize Goes to Reinhard Genzel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    The Shaw Prize in Astronomy for 2008 is awarded to Professor Reinhard Genzel, Director of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), in recognition of his outstanding contribution in demonstrating that the Milky Way contains a supermassive black hole at its centre, a result largely obtained with the help of ESO's telescopes. Black Hole ESO PR Photo 18/08 Motion of a Star The Shaw Prize is awarded annually by the Shaw Prize Foundation in Hong Kong in the Life Sciences, Mathematical Sciences and Astronomy, each of the three prizes bearing a monetary award of one million US dollars. "I warmly congratulate Professor Genzel for this well-deserved award which highlights some of the best science produced with ESO's telescopes," says Tim de Zeeuw, ESO's Director General. "Professor Genzel and his team have made a dedicated, long-term effort, using our telescopes and co-developing instruments, to study the Centre of our Galaxy, and as such, he has allowed us to enter an era of observational black hole physics." In 1969, Donald Lynden-Bell and Martin Rees suggested that the Milky Way might contain a supermassive black hole at its centre. But evidence for such an object was lacking at the time because the centre of the Milky Way is obscured by interstellar dust, and was detected only as a relatively faint radio source. Reinhard Genzel and his collaborators obtained compelling evidence for this black hole by developing state-of-the-art astronomical instruments to be used on ESO's telescopes and carrying out a persistent programme of observing the Galactic Centre and its surrounding stars for many years, which ultimately led to the discovery of a black hole with a mass of about three million times that of the Sun. Genzel's group has in particular followed since 1992, the motion of several stars, around the Galactic Centre. These observations were first done with the MPE-built near-infrared speckle imaging camera SHARP on ESO's New Technology Telescope at La

  7. Iranian PhD student wins human-rights prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2013-11-01

    A physicist imprisoned in Iran while on a break from his PhD studies in the US has been awarded a human-rights prize. Omid Kokabee, who had been based at the University of Texas in Austin, has been given the Andrei Sakharov Prize from the American Physical Society (APS) for "his courage in refusing to use his physics knowledge to work on projects that he deemed harmful to humanity, in the face of extreme physical and psychological pressure".

  8. [An illustrious unknown. Giuseppe Levi among science, anti-fascism and Nobel Prizes].

    PubMed

    Grignolio, Andrea; De Sio, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    The anatomist Giuseppe Levi (1872-1965) is unanimously considered one of the major figures of Italian biomedical sciences in the 20th century. His fame, however, is mainly derived from having nurtured three Nobel Prize winners, namely Salvador E. Luria, Rita Levi Montalcini and Renato Dulbecco. In reappraising Levi's role in the development of Italian science and culture in general, this article aims at questioning both the narrowness of earlier accounts and a certain kind of genealogical approach to the history of scientific disciplines and academic schools. We will here consider Giuseppe Levi as an instance of two major cultural phenomena: the development of experimental biology in Italy and continental Europe and the anti-fascist socialist culture expressed by a part of the Italian intellectuals. In so doing, we will reassess the historical specificity of the scientific maturation of Levi's three famous students, on the one hand, while on the other we will consider in some depth the cultural and moral environment in which Levi thrived and his role as a moral example for his students. Such revision, we will argue, have a direct bearing on more general historiographical issues, namely, the need for a stronger contextualization of the birth and consolidation of research traditions, implying a rejection of simplistic genealogical reconstructions, and the role of academic schools and institutional settings in the definition of novel, multidisciplinary scientific approaches. Finally, the following will highlight the importance of a more careful outlook on the master-pupil relationship in academic context, addressing issues of both continuity and rupture. The article is subdivided in two main sections, the first devoted to Levi as a scientist, the second to his Anti-fascism. PMID:21563384

  9. Polio and Nobel prizes: looking back 50 years.

    PubMed

    Norrby, Erling; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2007-05-01

    In 1954, John Enders, Thomas Weller, and Frederick Robbins were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue."5370 This discovery provided for the first time opportunities to produce both inactivated and live polio vaccines. By searching previously sealed Nobel Committee archives, we were able to review the deliberations that led to the award. It appears that Sven Gard, who was Professor of Virus Research at the Karolinska Institute and an adjunct member of the Nobel Committee at the time, played a major role in the events leading to the awarding of the Prize. It appears that Gard persuaded the College of Teachers at the Institute to decide not to follow the recommendation by their Nobel Committee to give the Prize to Vincent du Vigneaud. Another peculiar feature of the 1954 Prize is that Weller and Robbins were included based on only two nominations submitted for the first time that year. In his speech at the Nobel Prize ceremony, Gard mentioned the importance of the discovery for the future production of vaccines, but emphasized the implications of this work for growing many different, medically important viruses. We can only speculate on why later nominations highlighting the contributions of scientists such as Jonas Salk, Hilary Koprowski, and Albert Sabin in the development of poliovirus vaccines have not been recognized by a Nobel Prize. PMID:17469121

  10. Winner and loser effects are modulated by hormonal states

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many animals use information acquired from recent experiences to modify their responses to new situations. Animals’ decisions in contests also depend on their previous experience: after recent victories individuals tend to behave more aggressively and after defeats more submissively. Although these winner and/or loser effects have been reported for animals of different taxa, they have only recently been shown to be flexible traits, which can be influenced by extrinsic factors. In a mangrove killifish (Kryptolebias marmoratus), for instance, individuals which lost an earlier contest were more likely than others to alter contest decisions after a recent win/loss. This result suggests that individuals perceiving themselves to have worse fighting abilities are more inclined to adjust contest strategy based on new information. If this is the case, an individual’s propensity to modify behaviour after a win/loss might also be modulated by intrinsic mechanisms related to its ability to fight. Stress and sex steroid hormones are often associated with an individual’s contest behaviour and performance, so, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that an individual’s propensity to change behaviour after wins or losses also depends on its hormonal state. Results Our results show that an individual’s propensity to adjust contest decisions after wins and losses does depend on its hormonal state: individuals with lower levels of cortisol (F), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (KT) are more receptive than others to the influence of recent contest experiences, especially losing experiences, and the influences last longer. Furthermore, although winning and losing experiences resulted in significant changes in behaviour, they did not bring about a significant change in the levels of F, T, KT or oestradiol (E2). Conclusions This study shows that an individual’s receptivity to the influence of recent wins and losses is modulated by its internal state, as

  11. Method for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2006-06-06

    A non-destructive testing method comprises providing a specimen having at least one positron emitter therein; determining a threshold energy for activating the positron emitter; and determining whether a half-life of the positron emitter is less than a selected half-life. If the half-life of the positron emitter is greater than or equal to the selected half-life, then activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater than the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons in the specimen. If the half-life of the positron emitter is less then the selected half-life, then alternately activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater then the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by positron annihilation within the specimen.

  12. The Winners in China’s Urban Housing Reform

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Fang, Yiping; Zhang, Zhanxin

    2013-01-01

    Housing reform in China has proceeded on two tracks: privatization of public housing and development of a new private housing sector. During this period of transition, rents have remained relatively low in the remaining public housing, and purchase prices offered to occupants of public housing have been well below market prices. Although these rents and prices are partly based on known formulas, there is considerable variability in how much people pay for similar apartments. This study uses 2000 Census data to estimate the housing subsidy received by the remaining renters in the public sector and purchasers of public housing, based on private sector prices for housing of comparable quality and size. The paper also analyzes variation in the estimated discount from market prices that these people receive. The findings show that the biggest winners in China’s transition from socialist housing allocation are those who were favored in the previous system, based on such factors as residence status, education and occupation. PMID:24163494

  13. Winners of CASMI2013: Automated Tools and Challenge Data

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Takaaki; Kasama, Takeshi; Kinumi, Tomoya; Makabe, Hidefumi; Matsuda, Fumio; Miura, Daisuke; Miyashita, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takemichi; Tanaka, Ken; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    CASMI (Critical Assessment of Small Molecule Identification) is a contest in which participants identify the molecular formula and chemical structure of challenging molecules using blind mass spectra as the challenge data. Seven research teams participated in CASMI2013. The winner of CASMI2013 was the team of Andrew Newsome and Dejan Nikolic, the University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA. The team identified 15 among 16 challenge molecules by manually interpreting the challenge data and by searching in-house and public mass spectral databases, and chemical substance and literature databases. MAGMa was selected as the best automated tool of CASMI2013. In some challenges, most of the automated tools successfully identified the challenge molecules, independent of the compound class and magnitude of the molecular mass. In these challenge data, all of the isotope peaks and the product ions essential for the identification were observed within the expected mass accuracy. In the other challenges, most of the automated tools failed, or identified solution candidates together with many false-positive candidates. We then analyzed these challenge data based on the quality of the mass spectra, the dissociation mechanisms, and the compound class and elemental composition of the challenge molecules. PMID:26819882

  14. Amount of earnings during prize contingency management treatment is associated with post-treatment abstinence outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Roll, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments that provide patients with the opportunity to earn chances of winning prizes of varying magnitudes are becoming increasingly popular. In the CM literature, magnitude of reinforcement is linked with effect sizes, such that CM treatments that provide larger magnitude reinforcement are more efficacious than those that provide lower magnitude reinforcement. With prize CM, even when magnitudes of overall expected prize earnings are constant, some patients win more prizes than others. Thus, patients who win larger overall amounts of prizes during treatment may have better outcomes than those who win fewer prizes. This study evaluated the impact of overall amounts of prizes won on long-term abstinence outcomes. The dollar amount of prizes won during prize CM treatments was determined from 78 cocaine abusing methadone maintenance patients who were randomized to prize CM treatments in three clinical trials. Abstinence three months following the end of the CM intervention was the primary dependent variable. The dollar amount of prizes won during CM treatment was a significant predictor of submission of cocaine-negative urine samples and self reports of cocaine abstinence at the follow-up evaluation, even after controlling for other variables associated with long-term abstinence such as pre-treatment urinalysis results and longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. These results suggest that magnitudes of earnings during prize CM may impact outcomes and call for further experimentation of parameters related to the efficacy of prize CM. PMID:21707189

  15. Salivary hormones and anxiety in winners and losers of an international judo competition.

    PubMed

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of salivary hormones and salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and anxiety in winners and losers during an international judo competition. Twenty-three trained, male, national-level judo athletes provided three saliva samples during a competition day: morning, in anticipation of competition after an overnight fast, mid-competition, and post-competition within 15 min post-fight for determination of salivary cortisol, salivary testosterone, salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio, SIgA absolute concentrations, SIgA secretion rate and saliva flow rate. The competitive state anxiety inventory questionnaire was completed by the athletes (n = 12) after the first saliva collection for determination of somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self-confidence. Winners were considered 1-3 ranking place (n = 12) and losers (n = 11) below third place in each weight category. Winners presented higher anticipatory salivary cortisol concentrations (p = 0.03) and a lower mid-competition salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio (p = 0.003) compared with losers with no differences for salivary testosterone. Winners tended to have higher SIgA secretion rates (p = 0.07) and higher saliva flow rates (p = 0.009) at mid-competition. Higher levels of cognitive anxiety (p = 0.02) were observed in the winners, without differences according to the outcome in somatic anxiety and self-confidence. The results suggest that winners experienced higher levels of physiological arousal and better psychological preparedness in the morning, and as the competition progressed, the winners were able to control their stress response better. PMID:26584022

  16. Chandra Telescope Designer Wins 2002 Rossi Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts has been awarded the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society. The Rossi Prize recognizes significant contributions in high-energy astrophysics. It is awarded annually in honor of the late Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professor Bruno Rossi, an authority on cosmic ray physics and a pioneer in the field of X-ray astronomy. The prize also includes an engraved certificate and a $1,500 award. Van Speybroeck, who led the effort to design and make the X-ray mirrors for NASA's premier X­ray observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, was recognized for a career of stellar achievements in designing precision X-ray optics. As Telescope Scientist for Chandra, he has worked for more than 20 years with a team that includes scientists and engineers from the Harvard-Smithsonian, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, TRW, Inc., Hughes-Danbury (now B.F. Goodrich Aerospace), Optical Coating Laboratories, Inc., and Eastman-Kodak on all aspects of the X-ray mirror assembly that is the heart of the observatory. "Leon is one of the master mirror designers of our time," said Harvey Tananbaum, director of the Chandra X-ray Center. "His contributions were crucial to the spectacular success of the Chandra mission." The Chandra mirrors are the most precise mirrors ever made, smooth with tolerances of a few atoms. If the state of Colorado had the same relative smoothness as the surface of the Chandra X-ray Observatory mirrors, Pike's Peak would be less than an inch tall. The smoothness and alignment of the Chandra's mirrors are enabling scientists to make new discoveries about black holes, neutron stars, and galactic explosions. "Many, many other people made essential contributions to the Chandra program, and hopefully some of them will receive proper recognition," said Van Speybroeck. "In the meantime, I am thoroughly enjoying

  17. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-05-22

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  18. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, Joanna S.; MacGregor, Robert R.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Langstrom, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  19. Positron-alkali atom scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.; Ward, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron-alkali atom scattering was recently investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the energy range from a few eV up to 100 eV. On the theoretical side calculations of the integrated elastic and excitation cross sections as well as total cross sections for Li, Na and K were based upon either the close-coupling method or the modified Glauber approximation. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the total cross section for both Na and K. Resonance structures were also found in the L = 0, 1 and 2 partial waves for positron scattering from the alkalis. The structure of these resonances appears to be quite complex and, as expected, they occur in conjunction with the atomic excitation thresholds. Currently both theoretical and experimental work is in progress on positron-Rb scattering in the same energy range.

  20. Instrumentation in positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-11

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a three-dimensional medical imaging technique that noninvasively measures the concentration of radiopharmaceuticals in the body that are labeled with positron emitters. With the proper compounds, PET can be used to measure metabolism, blood flow, or other physiological values in vivo. The technique is based on the physics of positron annihilation and detection and the mathematical formulations developed for x-ray computed tomography. Modern PET systems can provide three-dimensional images of the brain, the heart, and other internal organs with resolutions on the order of 4 to 6 mm. With the selectivity provided by a choice of injected compounds, PET has the power to provide unique diagnostic information that is not available with any other imaging modality. This is the first five reports on the nature and uses of PET that have been prepared for the American Medical Association's Council on Scientific Affairs by an authoritative panel.

  1. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-04-03

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  2. Instrumentation for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Budinger, T F; Derenzo, S E; Huesman, R H

    1984-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with a spatial resolution of 2 mm full width at half maximum for quantitation in regions of interest 4 mm in diameter will become possible with the development of detectors that achieve ultrahigh resolution. Improved resolution will be possible using solid-state photodetectors for crystal identification or photomultiplier tubes with many small electron multipliers . Temporal resolution of 2 seconds and gating of cyclic events can be accomplished if statistical requirements are met. The major physical considerations in achieving high-resolution positron emission tomography are the degradation in resolution resulting from positron range, emission angle, parallax error, detector sampling density, the sensitivity of various detector materials and packing schemes, and the trade off between temporal resolution and statistical accuracy. The accuracy of data required for physiological models depends primarily on the fidelity of spatial sampling independent of statistical constraints. PMID:6611124

  3. Positron spectroscopy for materials characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, P.J.; Snead, C.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    One of the more active areas of research on materials involves the observation and characterization of defects. The discovery of positron localization in vacancy-type defects in solids in the 1960's initiated a vast number of experimental and theoretical investigations which continue to this day. Traditional positron annihilation spectroscopic techniques, including lifetime studies, angular correlation, and Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation, are still being applied to new problems in the bulk properties of simple metals and their alloys. In addition new techniques based on tunable sources of monoenergetic positron beams have, in the last 5 years, expanded the horizons to studies of surfaces, thin films, and interfaces. In the present paper we briefly review these experimental techniques, illustrating with some of the important accomplishments of the field. 40 refs., 19 figs.

  4. E166: Polarized Positrons & Polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, K.Peter; /DESY

    2011-12-06

    A proof-of-principle experiment has been carried out in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to demonstrate production of polarized positrons in a manner suitable for implementation at the International Linear Collider (ILC). A helical undulator of 2.54 mm period and 1 -m length produced circularly polarized photons with a first harmonic endpoint energy of 8 MeV when traversed by a 46.6 GeV electron beam. The polarized photons were converted to polarized positrons in a 0.2-radiation-length tungsten target. The polarization of these positrons was measured using a Compton transmission polarimeter to have peak value in excess of 80%.

  5. PREFACE: 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications (SLOPOS13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    These proceedings originate from the 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications SLOPOS13 which was held at the campus of the Technische Universität München in Garching between 15th-20th September, 2013. This event is part of a series of triennial SLOPOS conferences. In total 123 delegates from 21 countries participated in the SLOPOS13. The excellent scientific program comprised 50 talks and 58 posters presented during two poster sessions. It was very impressive to learn about novel technical developments on positron beam facilities and the wide range of their applications all over the world. The workshop reflected the large variety of positron beam experiments covering fundamental studies, e.g., for efficient production of anti-hydrogen as well as applied research on defects in bulk materials, thin films, surfaces, and interfaces. The topics comprised: . Positron transport and beam technology . Pulsed beams and positron traps . Defect profiling in bulk and layered structures . Nanostructures, porous materials, thin films . Surfaces and interfaces . Positronium formation and emission . Positron interactions with atoms and molecules . Many positrons and anti-hydrogen . Novel experimental techniques The international advisory committee of SLOPOS awarded student prizes for the best presented scientific contributions to a team of students from Finland, France, and the NEPOMUC team at TUM. The conference was overshadowed by the sudden death of Professor Klaus Schreckenbach immediately before the workshop. In commemoration of him as a spiritus rectus of the neutron induced positron source a minutes' silence was hold. We are most grateful for the hard work of the Local Organising Committee, the help of the International Advisory Committee, and all the students for their friendly and efficient support during the meeting. The workshop could not have occurred without the generous support of the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Deutsche

  6. Particle physics. Positrons ride the wave

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, Philippe

    2015-08-26

    Here, experiments reveal that positrons — the antimatter equivalents of electrons — can be rapidly accelerated using a plasma wave. The findings pave the way to high-energy electron–positron particle colliders.

  7. Particle physics. Positrons ride the wave

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, Philippe

    2015-08-26

    Experiments reveal that positrons — the antimatter equivalents of electrons — can be rapidly accelerated using a plasma wave. The findings pave the way to high-energy electron–positron particle colliders.

  8. Prize Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adjunctive behavioral smoking cessation treatments have the potential to improve outcomes beyond standard care. The present study had two aims: 1) compare standard care (SC) for smoking (four weeks of brief counseling and monitoring) to SC plus prize-based contingency management (CM), involving the chance to earn prizes on days with demonstrated smoking abstinence (carbon monoxide (CO) ≤6ppm); and 2) compare the relative efficacy of two prize reinforcement schedules - one a traditional CM schedule, and the second an early enhanced CM schedule providing greater reinforcement magnitude in the initial week of treatment but equal overall reinforcement. Methods Participants (N = 81 nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers) were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. Results Prize CM resulted in significant reductions in cigarette smoking relative to SC. These reductions were not apparent at follow-up. We found no meaningful differences between the traditional and enhanced CM conditions. Conclusions Our findings reveal that prize CM leads to significant reductions in smoking during treatment relative to a control intervention, but the benefits did not extend long-term. PMID:24793364

  9. Electrostatic Nonplanar Positron-Acoustic Shock Waves in Superthermal Electron-Positron-Ion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. J., Uddin; M. S., Alam; A. A., Mamun

    2015-06-01

    The basic properties of the nonlinear propagation of the nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) positron-acoustic (PA) shock waves (SHWs) in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasma containing immobile positive ions, mobile cold positrons, and superthermal (kappa distributed) hot positrons and electrons are investigated both analytically and numerically. The modified Burgers equation (mBE) is derived by using the reductive perturbation method. The basic features of PA SHWs are significantly modified by the cold positron kinematic viscosity (η), superthermal parameter of electrons (κe), superthermal parameter of hot positrons (κp), the ratio of the electron temperature to hot positron temperature (σ), the ratio of the electron number density to cold positron number density and the ratio of the hot positron number density to cold positron number density (μph). This study could be useful to identify the basic properties of nonlinear electrostatic disturbances in dissipative space and laboratory plasmas.

  10. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A positron camera is a device intended to image...

  11. Randomized Trial of Prize-Based Reinforcement Density for Simultaneous Abstinence from Cocaine and Heroin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effect of reinforcer density in prize-based abstinence reinforcement, heroin/cocaine users (N = 116) in methadone maintenance (100 mg/day) were randomly assigned to a noncontingent control group (NonC) or to 1 of 3 groups that earned prize draws for abstinence: manual drawing with standard prize density (MS) or computerized drawing…

  12. Positron-acoustic shock waves associated with cold viscous positron fluid in superthermal electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, M. J. Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-06-15

    A theoretical investigation is made on the positron-acoustic (PA) shock waves (SHWs) in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma containing immobile positive ions, cold mobile positrons, and hot positrons and electrons following the kappa (κ) distribution. The cold positron kinematic viscosity is taken into account, and the reductive perturbation method is used to derive the Burgers equation. It is found that the viscous force acting on cold mobile positron fluid is a source of dissipation and is responsible for the formation of the PA SHWs. It is also observed that the fundamental properties of the PA SHWs are significantly modified by the effects of different parameters associated with superthermal (κ distributed) hot positrons and electrons.

  13. Positron-acoustic shock waves associated with cold viscous positron fluid in superthermal electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, M. J.; Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    A theoretical investigation is made on the positron-acoustic (PA) shock waves (SHWs) in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma containing immobile positive ions, cold mobile positrons, and hot positrons and electrons following the kappa (κ) distribution. The cold positron kinematic viscosity is taken into account, and the reductive perturbation method is used to derive the Burgers equation. It is found that the viscous force acting on cold mobile positron fluid is a source of dissipation and is responsible for the formation of the PA SHWs. It is also observed that the fundamental properties of the PA SHWs are significantly modified by the effects of different parameters associated with superthermal (κ distributed) hot positrons and electrons.

  14. Winner-take-all networks - Time-based versus activation-based mechanisms for various selection goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnden, John; Srinivas, Kankanahalli; Daharmavaratha, Dronpadi

    1990-01-01

    As an alternative to conventional winner-take-all mechanisms, the paper presents a temporal winner-take-all mecahnism with O(n) space complexity and roughly O(log n) time complexity. It exploits systematic and stochastic differences between time delays within different units and connections.

  15. Promising Practices for the 21st Century. Winners of the 1996 Secretary's Awards for Outstanding Adult Education and Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education and Literacy.

    The 12 programs selected as 1996 winners of the Secretary's Awards for Outstanding Adult Education and Literacy Programs illustrate a diverse range of promising practices for the 21st century. Winners were selected based on the presence of 10 elements, including the following: effective and potentially replicable practices; measurable objectives…

  16. Background to the Nobel Prize to the Braggs.

    PubMed

    Liljas, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The Nobel Committees have to follow the nominations submitted for a specific year. During the early phase of X-ray crystallography, a limited number of scientists were active. In 1914 Max von Laue and William Henry Bragg were both nominated and could have been awarded a joint Nobel Prize. However, a member of the Nobel Committee for Physics, Allvar Gullstrand, was well aware of the activities in the field and strongly recommended that only von Laue should receive the prize since a main contributor, William Laurence Bragg, was not nominated. Next year, when the First World War had started, there were few nominations, but now both Braggs, father and son, were nominated. Gullstrand was very pleased and recommended them both for the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics. The rest of the committee agreed and this then became the decision of the Royal Academy for Sciences, Stockholm. PMID:23250055

  17. Texas Intense Positron Source (TIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelly, D.

    2003-03-01

    The Texas Intense Positron Source (TIPS) is a state of the art variable energy positron beam under construction at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL). Projected intensities on the order of the order of 10^7 e+/second using ^64Cu as the positron source are expected. Owing to is short half-life (t1/2 12.8 hrs), plans are to produce the ^64Cu isotope on-site using beam port 1 of NETL TRIGA Mark II reactor. Following tungsten moderation, the positrons will be electrostatically focused and accelerated from few 10's of eV up to 30 keV. This intensity and energy range should allow routine performance of several analytical techniques of interest to surface scientists (PALS, PADB and perhaps PAES and LEPD.) The TIPS project is being developed in parallel phases. Phase I of the project entails construction of the vacuum system, source chamber, main beam line, electrostatic/magnetic focusing and transport system as well as moderator design. Initial construction, testing and characterization of moderator and beam transport elements are underway and will use a commercially available 10 mCi ^22Na radioisotope as a source of positrons. Phase II of the project is concerned primarily with the Cu source geometry and thermal properties as well as production and physical handling of the radioisotope. Additional instrument optimizing based upon experience gained during Phase I will be incorporated in the final design. Current progress of both phases will be presented along with motivations and future directions.

  18. A Winner Determination Algorithm for Combinatorial Auctions Based on Hybrid Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Genrang; Lin, ZhengChun

    The problem of winner determination in combinatorial auctions is a hotspot electronic business, and a NP hard problem. A Hybrid Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm(HAFSA), which is combined with First Suite Heuristic Algorithm (FSHA) and Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm (AFSA), is proposed to solve the problem after probing it base on the theories of AFSA. Experiment results show that the HAFSA is a rapidly and efficient algorithm for The problem of winner determining. Compared with Ant colony Optimization Algorithm, it has a good performance with broad and prosperous application.

  19. Biotic homogenization: a few winners replacing many losers in the next mass extinction.

    PubMed

    McKinney; Lockwood

    1999-11-01

    Human activities are not random in their negative and positive impacts on biotas. Emerging evidence shows that most species are declining as a result of human activities ('losers') and are being replaced by a much smaller number of expanding species that thrive in human-altered environments ('winners'). The result will be a more homogenized biosphere with lower diversity at regional and global scales. Recent data also indicate that the many losers and few winners tend to be non-randomly distributed among higher taxa and ecological groups, enhancing homogenization. PMID:10511724

  20. Modeling the evolution of winner and loser effects: A survey and prospectus.

    PubMed

    Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Dai, Yao; Goubault, Marlène

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of winner or loser effects-higher probabilities of winning after winning or of losing after losing-has received remarkably little attention from theoreticians, even though such effects are widespread across the animal kingdom. We review game-theoretic models that regard such winner and loser effects as outcomes of a strategic response. We show that these models have been well supported by the empirical literature in the past, but are not designed to address some recent observations. In the light of this recent progress on the empirical front, we identify factors that newer theory must be developed to explore. PMID:26874216

  1. Positron microanalysis with high intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Donohue, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the more common applications for a high intensity slow positron facility will be microanalysis of solid materials. In the first section of this paper some examples are given of procedures that can be developed. Since most of the attendees of this workshop are experts in positron spectroscopy, comprehensive descriptions will be omitted. With the exception of positron emission microscopy, most of the procedures will be based on those already in common use with broad beams. The utility of the methods have all been demonstrated, but material scientists use very few of them because positron microbeams are not generally available. A high intensity positron facility will make microbeams easier to obtain and partially alleviate this situation. All microanalysis techniques listed below will have a common requirement, which is the ability to locate the microscopic detail or area of interest and to focus the positron beam exclusively on it. The last section of this paper is a suggestion of how a high intensity positron facility might be designed so as to have this capability built in. The method will involve locating the specimen by scanning it with the microbeam of positrons and inducing a secondary electron image that will immediately reveal whether or not the positron beam is striking the proper portion of the specimen. This scanning positron microscope' will be a somewhat prosaic analog of the conventional SEM. It will, however, be an indispensable utility that will enhance the practicality of positron microanalysis techniques. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Pioneers in ozone research receive Nobel Prize in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded its 1995 Nobel Prize in chemistry to three AGU members for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone. Only one other Nobel prize has ever been awarded in the realm of atmospheric research. The honorees are professors Paul Crutzen of the Max-Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany; Mario Molina of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and F. Sherwood Rowland of the University of California, Irvine. The Academy credits the three with contributing to “our salvation from a global environmental problem that could have catastrophic consequences.”

  3. Ecosystems Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. H.; Frame, M. T.; Ferriter, O.; Recker, J.

    2014-12-01

    Stimulating innovation and private sector entrepreneurship is an important way to advance the preparedness of communities, businesses and individuals for the impacts of climate change on certain aspects of ecosystems, such as: fire regimes; water availability; carbon sequestration; biodiversity conservation; weather-related hazards, and the spread of invasive species. The creation of tools is critical to help communities and natural resource managers better understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems and the potential resulting implications for ecosystem services and conservation efforts. The Department of the Interior is leading an interagency effort to develop the Ecosystems Vulnerability theme as part of the President's Climate Action Plan. This effort will provide seamless access to relevant datasets that can help address such issues as: risk of wildfires to local communities and federal lands; water sensitivity to climate change; and understanding the role of ecosystems in a changing climate. This session will provide an overview of the proposed Ecosystem Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition, outlining the intended audience, scope, goals, and overall timeline. The session will provide an opportunity for participants to offer new ideas. Through the Challenge, access will be made available to critical datasets for software developers, engineers, scientists, students, and researchers to develop and submit applications addressing critical science issues facing our Nation today. Application submission criteria and guidelines will also be discussed. The Challenge will be open to all sectors and organizations (i.e. federal, non-federal, private sector, non-profits, and universities) within the United States. It is anticipated the Challenge will run from early January 2015 until spring of 2015.

  4. Design of the NLC positron source

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, H.; Emma, P.; Gross, G.; Kulikov, A.; Li, Z.; Miller, R.; Rinolfi, L.; Turner, J.; Yeremian, D.

    1996-08-01

    The design of the positron source for the Next Linear Collider (NLC) is presented. The key features of this design include accelerating positrons at an L-band frequency (1428 MHz) and using a rotating positron target with multi-stage differential pumping. Positron yield simulations show that the L-band design yields at the source 2.5 times the beam intensity required at the interaction point and is easily upgrade to higher intensities required for the 1 TeV NLC upgrade. Multi-bunch beam loading compensation schemes in the positron capture and booster accelerators and the optics design of the positron booster accelerator are described. For improved source efficiency, the design boasts two parallel positron vaults adequately shielded from each other such that one serves as an on-line spare.

  5. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husband, P.; Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Selim, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics.

  6. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

  7. Society News: Fellow sets new world record; RAS thesis prize winners; Galileo in the courtyard; Need a room? Society announces new award for early-career researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    Generous sponsorship from Winton Capital Management has made possible two new RAS Awards, to be given annually to postdoctoral researchers who have made outstanding progress in the years immediately after their PhD.

  8. 1990 Sir Henry Wellcome medal and prize winner. Leukoregulin: a new biotherapeutic cytokine in the search for more effective anti-viral pharmacologic agents.

    PubMed

    Evans, C H; Hooks, J J; Detrick, B

    1991-04-01

    This investigation examines whether cytokines, as exemplified by leukoregulin, with their immense potential for biorecognition and target cell modulation as a result of their complex three-dimensional structure, have the potential to provide new directions for biotherapy of infectious disease. Leukoregulin is a naturally occurring immunologic cytokine, secreted by stimulated lymphocytes, which increases membrane permeability and drug uptake in tumor but not in normal cells. This study demonstrates that leukoregulin also increases the plasma membrane permeability of cells acutely infected with herpes simplex type 1 virus and that the increase in membrane permeability is accompanied by a 10- to 100-fold increase in the ability of acyclovir to inhibit the release of infectious virus when the cells are treated with leukoregulin 3 hours after infection with the virus. This is the first demonstration that a cytokine, alone or in combination with anti-viral chemotherapy, can effectively inhibit virus replication in human cells following acute virus infection, which indicates that combination immunotherapy and chemotherapy have the potential to completely inhibit the production of infectious virus by acutely infected human cells. PMID:1851546

  9. Duncan Tanner Essay Prize Winner 2014. Against the 'Sacred Cow': NHS Opposition and the Fellowship for Freedom in Medicine, 1948-72.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This essay recovers organized opposition to the National Health Service (NHS) by considering the Fellowship for Freedom in Medicine (FFM), a conservative organization of doctors who challenged the 'Sacred Cow' of nationalized healthcare in the 1950s and 1960s. While there has been little interest in anti-NHS politics because of shortcomings in the institution's historiography, this study suggests ways a new history of the service can be written. Central to that project is taking the broader ideological and emotive quality of the NHS seriously, and appreciating the way, for all sides of the political spectrum, as well as the general public, the service has always been a contested symbol of post-war British identity. This essay argues that two NHS 'crises'--panics over costs, and disillusionment within general practice--were not merely disagreements over budgets and pay-packets but politically charged moments infused with conservative anxieties over Britain's post-war trajectory. The FFM imagined the NHS as an economically dangerous bureaucratic machine that crushed medical independence and risked pushing the country towards dictatorship. Allies within the Conservative Party, private health insurance industry, and free-market 'think-tanks' worked with the FFM to challenge defences of both the service's operation and meaning. To appreciate why the NHS remains 'the closest thing the English have to a religion', one must consider the apostates as well as the faithful. PMID:26502665

  10. ISSLS PRIZE WINNER: INHIBITION OF NF-κB ACTIVITY AMELIORATES AGE-ASSOCIATED DISC DEGENERATION IN A MOUSE MODEL OF ACCELERATED AGING

    PubMed Central

    Nasto, Luigi A.; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Robinson, Andria R.; Tilstra, Jeremy S.; Clauson, Cheryl L.; Sowa, Gwendolyn A.; Ngo, Kevin; Dong, Qing; Pola, Enrico; Lee, Joon Y.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Kang, James D.; Robbins, Paul D.; Vo, Nam V.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design NF-κB activity was pharmacologically and genetically blocked in an accelerated aging mouse model to mitigate age-related disc degenerative changes. Objective To study the mediatory role of NF-κB signaling pathway in age-dependent intervertebral disc degeneration. Summary of Background Data Aging is a major contributor to intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD), but the molecular mechanism behind this process is poorly understood. NF-κB is a family of transcription factors which play a central role in mediating cellular response to damage, stress, and inflammation. Growing evidence implicates chronic NF-κB activation as a culprit in many aging-related diseases, but its role in aging-related IDD has not been adequately explored. We studied the effects of NF-κB inhibition on IDD using a DNA repair-deficient mouse model of accelerated aging (Ercc1-/Δ mice) previously been reported to exhibit age-related IDD. Methods Systemic inhibition of NF-κB activation was achieved either genetically by deletion of one allele of the NF-κB subunit p65 (Ercc1-/Δp65+/- mice) or pharmacologically by chronic intra-peritoneal administration of the Nemo Binding Domain (8K-NBD) peptide to block the formation of the upstream activator of NF-κB, IκB Inducible Kinase (IKK), in Ercc1-/Δ mice. Disc cellularity, total proteoglycan content and proteoglycan synthesis of treated mice and untreated controls were assessed. Results Decreased disc matrix proteoglycan content, a hallmark feature of IDD, and elevated disc NF-κB activity were observed in discs of progeroid Ercc1-/Δ mice and naturally aged wild-type compared to young WT mice. Systemic inhibition of NF-κB by the 8K-NBD peptide in Ercc1-/Δ mice increased disc proteoglycan synthesis and ameriolated loss disc cellularity and matrix proteoglycan. These results were confirmed genetically by using the p65 haploinsufficient Ercc1-/Δp65+/- mice. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway is a key mediator of age-dependent IDD and represents a therapeutic target for mitigating disc degenerative diseases associated with aging. PMID:22343279

  11. Pat Thiel talks about attending the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony

    ScienceCinema

    Thiel, Pat

    2013-03-01

    Pat Thiel, Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, was invited to be a guest at the ceremony on December 10th, in Stockholm, Sweden, where Danny Shechtman, Ames Laboratory scientist, received the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Following her return to the Lab, Thiel shared some of her recollections of the momentous event.

  12. E Pluribus Tres: The 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary This year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry celebrates a multitude of research areas, making the difficult selection of those most responsible for providing atomic details of the nanomachine that makes proteins according to genetic instructions. The Ribosome and RNA polymerase (recognized in 2006) structures highlight a puzzling asymmetry at the origins of biology. PMID:20004159

  13. Harry Smith — recipient of the 2008 Molecular Ecology Prize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harry Smith is a scholar, mentor, internationally renowned researcher, eloquent speaker and author, pioneering journal editor and highly valued colleague who has contributed greatly in multiple ways to plant science and the community. He richly deserves the honour of the Molecular Ecology Prize....

  14. Award of EC Television Prize for Broadcasts on Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) is endeavoring to encourage television to provide more and better information on vocational and continuing education in the European Community (EC). Therefore, it held its first competition to award prizes for broadcasts presenting information on vocational training,…

  15. SunShot Catalyst Prize Competition Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Catalyst Energy Innovation Prize, an open innovation program launched in 2014 by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This program aims to catalyze the rapid creation and development of products and solutions that address near-term challenges in the U.S. solar energy marketplace.

  16. Student Intern Lands Top Prize in National Science Competition | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Student intern Sam Pritt’s interest in improving geolocation led him to develop a project that won a top regional prize at the Siemens Competition in Math, Science, and Technology in November. Pritt was awarded a $3,000 college scholarship, and he competed in the national competition in early December.

  17. The 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlstein, Linda

    2013-01-01

    For millions of Americans, community colleges provide an essential pathway to well-paying jobs and continuing higher education. The Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence honors those institutions that strive for and achieve exceptional levels of success for all students, while they are in college and after they graduate. Community colleges…

  18. The Competition "First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorzkowski, W.; Surya, Y; Zuberek, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the history of the competition First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics organized by Poland, its development from a national workshop in 1991/92 to an international competition nowadays and its organization, as well as the results obtained by the participants. (Contains 1 table.)

  19. Defining Excellence: Lessons from the 2013 Aspen Prize Finalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In many respects, one couldn't find a group of 10 schools more diverse than the finalists for the 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence. One community college serves 1,500 students, another 56,000. There are institutions devoted primarily--even solely--to technical degrees, and ones devoted mainly to preparing students for further…

  20. Reclaiming "Lost Prizes": An Interview with Ken McCluskey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bockern, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Ken McCluskey, Dean and Professor of Education at the University of Winnipeg. He is known internationally for his work in several areas including: (1) mentoring; (2) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; (3) at-risk children and youth (where his "Lost Prizes" and related projects serve as models…

  1. Tight Focus on Instruction Wins Texas District Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    It took a while for four-time finalist Aldine, Texas, to win the Broad Prize for Urban Education. But it took even longer to craft the system that ultimately put the district over the top. Educators in Aldine district have been working for more than a decade to refine their "managed instruction" system. Reviewers examined how the school district,…

  2. Pat Thiel talks about attending the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Pat Thiel, Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, was invited to be a guest at the ceremony on December 10th, in Stockholm, Sweden, where Danny Shechtman, Ames Laboratory scientist, received the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Following her return to the Lab, Thiel shared some of her recollections of the momentous event.

  3. The competition 'First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzkowski, W.; Surya, Y.; Żuberek, R.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the history of the competition First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics organized by Poland, its development from a national workshop in 1991/92 to an international competition nowadays and its organization, as well as the results obtained by the participants.

  4. Prizes in Cereal Boxes: An Application of Probability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents four cases of real-world probabilistic situations to promote more effective teaching of probability. Calculates the probability of obtaining six of six different prizes successively in six, seven, eight, and nine boxes of cereal, generalizes the problem to n boxes of cereal, and offers suggestions to extend the problem. (MDH)

  5. Whose Big Prize? A Response to Hall and Gunter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, John

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Hall and Gunter who accuse the author of trying to mount "a stout defence" of New Labour's reforms of the teaching profession. Hall and Gunter go further and accuse the author of "triumphalism" in his use of the title "Tony Blair's big prize". Their second and more serious challenge concerns the…

  6. How Robert A. Millikan Got the Physics Nobel Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panusch, Martin; Heering, Peter; Singh, Rajinder

    2010-01-01

    In 1923, R.A. Millikan was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect. Recently, historical research had a focus on Millikan's publication practice, as well as on the role of his assistant, Harvey Fletcher. Several studies have raised doubts on whether Millikan can…

  7. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance…

  8. 78 FR 40132 - Wave Energy Converter Prize Administration Webinar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wave Energy Converter Prize Administration Webinar AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice... available for public review on the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Web site...

  9. Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    The life and personality of Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes established by his will are discussed. Nobel was a 19th century Swedish industrialist who was fluent in six languages. He invented dynamite. At his death in 1896, his estate amounted to $9,200,000. His will stipulated that the income from his estate should be divided annually into five…

  10. The Nobel Prize Economics Lectures as a Teaching Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahka, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposes using some of the 26 Nobel Prize lectures as teaching tools in economics courses. Notes lectures are reprinted in economic journals. Lists titles of lectures from 1969 to 1988; identifies level of difficulty; and categorizes the lectures by subject field. Outlines George Stigler's 1982 Nobel lecture and gives suggestions for teaching. (NL)

  11. An Elusive Honor: Psychology, Behavior, and the Nobel Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickren, Wade E.

    2003-01-01

    Apart from economics, the human sciences have not generally been rewarded with high honors from the world community. Psychology has been awarded the distinction of a Nobel Prize only when it has served a role in explicating human behavior in relation to economics. Yet psychological science has played no small part in the work of a number of Nobel…

  12. What to do to win a Nobel prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foundationeer, Second; chrischievious; Hasler, John; nvrao; dedalus22; Martin

    2014-11-01

    In reply to the infographic "Illustrating a century of Nobels" and a related physicsworld.com blog post "What type of physics should you do if you want to bag a Nobel prize?" (2 October, http://ow.ly/CmCzl, see also pp22-23).

  13. Pulitzer Prize Speakers Enhance Credibility of San Antonio Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aradillas, Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Describes a mass communications program at Texas's San Antonio College that invites Pulitzer Prize recipients to give guest lectures. Includes a list of the speakers who have lectured since the program's inception in 1978, a description of the speakers' accomplishments, and a description of program activities. (MAB)

  14. Training Quality: Before and after Winning the Deming Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magennis, Jo P.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Quality Improvement Program developed by Florida Power and Light's Nuclear Training organization that was awarded the Deming Application Prize for quality control. Training quality, team activities, training's role in business planning, customer involvement and evaluation, and continuous improvement of training are discussed. (LRW)

  15. "Not Censorship but Selection": Censorship and/as Prizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This essay calls for a fresh critical approach to the topic of censorship, suggesting that anticensorship efforts, while important and necessary, function much like literary prizing. The analysis draws especially on James English's recent study "The Economy of Prestige." There are two central arguments: first, that the librarian ethic of…

  16. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Robyn Ready

    2011-12-31

    The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program conducted education and outreach activities and used the competition's technical goals and vehicle demonstrations as a means of attracting students and the public to learn more about advanced vehicle technologies, energy efficiency, climate change, alternative fuels, and the science and math behind efficient vehicle development. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program comprised three integrated components that were designed to educate the general public and create a multi-tiered initiative to engage students and showcase the 21st century skills students will need to compete in our global economy: teamwork, creativity, strong literacy, math and science skills, and innovative thinking. The elements included an Online Experience, a National Student Contest, and in person education events and activites. The project leveraged online connections, strategic partnerships, in-classroom, and beyond-the-classroom initiatives, as well as mainstream media. This education program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) also funded the specification of vehicle telemetry and the full development and operation of an interactive online experience that allowed internet users to follow the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE vehicles as they performed in real-time during the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE competition events.

  17. German History. A Pupils' Competition for the Federal President's Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Borries, Bodo

    The Pupils' Competition for the Federal President's German History Prize is one of the many youth competitions held every year in West Germany and sponsored by government offices, industries, common interest groups, and foundations. In this competition, which draws over 1,000 entries from all age groups, participants are expected to make an…

  18. John Hardy is the UK's first Breakthrough Prize laureate.

    PubMed

    Martin, Seamus J

    2015-12-01

    John Hardy, Professor of Neuroscience at University College London and Editorial Board member of The FEBS Journal, has been awarded The Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences in recognition of his work identifying mutations that cause amyloid build-up in the brain--research that has transformed the study of Alzheimer's disease and other major neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26573785

  19. Coretta Scott King Award Winner Javaka Steptoe Stands Tall "In Daddy's Arms."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Jackie; Hendershot, Judy

    1999-01-01

    Offers an interview with artist and author Javaka Steptoe, winner of the Coretta Scott King award for his book "In Daddy's Arms I Am Tall: African Americans Celebrating Fathers." Discusses his background in the arts, the variety of media he uses, how he begins thinking about his illustrations, his work with children's art, and aspects of his work.…

  20. The Great Unknown: Daniel Handler Interviews National Book Award-Winner Judy Blundell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with National Book Award-winner Judy Blundell. For nearly 20 years, Blundell has toiled in anonymity, turning out more than 100 mysteries, romances, and media tie-ins under various pen names, such as Jude Watson. But in mid-November, the writer-for-hire was suddenly shoved into the spotlight. That's when "What I…

  1. Excellence in Workplace Literacy, Large Business Winner, 2001: The North West Company. Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Alison

    The North West Company (NWC), which is the leading retailer of food and everyday products and services to remote communities across northern Canada and Alaska, was the large business winner of the Excellence in Workplace Literacy award in 2001. NWC's workplace literacy program was selected for an award because of the improvements it brought, not…

  2. 40 CFR 105.13 - How are the award winners selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How are the award winners selected? 105.13 Section 105.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.13 How are the award...

  3. A Conversation with Sharon Draper, Winner of the 1998 Coretta Scott King Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershot, Judy; Peck, Jackie

    1999-01-01

    Offers an interview with teacher and author Sharon Draper (winner of the 1998 Coretta Scott King Award), describing her life as a high school educator and as an author of novels, chapter books, and poetry for a wide range of readers. (SR)

  4. These regional hospitals use reports to broaden awareness. Both winners benefit from highly creative designs.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Judith D

    2002-01-01

    Nebraska Health System, Omaha, Neb., takes top billing here, with an annual report that builds on the success of an extensive advertising campaign. Second place winner is Grinnell Regional Medical Center, Grinnell, Iowa, using a "blueprint" theme to commemorate the completion of new construction. PMID:12467173

  5. National Academic Award Winners over Time: Their Family Situation, Education and Interpersonal Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekowski, Andrzej; Siekanska, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study focusing on the family situation, education and interpersonal relations of adults (26-35 years old) who in their adolescence (16-19 years old) displayed exceptional giftedness. One group of those surveyed were national academic award winners (90). The control group consisted of 90 people of no…

  6. 40 CFR 105.13 - How are the award winners selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are the award winners selected? 105.13 Section 105.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.13 How are the award...

  7. 40 CFR 105.13 - How are the award winners selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are the award winners selected? 105.13 Section 105.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.13 How are the award...

  8. 40 CFR 105.13 - How are the award winners selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true How are the award winners selected? 105.13 Section 105.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.13 How are the award...

  9. The Greatest Story Never Told: An Interview with National Book Award Winner Phillip Hoose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Phillip Hoose, National Book Award winner for young people's literature for his book "Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice," a true story of a teen who refused to surrender her seat to a white passenger on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama. Hoose is no stranger to the world of literary honors. His…

  10. 40 CFR 105.13 - How are the award winners selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are the award winners selected? 105.13 Section 105.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.13 How are the award...

  11. Thirty Years After: The Lives of Former Winners of Mathematical Olympiads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    This follow-up study surveyed earlier winners of the St. Petersburg (Russia) mathematical Olympiad in 1991 (n=58) and 2001 (n=30). Findings are detailed concerning respondents' academic degrees, employment, publications, schools attended, and perceived quality of mathematical education. Respondents' views about education were conservative and…

  12. ACCE/ACS National Educator and Leader of the Year Winners: AEC Congratulates These Outstanding Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Educational Computing, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ACCE/ACS National Educator and Leader of the Year winners. Anne Mirtschin is the recipient of the ACCE/ACS 2012 Educator of the Year Award. Mirtschin is an innovative teacher at Hawkesdale P-12 College a small rural school that is isolated culturally and geographically. She uses online tools and technology to create…

  13. Selecting Quality Literature for Your Child: Lessons from the Caldecott Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Lois W.

    The Caldecott Awards are presented annually for the most distinguished American picture book(s) published for children. Invariably these books are well written and illustrated and frequently touch an inner core. Here are some of the messages the Caldecott winners can pass along: a book should be a pleasure to hear; a book should help a child…

  14. Nonplanar positron-acoustic Gardner solitary waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, M. J. Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-02-15

    Nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) positron-acoustic (PA) Gardner solitary waves (SWs) in an unmagnetized plasma system consisting of immobile positive ions, mobile cold positrons, and superthermal (kappa distributed) hot positrons and electrons are investigated. The modified Gardner equation is derived by using the reductive perturbation technique. The effects of cylindrical and spherical geometries, superthermal parameter of hot positrons and electrons, relative temperature ratios, and relative number density ratios on the PA Gardner SWs are studied by using the numerical simulations. The implications of our results in various space and laboratory plasma environments are briefly discussed.

  15. Muller's Nobel Prize Lecture: when ideology prevailed over science.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2012-03-01

    This paper extends and confirms the report of Calabrese (Calabrese, E. J. (2011b). Muller's Nobel Lecture on dose-response for ionizing radiation: Ideology or science? Arch. Toxicol. 85, 1495-1498) that Hermann J. Muller knowingly made deceptive comments in his 1946 Nobel Prize Lecture (Muller, H. J. (1946). Nobel Prize Lecture. Stockholm, Sweden. Available at http://www.nobelprize.org/. Accessed December 12) concerning the dose-response. Supporting a linearity perspective, Muller stated there is "no escape from the conclusion that there is no threshold" while knowing the results of a recent study by Ernst Caspari and Curt Stern contradicted these comments. Recently uncovered private correspondence between Muller and Stern reveals Muller's scientific assessment of the Caspari and Stern manuscript in a letter from Muller to Stern 5 weeks (14 January 1947) after his Nobel Prize Lecture of 12 December 1946. Muller indicated that the manuscript was of acceptable scientific quality; he indicated the manuscript should be published, but the findings needed replication because it significantly challenged the linearity hypothesis. These findings complement the previous letter (12 November 1946 letter from Muller to Stern), which revealed that Muller received the Caspari and Stern manuscript, recognized it as significant, and recommended its replication 5 weeks before his Nobel Prize Lecture. Muller therefore supported this position immediately before and after his Nobel Prize Lecture. Muller's opinions on the Caspari and Stern manuscript therefore had not changed during the time leading up to his Lecture, supporting the premise that his Lecture comments were deceptive. These findings are of historical and practical significance because Muller's comments were a notable contributory factor, changing how risks would be assessed for carcinogens (i.e., changing from a threshold to a linear model) throughout the 20th century to the present. PMID:22166484

  16. [Advances in the investigation of structure and function of G protein-coupled receptors (by awarding the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2012 to Robert Lefkowitz and Bryan Kobilka)].

    PubMed

    Shpakov, A O

    2013-01-01

    The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2012 was awarded to Robert Lefkowitz and Bryan Kobilka "for studies in G-protein-coupled receptors" (GPCR). In this review the most important discoveries of these Nobel Prize winners dealing with investigation of the structure and functions of GPCR were discussed and analyzed. In the 1980s, they were the first in the world to clone GPCR--the 32-adrenergic receptor. After 20 years, the team led by B. Kobilka for the first time prepared this receptor in the crystalline form and established its three-dimensional structure. In these studies, unique approaches for purification and crystallization of other receptors were developed. In 1980s, R. Lefkowitz and his colleagues discovered beta-arrestins that regulate signal transduction occurring via GPCR. Later they revealed that beta-arrestins were the most important members of signal transduction and were responsible for the signal transduction from the hormone-activated receptor to intracellular signaling cascades independently of heterotrimeric G-proteins. These and other outstanding discoveries of R. Lefkowitz and B. Kobilka have become the basis for the novel area of molecular biology and pharmacology--the molecular endocrinology of GPCR. PMID:25434187

  17. Hormonal, Physiological, and Physical Performance During Simulated Kickboxing Combat: Differences Between Winners and Losers.

    PubMed

    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Davis, Philip; Houcine, Nizar; Marzouki, Hamza; Zaouali, Monia; Franchini, Emerson; Gmada, Nabil; Bouhlel, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the hormonal, physiological, and physical responses of simulated kickboxing competition and evaluate if there was a difference between winners and losers. Twenty athletes of regional and national level participated in the study (mean ± SD age 21.3 ± 2.7 y, height 170.0 ± 5.0 cm). Hormone (cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone), blood lactate [La], and glucose concentrations, as well as upper-body Wingate test and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performances, were measured before and after combats. Heart rate (HR) was measured throughout rounds 1, 2, and 3 and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was taken after each round. All combats were recorded and analyzed to determine the length of different activity phases (high-intensity, low-intensity, and referee pause) and the frequency of techniques. Hormones, glucose, [La], HR, and RPE increased (all P < .001) precombat to postcombat, while a decrease was observed for CMJ, Wingate test performance, body mass (all P < .001), and time of high-intensity activities (P = .005). There was no difference between winners and losers for hormonal, physiological, and physical variables (P > .05). However, winners executed more jab cross, total punches, roundhouse kicks, total kicks, and total attacking techniques (all P < .042) than losers. Kickboxing is an intermittent physically demanding sport that induces changes in the stress-related hormones soliciting the anaerobic lactic system. Training should be oriented to enhance kickboxers' anaerobic lactic fitness and their ability to strike at a sufficient rate. Further investigation is needed to identify possible differences in tactical and mental abilities that offer some insight into what makes winners winners. PMID:26357014

  18. Testosterone across successive competitions: evidence for a 'winner effect' in humans?

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Watson, Neil V

    2014-09-01

    In many species testosterone fluctuates in concert with outcome-dependent changes in social status, such that winning a competition leads to an increase in circulating testosterone (i.e., competition effect). Although this phenomenon has been well studied in humans, the cumulative endocrine impact of multiple successive competitions is poorly understood. Moreover, although changes in testosterone after a competition seem to predict immediate aggressive behavior, competitive motivation, risk-taking, and affiliation, whether this endocrine response also has long-term behavioral effects, as suggested by studies in non-human animals, has not been examined. In this study, salivary testosterone was collected from pairs of male participants engaging, on two consecutive days, in head-to-head competitions on a previously validated laboratory task. We found that testosterone reactivity on the first day, which was congruent with the competition effect (i.e., net testosterone increase in randomly assigned winners), predicted the task performance on the second day. Further, when looking at testosterone reactivity on the second day, those individuals that lost both competitions experienced the steepest decline in testosterone compared to those individuals who lost on the second day but won on the first day. Testosterone fluctuations on the second day were also analyzed considering the type of status hierarchy (stable vs. unstable) that emerged as a result of the combined outcomes of the two competitions. In accordance with the challenge hypothesis, men in unstable hierarchies (first day winners/second day losers and first day losers/second day winners) experienced an increase in testosterone compared to men in the stable hierarchies (double winners and double losers). Results are discussed within a comparative perspective, drawing parallels with the winner effect and the challenge hypothesis observed in non-human animals. PMID:25001950

  19. Role of cAMP signalling in winner and loser effects in crayfish agonistic encounters.

    PubMed

    Momohara, Yuto; Minami, Hiroki; Kanai, Akihiro; Nagayama, Toshiki

    2016-07-01

    For territorial animals, establishment of status-dependent dominance order is essential to maintain social stability. In agonistic encounters of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, a difference of body length of 3-7% is enough for larger animals to become dominant. Despite a physical disadvantage, small winners of the first pairings were more likely to win subsequent conflicts with larger inexperienced animals. In contrast, the losers of the first pairings rarely won subsequent conflicts with smaller naive animals. Such experiences of previous winning or losing affected agonistic outcomes for a long period. The winner effects lasted more than 2 weeks and the loser effect lasted about 10 days. Injection of 5HT1 receptor antagonist into the dominant animals 15-30 min after establishment of dominance order blocked the formation of the winner effects. In contrast, injection of adrenergic-like octopamine receptor antagonist into subordinate animals blocked the formation of the loser. 5HT1 receptors are negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase and adrenergic-like octopamine receptors are positively coupled. Consistent with this, dominant animals failed to show the winner effect when injected with pCPT-cAMP, a cAMP analogue, and subordinate animals failed to show a loser effect when injected with adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ 22536. These results suggest that an increase and decrease of cAMP concentration is essential in mediating loser and winner effects, respectively. Furthermore, formation of the loser effect was blocked by injection of protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89, suggesting long-term memory of the loser effect is dependent on the cAMP-PKA signalling pathway. PMID:27086724

  20. Positron annihilation in the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guessoum, Nidhal; Ramaty, Reuven; Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Positronium formation and annihilation are studied in a model for the interstellar medium consisting of cold cloud cores, warm partially ionized cloud envelopes, and hot intercloud gas. The gamma-ray spectra resulting from positron annihilation in these components of the interstellar medium are calculated. The spectra from the individual components are then combined, using two limiting assumptions for the propagation of the positrons, namely, that the positrons propagate freely throughout the interstellar medium, and that the positrons are excluded from the cold cloud cores. In the first case, the bulk of the positrons annihilate in the cloud cores and the annihilation line exhibits broad wings resulting from the annihilation of positronium formed by charge exchange in flight. In the second case, the positrons annihilate mainly in the warm envelopes, and the line wings are suppressed.

  1. Development of a transmission positron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuya, M.; Jinno, S.; Ootsuka, T.; Inoue, M.; Kurihara, T.; Doyama, M.; Inoue, M.; Fujinami, M.

    2011-07-01

    A practical transmission positron microscope (TPM) JEM-1011B has been developed to survey differences in the interaction of positron and electron beams with materials, and is installed in the Slow Positron Facility of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The TPM can share positron and electron beams, and can also be used as a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Positron transmission images up to magnification 10,000× (resolution: 50 nm) and positron diffraction patterns up to 044 family were successfully obtained by the TPM comparing them with those of electrons. The differences in material transmittances for both beams have been measured, and can be explained by the calculated results of the Monte Carlo simulation code PENELOPE-2008.

  2. Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Alex; Koymen, A. R.; Mehl, David; Jensen, K. O.; Lei, Chun; Lee, K. H.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, Weiss et al. have demonstrated that it is possible to excite Auger transitions by annihilating core electrons using a low energy (less than 30eV) beam of positrons. This mechanism makes possible a new electron spectroscopy, Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES). The probability of exciting an Auger transition is proportional to the overlap of the positron wavefunction with atomic core levels. Since the Auger electron energy provides a signature of the atomic species making the transition, PAES makes it possible to determine the overlap of the positron wavefunction with a particular element. PAES may therefore provide a means of detecting positron-atom complexes. Measurements of PAES intensities from clean and adsorbate covered Cu surfaces are presented which indicate that approx. 5 percent of positrons injected into CU at 25eV produce core annihilations that result in Auger transitions.

  3. Lord Rutherford of Nelson, his 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and why he didn't get a second prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarlskog, Cecilia

    2008-11-01

    'I have dealt with many different transformations with various periods of time, but the quickest that I have met was my own transformation in one moment from a physicist to a chemist.' Ernest Rutherford (Nobel Banquet, 1908) This article is about how Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) got the 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and why he did not get a second Prize for his subsequent outstanding discoveries in physics, specially the discovery of the atomic nucleus and the proton. Who were those who nominated him and who did he nominate for the Nobel Prizes? In order to put the Prize issue into its proper context, I will briefly describe Rutherford's whereabouts. Rutherford, an exceptionally gifted scientist who revolutionized chemistry and physics, was moulded in the finest classical tradition. What were his opinions on some scientific issues such as Einstein's photon, uncertainty relations and the future prospects for atomic energy? What would he have said about the 'Theory of Everything'? Extended version of an invited talk presented at the conference 'Neutrino 2008', Christchurch, NZ, 25-31 May 2008

  4. De-identification Methods for Open Health Data: The Case of the Heritage Health Prize Claims Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Luk; Koru, Gunes; Eze, Benjamin; Gaudette, Lisa; Neri, Emilio; Rose, Sean; Howard, Jeremy; Gluck, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Background There are many benefits to open datasets. However, privacy concerns have hampered the widespread creation of open health data. There is a dearth of documented methods and case studies for the creation of public-use health data. We describe a new methodology for creating a longitudinal public health dataset in the context of the Heritage Health Prize (HHP). The HHP is a global data mining competition to predict, by using claims data, the number of days patients will be hospitalized in a subsequent year. The winner will be the team or individual with the most accurate model past a threshold accuracy, and will receive a US $3 million cash prize. HHP began on April 4, 2011, and ends on April 3, 2013. Objective To de-identify the claims data used in the HHP competition and ensure that it meets the requirements in the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule. Methods We defined a threshold risk consistent with the HIPAA Privacy Rule Safe Harbor standard for disclosing the competition dataset. Three plausible re-identification attacks that can be executed on these data were identified. For each attack the re-identification probability was evaluated. If it was deemed too high then a new de-identification algorithm was applied to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. We performed an actual evaluation of re-identification risk using simulated attacks and matching experiments to confirm the results of the de-identification and to test sensitivity to assumptions. The main metric used to evaluate re-identification risk was the probability that a record in the HHP data can be re-identified given an attempted attack. Results An evaluation of the de-identified dataset estimated that the probability of re-identifying an individual was .0084, below the .05 probability threshold specified for the competition. The risk was robust to violations of our initial assumptions. Conclusions It was possible to ensure that the probability of re

  5. KEK-IMSS Slow Positron Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, T.; Wada, K.; Yagishita, A.; Kosuge, T.; Saito, Y.; Kurihara, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Shirakawa, A.; Sanami, T.; Ikeda, M.; Ohsawa, S.; Kakihara, K.; Shidara, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Slow Positron Facility at the Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS) of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is a user dedicated facility with an energy tunable (0.1 - 35 keV) slow positron beam produced by a dedicated 55MeV linac. The present beam line branches have been used for the positronium time-of-flight (Ps-TOF) measurements, the transmission positron microscope (TPM) and the photo-detachment of Ps negative ions (Ps-). During the year 2010, a reflection high-energy positron diffraction (RHEPD) measurement station is going to be installed. The slow positron generator (converter/ moderator) system will be modified to get a higher slow positron intensity, and a new user-friendly beam line power-supply control and vacuum monitoring system is being developed. Another plan for this year is the transfer of a 22Na-based slow positron beam from RIKEN. This machine will be used for the continuous slow positron beam applications and for the orientation training of those who are interested in beginning researches with a slow positron beam.

  6. Applications and advances of positron beam spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R., LLNL

    1998-03-18

    Over 50 scientists from DOE-DP, DOE-ER, the national laboratories, academia and industry attended a workshop held on November 5-7, 1997 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Workshop participants were charged to address two questions: Is there a need for a national center for materials analysis using positron techniques and can the capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory serve this need. To demonstrate the need for a national center, the workshop participants discussed the technical advantages enabled by high positron currents and advanced measurement techniques, the role that these techniques would play in materials analysis and the demand for the data. Livermore now leads the world in materials analysis capabilities by positrons due to developments in response to demands of stockpile stewardship. The Livermore facilities now include the world`s highest current beam of keV positrons, a scanning pulsed positron microprobe under development capable of three dimensional maps of defect size and concentration, an MeV positron beam for defect analysis of large samples, and electron momentum spectroscopy by positrons. It was concluded that the positron microprobe under development at LLNL and other new instruments that would be relocated at LLNL at the high current keV source are an exciting step forward in providing results for the positron technique. These new data will impact a wide variety of applications.

  7. Positron emission tomography and autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Mazziotta, J.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    This a text on cerebral and myocardial imaging using positron emission tomography and autoradiography. Authorities in nuclear medicine and biophysics define the central principles of these complex and rapidly evolving imagine technologies-their theoretical foundations, the nature of the biochemical events being measured, the basis for constructing tracer kinetic models, the criteria governing radiopharmaceutical design, and the rationale for PET in the clinical setting. After reviewing the characteristics of cerebral and myocardial hemodynamics, transport, and metabolism, the contributors detail the theory of PET and autoradiography, the instrumentation required, and the procedures involved.

  8. Positron scattering and annihilation in hydrogenlike ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. G.; Gribakin, G. F.

    2013-09-01

    Diagrammatic many-body theory is used to calculate the scattering phase shifts, normalized annihilation rates Zeff, and annihilation γ spectra for positron collisions with the hydrogenlike ions He+, Li2+, B4+, and F8+. Short-range electron-positron correlations and longer-range positron-ion correlations are accounted for by evaluating nonlocal corrections to the annihilation vertex and the exact positron self-energy. The numerical calculation of the many-body theory diagrams is performed using B-spline basis sets. To elucidate the role of the positron-ion repulsion, the annihilation rate is also estimated analytically in the Coulomb-Born approximation. It is found that the energy dependence and magnitude of Zeff are governed by the Gamow factor that characterizes the suppression of the positron wave function near the ion. For all of the H-like ions, the correlation enhancement of the annihilation rate is found to be predominantly due to corrections to the annihilation vertex, while the corrections to the positron wave function play only a minor role. Results of the calculations for s-, p-, and d-wave incident positrons of energies up to the positronium-formation threshold are presented. Where comparison is possible, our values are in excellent agreement with the results obtained using other, e.g., variational, methods. The annihilation-vertex enhancement factors obtained in the present calculations are found to scale approximately as 1+(1.6+0.46ℓ)/Zi, where Zi is the net charge of the ion and ℓ is the positron orbital angular momentum. Our results for positron annihilation in H-like ions provide insights into the problem of positron annihilation with core electrons in atoms and condensed matter systems, which have similar binding energies.

  9. Low energy positron interactions with biological molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanniarachchi, Indika L.

    Calculations of the positron density distribution which can be used for positrons bound to midsize and larger molecules have been tested for smaller molecules and subsequently applied to investigate the most likely e +e-- annihilation sites for positrons interacting with biological molecules containing C, H, O, and N. In order to allow consideration of positrons bound to extended molecules with regions of different character and no particular symmetry, atom-centered positron basis sets of Gaussian-type functions were developed for positrons bound to molecules containing O, N, C, H, Li, Na, and Be. Testing shows that there is no need to scale the positron basis functions to take into account different effective charges on the atoms in different molecules. Even at the HF level of theory the calculated positron and the contact density of e+LiH system is in qualitative agreement with the most accurate calculation was done in ECG method. Also it has been found that for larger biological molecules such as derivation of formaldehyde can leave out positron basis sets centered on H atoms and still get qualitatively acceptable contact density distribution. According to our results, the electronic and positronic wavefunctions have the most overlap in the regions of most negative electrostatic potential in the parent molecule, and we can expect that a positron bound to the molecule will be more likely to annihilate with one of the electrons in these regions. Also we find that the highest energy occupied electronic orbital often does not make the largest contribution to e+e -- annihilation, and that the energy liberated by subsequent electronic relaxation is sufficient to break the backbone in several places in di-peptides and other organic molecules.

  10. What’s Behind a Name: The Kaufman Prize of the Canadian Geriatrics Society

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, David B.

    2011-01-01

    The Kaufman Prize has been given by the Canadian Geriatrics Society for nearly 30 years, but few Society members are aware of who Kaufman was or why the Prize was named after him. They are equally unclear about the objectives established for the Prize and how successful it has been in achieving them. This paper reviews the history of the Kaufman Prize and the eponymous A.R. Kaufman. The original objectives of the award were to encourage clinical research in geriatric medicine and to foster research interest in medical residents. Over the years the Prize has allowed the Society to both recognize and encourage excellence in age-related research among trainees. With the renaming of the Prize, now would be an opportune time for the Society to review both its objectives and its format. PMID:23251314

  11. Nondestructive examination using neutron activated positron annihilation

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.; Denison, Arthur B.

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for performing nondestructive examination of a metal specimen using neutron activated positron annihilation wherein the positron emitter source is formed within the metal specimen. The method permits in situ nondestructive examination and has the advantage of being capable of performing bulk analysis to determine embrittlement, fatigue and dislocation within a metal specimen.

  12. Ionisation of atomic hydrogen by positron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spicher, Gottfried; Olsson, Bjorn; Raith, Wilhelm; Sinapius, Guenther; Sperber, Wolfgang

    1990-01-01

    With the crossed beam apparatus the relative impact-ionization cross section of atomic hydrogen by positron impact was measured. A layout of the scattering region is given. The first measurements on the ionization of atomic hydrogen by positron impact are also given.

  13. Positron collisions with alkali-metal atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gien, T. T.

    1990-01-01

    The total cross sections for positron and electron collisions with potassium, sodium, lithium and rubidium are calculated, employing the modified Glauber approximation. The Modified Glauber cross sections for positron collision with potassium and sodium at low intermediate energies are found to agree reasonably well with existing experimental data.

  14. Gas Permeations Studied by Positron Annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jen-Pwu; Cao, Huimin; Jean, X.; Yang, Y. C.

    1997-03-01

    The hole volumes and fractions of PC and PET polymers are measured by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Direct correlations between the measured hole properties and gas permeabilities are observed. Applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy to study gas transport and separation of polymeric materials will be discussed.

  15. Positron Emission Mammotomography with Dual Planar Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Smith; Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski

    2003-06-29

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) is usually performed with two stationary planar detectors above and below a compressed breast. There is image blurring normal to the detectors due to the limited angular range of the lines of response. Positron emission mammotomography (PEM-T) with dual planar detectors rotating about the breast can obtain complete angular sampling and has the potential to improve activity estimation.

  16. On the method of positron lifetime measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiyama, F.; Shizuma, K.; Nasai, H.; Nishi, M.

    1983-01-01

    A fast-slow coincidence system was constructed for the measurement of positron lifetimes in material. The time resolution of this system was 270 ps for the (60)Co gamma rays. Positron lifetime spectra for 14 kinds of alkali halides were measured with this system. Two lifetime components and their intensities were derived from analyses of the lifetime spectra.

  17. Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 7 NIST Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials (PC database for purchase)   The EPSTAR database provides rapid calculations of stopping powers (collisional, radiative, and total), CSDA ranges, radiation yields and density effect corrections for incident electrons or positrons with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 10 GeV, and for any chemically defined target material.

  18. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A...

  2. Transient ions in electron and positron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'A Sanchez, Sergio; de Oliveira, Eliane M.; dos Santos, Josué S.; da Costa, Romarly F.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.; Lima, Marco A. P.; Varella, Márcio T. do N.

    2009-11-01

    We report on recent advances in studies of transient ions formed in electron and positron scattering by molecules. We briefly discuss elastic electron collisions against pyrrole and glycine, as well as electron affinities of glycine-water clusters. Positron scattering and annihilation on small molecules is also discussed.

  3. Applications of slow positrons to cancer research: Search for selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Y. C.; Li, Ying; Liu, Gaung; Chen, Hongmin; Zhang, Junjie; Gadzia, Joseph E.

    2006-02-01

    Slow positrons and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been applied to medical research in searching for positron annihilation selectivity to cancer cells. We report the results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening energy spectroscopies in human skin samples with and without cancer as a function of positron incident energy (up to 8 μm depth) and found that the positronium annihilates at a significantly lower rate and forms at a lower probability in the samples having either basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than in the normal skin. The significant selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer may open a new research area of developing positron annihilation spectroscopy as a novel medical tool to detect cancer formation externally and non-invasively at the early stages.

  4. Gaseous Positronics - Positron interactions with atoms and molecules and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, Stephen

    2011-05-01

    The advent of new technologies for accumulating, trapping and cooling positrons has led to a range of new experimental measurements of low energy positron interactions, and also prompted new, state-of-the-art theoretical advances in describing such interactions. This talk will present some of the recent experimental highlights of our program including the observation of threshold Wigner cusps, a search for quasi-bound positronic complexes or ``resonances,'' and measurements of positron interactions with biologically relevant molecules. The latter are an important precursor to the development of models of positron transport in soft matter and, ultimately, a positron dosimetry for techniques such as Positron Emission Tomography. Supported by the Australian Research Council's Centre of Excellence Program.

  5. Positron acoustic shock waves in four-component plasmas with nonthermal electrons and positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. M.; Mamun, A. A.; Alam, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Positron acoustic shock waves (PASWs) in an unmagnetized four-component plasma system consisting of a cold mobile viscous positron fluid, hot positrons and electrons following the nonthermal distributions of Cairns et al. [Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2709 (1995)], and immobile positive ions are studied both analytically and numerically. The well-known reductive perturbation method is used to derive the Burgers equation. The basic features of the PASWs are significantly modified by the effects of the kinematic viscosity, the nonthermal electrons and hot positrons, the ratio of the electron temperature to the hot positron temperature σ, and the ratio of the hot positron (electron) number density to the cold positron number density μ 1 ( μ 2). The importance of our results to various astrophysical and laboratory plasmas are concisely discussed.

  6. Positronic complexes with unnatural parity

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, M. W. J.; Mitroy, J.; Varga, K.

    2007-06-15

    The structure of the unnatural parity states of PsH, LiPs, NaPs, and KPs are investigated with the configuration interaction and stochastic variational methods. The binding energies (in hartree) are found to be 8.17x10{sup -4}, 4.42x10{sup -4}, 15.14x10{sup -4}, and 21.80x10{sup -4}, respectively. These states are constructed by first coupling the two electrons into a configuration which is predominantly {sup 3}P{sup e}, and then adding a p-wave positron. All the active particles are in states in which the relative angular momentum between any pair of particles is at least L=1. The LiPs state is Borromean since there are no three-body bound subsystems (of the correct symmetry) of the (Li{sup +}, e{sup -}, e{sup -}, e{sup +}) particles that make up the system. The dominant decay mode of these states will be radiative decay into a configuration that autoionizes or undergoes positron annihilation.

  7. Previous experience and contest outcome: winner effects persist in absence of evident loser effects in a parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Goubault, Marlène; Decuignière, Marie

    2012-09-01

    The experience of a previous conflict can affect animals' performance during a later contest: a victory usually increases and a defeat usually decreases the probability of winning a subsequent conflict. These winner and loser effects could result from a reassessment by contestants of their perceived fighting abilities. Game-theoretic models based on this assumption predict that a loser effect can exist alone or in the presence of a winner effect, but a winner effect cannot persist alone, at least when contestants are young and without experience of contest. Moreover, when both effects coexist, the loser effect is expected to be of a greater magnitude and last longer than the winner effect. To date, these predictions have been supported by empirical evidence. Here we show for the first time that a winner effect can exist in the absence of any evident loser effect in a parasitoid wasp, Eupelmus vuilleti, when fighting for hosts. This finding consequently raises questions about the possible mechanisms involved and challenges the main assumption of previous theoretical models. We suggest an alternative explanation for the evolution of only winner effects that is based on the modification of contestants' subjective value of the resource rather than on a reestimation of their fighting abilities. PMID:22854079

  8. Marcus wins nobel prize in chemistry for electron transfer theory

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the work of Rudolf Marcus of Caltech leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry [open quotes]for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems.[close quotes] Applications of Marcus' theory include such diverse phenomena as photosynthesis, electrically conducting polymers, chemiluminescence, and corrosion. Historical aspects of his career are given. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  9. In Brief: IPCC and Gore share Nobel Peace Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-10-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and former U.S. Vice President Al Gore, Jr. have been named as co-recipients of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize, the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced on 12 October. The Committee cited them "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change."

  10. Forecasting a winner for Malaysian Cup 2013 using soccer simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Muhammad Mat; Fauzee, Mohd Soffian Omar; Latif, Rozita Abdul

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates through soccer simulation the calculation of the probability for each team winning Malaysia Cup 2013. Our methodology used here is we predict the outcomes of individual matches and then we simulate the Malaysia Cup 2013 tournament 5000 times. As match outcomes are always a matter of uncertainty, statistical model, in particular a double Poisson model is used to predict the number of goals scored and conceded for each team. Maximum likelihood estimation is use to measure the attacking strength and defensive weakness for each team. Based on our simulation result, LionXII has a higher probability in becoming the winner, followed by Selangor, ATM, JDT and Kelantan. Meanwhile, T-Team, Negeri Sembilan and Felda United have lower probabilities to win Malaysia Cup 2013. In summary, we find that the probability for each team becominga winner is small, indicating that the level of competitive balance in Malaysia Cup 2013 is quite high.

  11. The value of victory: social origins of the winner's curse in common value auctions

    PubMed Central

    van den Bos, Wouter; Li, Jian; Lau, Tatiana; Maskin, Eric; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Montague, P. Read; McClure, Samuel M.

    2009-01-01

    Auctions, normally considered as devices facilitating trade, also provide a way to probe mechanisms governing one's valuation of some good or action. One of the most intriguing phenomena in auction behavior is the winner's curse — the strong tendency of participants to bid more than rational agent theory prescribes, often at a significant loss. The prevailing explanation suggests that humans have limited cognitive abilities that make estimating the correct bid difficult, if not impossible. Using a series of auction structures, we found that bidding approaches rational agent predictions when participants compete against a computer. However, the winner's curse appears when participants compete against other humans, even when cognitive demands for the correct bidding strategy are removed. These results suggest the humans assign significant future value to victories over human but not over computer opponents even though such victories may incur immediate losses, and that this valuation anomaly is the origin of apparently irrational behavior. PMID:20305741

  12. Winners and losers: analysing post-disaster spatial economic demand shift.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yu; Nilawar, Uttara

    2013-10-01

    Disasters produce winners and losers. This paper evaluates such winners and losers in a spatial context. The hypothesis is that, because of severe damage to the core disaster area and the constraints associated with the cost of transportation, economic demand would shift to the immediate edge of the disaster zone where either minor or no damage is observed. Empirical analysis of growth patterns in counties/parishes in the states of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi in the United States after Hurricane Katrina (August 2005) verified the spatial demand shift hypothesis. The study found that the post-Katrina core disaster area became a 'doughnut hole' of low income and employment growth, surrounded by a ring of high growth counties/parishes on the edge of the hole. The short-run adjustment in growth rates may have altered permanently the spatial distribution of employment and income both at the core and in the areas at the edge. PMID:24007522

  13. Biased Random-Key Genetic Algorithms for the Winner Determination Problem in Combinatorial Auctions.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Carlos Eduardo; Toso, Rodrigo Franco; Resende, Mauricio G C; Miyazawa, Flávio Keidi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of picking a subset of bids in a general combinatorial auction so as to maximize the overall profit using the first-price model. This winner determination problem assumes that a single bidding round is held to determine both the winners and prices to be paid. We introduce six variants of biased random-key genetic algorithms for this problem. Three of them use a novel initialization technique that makes use of solutions of intermediate linear programming relaxations of an exact mixed integer linear programming model as initial chromosomes of the population. An experimental evaluation compares the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms with the standard mixed linear integer programming formulation, a specialized exact algorithm, and the best-performing heuristics proposed for this problem. The proposed algorithms are competitive and offer strong results, mainly for large-scale auctions. PMID:25299242

  14. "Highly qualified loser"? Harvey Cushing and the Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Schlich, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Neurosurgery, in particular surgery of the brain, was recognized as one of the most spectacular transgressions of the traditional limits of surgical work. With their audacious, technically demanding, laboratory-based, and highly promising new interventions, prominent neurosurgeons were primary candidates for the Nobel Prize. Accordingly, neurosurgical pioneers such as Victor Horsley and, in particular, Harvey Cushing continued to be nominated for the prize. However, only António Egas Moniz was eventually awarded the prestigious award in 1949 for the introduction of frontal lobotomy, an intervention that would no longer be prize-worthy from today's perspective. Horsley and Cushing, who were arguably the most important proponents of early neurosurgery, remained "highly qualified losers," as such cases have been called. This paper examines the nominations, reviews, and discussions kept in the Nobel Archives to understand the reasons for this remarkable choice. At a more general level, the authors use the example of neurosurgery to explore the mechanisms of scientific recognition and what could be called the enacting of excellence in science and medicine. PMID:25554824

  15. Kevin E. Trenberth Receives 2013 Climate Communication Prize: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    I am delighted to be recognized with this prize. I want to first thank AGU and the prize committee and, especially, Nature's Own for establishing this prize in a field that has become contentious and highly political. It did not used to be this way. Following the media frenzy with the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, there was hope at the 2009 Conference of Parties meeting in Copenhagen that an international framework agreement on climate change might be achieved. It was not to be. Planned actions to address issues of climate change were undermined by huge funding of misinformation by vested interests. It was not helped by so-called "climategate" in which many emails illegally hacked from a computer server at the University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom were released, cherry picked, distorted, and misused by climate change deniers. Minor errors in the IPCC report were blown out of all proportion and ineffectively addressed. I was caught up in all this, and one of my many emails went viral: the "travesty" quote in which I bemoaned the inability to close the global energy balance associated with short-term climate variability but which was misinterpreted as saying there was no global warming. These examples highlight failures of communication.

  16. RCNi award winner among the trailblazing nurses named in the Queen's birthday honours.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Nurses were recognised in the birthday honours, with OBEs going to: » Pauline Watts, lead nurse, quality, mental health, learning disability and dementia at Public Health England, for services to nursing and health visiting » Gwen Moulster, co-chair of UK Nurse Consultants in Learning Disability Network and a winner of an RCNi learning disability award in May, for services to nursing and people with learning disabilities. PMID:27369704

  17. The Role of Awards Programs in Stimulating Energy Efficient Behavior: A Study of Award Winners

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Christa; Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2014-07-01

    The value of formal awards programs may be principally in gaining wider recognition for achievements in energy efficiency. But how do these programs contribute to the goal that is presumably behind this value, i.e., stimulating further energy efficient behavior, beyond publicizing the awards ceremonies and describing the projects via websites, posters, and the like? Interviews with 22 individuals and teams of award winners under the Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (DOE FEMP) yield insights on the roles that awards programs can play in stimulating energy efficient behavior, especially with regard to institutional dimensions of such behavior. Award winners identified institutional facilitators and barriers in their projects and programs as well as factors in their implementation processes, thus providing information that can guide other efforts. Although only one of the interviewees affirmed that winning an award was a motivating factor, awards do validate often-hard-won achievements through recognition and, in some cases, additional resources, thus stimulating both the winners themselves and those who see the achievements to further energy-saving activities. Finally, award winners’ responses demonstrated the importance of behavioral and institutional change in energy efficiency.

  18. Recognizing 21. century citizenship: 1997 federal energy and water management award winners

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Energy is a luxury that no one can afford to waste, and many Federal government agencies are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of using energy wisely. Thoughtful use of energy resources is important, not only to meet agency goals, but because energy efficiency helps improve air quality. Sound facility management offers huge savings that affect the agency`s bottom line, the environment, and workplace quality. Hard work, innovation, and vision are characteristic of those who pursue energy efficiency. That is why the Department of Energy, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is proud to salute the winners of the 1997 Federal Energy and Water Management Award. The 1997 winners represent the kind of 21st century thinking that will help achieve widespread Federal energy efficiency. In one year, the winners, through a combination of public and private partnerships, saved more than $100 million and 9.8 trillion Btu by actively identifying and implementing energy efficiency, water conservation, and renewable energy projects. The contributions of these individuals, small groups, and organizations are presented in this report.

  19. Imitating winner or sympathizing loser? Quadratic effects on cooperative behavior in prisoners' dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Cooperation is vital in human societies and therefore is widely investigated in the evolutionary game theory. Varieties of mechanisms have been proposed to overcome temptation and promote cooperation. Existing studies usually believe that agents are rational, but irrationalism such as emotions and feelings matters as well. Winner and loser are defined by their payoffs. In addition to admiring and imitating winners, the mechanism of sympathizing and imitating losers is introduced into the model as an alternative action rule, and each one plays the prisoners' dilemma game with eight neighbors under the influence of both irrationalism and rationalism. Rationalism refers to imitating winner to get highest payoff, and irrationalism means that people sympathize and adopt the actions of losers. As it is widely recognized that temptation reduces cooperation, this study focuses on the effect of sympathy on cooperation within a certain group or society. If it overcomes temptation that leads to defection, sympathy will be a powerful mechanism to promote cooperative behavior. Simulation results indicate that sympathy and temptation shares similar quadratic relationships with cooperation. Both sympathy and temptation undermine cooperation below their thresholds, and they both promote cooperation above their thresholds. Temptation not only reduces cooperation but also promote it as temptation goes beyond the threshold. Although sympathy is a good merit or human nature that is beneficial to society, a crisis or collapse of cooperation is inevitable when the sympathy propensity is relatively smaller. After cooperation reaches a minimal bottom, it then rises increasingly and dramatically, which brings a much brighter future of the society.

  20. 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    It is a great honor to receive the 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize, here at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. On behalf of everyone involved in this work, I would like to thank the IAEA, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, the IOP, and specifically Mitsuru Kikuchi, for their support of this important award. I would also like to acknowledge the many important contributions made by the other ten papers nominated for this prize. Our paper investigates the physics of the H-mode pedestal in tokamaks, specifically the development of a predictive understanding of the pedestal structure based on electromagnetic instabilities which constrain it, and the testing of the resulting theoretical model (EPED) against detailed observations on multiple devices. In addition to making pedestal predictions for existing devices, the paper also presents predictions for ITER, including methods for optimizing its pedestal height and fusion performance. What made this work possible, and indeed a pleasure to be involved with, was an extensive set of collaborations, including theory-experiment, multi-institutional, and international collaborations. Many of these collaborations have gone on for over a decade, and have been fostered in part by the ITPA Pedestal Group. The eight authors of this paper, from five institutions, all made important contributions. Rich Groebner, Tom Osborne and Tony Leonard carried out dedicated experiments and data analysis on the DIII-D tokamak, testing the EPED model over a very wide range of parameters. Jerry Hughes led dedicated experiments on Alcator C-Mod which tested the model at high magnetic field and pedestal pressure. Marc Beurskens carried out experiments and data analysis on the JET tokamak, testing the model at large scale. Xueqiao Xu conducted two-fluid studies of diamagnetic stabilization, which enabled a more accurate treatment of this important effect. Finally, Howard Wilson and I have been working together for many years to develop analytic formalism

  1. Positron deposition in plasmas by positronium beam ionization and transport of positrons in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1986-11-01

    In a recently proposed positron transport experiment, positrons would be deposited in a fusion plasma by forming a positronium (Ps) beam and passing it through the plasma. Positrons would be deposited as the beam is ionized by plasma ions and electrons. Radial transport of the positrons to the limiter could then be measured by detecting the gamma radiation produced by annihilation of positrons with electrons in the limiter. This would allow measurements of the transport of electron-mass particles and might shed some light on the mechanisms of electron transport in fusion plasmas. In this paper, the deposition and transport of positrons in a tokamak are simulated and the annihilation signal determined for several transport models. Calculations of the expected signals are necessary for the optimal design of a positron transport experiment. There are several mechanisms for the loss of positrons besides transport to the limiter. Annihilation with plasma electrons and reformation of positronium in positron-hydrogen collisions are two such processes. These processes can alter the signal and place restrictions ons on the plasma conditions in which positron transport experiments can be effectively performed.

  2. Positron emission tomography: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, A. K.; Kumar, Utham

    2006-01-01

    The rate of glucose utilization in tumor cells is significantly enhanced as compared to normal cells and this biochemical characteristic is utilized in PET imaging using FDG as a major workhorse. The PET systems as well as cyclotrons producing positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals have undergone continuous technological refinements. While PET (CT) systems enable fusion images as well as precise attenuation correction, the self-shielded cyclotrons developed provide dedicated systems for in-house production of a large number of PET radiopharmaceuticals. The application of PET images in oncology includes those of pulmonary, colorectal, breast, lymphoma, head & neck, bone, ovarian and GI cancers. The PET has been recognized as promising diagnostic tool to predict biological and physiological changes at the molecular level and hence offer a potential area for future applications including Stem Cell research. PMID:21206635

  3. Positron emission tomography wrist detector

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, David J.; O'Connor, Paul; Woody, Craig; Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang; Radeka, Veljko; Vaska, Paul; Pratte, Jean-Francois

    2006-08-15

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal representing a time-of-occurrence of an annihilation event, generating an address signal representing a channel detecting the annihilation event, and generating a channel signal including the time and address signals. The method also includes generating a composite signal including the channel signal and another similarly generated channel signal concerning another annihilation event. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information includes a time signal generator, address signal generator, channel signal generator, and composite signal generator. The time signal is asynchronous and the address signal is synchronous to a clock signal. A PET scanner includes a scintillation array, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoders include the time signal generator, address signal generator, channel signal generator, and composite signal generator.

  4. Scintillators for positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.

    1995-09-01

    Like most applications that utilize scintillators for gamma detection, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) desires materials with high light output, short decay time, and excellent stopping power that are also inexpensive, mechanically rugged, and chemically inert. Realizing that this ``ultimate`` scintillator may not exist, this paper evaluates the relative importance of these qualities and describes their impact on the imaging performance of PET. The most important PET scintillator quality is the ability to absorb 511 keV photons in a small volume, which affects the spatial resolution of the camera. The dominant factor is a short attenuation length ({le} 1.5 cm is required), although a high photoelectric fraction is also important (> 30% is desired). The next most important quality is a short decay time, which affects both the dead time and the coincidence timing resolution. Detection rates for single 511 keV photons can be extremely high, so decay times {le} 500 ns are essential to avoid dead time losses. In addition, positron annihilations are identified by time coincidence so {le}5 ns fwhm coincidence pair timing resolution is required to identify events with narrow coincidence windows, reducing contamination due to accidental coincidences. Current trends in PET cameras are toward septaless, ``fully-3D`` cameras, which have significantly higher count rates than conventional 2-D cameras and so place higher demands on scintillator decay time. Light output affects energy resolution, and thus the ability of the camera to identify and reject events where the initial 511 keV photon has undergone Compton scatter in the patient. The scatter to true event fraction is much higher in fully-3D cameras than in 2-D cameras, so future PET cameras would benefit from scintillators with a 511 keV energy resolution < 10--12% fwhm.

  5. Prototyping of the ILC Baseline Positron Target

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J; Brooksby, C; Piggott, T; Abbott, R; Javedani, J; Cook, E

    2012-02-29

    The ILC positron system uses novel helical undulators to create a powerful photon beam from the main electron beam. This beam is passed through a titanium target to convert it into electron-positron pairs. The target is constructed as a 1 m diameter wheel spinning at 2000 RPM to smear the 1 ms ILC pulse train over 10 cm. A pulsed flux concentrating magnet is used to increase the positron capture efficiency. It is cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures to maximize the flatness of the magnetic field over the 1 ms ILC pulse train. We report on prototyping effort on this system.

  6. Update on the Argonne positron accumulator ring

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.

    1993-07-01

    The injector for the Advanced Photon Source incorporates a 450-MeV positron accumulator ring (PAR) to decrease the filling time with the 2-Hz synchrotron. In addition to accumulating positrons from the linac, the PAR damps the beam and reduces the bunch length. The PAR lattice has been redesigned to use zero-gradient dipoles, while retaining essentially the same damping partition. Extensive simulations have been performed to set tolerances that will give high capture efficiency, in spite of the large momentum spread of the incoming positron beam.

  7. Slow-Positron Generator For Studying Polymer Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; St. Clair, Terry L.; Eftekhari, Abe

    1992-01-01

    Aspects of molecular structures probed by positron-annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Slow-positron-beam generator suitable for PAS measurements in thin polymer films. Includes Na22 source of positrons and two moderators made of well-annealed tungsten foil. With proper choice of voltage, positrons emitted by inward-facing surfaces of moderators made to stop in polymer films tested.

  8. The Buffer-Gas Positron Accumulator and Resonances in Positron-Molecule Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surko, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    This is a personal account of the development of our buffer-gas positron trap and the new generation of cold beams that these traps enabled. Dick Drachman provided much appreciated advice to us from the time we started the project. The physics underlying trap operation is related to resonances (or apparent resonances) in positron-molecule interactions. Amusingly, experiments enabled by the trap allowed us to understand these processes. The positron-resonance "box score" to date is one resounding "yes," namely vibrational Feshbach resonances in positron annihilation on hydrocarbons; a "probably" for positron-impact electronic excitation of CO and NZ;an d a "maybe" for vibrational excitation of selected molecules. Two of these processes enabled the efficient operation of the trap, and one almost killed it in infancy. We conclude with a brief overview of further applications of the trapping technology discussed here, such as "massive" positron storage and beams with meV energy resolution.

  9. Time-dependent behavior of positrons in noble gases

    SciTech Connect

    Wadehra, J.M. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Drallos, P.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Both equilibrium and nonequilibrium behaviors of positrons in several noble gases are reviewed. Our novel procedure for obtaining the time-dependent behavior of various swarm parameters -- such as the positron drift velocity, average positron energy, positron annihilation rate (or equivalently Z{sub eff}) etc. -- for positrons in pure ambient gases subjected to external electrostatic fields is described. Summaries of time-dependent as well as electric field-dependent results for positron swarms in various noble gases are presented. New time-dependent results for positron swarms in neon are also described in detail. 36 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. 77 FR 56697 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The English Prize: The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The English Prize: The Capture of... ``The English Prize: The Capture of the Westmorland, an Episode of the Grand Tour,'' imported...

  11. Collecting Poetry for the Academic Library: An Evaluation of Poetry Prizes as Selection Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golomb, Liorah

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the usefulness of poetry book prizes as a selection tool by evaluating their fairness, meaningfulness, and reliability as an indication of quality. The results of two surveys, one collecting data on poetry book prizes and the other asking librarians about their collecting practices, suggest that selecting on the basis of prizes…

  12. 45 CFR 73.735-505 - Acceptance of awards and prizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of awards and prizes. 73.735-505 Section 73.735-505 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Gifts, Entertainment, and Favors § 73.735-505 Acceptance of awards and prizes. (a) Employees may accept awards, including cash...

  13. 77 FR 58114 - SunShot Prize: Race to the Rooftop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... installation cost of rooftop solar energy systems. DATES: Registration opened on September 12, 2012, and will... about the SunShot Prize: Race to the Rooftop competition rules at eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/prize.html . Teams that wish to enter the competition can register at...

  14. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1956: Hinshelwood and Semenov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houten, Josh

    2002-04-01

    This is the fifth in a series of thirteen monthly essays reviewing the Nobel Prizes in chemical dynamics during the 20th century. Cyril Hinshelwood and Nikolay Semenov received the Nobel Prize in 1956 "for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions," in particular, chain reactions.

  15. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced Through the Nobel Prizes. 1967: Eigen, Norrish, and Porter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houten, Josh

    2002-05-01

    The third Nobel Prize for research in chemical dynamics awarded during the middle decades of the Twentieth Century is reviewed. Manfred Eigen, Ronald Norrish, and George Porter received the Nobel Prize in 1967 "for studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short impulses of energy," i.e., temperature jump, pressure jump, and flash photolysis.

  16. Vouchers Versus Prizes: Contingency Management Treatment of Substance Abusers in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Marx, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Tardif, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually use vouchers as reinforcers, but a new technique awards chances of winning prizes. This study compares these approaches. In community treatment centers, 142 cocaine- or heroin-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST with vouchers, or ST with prizes for 12 weeks.…

  17. The History of Molecular Structure Determination Viewed through the Nobel Prizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William P.; Palenik, Gus J.; Suh, Il-Hwan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of complex molecular structures. Emphasizes their individual significance through examination of the Nobel Prizes of the 20th century. Highlights prizes awarded to Conrad Rontgen, Francis H.C. Crick, James D. Watson, Maurice H.F. Wilkins, and others. (SOE)

  18. ["If Berger had survived the second world war - he certainly would have been a candidate for the Nobel Prize". Hans Berger and the legend of the Nobel Prize].

    PubMed

    Gerhard, U-J; Schönberg, A; Blanz, B

    2005-03-01

    The public opinion pays much attention to the Nobel Prize as an indicator for the scientific efficiency of a university or a country in connection with foundation of so-called elite universities. The former holder of the psychiatric chair in Jena and discoverer of the electroencephalogram Hans Berger (1873 - 1941) came into discussion as candidate for the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. The current medical-historical publications maintain the view that Berger should have received the Nobel Prize in 1936 as well as in 1949. This was prevented in 1936 by an enactment from Hitler, which forbid him to accept the prize, and later in 1949 by Berger's own death. According to documents of the Nobel archives these statements can be disproved. Berger was only nominated three times out of 65 nominations in 1940. Because of his death the other two recommendations in 1942 and 1947 were never evaluated. PMID:15747225

  19. IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, I. J. Douglas

    2014-03-01

    The Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society is pleased to announce that the 2013 IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine is awarded to Prof. Marco Durante, Director of the Biophysics Department at GSI Helmholtz Center (Darmstadt, Germany); Professor at the Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany) and Adjunct Professor at the Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. The prize was presented in the closing Session of the INPC 2013 conference by Mr. Thomas Servais, R&D Manager for Accelerator Development at the IBA group, who sponsor the IBA Europhysics Prize. The Prize Diploma was presented by Dr. I J Douglas MacGregor, Chair-elect of the EPS Nuclear Physics Division and Chair of the IBA Prize committee.

  20. Positron kinetics in an idealized PET environment

    PubMed Central

    Robson, R. E.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrović, Z. Lj.; White, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    The kinetic theory of non-relativistic positrons in an idealized positron emission tomography PET environment is developed by solving the Boltzmann equation, allowing for coherent and incoherent elastic, inelastic, ionizing and annihilating collisions through positronium formation. An analytic expression is obtained for the positronium formation rate, as a function of distance from a spherical source, in terms of the solutions of the general kinetic eigenvalue problem. Numerical estimates of the positron range - a fundamental limitation on the accuracy of PET, are given for positrons in a model of liquid water, a surrogate for human tissue. Comparisons are made with the ‘gas-phase’ assumption used in current models in which coherent scattering is suppressed. Our results show that this assumption leads to an error of the order of a factor of approximately 2, emphasizing the need to accurately account for the structure of the medium in PET simulations. PMID:26246002

  1. Addiction Studies with Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Joanna Fowler

    2008-10-13

    Brookhaven scientist Joanna Fowler describes Positron Emission Technology (PET) research at BNL which for the past 30 years has focused in the integration of basic research in radiotracer chemistry with the tools of neuroscience to develop new scientific

  2. Addiction Studies with Positron Emission Tomography

    ScienceCinema

    Joanna Fowler

    2010-01-08

    Brookhaven scientist Joanna Fowler describes Positron Emission Technology (PET) research at BNL which for the past 30 years has focused in the integration of basic research in radiotracer chemistry with the tools of neuroscience to develop new scientific

  3. Electron and positron induced processes. POSMOL 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Campeanu, Radu; Hoshino, Masamitsu; Ingólfsson, Oddur; Mason, Nigel; Nagashima, Yasuyuki; Tanuma, Hajime

    2014-09-01

    POSMOL 2013, the international meeting on electron and positron induced processes comprising the XVII International Workshop on Low-Energy Positron and Positronium Physics and the XVIII International Symposium on Electron-Molecule Collisions and Swarms, was held at Kanazawa Bunka Hall, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan, from 19-21 July 2013. The XVII Workshop encompassed all aspects of positron, positronium and antiproton interactions with electrons, atoms, molecules and solid surfaces, and topics related to these, whereas the XVIII Symposium encompassed all aspects of electron interactions with molecules in both gaseous and condensed phases. Particular topics include studies of electron interactions with biomolecules, electron induced surface chemistry and the study of plasma processes. Recent research on the study of electron swarms was also highlighted. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Electron and Positron Induced Processes", edited by Michael Brunger, Radu Campeanu, Masamitsu Hoshino, Oddur Ingólfsson, Paulo Limão-Vieira, Nigel Mason, Yasuyuki Nagashima and Hajime Tanuma.

  4. Positron kinetics in an idealized PET environment.

    PubMed

    Robson, R E; Brunger, M J; Buckman, S J; Garcia, G; Petrović, Z Lj; White, R D

    2015-01-01

    The kinetic theory of non-relativistic positrons in an idealized positron emission tomography PET environment is developed by solving the Boltzmann equation, allowing for coherent and incoherent elastic, inelastic, ionizing and annihilating collisions through positronium formation. An analytic expression is obtained for the positronium formation rate, as a function of distance from a spherical source, in terms of the solutions of the general kinetic eigenvalue problem. Numerical estimates of the positron range - a fundamental limitation on the accuracy of PET, are given for positrons in a model of liquid water, a surrogate for human tissue. Comparisons are made with the 'gas-phase' assumption used in current models in which coherent scattering is suppressed. Our results show that this assumption leads to an error of the order of a factor of approximately 2, emphasizing the need to accurately account for the structure of the medium in PET simulations. PMID:26246002

  5. Positron kinetics in an idealized PET environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, R. E.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrović, Z. Lj.; White, R. D.

    2015-08-01

    The kinetic theory of non-relativistic positrons in an idealized positron emission tomography PET environment is developed by solving the Boltzmann equation, allowing for coherent and incoherent elastic, inelastic, ionizing and annihilating collisions through positronium formation. An analytic expression is obtained for the positronium formation rate, as a function of distance from a spherical source, in terms of the solutions of the general kinetic eigenvalue problem. Numerical estimates of the positron range - a fundamental limitation on the accuracy of PET, are given for positrons in a model of liquid water, a surrogate for human tissue. Comparisons are made with the ‘gas-phase’ assumption used in current models in which coherent scattering is suppressed. Our results show that this assumption leads to an error of the order of a factor of approximately 2, emphasizing the need to accurately account for the structure of the medium in PET simulations.

  6. Positron annihilation induced Auger electron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.; Jibaly, M.; Lei, Chun; Mehl, D.; Mayer, R.; Lynn, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    We report on measurements of Auger electron emission from Cu and Fe due to core hole excitations produced by the removal of core electrons by matter-antimatter annihilation. Estimates are developed of the probability of positrons annihilating with a 3p electron in these materials. Several important advantages of Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) for surface analysis are suggested. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Positron annihilation studies of organic superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, H.L.; Lou, Y.; Ali, E.H.

    1994-09-01

    The positron lifetimes of two organic superconductors, {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} and {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br, are measured as a function of temperature across {Tc}. A drop of positron lifetime below {Tc} is observed. Positron-electron momentum densities are measured by using 2D-ACAR to search for the Fermi surface in {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br. Positron density distributions and positron-electron overlaps are calculated by using the orthogonalized linear combination atomic orbital (OLCAO) method to interprete the temperature dependence due to the local charge transfer which is inferred to relate to the superconducting transition. 2D-ACAR results in {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br are compared with theoretical band calculations based on a first-principles local density approximation. Importance of performing accurate band calculations for the interpretation of positron annihilation data is emphasized.

  8. GFP: from jellyfish to the Nobel prize and beyond.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Marc

    2009-10-01

    On December 10, 2008 Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsien were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP". The path taken by this jellyfish protein to become one of the most useful tools in modern science and medicine is described. Osamu Shimomura painstakingly isolated GFP from hundreds of thousands of jellyfish, characterized the chromophore and elucidated the mechanism of Aequorean bioluminescence. Martin Chalfie expressed the protein in E. coli and C. elegans, and Roger Tsien developed a palette of fluorescent proteins that could be used in a myriad of applications. PMID:19771329

  9. Intense low energy positron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, K.G.; Jacobsen, F.M.

    1993-12-31

    Intense positron beams are under development or being considered at several laboratories. Already today a few accelerator based high intensity, low brightness e{sup +} beams exist producing of the order of 10{sup 8} {minus} 10{sup 9} e{sup +}/sec. Several laboratories are aiming at high intensity, high brightness e{sup +} beams with intensities greater than 10{sup 9} e{sup +}/sec and current densities of the order of 10{sup 13} {minus} 10{sup 14} e{sup +} sec{sup {minus}} {sup 1}cm{sup {minus}2}. Intense e{sup +} beams can be realized in two ways (or in a combination thereof) either through a development of more efficient B{sup +} moderators or by increasing the available activity of B{sup +} particles. In this review we shall mainly concentrate on the latter approach. In atomic physics the main trust for these developments is to be able to measure differential and high energy cross-sections in e{sup +} collisions with atoms and molecules. Within solid state physics high intensity, high brightness e{sup +} beams are in demand in areas such as the re-emission e{sup +} microscope, two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation, low energy e{sup +} diffraction and other fields. Intense e{sup +} beams are also important for the development of positronium beams, as well as exotic experiments such as Bose condensation and Ps liquid studies.

  10. Improved Monkey-King Genetic Algorithm for Solving Large Winner Determination in Combinatorial Auction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuzhong

    Using GA solve the winner determination problem (WDP) with large bids and items, run under different distribution, because the search space is large, constraint complex and it may easy to produce infeasible solution, would affect the efficiency and quality of algorithm. This paper present improved MKGA, including three operator: preprocessing, insert bid and exchange recombination, and use Monkey-king elite preservation strategy. Experimental results show that improved MKGA is better than SGA in population size and computation. The problem that traditional branch and bound algorithm hard to solve, improved MKGA can solve and achieve better effect.

  11. User friendly web site a winner. San Diego's Sharp HealthCare provides wealth of information.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The Sharp HealthCare, San Diego, web site, a winner of the 2002 Medicine on the Net Web Excellence Award, provides a wealth of information without wasting space or confusing the visitor. The web site, www.sharp.com, can be viewed in both English and Spanish, a valuable consideration for those living in the California-Mexico border area served by Sharp. The integrated health network operates seven hospitals and three medical group practices. It has 2,541 physicians on medical staffs and more than 11,000 employees. PMID:12807120

  12. Primary cosmic ray positrons and galactic annihilation radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.

    1980-01-01

    The observation (Leventhal et al, 1978) of positron annihilation radiation at 0.511 MeV from the direction of the Galactic Center is reexamined, suggesting the possibility of a primary positron component of the cosmic rays. The observed 0.511 MeV emission requires a positron production rate nearly two orders of magnitude greater than the production rate of secondary cosmic ray positrons from pion decay produced in cosmic ray interactions. Possible sources of positrons are reviewed with both supernovae and pulsars appearing to be the more likely candidates. If only about 1% of these positrons were accelerated along with the cosmic ray nucleons and electrons to energies not less than 100 MeV, it is believed that these primary positrons would be comparable in intensity to those secondary positrons resulting from pion decay. Some observational evidence for the existence of primary positrons in the cosmic rays is also discussed.

  13. Jeffrey T. Kiehl Receives 2012 Climate Communication Prize: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiehl, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    I thank James Hurrell for his gracious citation of my work on communicating climate science to the public. I am deeply moved by his summary of my work over these past years. It clearly reflects how passionately I feel about this work and how important communication is for our field. I thank the Prize Committee for their recognition of my work and Nature's Own for supporting this important AGU prize. As climate scientists, I feel we have a duty to convey our research to the public in meaningful ways. This is especially true given that much of our scientific research is supported by tax-paying citizens. I also believe there is a moral imperative to communicate our research to the world. Our understanding of the significant climatic changes occurring now and those that will occur in the future places a great burden on all of us as scientists. We cannot hold onto our science like some protected treasure but must convey both the facts and the serious implications of our science to more than just our peers.

  14. Leon Van Speybroeck Wins Astrophysics Bruno Rossi Prize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge Massachusetts was awarded the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the High-Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomy Society. The Rossi Prize is an arnual recognition of significant contributions in high-energy astrophysics in honor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's late Professor Bruno Rossi, an authority on cosmic ray physics and a pioneer in the field of x-ray astronomy. Van Speybroeck, who led the effort to design and make the x-ray mirrors for NASA's premier Chandra X-Ray Observatory, was recognized for a career of stellar achievements in designing precision x-ray optics. As Telescope Scientist for Chandra, he has worked for more than 20 years with a team that includes scientists and engineers from the Harvard-Smithsonian, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, TRW, Inc., Huhes-Danbury (now B.F. Goodrich Aerospace), Optical Coating Laboratories, Inc., and Eastman-Kodak on all aspects of the x-ray mirror assembly that is the heart of the observatory.

  15. APS presents prizes in fluid dynamics and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This article reviews the presentation of the American Physical Society awards in fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The recipient of the plasma physics James Clerk Maxwell Prize was John M. Green for contributions to the theory of magnetohydrodynamics equilibria and ideal and resistive instabilities, for discovering the inverse scattering transform leading to soliton solutions of many nonlinear partial differential equations and for inventing the residue method of determining the transition to global chaos. The excellence in Plasma Physics Research Award was presented to Nathaniel A. Fisch for theoretical investigations of noninductive current generation in toroidally confined plasma. Wim Pieter Leemans received the Simon Ramo Award for experimental and simulational contributions to laser-plasma physics. William R. Sears was given the 1992 Fuid Dynamics Prize for contributions to the study of steady and unsteady aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, magnetoaerodynamics,and wind tunnel design. William C. Reynolds received the Otto Laporte Award for experimental, theoretical, and computational work in turbulence modeling and control and leadership in direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation.

  16. Positron production in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ATLAS Positron Experiment APEX was built to study positron emission in collisions between very heavy ions. Narrow peaks were observed in such collisions at GSI, Darmstadt in the spectra of positrons and in the sum-energy spectra of electron-positron coincidences. APEX is a second-generation experiment which was specifically designed to look for the coincidence events and measure the opening angle between electrons and positrons. The first beam-induced positrons were detected using APEX in March 1993, and since then three additional runs were carried out. The first results for the collision system {sup 238}U + {sup 181}Ta show no evidence for sharp peaks in the electron-positron sum-energy spectrum. The current emphasis in this work is to obtain a complete understanding of the APEX apparatus. The atomic group is studying events involving coincidences between heavy ions and electrons. Since APEX measures the laboratory angles and energies of both electrons and heavy ions, it is possible to make an event-by-event Doppler correction of the electron spectra. These Doppler-corrected spectra show a number of lines which are attributed to conversion electrons which are emitted when a nuclear excited state decays by ejecting an inner-shell electron. The study of these spectra provide an important confirmation of the proper functioning of APEX. We are particularly concerned with the atomic physics aspects of this process. In order to understand the electron spectra, it is necessary to account for the change in binding energy of the inner-shell electrons as a function of ionic charge. We are utilizing the GRASP relativistic atomic structure program to calculate the binding energies. This information, together with the measured gamma-ray energies, allows us to calculate the expected energies of the conversion electrons which we can then compare with the observed Doppler-corrected conversion electron energies.

  17. Positron range estimations with PeneloPET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cal-González, J.; Herraiz, J. L.; España, S.; Corzo, P. M. G.; Vaquero, J. J.; Desco, M.; Udias, J. M.

    2013-08-01

    Technical advances towards high resolution PET imaging try to overcome the inherent physical limitations to spatial resolution. Positrons travel in tissue until they annihilate into the two gamma photons detected. This range is the main detector-independent contribution to PET imaging blurring. To a large extent, it can be remedied during image reconstruction if accurate estimates of positron range are available. However, the existing estimates differ, and the comparison with the scarce experimental data available is not conclusive. In this work we present positron annihilation distributions obtained from Monte Carlo simulations with the PeneloPET simulation toolkit, for several common PET isotopes (18F, 11C, 13N, 15O, 68Ga and 82Rb) in different biological media (cortical bone, soft bone, skin, muscle striated, brain, water, adipose tissue and lung). We compare PeneloPET simulations against experimental data and other simulation results available in the literature. To this end the different positron range representations employed in the literature are related to each other by means of a new parameterization for positron range profiles. Our results are generally consistent with experiments and with most simulations previously reported with differences of less than 20% in the mean and maximum range values. From these results, we conclude that better experimental measurements are needed, especially to disentangle the effect of positronium formation in positron range. Finally, with the aid of PeneloPET, we confirm that scaling approaches can be used to obtain universal, material and isotope independent, positron range profiles, which would considerably simplify range correction.

  18. Van de Graaff based positron source production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Kasey Roy

    The anti-matter counterpart to the electron, the positron, can be used for a myriad of different scientific research projects to include materials research, energy storage, and deep space flight propulsion. Currently there is a demand for large numbers of positrons to aid in these mentioned research projects. There are different methods of producing and harvesting positrons but all require radioactive sources or large facilities. Positron beams produced by relatively small accelerators are attractive because they are easily shut down, and small accelerators are readily available. A 4MV Van de Graaff accelerator was used to induce the nuclear reaction 12C(d,n)13N in order to produce an intense beam of positrons. 13N is an isotope of nitrogen that decays with a 10 minute half life into 13C, a positron, and an electron neutrino. This radioactive gas is frozen onto a cryogenic freezer where it is then channeled to form an antimatter beam. The beam is then guided using axial magnetic fields into a superconducting magnet with a field strength up to 7 Tesla where it will be stored in a newly designed Micro-Penning-Malmberg trap. Several source geometries have been experimented on and found that a maximum antimatter beam with a positron flux of greater than 0.55x10 6 e+s-1 was achieved. This beam was produced using a solid rare gas moderator composed of krypton. Due to geometric restrictions on this set up, only 0.1-1.0% of the antimatter was being frozen to the desired locations. Simulations and preliminary experiments suggest that a new geometry, currently under testing, will produce a beam of 107 e+s-1 or more.

  19. Cylindrical and Spherical Positron-Acoustic Shock Waves in Nonthermal Electron-Positron-Ion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. M.; Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    The nonlinear propagation of cylindrical and spherical positron-acoustic shock waves (PASWs) in an unmagnetized four-component plasma (containing nonthermal distributed hot positrons and electrons, cold mobile viscous positron fluid, and immobile positive ions) is investigated theoretically. The modified Burgers equation is derived by employing the reductive perturbation method. Analytically, the effects of cylindrical and spherical geometries, nonthermality of electrons and hot positrons, relative number density and temperature ratios, and cold mobile positron kinematic viscosity on the basic features (viz. polarity, amplitude, width, phase speed, etc.) of PASWs are briefly addressed. It is examined that the PASWs in nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) geometry significantly differ from those in planar geometry. The relevance of our results may be useful in understanding the basic characteristics of PASWs in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

  20. Elastic and inelastic scattering of positrons in gases and solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Three apparatuses were designed and built: The first, which is now operative, was designed to study the details of positron thermalization in solids and the subsequent emission of the low energy positrons from moderating foils; The second apparatus now under test is a positron bottle similar in design to an electron trap. It was built to store positrons at a fixed energy and to look at the number of stored positrons (storage time) as a function of a scattering gas in the vacuum chamber. The third apparatus is a crossed beam apparatus where positron-, alkali scattering will be studied. Much of the apparatus is now under test with electrons.

  1. Yellow fever and Max Theiler: the only Nobel Prize for a virus vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Norrby, Erling

    2007-01-01

    In 1951, Max Theiler of the Rockefeller Foundation received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of an effective vaccine against yellow fever—a discovery first reported in the JEM 70 years ago. This was the first, and so far the only, Nobel Prize given for the development of a virus vaccine. Recently released Nobel archives now reveal how the advances in the yellow fever vaccine field were evaluated more than 50 years ago, and how this led to a prize for Max Theiler. PMID:18039952

  2. Prizes to solve problems in and beyond medicine, big and small: it can work.

    PubMed

    Erren, Thomas C

    2007-01-01

    This article complements Dr. Charlton's follow-up of David Horrobin's suggestion in Nature two decades ago to offer sizeable prizes for practical approaches to either eliminate a problem in medicine or reduce the cost of its solution. Examples from the 20th and 21st centuries illustrate that prizes--small and big--have generated sustained and successful attacks on defined problems in biology, physics and, lately, mathematics. Provided that glittering prizes are offered and awarded with care, they can lead to effective problem-solving in medicine and related biomedical sciences as well. PMID:17207938

  3. Electron capture from solids by positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.

    1987-08-01

    The capture of electrons in solids is modified from that in gasses by several factors. The most important is the collective interaction of the electrons which results in a density of electron states in the solid in wide bands. Also the high density of electrons in many solids gives a high frequency of interaction as compared to gasses, and quickly destroys any electron-positron states in the metal matrix. Consequently, most positrons implanted in a metal will rapidly thermalize, and unless they reach the surface will annihilate with an electron in an uncorrelated state. Positronium formation from positrons scattered at a metal surface is analogous to ion neutralization however, most of the positronium comes from positrons passing through the surface from the bulk. The dominant motivation for studying positronium formation has been the hope that the distribution of the electrons at the surface would be obtained through the annihilation properties of positrons trapped at the surface or through analysis of the energy and angular distributions of the positronium emitted into the vacuum. These distributions have been measured and are included in this paper. 17 refs.

  4. A CF4 based positron trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjanovic, Srdjan; Bankovic, Ana; Dujko, Sasa; Deller, Adam; Cooper, Ben; Cassidy, David; Petrovic, Zoran

    2016-05-01

    All positron buffer gas traps in use rely on N2 as the primary trapping gas due to its conveniently placed a1 Π electronic excitation cross section that is large enough to compete with positronium (Ps) formation in the threshold region. Its energy loss of 8.5 eV is sufficient to capture positrons into a potential well upon a single collision. The competing Ps formation, however, limits the efficiency of the two stage trap to 25 %. As positron moderators produce beams with energies of several eV we have proposed to use CF4 in the first stage of the trap, due to its large vibrational excitation cross section, where several vibrational excitations would be sufficient to trap the positrons with small losses. Apart from the simulations we also report the results of attempts to apply this approach to an existing Surko-type positron trap. Operating the unmodified trap as a CF4 based device proved to be unsuccessful, due primarily to excessive scattering due to high CF4 pressure in the first stage. However, the performance was consistent with subsequent simulations using the real system parameters. This agreement indicates that an efficient CF4 based scheme may be realized in an appropriately designed trap. also at Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihajlova 35, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.

  5. A search for solar flare positrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The detection of solar gamma-ray line emission and observations of the isotopes H2, H-3, and He-3 in solar cosmic rays provide direct evidence for the occurrence of high energy nuclear reactions in solar flare events. Appreciable numbers of other reaction products, including positrons with energies near about 1 MeV, should also be produced in such events. We have searched for positrons in the 0.16-1.6 MeV energy interval during 5 H-3 rich solar particle events. Based on calculations of positron and He-3 production at the sun, and using a simplified model of interplanetary propagation, we might expect comparable fluences of positrons and He-3 to be observed. Summing over these 5 events, we find the 0.16 to 1.6 MeV positron fluence to be a maximum of about 10% of the He-3 fluence with more tnan 1 MeV/nuc. This suggests that other processes, such as preferential trapping by the solar magnetic field, may be important.

  6. A reversal of fortunes: climate change 'winners' and 'losers' in Antarctic Peninsula penguins.

    PubMed

    Clucas, Gemma V; Dunn, Michael J; Dyke, Gareth; Emslie, Steven D; Naveen, Ron; Polito, Michael J; Pybus, Oliver G; Rogers, Alex D; Hart, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Antarctic ecosystems are no exception. Investigating past species responses to climatic events can distinguish natural from anthropogenic impacts. Climate change produces 'winners', species that benefit from these events and 'losers', species that decline or become extinct. Using molecular techniques, we assess the demographic history and population structure of Pygoscelis penguins in the Scotia Arc related to climate warming after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). All three pygoscelid penguins responded positively to post-LGM warming by expanding from glacial refugia, with those breeding at higher latitudes expanding most. Northern (Pygoscelis papua papua) and Southern (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) gentoo sub-species likely diverged during the LGM. Comparing historical responses with the literature on current trends, we see Southern gentoo penguins are responding to current warming as they did during post-LGM warming, expanding their range southwards. Conversely, Adélie and chinstrap penguins are experiencing a 'reversal of fortunes' as they are now declining in the Antarctic Peninsula, the opposite of their response to post-LGM warming. This suggests current climate warming has decoupled historic population responses in the Antarctic Peninsula, favoring generalist gentoo penguins as climate change 'winners', while Adélie and chinstrap penguins have become climate change 'losers'. PMID:24865774

  7. Dynamic analysis of a general class of winner-take-all competitive neural networks.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuguang; Cohen, Michael A; Kincaid, Thomas G

    2010-05-01

    This paper studies a general class of dynamical neural networks with lateral inhibition, exhibiting winner-take-all (WTA) behavior. These networks are motivated by a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) implementation of neural networks, in which mutual competition plays a very important role. We show that for a fairly general class of competitive neural networks, WTA behavior exists. Sufficient conditions for the network to have a WTA equilibrium are obtained, and rigorous convergence analysis is carried out. The conditions for the network to have the WTA behavior obtained in this paper provide design guidelines for the network implementation and fabrication. We also demonstrate that whenever the network gets into the WTA region, it will stay in that region and settle down exponentially fast to the WTA point. This provides a speeding procedure for the decision making: as soon as it gets into the region, the winner can be declared. Finally, we show that this WTA neural network has a self-resetting property, and a resetting principle is proposed. PMID:20215068

  8. A Game-Theoretical Winner and Loser Model of Dominance Hierarchy Formation.

    PubMed

    Kura, Klodeta; Broom, Mark; Kandler, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Many animals spend large parts of their lives in groups. Within such groups, they need to find efficient ways of dividing available resources between them. This is often achieved by means of a dominance hierarchy, which in its most extreme linear form allocates a strict priority order to the individuals. Once a hierarchy is formed, it is often stable over long periods, but the formation of hierarchies among individuals with little or no knowledge of each other can involve aggressive contests. The outcome of such contests can have significant effects on later contests, with previous winners more likely to win (winner effects) and previous losers more likely to lose (loser effects). This scenario has been modelled by a number of authors, in particular by Dugatkin. In his model, individuals engage in aggressive contests if the assessment of their fighting ability relative to their opponent is above a threshold [Formula: see text]. Here we present a model where each individual can choose its own value [Formula: see text]. This enables us to address questions such as how aggressive should individuals be in order to take up one of the first places in the hierarchy? We find that a unique strategy evolves, as opposed to a mixture of strategies. Thus, in any scenario there exists a unique best level of aggression, and individuals should not switch between strategies. We find that for optimal strategy choice, the hierarchy forms quickly, after which there are no mutually aggressive contests. PMID:27342253

  9. Positron astrophysics and areas of relation to low-energy positron physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guessoum, Nidhal

    2014-05-01

    I briefly review our general knowledge of positron astrophysics, focusing mostly on the theoretical and modelling aspects. The experimental/observational aspects of the topic have recently been reviewed elsewhere [E. Churazov et al., Mon. Nat. R. Astron. Soc. 411, 1727 (2011); N. Prantazos et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1001 (2011)]. In particular, I highlight the interactions and cross sections of the reactions that the positrons undergo in various cosmic media. Indeed, these must be of high interest to both the positron astrophysics community and the low-energy positron physics community in trying to find common areas of potential collaboration for the future or areas of research that will help the astrophysics community make further progress on the problem. The processes undergone by positrons from the moments of their birth to their annihilation (in the interstellar medium or other locations) are thus examined. The physics of the positron interactions with gases and solids (dust grains) and the physical conditions and characteristics of the environments where the processes of energy loss, positronium formation, and annihilation take place, are briefly reviewed. An explanation is given about how all the relevant physical information is taken into account in order to calculate annihilation rates and spectra of the 511 keV emission in the ISM; special attention is paid to positron interactions with dust and with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In particular, an attempt is made to show to what extent the interactions between positrons and interstellar dust grains are similar to laboratory experiments in which beams of low-energy positrons impinge upon solids and surfaces. Sample results are shown for the effect of dust grains on positron annihilation spectra in some phases of the ISM which, together with high resolution spectra measured by satellites, can be used to infer useful knowledge about the environment where the annihilation is predominantly taking place

  10. Defects in metals. [Positron annihilation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.W.

    1982-06-01

    The application of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) to the study of defects in metals has led to increased knowledge on lattice-defect properties during the past decade in two areas: the determination of atomic defect properties, particularly those of monovacancies, and the monitoring and characterization of vacancy-like microstructure development during post-irradiation and post-quench annealing. The study of defects in metals by PAS is reviewed within the context of the other available techniques for defect studies. The strengths and weaknesses of PAS as a method for the characterization of defect microstructures are considered. The additional possibilities for using the positron as a localized probe of the atomic and electronic structures of atomic defects are discussed, based upon theoretical calculations of the annihilation characteristics of defect-trapped positrons and experimental observations. Finally, the present status and future potential of PAS as a tool for the study of defects in metals is considered. 71 references, 9 figures.

  11. Trapped positrons observed by PAMELA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. V.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F. S.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; Consiglio, L.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Galper, A. M.; Karelin, A. V.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobsky, S.; Krutkov, S. Yu; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A. A.; Malakhov, V. V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A. G.; Menn, W.; Merge, M.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Papini, P.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sarkar, R.; Scotti, V.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Yu I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasiliev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Yu T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of electron and positron spatial distributions in energy range from 80 MeV to several GeV below the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity were carried out using the PAMELA magnetic spectrometer. The instrument is installed on board the Resurs-DK satellite which was launched June 15th 2006 on an elliptical orbit with the inclination 70 degrees and the altitude 350-600 km. The procedure of trajectories calculations in the geomagnetic filed gives a way to separate stably trapped and short lived albedo components produced in interactions of cosmic ray protons with the residual atmosphere. The work presents spatial distributions of trapped, quasitrapped and short-lived albedo electrons and positrons in the near Earth space. Electron to positron ratio points out on different production mechanism of trapped and quasitrapped particles.

  12. Positron beam position measurement for a beam containing both positrons and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Sereno, N.S.; Fuja, R.

    1996-08-01

    Positron beam position measurement for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac beam is affected by the presence of electrons that are also captured and accelerated along with the positrons. This paper presents a method of measuring positron position in a beam consisting of alternating bunches of positrons and electrons. The method is based on Fourier analysis of a stripline signal at the bunching and first harmonic frequencies. In the presence of a mixed species beam, a certain linear combination of bunching and first harmonic signals depends only on the position and charge of one specie of particle. A formula is derived for the stripline signal at all harmonics of the bunching frequency and is used to compute expected signal power at the bunching and first harmonic frequencies for typical electron and positron bunch charges. The stripline is calibrated by measuring the signal power content at the bunching and first harmonic frequencies for a single species beam. A circuit is presented that will be used with an APS positron linac stripline beam position monitor to detect the bunching and first harmonic signals for a beam of positrons and electrons.

  13. Position-resolved Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A.; Butterling, M.; Fiedler, F.; Fritz, F.; Kempe, M.; Cowan, T. E.

    2013-06-01

    A new method which allows for position-resolved positron lifetime spectroscopy studies in extended volume samples is presented. In addition to the existing technique of in-situ production of positrons inside large (cm3) bulk samples using high-energy photons up to 16 MeV from bremsstrahlung production, granular position-sensitive photon detectors have been employed. A beam of intense bremsstrahlung is provided by the superconducting electron linear accelerator ELBE (Electron Linear Accelerator with high Brilliance and low Emittance) which delivers electron bunches of less than 10 ps temporal width and an adjustable bunch separation of multiples of 38 ns, average beam currents of 1 mA, and energies up to 40 MeV. Since the generation of bremsstrahlung and the transport to the sample preserves the sharp timing of the electron beam, positrons generated inside the entire sample volume by pair production feature a sharp start time stamp for positron annihilation lifetime studies with high timing resolutions and high signal to background ratios due to the coincident detection of two annihilation photons. Two commercially available detectors from a high-resolution medial positron-emission tomography system are being employed with 169 individual Lu2SiO5:Ce scintillation crystals, each. In first experiments, a positron-lifetime gated image of a planar Si/SiO2 (pieces of 12.5 mm × 25 mm size) sample and a 3-D structured metal in Teflon target could be obtained proving the feasibility of a three dimensional lifetime-gated tomographic system.

  14. Development of Texas intense positron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köymen, A. R.; Ünlü, K.; Jacobsen, F. M.; Göktepeli, S.; Wehring, B. W.

    1999-02-01

    The Texas Intense Positron Source (TIPS) is a reactor-based low-energy positron beam facility utilizing some novel techniques in positron beam production. This facility will be located at the University of Texas (UT) at Austin Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) and is being developed by UT Austin and UT Arlington researchers. TIPS will use a large area (total area of 900-1800 cm 2) 64Cu source to supply fast β + particles for subsequent moderation to form an intense monoenergetic positron beam in the energy range of 0-50 keV with an expected intensity of 10 8 e +/s. Natural copper will be neutron activated near the core of the NETL 1 MW TRIGA Mark II research reactor to produce the 64Cu isotope. The activated source will be transported to the moderator/remoderator assembly, outside the biological shield of the reactor. This assembly combines the primary moderation and posterior remoderation of the fast β + particles into one stage using solid Kr to produce a low-energy positron source of a few eV with a diameter of 8 mm. The low-energy positron beam is then extracted by an electrostatic modified SOA gun and after further acceleration to 5 keV, the beam is focused onto the object slit of a 90° bending magnet. After further focusing and another 90° bend, the beam enters the main accelerator/decelerator that transports the beam onto the target for experimentation. The components of TIPS have been manufactured and are currently being optimized. In this communication we present some of the details of the TIPS facility and furthermore briefly discuss its intended applications.

  15. Positron Binding Properties of Glycine and Its Aqueous Complexes.

    PubMed

    Nummela, Mikko; Raebiger, Hannes; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2016-06-16

    We investigate positron binding to glycine and its aqueous complexes by first-principles calculation. We show that while glycine in its ground state (Gly) does not bind positrons, several of its strongly polar conformers do, and in particular, its zwitterion form (GlyZI) binds positrons strongly. Aqueous complexes Gly·nH2O and GlyZI·nH2O also bind positrons, if their dipole moment μ > μcr. However, μ is not a sufficient quantity to describe positron binding to these complexes. We show that in addition to μ, positron binding strongly depends on the intramolecular bonding of glycine. In Gly·nH2O, positrons are weakly bound to the nitrogen in Gly, whereas in GlyZI·nH2O, the ionic oxygen in GlyZI is a strong "positron attractor". PMID:27232201

  16. Apparatus for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2007-06-12

    Non-destructive testing apparatus according to one embodiment of the invention comprises a photon source. The photon source produces photons having predetermined energies and directs the photons toward a specimen being tested. The photons from the photon source result in the creation of positrons within the specimen being tested. A detector positioned adjacent the specimen being tested detects gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons with electrons. A data processing system operatively associated with the detector produces output data indicative of a lattice characteristic of the specimen being tested.

  17. Heuristic theory of positron-helium scattering.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An error in a previous modified adiabatic approximation (Drachman, 1966), due to a lack of generality in the form of the short-range correlation part of the wave function for L greater than zero, is corrected heuristically by allowing the monopole suppression parameter to depend on L. An L-dependent local potential is constructed to fit the well-known positron-hydrogen s, p, and d wave phase shifts below the rearrangement threshold. The same form of potential yields a positron-helium cross-section in agreement with a recent experimental measurement near threshold.

  18. Microstructural Characterization of Polymers with Positrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.

    1997-01-01

    Positrons provide a versatile probe for monitoring microstructural features of molecular solids. In this paper, we report on positron lifetime measurements in two different types of polymers. The first group comprises polyacrylates processed on earth and in space. The second group includes fully-compatible and totally-incompatible Semi-Interpenetrating polymer networks of thermosetting and thermoplastic polyimides. On the basis of lifetime measurements, it is concluded that free volumes are a direct reflection of physical/electromagnetic properties of the host polymers.

  19. Cold positrons from decaying dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Dodelson, Scott; Vives, Oscar

    2012-11-01

    Many models of dark matter contain more than one new particle beyond those in the Standard Model. Often, heavier particles decay into the lightest dark matter particle as the Universe evolves. Here, we explore the possibilities which arise if one of the products in a (heavyparticle)→(darkmatter) decay is a positron, and the lifetime is shorter than the age of the Universe. The positrons cool down by scattering off the cosmic microwave background and eventually annihilate when they fall into Galactic potential wells. The resulting 511 keV flux not only places constraints on this class of models, but might even be consistent with that observed by the INTEGRAL satellite.

  20. Nobel Prize for Physical Therapy? Rise, Fall, and Revival of Medico-Mechanical Institutes.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Ottosson, Anders

    2015-08-01

    This historical vignette explores the considerations of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology or Medicine by vetting the Nobel Prize chances of Dr Gustaf Zander (1835-1920). His way to stardom started 150 years ago when he began mechanizing the passive and active movements that physical therapists manually used to treat diseases. A glance at his machines shows that they parallel surprisingly well what can be found in modern fitness studios. By combining files from the Nobel Prize Archive and sources from the first physical therapists, this vignette pieces together why Zander was considered one of the best candidates for the Nobel Prize in 1916. By providing this glimpse of history, questions about the origin of physical therapy concepts and the profession of the physical therapist are raised. PMID:25655882

  1. [On the Awarding of the First Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine to Emil von Behring].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Enke, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    In his will of 1895, the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel laid the foundation for prizes in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace to those who had "conferred the greatest benefit on mankind" during the last year. The Nobel Prize is today widely considered as the most prestigious international symbol of scientific excellence, but it still is an exciting research question how it gained such prestige. Drawing on files from the Emil von Behring Archive in Marburg, Germany, and the Archive of the Nobel Assembly for Physiology or Medicine in Stockholm this essay aims at shedding light on why the first Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1901 was awarded the German immunologist Emil von Behring, and how this decision was viewed at that time. This study is part of a research project that explores mechanisms leading to scientific recognition by using the example of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. PMID:26676474

  2. The Nobel Prize in the Physics Class: Science, History, and Glamour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshach, Haim

    2009-10-01

    This paper introduces a novel strategy for teaching physics: using the Nobel Physics Prize as an organizational theme for high school or even first year university physics, bringing together history, social contexts of science, and central themes in modern physics. The idea underlying the strategy is that the glamour and glitter of the Nobel Prize story may attract and motivate high school students to open-up to scientific topics and thus be spurred to pursue science. The two major arguments for the method are that if presented in story form Nobel Prizes naturally incorporate the philosophical and historical aspects of science and therefore enable teaching about science as well as teaching science itself; and that such instruction implements case-based teaching principles, which is how humans naturally think, learn, and remember. Finally, the paper presents the storycase of the Nobel Prize Einstein received for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect as a concrete illustration of classroom implementation.

  3. The Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Science: three years of honouring outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchet, T.; Chatzichristou, E.; Heward, A.

    2012-09-01

    Europlanet launched an annual Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Sciences at the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) in 2009. At EPSC 2012, the prize will be presented for the third time. To date, the prize has been awarded to: • 2010 - Dr Jean Lilensten of the Laboratoire de Planétologie de Grenoble for his development and dissemination of his 'planeterrella' experiment; • 2011 - The Austrian Space Forum for their coordinated programme of outreach activities, which range from simple classroom presentations to space exhibitions reaching 15 000 visitors; • 2012 - Yaël Nazé, for the diverse outreach programme she has individually initiated over the years, carefully tailored to audiences across the spectrum of society, including children, artists and elderly people. These three prizes cover a spectrum of different approaches to outreach and provide inspiration for anyone wishing to become engaged in public engagement, whether at an individual and institutional level.

  4. "Often a Bridesmaid, Never a Bride": Frank Grimes and the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marler, Charles H.

    1985-01-01

    Argues that Grimes, editor of the "Abilene Reporter-News" for more than 40 years, was denied the Pulitzer because of the manuevering of Arthur Krock, a powerful figure on the Pulitzer Prize Advisory Board. (FL)

  5. An Evaluation of the Trends of Realism in Caldecott Winner and First Honor Books 1966-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John A., Jr.; Napier, Georgia

    To determine if there were any consistent tendencies toward the abstract or toward impressionism in the illustration of children's books between the years 1966 and 1986, a study examined the illustrations of Caldecott winners and Honor books. The study replicated John Stewig's study (using his evaluation instrument) of the same topic which covered…

  6. The Newbery/Printz Companion: Booktalk and Related Materials for Award Winners and Honor Books, Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, John T.; Naden, Corinne J.

    2006-01-01

    This comprehensive and practical guide to the influential Newbery and Printz awards for children's and young adult literature provides information on each year's winners and honor books, as well as on the awards themselves and the librarians for whom they are named. For each award-winning book, there is a plot summary, list of characters and…

  7. From Tomato King to World Food Prize laureate.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Philip E

    2014-01-01

    This autobiographical article describes my early years, education, and career at Purdue University. Helping form and expand the Department of Food Science at Purdue was exciting and gratifying, and working with students in the classroom and on research projects was rewarding and kept me feeling young. My research on bulk aseptic processing allowed me to help solve problems relevant to the tomato industry, but I learned later that it had much broader relevance. I certainly never expected the impact and visibility of the work to result in my being awarded the World Food Prize. Being the first food scientist to win this award has enabled me to focus increased attention on the need to reduce food losses. PMID:24328431

  8. Honoring antiparasitics: The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-June

    2016-04-01

    Protozoa and helminths are the two main groups that cause parasitic diseases with a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms. Protozoa are unicellular organisms like the malaria parasite Plasmodium, which is responsible for the majority of deaths associated with parasitic infections. Helminths are alternative parasites that can produce debilitating diseases in hosts, some of which result in chronic infections. The discovery of effective therapeutic drugs is the key to improving health in regions of poverty and poor sanitation where these parasites usually occur. It is very encouraging that the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Youyou Tu as well as William C. Campbell and Satoshi Õmura for their considerable contributions in discovering artemisinin and avermectin, respectively. Both drugs revolutionized therapies for filariasis and malaria, significantly reducing by large percentages their morbidity and mortality. PMID:27372164

  9. Homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize Nelore bull.

    PubMed

    Lobreiro, J

    2007-01-01

    Treatments for infertility in bulls are not described in homeopathic literature. A few treatments, such as changing the protein content of the diet, giving extra minerals, etc have been proposed. This case report describes homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize bull. A Nelore bull, considered infertile for 3 years, was treated with homeopathic Pulsatilla nigricans 200 CH. Decreased total sperm defects, increased sperm motility and a very impressive increased number of doses of semen produced were observed. The bull relapsed after treatment was withdrawn, but again responded when it was resumed. Since only one animal was observed one cannot assume that the observed changes were due only to this treatment. Further studies may establish the real benefits of a homeopathic medicine in bull infertility. PMID:17227749

  10. John Bennett Fenn: A Curious Road to the Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Michael A.

    2011-08-01

    John Bennett Fenn shared the 2002 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his development of electrospray ionization (ESI). There are several excellent, in-depth biographical reviews of Fenn's scientific career Fenn (Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 42, 3871-3894, 2003) and Fenn (Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 1-41, 1996). The focus of this report is to trace the random walk nature of Fenn's career path and to highlight those critical events along that path that led him to the important work for which he was recognized, the development of ESI as a means of ionizing large molecules and interfacing the liquid chromatograph to the mass spectrometer. In addition, this report should hopefully convey something of the curious, generous, kind, and outgoing nature of the man.

  11. How Citation Boosts Promote Scientific Paradigm Shifts and Nobel Prizes

    PubMed Central

    Mazloumian, Amin; Eom, Young-Ho; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the rich-gets-richer effect for scientific citations, it turns out that they can make their way only through citation cascades. A quantitative analysis reveals how and why they happen. Science appears to behave like a self-organized critical system, in which citation cascades of all sizes occur, from continuous scientific progress all the way up to scientific revolutions, which change the way we see our world. Measuring the “boosting effect” of landmark papers, our analysis reveals how new ideas and new players can make their way and finally triumph in a world dominated by established paradigms. The underlying “boost factor” is also useful to discover scientific breakthroughs and talents much earlier than through classical citation analysis, which by now has become a widespread method to measure scientific excellence, influencing scientific careers and the distribution of research funds. Our findings reveal patterns of collective social behavior, which are also interesting from an attention economics perspective. Understanding the origin of scientific authority may therefore ultimately help to explain how social influence comes about and why the value of goods depends so strongly on the attention they attract. PMID:21573229

  12. How citation boosts promote scientific paradigm shifts and nobel prizes.

    PubMed

    Mazloumian, Amin; Eom, Young-Ho; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the rich-gets-richer effect for scientific citations, it turns out that they can make their way only through citation cascades. A quantitative analysis reveals how and why they happen. Science appears to behave like a self-organized critical system, in which citation cascades of all sizes occur, from continuous scientific progress all the way up to scientific revolutions, which change the way we see our world. Measuring the "boosting effect" of landmark papers, our analysis reveals how new ideas and new players can make their way and finally triumph in a world dominated by established paradigms. The underlying "boost factor" is also useful to discover scientific breakthroughs and talents much earlier than through classical citation analysis, which by now has become a widespread method to measure scientific excellence, influencing scientific careers and the distribution of research funds. Our findings reveal patterns of collective social behavior, which are also interesting from an attention economics perspective. Understanding the origin of scientific authority may therefore ultimately help to explain how social influence comes about and why the value of goods depends so strongly on the attention they attract. PMID:21573229

  13. Introducing the Benson Prize for Discovery Methods of Near Earth Objects by Amateurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, J. W.

    1997-05-01

    The Benson Prize Sponsored by Space Development Corporation The Benson Prize for Discovery Methods of Near Earth Objects by Amateurs is an annual competition which awards prizes to the best proposed methods by which amateur astronomers may discover such near earth objects as asteroids and comet cores. The purpose of the Benson Prize is to encourage the discovery of near earth objects by amateur astronomers. The utilization of valuable near earth resources can provide many new jobs and economic activities on earth, while also creating many new opportunities for opening up the space frontier. The utilization of near earth resources will significantly contribute to the lessening of environmental degradation on the Earth caused by mining and chemical leaching operations required to exploit the low grade ores now remaining on Earth. In addition, near earth objects pose grave dangers for life on earth. Discovering and plotting the orbits of all potentially dangerous near earth objects is the first and necessary step in protecting ourselves against the enormous potential damage possible from near earth objects. With the high quality, large size and low cost of todays consumer telescopes, the rapid development of powerful, high resolution and inexpensive CCD cameras, and the proliferation of inexpensive software for todays powerful home computers, the discovery of near earth objects by amateur astronomers is more attainable than ever. The Benson Prize is sponsored by the Space Development Corporation, a space resource exploration and utilization company. In 1997 one prize of \\500 will be awarded to the best proposed method for the amateur discovery of NEOs, and in each of the four following years, Prizes of \\500, \\250 and \\100 will be awarded. Prizes for the actual discovery of Near Earth Asteroids will be added in later years.

  14. Multiscale modeling of nerve agent hydrolysis mechanisms: a tale of two Nobel Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Martin J.; Wymore, Troy W.

    2014-10-01

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems, whereas the 2013 Peace Prize was given to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons for their efforts to eliminate chemical warfare agents. This review relates the two by introducing the field of multiscale modeling and highlighting its application to the study of the biological mechanisms by which selected chemical weapon agents exert their effects at an atomic level.

  15. From Stealing Fire to Cellular Reprogramming: A Scientific History Leading to the 2012 Nobel Prize

    PubMed Central

    Lensch, M. William; Mummery, Christine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular reprogramming was recently “crowned” with the award of the Nobel Prize to two of its groundbreaking researchers, Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka. The recent link between reprogramming and stem cells makes this appear almost a new field of research, but its historical roots have actually spanned more than a century. Here, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 is placed in its historical context. PMID:24052937

  16. Nobel Prizes for surgeons: In recognition of the surgical healing strategy.

    PubMed

    Schlich, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Theodor Kocher (1909), Alexis Carrel (1912), Antonio Egas Moniz (1949) and Joseph E. Murray (1990) received Nobel Prizes for their accomplishments in the field of surgery. This essay puts these achievements in the context of the history of surgery, in particular its recognition of a field of modern medicine. It characterizes the view of the body that is associated with modern surgery and the specific surgical healing strategy that the Nobel Prizes acknowledged. PMID:17448978

  17. Positron emission tomography - a new approach to brain chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, H.G.

    1988-11-11

    Positron emission tomography permits examination of the chemistry of the brain in living beings. Until recently, positron emission tomography had been considered a research tool, but it is rapidly moving into clinical practice. This report describes the uses and applications of positron emission tomography in examinations of patients with strokes, epilepsy, malignancies, dementias, and schizophrenia and in basic studies of synaptic neurotransmission.

  18. Production of slow-positron beams with an electron linac

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Stanek, M.

    1982-03-26

    Intense, pulsed beams of low-energy positrons have been produced by a high-energy beam from an electron linac. The production efficiency for low-energy positrons has been determined for electrons with 60 to 120 MeV energy, low-energy positron beams from a linac can be of much higher intensity than those beams currently derived from radioactive sources.

  19. Physics perspectives at JLab with a polarized positron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Voutier, Eric J.-M.

    2014-06-01

    Polarized positron beams are in some respect mandatory complements to polarized electron beams. The advent of the PEPPo concept for polarized positron production opens the possibility for the developement at the Jefferson Laboratory of a continuous polarized positron beam. The benefits of such a beam for hadronic structure studies are discussed, together with the technical and technological challenges to face.

  20. When a misperception favors a tragedy: Carlos Chagas and the Nobel Prize of 1921.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Couto, Lucélio B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto

    2013-11-20

    Carlos Chagas, the discoverer of Chagas' disease was nominated to the Nobel Prize in 1921, but none did win the prize in that year. As a leader of a young scientist team, he discovered all aspects of the new disease from 1909 to 1920. It is still obscure why he did not win the Nobel Prize in 1921. Chagas was discarded by Gunnar Hedrèn on April 16, 1921. Hedrèn should have made a written report about the details of his evaluation to the Nobel Committee. However, such a document has not been found in the Nobel Committee Archives. No evidence of detractions made by Brazilian scientists on Chagas was found. Since Chagas nomination was consistent with the Nobel Committee requirements, as seen in the presentation letter by until now unknown Cypriano de Freitas, it become clear that Chagas did not win the Nobel Prize exclusively because the Nobel Committee did not perceive the importance of his discovery. Thus, it would be fair a posthumous Nobel Prize of 1921 to Carlos Chagas. A diploma of the Nobel Prize, as precedent with Dogmack in 1947, would recognize the merit of the scientist who made the most complete medical discovery of all times. PMID:24063910

  1. Efficient Algorithms for the Prize Collecting Steiner Tree Problems with Interval Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Miranda, E.; Candia, A.; Chen, X.; Hu, X.; Li, B.

    Given a graph G = (V,E) with a cost on each edge in E and a prize at each vertex in V, and a target set V' ⊆ V, the Prize Collecting Steiner Tree (PCST) problem is to find a tree T interconnecting vertices in V' that has minimum total costs on edges and maximum total prizes at vertices in T. This problem is NP-hard in general, and it is polynomial-time solvable when graphs G are restricted to 2-trees. In this paper, we study how to deal with PCST problem with uncertain costs and prizes. We assume that edge e could be included in T by paying cost x_ein[c_e^-,c_e^+] while taking risk c_e^+-x_e/ c_e^+-c_e^- of losing e, and vertex v could be awarded prize p_vin [p_v^-,p_v^+] while taking risk y_v-p_v^-/p_v^+-p_v^- of losing the prize. We establish two risk models for the PCST problem, one minimizing the maximum risk over edges and vertices in T and the other minimizing the sum of risks. Both models are subject to upper bounds on the budget for constructing a tree. We propose two polynomial-time algorithms for these problems on 2-trees, respectively. Our study shows that the risk models have advantages over the tradional robust optimization model, which yields NP-hard problems even if the original optimization problems are polynomial-time solvable.

  2. Propagation of solitary waves in relativistic electron-positron-ion plasmas with kappa distributed electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Asif; Mahmood, S.; Haque, Q.

    2011-11-15

    Electrostatic ion acoustic solitary waves are studied in a plasma system comprising of relativistic ions, kappa distributed electrons, and positrons. The increase in the relativistic streaming factor and positron and electron kappa parameters cause the soliton amplitude to thrive. However, the soliton amplitude diminishes as the positron concentration is increased in the system. Our results are general and may be helpful, in understanding nonlinear phenomena in the presence of kappa distibuted electrons, positrons, and relativistically streaming ions.

  3. Application of mathematical removal of positron range blurring in Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.F.; Derenzo, S.E.; Uber, D.

    1990-04-01

    The range of positrons in tissue is an important limitation to the ultimate spatial resolution achievable in Positron Emission Tomography. In this work we applied a Fourier deconvolution technique to remove range blurring in images taken by the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph. Using phantom data, we found significant improvement in the image quality and the FWHM for both {sup 68}Ga and {sup 82}Rb. These were successfully corrected so that the images and FWHM almost matched those of {sup 18}F which has negligible positron range. However, statistical noise was increased by the deconvolution process and it was not practical to recover the full spatial resolution of the tomograph. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Application of mathematical removal of positron range blurring in positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.F.; Derenzo, S.E.; Uber, D. )

    1990-06-01

    The range of positrons in tissue is an important limitation to the ultimate spatial resolution achievable in positron emission tomography. In this work the authors have applied a Fourier deconvolution technique to remove range blurring in images taken by the Donner 600-crystal positron tomograph. Using phantom data, the authors have found significant improvement in the image quality and the FWHM for both {sup 68}Ga and {sup 82}Rb. These were successfully corrected so that the images and FWHM almost matched those of {sup 18}F which has negligible positron range. However, statistical noise was increased by the deconvolution process and it was not practical to recover the full spatial resolution of the tomograph.

  5. Positron Annihilation in the Bipositronium Ps2

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Frolov, Alexei M.

    2005-07-01

    The electron-positron-pair annihilation in the bipositronium PS2 is considered. In particular, the two-, three-, one- and zero-photon annihilation rates are determined to high accuracy. The corresponding analytical expressions are also presented. Also, a large number of bound state properties have been determined for this system.

  6. Advanced Instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1985-04-01

    This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underlay modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry, sampling motion, electronics design, time-of-flight, and the interrelationships with quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, maximum data rates, and cost.

  7. Positron elastic scattering from alkaline earth targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, Luis A.; Assafrão, Denise; Mohallem, José R.

    2016-07-01

    A previously reported model potential approach [Poveda et al., Phys. Rev. A 87, 052702 (2013)] was extended to study low energy positron elastic scattering from beryllium and magnesium. The cross sections were computed for energies ranging from 10-5 eV up to well above the positronium formation threshold. The present results are in good agreement with previous reports, including the prediction of a p-wave resonance in the cross section for magnesium. The emergence of this shape resonance is connected to a trend observed in the evolution of the partial wave cross section in going from Be to Mg target. This trend lead us to speculate that a sharp d-wave resonance should be observed in positron elastic scattering from calcium. The positron-target binding energies are investigated in detail, both using the scattering information and by direct computation of the bound state energies using the model potentials. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2016-70120-y

  8. Excitation of helium ion by positron impact

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, P.; Ghosh, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Three (1s,2s,2p) and five (1s,2s,2p,3s-bar,3p-bar) -state close-coupling methods have been employed to calculate the n = 2 excitation cross sections of helium ion by positron impact. The effect of pseudostate is found to be very pronounced in the case of 1s-2s excitation.

  9. Positrons observed to originate from thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2011-05-01

    Thunderstorms are the result of warm, moist air moving rapidly upward, then cooling and condensing. Electrification occurs within thunderstorms (as noted by Benjamin Franklin), produced primarily by frictional processes among ice particles. This leads to lightning discharges; the types, intensities, and rates of these discharges vary greatly among thunderstorms. Even though scientists have been studying lightning since Franklin's time, new phenomena associated with thunderstorms are still being discovered. In particular, a recent finding by Briggs et al. [2011], based on observations by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) instrument on NASA's satellite-based Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), shows that positrons are also generated by thunderstorms. Positrons are the antimatter form of electrons—they have the same mass and charge as an electron but are of positive rather than negative charge; hence the name positron. Observations of positrons from thunderstorms may lead to a new tool for understanding the electrification and high-energy processes occurring within thunderstorms. New theories, along with new observational techniques, are rapidly evolving in this field.

  10. First results of a positron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Van House, J.; Rich, A.

    1988-01-18

    We have constructed a prototype transmission positron microscope (TPM) and taken magnified pictures of various objects with it. Information gained from the prototype TPM has allowed us to predict resolutions achievable in the near future using an upgraded TPM. Applications are discussed.

  11. New source of dense, cryogenic positron plasmas.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, L V; Amoretti, M; Bonomi, G; Bowe, P D; Canali, C; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Doser, M; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Kellerbauer, A; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, R; Lodi Rizzini, E; Macrì, M; Madsen, N; Mitchard, D; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Testera, G; Variola, A; Venturelli, L; van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y

    2005-07-01

    We have developed a new method, based on the ballistic transfer of preaccumulated plasmas, to obtain large and dense positron plasmas in a cryogenic environment. The method involves transferring plasmas emanating from a region with a low magnetic field (0.14 T) and relatively high pressure (10(-9) mbar) into a 15 K Penning-Malmberg trap immersed in a 3 T magnetic field with a base pressure better than 10(-13) mbar. The achieved positron accumulation rate in the high field cryogenic trap is more than one and a half orders of magnitude higher than the previous most efficient UHV compatible scheme. Subsequent stacking resulted in a plasma containing more than 1.2 x 10(9) positrons, which is a factor 4 higher than previously reported. Using a rotating wall electric field, plasmas containing about 20 x 10(6) positrons were compressed to a density of 2.6 x 10(10) cm(-3). This is a factor of 6 improvement over earlier measurements. PMID:16090691

  12. Positron source position sensing detector and electronics

    DOEpatents

    Burnham, Charles A.; Bradshaw, Jr., John F.; Kaufman, David E.; Chesler, David A.; Brownell, Gordon L.

    1985-01-01

    A positron source, position sensing device, particularly with medical applications, in which positron induced gamma radiation is detected using a ring of stacked, individual scintillation crystals, a plurality of photodetectors, separated from the scintillation crystals by a light guide, and high resolution position interpolation electronics. Preferably the scintillation crystals are several times more numerous than the photodetectors with each crystal being responsible for a single scintillation event from a received gamma ray. The light guide will disperse the light emitted from gamma ray absorption over several photodetectors. Processing electronics for the output of the photodetectors resolves the location of the scintillation event to a fraction of the dimension of each photodetector. Because each positron absorption results in two 180.degree. oppositely traveling gamma rays, the detection of scintillation in pairs permits location of the positron source in a manner useful for diagnostic purposes. The processing electronics simultaneously responds to the outputs of the photodetectors to locate the scintillations to the source crystal. While it is preferable that the scintillation crystal include a plurality of stacked crystal elements, the resolving power of the processing electronics is also applicable to continuous crystal scintillators.

  13. Laser Ponderomotive Electron-Positron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2004-12-07

    Relativistic ultrahigh laser fields can produce plasmas through quantum mechanical tunneling ionization mechanism, and accelerate produced electrons and ions to generate a relativistic electron beam and energetic ions in plasmas. This process will be followed by creation of electron-positron pairs through interaction of relativistic electrons with a Coulomb field of a nucleus in plasma ions or a strong laser field. In a relativistic strong laser field, the longitudinal accelerating force exerted on an electron is proportional to the square of the electric field, whereas the transverse quivering force is just linearly proportional to it. This is essence of the relativistic ponderomotive acceleration that dominantly produces energetic particles in interaction of ultraintese laser fields with particle beams and plasma. Therefore a tightly focused laser field can accelerate an electron-positron bunch longitudinally up to a remarkable energy and at the same time confines it transversely in the superposed ponderomotive potential of an intense ultrashort laser pulse. Here we propose acceleration and focusing of the electron-positron pair beam by the ponderomotive acceleration scheme to compose a high energy electron-positron collider with very high luminosity.

  14. A model of analogue K-winners-take-all neural circuit.

    PubMed

    Tymoshchuk, Pavlo V

    2013-06-01

    A model of analogue K-winners-take-all (KWTA) neural circuit which can identify the K largest from N unknown wide range inputs, where 1≤K

  15. Workforce and Leader Development: Learning From the Baldrige Winners in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Edwin W; Goodson, Jane R; Duarte, Neville T

    2015-01-01

    It is ironic that perhaps the only constant in health care organizations today is change. To compete successfully in health care and position an organization for high performance amid continuous change, it is very important for managers to have knowledge of the best learning and development practices of high-performing organizations in their industry. The rapid increases in the rate of technological change and geometric increases in knowledge make it virtually imperative that human resources are developed effectively. This article discusses the best learning and development practices among the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award winners in the health care industry since 2002 when the industry had its first award-winning organization. PMID:26217991

  16. The Stock Performance of C. Everett Koop Award Winners Compared With the Standard & Poor's 500 Index

    PubMed Central

    Goetzel, Ron Z.; Fabius, Raymond; Fabius, Dan; Roemer, Enid C.; Thornton, Nicole; Kelly, Rebecca K.; Pelletier, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the link between companies investing in the health and well-being programs of their employees and stock market performance. Methods: Stock performance of C. Everett Koop National Health Award winners (n = 26) was measured over time and compared with the average performance of companies comprising the Standard and Poor's (S&P) 500 Index. Results: The Koop Award portfolio outperformed the S&P 500 Index. In the 14-year period tracked (2000–2014), Koop Award winners’ stock values appreciated by 325% compared with the market average appreciation of 105%. Conclusions: This study supports prior and ongoing research demonstrating a higher market valuation—an affirmation of business success by Wall Street investors—of socially responsible companies that invest in the health and well-being of their workers when compared with other publicly traded firms. PMID:26716843

  17. Probabilistic winner-take-all segmentation of images with application to ship detection.

    PubMed

    Osman, H; Blostein, S D

    2000-01-01

    A recent neural clustering scheme called "probabilistic winner-take-all (PWTA)" is applied to image segmentation. It is demonstrated that PWTA avoids underutilization of clusters by adapting the form of the cluster-conditional probability density function as clustering proceeds. A modification to PWTA is introduced so as to explicitly utilize the spatial continuity of image regions and thus improve the PWTA segmentation performance. The effectiveness of PWTA is then demonstrated through the segmentation of airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of ocean surfaces so as to detect ship signatures, where an approach is proposed to find a suitable value for the number of clusters required for this application. Results show that PWTA gives high segmentation quality and significantly outperforms four other segmentation techniques, namely, 1) K-means, 2) maximum likelihood (ML), 3) backpropagation network (BPN), and 4) histogram thresholding. PMID:18252379

  18. Positron annihilation studies of moisture in graphite-reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.J.; Holt, W.H.; Mock, W., Jr.

    1980-07-01

    The positron lifetime technique of monitoring absorbed moisture is applied to several composites, including graphite/polymides which are candidates for high-temperature (over 260 C) applications. The experimental setup is a conventional fast-slow coincidence system wherein the positron lifetime is measured with respect to a reference time determined by the detection of a nuclear gamma ray emitted simultaneously with the positron. From the experiments, a rate of change of positron mean lifetime per unit mass of water can be determined for each type of specimen. Positron lifetime spectra are presented for a graphite/polyimide composite and for a pure polyimide.

  19. Positron annihilation studies of moisture in graphite-reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Holt, W. H.; Mock, W., Jr.; Buckingham, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The positron lifetime technique of monitoring absorbed moisture is applied to several composites, including graphite/polymides which are candidates for high-temperature (over 260 C) applications. The experimental setup is a conventional fast-slow coincidence system wherein the positron lifetime is measured with respect to a reference time determined by the detection of a nuclear gamma ray emitted simultaneously with the positron. From the experiments, a rate of change of positron mean lifetime per unit mass of water can be determined for each type of specimen. Positron lifetime spectra are presented for a graphite/polyimide composite and for a pure polyimide.

  20. Relativistic Positron Creation Using Ultra-Intense Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Wilks, S; Bonlie, J; Liang, E; Myatt, J; Price, D; Meyerhofer, D; Beiersdorfer, P

    2008-08-25

    We measure up to 2 x 10{sup 10} positrons per steradian ejected out the back of {approx}mm thick gold targets when illuminated with short ({approx} 1 ps) ultra-intense ({approx} 1 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses. Positrons produced predominately by the Bethe-Heitler process and have an effective temperature of 2-4 MeV, with the distribution peaking at 4-7 MeV. The angular distribution of the positrons is anisotropic. The measurements indicate the laser produced, relativistic positron densities ({approx} 10{sup 16} positrons/cm{sup 3}) are the highest ever created in the laboratory.