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Sample records for pro sharepoint solution

  1. Protein ProQ Influences Osmotic Activation of Compatible Solute Transporter ProP in Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Kunte, H. Jörg; Crane, Rebecca A.; Culham, Doreen E.; Richmond, Deborah; Wood, Janet M.

    1999-01-01

    ProP is an osmoregulatory compatible solute transporter in Escherichia coli K-12. Mutation proQ220::Tn5 decreased the rate constant for and the extent of ProP activation by an osmotic upshift but did not alter proP transcription or the ProP protein level. Allele proQ220::Tn5 was isolated, and the proQ sequence was determined. Locus proQ is upstream from prc (tsp) at 41.2 centisomes on the genetic map. The proQ220::Tn5 and prc phenotypes were different, however. Gene proQ is predicted to encode a 232-amino-acid, basic, hydrophilic protein (molecular mass, 25,876 Da; calculated isoelectric point, 9.66; 32% D, E, R, or K; 54.5% polar amino acids). The insertion of PCR-amplified proQ into vector pBAD24 produced a plasmid containing the wild-type proQ open reading frame, the expression of which yielded a soluble protein with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa. Antibodies raised against the overexpressed ProQ protein detected cross-reactive material in proQ+ bacteria but not in proQ220::Tn5 bacteria. ProQ may be a structural element that influences the osmotic activation of ProP at a posttranslational level. PMID:10049386

  2. Solution structures of active and inactive forms of the DP IV (CD26) inhibitor Pro-boroPro determined by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sudmeier, J L; Günther, U L; Gutheil, W G; Coutts, S J; Snow, R J; Barton, R W; Bachovchin, W W

    1994-10-18

    Synthesis of the boronic acid analog of the dipeptide Pro-Pro yields a mixture of diastereomers Pro-L-boroPro and Pro-D-boroPro, one of which is a potent inhibitor [Ki = 16 pM; Gutheil, W. G., & Bachovchin, W. W. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 8723-8731] of dipeptidyl amino peptidase type IV (DP IV), also known as CD26. The structures of both diasteremers are determined here in aqueous solution by means of 1D and 2D NMR of 1H, 13C, and 11B, and force-field calculations, and the inhibitor is proven to have the L-L configuration. At low pH values (approximately 2), both diastereomers are trans with respect to the peptide bond. Populations of proline ring conformers are determined by pseudorotation analysis, using vicinal proton spin-coupling constants obtained by computer analysis of 1D1H NMR spectral fine structure. At neutral pH values, the Pro-boroPro inhibitor of DP IV undergoes slow, reversible inactivation (Gutheil & Bachovchin, 1993). By structural determination of the decomposition products of both diasteromers, the process is shown here to involve formation of a six-membered ring between the residues by means of trans-cis conversion and formation of a B-N bond, producing chiral nitrogen atoms in both cases having the S configuration. Analogy to cyclic dipeptides suggests the new compounds be named cyclo(Pro-L-boroPro) and cyclo(Pro-D-boroPro). PMID:7918465

  3. The AtProT Family. Compatible Solute Transporters with Similar Substrate Specificity But Differential Expression Patterns1

    PubMed Central

    Grallath, Silke; Weimar, Thilo; Meyer, Andreas; Gumy, Christophe; Suter-Grotemeyer, Marianne; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc; Rentsch, Doris

    2005-01-01

    Proline transporters (ProTs) mediate transport of the compatible solutes Pro, glycine betaine, and the stress-induced compound γ-aminobutyric acid. A new member of this gene family, AtProT3, was isolated from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and its properties were compared to AtProT1 and AtProT2. Transient expression of fusions of AtProT and the green fluorescent protein in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts revealed that all three AtProTs were localized at the plasma membrane. Expression in a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant demonstrated that the affinity of all three AtProTs was highest for glycine betaine (Km = 0.1–0.3 mm), lower for Pro (Km = 0.4–1 mm), and lowest for γ-aminobutyric acid (Km = 4–5 mm). Relative quantification of the mRNA level using real-time PCR and analyses of transgenic plants expressing the β-glucuronidase (uidA) gene under control of individual AtProT promoters showed that the expression pattern of AtProTs are complementary. AtProT1 expression was found in the phloem or phloem parenchyma cells throughout the whole plant, indicative of a role in long-distance transport of compatible solutes. β-Glucuronidase activity under the control of the AtProT2 promoter was restricted to the epidermis and the cortex cells in roots, whereas in leaves, staining could be demonstrated only after wounding. In contrast, AtProT3 expression was restricted to the above-ground parts of the plant and could be localized to the epidermal cells in leaves. These results showed that, although intracellular localization, substrate specificity, and affinity are very similar, the transporters fulfill different roles in planta. PMID:15618414

  4. 'OnePoint'--combining OneNote and SharePoint to facilitate knowledge transfer.

    PubMed

    Barber, Christopher G; Haque, Nuzrul; Gardner, Ben

    2009-09-01

    The identification and development of novel drugs requires a multidisciplinary team of individuals whose membership changes during the lifecycle of a project. Incomplete knowledge transfer across this team can be a barrier to effective decision-making and efficient drug discovery. We have deployed a new infrastructure supporting information storage and distribution within small teams using Microsoft's SharePoint server technology in conjunction with the desktop application OneNote. This delivers a user-friendly collaborative workspace that is fast, flexible and carries a low training burden. Demand from drug project teams for this 'solution' has now resulted in site-wide deployment to over 500 people across research. PMID:19596081

  5. Rheological Behavior Xanthan and SlurryPro Polymer Solutions Evaluated as Shear Thinning Delivery Fluids for Subsurface Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Truex, M.; Vermeul, V.

    2011-12-01

    Shear thinning fluids can be applied as a delivery means to enhance the uniformity of remedial amendment distribution in heterogeneous aquifers, thereby to improve remediation performance. The rheological behavior of biopolymer xanthan gum and synthetic polymer SlurryPro were tested, and their influence on the amendment delivery performance was evaluated. The impact of polymer concentration, basic water chemistry, salinity (e.g., Br-, Na+, Ca2+ concentrations), remedial amendments (phosphate, sodium lactate, ethyl lactate, lactate oil, whey), sediments, and the mixing approach on the rheological properties of the polymer solutions was determined. The SlurryPro polymer lost shear-thinning properties even at relatively low solution ionic strength. However, the xanthan gum polymer maintained shear-thinning properties under most of the tested conditions, though with some loss in absolute viscosity with increasing ionic strength. Xanthan appeared to be the better candidate for enhanced amendment delivery. Increasing in xanthan concentration not only increased the solution viscosity, but also increased degree of shear thinning. Addition of salt decreased the solution viscosity and the degree of shear thinning, while the influence was diminished when the polymer concentration was higher. After reaching a critical xanthan concentration, addition of salt increased solution viscosity. The degradation of xanthan and SlurryPro in the presence of site aquifer materials and microbes was studied in batch tests in which the field sediment/water ratio was simulated. The viscosity of the polymer solutions dropped 85% or more in the first week, while the solution chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreasing occurred at a much slower rate.

  6. Cause and solution for false upstream boat velocities measured with a StreamPro acoustic doppler current profiler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Rehmel, Mike S.; Wagner, Chad R.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, Teledyne RD Instruments introduced the StreamPro acoustic Doppler current profiler which does not include an internal compass. During stationary moving-bed tests the StreamPro often tends to swim or kite from the end of the tether (the instrument rotates then moves laterally in the direction of the rotation). Because the StreamPro does not have an internal compass, it cannot account for the rotation. This rotation and lateral movement of the StreamPro on the end of the tether generates a false upstream velocity, which cannot be easily distinguished from a moving-bed bias velocity. A field test was completed to demonstrate that this rotation and lateral movement causes a false upstream boat velocity. The vector dot product of the boat velocity and the unit vector of the depth-averaged water velocity is shown to be an effective method to account for the effect of the rotation and lateral movement.

  7. Developing a Business Intelligence Process for a Training Module in SharePoint 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidtchen, Bryce; Solano, Wanda M.; Albasini, Colby

    2015-01-01

    Prior to this project, training information for the employees of the National Center for Critical Processing and Storage (NCCIPS) was stored in an array of unrelated spreadsheets and SharePoint lists that had to be manually updated. By developing a content management system through a web application platform named SharePoint, this training system is now highly automated and provides a much less intensive method of storing training data and scheduling training courses. This system was developed by using SharePoint Designer and laying out the data structure for the interaction between different lists of data about the employees. The automation of data population inside of the lists was accomplished by implementing SharePoint workflows which essentially lay out the logic for how data is connected and calculated between certain lists. The resulting training system is constructed from a combination of five lists of data with a single list acting as the user-friendly interface. This interface is populated with the courses required for each employee and includes past and future information about course requirements. The employees of NCCIPS now have the ability to view, log, and schedule their training information and courses with much more ease. This system will relieve a significant amount of manual input and serve as a powerful informational resource for the employees of NCCIPS in the future.

  8. Help Central: Creating a Help Desk and Knowledge Portal in SharePoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Lisa A.; Tims, Randy S.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the authors' implementation of Help Central, a site within the Lister Hill Library Collection on the University of Alabama-Birmingham's SharePoint server. Initially, Help Central was designed to address the inadequacies in the library's old, static HTML web-based support system, including haphazard issue reporting by staff…

  9. Genie Pro

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-05-15

    Genie Pro is a general purpose, interactive, adaptive tool for automatically labeling regions and finding objects in large amounts of image data. Genie Pro uses supervised learning techniques to search for spatio-spectral algorithms that are best able to match exaple labels provided by a user during a training session. After Genie Pro has discovered a useful algorithm, this algorith can then be applied to other similar types of image data, to label regions and objectsmore » similar to those provided during the training session. Genie Pro was originally developed for analyzing multispectral satellite data, but it works equally well with panchromatic (grayscale) and hyperspectral satellite data, aerial imagery, and various kinds of medical imagery. AS a rough guideline, Genie Pro can work with any imagery where the scene being imaged is all approximately at a constant distance fromt he imaging device, and so the scale of imagery is fixed. Applications for Genie Pro include: Crop and terrain type mapping, Road and river network mapping, Broad area search for vehicles and buildings, and Cancer identification in histological images.« less

  10. A Point to Share: Streamlining Access Services Workflow through Online Collaboration, Communication, and Storage with Microsoft SharePoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diffin, Jennifer; Chirombo, Fanuel; Nangle, Dennis; de Jong, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article explains how the document management team (circulation and interlibrary loan) at the University of Maryland University College implemented Microsoft's SharePoint product to create a central hub for online collaboration, communication, and storage. Enhancing the team's efficiency, organization, and cooperation was the primary goal.…

  11. Corynebacterium glutamicum Is Equipped with Four Secondary Carriers for Compatible Solutes: Identification, Sequencing, and Characterization of the Proline/Ectoine Uptake System, ProP, and the Ectoine/Proline/Glycine Betaine Carrier, EctP

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Heidi; Weil, Brita; Burkovski, Andreas; Krämer, Reinhard; Morbach, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum uses the compatible solutes glycine betaine, proline, and ectoine for protection against hyperosmotic shock. Osmoregulated glycine betaine carrier BetP and proline permease PutP have been previously characterized; we have identified and characterized two additional osmoregulated secondary transporters for compatible solutes in C. glutamicum, namely, the proline/ectoine carrier, ProP, and the ectoine/glycine betaine/proline carrier, EctP. A ΔbetP ΔputP ΔproP ΔectP mutant was unable to respond to hyperosmotic stress, indicating that no additional uptake system for these compatible solutes is present. Osmoregulated ProP consists of 504 residues and preferred proline (Km, 48 μM) to ectoine (Km, 132 μM). The proP gene could not be expressed from its own promoter in C. glutamicum; however, expression was observed in Escherichia coli. ProP belongs to the major facilitator superfamily, whereas EctP, together with the betaine carrier, BetP, is a member of a newly established subfamily of the sodium/solute symporter superfamily. The constitutively expressed ectP codes for a 615-residue transporter. EctP preferred ectoine (Km, 63 μM) to betaine (Km, 333 μM) and proline (Km, 1,200 μM). Its activity was regulated by the external osmolality. The related betaine transporter, BetP, could be activated directly by altering the membrane state with local anesthetics, but this was not the case for EctP. Furthermore, the onset of osmotic activation was virtually instantaneous for BetP, whereas it took about 10 s for EctP. PMID:9811661

  12. Identity Federation and Its Importance for NASA's Future: The SharePoint Extranet Pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baturin, Rebecca R.

    2013-01-01

    My project at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) during the spring 2013 Project Management and Systems Engineering Internship was to functionalJy test and deploy the SharePoint Extranet system and ensure successful completion of the project's various lifecycle milestones as described by NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 7 120.7. I worked alongside NASA Project Managers, Systems Integration Engineers, and Information Technology (IT) Professionals to pilot this collaboration capability between NASA and its External Partners. The use of identity federation allows NASA to leverage externally-issued credentials of other federal agencies and private aerospace and defense companies, versus the traditional process of granting and maintaining full NASA identities for these individuals. This is the first system of its kind at NASA and it will serve as a pilot for the Federal Government. Recognizing the novelty of this service, NASA's initial approach for deployment included a pilot period where nearby employees of Patrick Air Force Base would assist in testing and deployment. By utilizing a credential registration process, Air Force users mapped their Air Force-issued Common Access Cards (CAC) to a NASA identity for access to the External SharePoint. Once the Air Force stands up an Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS) instance within their Data Center and establishes a direct trust with NASA, true identity federation can be established. The next partner NASA is targeting for collaboration is Lockheed Martin (LMCO), since they collaborate frequently for the ORION Program. Through the use of Exostar as an identity hub, LMCO employees will be able to access NASA data on a need to know basis, with NASA ultimately managing access. In a time when every dollar and resource is being scrutinized, this capability is an exciting new way for NASA to continue its collaboration efforts in a cost and resource effective manner.

  13. Conformational Plasticity of proNGF

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Francesca; Malerba, Francesca; Kelly, Geoff; Noinville, Sylvie; Lamba, Doriano; Cattaneo, Antonino; Pastore, Annalisa

    2011-01-01

    Nerve Growth Factor is an essential protein that supports neuronal survival during development and influences neuronal function throughout adulthood, both in the central and peripheral nervous system. The unprocessed precursor of NGF, proNGF, seems to be endowed with biological functions distinct from those of the mature protein, such as chaperone-like activities and apoptotic and/or neurotrophic properties. We have previously suggested, based on Small Angle X-ray Scattering data, that recombinant murine proNGF has features typical of an intrinsically unfolded protein. Using complementary biophysical techniques, we show here new evidence that clarifies and widens this hypothesis through a detailed comparison of the structural properties of NGF and proNGF. Our data provide direct information about the dynamic properties of the pro-peptide and indicate that proNGF assumes in solution a compact globular conformation. The N-terminal pro-peptide extension influences the chemical environment of the mature protein and protects the protein from proteolytic digestion. Accordingly, we observe that unfolding of proNGF involves a two-steps mechanism. The distinct structural properties of proNGF as compared to NGF agree with and rationalise a different functional role of the precursor. PMID:21818348

  14. ProMat

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-06-12

    ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code

  15. Solution structure of a novel T-cell adhesion inhibitor derived from the fragment of ICAM-1 receptor: cyclo(1,8)-Cys-Pro-Arg-Gly-Gly-Ser-Val-Cys.

    PubMed

    Tejo, Bimo A; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2009-08-01

    This study is aimed at elucidating the structure of a novel T-cell adhesion inhibitor, cyclo(1,8)-CPRGGSVC using one- and two-dimensional (2D) (1)H NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The peptide is derived from the sequence of its parent peptide cIBR (cyclo(1,12)-PenPRGGSVLVTGC), which is a fragment of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Our previous results show that the cyclo(1,8)-CPRGGSVC peptide binds to the LFA-1 I-domain and inhibits heterotypic T-cell adhesion, presumably by blocking the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interactions. The structure of the peptide was determined using NMR and MD simulation in aqueous solution. Our results indicate that the peptide adopts type-I beta-turn conformation at the Pro2-Arg3-Gly4-Gly5 (PRGG) sequence. The beta-turn structure at the PRGG motif is well conserved in cIBR peptide and ICAM-1 receptor, which suggests the importance of the PRGG motif for the biological activity of cyclo(1,8)-CPRGGSVC peptide. Meanwhile, the Gly5-Ser6-Val7-Cys8-Cys1 (GSVCC) sequence forms a "turn-like" random coil structure that does not belong to any structured motif. Therefore, cyclo(1,8)-CPRGGSVC peptide has only one structured region at the PRGG sequence, which may play an important role in the binding of the peptide to the LFA-1 I-domain. The conserved beta-turn conformation of the PRGG motif in ICAM-1, cIBR, and cyclo(1,8)-CPRGGSVC peptides can potentially be used to design peptidomimetics. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 91: 633-641, 2009.This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at biopolymers@wiley.com. PMID:19330816

  16. PRO-140 (Progenics).

    PubMed

    Poli, G

    2001-09-01

    PRO-140, a monoclonal antibody against the HIV coreceptor CCR5, is under investigation by Progenics and the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC) as a potential treatment for HIV infection [211441], [286246], [286247]. Phase I/II trials were expected to commence during 2001 [395621], [409142], despite being initially planned for 2000 [322637], [361819], [365216], [375598], [408483]. In January 1998, ADARC and Progenics reported that the HIV binding site on the CCR5 coreceptor is distinct from betachemokine binding domains, which they claimed may allow for the development of therapeutics with fewer side effects [273391], 421256]. In vitro studies have shown PRO-140 potently blocked all of 17 primary HIV isolates that use CCR5 as a fusion coreceptor [342173]. In October 2000, Progenics was awarded an SBIR grant to fund a 2-year project exploring the breadth, potency and durability of PRO-140 therapy in laboratory and animal models of HIV infection. This project was a collaboration between Progenics, Weill Medical College of Cornell University and the Scripps Research Institute [385982]. In May 1999, the company entered into an agreement with Protein Design Labs (PDL) for the humanization by PDL of PRO-140 [325445]. In November 1997, Progenics was awarded a 600,000 dollars grant from the NIAID for the examination of new approaches to HIV vaccine design based on CCR5 [268407]. PMID:15965853

  17. TOXIRAE PRO PID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ToxiRAE Pro PID measures total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a photoionization detector (PID). This sensor can be programmed to measure concentrations of a specified compound automatically and has a real time reading of VOC concentrations in parts per million (ppm) ...

  18. Robotics Vision for a Scouting Rover - PRoViScout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, G.; Woods, M.; Pullan, D.; Proviscout Team

    2011-10-01

    The FP7-SPACE Project ProViScout (Planetary Robotics Vision Scout, scheduled from April 2010 to September 2012) aims to demonstrate the feasibility of vision-based autonomous sample identification & selection in combination with vision-based navigation for a long range scouting/exploration mission on a terrestrial planet along with the robotic elements required. The paper gives an overview of the PRoViScout technical and scientific objectives, envisaged solutions and achievements so far.

  19. Synthesis, DNA recognition and cleavage studies of novel tetrapeptide complexes, Cu(II)/Zn(II)-Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand, Farukh; Jamsheera, A.; Mohapatra, D. K.

    2013-05-01

    New tetrapeptide complexes Cu(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (1) and Zn(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (2) were synthesized from the reaction of tetrapeptide, Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro and CuCl2/ZnCl2 and were thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, IR,1H and 13C NMR (in case of 2), ESI-MS, UV and molar conductance measurements. The solution stability study was carried out employing UV-vis absorption titrations over a broad range of pH which suggested the stability of the complexes in solution. In vitro interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with CT-DNA was studied employing UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroic and viscometry studies. To throw insight into molecular binding event at the target site, UV-vis titrations of 1 and 2 with mononucleotides of interest viz.; 5'-GMP and 5'-TMP were carried out. Cleavage activity of the complexes with pBR322 plasmid DNA was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis and, the electrophoresis pattern demonstrated that both the complexes 1 and 2 are efficient cleavage agents. Further, the Cu(II) complex displayed efficient oxidative cleavage of supercoiled DNA while various reactive oxygen species are responsible for the cleavage in Zn(II) complex.

  20. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory tripeptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro show increasing permeabilities with increasing physiological relevance of absorption models.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Martin; Cerstiaens, Anja; van Meensel, Ans; Mols, Raf; van der Pijl, Pieter C; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Augustijns, Patrick

    2008-08-01

    Transepithelial transport of the ACE inhibitory peptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro was studied in different models of absorption. Apparent permeability (P(app)) values for absorptive transport across Caco-2 monolayers were 1.0+/-0.9 x 10(-8) (Ile-Pro-Pro) and 0.5+/-0.1 x 10(-8)cms(-1) (Val-Pro-Pro). Ex vivo transport across jejunal segments in the Ussing chamber was 5-times (Ile-Pro-Pro) to 10-times (Val-Pro-Pro) higher with no significant differences (p>0.05) observed between both peptides. The peptidase inhibitor bestatin increased permeability for the absorptive direction for Ile-Pro-Pro by twofold. Neither a transepithelial pH gradient nor increased apical tripeptide concentration nor longitudinal localization of the intestinal segment influenced P(app) in the ex vivo experiments. Val-Pro-Pro transport across Peyer's patches, however, was 4-times higher (P(app)=21.0+/-9.3 x10(-8)cms(-1)) as compared to duodenum (P(app)=4.8+/-1.4 x 10(-8)cms(-1)). In the in situ perfusion experiments P(app) values varied greatly among different animals ranging from 0.5 to 24.0 x10(-8)cms(-1) (Ile-Pro-Pro) and from 1.0 to 15.6 x 10(-8)cms(-1) (Val-Pro-Pro). In summary, Caco-2 and ex vivo absorption models differ considerably regarding their peptide permeability. The in situ model seems to be less appropriate because of the observed large variability in peptide permeability. The results of this study demonstrate that the ACE inhibitory peptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro are absorbed partially undegraded. PMID:18490081

  1. Backpack Smarts from A Pro

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160665.html Backpack Smarts From a Pro Overloaded carryalls injure thousands ... SATURDAY, Aug. 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Ill-fitting backpacks may put school children at risk for muscle ...

  2. The Effects of Super-Flux (High Performance) Dialyzer on Plasma Glycosylated Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (proBNP) and Glycosylated N-Terminal proBNP in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Nishikimi, Toshio; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Yasuno, Shinji; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Kuwabara, Yoshihiro; Nakao, Kazuhiro; Minami, Takeya; Yamada, Chinatsu; Ueshima, Kenji; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Horii, Kazukiyo; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Kangawa, Kenji; Minamino, Naoto; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasma BNP levels are predictive of prognosis in hemodialysis patients. However, recent studies showed that the current BNP immunoassay cross-reacts with glycosylated proBNP, and the NT-proBNP assay underestimates glycosylated NT-proBNP. In addition, the recently developed high performance dialyzer removes medium-sized molecular solutes such as β2-microgloburin. We therefore investigated the effects of high performance dialysis on measured levels of glycosylated proBNP, glycosylated NT-proBNP and other BNP-related peptides in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis. Method The relationships between clinical parameters and BNP-related molecule were also investigated. We used our newly developed immunoassay to measure plasma total BNP and proBNP in 105 normal subjects and 36 ESRD patients before and after hemodialysis. Plasma NT-proBNP was measured using Elecsys II after treatment with or without deglycosylating enzymes. We also measured plasma ANP and cGMP using radioimmunoassays. Results All the measured BNP-related peptides were significantly higher in ESRD patients than healthy subjects. Total BNP (−38.9%), proBNP (−29.7%), glycoNT-proBNP (−45.5%), nonglycoNT-proBNP (−53.4%), ANP (−50.4%) and cGMP (−72.1%) were all significantly reduced after hemodialysis, and the magnitude of the reduction appeared molecular weight- dependent. Both the proBNP/total BNP and glycoNT-proBNP/nonglycoNT-proBNP ratios were increased after hemodialysis. The former correlated positively with hemodialysis vintage and negatively with systolic blood pressure, while the latter correlated positively with parathyroid hormone levels. Conclusion These results suggest that hemodialysis using super-flux dialyzer removes BNP-related peptides in a nearly molecular weight-dependent manner. The ProBNP/total BNP and glycoNT-proBNP/nonglycoNT-proBNP ratios appear to be influenced by hemodialysis-related parameters in ESRD patients on hemodialysis. PMID:24667631

  3. Experimental results from RO-PRO: a next generation system for low-energy desalination.

    PubMed

    Achilli, Andrea; Prante, Jeri L; Hancock, Nathan T; Maxwell, Eric B; Childress, Amy E

    2014-06-01

    A pilot system was designed and constructed to evaluate reverse osmosis (RO) energy reduction that can be achieved using pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO). The RO-PRO experimental system is the first known system to utilize energy from a volume of water transferred from atmospheric pressure to elevated pressure across a semipermeable membrane to prepressurize RO feedwater. In other words, the system demonstrated that pressure could be exchanged between PRO and RO subsystems. Additionally, the first experimental power density data for a RO-PRO system is now available. Average experimental power densities for the RO-PRO system ranged from 1.1 to 2.3 W/m2. This is higher than previous river-to-sea PRO pilot systems (1.5 W/m2) and closer to the goal of 5 W/m2 that would make PRO an economically feasible technology. Furthermore, isolated PRO system testing was performed to evaluate PRO element performance with higher cross-flow velocities and power densities exceeding 8 W/m2 were achieved with a 28 g/L NaCl draw solution. From this empirical data, inferences for future system performance can be drawn that indicate future RO-PRO systems may reduce the specific energy requirements for desalination by ∼1 kWh/m3. PMID:24798068

  4. ProC: Process Coordinator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovest, Wolfgang; Knoche, Jörg; Hell, Reinhard; Doerl, Uwe; Riller, Thomas; Matthai, Frank; Ensslin, Torsten; Rachen, Jörg; Robbers, Georg; Adorf, Hans-Martin; Reinecke, Martin; Bartelmann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    ProC (short for Process Coordinator) is a versatile workflow engine that allows the user to build, run and manage workflows with just a few clicks. It automatically documents every processing step, making every modification to data reproducible. ProC provides a graphical user interface for constructing complex data processing workflows out of a given set of computer programs. The user can, for example, specify that only data products which are affected by a change in the input data are updated selectively, avoiding unnecessary computations. The ProC suite is flexible and satisfies basic needs of data processing centers that have to be able to restructure their data processing along with the development of a project.

  5. Corner Office: ProQuest's Marty Kahn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine; Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    In a scant three years at ProQuest, Marty Kahn, CEO, has moved a company coming out of a financial morass back onto solid ground. He came on board after the purchase of ProQuest Information and Learning by the (mostly) privately owned Cambridge Information Group in late 2006 and the merger of ProQuest and CSA to form ProQuest CSA. (It's now just…

  6. BNP and NT-proBNP Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peptides Formal name: B-type Natriuretic Peptide; N-terminal pro b-type Natriuretic Peptide Related tests: Cardiac ... for B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is ...

  7. ProMAT: protein microarray analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Zangar, Richard C.

    2006-04-04

    Summary: ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from ELISA microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code. Availability: ProMAT is available at http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT. ProMAT requires Java version 1.5.0 and R version 1.9.1 (or more recent versions) which are distributed with the tool.

  8. NGF and proNGF Reciprocal Interference in Immunoassays: Open Questions, Criticalities, and Ways Forward.

    PubMed

    Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    The homeostasis between mature neurotrophin NGF and its precursor proNGF is thought to be crucial in physiology and in pathological states. Therefore, the measurement of the relative amounts of NGF and proNGF could serve as a footprint for the identification of disease states, for diagnostic purposes. Since NGF is part of proNGF, their selective identification with anti-NGF antibodies is not straightforward. Currently, many immunoassays for NGF measurement are available, while the proNGF assays are few and not validated by published information. The question arises, as to whether the commercially available assays are able to distinguish between the two forms. Also, since in biological samples the two forms coexist, are the measurements of one species affected by the presence of the other? We describe experiments addressing these questions. For the first time, NGF and proNGF were measured together and tested in different immunoassays. Unexpectedly, NGF and proNGF were found to reciprocally interfere with the experimental outcome. The interference also calls into question the widely used NGF ELISA methods, applied to biological samples where NGF and proNGF coexist. Therefore, an immunoassay, able to distinguish between the two forms is needed. We propose possible ways forward, toward the development of a selective assay. In particular, the use of the well validated anti-NGF αD11 antibody in an alphaLISA assay with optimized incubation times would be a solution to avoid the interference in the measurement of a mixed sample containing NGF and proNGF. Furthermore, we explored the possibility of measuring proNGF in a biological sample. But the available commercial kit for the detection of proNGF does not allow the measurement of proNGF in mouse brain tissues. Therefore, we validated an SPR approach for the measurement of proNGF in a biological sample. Our experiments help in understanding the technical limits in the measurement of the NGF/proNGF ratio in biological

  9. NGF and proNGF Reciprocal Interference in Immunoassays: Open Questions, Criticalities, and Ways Forward

    PubMed Central

    Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    The homeostasis between mature neurotrophin NGF and its precursor proNGF is thought to be crucial in physiology and in pathological states. Therefore, the measurement of the relative amounts of NGF and proNGF could serve as a footprint for the identification of disease states, for diagnostic purposes. Since NGF is part of proNGF, their selective identification with anti-NGF antibodies is not straightforward. Currently, many immunoassays for NGF measurement are available, while the proNGF assays are few and not validated by published information. The question arises, as to whether the commercially available assays are able to distinguish between the two forms. Also, since in biological samples the two forms coexist, are the measurements of one species affected by the presence of the other? We describe experiments addressing these questions. For the first time, NGF and proNGF were measured together and tested in different immunoassays. Unexpectedly, NGF and proNGF were found to reciprocally interfere with the experimental outcome. The interference also calls into question the widely used NGF ELISA methods, applied to biological samples where NGF and proNGF coexist. Therefore, an immunoassay, able to distinguish between the two forms is needed. We propose possible ways forward, toward the development of a selective assay. In particular, the use of the well validated anti-NGF αD11 antibody in an alphaLISA assay with optimized incubation times would be a solution to avoid the interference in the measurement of a mixed sample containing NGF and proNGF. Furthermore, we explored the possibility of measuring proNGF in a biological sample. But the available commercial kit for the detection of proNGF does not allow the measurement of proNGF in mouse brain tissues. Therefore, we validated an SPR approach for the measurement of proNGF in a biological sample. Our experiments help in understanding the technical limits in the measurement of the NGF/proNGF ratio in biological

  10. 75 FR 11549 - Determination That PRO-BANTHINE (Propantheline Bromide) Tablets and 14 Other Drug Products Were...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 6896).) Application No. Drug Applicant NDA 8-732 PRO-BANTHINE Shire Pharmaceuticals... NDA 20-101 PROZAC (fluoxetine HCl) Eli Lilly and Co., Oral Solution, EQ 20 Lilly Corporate mg base/5...

  11. Plasma pro-atrial natriuretic peptide to indicate fluid balance during cystectomy: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Højskov, Michael; Ruhnau, Birgitte; Salling, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Tom; Goetze, Jens P; Secher, Niels H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives During surgery the volume of administered fluid is debated. Pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP) is released by atrial distension, and we evaluated the relationship between changes in proANP associated with perioperative fluid balance. Design Prospective observational study. Setting One university/tertiary centre. Participants The study included patients who underwent radical cystectomy. Plasma for determination of proANP was obtained before surgery, after resection of the bladder, and at the end of surgery for 20 robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) and 20 open radical cystectomy (ORC) procedures. Results The blood loss was 1871 (95% CI 1267 to 2475) vs 589 mL (378 to 801) in the ORC and RARC groups (p=0.001), respectively, and fluid balance was positive by 1518 mL (1215 to 1821) during ORC, and by 1858 mL (1461 to 2255) during RARC (p=0.163). Yet, at the end of ORC, plasma proANP was reduced by 23% (14% to 32%, p=0.001), while plasma proANP did not change significantly during RARC. Thus, plasma proANP was associated both with the perioperative blood loss (r= −0.475 (0.632 to −0.101), p=0.002), and with fluid balance (r=0.561 (0.302 to 0.740), p=0.001), indicating that a stable plasma proANP required a fluid surplus by 2.4 L (2.0 to 2.7). Conclusions There was a correlation between intraoperative haemorrhage and a decrease in plasma proANP and, taking plasma proANP to indicate filling of the heart, about 2.5 L surplus volume of lactated Ringer's solution appears to maintain cardiac preload during cystectomy. Trial registration number EudraCT (2012-005040-20), Results. PMID:26908528

  12. Intrinsic structural disorder of mouse proNGF.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Francesca; Covaceuszach, Sonia; Konarev, Peter V; Gonfloni, Stefania; Malerba, Francesca; Schwarz, Elisabeth; Svergun, Dmitri I; Cattaneo, Antonino; Lamba, Doriano

    2009-06-01

    The unprocessed precursor of the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), proNGF, has additional functions, besides its initially described role as a chaperone for NGF folding. The precursor protein endows apoptotic and/or neurotrophic properties, in contrast to the mature part. The structural and molecular basis for such distinct activities are presently unknown. Aiming to gain insights into the specific molecular interactions that govern rm-proNGF biological activities versus those of its mature counterpart, a structural study by synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in solution was carried out. The different binding properties of the two proteins were investigated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using, as structural probes, a panel of anti-NGF antibodies and the soluble forms of TrkA and p75(NTR) receptors. SAXS measurements revealed the rm-proNGF to be dimeric and anisometric, with the propeptide domain being intrinsically unstructured. Ab initio reconstructions assuming twofold symmetry generated two types of structural models, a globular "crab-like" and an elongated shape that resulted in equally good fits of the scattering data. A novel method accounting for possible coexistence of different conformations contributing to the experimental scattering pattern, with no symmetry constraints, suggests the "crab-like" to be a more likely proNGF conformation. To exploit the potential of chemical stabilizers affecting the existing conformational protein populations, SAXS data were also collected in the presence of ammonium sulphate. An increase of the proNGF compactness was observed. SPR data pinpoints that the propeptide of proNGF may act as an intrinsically unstructured protein domain, characterized by a molecular promiscuity in the interaction/binding to multiple partners (TrkA and p75(NTR) receptors and a panel of neutralizing anti-NGF antibodies) depending on the physiological conditions of the cell. These data provide a first insight into the structural basis

  13. Integrated Programs and Pro-Environmental Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Research suggested that "nature experience as an education method played a role in developing environmental value and attitudes, and was influential in pro-environmental behaviour." Few of these studies however, assessed the long-term influences of outdoor education experiences on participants' pro-environmental behaviour. The Outward Bound Canada…

  14. Pro-Anorexia and Pro-Recovery Photo Sharing: A Tale of Two Warring Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Weber, Ingmar; Crain, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    Background There is widespread use of the Internet to promote anorexia as a lifestyle choice. Pro-anorexia content can be harmful for people affected or at risk of having anorexia. That movement is actively engaged in sharing photos on social networks such as Flickr. Objective To study the characteristics of the online communities engaged in disseminating content that encourages eating disorders (known as “pro-anorexia”) and to investigate if the posting of such content is discouraged by the posting of recovery-oriented content. Methods The extraction of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photographs from the photo sharing site Flickr pertaining to 242,710 photos from 491 users and analyzing four separate social networks therein. Results Pro-anorexia and pro-recovery communities interact to a much higher degree among themselves than what is expected from the distribution of contacts (only 59-72% of contacts but 74-83% of comments are made to members inside the community). Pro-recovery users employ similar words to those used by pro-anorexia users to describe their photographs, possibly in order to ensure that their content appears when pro-anorexia users search for images. Pro-anorexia users who are exposed to comments from the opposite camp are less likely to cease posting pro-anorexia photographs than those who do not receive such comments (46% versus 61%), and if they cease, they do so approximately three months later. Our observations show two highly active communities, where most interaction is within each community. However, the pro-recovery community takes steps to ensure that their content is visible to the pro-anorexia community, both by using textual descriptions of their photographs that are similar to those used by the pro-anorexia group and by commenting to pro-anorexia content. The latter activity is, however, counterproductive, as it entrenches pro-anorexia users in their stance. Conclusions Our results highlight the nature of pro-anorexia and pro

  15. Pro-sociality without empathy.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Hollis, Karen; Nowbahari, Elise; Kacelnik, Alex

    2012-12-23

    Empathy, the capacity to recognize and share feelings experienced by another individual, is an important trait in humans, but is not the same as pro-sociality, the tendency to behave so as to benefit another individual. Given the importance of understanding empathy's evolutionary emergence, it is unsurprising that many studies attempt to find evidence for it in other species. To address the question of what should constitute evidence for empathy, we offer a critical comparison of two recent studies of rescuing behaviour that report similar phenomena but are interpreted very differently by their authors. In one of the studies, rescue behaviour in rats was interpreted as providing evidence for empathy, whereas in the other, rescue behaviour in ants was interpreted without reference to sharing of emotions. Evidence for empathy requires showing that actor individuals possess a representation of the receiver's emotional state and are driven by the psychological goal of improving its wellbeing. Proving psychological goal-directedness by current standards involves goal-devaluation and causal sensitivity protocols, which, in our view, have not been implemented in available publications. Empathy has profound significance not only for cognitive and behavioural sciences but also for philosophy and ethics and, in our view, remains unproven outside humans. PMID:22859561

  16. Pro-sociality without empathy

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Hollis, Karen; Nowbahari, Elise; Kacelnik, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Empathy, the capacity to recognize and share feelings experienced by another individual, is an important trait in humans, but is not the same as pro-sociality, the tendency to behave so as to benefit another individual. Given the importance of understanding empathy's evolutionary emergence, it is unsurprising that many studies attempt to find evidence for it in other species. To address the question of what should constitute evidence for empathy, we offer a critical comparison of two recent studies of rescuing behaviour that report similar phenomena but are interpreted very differently by their authors. In one of the studies, rescue behaviour in rats was interpreted as providing evidence for empathy, whereas in the other, rescue behaviour in ants was interpreted without reference to sharing of emotions. Evidence for empathy requires showing that actor individuals possess a representation of the receiver's emotional state and are driven by the psychological goal of improving its wellbeing. Proving psychological goal-directedness by current standards involves goal-devaluation and causal sensitivity protocols, which, in our view, have not been implemented in available publications. Empathy has profound significance not only for cognitive and behavioural sciences but also for philosophy and ethics and, in our view, remains unproven outside humans. PMID:22859561

  17. Pro-choice: a new militancy.

    PubMed

    Davis, S E

    1989-01-01

    Davis, a pro-choice advocate, describes the reactions of the abortion rights movement to the U.S. Supreme Court's opinion in the 1989 Webster v. Reproductive Health Services case. Viewing the decision that allows individual states to set some restrictions on abortion as a threat to women's reproductive rights, pro-choice advocates have responded "with a new sense of defiance and commitment." Davis describes the demonstrations, sit-ins, and coalitions that give evidence of the new activism of the pro-choice movement. PMID:2606658

  18. Manduca sexta proprophenoloxidase activating proteinase-3 (PAP3) stimulates melanization by activating proPAP3, proSPHs, and proPOs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Melanization participates in various insect physiological processes including antimicrobial immune responses. Phenoloxidase (PO), a critical component of the enzyme system catalyzing melanin formation, is produced as an inactive precursor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and becomes active via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO activating proteinase (PAP). In Manduca sexta, three PAPs can activate proPOs in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs (SPH1 and SPH2). While the hemolymph proteinases (HPs) that generate the active PAPs are known, it is unclear how the proSPHs (especially proSPH1) are activated. In this study, we isolated from plasma of bar-stage M. sexta larvae an Ile-Glu-Ala-Arg-p-nitroanilide hydrolyzing enzyme that cleaved the proSPHs. This proteinase, PAP3, generated active SPH1 and SPH2, which function as cofactors for PAP3 in proPO activation. Cleavage of the purified recombinant proSPHs by PAP3 yielded 38 kDa bands similar in mobility to the SPHs formed in vivo. Surprisingly, PAP3 also can activate proPAP3 to stimulate melanization in a direct positive feedback loop. The enhanced proPO activation concurred with the cleavage activation of proHP6, proHP8, proPAP1, proPAP3, proSPH1, proSPH2, proPOs, but not proHP14 or proHP21. These results indicate that PAP3, like PAP1, is a key factor of the self-reinforcing mechanism in the proPO activation system, which is linked to other immune responses in M. sexta. PMID:24768974

  19. Technology evaluation: PRO-542, Progenics Pharmaceuticals inc.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, M; Parveen, Z; Pomerantz, R J

    2000-12-01

    Progenics's rCD4-IgG2 (PRO-542) is a recombinant fusion protein, which has been developed using the company's Universal Antiviral Binding (UnAB) technology, and is in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infection [273391]. At the beginning of 1997, Progenics received a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases (NIAID) to fund the development of PRO-542 [236048]. A further grant of $2.7 million was awarded in August 1998 for the clinical evaluation of PRO-542 and other anti-HIV therapies [294200]. Progenics is collaborating with the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC) in New York and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta [178410]. In February 2000, Progenics and Genzyme Transgenics Corp signed an agreement to continue the development of a transgenic source of PRO-542. Genzyme will develop transgenic goats that produce PRO-542 in their milk in exchange for undisclosed fees and milestone payments. Genzyme will supply PRO-542 to Progenics for clinical trials with a possibility for eventual commercial supply [357291]. Following on from this, in October 2000, Progenics received an SBIR grant to fund a two-year project with Genzyme Transgenics into the development of cost-effective methods for the manufacture of PRO-542, by optimization of the production of the drug in the milk of transgenic dairy animals [385982]. In August 2000, Punk, Ziegel & Company predicted that Progenics Pharmaceuticals will become sustainably profitable in 2003 following the launch of PRO-542 and GMK (Progenics Pharmaceuticals) in 2002 [390063]. PMID:11249748

  20. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of pro rata share. 50... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... compliance with pro rata payments in accordance with the effective date of the PRLP. (2) Determine an...

  1. Pro/con a precessional geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a

  2. Human melioidosis reported by ProMED

    PubMed Central

    Nasner-Posso, Katherinn Melissa; Cruz-Calderón, Stefania; Montúfar-Andrade, Franco E.; Dance, David A.B.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective There are limited sources describing the global burden of emerging diseases. A review of human melioidosis reported by ProMED was performed and the reliability of the data retrieved assessed in comparison to published reports. The effectiveness of ProMED was evaluated as a source of epidemiological data by focusing on melioidosis. Methods Using the keyword ‘melioidosis’ in the ProMED search engine, all of the information from the reports and collected data was reviewed using a structured form, including the year, country, gender, occupation, number of infected individuals, and number of fatal cases. Results One hundred and twenty-four entries reported between January 1995 and October 2014 were identified. A total of 4630 cases were reported, with death reported in 505 cases, suggesting a misleadingly low overall case fatality rate (CFR) of 11%. Of 20 cases for which the gender was reported, 12 (60%) were male. Most of the cases were reported from Australia, Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, and Malaysia, with sporadic reports from other countries. Conclusions Internet-based reporting systems such as ProMED are useful to gather information and synthesize knowledge on emerging infections. Although certain areas need to be improved, ProMED provided good information about melioidosis. PMID:25975651

  3. Rapid diagnosis of MDR and XDR tuberculosis with the MeltPro TB assay in China

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yu; Dong, Haiyan; Tan, Yaoju; Deng, Yunfeng; Cai, Xingshan; Jing, Hui; Xia, Hui; Li, Qiang; Ou, Xichao; Su, Biyi; Li, Xuezheng; Zhang, Zhiying; Li, Junchen; Zhang, Jiankang; Huan, Shitong; Zhao, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    New diagnostic methods have provided a promising solution for rapid and reliable detection of drug-resistant TB strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the MeltPro TB assay in identifying multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients from sputum samples. The MeltPro TB assay was evaluated using sputum samples from 2057 smear-positive TB patients. Phenotypic Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 drug susceptibility testing served as a reference standard. The sensitivity of the MeltPro TB assay was 94.2% for detecting resistance to rifampicin and 84.9% for detecting resistance to isoniazid. For second-line drugs, the assay showed a sensitivity of 83.3% for ofloxacin resistance, 75.0% for amikacin resistance, and 63.5% for kanamycin resistance. However, there was a significant difference for detecting kanamycin resistance between the two pilot sites in sensitivity, which was 53.2% in Guangdong and 81.5% in Shandong (P = 0.015). Overall, the MeltPro TB assay demonstrated good performance for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB, with a sensitivity of 86.7% and 71.4%, respectively. The MeltPro TB assay is an excellent alternative for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB cases in China, with high accuracy, short testing turn-around time, and low unit price compared with other tests. PMID:27149911

  4. Rapid diagnosis of MDR and XDR tuberculosis with the MeltPro TB assay in China.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Dong, Haiyan; Tan, Yaoju; Deng, Yunfeng; Cai, Xingshan; Jing, Hui; Xia, Hui; Li, Qiang; Ou, Xichao; Su, Biyi; Li, Xuezheng; Zhang, Zhiying; Li, Junchen; Zhang, Jiankang; Huan, Shitong; Zhao, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    New diagnostic methods have provided a promising solution for rapid and reliable detection of drug-resistant TB strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the MeltPro TB assay in identifying multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients from sputum samples. The MeltPro TB assay was evaluated using sputum samples from 2057 smear-positive TB patients. Phenotypic Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 drug susceptibility testing served as a reference standard. The sensitivity of the MeltPro TB assay was 94.2% for detecting resistance to rifampicin and 84.9% for detecting resistance to isoniazid. For second-line drugs, the assay showed a sensitivity of 83.3% for ofloxacin resistance, 75.0% for amikacin resistance, and 63.5% for kanamycin resistance. However, there was a significant difference for detecting kanamycin resistance between the two pilot sites in sensitivity, which was 53.2% in Guangdong and 81.5% in Shandong (P = 0.015). Overall, the MeltPro TB assay demonstrated good performance for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB, with a sensitivity of 86.7% and 71.4%, respectively. The MeltPro TB assay is an excellent alternative for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB cases in China, with high accuracy, short testing turn-around time, and low unit price compared with other tests. PMID:27149911

  5. Pocahontas: Problematizing the Pro-Social.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidman, Amy; Reese, Debbie

    The Disney film "Pocahontas" appears to be an attempt to respond to growing cultural diversity, calls for multiculturalism, and strong female role models in the United States. This paper provides an analysis of the film, examining how Disney's claims to the creation of positive, pro-social representations of women and Native Americans in…

  6. Thermodynamic assessment of the Pr-O system

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, Jake W.

    2015-12-24

    We found that the Calphad method was used to perform a thermodynamic assessment of the Pr–O system. Compound energy formalism representations were developed for the fluorite α-PrO 2–x and bixbyite σ-Pr 3 O 5 ± x solid solutions while the two-sublattice liquid model was used to describe the binary melt. The series of phases between Pr 2 O 3 and PrO 2 were taken to be stoichiometric. Moreover, the equilibrium oxygen pressure, phase equilibria, and enthalpy data were used to optimize the adjustable parameters of the models for a self-consistent representation of the thermodynamic behavior of the Pr–O system from 298 K to melting.

  7. Lumbar disk replacement with the ProDisc prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Mirovsky, Yigal; Shalmon, Ehud; Halpern, Zvi; Halperin, Nahum; Blankstein, Alexander; Peer, Amir

    2008-02-01

    Twenty-two ProDisc II prostheses (Spine Solutions, New York, New York) were implanted in 21 patients with degenerative disk disease at L5-S1 (19 disks) and L4-L5 (3 disks). After mean follow-up of 3.1 years (range, 17-49 months), pain intensity in all but 3 patients had improved from an average of 7.7 preoperatively to 4.6 postoperatively (P< .001) on a visual analog scale. Average Oswestry Disability Index score improved from 61 to 35 (P< .001). Radiographic reconstruction of the disk space height was achieved in all cases. Previous diskectomy at the implanted level and disk degeneration adjacent to previous fusion negatively influenced the results. PMID:19292209

  8. Thermodynamic assessment of the Pr-O system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McMurray, Jake W.

    2015-12-24

    We found that the Calphad method was used to perform a thermodynamic assessment of the Pr–O system. Compound energy formalism representations were developed for the fluorite α-PrO 2–x and bixbyite σ-Pr 3 O 5 ± x solid solutions while the two-sublattice liquid model was used to describe the binary melt. The series of phases between Pr 2 O 3 and PrO 2 were taken to be stoichiometric. Moreover, the equilibrium oxygen pressure, phase equilibria, and enthalpy data were used to optimize the adjustable parameters of the models for a self-consistent representation of the thermodynamic behavior of the Pr–O system frommore » 298 K to melting.« less

  9. Pro-oxidative, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of uranyl ions.

    PubMed

    Garmash, S A; Smirnova, V S; Karp, O E; Usacheva, A M; Berezhnov, A V; Ivanov, V E; Chernikov, A V; Bruskov, V I; Gudkov, S V

    2014-01-01

    It is demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide are formed under the action of uranyl ions in aqueous solutions containing no reducing agents. In the presence of uranyl ions, formation of 8-oxoguanine in DNA and long-lived protein radicals are observed in vitro. It is shown that the pro-oxidant properties of uranyl at micromolar concentrations mostly result from the physico-chemical nature of the compound rather than its radioactive decay. Uranyl ions lead to damage in DNA and proteins causing death of HEp-2 cells by necrotic pathway. It is revealed that the uranyl ions enhance radiation-induced oxidative stress and significantly increase a death rate of mice exposed to sublethal doses of X-rays. PMID:23312590

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE REACTIVITY OF RADPRO SOLUTION WITH COTTON RAGS

    SciTech Connect

    MARUSICH RM

    2009-08-11

    Rags containing RadPro{reg_sign} solution will be generated during the decontamination of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Under normal conditions, the rags will be neutralized with sodium carbonate prior to placing in the drums. The concern with RadPro solutions and cotton rags is that some of the RadPro solutions contain nitric acid. Under the right conditions, nitric acid and cotton rags exothermically react. The concern is, will RadPro solutions react with cotton rags exothermically? The potential for a runaway reaction for any of the RadPro solutions used was studied in Section 5.2 of PNNL-15410, Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes. This report shows the thermal behavior of cotton rags having been saturated in one of the various neutralized and non-neutralized RadPro solutions. The thermal analysis was performed using thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Accelerating Rate Calorimetry (ARC).

  11. 31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of pro rata share. 50.93... PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.93 Application of pro rata share. An insurer shall apply the PRLP to determine the pro rata share of each insured loss to be paid by the insurer on all insured losses...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata share. 1.1377-1 Section 1.1377-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1377-1 Pro rata share. (a) Computation of pro rata shares—(1) In general. For purposes of subchapter S of chapter 1 of the...

  13. 31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of pro rata share. 50.93... PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.93 Application of pro rata share. An insurer shall apply the PRLP to determine the pro rata share of each insured loss to be paid by the insurer on all insured losses...

  14. Cryogenic system for BERLinPro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Pflückhahn, D.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) received funding to design and build the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro. The goal of this compact Energy recovery linac (ERL) is to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to generate and accelerate a 100-mA, 1-mm mrad emittance electron beam. The BERLinPro know-how can then be transferred to various ERL-based applications. All accelerating RF cavities including the electron source are based on superconducting technology operated at 1.8 K. A Linde L700 helium liquefier is supplying 4.5 K helium. The subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar of the helium bath of the cavities will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. While the L700 is already in operating, the 1.8 K system and the helium transfer system are in design phase.

  15. [Radiation Anticarcinogenesis by Thiazolidine Pro-drug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, Raymond L.; Roberts, Jeanette C.; Fain, Heidi

    1999-01-01

    The original goal of this work was to determine the capacity of selected aminothiols to modulate radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in a human mammary epithelial cell line. The conclusions from this work are that WR-1065 is the "gold standard" for protection against radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. While a potent radiation protector, WR-1065 is cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Our rationale for a study of the thiazolidine pro-drugs was that these compounds are neither toxic in vitro or in vivo. The results obtained during this funding period indicate that the thiazolidine pro-drugs are as potent as WR-1065 as protectors against radiation induced mutation induction, and thus presumably against radiation induced carcinogenesis. Our results indicate that the thiazolidine prodrugs are excellent candidates to test as non-toxic anticarcinogens for protecting astronauts from cancer induction during space travel.

  16. The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway.

    PubMed

    Brimacombe, Joseph; Keller, Christian

    2002-12-01

    The ProSeal LMA is a major advance over the Classic LMA because of the following reasons: it allows ventilation at much higher airway pressures; it protects the lungs from aspiration and the stomach from gastric insufflation; it facilitates passage of a gastric tube and monitoring devices into the esophagus; it can be inserted like the Classic or Intubating LMA; it has its own built-in bite block; malposition is detected more readily; and, through use of techniques such as gum elastic bougie-guided insertion, correct positioning is almost guaranteed. The ProSeal can be considered a replacement device for the Classic LMA, but the Flexible LMA is still preferable for most intraoral procedures, and the Intubating LMA is still preferable whenever intubation is required. Limitations are that it is slightly more difficult to insert and requires more careful thought to use optimally. PMID:12512267

  17. Cryogenic system for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Pflückhahn, D.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-29

    In 2010 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) received funding to design and build the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro. The goal of this compact Energy recovery linac (ERL) is to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to generate and accelerate a 100-mA, 1-mm mrad emittance electron beam. The BERLinPro know-how can then be transferred to various ERL-based applications. All accelerating RF cavities including the electron source are based on superconducting technology operated at 1.8 K. A Linde L700 helium liquefier is supplying 4.5 K helium. The subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar of the helium bath of the cavities will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. While the L700 is already in operating, the 1.8 K system and the helium transfer system are in design phase.

  18. Cognitive Obstacles to Pro-Vaccination Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Miton, Helena; Mercier, Hugo

    2015-11-01

    Two frameworks--cultural attraction theory and epistemic vigilance--predict a cultural disadvantage for counter-intuitive beliefs. We review several cognitive mechanisms that conspire to render pro-vaccination beliefs counter-intuitive. Trust and argumentation can spread counter-intuitive beliefs, but only under some conditions. We discuss the hurdles that trust and argumentation face in the case of vaccination. PMID:26522341

  19. Finding correct protein–protein docking models using ProQDock

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sankar; Wallner, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Protein–protein interactions are a key in virtually all biological processes. For a detailed understanding of the biological processes, the structure of the protein complex is essential. Given the current experimental techniques for structure determination, the vast majority of all protein complexes will never be solved by experimental techniques. In lack of experimental data, computational docking methods can be used to predict the structure of the protein complex. A common strategy is to generate many alternative docking solutions (atomic models) and then use a scoring function to select the best. The success of the computational docking technique is, to a large degree, dependent on the ability of the scoring function to accurately rank and score the many alternative docking models. Results: Here, we present ProQDock, a scoring function that predicts the absolute quality of docking model measured by a novel protein docking quality score (DockQ). ProQDock uses support vector machines trained to predict the quality of protein docking models using features that can be calculated from the docking model itself. By combining different types of features describing both the protein–protein interface and the overall physical chemistry, it was possible to improve the correlation with DockQ from 0.25 for the best individual feature (electrostatic complementarity) to 0.49 for the final version of ProQDock. ProQDock performed better than the state-of-the-art methods ZRANK and ZRANK2 in terms of correlations, ranking and finding correct models on an independent test set. Finally, we also demonstrate that it is possible to combine ProQDock with ZRANK and ZRANK2 to improve performance even further. Availability and implementation: http://bioinfo.ifm.liu.se/ProQDock Contact: bjornw@ifm.liu.se Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307625

  20. Some problems with pro-competition reforms.

    PubMed

    Agich, G J; Begley, C E

    1985-01-01

    As the search for effective cost-containment policies continues, health care reform along pro-competition lines has gained considerable backing in the United States. By offering market competition to achieve allocational efficiency and vouchers and tax credits to achieve distributional equity, pro-competition reforms appear to satisfy what many believed were incommensurable goals. A critical review of this strategy reveals two practical difficulties, however. The first concerns the ambiguity arising from the proposals' reliance on the concept of equal access to some basic level of health care as its distributional objective and the second concerns the ethical dilemma arising from the proposals' reliance on physicians as rationers of health care. In considering the distributional goal of guaranteeing access to a basic minimum of health care, we argue that, despite its theoretical attractiveness, there exists no acceptable way of determining or justifying its content, and without a clear definition of the basic minimum there is no guarantee that any equity objective will be achieved under the pro-competition strategy. With regard to the use of physicians and other providers as society's gatekeepers, we point out that this role is in direct conflict with traditional responsibilities that patients expect providers to assume. Requiring doctors to ration services in response to market incentives may further erode the trust relationship between physicians and patients, and clearly puts the more seriously ill at a disadvantage. PMID:4059946

  1. Calibrating the Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Lewis; Casini, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag) is a dual-channel, dual-beam, slit-scanning, full Stokes spectro-polarimeter designed by the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) for the study of the magnetism of solar prominences and filaments. It was deployed in August 2009 at the 40 cm coronagraph of the Evans Solar Facility (ESF) of the National Solar Observatory on Sacramento Peak (NSO/SP). In its standard mode of operation it acquires spectro-polarimetric maps of solar targets simultaneously in the two chromospheric lines of He I at 587.6 nm and 1083.0 nm. Since August 2011 ProMag has operated in “patrol mode” with a dedicated observer. We aim to routinely measure the vector magnetic field in prominences. The electro-optic modulator and polarization analyzer are integrated into a single mechanical unit located at the coude feed of the telescope. This location was necessary for proper co-alignment of the dual beams, but complicates the precise polarimeter calibration necessary to achieve the sensitivity required for prominence measurements (< 10^-3). At this sensitivity, small variations in optical alignment can become significant. We present a calibration method for ProMag, using a polarizer and retarder at coronagraph prime focus. Calibrations are recorded before and after observations. We discuss the success of this method and its limitations.

  2. Perl Embedded in PTC's Pro/ENGINEER, Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    2003-12-22

    Pro-PERL (AKA Pro/PERL) is a Perl extension to the PTC Pro/TOOLKIT API to the PTC Pro/ENGINEER CAD application including an embedded interpreter. It can be used to automate and customize Pro/ENGINEER, create Vendor Neutral Archive (VNA) format files and re-create CAD models from the VNA files. This has applications in sanitizing classified CAD models created in a classified environment for transfer to an open environment, creating template models for modification to finished models by non-expert users, and transfer of design intent data to other modeling technologies.

  3. Perl Embedded in PTC's Pro/ENGINEER, Version 1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-12-22

    Pro-PERL (AKA Pro/PERL) is a Perl extension to the PTC Pro/TOOLKIT API to the PTC Pro/ENGINEER CAD application including an embedded interpreter. It can be used to automate and customize Pro/ENGINEER, create Vendor Neutral Archive (VNA) format files and re-create CAD models from the VNA files. This has applications in sanitizing classified CAD models created in a classified environment for transfer to an open environment, creating template models for modification to finished models by non-expertmore » users, and transfer of design intent data to other modeling technologies.« less

  4. Potential risks of pro-eating disorder websites.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Codie R; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2011-06-01

    Although dangers of pro-eating disorder (pro-ED) websites have recently been discussed in the popular press, no integration of research findings on this topic yet exists. After completing a systematic search for peer-reviewed articles about pro-ED websites, we identified three possible risks as themes: operation under the guise of "support," reinforcement of disordered eating, and prevention of help-seeking and recovery. Pro-ED websites tend to be perceived as supportive by users, but instead appear to exacerbate or maintain users' eating disorder symptoms. We discuss research and clinical implications of these dangers. Future research should clarify how specific features of pro-ED websites contribute to the development, exacerbation, and maintenance of eating pathology, e.g., by employing experimental techniques and prospective designs with clinical samples and various ages. Despite limited empirical research on the topic, existing findings should prompt clinicians, parents, and researchers to remain vigilant about potential negative influences of pro-ED websites on users. PMID:21272967

  5. BDNF pro-peptide regulates dendritic spines via caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Ji, Y; Ding, Y; Jiang, W; Sun, Y; Lu, B; Nagappan, G

    2016-01-01

    The precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (proBDNF) is enzymatically cleaved, by either intracellular (furin/PC1) or extracellular proteases (tPA/plasmin/MMP), to generate mature BDNF (mBDNF) and its pro-peptide (BDNF pro-peptide). Little is known about the function of BDNF pro-peptide. We have developed an antibody that specifically detects cleaved BDNF pro-peptide, but not proBDNF or mBDNF. Neuronal depolarization elicited a marked increase in extracellular BDNF pro-peptide, suggesting activity-dependent regulation of its extracellular levels. Exposure of BDNF pro-peptide to mature hippocampal neurons in culture dramatically reduced dendritic spine density. This effect was mediated by caspase-3, as revealed by studies with pharmacological inhibitors and genetic knockdown. BDNF pro-peptide also increased the number of 'elongated' mitochondria and cytosolic cytochrome c, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-3 pathway. These results, along with BDNF pro-peptide effects recently reported on growth cones and long-term depression (LTD), suggest that BDNF pro-peptide is a negative regulator of neuronal structure and function. PMID:27310873

  6. The pro-adhesive and pro-survival effects of glucocorticoid in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lijuan; Fang, Fang; Song, Xinglei; Wang, Yan; Huang, Gaoxiang; Su, Jie; Hui, Ning; Lu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) is controlled by multiple signaling molecules and intracellular pathways, and is pivotal for survival and growth of cells from most solid tumors. Our previous works demonstrated that dexamethasone (DEX) significantly enhances cell adhesion and cell resistance to chemotherapeutics by increasing the levels of integrin β1, α4, and α5 in human ovarian cancer cells. However, it is unclear whether the components of ECM or other membrane molecules are also involved in the pro-adhesive effect of DEX in ovarian cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that the treatment of cells with DEX did not change the expression of collagens (I, III, and IV), laminin, CD44, and its principal ligand hyaluronan (HA), but significantly increased the levels of intracellular and secreted fibronectin (FN). Inhibiting the expression of FN with FN1 siRNA or blocking CD44, another FN receptor, with CD44 blocking antibody significantly attenuated the pro-adhesion of DEX, indicating that upregulation of FN mediates the pro-adhesive effect of DEX by its interaction with CD44 besides integrin β1. Moreover, DEX significantly enhanced cell resistance to the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (PTX) by activating PI-3K-Akt pathway. Finally, we found that DEX also significantly upregulated the expression of MUC1, a transmembrane glycoprotein. Inhibiting the expression of MUC1 with MUC1 siRNA significantly attenuated the DEX-induced effects of pro-adhesion, Akt-activation, and pro-survival. In conclusion, these results provide new data that upregulation of FN and MUC1 by DEX contributes to DEX-induced pro-adhesion and protects ovarian cancer cells from chemotherapy. PMID:27151574

  7. MetaProSIP: automated inference of stable isotope incorporation rates in proteins for functional metaproteomics.

    PubMed

    Sachsenberg, Timo; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Taubert, Martin; Kermer, René; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Seifert, Jana; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2015-02-01

    We propose a joint experimental and theoretical approach to the automated reconstruction of elemental fluxes in microbial communities. While stable isotope probing of proteins (protein-SIP) has been successfully applied to study interactions and elemental carbon and nitrogen fluxes, the volume and complexity of mass spectrometric data in protein-SIP experiments pose new challenges for data analysis. Together with a flexible experimental setup, the novel bioinformatics tool MetaProSIP offers an automated high-throughput solution for a wide range of (13)C or (15)N protein-SIP experiments with special emphasis on the analysis of metaproteomic experiments where differential labeling of organisms can occur. The information calculated in MetaProSIP includes the determination of multiple relative isotopic abundances, the labeling ratio between old and new synthesized proteins, and the shape of the isotopic distribution. These parameters define the metabolic capacities and dynamics within the investigated microbial culture. MetaProSIP features a high degree of reproducibility, reliability, and quality control reporting. The ability to embed into the OpenMS framework allows for flexible construction of custom-tailored workflows. Software and documentation are available under an open-source license at www.openms.de/MetaProSIP. PMID:25412983

  8. Educational Opportunities in Pro-Am Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienberg, R. T.; Stencel, R. E.

    2006-08-01

    While many backyard stargazers take up the hobby just for fun, many others are attracted to it because of their keen interest in learning more about the universe. The best way to learn science is to do science. Happily, the technology available to today's amateur astronomers — including computer-controlled telescopes, CCD cameras, powerful astronomical software, and the Internet — gives them the potential to make real contributions to scientific research and to help support local educational objectives. Meanwhile, professional astronomers are losing access to small telescopes as funding is shifted to larger projects, including survey programs that will soon discover countless interesting objects needing follow-up observations. Clearly the field is ripe with opportunities for amateurs, professionals, and educators to collaborate. Amateurs will benefit from mentoring by expert professionals, pros will benefit from observations and data processing by increasingly knowledgeable amateurs, and educators will benefit from a larger pool of skilled talent to help them carry out astronomy-education initiatives. We will look at some successful pro-am collaborations that have already borne fruit and examine areas where the need and/or potential for new partnerships is especially large. In keeping with the theme of this special session, we will focus on how pro-am collaborations in astronomy can contribute to science education both inside and outside the classroom, not only for students of school age but also for adults who may not have enjoyed particularly good science education when they were younger. Because nighttime observations with sophisticated equipment are not always possible in formal educational settings, we will also mention other types of pro-am partnerships, including those involving remote observing, data mining, and/or distributed computing.

  9. The utility of Pro Forma Income Statements.

    PubMed

    Reiboldt, Max; Reiboldt, John

    2002-01-01

    Recent headlines surrounding the financial demise of the nation's seventh largest company, Enron, and its subsequent entanglements with its accounting and consulting firm, Arthur Andersen, have placed a cloud of suspicion upon many reasonable business practices that otherwise are considered standard procedure. The proforma income statement is one of those practices. An oft-used tool in financial management, pro formas play a useful role for projecting financial performance based on predictable forecasts or assumptions. Regardless of the current scrutiny, there is still a valid use for accurately prepared statements. PMID:12389329

  10. ProSAT+: visualizing sequence annotations on 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Stank, Antonia; Richter, Stefan; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    PRO: tein S: tructure A: nnotation T: ool-plus (ProSAT(+)) is a new web server for mapping protein sequence annotations onto a protein structure and visualizing them simultaneously with the structure. ProSAT(+) incorporates many of the features of the preceding ProSAT and ProSAT2 tools but also provides new options for the visualization and sharing of protein annotations. Data are extracted from the UniProt KnowledgeBase, the RCSB PDB and the PDBe SIFTS resource, and visualization is performed using JSmol. User-defined sequence annotations can be added directly to the URL, thus enabling visualization and easy data sharing. ProSAT(+) is available at http://prosat.h-its.org. PMID:27284084

  11. Pro-Anorexia and Anti-Pro-Anorexia Videos on YouTube: Sentiment Analysis of User Responses

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David; Sirola, Anu; Näsi, Matti; Kaakinen, Markus; Keipi, Teo; Räsänen, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Pro-anorexia communities exist online and encourage harmful weight loss and weight control practices, often through emotional content that enforces social ties within these communities. User-generated responses to videos that directly oppose pro-anorexia communities have not yet been researched in depth. Objective The aim was to study emotional reactions to pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia online content on YouTube using sentiment analysis. Methods Using the 50 most popular YouTube pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia user channels as a starting point, we gathered data on users, their videos, and their commentators. A total of 395 anorexia videos and 12,161 comments were analyzed using positive and negative sentiments and ratings submitted by the viewers of the videos. The emotional information was automatically extracted with an automatic sentiment detection tool whose reliability was tested with human coders. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to estimate the strength of sentiments. The models controlled for the number of video views and comments, number of months the video had been on YouTube, duration of the video, uploader’s activity as a video commentator, and uploader’s physical location by country. Results The 395 videos had more than 6 million views and comments by almost 8000 users. Anti-pro-anorexia video comments expressed more positive sentiments on a scale of 1 to 5 (adjusted prediction [AP] 2.15, 95% CI 2.11-2.19) than did those of pro-anorexia videos (AP 2.02, 95% CI 1.98-2.06). Anti-pro-anorexia videos also received more likes (AP 181.02, 95% CI 155.19-206.85) than pro-anorexia videos (AP 31.22, 95% CI 31.22-37.81). Negative sentiments and video dislikes were equally distributed in responses to both pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia videos. Conclusions Despite pro-anorexia content being widespread on YouTube, videos promoting help for anorexia and opposing the pro-anorexia community were more popular, gaining more

  12. Programmable lithography engine (ProLE) grid-type supercomputer and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, John S.; Maslow, Mark J.; Gerold, David J.; Greenway, Robert T.

    2003-06-01

    There are many variables that can affect lithographic dependent device yield. Because of this, it is not enough to make optical proximity corrections (OPC) based on the mask type, wavelength, lens, illumination-type and coherence. Resist chemistry and physics along with substrate, exposure, and all post-exposure processing must be considered too. Only a holistic approach to finding imaging solutions will accelerate yield and maximize performance. Since experiments are too costly in both time and money, accomplishing this takes massive amounts of accurate simulation capability. Our solution is to create a workbench that has a set of advanced user applications that utilize best-in-class simulator engines for solving litho-related DFM problems using distributive computing. Our product, ProLE (Programmable Lithography Engine), is an integrated system that combines Petersen Advanced Lithography Inc."s (PAL"s) proprietary applications and cluster management software wrapped around commercial software engines, along with optional commercial hardware and software. It uses the most rigorous lithography simulation engines to solve deep sub-wavelength imaging problems accurately and at speeds that are several orders of magnitude faster than current methods. Specifically, ProLE uses full vector thin-mask aerial image models or when needed, full across source 3D electromagnetic field simulation to make accurate aerial image predictions along with calibrated resist models;. The ProLE workstation from Petersen Advanced Lithography, Inc., is the first commercial product that makes it possible to do these intensive calculations at a fraction of a time previously available thus significantly reducing time to market for advance technology devices. In this work, ProLE is introduced, through model comparison to show why vector imaging and rigorous resist models work better than other less rigorous models, then some applications of that use our distributive computing solution are shown

  13. Pro-sociality and strategic reasoning in economic decisions

    PubMed Central

    Arruñada, Benito; Casari, Marco; Pancotto, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pro-social preferences and strategic reasoning. These aspects are typically studied separately but little is known about their joint distribution. In an experiment, for each participant we elicit individual concerns toward pro-sociality—inequality aversion and efficiency—as well as the number of steps of reasoning through a guessing game. We report that self-regarding and pro-social participants exhibit similar levels of strategic reasoning, which supports the view that pro-sociality and strategic reasoning can be studied independently. PMID:26074799

  14. InterPro, progress and status in 2005.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bradley, Paul; Bork, Peer; Bucher, Phillip; Cerutti, Lorenzo; Copley, Richard; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Das, Ujjwal; Durbin, Richard; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Harte, Nicola; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McDowall, Jennifer; Mitchell, Alex; Nikolskaya, Anastasia N; Orchard, Sandra; Pagni, Marco; Ponting, Chris P; Quevillon, Emmanuel; Selengut, Jeremy; Sigrist, Christian J A; Silventoinen, Ville; Studholme, David J; Vaughan, Robert; Wu, Cathy H

    2005-01-01

    InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created to integrate the major protein signature databases. Currently, it includes PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF and SUPERFAMILY. Signatures are manually integrated into InterPro entries that are curated to provide biological and functional information. Annotation is provided in an abstract, Gene Ontology mapping and links to specialized databases. New features of InterPro include extended protein match views, taxonomic range information and protein 3D structure data. One of the new match views is the InterPro Domain Architecture view, which shows the domain composition of protein matches. Two new entry types were introduced to better describe InterPro entries: these are active site and binding site. PIRSF and the structure-based SUPERFAMILY are the latest member databases to join InterPro, and CATH and PANTHER are soon to be integrated. InterPro release 8.0 contains 11 007 entries, representing 2573 domains, 8166 families, 201 repeats, 26 active sites, 21 binding sites and 20 post-translational modification sites. InterPro covers over 78% of all proteins in the Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL components of UniProt. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), and for download by anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro). PMID:15608177

  15. InterPro, progress and status in 2005

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K.; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bradley, Paul; Bork, Peer; Bucher, Phillip; Cerutti, Lorenzo; Copley, Richard; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Das, Ujjwal; Durbin, Richard; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Harte, Nicola; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McDowall, Jennifer; Mitchell, Alex; Nikolskaya, Anastasia N.; Orchard, Sandra; Pagni, Marco; Ponting, Chris P.; Quevillon, Emmanuel; Selengut, Jeremy; Sigrist, Christian J. A.; Silventoinen, Ville; Studholme, David J.; Vaughan, Robert; Wu, Cathy H.

    2005-01-01

    InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created to integrate the major protein signature databases. Currently, it includes PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF and SUPERFAMILY. Signatures are manually integrated into InterPro entries that are curated to provide biological and functional information. Annotation is provided in an abstract, Gene Ontology mapping and links to specialized databases. New features of InterPro include extended protein match views, taxonomic range information and protein 3D structure data. One of the new match views is the InterPro Domain Architecture view, which shows the domain composition of protein matches. Two new entry types were introduced to better describe InterPro entries: these are active site and binding site. PIRSF and the structure-based SUPERFAMILY are the latest member databases to join InterPro, and CATH and PANTHER are soon to be integrated. InterPro release 8.0 contains 11 007 entries, representing 2573 domains, 8166 families, 201 repeats, 26 active sites, 21 binding sites and 20 post-translational modification sites. InterPro covers over 78% of all proteins in the Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL components of UniProt. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), and for download by anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro). PMID:15608177

  16. Pro-sociality and strategic reasoning in economic decisions.

    PubMed

    Arruñada, Benito; Casari, Marco; Pancotto, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pro-social preferences and strategic reasoning. These aspects are typically studied separately but little is known about their joint distribution. In an experiment, for each participant we elicit individual concerns toward pro-sociality-inequality aversion and efficiency-as well as the number of steps of reasoning through a guessing game. We report that self-regarding and pro-social participants exhibit similar levels of strategic reasoning, which supports the view that pro-sociality and strategic reasoning can be studied independently. PMID:26074799

  17. French Pro/Am collaborations in exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Vanhuysse, M.; Bouchy, F.; Buil, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.; Martinez, P.; Desnoux, V.; Pujol, M.; Colas, F.

    2011-10-01

    Amateur astronomers have access to huge telescope time and can reach photometric precision up to a few mmag as well as radial velocity precision up to ˜ 50m.s-1 on brightest stars. We will first present some results of french amateur astronomers in transit photometry and radial velocity and then, we will present an over-view of all the collaborations which can be done between professional and amateur astronomers in the competitive exoplanet domain, and especially the current collaboration between french Pro & Am astronomers which was used in publication in A&A. Finally, we will present a new internet wiki page which goal is to develop such collaboration in different countries.

  18. Highly robust thin-film composite pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) hollow fiber membranes with high power densities for renewable salinity-gradient energy generation.

    PubMed

    Han, Gang; Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-07-16

    The practical application of pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) technology for renewable blue energy (i.e., osmotic power generation) from salinity gradient is being hindered by the absence of effective membranes. Compared to flat-sheet membranes, membranes with a hollow fiber configuration are of great interest due to their high packing density and spacer-free module fabrication. However, the development of PRO hollow fiber membranes is still in its infancy. This study aims to open up new perspectives and design strategies to molecularly construct highly robust thin film composite (TFC) PRO hollow fiber membranes with high power densities. The newly developed TFC PRO membranes consist of a selective polyamide skin formed on the lumen side of well-constructed Matrimid hollow fiber supports via interfacial polymerization. For the first time, laboratory PRO power generation tests demonstrate that the newly developed PRO hollow fiber membranes can withstand trans-membrane pressures up to 16 bar and exhibit a peak power density as high as 14 W/m(2) using seawater brine (1.0 M NaCl) as the draw solution and deionized water as the feed. We believe that the developed TFC PRO hollow fiber membranes have great potential for osmotic power harvesting. PMID:23772898

  19. 25 CFR 273.32 - Pro rata requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata requirement. 273.32 Section 273.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.32 Pro...

  20. Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

  1. Body composition of transgenic pigs expressing the myostatin pro domain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous results have shown that male mice expressing a myostatin pro domain construct (MLC-Pro) have increased body weight, more total body lean mass, and lower percentage of total body fat. Founder transgenic (TG) pigs were generated by standard pronuclear microinjection techniques using the sam...

  2. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability under... estimates that aggregate insured losses may exceed the cap on annual liability for a Program Year,...

  3. Peanuts & Crackerjacks: Economics of Pro Team Sports. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.

    This teacher's guide presents instructional materials which examine issues in professional sports for students in high school economics and social studies classes. The issues include how the pro sports market evolved; how leagues gained market power; why athletes earn as much as they do; what are the sources of pro sports revenues; why tickets…

  4. 25 CFR 273.32 - Pro rata requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata requirement. 273.32 Section 273.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.32 Pro...

  5. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  6. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  7. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  8. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  9. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  10. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  11. Pro-Cite: A Tool for Creating and Updating Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluri, Rao; Bosch, Steve

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Pro-Cite database management system and its uses in searching RLIN, OCLC, DIALOG, BRS, etc.; downloading results on a floppy or hard disk; converting downloaded records into Pro-Cite databases; and editing, selecting, indexing, and printing out the selected records in a variety of bibliographic styles. (DMM)

  12. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the (Pro)renin receptor antagonist PRO20 attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C; Feng, Yumei

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT(1) receptor-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. PMID:25421983

  13. 20 CFR 416.1133 - What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a pro rata share of household....1133 What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses. (a) General. If you pay your pro rata..., we value it under the rule in § 416.1140.) (b) How we determine a pro rata share. Your pro rata...

  14. Profiling the ‘Pro-environmental Individual’: A Personality Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Ezra M.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Ashton, Michael C.; Lee, Kibeom

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable scientific interest in the psychological correlates of pro-environmental behaviors. Much research has focused on demographic and social-psychological characteristics of individuals who consistently perform such actions. Here, we report the results of two studies in which we explored relations between broad personality traits and pro-environmental actions. Using a wide variety of behavior and personality measures, we consistently found moderate positive relations between Openness to Experience and pro-environmental activities in both a community sample (Study 1: N = 778) and an undergraduate student sample (Study 2: N = 115). In Study 2 we showed that the effect of Openness on pro-environmental behaviors was fully mediated by individuals’ environmental attitudes and connection to nature. Our findings suggest that high levels of aesthetic appreciation, creativity, and inquisitiveness, but not personality traits associated with altruism, may have motivated the performance of pro-environmental actions among our respondents. Implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:21241310

  15. Pro-resolving lipid mediators are leads for resolution physiology.

    PubMed

    Serhan, Charles N

    2014-06-01

    Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that bring about the resolution of acute inflammation have uncovered a new genus of pro-resolving lipid mediators that include the lipoxin, resolvin, protectin and maresin families, collectively called specialized pro-resolving mediators. Synthetic versions of these mediators have potent bioactions when administered in vivo. In animal experiments, the mediators evoke anti-inflammatory and novel pro-resolving mechanisms, and enhance microbial clearance. Although they have been identified in inflammation resolution, specialized pro-resolving mediators are conserved structures that also function in host defence, pain, organ protection and tissue remodelling. This Review covers the mechanisms of specialized pro-resolving mediators and omega-3 essential fatty acid pathways that could help us to understand their physiological functions. PMID:24899309

  16. Purification and refolding of recombinant human proMMP-7 (pro-matrilysin) expressed in Escherichia coli and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Itoh, M; Masuda, K; Ito, Y; Akizawa, T; Yoshioka, M; Imai, K; Okada, Y; Sato, H; Seiki, M

    1996-04-01

    Human matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7 = matrilysin) was overproduced in Escherichia coli as a recombinant zymogen (31 kDa), the C-terminus of which bears artificial hexa-histidines. Most of the enzyme was isolated from the insoluble fraction of the cell lysate and purified by a single step using Ni-NTA resin after solubilization of the precipitates with 8 M urea solution. The resin-bound recombinant protein was refolded into a form that is activatable by p-amino-phenylmercuric acetate in an autocatalytic manner. The activated enzyme cleaved a synthetic peptide substrate at the reported site for MMP-7. Digestion of carboxymethylated transferrin (a natural substrate of MMP-7) by the recombinant proteinase generated fragments with the same peptide map as in the case of native purified MMP-7. The autocatalytic activation and enzyme reaction were entirely dependent on the presence of calcium and zinc ions. The enzyme activity to cleave carboxymethylated transferrin was inhibited by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-1 and -2, MMP-specific inhibitors. The activity of the recombinant MMP-7 was also inhibited by a synthetic peptide derived from a part of the cysteine switch that maintains the zymogen in an inactive state. Thus, we report here a simple means of preparing a large quantity of recombinant proMMP-7 that can be used to study the activation mechanism and to screen synthetic inhibitors. PMID:8743567

  17. The Experience of Bulimic College Students Who Use "Pro-Ana/Pro-Mia" Web Sites: A Two-Phase Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Blair J.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a serious problem in the U.S. due to their rise in prevalence during the 20th century and high morbidity and mortality rates. A relatively new, controversial phenomenon, "pro-Ana" (pro-anorexia) and "pro-Mia" (pro-bulimia) Web sites, came to the public's attention around 2000. These sites are created by and for people…

  18. Test Reviews: Reynolds, C., & Voress, J. K. (2007). "Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition." Austin, TX: PRO-ED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Decker, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition (TOMAL-2), published by PRO-ED, which constitutes a recent revision of the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL; Reynolds & Bigler, 1994). Advertised as the "single most comprehensive memory battery available for the entire age range of 5 years through 59 years of age", the TOMAL-2…

  19. Pro-community altruism and social status in a Shuar village.

    PubMed

    Price, Michael E

    2003-06-01

    Reciprocity theory (RT) and costly signaling theory (CST) provide different explanations for the high status of pro-community altruists: RT proposes that altruists are positively and negatively sanctioned by others, whereas CST proposes that altruists are attractive to others. Only RT, however, is beset by first- and higher-order free rider problems, which must be solved in order for RT to explain status allocations. In this paper, several solutions to RT's free rider problems are proposed, and data about status allocations to Ecuadorian Shuar pro-community altruists are analyzed in light of RT and CST. These data confirm that perceived pro-community altruists are indeed high status and suggest that (1) community residents skillfully monitor the altruism of coresidents, (2) residents who engage in opportunities to broadcast desirable qualities are high status only to the extent that they are considered altruistic, and (3) individuals who sanction coresidents based on coresidents' contributions to the community are themselves relatively high status. To a greater extent than CST, RT straightforwardly predicts all of these results. PMID:26190058

  20. Stoichiometric molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition of anti-cancer pro-drug tegafur.

    PubMed

    Mattos Dos Santos, Paula; Hall, Andrew J; Manesiotis, Panagiotis

    2016-05-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) targeting tegafur, an anti-cancer 5-fluorouracil pro-drug, have been prepared by stoichiometric imprinting using 2,6-bis(acrylamido)pyridine (BAAPy) as the functional monomer. Solution association between tegafur and BAAPy was studied by (1)H NMR titration, which confirmed the formation of 1:1 complexes with an affinity constant of 574±15M(-1) in CDCl3. Evaluation of the synthesised materials by HPLC and equilibrium rebinding experiments revealed high selectivity of the imprinted polymer for the pro-drug vs. 5-fluorouracil and other competing analytes, with maximum imprinting factors of 25.3 and a binding capacity of 45.1μmolg(-1). The synthesised imprinted polymer was employed in solid-phase extraction of the pro-drug using an optimised protocol that included a simple wash with the porogen used in the preparation of the material. Tegafur recoveries of up to 96% were achieved from aqueous samples and 92% from urine samples spiked with the template and three competing analytes. The results demonstrate the potential of the prepared polymers in the pre-concentration of tegafur from biological samples, which could be an invaluable tool in the monitoring of patient compliance and drug uptake and excretion. PMID:26711233

  1. OPTICON: Pro-Matlab software for large order controlled structure design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Lee D.

    1989-01-01

    A software package for large order controlled structure design is described and demonstrated. The primary program, called OPTICAN, uses both Pro-Matlab M-file routines and selected compiled FORTRAN routines linked into the Pro-Matlab structure. The program accepts structural model information in the form of state-space matrices and performs three basic design functions on the model: (1) open loop analyses; (2) closed loop reduced order controller synthesis; and (3) closed loop stability and performance assessment. The current controller synthesis methods which were implemented in this software are based on the Generalized Linear Quadratic Gaussian theory of Bernstein. In particular, a reduced order Optimal Projection synthesis algorithm based on a homotopy solution method was successfully applied to an experimental truss structure using a 58-state dynamic model. These results are presented and discussed. Current plans to expand the practical size of the design model to several hundred states and the intention to interface Pro-Matlab to a supercomputing environment are discussed.

  2. P5CDH affects the pathways contributing to Pro synthesis after ProDH activation by biotic and abiotic stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, Yanina S.; Monteoliva, Mariela I.; Fabro, Georgina; Grosso, Carola L.; Laróvere, Laura E.; Alvarez, María E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants facing adverse conditions usually alter proline (Pro) metabolism, generating changes that help restore the cellular homeostasis. These organisms synthesize Pro from glutamate (Glu) or ornithine (Orn) by two-step reactions that share Δ1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) as intermediate. In the catabolic process, Pro is converted back to Glu using a different pathway that involves Pro dehydrogenase (ProDH), P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH), and P5C as intermediate. Little is known about the coordination of the catabolic and biosynthetic routes under stress. To address this issue, we analyzed how P5CDH affects the activation of Pro synthesis, in Arabidopsis tissues that increase ProDH activity by transient exposure to exogenous Pro, or infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Wild-type (Col-0) and p5cdh mutant plants subjected to these treatments were used to monitor the Pro, Glu, and Orn levels, as well as the expression of genes from Pro metabolism. Col-0 and p5cdh tissues consecutively activated ProDH and Pro biosynthetic genes under both conditions. However, they manifested a different coordination between these routes. When external Pro supply was interrupted, wild-type leaves degraded Pro to basal levels at which point Pro synthesis, mainly via Glu, became activated. Under the same condition, p5cdh leaves sustained ProDH induction without reducing the Pro content but rather increasing it, apparently by stimulating the Orn pathway. In response to pathogen infection, both genotypes showed similar trends. While Col-0 plants seemed to induce both Pro biosynthetic routes, p5cdh mutant plants may primarily activate the Orn route. Our study contributes to the functional characterization of P5CDH in biotic and abiotic stress conditions, by revealing its capacity to modulate the fate of P5C, and prevalence of Orn or Glu as Pro precursors in tissues that initially consumed Pro. PMID:26284090

  3. Education for Humanism in a Pro-White, Anti-Black Society

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Hugh F.

    1979-01-01

    Humanism has been defined as “any system or way of thought or action concerned with the interests and ideals of people.” Racism has been defined as “pro-white, anti-black paranoia.” This paper treats the factors in the American racist society that serve to erode humanistic values. This erosion is especially pronounced in a racist, capitalistic society that subjugates blacks and engages in exploitation based on profit-making. The author poses six hypotheses that define the problems, implicit in which reside solutions. PMID:529313

  4. Pro-angiogenic properties of orosomucoid (ORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Irmak, Ster; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Erguen, Sueleyman; Tilki, Derya

    2009-11-01

    The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM), also known as alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), is found to be increased in infection, inflammation and cancer. Recently, we demonstrated that ORM is produced by endothelial cells and detectable in urine samples of patients with bladder cancer. However, it was not clarified yet whether ORM plays a role in new vessel formation. To this aim we performed overexpression and gene silencing for ORM in human microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). ORM purified from human plasma was used individually or in combination with VEGF-A in endothelial tube formation, migration and proliferation assay. The in vivo effect of ORM in angiogenesis was studied using the chicken chorionallantois membrane (CAM) with subsequent counting of blood vessels on histological sections from the stimulated areas of CAM tissue. Our data show that ORM alone enhances migration but not proliferation of HDMECs. ORM alone does not induce endothelial tubes in vitro but simultaneous application of ORM with VEGF-A increases the number and the network of VEGF-A-induced endothelial tubes. Remarkably, ORM alone induces new vessel formation in vivo using CAM assay and supports the VEGF-A-induced new vessel formation in this assay. Taken together, our results let assume that ORM has pro-angiogenic properties and supports the angiogenic effect of VEGF-A. Thus, ORM seems to be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.

  5. ProPortal: A Database for Prochlorococcus

    DOE Data Explorer

    Huang, Katherine [Chisholm lab, MIT

    Prochlorococcus is a marine cyanobacterium that numerically dominates the mid-latitude oceans, and is the smallest known oxygenic phototroph. All isolates described thus far can be assigned to either a tightly clustered high-light (HL) adapted clade, or a more divergent low-light (LL) adapted group. They are closely related to, but distinct from, marine Synechococcus. The genomes of 12 strains have been sequenced and they range in size from 1.6 to 2.6 Mbp. They represent diverse lineages, spanning the rRNA diversity (97 to 99.93% similarity) of cultured representatives of this group. Our analyses of these genomes inform our understanding of how adaptation occurs in the oceans along gradients of light, nutrients, and other environmental factors, providing essential context for interpreting rapidly expanding metagenomic datasets. [Copied from http://proportal.mit.edu/project/prochlorococcus/] ProPortal allows users to browse and search genome date for not only Prochlorococcus, but Cyanophage and Synechococcus. Microarray data, environmental cell concentration data, and metagenome information are also available.

  6. ProCon - PROteomics CONversion tool.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Gerhard; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E; Kohl, Michael; Marcus, Katrin; Eisenacher, Martin

    2015-11-01

    With the growing amount of experimental data produced in proteomics experiments and the requirements/recommendations of journals in the proteomics field to publicly make available data described in papers, a need for long-term storage of proteomics data in public repositories arises. For such an upload one needs proteomics data in a standardized format. Therefore, it is desirable, that the proprietary vendor's software will integrate in the future such an export functionality using the standard formats for proteomics results defined by the HUPO-PSI group. Currently not all search engines and analysis tools support these standard formats. In the meantime there is a need to provide user-friendly free-to-use conversion tools that can convert the data into such standard formats in order to support wet-lab scientists in creating proteomics data files ready for upload into the public repositories. ProCon is such a conversion tool written in Java for conversion of proteomics identification data into standard formats mzIdentML and Pride XML. It allows the conversion of Sequest™/Comet .out files, of search results from the popular and often used ProteomeDiscoverer® 1.x (x=versions 1.1 to1.4) software and search results stored in the LIMS systems ProteinScape® 1.3 and 2.1 into mzIdentML and PRIDE XML. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics. PMID:26182917

  7. Novel biomarkers in acute heart failure: MR-pro-adrenomedullin.

    PubMed

    Peacock, W Frank

    2014-10-01

    First isolated from human pheochromocytoma cells, adrenomedullin (ADM) is a peptide hormone with natriuretic, vasodilatory, and hypotensive effects mediated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), nitric oxide, and renal prostaglandin systems. ADM expression occurs in many tissues and organ systems, including cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary, cerebrovascular, gastrointestinal, and endocrine tissues where it acts as a circulating hormone and a local autocrine and paracrine hormone. ADM plasma concentrations are increased in hypertension, chronic renal disease, and heart failure. As ADM is unstable in vitro, it is necessary to measure its mid-regional pro-hormone fragment, the levels of which correspond to ADM concentration (MR-proADM). The prognostic potential of MR-proADM was recently demonstrated in the Biomarkers in Acute Heart Failure (BACH) trial. In this trial of 568 acute heart failure patients, MR-proADM was superior to both brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and NT-proBNP in predicting mortality within 14 days. MR-proADM also provided significant additive incremental predictive value for 90-day mortality when added to BNP and NT-proBNP. PMID:24756062

  8. New developments in the InterPro database.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bork, Peer; Buillard, Virginie; Cerutti, Lorenzo; Copley, Richard; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Das, Ujjwal; Daugherty, Louise; Dibley, Mark; Finn, Robert; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Hulo, Nicolas; Hunter, Sarah; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Kejariwal, Anish; Labarga, Alberto; Langendijk-Genevaux, Petra S; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McAnulla, Craig; McDowall, Jennifer; Mistry, Jaina; Mitchell, Alex; Nikolskaya, Anastasia N; Orchard, Sandra; Orengo, Christine; Petryszak, Robert; Selengut, Jeremy D; Sigrist, Christian J A; Thomas, Paul D; Valentin, Franck; Wilson, Derek; Wu, Cathy H; Yeats, Corin

    2007-01-01

    InterPro is an integrated resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, which integrates the following protein signature databases: PROSITE, PRINTS, ProDom, Pfam, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF, SUPERFAMILY, Gene3D and PANTHER. The latter two new member databases have been integrated since the last publication in this journal. There have been several new developments in InterPro, including an additional reading field, new database links, extensions to the web interface and additional match XML files. InterPro has always provided matches to UniProtKB proteins on the website and in the match XML file on the FTP site. Additional matches to proteins in UniParc (UniProt archive) are now available for download in the new match XML files only. The latest InterPro release (13.0) contains more than 13 000 entries, covering over 78% of all proteins in UniProtKB. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), and for download by anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro). The InterProScan search tool is now also available via a web service at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/webservices/WSInterProScan.html. PMID:17202162

  9. Fibrinogen Substrate Recognition by Staphylocoagulase·(Pro)thrombin Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Panizzi, Peter; Friedrich, Rainer; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Richter, Klaus; Bock, Paul E.; Bode, Wolfram

    2008-01-01

    Thrombin generation and fibrinogen (Fbg) clotting are the ultimate proteolytic reactions in the blood coagulation pathway. Staphylocoagulase (SC), a protein secreted by the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, activates prothrombin (ProT) without proteolysis. The SC·(pro)thrombin complex recognizes Fbg as a specific substrate, converting it directly into fibrin. The crystal structure of a fully active SC fragment containing residues 1–325 (SC-(1–325)) bound to human prethrombin 2 showed previously that SC inserts its Ile1-Val2 N terminus into the Ile16 pocket of prethrombin 2, inducing a functional active site in the cognate zymogen conformationally. Exosite I of α-thrombin, the Fbg recognition site, and proexosite I on ProT are blocked by domain 2 of SC-(1–325). In the present studies, active site-labeled fluorescent ProT analogs were used to quantitate Fbg binding to the SC-(1–325)·ProT complex. Fbg binding and cleavage are mediated by expression of a new Fbg-binding exosite on the SC-(1–325)·ProT complex, resulting in formation of an (SC-(1–325)·ProT)2·Fbg pentameric complex with a dissociation constant of 8–34 nM. In both crystal structures, the SC-(1–325)·(pre)thrombin complexes form dimers, with both pro-teinases/zymogens facing each other over a large U-shaped cleft, through which the Fbg substrate could thread. On this basis, a molecular model of the pentameric (SC-(1–325)·thrombin)2·Fbg encounter complex was generated, which explains the coagulant properties and efficient Fbg conversion. The results provide new insight into the mechanism that mediates high affinity Fbg binding and cleavage as a substrate of SC·(pro)thrombin complexes, a process that is central to the molecular pathology of S. aureus endocarditis. PMID:16230339

  10. Manduca sexta prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation requires proPO-activating proteinase (PAP) and serine proteinase homologs (SPHs) simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Snehalata; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

    2005-03-01

    In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) is mediated by three proPO-activating proteinases (PAPs) and two serine proteinase homologs (SPHs) (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 95 (1998) 12220-12225; J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003a) 3552-3561; Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 33 (2003b) 1049-1060). While our current data are consistent with the hypothesis that the SPHs serve as a cofactor/anchor for PAPs (Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 33 (2003) 197-208; Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 34 (2004) 731-742), roles of these clip-domain proteins (i.e. PAPs and SPHs) in proPO activation are poorly defined. To better understand this process, we further characterized the activation reaction using proPO, PAP-1 and SPHs. PAP-1 itself cleaved nearly 1/3 of proPO at Arg51 without generating much phenoloxidase (PO) activity. In the presence of SPHs, the cleavage of proPO became more complete while the increase in PO activity was over 20-fold, indicating that the extent of cleavage does not directly correlate with PO activity. Since SPHs and p-amidinophenyl methanesulfonyl fluoride (APMSF)-treated PAP-1 did not generate active PO by interacting with proPO, proteolytic cleavage is critical for proPO activation. After 1/5 of proPO was processed by PAP-1 alone which was then inactivated by M. sexta serpin-1J or APMSF, further incubation of the reaction mixture with SPHs failed to generate active PO either. Thus, SPHs cannot generate PO activity by simply binding to cleaved proPO. M. sexta proPO activation requires active PAP-1 and SPHs at the same time-one for limited proteolysis and the other as a cofactor, perhaps. Gel filtration chromatography and native gel electrophoresis revealed the PAP-SPH, proPO-PAP, and SPH-proPO associations, essential for generating high Mr, active PO at the site of infection. PMID:15705503

  11. Electromarking solution

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jonathan S.; Harper, William L.; Peck, Charles G.

    1976-06-22

    This invention is directed to an aqueous halogen-free electromarking solution which possesses the capacity for marking a broad spectrum of metals and alloys selected from different classes. The aqueous solution comprises basically the nitrate salt of an amphoteric metal, a chelating agent, and a corrosion-inhibiting agent.

  12. Intensity modulated radiotherapy induces pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses in prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    EL-SAGHIRE, HOUSSEIN; VANDEVOORDE, CHARLOT; OST, PIET; MONSIEURS, PIETER; MICHAUX, ARLETTE; DE MEERLEER, GERT; BAATOUT, SARAH; THIERENS, HUBERT

    2014-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the modern conformal radiotherapies that is widely used within the context of cancer patient treatment. It uses multiple radiation beams targeted to the tumor, however, large volumes of the body receive low doses of irradiation. Using γ-H2AX and global genome expression analysis, we studied the biological responses induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in prostate cancer patients following IMRT. By means of different bioinformatics analyses, we report that IMRT induced an inflammatory response via the induction of viral, adaptive, and innate immune signaling. In response to growth factors and immune-stimulatory signaling, positive regulation in the progression of cell cycle and DNA replication were induced. This denotes pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses. Furthermore, double strand DNA breaks were induced in every patient 30 min after the treatment and remaining DNA repair and damage signaling continued after 18–24 h. Nine genes belonging to inflammatory responses (TLR3, SH2D1A and IL18), cell cycle progression (ORC4, SMC2 and CCDC99) and DNA damage and repair (RAD17, SMC6 and MRE11A) were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This study emphasizes that the risk assessment of health effects from the out-of-field low doses during IMRT should be of concern, as these may increase the risk of secondary cancers and/or systemic inflammation. PMID:24435511

  13. Structural requirements for processing of pro-adipokinetic hormone I.

    PubMed

    Rayne, R C; O'Shea, M

    1993-11-01

    We found that a seven-residue sequence in pro-adipokinetic hormone I (proAKH I) which precedes the endopeptidase cleavage site is predicted to form an omega loop. Molecular modelling experiments indicated that a stable omega loop may form at this site, and suggested that loop stability may depend on the C-terminal loop residue, Lys12. The importance of this residue in proAKH I processing was confirmed by the observation that replacement of Lys12 by thialysine, a Lys analog with an altered side chain, prevented processing in vivo. In addition we showed by molecular modelling that this side-chain alteration may prevent formation of an omega loop. Together, these approaches lead us to propose that an omega loop may serve as a recognition motif in proAKH I processing. PMID:8223647

  14. Project ProCEED: A Model for Developing Professional Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marilyn; Waddell, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Project ProCEED is a staff development model for promoting the type of professional excellence recommended in national educational reports. A six-month program designed and implemented by teachers and principals is examined. (DF)

  15. The ProDom database of protein domain families.

    PubMed Central

    Corpet, F; Gouzy, J; Kahn, D

    1998-01-01

    The ProDom database contains protein domain families generated from the SWISS-PROT database by automated sequence comparisons. It can be searched on the World Wide Web (http://protein.toulouse.inra. fr/prodom.html ) or by E-mail (prodom@toulouse.inra.fr) to study domain arrangements within known families or new proteins. Strong emphasis has been put on the graphical user interface which allows for interactive analysis of protein homology relationships. Recent improvements to the server include: ProDom search by keyword; links to PROSITE and PDB entries; more sensitive ProDom similarity search with BLAST or WU-BLAST; alignments of query sequences with homologous ProDom domain families; and links to the SWISS-MODEL server (http: //www.expasy.ch/swissmod/SWISS-MODEL.html ) for homology based 3-D domain modelling where possible. PMID:9399865

  16. LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, R; Grallath, S; Breitkreuz, K E; Stransky, E; Stransky, H; Frommer, W B; Rentsch, D

    1999-01-01

    During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes. PMID:10072398

  17. Analysis and expansion of the role of the Escherichia coli protein ProQ.

    PubMed

    Sheidy, Daniel T; Zielke, Ryszard A

    2013-01-01

    The decrease in proline transport by the proline porter ProP in a ΔproQ strain has been well documented; however, the reason for this phenotype remains undefined. Previous studies have speculated that ProQ facilitates translation of proP mRNA. Here, we demonstrate that ProQ is enriched in the polysome fractions of sucrose gradient separations of E. coli lysates and the 30S fractions of lysates separated under conditions causing ribosomal subunit dissociation. Thus, ProQ is a bona fide ribosome associated protein. Analysis of proQ constructs lacking predicted structural domains implicates the N-terminal domain in ribosome association. Association with the ribosome appears to be mediated by an interaction with the mRNA being translated, as limited treatment of lysates with Micrococcal Nuclease maintains ribosome integrity but disrupts ProQ localization with polysomes. ProQ also fails to robustly bind to mRNA-free 70S ribosomes in vitro. Interestingly, deletion of proP does not disrupt the localization of ProQ with translating ribosomes, and deletion of proP in combination with the proU operon has no effect on ProQ localization. We also demonstrate that ProQ is necessary for robust biofilm formation, and this phenotype is independent of ProP. Binding studies were carried out using tryptophan fluorescence and in vitro transcribed proP mRNAs. proP is transcribed from two differentially regulated promoters, and ProQ interacts with proP mRNA transcribed from both promoters, as well as a control mRNA with similar affinities. In total, these data suggest that ProQ is positioned to function as a novel translational regulator, and its cellular role extends beyond its effects on proline uptake by ProP. PMID:24205389

  18. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS) will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The initial flight of ProSEDS is scheduled to fly aboard an Air Force Delta II rocket in the summer of 2002. In orbit, ProSEDS will deploy from a Delta II second stage. It will be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire cornected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. This photograph shows Less Johnson, a scientist at MSFC inspecting the nonconducting part of a tether as it exits a deployer similar to the one to be used in the ProSEDS experiment. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC.

  19. AdjudiPro{reg_sign} 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.; Connolly, J.; Simons, B.C.

    1996-12-31

    AdjudiPro, version 2.0, is the latest incarnation of United HealthCare`s patented physician claims adjudication expert system (US patent No. 5,359,509). Its core is an embedded expert system that contains the logic for processing 55% of all physician claim situations reviewed on United HealthCare`s managed care system. Certain physician services are reviewed as part of the claims adjudication process to ensure that submitted charges meet contractual, and other guidelines. In 1995, nearly $20 million in gross savings was realized through use of this system. Since its initial deployment in 1991-1992, there has been a steep increase in AdjudiPro`s processing volume. This increased demand created a number of issues that had to be addressed to ensure AdjudiPro`s continued viability and growth. As a result, much of the past three years was spent rearchitecting AdjudiPro to meet the increasing load placed on it, while achieving acceptable throughput. AdjudiPro is now an essentially real-time application, processing claims twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. This paper describes the current AdjudiPro application, and the key issues faced during the past three years.

  20. Recombinant medaka (Oryzias melastigmus) pro-hepcidin: Multifunctional characterization.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ling; Cai, Jing-Jing; Liu, Hai-Peng; Fan, Dan-Qing; Peng, Hui; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2012-02-01

    Recently, two hepcidin variant genes (Om-hep1 and Om-hep2) were identified in a model fish marine medaka and both were highly induced in vivo with bacterial challenge, suggesting that the medaka hepcidin may have a similar function to other reported teleostean hepcidins. In the present study, the antibacterial, antiviral and antitumor activities of Om-hep1 were determined using its synthetic and recombinant pro-peptides. The recombinant pro-hepcidin1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and an effective method to produce recombinant Pro-Omhep1 was developed in order to obtain a right folded structure. The results showed that both the synthetic mature peptide and recombinant pro-peptide had similar antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and negative bacteria. In particular, both the synthetic mature Om-hep1 and recombinant Pro-Omhep1 inhibited the viral replication of white spot syndrome virus in the hematopoietic tissue cells of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. Om-hep1 also presented antitumor activity on the cultured human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In addition, the antimicrobial mechanism of Om-hep1 was measured and it was found that Om-hep1 was likely to be non-membranolytic. The recombinant Pro-Omhep1 performed better biological activity compared to the synthetic mature Om-hep1. This study suggested that Om-hep1 was likely to be an important multifunction protein involved in various resistance actions in the marine medaka immune system. PMID:22051539

  1. InterPro: the integrative protein signature database.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Sarah; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bork, Peer; Das, Ujjwal; Daugherty, Louise; Duquenne, Lauranne; Finn, Robert D; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kelly, Elizabeth; Laugraud, Aurélie; Letunic, Ivica; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McAnulla, Craig; McDowall, Jennifer; Mistry, Jaina; Mitchell, Alex; Mulder, Nicola; Natale, Darren; Orengo, Christine; Quinn, Antony F; Selengut, Jeremy D; Sigrist, Christian J A; Thimma, Manjula; Thomas, Paul D; Valentin, Franck; Wilson, Derek; Wu, Cathy H; Yeats, Corin

    2009-01-01

    The InterPro database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) integrates together predictive models or 'signatures' representing protein domains, families and functional sites from multiple, diverse source databases: Gene3D, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. Integration is performed manually and approximately half of the total approximately 58,000 signatures available in the source databases belong to an InterPro entry. Recently, we have started to also display the remaining un-integrated signatures via our web interface. Other developments include the provision of non-signature data, such as structural data, in new XML files on our FTP site, as well as the inclusion of matchless UniProtKB proteins in the existing match XML files. The web interface has been extended and now links out to the ADAN predicted protein-protein interaction database and the SPICE and Dasty viewers. The latest public release (v18.0) covers 79.8% of UniProtKB (v14.1) and consists of 16 549 entries. InterPro data may be accessed either via the web address above, via web services, by downloading files by anonymous FTP or by using the InterProScan search software (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/InterProScan/). PMID:18940856

  2. New developments in the InterPro database

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K.; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bork, Peer; Buillard, Virginie; Cerutti, Lorenzo; Copley, Richard; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Das, Ujjwal; Daugherty, Louise; Dibley, Mark; Finn, Robert; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Hulo, Nicolas; Hunter, Sarah; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Kejariwal, Anish; Labarga, Alberto; Langendijk-Genevaux, Petra S.; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McAnulla, Craig; McDowall, Jennifer; Mistry, Jaina; Mitchell, Alex; Nikolskaya, Anastasia N.; Orchard, Sandra; Orengo, Christine; Petryszak, Robert; Selengut, Jeremy D.; Sigrist, Christian J. A.; Thomas, Paul D.; Valentin, Franck; Wilson, Derek; Wu, Cathy H.; Yeats, Corin

    2007-01-01

    InterPro is an integrated resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, which integrates the following protein signature databases: PROSITE, PRINTS, ProDom, Pfam, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF, SUPERFAMILY, Gene3D and PANTHER. The latter two new member databases have been integrated since the last publication in this journal. There have been several new developments in InterPro, including an additional reading field, new database links, extensions to the web interface and additional match XML files. InterPro has always provided matches to UniProtKB proteins on the website and in the match XML file on the FTP site. Additional matches to proteins in UniParc (UniProt archive) are now available for download in the new match XML files only. The latest InterPro release (13.0) contains more than 13 000 entries, covering over 78% of all proteins in UniProtKB. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (), and for download by anonymous FTP (). The InterProScan search tool is now also available via a web service at . PMID:17202162

  3. InterPro: the integrative protein signature database

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Sarah; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K.; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bork, Peer; Das, Ujjwal; Daugherty, Louise; Duquenne, Lauranne; Finn, Robert D.; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kelly, Elizabeth; Laugraud, Aurélie; Letunic, Ivica; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McAnulla, Craig; McDowall, Jennifer; Mistry, Jaina; Mitchell, Alex; Mulder, Nicola; Natale, Darren; Orengo, Christine; Quinn, Antony F.; Selengut, Jeremy D.; Sigrist, Christian J. A.; Thimma, Manjula; Thomas, Paul D.; Valentin, Franck; Wilson, Derek; Wu, Cathy H.; Yeats, Corin

    2009-01-01

    The InterPro database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) integrates together predictive models or ‘signatures’ representing protein domains, families and functional sites from multiple, diverse source databases: Gene3D, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. Integration is performed manually and approximately half of the total ∼58 000 signatures available in the source databases belong to an InterPro entry. Recently, we have started to also display the remaining un-integrated signatures via our web interface. Other developments include the provision of non-signature data, such as structural data, in new XML files on our FTP site, as well as the inclusion of matchless UniProtKB proteins in the existing match XML files. The web interface has been extended and now links out to the ADAN predicted protein–protein interaction database and the SPICE and Dasty viewers. The latest public release (v18.0) covers 79.8% of UniProtKB (v14.1) and consists of 16 549 entries. InterPro data may be accessed either via the web address above, via web services, by downloading files by anonymous FTP or by using the InterProScan search software (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/InterProScan/). PMID:18940856

  4. Effect of Pb2Ru2O7-x (PRO) conductive interfacial layers on ferroelectric properties of Pt/Pb(Zr0.35Ti0.65)O3/Pt capacitors for nonvolatile memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. J.; Yoon, S. G.

    2005-09-01

    A conductive material, Pb2Ru2O7-x (PRO), containing Pb in a cubic structure was introduced into a Pt/PZT interface in an attempt to improve the ferroelectric properties of PZT films. PRO and PZT films were prepared by rf magnetron sputtering and chemical solution deposition, respectively. The resistivity of PRO thin films in a hybrid-type electrode (PRO/Pt) structure was approximately 35 45 μΩ·cm and the surface roughness remained constant with increasing annealing temperature. The PRO interlayers suppressed the loss of Pb in PZT layers by diffusion to the Pt/PZT interface. The increase in remanent polarization was largely dependent on the PRO interlayers inserted at the bottom-Pt/PZT interface rather than at the top-Pt/PZT interface. In addition, the leakage-current behavior of PZT films in a sandwich structure was improved substantially compared to the case of PRO interlayers only at the bottom-Pt/PZT interface. Thus, the PRO interlayers play an important role in improving the ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films for use in nonvolatile memory device applications.

  5. Using ProHits to store, annotate and analyze affinity purification - mass spectrometry (AP-MS) data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guomin; Zhang, Jianping; Choi, Hyungwon; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Srikumar, Tharan; Larsen, Brett; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I.; Raught, Brian; Tyers, Mike; Gingras, Anne-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is a robust technique used to identify protein-protein interactions. With recent improvements in sample preparation, and dramatic advances in MS instrumentation speed and sensitivity, this technique is becoming more widely used throughout the scientific community. To meet the needs of research groups both large and small, we have developed software solutions for tracking, scoring and analyzing AP-MS data. Here, we provide details for the installation and utilization of ProHits, a Laboratory Information Management System designed specifically for AP-MS interaction proteomics. This protocol explains: (i) how to install the complete ProHits system, including modules for the management of mass spectrometry files and the analysis of interaction data, and (ii) alternative options for the use of pre-existing search results in simpler versions of ProHits, including a virtual machine implementation of our ProHits Lite software. We also describe how to use the main features of the software to analyze AP-MS data. PMID:22948730

  6. The InterPro BioMart: federated query and web service access to the InterPro Resource.

    PubMed

    Jones, Philip; Binns, David; McMenamin, Conor; McAnulla, Craig; Hunter, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The InterPro BioMart provides users with query-optimized access to predictions of family classification, protein domains and functional sites, based on a broad spectrum of integrated computational models ('signatures') that are generated by the InterPro member databases: Gene3D, HAMAP, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. These predictions are provided for all protein sequences from both the UniProt Knowledge Base and the UniParc protein sequence archive. The InterPro BioMart is supplementary to the primary InterPro web interface (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), providing a web service and the ability to build complex, custom queries that can efficiently return thousands of rows of data in a variety of formats. This article describes the information available from the InterPro BioMart and illustrates its utility with examples of how to build queries that return useful biological information. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/biomart/martview. PMID:21785143

  7. 78 FR 32281 - ProShares Advisors LLC, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... COMMISSION ProShares Advisors LLC, et al.; Notice of Application May 21, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... exemption from sections 12(d)(1)(A) and (B) of the Act. Applicants: ProShares Advisors LLC (``ProShares''), ProShares Trust (the ``Trust''), and SEI Investments Distribution Co. (``SEI''). Summary...

  8. GeoPro: Technology to Enable Scientific Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    C. Juan

    2004-02-09

    Development of the ground-water flow model for the Death Valley Regional Groundwater Flow System (DVRFS) required integration of numerous supporting hydrogeologic investigations. The results from recharge, discharge, hydraulic properties, water level, pumping, model boundaries, and geologic studies were integrated to develop the required conceptual and 3-D framework models, and the flow model itself. To support the complex modeling process and the needs of the multidisciplinary DVRFS team, a hardware and software system called GeoPro (Geoscience Knowledge Integration Protocol) was developed. A primary function of GeoPro is to manage the large volume of disparate data compiled for the 100,000-square-kilometer area of southern Nevada and California. The data are primarily from previous investigations and regional flow models developed for the Nevada Test Site and Yucca Mountain projects. GeoPro utilizes relational database technology (Microsoft SQL Server{trademark}) to store and manage these tabular point data, groundwater flow model ASCII data, 3-D hydrogeologic framework data, 2-D and 2.5-D GIS data, and text documents. Data management consists of versioning, tracking, and reporting data changes as multiple users access the centralized database. GeoPro also supports the modeling process by automating the routine data transformations required to integrate project software. This automation is also crucial to streamlining pre- and post-processing of model data during model calibration. Another function of GeoPro is to facilitate the dissemination and use of the model data and results through web-based documents by linking and allowing access to the underlying database and analysis tools. The intent is to convey to end-users the complex flow model product in a manner that is simple, flexible, and relevant to their needs. GeoPro is evolving from a prototype system to a production-level product. Currently the DVRFS pre- and post-processing modeling tools are being re

  9. Polymer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  10. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  11. Structure and activation of pro-activin A.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelu; Fischer, Gerhard; Hyvönen, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Activins are growth factors with multiple roles in the development and homeostasis. Like all TGF-β family of growth factors, activins are synthesized as large precursors from which mature dimeric growth factors are released proteolytically. Here we have studied the activation of activin A and determined crystal structures of the unprocessed precursor and of the cleaved pro-mature complex. Replacing the natural furin cleavage site with a HRV 3C protease site, we show how the protein gains its bioactivity after proteolysis and is as active as the isolated mature domain. The complex remains associated in conditions used for biochemical analysis with a dissociation constant of 5 nM, but the pro-domain can be actively displaced from the complex by follistatin. Our high-resolution structures of pro-activin A share features seen in the pro-TGF-β1 and pro-BMP-9 structures, but reveal a new oligomeric arrangement, with a domain-swapped, cross-armed conformation for the protomers in the dimeric protein. PMID:27373274

  12. Regulation of autoimmune inflammation by pro-inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eugene Y.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2008-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokines play a critical role in the initiation and propagation of autoimmune arthritis and many other disorders resulting from a dysregulated self-directed immune response. These cytokines influence the interplay among the cellular, immunological and biochemical mediators of inflammation at multiple levels. Regulation of the pro-inflammatory activity of these cytokines is generally perceived to be mediated by the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, or TGF-β. However, increasing evidence is accumulating in support of the regulatory attributes of the pro-inflammatory cytokines themselves, in studies conducted in animal models of diabetes, multiple sclerosis, uveitis, and lupus. The results of our recent studies have shown that the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-γ, can suppress arthritic inflammation in rats, and also contribute to resistance against arthritis. These results are of paramount significance not only in fully understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis, but also in anticipating the full ramifications of the in vivo neutralization of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, including that for therapeutic purposes. PMID:18694783

  13. Structure and activation of pro-activin A

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuelu; Fischer, Gerhard; Hyvönen, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Activins are growth factors with multiple roles in the development and homeostasis. Like all TGF-β family of growth factors, activins are synthesized as large precursors from which mature dimeric growth factors are released proteolytically. Here we have studied the activation of activin A and determined crystal structures of the unprocessed precursor and of the cleaved pro-mature complex. Replacing the natural furin cleavage site with a HRV 3C protease site, we show how the protein gains its bioactivity after proteolysis and is as active as the isolated mature domain. The complex remains associated in conditions used for biochemical analysis with a dissociation constant of 5 nM, but the pro-domain can be actively displaced from the complex by follistatin. Our high-resolution structures of pro-activin A share features seen in the pro-TGF-β1 and pro-BMP-9 structures, but reveal a new oligomeric arrangement, with a domain-swapped, cross-armed conformation for the protomers in the dimeric protein. PMID:27373274

  14. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballance, Judy; Johnson, Les; Rogacki, John R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta II Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned to fly in 2001, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5km bare wire plus 10 km spectra or dyneema) from a Delta II second stage to achieve approximately 0.4N drag thrust. ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDs instrumentation includes a Langmuir probe and Differential Ion Flux Probe, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations, The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the deorbit of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  15. Milk-Derived Tripeptides IPP (Ile-Pro-Pro) and VPP (Val-Pro-Pro) Promote Adipocyte Differentiation and Inhibit Inflammation in 3T3-F442A Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Subhadeep; Wu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Milk derived tripeptides IPP (Ile-Pro-Pro) and VPP (Val-Pro-Pro) have shown promise as anti-hypertensive agents due to their inhibitory effects on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Due to the key inter-related roles of hypertension, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, there is growing interest in investigating established anti-hypertensive agents for their effects on insulin sensitivity and inflammation. In this study, we examined the effects of IPP and VPP on 3T3-F442A murine pre-adipocytes, a widely used model for studying metabolic diseases. We found that both IPP and VPP induced beneficial adipogenic differentiation as manifested by intracellular lipid accumulation, upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and secretion of the protective lipid hormone adiponectin by these cells. The observed effects were similar to those induced by insulin, suggesting potential benefits in the presence of insulin resistance. IPP and VPP also inhibited cytokine induced pro-inflammatory changes such as reduction in adipokine levels and activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Taken together, our findings suggest that IPP and VPP exert insulin-mimetic adipogenic effects and prevent inflammatory changes in adipocytes, which may offer protection against metabolic disease. PMID:25714093

  16. Motoneuron Programmed Cell Death in Response to proBDNF

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, AR; Gifondorwa, DJ; Robinson, MB; Strupe, JL; Prevette, D; Johnson, JE; Hempstead, BL; Oppenheim, RW; Milligan, CE

    2011-01-01

    Motoneurons (MN) as well as most neuronal populations undergo a temporally and spatially specific period of programmed cell death (PCD). Several factors have been considered to regulate the survival of MNs during this period, including availability of muscle-derived trophic support and activity. The possibility that target-derived factors may also negatively regulate MN survival has been considered, but not pursued. Neurotrophin precursors, through their interaction with p75NTR and sortilin receptors have been shown to induce cell death during development and following injury in the CNS. In this study, we find that muscle cells produce and secrete proBDNF. ProBDNF through its interaction with p75NTR and sortilin, promotes a caspase-dependent death of MNs in culture. We also provide data to suggest that proBDNF regulates MN PCD during development in vivo. PMID:21834083

  17. Empathy and pro-social behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami Bartal, Inbal; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2011-12-01

    Whereas human pro-social behavior is often driven by empathic concern for another, it is unclear whether nonprimate mammals experience a similar motivational state. To test for empathically motivated pro-social behavior in rodents, we placed a free rat in an arena with a cagemate trapped in a restrainer. After several sessions, the free rat learned to intentionally and quickly open the restrainer and free the cagemate. Rats did not open empty or object-containing restrainers. They freed cagemates even when social contact was prevented. When liberating a cagemate was pitted against chocolate contained within a second restrainer, rats opened both restrainers and typically shared the chocolate. Thus, rats behave pro-socially in response to a conspecific's distress, providing strong evidence for biological roots of empathically motivated helping behavior. PMID:22158823

  18. Conformation-independent structural comparison of macromolecules with ProSMART

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, Robert A.; Fischer, Marcus; McNicholas, Stuart; Murshudov, Garib N.

    2014-09-01

    The Procrustes Structural Matching Alignment and Restraints Tool (ProSMART) has been developed to allow local comparative structural analyses independent of the global conformations and sequence homology of the compared macromolecules. This allows quick and intuitive visualization of the conservation of backbone and side-chain conformations, providing complementary information to existing methods. The identification and exploration of (dis)similarities between macromolecular structures can help to gain biological insight, for instance when visualizing or quantifying the response of a protein to ligand binding. Obtaining a residue alignment between compared structures is often a prerequisite for such comparative analysis. If the conformational change of the protein is dramatic, conventional alignment methods may struggle to provide an intuitive solution for straightforward analysis. To make such analyses more accessible, the Procrustes Structural Matching Alignment and Restraints Tool (ProSMART) has been developed, which achieves a conformation-independent structural alignment, as well as providing such additional functionalities as the generation of restraints for use in the refinement of macromolecular models. Sensible comparison of protein (or DNA/RNA) structures in the presence of conformational changes is achieved by enforcing neither chain nor domain rigidity. The visualization of results is facilitated by popular molecular-graphics software such as CCP4mg and PyMOL, providing intuitive feedback regarding structural conservation and subtle dissimilarities between close homologues that can otherwise be hard to identify. Automatically generated colour schemes corresponding to various residue-based scores are provided, which allow the assessment of the conservation of backbone and side-chain conformations relative to the local coordinate frame. Structural comparison tools such as ProSMART can help to break the complexity that accompanies the constantly growing

  19. Compatible solutes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Recently we reported a role for compatible solute uptake in mediating bile tolerance and increased gastrointestinal persistence in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.1 Herein, we review the evolution in our understanding of how these low molecular weight molecules contribute to growth and survival of the pathogen both inside and outside the body, and how this stress survival mechanism may ultimately be used to target and kill the pathogen. PMID:21326913

  20. The neuropsychology of infants’ pro-social preferences

    PubMed Central

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Kaduk, Katharina; Bakker, Marta; Gottwald, Janna; Ekberg, Therese; Elsner, Claudia; Reid, Vincent; Kenward, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The current study is the first to investigate neural correlates of infants’ detection of pro- and antisocial agents. Differences in ERP component P400 over posterior temporal areas were found during 6-month-olds’ observation of helping and hindering agents (Experiment 1), but not during observation of identically moving agents that did not help or hinder (Experiment 2). The results demonstrate that the P400 component indexes activation of infants’ memories of previously perceived interactions between social agents. This leads to suggest that similar processes might be involved in infants’ processing of pro- and antisocial agents and other social perception processes (encoding gaze direction, goal directed grasping and pointing). PMID:25681955

  1. Pro-2-PAM therapy for central and peripheral cholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Demar, James C; Clarkson, Edward D; Ratcliffe, Ruthie H; Campbell, Amy J; Thangavelu, Sonia G; Herdman, Christine A; Leader, Haim; Schulz, Susan M; Marek, Elizabeth; Medynets, Marie A; Ku, Therese C; Evans, Sarah A; Khan, Farhat A; Owens, Roberta R; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Gordon, Richard K

    2010-09-01

    Novel therapeutics to overcome the toxic effects of organophosphorus (OP) chemical agents are needed due to the documented use of OPs in warfare (e.g. 1980-1988 Iran/Iraq war) and terrorism (e.g. 1995 Tokyo subway attacks). Standard OP exposure therapy in the United States consists of atropine sulfate (to block muscarinic receptors), the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator (oxime) pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), and a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant to ameliorate seizures. A major disadvantage is that quaternary nitrogen charged oximes, including 2-PAM, do not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) to treat brain AChE. Therefore, we have synthesized and evaluated pro-2-PAM (a lipid permeable 2-PAM derivative) that can enter the brain and reactivate CNS AChE, preventing seizures in guinea pigs after exposure to OPs. The protective effects of the pro-2-PAM after OP exposure were shown using (a) surgically implanted radiotelemetry probes for electroencephalogram (EEG), (b) neurohistopathology of brain, (c) cholinesterase activities in the PNS and CNS, and (d) survivability. The PNS oxime 2-PAM was ineffective at reducing seizures/status epilepticus (SE) in diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)-exposed animals. In contrast, pro-2-PAM significantly suppressed and then eliminated seizure activity. In OP-exposed guinea pigs, there was a significant reduction in neurological damage with pro-2-PAM but not 2-PAM. Distinct regional areas of the brains showed significantly higher AChE activity 1.5h after OP exposure in pro-2-PAM treated animals compared to the 2-PAM treated ones. However, blood and diaphragm showed similar AChE activities in animals treated with either oxime, as both 2-PAM and pro-2-PAM are PNS active oximes. In conclusion, pro-2-PAM can cross the BBB, is rapidly metabolized inside the brain to 2-PAM, and protects against OP-induced SE through restoration of brain AChE activity. Pro-2-PAM represents the first non-invasive means of administering a CNS therapeutic for

  2. Cancer exosomes trigger mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into pro-angiogenic and pro-invasive myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Mark; Mason, Malcolm D.; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Clayton, Aled

    2015-01-01

    Stromal fibroblasts become altered in response to solid cancers, to exhibit myofibroblastic characteristics, with disease promoting influence. Infiltrating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) may contribute towards these changes, but the factors secreted by cancer cells that impact MSC differentiation are poorly understood. We investigated the role of nano-metre sized vesicles (exosomes), secreted by prostate cancer cells, on the differentiation of bone-marrow MSC (BM-MSC), and the subsequent functional consequences of such changes. Purified exosomes impaired classical adipogenic differentiation, skewing differentiation towards alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) positive myofibroblastic cells. A single exosomes treatment generated myofibroblasts secreting high levels of VEGF-A, HGF and matrix regulating factors (MMP-1, −3 and −13). Differentiated MSC had pro-angiogenic functions and enhanced tumour proliferation and invasivity assessed in a 3D co-culture model. Differentiation was dependent on exosomal-TGFβ, but soluble TGFβ at matched dose could not generate the same phenotype. Exosomes present in the cancer cell secretome were the principal factors driving this phenotype. Prostate cancer exosomes dominantly dictate a programme of MSC differentiation generating myofibroblasts with functional properties consistent with disease promotion. PMID:25596732

  3. Cancer exosomes trigger mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into pro-angiogenic and pro-invasive myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Ridwana; Webber, Jason P; Gurney, Mark; Mason, Malcolm D; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Clayton, Aled

    2015-01-20

    Stromal fibroblasts become altered in response to solid cancers, to exhibit myofibroblastic characteristics, with disease promoting influence. Infiltrating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) may contribute towards these changes, but the factors secreted by cancer cells that impact MSC differentiation are poorly understood. We investigated the role of nano-metre sized vesicles (exosomes), secreted by prostate cancer cells, on the differentiation of bone-marrow MSC (BM-MSC), and the subsequent functional consequences of such changes. Purified exosomes impaired classical adipogenic differentiation, skewing differentiation towards alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) positive myofibroblastic cells. A single exosomes treatment generated myofibroblasts secreting high levels of VEGF-A, HGF and matrix regulating factors (MMP-1, -3 and -13). Differentiated MSC had pro-angiogenic functions and enhanced tumour proliferation and invasivity assessed in a 3D co-culture model. Differentiation was dependent on exosomal-TGFβ, but soluble TGFβ at matched dose could not generate the same phenotype. Exosomes present in the cancer cell secretome were the principal factors driving this phenotype. Prostate cancer exosomes dominantly dictate a programme of MSC differentiation generating myofibroblasts with functional properties consistent with disease promotion. PMID:25596732

  4. HBpF-proBDNF: A New Tool for the Analysis of Pro-Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptor Signaling and Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gaub, Perrine; de Léon, Andrès; Gibon, Julien; Soubannier, Vincent; Dorval, Geneviève; Séguéla, Philippe; Barker, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    Neurotrophins activate intracellular signaling pathways necessary for neuronal survival, growth and apoptosis. The most abundant neurotrophin in the adult brain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is first synthesized as a proBDNF precursor and recent studies have demonstrated that proBDNF can be secreted and that it functions as a ligand for a receptor complex containing p75NTR and sortilin. Activation of proBDNF receptors mediates growth cone collapse, reduces synaptic activity, and facilitates developmental apoptosis of motoneurons but the precise signaling cascades have been difficult to discern. To address this, we have engineered, expressed and purified HBpF-proBDNF, an expression construct containing a 6X-HIS tag, a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) sequence, a PreScission™ Protease cleavage site and a FLAG-tag attached to the N-terminal part of murine proBDNF. Intact HBpF-proBDNF has activities indistinguishable from its wild-type counterpart and can be used to purify proBDNF signaling complexes or to monitor proBDNF endocytosis and retrograde transport. HBpF-proBDNF will be useful for characterizing proBDNF signaling complexes and for deciphering the role of proBDNF in neuronal development, synapse function and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26950209

  5. HBpF-proBDNF: A New Tool for the Analysis of Pro-Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptor Signaling and Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Gaub, Perrine; de Léon, Andrès; Gibon, Julien; Soubannier, Vincent; Dorval, Geneviève; Séguéla, Philippe; Barker, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    Neurotrophins activate intracellular signaling pathways necessary for neuronal survival, growth and apoptosis. The most abundant neurotrophin in the adult brain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is first synthesized as a proBDNF precursor and recent studies have demonstrated that proBDNF can be secreted and that it functions as a ligand for a receptor complex containing p75NTR and sortilin. Activation of proBDNF receptors mediates growth cone collapse, reduces synaptic activity, and facilitates developmental apoptosis of motoneurons but the precise signaling cascades have been difficult to discern. To address this, we have engineered, expressed and purified HBpF-proBDNF, an expression construct containing a 6X-HIS tag, a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) sequence, a PreScission™ Protease cleavage site and a FLAG-tag attached to the N-terminal part of murine proBDNF. Intact HBpF-proBDNF has activities indistinguishable from its wild-type counterpart and can be used to purify proBDNF signaling complexes or to monitor proBDNF endocytosis and retrograde transport. HBpF-proBDNF will be useful for characterizing proBDNF signaling complexes and for deciphering the role of proBDNF in neuronal development, synapse function and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26950209

  6. Ionizing radiation modulates human macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype preserving their pro-invasive and pro-angiogenic capacities

    PubMed Central

    Teresa Pinto, Ana; Laranjeiro Pinto, Marta; Patrícia Cardoso, Ana; Monteiro, Cátia; Teixeira Pinto, Marta; Filipe Maia, André; Castro, Patrícia; Figueira, Rita; Monteiro, Armanda; Marques, Margarida; Mareel, Marc; dos Santos, Susana Gomes; Seruca, Raquel; Adolfo Barbosa, Mário; Rocha, Sónia; José Oliveira, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the efficacy of conventional radiotherapy, attention has been paid to immune cells, which not only modulate cancer cell response to therapy but are also highly recruited to tumours after irradiation. Particularly, the effect of ionizing radiation on macrophages, using therapeutically relevant doses, is not well understood. To evaluate how radiotherapy affects macrophage behaviour and macrophage-mediated cancer cell activity, human monocyte derived-macrophages were subjected, for a week, to cumulative ionizing radiation doses, as used during cancer treatment (2 Gy/fraction/day). Irradiated macrophages remained viable and metabolically active, despite DNA damage. NF-kappaB transcription activation and increased Bcl-xL expression evidenced the promotion of pro-survival activity. A significant increase of pro-inflammatory macrophage markers CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR, but not CCR7, TNF and IL1B was observed after 10 Gy cumulative doses, while anti-inflammatory markers CD163, MRC1, VCAN and IL-10 expression decreased, suggesting the modulation towards a more pro-inflammatory phenotype. Moreover, ionizing radiation induced macrophage morphological alterations and increased their phagocytic rate, without affecting matrix metalloproteases (MMP)2 and MMP9 activity. Importantly, irradiated macrophages promoted cancer cell-invasion and cancer cell-induced angiogenesis. Our work highlights macrophage ability to sustain cancer cell activities as a major concern that needs to be addressed to improve radiotherapy efficacy. PMID:26735768

  7. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie is of NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS). ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The tether would be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire tether connected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  8. 31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of pro rata share. 50.93 Section 50.93 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE... from a subsequent act of terrorism....

  9. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a) Application—(1) Shipments to foreign countries. Except for aircraft bound for foreign locations referred to in paragraph...

  10. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a) Application—(1) Shipments to foreign countries. Except for aircraft bound for foreign locations referred to in paragraph...

  11. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a) Application—(1) Shipments to foreign countries. Except for aircraft bound for foreign locations referred to in paragraph...

  12. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a) Application—(1) Shipments to foreign countries. Except for aircraft bound for foreign locations referred to in paragraph...

  13. Pro-Forms as Projective Devices in Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keevallik, Leelo

    2011-01-01

    Cataphoric pronouns have been characterized as being co-referential with a word that comes later. Considering that talk is produced in real time, with little benefit of knowing what is yet to come, participants understand cataphoric pro-forms to be projecting more talk. Projection is a crucial interactive resource, as it enables speakers to align…

  14. Mexican American Adolescents' Perceptions of a Pro-College Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; Cepeda, Lisa M.; Ivy, Karen K.; Archuleta, Debra J.

    2010-01-01

    Three focus groups of ninth-grade Mexican American students explored the factors contributing to a pro-college culture. The students participated in the federal initiative program called "Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs." Analysis revealed specific student, family, peer, and school personnel influences toward a…

  15. Do Null Subjects (Mis-)Trigger Pro-Drop Grammars?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [[superscript -]pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing…

  16. Watts Up? Pro AC Power Meter for Automated Energy Recording

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jason M.; Miller, Jonathan R.; Kaplan, Brent A.; Reed, Derek D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to review the Watts up? Pro AC power meter. Evaluations of the meter's reliability for measuring energy consumption by consumer electronics yielded acceptable levels of reliability. Implications and limitations for the use of this product in behavior analytic research and practice are discussed.

  17. The Role of Cyclo(His-Pro) in Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Grottelli, Silvia; Ferrari, Ilaria; Pietrini, Grazia; Peirce, Matthew J; Minelli, Alba; Bellezza, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases may have distinct genetic etiologies and pathological manifestations, yet share common cellular mechanisms underpinning neuronal damage and dysfunction. These cellular mechanisms include excitotoxicity, calcium dysregulation, oxidative damage, ER stress and neuroinflammation. Recent data have identified a dual role in these events for glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, which are able both to induce and to protect against damage induced by diverse stresses. Cyclo(His-Pro), a cyclic dipeptide derived from the hydrolytic removal of the amino-terminal pyroglutamic acid residue of the hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone, may be important in regulating the nature of the glial cell contribution. Cyclo(His-Pro) is ubiquitous in the central nervous system and is a key substrate of organic cation transporters, which are strongly linked to neuroprotection. The cyclic dipeptide can also cross the brain-blood-barrier and, once in the brain, can affect diverse inflammatory and stress responses by modifying the Nrf2-NF-κB signaling axis. For these reasons, cyclo(His-Pro) has striking potential for therapeutic application by both parenteral and oral administration routes and may represent an important new tool in counteracting neuroinflammation-based degenerative pathologies. In this review, we discuss the chemistry and biology of cyclo(His-Pro), how it may interact with the biological mechanisms driving neurodegenerative disease, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and thereby act to preserve or restore neuronal function. PMID:27529240

  18. Memory for Pro-Social Intentions: When Competing Motives Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandimonte, Maria A.; Ferrante, Donatella; Bianco, Carmela; Villani, Maria Grazia

    2010-01-01

    Memory for future actions, or "prospective memory" (PM), often involves remembering to do things "for others". The present article explores the motivational mechanisms underlying memory for pro-social intentions through the manipulation of the social relevance of goals and presence of material rewards during an activity-based PM task. Results…

  19. The Role of Cyclo(His-Pro) in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Grottelli, Silvia; Ferrari, Ilaria; Pietrini, Grazia; Peirce, Matthew J.; Minelli, Alba; Bellezza, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases may have distinct genetic etiologies and pathological manifestations, yet share common cellular mechanisms underpinning neuronal damage and dysfunction. These cellular mechanisms include excitotoxicity, calcium dysregulation, oxidative damage, ER stress and neuroinflammation. Recent data have identified a dual role in these events for glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, which are able both to induce and to protect against damage induced by diverse stresses. Cyclo(His-Pro), a cyclic dipeptide derived from the hydrolytic removal of the amino-terminal pyroglutamic acid residue of the hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone, may be important in regulating the nature of the glial cell contribution. Cyclo(His-Pro) is ubiquitous in the central nervous system and is a key substrate of organic cation transporters, which are strongly linked to neuroprotection. The cyclic dipeptide can also cross the brain-blood-barrier and, once in the brain, can affect diverse inflammatory and stress responses by modifying the Nrf2-NF-κB signaling axis. For these reasons, cyclo(His-Pro) has striking potential for therapeutic application by both parenteral and oral administration routes and may represent an important new tool in counteracting neuroinflammation-based degenerative pathologies. In this review, we discuss the chemistry and biology of cyclo(His-Pro), how it may interact with the biological mechanisms driving neurodegenerative disease, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and thereby act to preserve or restore neuronal function. PMID:27529240

  20. Affordance, Learning Opportunities, and the Lesson Plan Pro Forma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the most commonly used lesson plan pro formas in language teacher education are inappropriately premised on an outcomes-based approach to teaching, one that is in conflict with what we know about how languages are learnt and how experienced teachers teach. It proposes an alternative, affordance-based approach to lesson…

  1. MEMS Pro Design Kit - Parts A, B, and C

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-06-15

    Part A: SUMMiT V design Kit components for use with MEMS Pro from SoftMEMS Part B: SUMMiT V remote DRC and gear generator source code for use with autocad visual basic Part C: SUMMiT V DRC rules source and test cases for Calibre DRC engine

  2. The "Creation-Science" Case and Pro Bono Publico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Peggy L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes contributions and efforts of New York law firm (Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher, Flom) personnel in developing plaintiff's case in McLean v. Arkansas 590 (balanced treatment of creationism/evolution). Discusses aspects of "Pro Bono Publico" (unpaid public interest service) endeavors in general and those related to this law firm in…

  3. Affecting Community Change: Involving "Pro Bono" Professionals as Extension Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Diane T.; Culp, Ken, III

    2013-01-01

    "Pro bono" volunteers provide an effective means for Extension professionals to expand limited financial and human resources. Volunteers recruited from business settings can provide skills, abilities, expertise, leadership, and resources to Extension programs. Allowing professional volunteers to meet their desired leadership goals while…

  4. Virtex-II Pro SEE Test Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; Howard, James W., Jr.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this coarse Single Event Effect (SEE) test is to determine the suitability of the commercial Virtex-II Pro family for use in spaceflight applications. To this end, this test is primarily intended to determine any Singe Event Latchup (SEL) susceptibilities for these devices. Secondly, this test is intended to measure the level of Single Event Upset (SEU) susceptibilities and in a general sense where they occur. The coarse SEE test was performed on a commercial XC2VP7 device, a relatively small single processor version of the Virtex-II Pro. As the XC2VP7 shares the same functional block design and fabrication process with the larger Virtex-II Pro devices, the results of this test should also be applicable to the larger devices. The XC2VP7 device was tested on a commercial Virtex-II Pro development board. The testing was performed at the Cyclotron laboratories at Texas A&M and Michigan State Universities using ions of varying energy levels and fluences.

  5. Promoting pro-environmental action in climate change deniers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Paul G.; Hornsey, Matthew J.; Bongiorno, Renata; Jeffries, Carla

    2012-08-01

    A sizeable (and growing) proportion of the public in Western democracies deny the existence of anthropogenic climate change. It is commonly assumed that convincing deniers that climate change is real is necessary for them to act pro-environmentally. However, the likelihood of `conversion' using scientific evidence is limited because these attitudes increasingly reflect ideological positions. An alternative approach is to identify outcomes of mitigation efforts that deniers find important. People have strong interests in the welfare of their society, so deniers may act in ways supporting mitigation efforts where they believe these efforts will have positive societal effects. In Study 1, climate change deniers (N=155) intended to act more pro-environmentally where they thought climate change action would create a society where people are more considerate and caring, and where there is greater economic/technological development. Study 2 (N=347) replicated this experimentally, showing that framing climate change action as increasing consideration for others, or improving economic/technological development, led to greater pro-environmental action intentions than a frame emphasizing avoiding the risks of climate change. To motivate deniers' pro-environmental actions, communication should focus on how mitigation efforts can promote a better society, rather than focusing on the reality of climate change and averting its risks.

  6. Pro-apoptotic Action of Corticosterone in Hippocampal Organotypic Cultures.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Anna; Kucharczyk, Mateusz; Detka, Jan; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Głombik, Katarzyna; Bojarski, Bartosz; Ludwikowska, Agnieszka; Lasoń, Władysław; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2016-08-01

    Elevated levels of glucocorticoids exert neurotoxic effects, and the hippocampus is particularly sensitive to the effects of glucocorticoids. Because some data have indicated that an increased action of glucocorticoids in the perinatal period enhances the susceptibility of brain tissue to adverse substances later in life, the main purpose of the present study was to compare necrotic/apoptotic corticosterone action in hippocampal organotypic cultures obtained from control animals with the effect of this steroid in tissue from prenatally stressed rats. Because the adverse effects of glucocorticoid action on nerve cell viability appear to result mainly from an increase in the intensity of the effects of glutamate and changes in growth factor and pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis, the involvement of these factors in corticosterone action were also determined. In stress-like concentration (1 μM), corticosterone, when added to hippocampal cultures for 1 and 3 days, alone or jointly with glutamate, did not induce necrosis. In contrast, in 3-day cultures, corticosterone (1 μM) increased caspase-3 activity and the mRNA expression of the pro-apoptotic Bax. Moreover, corticosterone's effect on caspase-3 activity was stronger in hippocampal cultures from prenatally stressed compared to control rats. Additionally, 24 h of exposure to corticosterone and glutamate, when applied separately and together, increased Bdnf, Ngf, and Tnf-α expression. In contrast, after 72 h, a strong decrease in the expression of both growth factors was observed, while the expression of TNF-α remained high. The present study showed that in stress-like concentrations, corticosterone exerted pro-apoptotic but not necrotic effects in hippocampal organotypic cultures. Prenatal stress increased the pro-apoptotic effects of corticosterone. Increased synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α may be connected with the adverse effects of corticosterone on brain cell viability. PMID:27189478

  7. Progastrin a new pro-angiogenic factor in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Najib, S; Kowalski-Chauvel, A; Do, C; Roche, S; Cohen-Jonathan-Moyal, E; Seva, C

    2015-06-11

    Angiogenesis is essential in tumor progression and metastatic process, and increased angiogenesis has been associated with poor prognosis and relapse of colorectal cancer (CRC). VEGF has become the main target of anti-angiogenic therapy. However, most patients relapse after an initial response or present a resistance to the treatment. Identification of new pro-angiogenic factors may help to improve anti-angiogenic therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that the pro-hormone progastrin (PG), over-expressed in CRC, recognized as a growth factor, is a potent pro-angiogenic factor. In transgenic mice and human colorectal HPs producing high levels of PG, we correlated PG overexpression with an increased vascularization. In vitro, exogenous PG and conditioned media (CM) from CRC cells producing PG increased endothelial cell proliferation and migration. We also showed that treatment with exogenous PG can increase the ability of endothelial cells to form capillary-like structures. Moreover, we demonstrated that PG enhanced endothelial permeability. The finding that PG stimulated the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, p125-FAK, paxillin and induced actin remodelling was consistent with a role of these components in PG-stimulated endothelial cell migration and permeability. The pro-angiogenic effects observed with CM were significantly inhibited when CRC cells expressed a PG shRNA. In vivo, we found an important decrease in tumor growth and neovascularization when the CRC cells expressing the PG shRNA were xenografted in mice or in the chick chorioallantoic membrane model. We also observed an increase in the coverage of blood vessels by pericytes and a decrease in endothelial permeability when PG expression was blocked. Our results demonstrate that PG is a new pro-angiogenic factor in CRC and an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:25109333

  8. Using Pro/ENGINEER`s{reg_sign} interface module

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, J.

    1994-06-01

    When the ACCORD Process introduced Pro/ENGINEER to Sandians several years ago, a new process for design/definition was implemented. Prior to ACCORD, engineers and draftsmen worked in the 2-D mode with a program caned ANVIL{reg_sign}, which had limited capabilities. Although the transition from 2-D modeling to 3-D modeling met with some resistance, most engineers have embraced this new concept with enthusiasm They are now able to work in the 3-D mode and at increased levels of productivity with appropriate time savings never achieved before. One area that Pro/ENGINEER is noted for that this report will concentrate on, is the powerful interface module with its wide selection of transfer file configurations. This allows the engineer to create parts or assemblies and transfer them to many different second party software packages whose vendors can provide the capability for stress analysis, rapid prototypes, virtual reality environments, or many other forms of advanced manufacturing modes of communication. The ACCORD Program has at its core, the Pro/ENGINEER program from Parametric Technology Inc. Included in the ACCORD program, are several supporting programs from other vendors to make this cooperation between software packages a reality. It is possible to create parts in Pro/ENG transfer those parts to another package that has the capability to analyze the parts for deficiencies, then optimize those parts, and allow for changes to be made. Also included in this report, are other packages closely tied to Pro/ENGINEER, but not necessarily supported under the ACCORD program. Some of these packages allow you to create very impressive video productions, or allow you to meander through a virtual reality scenario. All of these new software packages will give you a new perspective on performance. This report will show how some of these interfaces work, and how you can improve your productivity if you utilize the ACCORD program as it is implemented here at Sandia.

  9. Development of Polymer Coatings for the ProSEDS Tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetsky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria; Wright, Ken

    2000-01-01

    The ProSEDS mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta 11 unmanned, expendable booster. A 5 km conductive tether is attached to the deployer baseplate on the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the Delta II second stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-15 km non-conductive tether, which in turn is attached to an endmass. A bare metal tether would have the best conductivity but thermal concerns preclude this design. A conductive polymer developed by Triton Systems has been optimized for optimum conductivity and thermo-optical properties. The current design for the ProSEDS conductive tether is seven individually coated strands of 28 AWG aluminum wire, coated with 12.7 micrometers (0.5 mil) atomic oxygen-resistant conductive polymer composed of a mixture of COR and PANi, wrapped around a braided Kevlar 29 core. Extensive testing has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to qualify this material for flight on ProSEDS. Atomic oxygen exposure has been performed, with solar absorptance and infrared emittance measured before and after exposure. Plasma chamber tests have been completed, as well as tether deployment tests. Also developed for the ProSEDS mission was the insulating polymer TOR-BP. Approximately 200 meters of the conductive tether closest to the Delta II second stage is insulated to prevent any electron reconnection to the tether from the plasma contactor. The insulating material is TOR-BP with a dielectric strength of TBD.

  10. Analysis of the role of the Cronobacter sakazakii ProP homologues in osmotolerance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria respond to elevated osmolality by the accumulation of a range of low molecular weight molecules, known as compatible solutes (owing to their compatibility with the cells' normal physiology at high internal concentrations). The neonatal pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii is uniquely osmotolerant, surviving in powdered infant formula (PIF) which typically has a water activity (aw) of 0.2 – inhospitable to most micro-organisms. Mortality rates of up to 80% in infected infants have been recorded making C. sakazakii a serious cause for concern. In silico analysis of the C. sakazakii BAA-894 genome revealed seven copies of the osmolyte uptake system ProP. Herein, we test the physiological role of each of these homologues following heterologous expression against an osmosensitive Escherichia coli host. PMID:24910715

  11. Microencapsulated drug delivery: a new approach to pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Oettinger, Carl W.; D'Souza, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: This article reviews the use of albumin microcapsules 3–4 mm in size containing cytokine inhibiting drugs which include neutralizing antibodies to TNF and IL1, CNI-1493, antisense oligonucleotides to TNF and NF-kappaB, and the antioxidant catalase. Objective: Describe the effects, cellular uptake and distribution of microencapsulated drugs and the effect in both a peritonitis model of infection and a model of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Methods: The studies performed by our group are reviewed, the only such studies available. Results: Microencapsulation of these compounds produced high intracellular drug concentrations due to rapid uptake by phagocytic cells, including endothelial cells, without toxicity. All compounds produced excellent inhibition of TNF and IL1 resulting in improved animal survival in a peritonitis model of septic shock and inflammation in an arthritis model. Conclusion: Albumin microencapsulated pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibiting compounds are superior to equivalent concentration of these compounds administered in solution form. PMID:22348221

  12. Investigations of inorganic and organic fouling behaviors, antifouling and cleaning strategies for pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) membrane using seawater desalination brine and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Han, Gang; Zhou, Jieliang; Wan, Chunfeng; Yang, Tianshi; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-10-15

    By employing seawater desalination brine (SWBr) and wastewater brine (WWBr) as the feed pair, membrane fouling behaviors as well as antifouling and cleaning strategies for the state-of-the-art thin-film composite polyethersulfone (TFC-PES) hollow fiber membrane have been systematically investigated under pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) operations. Fouling on the polyamide selective layer induced by the SWBr draw solution is relatively mild because of the outstanding membrane rejection and the hydration antifouling layer formed by the permeating water. However, using WWBr as the feed causes fast and severe internal concentration polarization (ICP) and fouling within the porous PES substrate, which result in dramatic flux and power density declines. In addition, the PRO fouling upon and within the porous substrate is highly irreversible. Experimental data show that both anti-scalant pretreatment and pH adjustment of WWBr could effectively mitigate inorganic fouling, while increasing feed flow velocity along the substrate surface is ineffective for fouling control. To clean the fouled membranes, hydraulic-pressure induced backwash and flushing with alkaline and NaOCl solutions on the fouled surface are effective strategies to remove foulants and regenerate membranes with a flux recovery of 83-90%. However, osmotic backwash shows low cleaning efficiency in PRO. In summary, a proper combination of feed pretreatment and membrane cleaning strategies has been demonstrated in this study to sustain PRO operations with a high water flux and power density. PMID:27470469

  13. The 2015-16 Pro-Kid Policy Agenda for California: A Guide to Pro-Kid Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The 2015-16 Pro-Kid Policy Agenda for California is the only comprehensive roadmap at the state level for policymakers, stakeholders, and others who want all children--especially children of color and children from low-income families--to have the opportunity to reach their full potential. A plethora of research shows that investments in quality…

  14. Solution Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; He, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Recovery of alumina from magnetic separation tailings of red mud has been investigated by Na2CO3 solution leaching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that most of the alumina is present as 12CaO·7Al2O3 and CaO·Al2O3 in the magnetic separation tailings. The shrinking core model was employed to describe the leaching kinetics. The results show that the calculated activation energy of 8.31 kJ/mol is characteristic for an internal diffusion-controlled process. The kinetic equation can be used to describe the leaching process. The effects of Na2CO3 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, and particle size on recovery of Al2O3 were examined.

  15. Pentium Pro inside. 1; A treecode at 430 Gigaflops on ASCI Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, M. S.; Becker, D. J.; Sterling, T.; Salmon, J. K.; Goda, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    As an entry for the 1997 Gordon Bell performance prize, we present results from two methods of solving the gravitational N-body problem on the Intel Teraflops system at Sandia National Laboratory (ASCI Red). The first method, an O(N2) algorithm, obtained 635 Gigaflops for a 1 million particle problem on 6800 Pentium Pro processors. The second solution method, a tree-code which scales as O(N log N), sustained 170 Gigaflops over a continuous 9.4 hour period on 4096 processors, integrating the motion of 322 million mutually interacting particles in a cosmology simulation, while saving over 100 Gigabytes of raw data. Additionally, the tree-code sustained 430 Gigaflops on 6800 processors for the first 5 time-steps of that simulation. This tree-code solution is approximately 105 times more efficient than the O(N2) algorithm for this problem. As an entry for the 1997 Gordon Bell price/performance prize, we present two calculations from the disciplines of astrophysics and fluid dynamics. The simulations were performed on two 16 Pentium Pro processor Beowulf-class computers (Loki and Hyglac) constructed entirely from commodity personal computer technology, at a cost of roughly $50k each in September, 1996. The price of an equivalent system in August 1997 is less than $30. At Los Alamos, Loki performed a gravitational tree-code N-body simulation of galaxy formation using 9.75 million particles, which sustained an average of 879 Mflops over a ten day period, and produced roughly 10 Gbytes of raw data.

  16. Evolution of pro-protamine P2 genes in primates.

    PubMed

    Retief, J D; Dixon, G H

    1993-06-01

    Protamines P1 and P2 form a family of small basic peptides that represent the major sperm proteins in placental mammals. In human and mouse protamine P2 is one of the most abundant sperm proteins. The protamine P2 gene codes for a P2 precursor, pro-P2 which is later processed by proteolytic cleavages in its N-terminal region to form the mature P2 protamines. We have used polymerase chain amplification to directly sequence the pro-P2 genes of the five major primate families: red howler (Alouatta seniculus) is a New World monkey (Cebidae); the two macaque species, Macaca mulatta and M. nemistrina are Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae), the gibbon, Hylobates lar, represents one branch of the apes (Hylobatidae); the orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus, gorilla, Gorilla gorilla and two species of chimpanzee Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes represent a second ape family (Pongidae). These pro-P2 genes are compared with that of human [Domenjoud, L., Nussbaum, G., Adham, I. M., Greeske, G. & Engel, W. (1990) Genomics 8, 127-133]. The overall size and organization of the genes are conserved within the group. The mean length of pro-P2 is 101 residues, with an increase to 102 in M. nemistrina and a decrease to 99 residues in red howler (A. seniculus). In gorilla and red howler one of two 79-bp tandem repeats that occurs 3' of the gene is deleted. Of the 101 deduced amino acids examined, an amino acid change occurs in one or more primates at 45 positions. Considering only the most recently diverged group, the human/gorilla/chimpanzee clade, this represents a very high mutation rate of 0.99 changes/100 sites in 10(6) years. This rapid mutation rate is characteristic of both members of the protamine gene family, P1 and P2. Consideration of the variable nature of the sequences at the multiple sites of proteolysis during the processing of the pro-P2 indicates either that there are several processing enzymes of differing specificities, or more likely that the folded structure of the pro-P2

  17. Differences in the autocatalytic cleavage of pro-PC2 and pro-PC3 can be attributed to sequences within the propeptide and Asp310 of pro-PC2.

    PubMed Central

    Scougall, K; Taylor, N A; Jermany, J L; Docherty, K; Shennan, K I

    1998-01-01

    PC2 and PC3 are subtilisin-like proteases involved in the maturation of prohormones and proneuropeptides within neuroendocrine cells. They are synthesized as zymogens that undergo autocatalytic maturation within the secretory pathway. Maturation of pro-PC2 is slow (t12 >8 h), exhibits a pH optimum of 5.5 and is dependent on calcium (K0.5 2 mM), while pro-PC3 maturation is relatively rapid (t12 15 min), exhibits a neutral pH optimum and is not calcium dependent. These differences in the rates and optimal conditions for activation of the proteases may contribute to the diversity of products generated by these proteases in different cell types. Although highly similar, there are two major differences between pro-PC2 and pro-PC3: the presence of an aspartate at position 310 in pro-PC2 compared with asparagine at the equivalent position in pro-PC3 (and all other members of the subtilisin family), and the N-terminal propeptides, which exhibit low sequence identity (30%). With a view to establishing the structural features that might be responsible for these differences in the maturation of pro-PC2 and pro-PC3, Asp310 in pro-PC2 was mutated to Asn, and Asn309 in pro-PC3 was mutated to Asp. Chimaeric proteins were also made consisting of the pro-region of PC2 fused to the mature portion of PC3 and the pro-region of PC3 fused to the mature region of PC2. The wild-type and mutant DNA constructs were then transcribed and translated in an in vitro system capable of supporting maturation of pro-PC2 and pro-PC3. The results demonstrated that Asp310 of pro-PC2 is responsible for the acidic pH optimum for maturation. Thus changing Asp310 to Asn shifted the pH optimum for maturation to pH 7.0. However, changing Asn309 of pro-PC3 to Asp had no effect on the optimum pH for maturation of pro-PC3. A chimaeric construct containing the propeptide of pro-PC2 attached to PC3 shifted the pH optimum for maturation from pH 7.0 to 6.0 and slowed down the rate of maturation (t12 >8 h). When

  18. 26 CFR 1.355-4 - Non pro rata distributions, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non pro rata distributions, etc. 1.355-4 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-4 Non pro rata distributions... not (a) the distribution is pro rata with respect to all of the shareholders of the...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1133 - What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses. 416.1133 Section 416.1133 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION....1133 What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses. (a) General. If you pay your pro...

  20. 24 CFR 266.608 - Mortgage insurance premium: Pro rata refund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Pro... premium: Pro rata refund. If the Contract of Insurance is terminated by payment in full or is terminated... account. In computing the pro rata portion of the annual mortgage insurance premium, the date...

  1. 24 CFR 241.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... Projects Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.825 Pro rata refund of insurance premium... Commissioner shall refund to the lender for the account of the borrower an amount equal to the pro rata...

  2. 17 CFR 240.14d-8 - Exemption from statutory pro rata requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from statutory pro... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14d § 240.14d-8 Exemption from statutory pro rata requirements. Notwithstanding the pro rata provisions of section 14(d)(6) of the Act, if...

  3. 78 FR 49739 - ProLiance Energy, LLC; Notice for Amendment of Petition for Temporary Waivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ProLiance Energy, LLC; Notice for Amendment of Petition for Temporary Waivers Take notice that on August 8, 2013, ProLiance Energy, LLC filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...\\ \\1\\ ProLiance Energy, LLC, 144 FERC ] 61,037 (2013). Any person desiring to intervene or to...

  4. 24 CFR 203.319 - Pro rata payment of premiums and charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premiums and... § 203.319 Pro rata payment of premiums and charges. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the mortgagee has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual MIP or...

  5. 24 CFR 203.462 - Pro rata payment of premium before termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premium before... Pro rata payment of premium before termination. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the lender has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual insurance premium....

  6. 78 FR 49740 - ProLiance Energy, LLC; Notice for Amendment of Petition for Temporary Waivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ProLiance Energy, LLC; Notice for Amendment of Petition for Temporary Waivers Take notice that on August 9, 2013, ProLiance Energy, LLC filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...\\ \\1\\ ProLiance Energy, LLC, 144 FERC ] 61,075 (2013). Any person desiring to intervene or to...

  7. 24 CFR 203.319 - Pro rata payment of premiums and charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premiums and... § 203.319 Pro rata payment of premiums and charges. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the mortgagee has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual MIP or...

  8. 24 CFR 241.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... Projects Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.825 Pro rata refund of insurance premium... Commissioner shall refund to the lender for the account of the borrower an amount equal to the pro rata...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1059(e)-1 - Non-pro rata redemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Non-pro rata redemptions. 1.1059(e)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Rules § 1.1059(e)-1 Non-pro rata redemptions. (a) In general... under section 1059(e)(1). For example, if a redemption of stock is not pro rata as to all...

  10. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and pro rata rights. 240.16a-9 Section 240.16a-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... acquisition of rights, such as shareholder or pre-emptive rights, pursuant to a pro rata grant to all...

  11. 24 CFR 203.462 - Pro rata payment of premium before termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premium before... Pro rata payment of premium before termination. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the lender has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual insurance premium....

  12. 26 CFR 1.355-4 - Non pro rata distributions, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Non pro rata distributions, etc. 1.355-4 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-4 Non pro rata distributions... not (a) the distribution is pro rata with respect to all of the shareholders of the...

  13. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2003-09-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  14. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  15. AnClim and ProClimDB software for data quality control and homogenization of time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, Petr

    2015-04-01

    During the last decade, a software package consisting of AnClim, ProClimDB and LoadData for processing (mainly climatological) data has been created. This software offers a complex solution for processing of climatological time series, starting from loading the data from a central database (e.g. Oracle, software LoadData), through data duality control and homogenization to time series analysis, extreme value evaluations and RCM outputs verification and correction (ProClimDB and AnClim software). The detection of inhomogeneities is carried out on a monthly scale through the application of AnClim, or newly by R functions called from ProClimDB, while quality control, the preparation of reference series and the correction of found breaks is carried out by the ProClimDB software. The software combines many statistical tests, types of reference series and time scales (monthly, seasonal and annual, daily and sub-daily ones). These can be used to create an "ensemble" of solutions, which may be more reliable than any single method. AnClim software is suitable for educational purposes: e.g. for students getting acquainted with methods used in climatology. Built-in graphical tools and comparison of various statistical tests help in better understanding of a given method. ProClimDB is, on the contrary, tool aimed for processing of large climatological datasets. Recently, functions from R may be used within the software making it more efficient in data processing and capable of easy inclusion of new methods (when available under R). An example of usage is easy comparison of methods for correction of inhomogeneities in daily data (HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM method of Olivier Mestre, DAP - own method, QM of Xiaolan Wang and others). The software is available together with further information on www.climahom.eu . Acknowledgement: this work was partially funded by the project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought" No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248.

  16. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  17. Water reclamation from emulsified oily wastewater via effective forward osmosis hollow fiber membranes under the PRO mode.

    PubMed

    Han, Gang; de Wit, Jos S; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-09-15

    By using a novel hydrophilic cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) as the membrane material for the hollow fiber substrate and modifying its outer surface by polydopamine (PDA) coating and inner surface by interfacial polymerization, we have demonstrated that the thin-film composite (TFC) membranes can be effectively used for sustainable water reclamation from emulsified oil/water streams via forward osmosis (FO) under the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode. The newly developed TFC-FO hollow fiber membrane shows characteristics of high water flux, outstanding salt and oil rejection, and low fouling propensity. Under the PRO mode, the newly developed TFC-FO membrane exhibits a water flux of 37.1 L m(-2) h(-1) with an oil rejection of 99.9% using a 2000 ppm soybean oil/water emulsion as the feed and 1 M NaCl as the draw solution. Remarkable anti-fouling behaviors have also been observed. Under the PRO mode, the water flux decline is only 10% of the initial value even after a 12 h test for oil/water separation. The water flux of the fouled membrane can be effectively restored to 97% of the original value by water rinses on the fiber outer surface without using any chemicals. Furthermore, the flux declines are only 25% and 52% when the water recovery of a 2000 ppm soybean oil/water emulsion and a 2000 ppm petroleum oil/water emulsion containing 0.04 M NaCl reaches 82%, respectively. This study may not only provide insightful guidelines for the fabrication of effective TFC-FO membranes with high performance and low fouling behaviors for oily wastewater under the PRO mode but also add an alternative perspective to the design of new materials for water purification purposes. PMID:26043371

  18. Psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed. PMID:20665329

  19. Online Stigma Resistance in the Pro-Ana Community.

    PubMed

    Yeshua-Katz, Daphna

    2015-10-01

    Media scholars often use concepts from Goffman's dramaturgical approach to study online communities of stigmatized individuals as "backstages," spaces where members take refuge from social disapproval. In this study, I extend this view through an examination of in-depth interviews with bloggers from the "pro-ana" community, an online community for people with eating disorders. To explore how this community uses an online environment that is both anonymous and public, I fuse Goffman's ideas about identity performance and stigma with more recent theories about boundary maintenance. In-depth interviews with "pro-ana" bloggers reveal that to protect this virtual group and resist stigmas associated both with their illness and with their online presence, they construct their own norms and rules in the online realm, and discipline and eject members deemed to be out-group. PMID:25667161

  20. Identifying Parents Who Are Amenable to Pro-Vaccination Conversations

    PubMed Central

    Brunson, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    While health care providers are often cited as parents’ most trusted source for information and advice about vaccination, parents differ in their level of receptiveness to pro-vaccination conversations. The purpose of this research was to identify points in individual parents’ decision-making processes when parents are particularly open to receiving information and advice from their children’s health care providers. Interview data were collected from 20 mothers and 5 couples. Analysis of these data suggested 3 primary circumstances when parents were particularly open to receiving information and advice: during parents’ initial decision-making, as parents continued to assess vaccination options, and during particular circumstances that prompted parents to reconsider previously made vaccination choices. These results provide a mechanism for providers to identify parents who may be particularly receptive to pro-vaccination conversations. By prioritizing conversations with parents at one of these points, health care providers’ efforts at promoting vaccination may be more effective. PMID:27335987

  1. The PACA Project : Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project is the next stage of evolution of the paradigm developed for the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. Four different phases of collaboration are identified, and illustrate the integration of scientific investigations with amateur astronomer community via observations, and models; and the rapid dissemination of the results via a multitude of social media for rapid global access. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. Both communities (scientific and amateur astronomers) benefit from these collective, collaborative partnerships; while outreach is the instantaneous deliverable that provides both a framework for future data analyses and the dissemination of the results. While PACA identifies a collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access and storage are needed.

  2. Cerebral Lateralization of Pro- and Anti-Social Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggest that the right-hemisphere (RH) has a relative advantage, over the left-hemisphere (LH), in mediating social intelligence - identifying social stimuli, understanding the intentions of other people, awareness of the dynamics in social relationships, and successful handling of social interactions. Furthermore, a review and synthesis of the literature suggest that pro-social attitudes and behaviors are associated with physiological activity in the RH, whereas unsocial and anti-social tendencies are mediated primarily by the LH. This hemispheric asymmetry is rooted in several neurobiological and functional differences between the two hemispheres. (I) Positive social interactions often require inhibiting one's immediate desires and considering the perspectives and needs of others. Given that self-control is mediated by the RH, pro-social emotions and behaviors are, therefore, inherently associated with the RH as it subserves the brain's self-restraint mechanisms. (II) The RH mediates experiences of vulnerability. It registers the relative clumsiness and motor weakness of the left limbs, and it is involved, more than the LH, in processing threats and mediating fear. Emotional states of vulnerability trigger the need for affiliation and sociality, therefore the RH has a greater role in mediating pro-social attitudes and behaviors. (III) The RH mediates a holistic mode of representing the world. Holistic perception emphasizes similarities rather than differences, takes a long-term perspective, is associated with divergent thinking and seeing other points-of-view, and it mediates a personal mode of relating to people. All these features of holistic perception facilitate a more empathetic attitude toward others and pro-social behaviors. PMID:24737936

  3. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Curtis, Leslie (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The summary of activity during this reporting period, most of which was covered by a no-cost extension of the grant, is as follows: 1) Participation in remote and in-situ (at MSFC EDAC facility) mission operation simulations; 2) Analysis of the decay rate of ProSEDS when starting the mission at a lower altitude; 3) Analysis of the deployment control law performance when deploying at a lower altitude.

  4. Cervical arthroplasty using ProDisc-C case report.

    PubMed

    Nica, D A; Copaciu, R

    2013-03-15

    Cervical disc replacement is an emerging motion-preserving technology in the surgical treatment of the cervical degenerative disc disorders used as an alternative to the classic interbody fusion. We present a case report of a patient diagnosed with C6-7 right disc herniation who underwent anterior discectomy and received a total disc replacement using ProDisc C artificial disc prosthesis. PMID:23599830

  5. The ProDisc artificial disc: insertion technique.

    PubMed

    Aryan, Henry E; Acosta, Frank L; Ames, Christopher P

    2005-10-01

    The ProDisc artificial lumbar disc was designed for use in treatment of degenerative lumbar disease. The disc is implanted using an anterior approach to the lumbar spine with the assistance of intraoperative fluoroscopy. A variety of insertion instruments guide the surgeon through this process. The disc is implanted via an anterior approach, generally retroperitoneally but on occasion transperitoneally. The different approaches and insertion technique are described in this article. PMID:16326288

  6. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Raquel C; Hess, Christopher P; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0-absent, 1-equivocal, 2-mild, 3-moderate, 4-severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (p<0.001) and longer in players than controls (mean length±standard deviation: 10.6 mm±5.4 vs. 1.1 mm±1.3, p<0.001). Among patients presenting to a memory clinic, long high-grade CSP was more frequent in retired pro-football players compared with patients without a history of TBI. PMID:25970145

  7. The Pro-inflammatory Effects of Glucocorticoids in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Erica de Almeida; Munhoz, Carolina Demarchi

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones derived from cholesterol. Their actions are mediated by the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors, which, once bound to their ligands, act as transcription factors that can directly modulate gene expression. Through protein–protein interactions with other transcription factors, they can also regulate the activity of many genes in a composite or tethering way. Rapid non-genomic signaling was also demonstrated since glucocorticoids can act through membrane receptors and activate signal transduction pathways, such as protein kinases cascades, to modulate other transcriptions factors and activate or repress various target genes. By all these different mechanisms, glucocorticoids regulate numerous important functions in a large variety of cells, not only in the peripheral organs but also in the central nervous system during development and adulthood. In general, glucocorticoids are considered anti-inflammatory and protective agents due to their ability to inhibit gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and other possible damaging molecules. Nonetheless, recent studies have uncovered situations in which these hormones can act as pro-inflammatory agents depending on the dose, chronicity of exposure, and the structure/organ analyzed. In this review, we will provide an overview of the conditions under which these phenomena occur, a discussion that will serve as a basis for exploring the mechanistic foundation of glucocorticoids pro-inflammatory gene regulation in the brain. PMID:27445981

  8. The Pro-inflammatory Effects of Glucocorticoids in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Duque, Erica de Almeida; Munhoz, Carolina Demarchi

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones derived from cholesterol. Their actions are mediated by the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors, which, once bound to their ligands, act as transcription factors that can directly modulate gene expression. Through protein-protein interactions with other transcription factors, they can also regulate the activity of many genes in a composite or tethering way. Rapid non-genomic signaling was also demonstrated since glucocorticoids can act through membrane receptors and activate signal transduction pathways, such as protein kinases cascades, to modulate other transcriptions factors and activate or repress various target genes. By all these different mechanisms, glucocorticoids regulate numerous important functions in a large variety of cells, not only in the peripheral organs but also in the central nervous system during development and adulthood. In general, glucocorticoids are considered anti-inflammatory and protective agents due to their ability to inhibit gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and other possible damaging molecules. Nonetheless, recent studies have uncovered situations in which these hormones can act as pro-inflammatory agents depending on the dose, chronicity of exposure, and the structure/organ analyzed. In this review, we will provide an overview of the conditions under which these phenomena occur, a discussion that will serve as a basis for exploring the mechanistic foundation of glucocorticoids pro-inflammatory gene regulation in the brain. PMID:27445981

  9. Control of the Immune Response by Pro-Angiogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Voron, Thibault; Marcheteau, Elie; Pernot, Simon; Colussi, Orianne; Tartour, Eric; Taieb, Julien; Terme, Magali

    2014-01-01

    The progressive conversion of normal cells into cancer cells is characterized by the acquisition of eight hallmarks. Among these criteria, the capability of the cancer cell to avoid the immune destruction has been noted. Thus, tumors develop mechanisms to become invisible to the immune system, such as the induction of immunosuppressive cells, which are able to inhibit the development of an efficient immune response. Molecules produced in the tumor microenvironment are involved in the occurrence of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Recently, it has been shown that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) exhibits immunosuppressive properties in addition to its pro-angiogenic activities. VEGF-A can induce the accumulation of immature dendritic cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, regulatory T cells, and inhibit the migration of T lymphocytes to the tumor. Other pro-angiogenic factors such as placental growth factor (PlGF) could also participate in tumor-induced immunosuppression, but only few works have been performed on this point. Here, we review the impact of pro-angiogenic factors (especially VEGF-A) on immune cells. Anti-angiogenic molecules, which target VEGF-A/VEGFR axis, have been developed in the last decades and are commonly used to treat cancer patients. These drugs have anti-angiogenic properties but can also counteract the tumor-induced immunosuppression. Based on these immunomodulatory properties, anti-angiogenic molecules could be efficiently associated with immunotherapeutic strategies in preclinical models. These combinations are currently under investigation in cancer patients. PMID:24765614

  10. Virtex-II Pro SEE Test Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; Howard, James

    2004-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex-II Pro is a platform FPGA that embeds multiple microprocessors within the fabric of an SRAM-based reprogrammable FPGA. The variety and quantity of resources provided by this family of devices make them very attractive for spaceflight applications. However, these devices will be susceptible to single event effects (SEE), which must be mitigated. To use the Virtex-II Pro reliably in space applications, these devices must first be tested to determine if they are susceptible to single event latchup (SEL), the degree to which they are susceptible to single event upsets (SEU) and single event transients (SET), and how these effects are manifested in the device. With this information, mitigations schemes can be developed and tested that address the specific susceptiblities of these devices. This initial SEE test uses a commercial off the shelf Virtex-II Pro evaluation board, with a single processor XC2VP7 FPGA. The FPGA on this board is an acid etched device, which can be partially covered with a shield. The shield covers a portion of the logic, routing, and memory resources along with some of the RocketIO transceivers. The processor, along with a large portion of logic, routing, memory, and transceivers are left exposed. This test will be performed at the Cyclotron Laboratories at Texas A&M University and Michigan State University using ions of varying energy levels and fluencies.

  11. ProTherm: Thermodynamic Database for Proteins and Mutants.

    PubMed

    Gromiha, M M; An, J; Kono, H; Oobatake, M; Uedaira, H; Sarai, A

    1999-01-01

    The first release of the Thermodynamic Database for Proteins and Mutants (ProTherm) contains more than 3300 data of several thermodynamic parameters for wild type and mutant proteins. Each entry includes numerical data for unfolding Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change, heat capacity change, transition temperature, activity etc., which are important for understanding the mechanism of protein stability. ProTherm also includes structural information such as secondary structure and solvent accessibility of wild type residues, and experimental methods and other conditions. A WWW interface enables users to search data based on various conditions with different sorting options for outputs. Further, ProTherm is cross-linked with NCBI PUBMED literature database, Protein Mutant Database, Enzyme Code and Protein Data Bank structural database. Moreover, all the mutation sites associated with each PDB structure are automatically mapped and can be directly viewed through 3DinSight developed in our laboratory. The database is available at the URL, http://www.rtc.riken.go.jp/protherm.htm l PMID:9847203

  12. The tetrapeptide N-acetyl-Pro-Pro-Tyr-Leu in skin care formulations-Physicochemical and release studies.

    PubMed

    Olejnik, Anna; Schroeder, Grzegorz; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-08-15

    Recently there has been a growth of interest in the novel skin care formulations containing active ingredients such as low molecular weight peptides. In this paper we present new skincare formulations such as hydrogels, oil-in-water emulsions and water-in-oil emulsion containing a tetrapeptide (N-acetyl-Pro-Pro-Tyr-Leu). These formulations were characterized in terms of physicochemical parameters (pH, viscosity), stability and particle size distribution. Additionally, the diffusion parameters of the peptide in the obtained formulations were calculated based on the Einstein-Smoluchowski equation. Furthermore, in order to determine the penetration of the tetrapeptide through membranes its release kinetics were investigated. On the basis of release curves, the release rate constants were determined. The results proved that the properties of the formulations strongly determined the release rate of the tetrapeptide. The higher viscosity of the semisolid, the slower was the permeation through the membrane. PMID:26188319

  13. Potato virus Y HC-Pro Reduces the ATPase Activity of NtMinD, Which Results in Enlarged Chloroplasts in HC-Pro Transgenic Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yayi; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Daofeng; Li, Heng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant virus and causes great losses every year. Viral infection often leads to abnormal chloroplasts. The first step of chloroplast division is the formation of FtsZ ring (Z-ring), and the placement of Z-ring is coordinated by the Min system in both bacteria and plants. In our lab, the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of PVY was previously found to interact with the chloroplast division protein NtMinD through a yeast two-hybrid screening assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in vivo. Here, we further investigated the biological significance of the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction. We purified the NtMinD and HC-Pro proteins using a prokaryotic protein purification system and tested the effect of HC-Pro on the ATPase activity of NtMinD in vitro. We found that the ATPase activity of NtMinD was reduced in the presence of HC-Pro. In addition, another important chloroplast division related protein, NtMinE, was cloned from the cDNA of Nicotiana tabacum. And the NtMinD/NtMinE interaction site was mapped to the C-terminus of NtMinD, which overlaps the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction site. Yeast three-hybrid assay demonstrated that HC-Pro competes with NtMinE for binding to NtMinD. HC-Pro was previously reported to accumulate in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco and we confirmed this result in our present work. The NtMinD/NtMinE interaction is very important in the regulation of chloroplast division. To demonstrate the influence of HC-Pro on chloroplast division, we generated HC-Pro transgenic tobacco with a transit peptide to retarget HC-Pro to the chloroplasts. The HC-Pro transgenic plants showed enlarged chloroplasts. Our present study demonstrated that the interaction between HC-Pro and NtMinD interfered with the function of NtMinD in chloroplast division, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. The HC-Pro/NtMinD interaction may cause the formation of abnormal chloroplasts in PVY

  14. Context of action of Proline Dehydrogenase (ProDH) in the Hypersensitive Response of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proline (Pro) dehydrogenase (ProDH) potentiates the oxidative burst and cell death of the plant Hypersensitive Response (HR) by mechanisms not yet elucidated. ProDH converts Pro into ∆1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) and can act together with P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH) to produce Glu, or with P5C reductase (P5CR) to regenerate Pro and thus stimulate the Pro/P5C cycle. To better understand the effects of ProDH in HR, we studied the enzyme at three stages of the defense response differing in their ROS and cell death levels. In addition, we tested if ProDH requires P5CDH to potentiate HR. Results Control and infected leaves of wild type and p5cdh plants were used to monitor ProDH activity, in vivo Pro catabolism, amino acid content, and gene expression. Wild type plants activated ProDH at all HR stages. They did not consume Pro during maximal ROS accumulation, and maintained almost basal P5C levels at all conditions. p5cdh mutants activated ProDH as wild type plants. They achieved maximum oxidative burst and cell death levels producing normal HR lesions, but evidenced premature defense activation. Conclusion ProDH activation has different effects on HR. Before the oxidative burst it leads to Pro consumption involving the action of P5CDH. During the oxidative burst, ProDH becomes functionally uncoupled to P5CDH and apparently works with P5CR. The absence of P5CDH does not reduce ROS, cell death, or pathogen resistance, indicating this enzyme is not accompanying ProDH in the potentiation of these defense responses. In contrast, p5cdh infected plants displayed increased ROS burst and earlier initiation of HR cell death. In turn, our results suggest that ProDH may sustain HR by participating in the Pro/P5C cycle, whose action on HR must be formally evaluated in a future. PMID:24410747

  15. Localization of dynein light chains 1 and 2 and their pro-apoptotic ligands.

    PubMed Central

    Day, Catherine L; Puthalakath, Hamsa; Skea, Gretchen; Strasser, Andreas; Barsukov, Igor; Lian, Lu-Yun; Huang, David C S; Hinds, Mark G

    2004-01-01

    The dynein and myosin V motor complexes are multi-protein structures that function to transport molecules and organelles within the cell. DLC (dynein light-chain) proteins, found as components of both dynein and myosin V motor complexes, connect the complexes to their cargoes. One of the roles of these motor complexes is to selectively sequester the pro-apoptotic 'BH3-only' (Bcl-2 homology 3-only) proteins, Bim (Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death) and Bmf (Bcl-2-modifying factor), and so regulate their cell death-inducing function. In vivo DLC2 is found exclusively as a component of the myosin V motor complex and Bmf binds DLC2 selectively. On the other hand, Bim interacts with DLC1 (LC8), an integral component of the dynein motor complex. The two DLCs share 93% sequence identity yet show unambiguous in vivo specificity for their respective BH3-only ligands. To investigate this specificity the three-dimensional solution structure of DLC2 was elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. In vitro structural and mutagenesis studies show that Bmf and Bim have identical binding characteristics to recombinant DLC2 or DLC1. Thus the selectivity shown by Bmf and Bim for binding DLC1 or DLC2, respectively, does not reside in their DLC-binding domains. Remarkably, mutational analysis of DLC1 and DLC2 indicates that a single surface residue (residue 41) determines the specific localization of DLCs with their respective motor complexes. These results suggest a molecular mechanism for the specific compartmentalization of DLCs and their pro-apoptotic cargoes and implicate other protein(s) in defining the specificity between the cargoes and the DLC proteins. PMID:14561217

  16. Conformational stability of alpha-lactalbumin missing a peptide bond between Asp66 and Pro67.

    PubMed

    Hamada, S; Moriyama, Y; Yamaguchi, K; Takeda, K

    1994-05-01

    The peptide bond between Asp66-Pro67 of alpha-lactalbumin was cleaved with formic acid (cleaved alpha-lactalbumin). Secondary structural changes of the cleaved alpha-lactalbumin, in which the two separated polypeptides were joined by disulfide bridges, were examined in solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), urea, and guanidine hydrochloride. The structural changes of the cleaved alpha-lactalbumin were compared with those of the intact protein. The relative proportions of secondary structures were determined by curve fitting of the circular dichroism. The cleaved alpha-lactalbumin contained 29% alpha-helical structure as against 34% for the intact protein. Some helices of the cleaved alpha-lactalbumin which had been disrupted by the cleavage appeared to be reformed upon the addition of SDS of very low concentration (0.5 mM). In the SDS solution, the helicities of both the intact and cleaved proteins increased, attaining 44% at 4 mM SDS. On the other hand, the helical structures of the cleaved alpha-lactalbumin began to be disrupted at low concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride and urea compared with that of the intact protein. However, no difference was observed in the thermal denaturations of the intact and cleaved proteins, except for the difference in the original helicities. The helicities of both proteins decreased with an increase of temperature up to 65 degrees C and recovered upon cooling. PMID:7986345

  17. Making Women the Subjects of the Abortion Debate: A Class Exercise that Moves beyond "Pro-Choice" and "Pro-Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Sara L.; Willman, Rebecca K.; Clark, Leisa; Walsh, Clare

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom exercise designed to put women (and children and men) back at the center of the abortion debate, avoiding the standard rhetoric and engaging reflection on how everyone might find common political goals among the so-called pro-life and pro-choice sides. The exercise the authors offer in this article…

  18. Capturing Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Data Electronically: The Past, Present, and Promise of ePRO Measurement in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Coons, Stephen Joel; Eremenco, Sonya; Lundy, J Jason; O'Donohoe, Paul; O'Gorman, Hannah; Malizia, William

    2015-08-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are an important means of evaluating the treatment benefit of new medical products. It is recognized that PRO measures should be used when assessing concepts best known by the patient or best measured from the patient's perspective. As a result, there is growing emphasis on well defined and reliable PRO measures. In addition, advances in technology have significantly increased electronic PRO (ePRO) data collection capabilities and options in clinical trials. The movement from paper-based to ePRO data capture has enhanced the integrity and accuracy of clinical trial data and is encouraged by regulators. A primary distinction in the types of ePRO platforms is between telephone-based interactive voice response systems and screen-based systems. Handheld touchscreen-based devices have become the mainstay for remote (i.e., off-site, unsupervised) PRO data collection in clinical trials. The conventional approach is to provide study subjects with a handheld device with a device-based proprietary software program. However, an emerging alternative for clinical trials is called bring your own device (BYOD). Leveraging study subjects' own Internet-enabled mobile devices for remote PRO data collection (via a downloadable app or a Web-based data collection portal) has become possible due to the widespread use of personal smartphones and tablets. However, there are a number of scientific and operational issues that must be addressed before BYOD can be routinely considered as a practical alternative to conventional ePRO data collection methods. Nevertheless, the future for ePRO data collection is bright and the promise of BYOD opens a new chapter in its evolution. PMID:25300613

  19. The neural chaperone proSAAS blocks α-synuclein fibrillation and neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jarvela, Timothy S; Lam, Hoa A; Helwig, Michael; Lorenzen, Nikolai; Otzen, Daniel E; McLean, Pamela J; Maidment, Nigel T; Lindberg, Iris

    2016-08-01

    Emerging evidence strongly suggests that chaperone proteins are cytoprotective in neurodegenerative proteinopathies involving protein aggregation; for example, in the accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein into the Lewy bodies present in Parkinson's disease. Of the various chaperones known to be associated with neurodegenerative disease, the small secretory chaperone known as proSAAS (named after four residues in the amino terminal region) has many attractive properties. We show here that proSAAS, widely expressed in neurons throughout the brain, is associated with aggregated synuclein deposits in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease. Recombinant proSAAS potently inhibits the fibrillation of α-synuclein in an in vitro assay; residues 158-180, containing a largely conserved element, are critical to this bioactivity. ProSAAS also exhibits a neuroprotective function; proSAAS-encoding lentivirus blocks α-synuclein-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultures of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and recombinant proSAAS blocks α-synuclein-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Four independent proteomics studies have previously identified proSAAS as a potential cerebrospinal fluid biomarker in various neurodegenerative diseases. Coupled with prior work showing that proSAAS blocks β-amyloid aggregation into fibrils, this study supports the idea that neuronal proSAAS plays an important role in proteostatic processes. ProSAAS thus represents a possible therapeutic target in neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27457957

  20. proBAMsuite, a Bioinformatics Framework for Genome-Based Representation and Analysis of Proteomics Data*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojing; Slebos, Robbert J. C.; Chambers, Matthew C.; Tabb, David L.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate genome-based representation and analysis of proteomics data, we developed a new bioinformatics framework, proBAMsuite, in which a central component is the protein BAM (proBAM) file format for organizing peptide spectrum matches (PSMs)1 within the context of the genome. proBAMsuite also includes two R packages, proBAMr and proBAMtools, for generating and analyzing proBAM files, respectively. Applying proBAMsuite to three recently published proteomics datasets, we demonstrated its utility in facilitating efficient genome-based sharing, interpretation, and integration of proteomics data. First, the interpretation of proteomics data is significantly enhanced with the rich genomic annotation information. Second, PSMs can be easily reannotated using user-specified gene annotation schemes and assembled into both protein and gene identifications. Third, using the genome as a common reference, proBAMsuite facilitates seamless proteomics and proteogenomics data integration. Finally, proBAM files can be readily visualized in genome browsers and thus bring proteomics data analysis to a general audience beyond the proteomics community. Results from this study establish proBAMsuite as a useful bioinformatics framework for proteomics and proteogenomics research. PMID:26657539

  1. Effective production of Pro-Gly by mutagenesis of l-amino acid ligase.

    PubMed

    Kino, Haruka; Nakajima, Shota; Arai, Toshinobu; Kino, Kuniki

    2016-08-01

    l-Amino acid ligase (Lal) catalyzes dipeptide synthesis from unprotected l-amino acids by hydrolysis ATP to ADP. Each Lal displays unique substrate specificity, and many different dipeptides can be synthesized by selecting suitable Lal. We have already successfully synthesized Met-Gly selectively by replacing the Pro85 residues of Lal from Bacillus licheniformis (BL00235). From these results, we deduced that the amino acid residue at position 85 had a key role in enzyme activity, and applied these findings to other Lals. When Pro and Gly were used as substrates, TabS from Pseudomonas syringae, synthesized the salt taste enhancing dipeptide Pro-Gly and other three dipeptides (Gly-Pro, Pro-Pro, and Gly-Gly) was hardly synthesized from its substrate specificity. However, the amount of Pro-Gly was low. Therefore, to alter the substrate specificity and increase the amount of Pro-Gly, we selected amino acid residues that might affect the enzyme activity, Ser85 corresponding to Pro85 of BL00235, and His294 on the results from previous studies and the predicted structure of TabS. These residues were replaced with 20 proteogenic amino acids, and Pro-Gly synthesizing reactions were conducted. The S85T and the H294D mutants synthesized more Pro-Gly than wild-type. Furthermore, the S85T/H294D double mutant synthesized considerably more Pro-Gly than the single mutant did. These results showed that the amino acid position 85 of TabS affect the enzyme activity similarly to BL00235. In addition, replacing the amino acid residue positioning around the N-terminal substrate and constructing the double mutant led to increase the amount of Pro-Gly. PMID:27017332

  2. Assessment of tennis elbow using the Marcy Wedge-Pro.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R W; Mani, R; Cawley, M I; Englisch, W; Eckenberger, P

    1993-01-01

    The Marcy Wedge-Pro (MWP), a device used in training by tennis players, was employed in the assessment of tennis elbow. The MWP was used to measure the ability of patients to perform wrist extension exercises, since pain resulting from this specific activity is a prominent symptom of the condition. The MWP results were compared with clinical measures and found to identify accurately patients who responded to treatment (P < 0.05). This study illustrates the potential of the MWP to assess tennis elbow quantitatively. Images Figure 1 PMID:8130959

  3. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Estes, Robert D.; Cosmo, Mario L.

    2001-01-01

    This is the Annual Report #2 entitled "The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)" prepared by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. This report covers the period of activity from 1 August 2000 through 30 July 2001. The topics include: 1) Updated System Performance; 2) Mission Analysis; 3) Updated Dynamics Reference Mission; 4) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations; 5) Comparison of ED tethers and electrical thrusters; 6) Kalman filters for mission estimation; and 7) Delivery of interactive software for ED tethers.

  4. PRoViDE: Planetary Probes' Mass Vision Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, G.; Muller, J.-P.; Tao, Y.; Barnes, D. P.; Gupta, S.

    2013-09-01

    The FP7-SPACE project PRoViDE will assemble a major portion of the imaging data gathered so far from vehicles and probes on planetary surfaces into a unique database, bringing them into a common planetary geospatial context and providing access to a complete set of 3D vision products. Processing and GIS web access is complemented by a multi-resolution visualisation engine that combines various levels of detail for a seamless and immersive real-time access to dynamically rendered 3D scene representations.

  5. Rotation Manager Pro Version 1.0b1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-02-01

    The Rotation Manager Pro Package maintains databases of instructions to replicate plate tectonic movements. The instructions are in the standard of tectonic plate rotations, including plate identification and location and angle of the rotation pole. Each database is accompanied by various metadata, including information about each rotation pole and the database itself. The package provides a range of tools to actively manage the database using methods specifically required for rotations: rotation pole addition and subtraction,more » viewing of a rotation chain through the rotation hierarchy, and the rotation of data points.« less

  6. Rotation Manager Pro Version 1.0b1

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Thomas L.; Scotese, Christopher

    2002-02-01

    The Rotation Manager Pro Package maintains databases of instructions to replicate plate tectonic movements. The instructions are in the standard of tectonic plate rotations, including plate identification and location and angle of the rotation pole. Each database is accompanied by various metadata, including information about each rotation pole and the database itself. The package provides a range of tools to actively manage the database using methods specifically required for rotations: rotation pole addition and subtraction, viewing of a rotation chain through the rotation hierarchy, and the rotation of data points.

  7. ProTec Tear-Offs: A Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D

    2005-09-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has conducted a series of ''scoping'' tests (referred to as Phase 1) to assess the potential use of a Mylar{reg_sign} tear-off system as a primary or secondary protective barrier to minimize acid etching (''frosting''), accidental scratching, and/or radiation damage for shielded cells windows. Conceptually, thin, multi-layered sheets of Mylar (referred to as a ''tear-off'' system) could be directly applied to the Lexan{reg_sign} sheet or glovebox/hood sash window to serve as a secondary (or primary) barrier. Upon degradation of visual clarity due to accidental scratching, spills/splatters, and/or radiation damage, the outer layer (or sheet) of Mylar could be removed ''refreshing'' or restoring the view. Due to the multi-layer aspect, the remaining Mylar layers would provide continued protection for the window from potential reoccurrences (which could be immediate or after some extended time period). Although the concept of using a tear-off system as a protective barrier was conceptually enticing, potential technical issues were identified and addressed as part of this Phase 1 feasibility study. These included resistance to: (1) acid(s) (concentrated (28.9 M) HF, concentrated (15.9M) HNO{sub 3}, 6M HCl, and 0.6M H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), (2) base (a simulated sludge with pH of 12.9), (3) gamma radiation (cumulative dose of {approx}200,000 rad), and (4) scratch resistance (simulating accidental scratching with the manipulators). Not only can these four factors play a significant role in determining the visual clarity of the integrated system, they can also contribute to the mechanical integrity issues which could dictate the ability to remove the outer layer when visual clarity has degraded. The results of the Phase 1 study clearly indicate that the Mylar tear-off concept (as a primary or secondary protective barrier) is a potential technical solution to prevent or retard excessive damage that would result from acid etching

  8. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report covers the following main topics: 1) Updated Reference Mission. The reference ProSEDS (Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System) mission is evaluated for an updated launch date in the Summer of 2002 and for the new 80-s current operating cycle. Simulations are run for nominal solar activity condition at the time of launch and for extreme conditions of dynamic forcing. Simulations include the dynamics of the system, the electrodynamics of the bare tether, the neutral atmosphere and the thermal response of the tether. 2) Evaluation of power delivered by the tether system. The power delivered by the tethered system during the battery charging mode is computed under the assumption of minimum solar activity for the new launch date. 3) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations. A number of new deployment profiles were derived based on the latest results of the deployment ground tests. The flight profile is then derived based on the friction characteristics obtained from the deployment tests of the F-1 tether. 4) Analysis/estimation of deployment flight data. A process was developed to estimate the deployment trajectory of the endmass with respect to the Delta and the final libration amplitude from the data of the deployer turn counters. This software was tested successfully during the ProSEDS mission simulation at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) EDAC (Environments Data Analysis Center).

  9. Do Null Subjects (mis-)Trigger Pro-drop Grammars?

    PubMed

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-12-01

    Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [−pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing their grammars to a [−pro] setting. Mack et al. (J Memory Lang 67(1):211-223, 2012) showed that sentences with noise covering the subject are analyzed as having null subjects more often with a first person pronoun and with a present tense--properties correlated with more predictable referents--compared to a third person pronoun and past tense. However, those results might in principle have been due to reporting null subjects for verbs that often occur with null subjects. An experiment is reported here in which comparable results are found for sentences containing nonsense verbs. Participants preferred a null subject more often for first person present tense sentences than for third person past tense sentences. The results are as expected if participants are responding to predictability, the likelihood of reduction, rather than to lexical statistics. The results are argued to be important in removing a class of mis-triggering examples from the language acquisition problem. PMID:25086703

  10. Development of novel cyclic peptides as pro-apoptotic agents.

    PubMed

    Brindisi, Margherita; Maramai, Samuele; Brogi, Simone; Fanigliulo, Emanuela; Butini, Stefania; Guarino, Egeria; Casagni, Alice; Lamponi, Stefania; Bonechi, Claudia; Nathwani, Seema M; Finetti, Federica; Ragonese, Francesco; Arcidiacono, Paola; Campiglia, Pietro; Valenti, Salvatore; Novellino, Ettore; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Morbidelli, Lucia; Zisterer, Daniela M; Williams, Clive D; Donati, Alessandro; Baldari, Cosima; Campiani, Giuseppe; Ulivieri, Cristina; Gemma, Sandra

    2016-07-19

    Our recent finding that paclitaxel behaves as a peptidomimetic of the endogenous protein Nur77 inspired the design of two peptides (PEP1 and PEP2) reproducing the effects of paclitaxel on Bcl-2 and tubulin, proving the peptidomimetic nature of paclitaxel. Starting from these peptide-hits, we herein describe the synthesis and the biological investigation of linear and cyclic peptides structurally related to PEP2. While linear peptides (2a,b, 3a,b, 4, 6a-f) were found inactive in cell-based assays, biological analysis revealed a pro-apoptotic effect for most of the cyclic peptides (5a-g). Cellular permeability of 5a (and also of 2a,b) on HL60 cells was assessed through confocal microscopy analysis. Further cellular studies on a panel of leukemic cell lines (HL60, Jurkat, MEC, EBVB) and solid tumor cell lines (breast cancer MCF-7 cells, human melanoma A375 and 501Mel cells, and murine melanoma B16F1 cells) confirmed the pro-apoptotic effect of the cyclic peptides. Cell cycle analysis revealed that treatment with 5a, 5c, 5d or 5f resulted in an increase in the number of cells in the sub-G0/G1 peak. Direct interaction with tubulin (turbidimetric assay) and with microtubules (immunostaining experiments) was assessed in vitro for the most promising compounds. PMID:27150036

  11. idRHa+ProMod - Rail Hardening Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, L.

    2016-03-01

    idRHa+ProMod is the process control system developed by Primetals Technologies to foresee the thermo-mechanical evolution and micro-structural composition of rail steels subjected to slack quenching into idRHa+ Rail Hardening equipments in a simulation environment. This tool can be used both off-line or in-line, giving the user the chance to test and study the best cooling strategies or letting the automatic control system free to adjust the proper cooling recipe. Optimization criteria have been tailored in order to determine the best cooling conditions according to the metallurgical requirements imposed by the main rail standards and also taking into account the elastoplastic bending phenomena occurring during all stages of the head hardening process. The computational core of idRHa+ProMod is a thermal finite element procedure coupled with special algorithms developed to work out the main thermo-physical properties of steel, to predict the non-isothermal austenite decomposition into all the relevant phases and subsequently to evaluate the amount of latent heat of transformation released, the compound thermal expansion coefficient and the amount of plastic deformation in the material. Air mist and air blades boundary conditions have been carefully investigated by means of pilot plant tests aimed to study the jet impingement on rail surfaces and the cooling efficiency at all working conditions. Heat transfer coefficients have been further checked and adjusted directly on field during commissioning. idRHa+ is a trademark of Primetals Technologies Italy Srl

  12. PRoViScout: a planetary scouting rover demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, Gerhard; Woods, Mark; Gimkiewicz, Christiane; Labrosse, Frédéric; Medina, Alberto; Tyler, Laurence; Barnes, David P.; Fritz, Gerald; Kapellos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Mobile systems exploring Planetary surfaces in future will require more autonomy than today. The EU FP7-SPACE Project ProViScout (2010-2012) establishes the building blocks of such autonomous exploration systems in terms of robotics vision by a decision-based combination of navigation and scientific target selection, and integrates them into a framework ready for and exposed to field demonstration. The PRoViScout on-board system consists of mission management components such as an Executive, a Mars Mission On-Board Planner and Scheduler, a Science Assessment Module, and Navigation & Vision Processing modules. The platform hardware consists of the rover with the sensors and pointing devices. We report on the major building blocks and their functions & interfaces, emphasizing on the computer vision parts such as image acquisition (using a novel zoomed 3D-Time-of-Flight & RGB camera), mapping from 3D-TOF data, panoramic image & stereo reconstruction, hazard and slope maps, visual odometry and the recognition of potential scientifically interesting targets.

  13. Use of Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Measures at Group and Patient Levels: Experiences From the Generic Integrated PRO System, WestChronic

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Louise Pape; Biering, Karin; Johnsen, Soren Paaske; Riiskjær, Erik; Schougaard, Liv Marit

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures may be used at a group level for research and quality improvement and at the individual patient level to support clinical decision making and ensure efficient use of resources. The challenges involved in implementing PRO measures are mostly the same regardless of aims and diagnostic groups and include logistic feasibility, high response rates, robustness, and ability to adapt to the needs of patient groups and settings. If generic PRO systems can adapt to specific needs, advanced technology can be shared between medical specialties and for different aims. Objective We describe methodological, organizational, and practical experiences with a generic PRO system, WestChronic, which is in use among a range of diagnostic groups and for a range of purposes. Methods The WestChronic system supports PRO data collection, with integration of Web and paper PRO questionnaires (mixed-mode) and automated procedures that enable adherence to implementation-specific schedules for the collection of PRO. For analysis, we divided functionalities into four elements: basic PRO data collection and logistics, PRO-based clinical decision support, PRO-based automated decision algorithms, and other forms of communication. While the first element is ubiquitous, the others are optional and only applicable at a patient level. Methodological and organizational experiences were described according to each element. Results WestChronic has, to date, been implemented in 22 PRO projects within 18 diagnostic groups, including cardiology, neurology, rheumatology, nephrology, orthopedic surgery, gynecology, oncology, and psychiatry. The aims of the individual projects included epidemiological research, quality improvement, hospital evaluation, clinical decision support, efficient use of outpatient clinic resources, and screening for side effects and comorbidity. In total 30,174 patients have been included, and 59,232 PRO assessments have been collected

  14. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…

  15. 26 CFR 1.1059(e)-1 - Non-pro rata redemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Non-pro rata redemptions. 1.1059(e)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Rules § 1.1059(e)-1 Non-pro rata redemptions. (a) In general. Section 1059(d... 1059(e)(1). For example, if a redemption of stock is not pro rata as to all shareholders, any...

  16. N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) –based score can predict in-hospital mortality in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Ting; Tseng, Yuan-Teng; Chu, Tung-Wei; Chen, John; Lai, Min-Yu; Tang, Woung-Ru; Shiao, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Serum N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) testing is recommended in the patients with heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that NT-pro-BNP, in combination with other clinical factors in terms of a novel NT-pro BNP-based score, may provide even better predictive power for in-hospital mortality among patients with HF. A retrospective study enrolled adult patients with hospitalization-requiring HF who fulfilled the predefined criteria during the period from January 2011 to December 2013. We proposed a novel scoring system consisting of several independent predictors including NT-pro-BNP for predicting in-hospital mortality, and then compared the prognosis-predictive power of the novel NT-pro BNP-based score with other prognosis-predictive scores. A total of 269 patients were enrolled in the current study. Factors such as “serum NT-pro-BNP level above 8100 mg/dl,” “age above 79 years,” “without taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker,” “without taking beta-blocker,” “without taking loop diuretics,” “with mechanical ventilator support,” “with non-invasive ventilator support,” “with vasopressors use,” and “experience of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation” were found as independent predictors. A novel NT-pro BNP-based score composed of these risk factors was proposed with excellent predictability for in-hospital mortality. The proposed novel NT-pro BNP-based score was extremely effective in predicting in-hospital mortality in HF patients. PMID:27411951

  17. N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) -based score can predict in-hospital mortality in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Ting; Tseng, Yuan-Teng; Chu, Tung-Wei; Chen, John; Lai, Min-Yu; Tang, Woung-Ru; Shiao, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Serum N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) testing is recommended in the patients with heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that NT-pro-BNP, in combination with other clinical factors in terms of a novel NT-pro BNP-based score, may provide even better predictive power for in-hospital mortality among patients with HF. A retrospective study enrolled adult patients with hospitalization-requiring HF who fulfilled the predefined criteria during the period from January 2011 to December 2013. We proposed a novel scoring system consisting of several independent predictors including NT-pro-BNP for predicting in-hospital mortality, and then compared the prognosis-predictive power of the novel NT-pro BNP-based score with other prognosis-predictive scores. A total of 269 patients were enrolled in the current study. Factors such as "serum NT-pro-BNP level above 8100 mg/dl," "age above 79 years," "without taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker," "without taking beta-blocker," "without taking loop diuretics," "with mechanical ventilator support," "with non-invasive ventilator support," "with vasopressors use," and "experience of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation" were found as independent predictors. A novel NT-pro BNP-based score composed of these risk factors was proposed with excellent predictability for in-hospital mortality. The proposed novel NT-pro BNP-based score was extremely effective in predicting in-hospital mortality in HF patients. PMID:27411951

  18. [UV photolysis of propranolol in aqueous solution: mechanism and toxicity of photoproducts].

    PubMed

    Peng, Na; Wang, Kai-Feng; Liu, Guo-Guang; Zeng, Ling-Ze; Yao, Kun; Lu, Wen-Ying

    2014-10-01

    This paper studied the phtodegradation behavior, mechanism and security of propranolol (PRO) in water under ultraviolet irradiation using the high pressure mercury lamp. The photodegradation mechanism was verified by reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching method, and the photoproducts security was evaluated by luminescent bacteria toxicity test. The results showed that the rate of photolysis (k) of PRO decreased with increasing initial concentration, and showed a significant negative correlation (r2 > 0.95). The increasing k value was also accompanied with higher pH of the solution, and the k values were 0.0953-0.267 min(-1) under pH 5-9. ROS quenching experiments showed that the PRO UV photolysis process included a triplet PRO (3PRO*) direct photolysis participation, and self-sensitized photolysis participation caused by hydroxyl radical (·OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2). Direct photolysis rate was greater than the rate of self-sensitized photolysis. The result of 1O2 steady concentration measured by FFA as the probe was consistent with the quenching method. The toxicity evaluation illustrated the formation of some intermediate photoproducts, which were more toxic than PRO. PMID:25693385

  19. Inhibitory Properties of Cysteine Protease Pro-Peptides from Barley Confer Resistance to Spider Mite Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    C1A plant cysteine proteases are synthesized as pre-pro-enzymes that need to be processed to become active by the pro-peptide claves off from its cognate enzyme. These pro-sequences play multifunctional roles including the capacity to specifically inhibit their own as well as other C1A protease activities from diverse origin. In this study, it is analysed the potential role of C1A pro-regions from barley as regulators of cysteine proteases in target phytophagous arthropods (coleopteran and acari). The in vitro inhibitory action of these pro-sequences, purified as recombinant proteins, is demonstrated. Moreover, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different fragments of HvPap-1 barley gene containing the pro-peptide sequence were generated and the acaricide function was confirmed by bioassays conducted with the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Feeding trials resulted in a significant reduction of leaf damage in the transgenic lines expressing the pro-peptide in comparison to non-transformed control and strongly correlated with an increase in mite mortality. Additionally, the analysis of the expression levels of a selection of potential mite targets (proteases and protease inhibitors) revealed a mite strategy to counteract the inhibitory activity produced by the C1A barley pro-prodomain. These findings demonstrate that pro-peptides can control mite pests and could be applied as defence proteins in biotechnological systems. PMID:26039069

  20. An in vitro comparison of torsional stress and cyclic fatigue resistance of ProFile GT and ProFile GT Series X rotary nickel-titanium files.

    PubMed

    Kramkowski, Thomas R; Bahcall, James

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the torsional stress and cyclic fatigue characteristics of ProFile GT (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK) and ProFile GT Series X (Dentsply Tulsa Dental). Files of 0.04 and 0.06 taper, 25 mm in length, and ISO sizes of 20 and 30 tips were compared (n = 25 per test group). Torque stress resistance was evaluated by measuring the torque in gram-centimeters (g-cm) and angle of deflection (degrees of rotation) required for instrument separation with use of a torsiometer instrument. Cyclic fatigue was determined by recording the time until breakage of a file rotating in a simulated canal with an applied 45 degrees or 60 degrees curve. The files were operated in a cyclic fatigue instrument that simulated clinical rotary file usage with a constant cyclical axial motion. There was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) when comparing the torque (g-cm) required to induce a torsional failure of ProFile GT and ProFile GT Series X files of identical file sizes. The angle of deflection (degrees of rotation) of ProFile GT was significantly greater (p < or = 0.001) before separation than ProFile GT Series X for all file sizes tested except 20/.04 (p > 0.05). There was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) in cyclic fatigue failure for ProFile GT and ProFile GT Series X in a canal with a curvature of 45 degrees . In the 60 degrees canal curvature, ProFile GT was found to be significantly more resistant (p = 0.005) to fracture because of cyclic fatigue than ProFile GT Series X for file size 30/.06 and significant (p < or = 0.001) for files sizes 20/.06 and 30/.04. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in cyclic fatigue resistance in the 60 degrees canal for ProFile GT and ProFile GT Series X for file size 20/.04. PMID:19249605

  1. Comparison of canal transportation in simulated curved canals prepared with ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Gold systems

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, Brenda Leite; Pires, Frederico; Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Neves, Aline Almeida; Souza, Erick Miranda; De-Deus, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of ProTaper Gold (PTG, Dentsply Maillefer) in maintaining the original profile of root canal anatomy. For that, ProTaper Universal (PTU, Dentsply Maillefer) was used as reference techniques for comparison. Materials and Methods Twenty simulated curved canals manufactured in clear resin blocks were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n = 10) according to the system used for canal instrumentation: PTU and PTG groups, upto F2 files (25/0.08). Color stereomicroscopic images from each block were taken exactly at the same position before and after instrumentation. All image processing and data analysis were performed with an open source program (FIJI). Evaluation of canal transportation was obtained for two independent canal regions: straight and curved levels. Student's t test was used with a cut-off for significance set at α = 5%. Results Instrumentation systems significantly influenced canal transportation (p < 0.0001). A significant interaction between instrumentation system and root canal level (p < 0.0001) was found. PTU and PTG systems produced similar canal transportation at the straight part, while PTG system resulted in lower canal transportation than PTU system at the curved part. Canal transportation was higher at the curved canal portion (p < 0.0001). Conclusions PTG system produced overall less canal transportation in the curved portion when compared to PTU system. PMID:26877984

  2. The accumulation of glutamate is necessary for optimal growth of Salmonella typhimurium in media of high osmolality but not induction of the proU operon.

    PubMed

    Csonka, L N; Ikeda, T P; Fletcher, S A; Kustu, S

    1994-10-01

    Synthesis of glutamate can be limited in bacterial strains carrying mutations to loss of function of glutamate synthase (2-oxoglutarate:glutamine aminotransferase) by using low concentrations of NH4+ in the growth medium. By using such gltB/D mutant strains of Salmonella typhimurium, we demonstrated that: (i) a large glutamate pool, previously observed to correlate with growth at high external osmolality, is actually required for optimal growth under these conditions; (ii) the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) apparently cannot substitute for glutamate; and (iii) accumulation of glutamate is not necessary for high levels of induction of the proU operon in vivo. Expression of the proU operon, which encodes a transport system for the osmoprotectants proline and glycine betaine, is induced > 100-fold in the wild-type strain under conditions of high external osmolality. Ramirez et al. (R. M. Ramirez, W. S. Prince, E. Bremer, and M. Villarejo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:1153-1157, 1989) observed and we confirmed that in vitro expression of the lacZ gene from the wild-type proU promoter is stimulated by 0.2 to 0.3 M K glutamate. However, we observed a very similar stimulation for lacZ expressed from the lacUV5 promoter and from the proU promoter when an important negative regulatory element downstream of this promoter (the silencer) was deleted. Since the lacUV5 promoter is not osmotically regulated in vivo and osmotic regulation of the proU promoter is largely lost as a result of deletion of the silencer, we conclude that stimulation of proU expression by K glutamate in vitro is not a specific osmoregulatory response but probably a manifestation of the optimization of in vitro transcription-translation at high concentrations of this solute. Our in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that glutamate is not an obligatory component of the transcriptional regulation of the proU operon. PMID:7929004

  3. Pro-environmental behavior: rational choice meets moral motivation.

    PubMed

    Turaga, Rama Mohana R; Howarth, Richard B; Borsuk, Mark E

    2010-01-01

    The determinants of individual behaviors that provide shared environmental benefits are a longstanding theme in social science research. Alternative behavioral models yield markedly different predictions and policy recommendations. This paper reviews and compares the literatures from two disciplines that appear to be moving toward a degree of convergence. In social psychology, moral theories of pro-environmental behavior have focused on the influence of personal moral norms while recognizing that external factors, such as costs and incentives, ultimately limit the strength of the norm-behavior relationship. Rational choice models, such as the theory of planned behavior in social psychology and the theories of voluntary provision of public goods in economics, have sought to incorporate the effects of personal norms and to measure their importance in explaining behaviors, such as recycling and the demand for green products. This paper explores the relationship between these approaches and their implications for the theory and practice of ecological economics. PMID:20146771

  4. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Estes, Robert D.; Sanmartin, Juan; Pelaez, Jesus; Ruiz, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    This Final Report covers the following main topics: 1) Brief Description of ProSEDS; 2) Mission Analysis; 3) Dynamics Reference Mission; 4) Dynamics Stability; 5) Deployment Control; 6) Updated System Performance; 7) Updated Mission Analysis; 8) Updated Dynamics Reference Mission; 9) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations; 10) Updated Reference Mission; 11) Evaluation of Power Delivered by the Tether; 12) Deployment Control Profile Ref. #78 and Simulations; 13) Kalman Filters for Mission Estimation; 14) Analysis/Estimation of Deployment Flight Data; 15) Comparison of ED Tethers and Electrical Thrusters; 16) Dynamics Analysis for Mission Starting at a Lower Altitude; 17) Deployment Performance at a Lower Altitude; 18) Satellite Orbit after a Tether Cut; 19) Deployment with Shorter Dyneema Tether Length; 20) Interactive Software for ED Tethers.

  5. Influence of pro-algesic foods on chronic pain conditions.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Brian Edwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines current knowledge about putative "pro-algesic" dietary components, and discusses whether limiting the intake of these substances can help improve chronic pain. Although there is a common impression that numerous food components, natural and synthetic, can cause or worsen pain symptoms, very few of these substances have been investigated. This article focuses on four substances, monosodium glutamate, aspartame, arachidonic acid, and caffeine, where research shows that overconsumption may induce or worsen pain. For each substance, the mechanism whereby it may act to induce pain is examined, and any clinical trials examining the effectiveness of reducing the intake of the substance discussed. While all four substances are associated with pain, decreased consumption of them does not consistently reduce pain. PMID:26900907

  6. Pro and antiinflammatory properties of toxins from animal venoms.

    PubMed

    Farsky, Sandra H P; Antunes, Edson; Mello, Suzana B V

    2005-06-01

    Accidents evoked by venomous animals are common in tropical regions. In Brazil, envenomation evoked by snakes, spiders and scorpions are an important public health problem. Their venoms are composed of a great number of toxins, which are capable of acting on tissue and plasma components with consequent toxic and pharmacological effects. On the other hand, the diversity of venom composition makes them important source of toxins that can be employed as scientific tools. Here we describe the mechanisms of anti and pro-inflammatory properties of toxins of Bothrops and Crotalus genus snakes and Loxosceles and Phoneutria genus spider venoms. The emphasis was to summarise, both in vivo and in vitro, studies that focused on the action of phospholipases, metalloproteinases and sphingomyelinase D on vascular and cellular aspects of the process as well as the complex network of chemical mediators involved. PMID:16101549

  7. Molecular and Structural Insight into proNGF Engagement of p75NTR and Sortilin

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dan; Kim, Taeho; Özkan, Engin; Light, Matthew; Torkin, Risa; Teng, Kenneth K.; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Nerve growth factor is initially synthesized as a precursor, proNGF, which is cleaved to release its C-terminal mature form. Recent studies suggest that proNGF is not an inactive precursor, but acts as a signaling ligand distinct from its mature counterpart. Pro- and mature NGF initiate opposing biological responses by utilizing both distinct and shared receptor components. Here, we carry out a structural and biochemical characterization of proNGF interactions with p75NTR and sortilin. We have crystallized proNGF complexed to p75NTR, and present the structure at 3.75 Å resolution. The structure reveals a 2:2 symmetric binding mode, as compared to the asymmetric structure of a previously reported crystal structure of mature NGF complexed to p75NTR, and the 2:2 symmetric complex of Neurotrophin-3 and p75NTR. Here we discuss the possible origins and implications of the different stoichiometries. In the proNGF/p75NTR complex, the pro regions of proNGF are mostly disordered, and two hairpin loops (L2) at the top of NGF dimer have undergone conformational changes in comparison to mature neurotrophin structures, suggesting possible interactions with the pro-peptide. We further explore the binding characteristics of proNGF to sortilin using surface plasmon resonance and cell-based assays, and determine that calcium ions promote the formation of a stable ternary complex of proNGF/sortilin/p75NTR. These results, together with previous structural and mechanistic studies of neurotrophin-receptor interactions, suggest the potential for distinct signaling activities through p75NTR mediated by different neurotrophin-induced conformational changes. PMID:20036257

  8. Pro-adrenomedullin, pro-endothelin-1, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and mortality risk in critically ill children: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We tested the hypothesis that higher mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), carboxy-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1), procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma concentrations would be associated with increased prediction of mortality risk scores. Methods Prospective observational study set in two pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Two-hundred-thirty-eight patients were included. MR-proADM, CT-proET-1, PCT and CRP levels were compared between children with PRISM III and PIM 2 > p75 (Group A; n = 33) and the rest (Group B; n = 205). Results Median (range) MR-proADM levels were 1.39 nmol/L (0.52–12.67) in group A versus 0.54 (0.15–3.85) in group B (P < 0.001). CT-proET-1 levels were 172 pmol/L (27–500) versus 58 (4–447) (P < 0.001). PCT levels were 7.77 ng/mL (0.34–552.00) versus 0.28 (0.02–107.00) (P < 0.001). CRP levels were 6.23 mg/dL (0.08-28.25) versus 1.30 mg/dL (0.00-42.09) (P = 0.210). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the differentiation of group A and B was 0.87 (95% CI:0.81–0.821) for MR-proADM, 0.86 (95% CI:0.79–0.92) for CT-proET-1 and 0.84 (95% CI:0.74–0.94) for PCT. A MR-proADM > 0.79 nmol/L had 93% sensitivity and 76% specificity to differentiate groups, whereas a CT-proET-1 > 123 pmol/L had 77% sensitivity and 84% specificity, and a PCT concentration > 2.05 ng/mL had 80% sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions In critically ill children, high levels of MR-proADM, CT-proET-1 and PCT were associated with increased prediction of mortality risk scores. MR-proADM, CT-proET-1 and PCT concentrations higher than 0.80 nmol/L, 123 pmol/L and 2 ng/mL, respectively, could be used by clinicians to identify critically ill children at higher prediction of risk death scores. PMID:24131732

  9. Pro-Choice Versus Pro-Life: The Relationship Between State Abortion Policy and Child Well-Being in the United States.

    PubMed

    Medoff, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, pro-choice supporters contend that the desire of pro-life supporters to protect the life of the fetus ends at birth and that thereafter they ignore the health and well-being of infants and children. This study examines the question of whether infants and children fare better in U.S. states that have the most restrictive abortion laws. Eighteen indicators of infant/child health, family, economic, and educational status are analyzed. The empirical evidence finds that states with the most antiabortion policies are also the same states that have significantly lower indicators of infant/child well-being. This supports the contention by pro-choice supporters that efforts by pro-life supporters to protect the life of the fetus end at birth. PMID:24245932

  10. Pro-apoptotic function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein

    PubMed Central

    Ianari, Alessandra; Natale, Tiziana; Calo, Eliezer; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Alesse, Edoardo; Screpanti, Isabella; Haigis, Kevin; Gulino, Alberto; Lees, Jacqueline A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) tumor suppressor blocks cell proliferation by repressing the E2F transcription factors. This inhibition is relieved through mitogen-induced phosphorylation of pRB, triggering E2F release and activation of cell cycle genes. E2F1 can also activate pro-apoptotic genes in response to genotoxic or oncogenic stress. However, pRB’s role in this context has not been established. Here we show that DNA damage and E1A-induced oncogenic stress promotes formation of a pRB-E2F1 complex even in proliferating cells. Moreover, pRB is bound to pro-apoptotic promoters that are transcriptional active and pRB is required for maximal apoptotic response in vitro and in vivo. Together, these data reveal a direct role for pRB in the induction of apoptosis in response to genotoxic or oncogenic stress. SIGNIFICANCE pRB function is disrupted in many human tumors through either inactivation of the Rb gene or alterations in its upstream regulators. pRB’s tumor suppressive activity is at least partially dependent upon its ability to arrest cells through E2F inhibition. Our data now establish a second role for pRB as a stress-induced activator of apoptosis. Notably, pRB’s ability to promote either arrest versus apoptosis seems to be context dependent, with apoptosis being favored in proliferating cells. This finding has the potential to explain why cells are typically more resistant to apoptosis when in the arrested state. Most importantly, our observations suggest that Rb status will influence tumor response to chemotherapy by impairing both the arrest and apoptotic checkpoint responses. PMID:19249677

  11. The pro-apoptotic role of autophagy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suman, S; Das, T P; Reddy, R; Nyakeriga, A M; Luevano, J E; Konwar, D; Pahari, P; Damodaran, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process that has a vital role in cancer progression and treatment. Current chemotherapeutic agents, which target autophagy, result in growth inhibition in many cancer types. In this study, we examined the role of autophagy in breast cancer (BCa) patients as well as BCa cell lines. Methods: Tissue microarray was used to detect the expression of an autophagy marker, LC3B in BCa patients (normal/hyperplasia=8; grade-I=15, grade-II=84, and grade-III=27) and BCa cell lines. To modulate the activation of autophagy, we used novel herbal compound nimocinol acetate (NA) in BCa cell lines and the anticancer activity was measured by phenotypic and molecular analysis. Results: LC3B is highly expressed in tumours as compared with normal tissues. Activation of LC3B in NA-treated BCa (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) cells was evident as compared with other autophagy makers. Further, our results confirmed that NA-transcriptionally regulates LC3B (as confirmed by mRNA levels and reporter assay), which resulted in the formation of acidic autophagy vesicles and autolysosomes in BCa cells. Nimocinol acetate inhibited mTOR-mediated pro-survival signalling that resulted in inhibition of growth in BCa cells without affecting normal breast epithelial cells. Downregulation of LC3B expression by siRNA significantly inhibited the anticancer effects of NA in BCa cells. Conclusions: Together, our results suggest that LC3B is highly expressed in BCa tissues and increasing the threshold of LC3B activation dictates the pro-apoptotic function, which in turn, suppresses the growth of BCa cells. Nimocinol acetate could be a potential agent for treatment of BCa. PMID:24945999

  12. Galectin-8 elicits pro-inflammatory activities in the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Valentina; Tribulatti, María Virginia; Carabelli, Julieta; Carestia, Agostina; Schattner, Mirta; Campetella, Oscar

    2014-10-01

    Galectins (Gals), a family of mammalian lectins, play diverse roles under physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we analyzed the tandem-repeat Gal-8 synthesis, secretion and effects on the endothelium physiology. Gal-8M and Gal-8L isoforms were secreted under basal conditions by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). However, expression and secretion of the Gal-8M isoform, but not Gal-8L, were increased in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulus and returned to control values after LPS removal. Similarly, cell surface Gal-8 exposure was increased after stimulation with LPS. To evaluate Gal-8 effects on the endothelium physiology, HMEC-1 cells were incubated in the presence of recombinant Gal-8M. Pretreated HMEC-1 cells became proadhesive to human normal platelets, indicating that Gal-8 actually activates endothelial cells. This effect was specific for lectin activity as it was prevented by the simultaneous addition of lactose, but not by sucrose. Endothelial cells also increased their exposition of von Willebrand factor after Gal-8 treatment, which constitutes another feature of cell activation that could be, in turn, responsible for the observed platelet adhesion. Several pro-inflammatory molecules were abundantly produced by Gal-8 stimulated endothelial cells: CXCL1 (GRO-α), GM-CSF, IL-6 and CCL5 (RANTES), and in a lower degree CCL2 (MCP-1), CXCL3 (GRO-γ) and CXCL8 (IL-8). In agreement, Gal-8M induced nuclear factor kappa B phosphorylation. Altogether, these results not only confirm the pro-inflammatory role we have already proposed for Gal-8 in other cellular systems but also suggest that this lectin is orchestrating the interaction between leukocytes, platelets and endothelial cells. PMID:24957054

  13. Serum Levels of Cardiac Markers NT-proANP and NT-proBNP in Brachycephalic bitches at Different Gestational Stages.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Mar; Uscategui, R R; Maciel, G S; de Almeida, V T; Silveira, M F; de Oliveira, Gac; Vicente, Wrr

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum levels of natriuretic peptide precursors (NT-proANP and NT-proBNP) during pregnancy in brachycephalic bitches. Fifteen healthy multiparous bitches were selected for this prospective study. Serum levels of NT-proANP and NT-proBNP were measured during anoestrous and at 14, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days (2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th weeks) of pregnancy. Fourteen animals had normal gestations, and one bitch developed single foetus syndrome. The natriuretic peptide levels of this animal were not included in this study; however, it is important to report that its NT-proANP levels were four times greater than those of normal patients. There was no significant difference (p = 0.072) in NT-proBNP levels between anoestrous (0.20 ± 0.10 ng/ml) and the different pregnancy weeks (0.27 ± 0.12 ng/ml). There was a positive correlation (p < 0.0001) between NT-proANP and gestational age, and the levels of this marker increased significantly (p < 0.0001) during the 6th (0.26 ± 0.06 ng/ml), 7th (0.28 ± 0.04 ng/ml) and 8th weeks (0.29 ± 0.05 ng/ml) when compared to anoestrous (0.18 ± 0.02 ng/ml). NT-proANP serum levels are correlated with gestational development and may be indicative of cardiovascular adaptation in canine brachycephalic pregnancy. PMID:26991598

  14. CHI3L1 plays a role in cancer through enhanced production of pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Libreros, Stephania; Garcia-Areas, Ramon; Iragavarapu-Charyulu, Vijaya

    2013-12-01

    Elevated serum levels of a glycoprotein known as chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) have been correlated with poor prognosis and shorter survival of patients with cancer and inflammatory diseases. The biological and physiological functions of CHI3L1 in cancer have not yet been completely elucidated. In this review, we describe the role of CHI3L1 in inducing pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors that could promote tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:24222276

  15. Antibacterial activity of cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo(D-Pro-L-Tyr) from Streptomyces sp. strain 22-4 against phytopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wattana-Amorn, Pakorn; Charoenwongsa, Waranya; Williams, Christopher; Crump, Matthew P; Apichaisataienchote, Busaya

    2016-09-01

    Two bioactive cyclic dipeptides, cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo(D-Pro-L-Tyr), were isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. strain 22-4 and tested against three economically important plant pathogens, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, Ralstonia solanacearum and Clavibacter michiganensis. Both cyclic dipeptides were active against X. axonopodis pv. citri and R. Solanacearum with MIC of 31.25 μg/mL. No activity could be observed against C. michiganensis. PMID:26469746

  16. Microleakage of CEM Cement and ProRoot MTA as Furcal Perforation Repair Materials in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Haghgoo, Roza; Arfa, Sara; Asgary, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Iatrogenic furcal perforation is a procedural accident in endodontic treatments of primary/permanent teeth; prognosis may be favorable if a complete seal with biomaterial is immediately established. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate microleakage of calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement and ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) for sealing primary molar furcal perforations. Materials and Methods This study was conducted on 38 extracted human primary molars. Furcation perforations were created in the pulp chamber floor. The teeth were divided randomly in two experimental groups (n=17) and two positive and negative controls (n=2). Perforations were then repaired with biomaterials. After 72 h, the teeth were submerged in 2% fuchsin dye solution for 24h. The samples were sectioned longitudinally and evaluated for dye leakage. Data analyzed statistically using ANOVA test. Results: The negative and positive controls behaved as expected. Dye microleakage was observed in all experimental samples; however, there was no statistically significant difference between the microleakage of MTA (4.411±2.042 mm) and CEM (3.647±1.040 mm) groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the findings of this in vitro study, CEM and tooth-colored ProRoot MTA have similar sealing ability for furcal perforation repair of primary molar teeth. PMID:24171027

  17. Geological interpretation and analysis of surface based, spatially referenced planetary imagery data using PRoGIS 2.0 and Pro3D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R.; Gupta, S.; Giordano, M.; Morley, J. G.; Muller, J. P.; Tao, Y.; Sprinks, J.; Traxler, C.; Hesina, G.; Ortner, T.; Sander, K.; Nauschnegg, B.; Paar, G.; Willner, K.; Pajdla, T.

    2015-10-01

    We apply the capabilities of the geospatial environment PRoGIS 2.0 and the real time rendering viewer PRo3D to geological analysis of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover-B (MER-B Opportunity rover) and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL Curiosity rover) datasets. Short baseline and serendipitous long baseline stereo Pancam rover imagery are used to create 3D point clouds which can be combined with super-resolution images derived from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE orbital data, andsuper-resolution outcrop images derived from MER Pancam, as well as hand-lens scale images for geology and outcrop characterization at all scales. Data within the PRoViDE database are presented and accessed through the PRoGIS interface. Simple geological measurement tools are implemented within the PRoGIS and PRo3D web software to accurately measure the dip and strike of bedding in outcrops, create detailed stratigraphic logs for correlation between the areas investigated, and to develop realistic 3D models for the characterization of planetary surface processes. Annotation tools are being developed to aid discussion and dissemination of the observations within the planetary science community.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal instrumentation with ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, WaveOne, and self-adjusting file systems

    PubMed Central

    Ozsu, Damla; Karatas, Ertugrul; Arslan, Hakan; Topcu, Meltem C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the amount of apically extruded debris during preparation with ProTaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer), a reciprocating single-file (WaveOne; VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany), and a self-adjusting file (SAF; ReDent Nova, Ra’anna, Israel). Materials and Methods: Fifty-six intact mandibular premolar teeth were randomly assigned to four groups. The root canals were prepared according to the manufacturers’ instructions using the ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, WaveOne, and SAF. Apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted Eppendorf tubes during instrumentation. The net weight of the apically extruded debris was determined by subtracting the preweights and postweights of the tubes. The data were statistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and the least significant difference tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: A measurable amount of debris was apically extruded in all groups, and the amounts of debris extrusion in the groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The ProTaper Next and WaveOne groups resulted in less debris extrusion than the ProTaper Universal group (P < 0.05), and the SAF group resulted in the least debris extrusion. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that all systems extruded debris beyond the apical foramen. PMID:25512732

  19. Extending the Human Life Span: An Exploratory Study of Pro- and Anti-Longevity Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Nathan; Tucker, Jennifer; Porter, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Successful efforts by biologists to substantially increase the life span of non-human animals has raised the possibility of extrapolation to humans, which in turn has given rise to bioethical argumentation, pro and con. The present study converts these arguments into pro- and anti-longevity items on a questionnaire and examines the structure and…

  20. 78 FR 57796 - Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean, Islamorada, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean... Hydro- X Tour. The Pro Hydro-X Tour is a series of Jet Ski races. The race course is in an...

  1. A novel anticancer theranostic pro-prodrug based on hypoxia and photo sequential control.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weipei; Gao, Chunyue; Liu, Wei; Ren, Huihui; Wang, Chao; Ge, Kun; Li, Shenghui; Zhou, Guoqiang; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Shuxiang; Jia, Guang; Li, Zhenhua; Zhang, Jinchao

    2016-08-01

    A novel anticancer pro-prodrug (GMC-CAE-NO2) with diagnosis and therapy functions based on hypoxia and photo sequential control was designed. It provides a platform for constructing theranostic pro-prodrugs to release active drugs controlled by hypoxic status and UV illumination. PMID:27379361

  2. STORED GRAIN ADVISOR PRO: DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR INSECT MANAGEMENT IN COMMERCIAL GRAIN ELEVATORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A decision support system, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro), was developed to provide insect pest management information for grain stored at commercial elevators. The program uses a model to predict future risk based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. A rule-based system wa...

  3. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed...

  4. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed...

  5. 24 CFR 232.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.825 Pro rata refund of insurance..., the Commissioner shall refund to the lender for the account of the borrower an amount equal to the...

  6. 26 CFR 1.669(e)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.669(e)-1A Section 1.669(e)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(e)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed...

  7. 24 CFR 203.268 - Pro rata payment of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of periodic MIP...-Periodic Payment § 203.268 Pro rata payment of periodic MIP. (a) If the insurance contract is terminated... current annual MIP prorated from the due date of the last annual MIP to the date of termination. (c) A...

  8. 77 FR 75819 - Death of Senator Daniel K. Inouye, President Pro Tempore of the Senate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-30982 Filed 12-20-12; 11:15... December 21, 2012 Part VI The President Proclamation 8919--Death of Senator Daniel K. Inouye, President Pro... ] Proclamation 8919 of December 18, 2012 Death of Senator Daniel K. Inouye, President Pro Tempore of the...

  9. ProCure21: friend or foe to Trust and patient?

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2009-06-01

    With the current ProCure 21 framework set to be superseded next year, Elizabeth Smith, a former nurse, and now health accounts manager for ProCure21 at construction, civil engineering, and property services company Osborne (pictured), examines the fast-tracking benefits already afforded by a system which, despite its achievements, is still not without its critics today. PMID:19624039

  10. 24 CFR 203.268 - Pro rata payment of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata payment of periodic MIP...-Periodic Payment § 203.268 Pro rata payment of periodic MIP. (a) If the insurance contract is terminated... rata MIP shall not be due or payable where the mortgagee notifies the Commissioner that foreclosure...

  11. 24 CFR 232.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.825 Pro rata refund of insurance... rata portion of the current annual loan insurance premium theretofore paid which is applicable to...

  12. 26 CFR 1.669(e)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.669(e)-1A Section 1.669(e)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(e)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes...

  13. 24 CFR 266.608 - Mortgage insurance premium: Pro rata refund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rata refund. 266.608 Section 266.608 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... premium: Pro rata refund. If the Contract of Insurance is terminated by payment in full or is terminated... account. In computing the pro rata portion of the annual mortgage insurance premium, the date...

  14. 17 CFR 240.14d-8 - Exemption from statutory pro rata requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rata requirements. 240.14d-8 Section 240.14d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... rata requirements. Notwithstanding the pro rata provisions of section 14(d)(6) of the Act, if any... taken up and paid for as nearly as may be pro rata, disregarding fractions, according to the number...

  15. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  16. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  17. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  18. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  20. Portrayals of Pro-Beijing Workers' Night Schools in Hong Kong from 1946 to Post-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Chui Shan

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the transformation of pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated Workers' Night Schools for adults; the organisation of schools in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these…

  1. GoPro as an Ethnographic Tool: A Wayfinding Study in an Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsley, Kirsten M.; Schoonover, Dan; Spitler, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    In this study, researchers sought to capture students' authentic experience of finding books in the main library using a GoPro camera and the think-aloud protocol. The GoPro provided a first-person perspective and was an effective ethnographic tool for observing a student's individual experience, while also demonstrating what tools they use to…

  2. InterPro: an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Terri K; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Biswas, Margaret; Bradley, Paul; Bork, Peer; Bucher, Phillip; Copley, Richard; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Durbin, Richard; Falquet, Laurent; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Gouzy, Jerome; Griffith-Jones, Sam; Haft, Daniel; Hermjakob, Henning; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Orchard, Sandra; Pagni, Marco; Peyruc, David; Ponting, Chris P; Servant, Florence; Sigrist, Christian J A

    2002-09-01

    The exponential increase in the submission of nucleotide sequences to the nucleotide sequence database by genome sequencing centres has resulted in a need for rapid, automatic methods for classification of the resulting protein sequences. There are several signature and sequence cluster-based methods for protein classification, each resource having distinct areas of optimum application owing to the differences in the underlying analysis methods. In recognition of this, InterPro was developed as an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, to rationalise the complementary efforts of the individual protein signature database projects. The member databases - PRINTS, PROSITE, Pfam, ProDom, SMART and TIGRFAMs - form the InterPro core. Related signatures from each member database are unified into single InterPro entries. Each InterPro entry includes a unique accession number, functional descriptions and literature references, and links are made back to the relevant member database(s). Release 4.0 of InterPro (November 2001) contains 4,691 entries, representing 3,532 families, 1,068 domains, 74 repeats and 15 sites of post-translational modification (PTMs) encoded by different regular expressions, profiles, fingerprints and hidden Markov models (HMMs). Each InterPro entry lists all the matches against SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL (2,141,621 InterPro hits from 586,124 SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL protein sequences). The database is freely accessible for text- and sequence-based searches. PMID:12230031

  3. pep2pro: the high-throughput proteomics data processing, analysis, and visualization tool.

    PubMed

    Hirsch-Hoffmann, Matthias; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baerenfaller, Katja

    2012-01-01

    The pep2pro database was built to support effective high-throughput proteome data analysis. Its database schema allows the coherent integration of search results from different database-dependent search algorithms and filtering of the data including control for unambiguous assignment of peptides to proteins. The capacity of the pep2pro database has been exploited in data analysis of various Arabidopsis proteome datasets. The diversity of the datasets and the associated scientific questions required thorough querying of the data. This was supported by the relational format structure of the data that links all information on the sample, spectrum, search database, and algorithm to peptide and protein identifications and their post-translational modifications. After publication of datasets they are made available on the pep2pro website at www.pep2pro.ethz.ch. Further, the pep2pro data analysis pipeline also handles data export do the PRIDE database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride) and data retrieval by the MASCP Gator (http://gator.masc-proteomics.org/). The utility of pep2pro will continue to be used for analysis of additional datasets and as a data warehouse. The capacity of the pep2pro database for proteome data analysis has now also been made publicly available through the release of pep2pro4all, which consists of a database schema and a script that will populate the database with mass spectrometry data provided in mzIdentML format. PMID:22701464

  4. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... school. (e) The charter price due the direct air carrier shall be prorated equally among all the charter... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  5. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... school. (e) The charter price due the direct air carrier shall be prorated equally among all the charter... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  6. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... school. (e) The charter price due the direct air carrier shall be prorated equally among all the charter... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  7. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... school. (e) The charter price due the direct air carrier shall be prorated equally among all the charter... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  8. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... school. (e) The charter price due the direct air carrier shall be prorated equally among all the charter... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  9. Striving for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: ProSPER.Net Members Meet in Shanghai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabucanon, Mario T.; Tanaka, Aurea Christine; Aipanjiguly, Sampreethi

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate the two-year anniversary of the founding of ProSPER.Net--the Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education and Research Network--members convened on 5-9 July 2010 in Shanghai, China, at a meeting hosted by Tongji University, a founding member. ProSPER.Net is an alliance of 21 higher education institutions in the Asia-Pacific…

  10. Pro-apoptotic gene regulation in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional activation of pro-apoptotic genes in response to cytotoxic stimuli is a conserved feature of the cell death pathway proposed for metazoans. However, understanding the extent of this conservation in insects, as well as other organisms, has been limited by the lack of known pro-apoptot...

  11. Enhanced Activity of Meprin-α, a Pro-Migratory and Pro-Angiogenic Protease, in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Noël, Agnès; Blacher, Silvia; Huguenin, Maya; Nievergelt, Alexandra; Niggli, Verena; Kern, Alexander; Müller, Stefan; Seibold, Frank; Friess, Helmut; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Stöcker, Walter; Sterchi, Erwin E.

    2011-01-01

    Meprin-α is a metalloprotease overexpressed in cancer cells, leading to the accumulation of this protease in a subset of colorectal tumors. The impact of increased meprin-α levels on tumor progression is not known. We investigated the effect of this protease on cell migration and angiogenesis in vitro and studied the expression of meprin-α mRNA, protein and proteolytic activity in primary tumors at progressive stages and in liver metastases of patients with colorectal cancer, as well as inhibitory activity towards meprin-α in sera of cancer patient as compared to healthy controls. We found that the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)- induced migratory response of meprin-transfected epithelial cells was increased compared to wild-type cells in the presence of plasminogen, and that the angiogenic response in organ-cultured rat aortic explants was enhanced in the presence of exogenous human meprin-α. In patients, meprin-α mRNA was expressed in colonic adenomas, primary tumors UICC (International Union Against Cancer) stage I, II, III and IV, as well as in liver metastases. In contrast, the corresponding protein accumulated only in primary tumors and liver metastases, but not in adenomas. However, liver metastases lacked meprin-α activity despite increased expression of the corresponding protein, which correlated with inefficient zymogen activation. Sera from cancer patients exhibited reduced meprin-α inhibition compared to healthy controls. In conclusion, meprin-α activity is regulated differently in primary tumors and metastases, leading to high proteolytic activity in primary tumors and low activity in liver metastases. By virtue of its pro-migratory and pro-angiogenic activity, meprin-α may promote tumor progression in colorectal cancer. PMID:22096485

  12. (Pro)cambium formation and proliferation: two sides of the same coin?

    PubMed Central

    Jouannet, Virginie; Brackmann, Klaus; Greb, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The body of higher plants is usually pervaded by the (pro)cambium, a reticulate system of meristematic cells harboring the potential for producing vascular tissues at critical times and places. The (pro)cambium thereby provides the basis for the differential modulation of long-distance transport capacities and plant body stability. Distinct regulatory networks responsible for the initiation and proliferation of (pro)cambium cells have been identified. However, although a tight interaction between these networks can be expected, connections have been established only sporadically. Here we highlight recent discoveries of how (pro)cambium development is regulated and discuss possible interfaces between networks regulating two processes: (pro)cambium formation and cambium proliferation. PMID:25449727

  13. Aberrant expression of proPTPRN2 in cancer cells confers resistance to apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Alexey V.; Nair, Binoj C.; Wei, Yongkun; Aziz, Kathryn E.; Evdokimova, Valentina; Hung, Mien-Chie; Chen, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor PTPRN2 is expressed predominantly in endocrine and neuronal cells where it functions in exocytosis. We found that its immature isoform proPTPRN2 is overexpressed in various cancers including breast cancer. High proPTPRN2 expression was associated strongly with lymph node-positive breast cancer and poor clinical outcome. Loss of proPTPRN2 in breast cancer cells promoted apoptosis and blocked tumor formation in mice, while enforced expression of proPTPRN2 in non-transformed human mammary epithelial cells exerted a converse effect. Mechanistic investigations suggested that ProPTPRN2 elicited these effects through direct interaction with TRAF2, a hub scaffold protein for multiple kinase cascades including ones that activate NF-kB. Overall our results suggest PTPRN2 as a novel candidate biomarker and therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:25877877

  14. Na+-Translocating Rhodopsin from Dokdonia sp. PRO95 Does Not Contain Carotenoid Antenna.

    PubMed

    Bertsova, Y V; Arutyunyan, A M; Bogachev, A V

    2016-04-01

    Carotenoid-binding properties of Na+-translocating rhodopsin (NaR) from Dokdonia sp. PRO95 were studied. Carotenoids were extracted from Dokdonia sp. PRO95 cells. It was found that zeaxanthin is the predominant carotenoid of this bacterium. Incubation of recombinant NaR purified from Escherichia coli cells with carotenoids from Dokdonia sp. PRO95 did not result in any changes in optical absorption or circular dichroism spectra, indicating the absence of binding of the carotenoids by NaR. The same results were obtained using salinixanthin as the carotenoid. These data along with genome analysis of Dokdonia sp. PRO95 and other flavobacteria indicate that NaR from Dokdonia sp. PRO95 and possibly the other flavobacterial Na+-translocating rhodopsins do not contain a carotenoid antenna. PMID:27293099

  15. Pro-oxidant activity of polyphenols and its implication on cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    León-González, Antonio J; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2015-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in carcinogenesis: pro-oxidant agents like tobacco smoke, asbestos or N-nitrosamines, are known as mutagenic and carcinogenic, and cancer cells show increased levels of ROS and redox deregulation. However, pro-oxidant molecules can also act as selective cytotoxic agents against cancer cells by achieving toxic levels of ROS. Although polyphenols are well-known as potent antioxidants, a pro-oxidant effect has been associated with their pro-apoptotic effect in various types of tumor cells. The aim of the present review is to present the main evidences of the pro-oxidant-related cytotoxic activity of naturally occurring polyphenols and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:26206193

  16. Autocatalytic activity and substrate specificity of the pestivirus N-terminal protease N{sup pro}

    SciTech Connect

    Gottipati, Keerthi; Acholi, Sudheer; Ruggli, Nicolas; Choi, Kyung H.

    2014-03-15

    Pestivirus N{sup pro} is the first protein translated in the viral polypeptide, and cleaves itself off co-translationally generating the N-terminus of the core protein. Once released, N{sup pro} blocks the host's interferon response by inducing degradation of interferon regulatory factor-3. N{sup pro'}s intracellular autocatalytic activity and lack of trans-activity have hampered in vitro cleavage studies to establish its substrate specificity and the roles of individual residues. We constructed N{sup pro}-GFP fusion proteins that carry the authentic cleavage site and determined the autoproteolytic activities of N{sup pro} proteins containing substitutions at the predicted catalytic sites Glu22 and Cys69, at Arg100 that forms a salt bridge with Glu22, and at the cleavage site Cys168. Contrary to previous reports, we show that N{sup pro'}s catalytic activity does not involve Glu22, which may instead be involved in protein stability. Furthermore, N{sup pro} does not have specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site even though this residue is conserved throughout the pestivirus genus. - Highlights: • N{sup pro'}s autoproteolysis is studied using N{sup pro}-GFP fusion proteins. • N-terminal 17 amino acids are dispensable without loss of protease activity. • The putative catalytic residue Glu22 is not involved in protease catalysis. • No specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site despite evolutionary conservation. • N{sup pro} prefers small amino acids with non-branched beta carbons at the P1 position.

  17. Solution Processed PEDOT Analogues in Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Österholm, Anna M; Ponder, James F; Kerszulis, Justin A; Reynolds, John R

    2016-06-01

    We have designed fully soluble ProDOTx-EDOTy copolymers that are electrochemically equivalent to electropolymerized PEDOT without using any surfactants or dispersants. We show that these copolymers can be incorporated as active layers in solution processed thin film supercapacitors to demonstrate capacitance, stability, and voltage similar to the values of those that use electrodeposited PEDOT as the active material with the added advantage of the possibility for large scale, high-throughput processing. These Type I supercapacitors provide exceptional cell voltages (up to 1.6 V), highly symmetrical charge/discharge behavior, promising long-term stability exceeding 50 000 charge/discharge cycles, as well as energy (4-18 Wh/kg) and power densities (0.8-3.3 kW/kg) that are comparable to those of electrochemically synthesized analogues. PMID:27195798

  18. Impact of the cosmetic mouthwash “Jack Pro Spülung plus” (“rheodol-Spülung plus”) on the oral cavity flora, tested in a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Göhring, Jana; Müller, Gerald; Biffar, Reiner; Kramer, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Jack Pro Spülung Plus (also available as “rheodol-Spülung plus”) is recommended to mechanically maintain oral hygiene as part of an overall oral hygiene concept. Because Jack Pro Spülung Plus contains the active agents polihexanide and tosylchloramide sodium in concentrations below microbicidal efficacy, this study tested the hypothesis that the combination of mechanical rinsing and bacteriostatic effect surpasses the effect of mechanical rinsing alone. Method: The study was performed with 30 volunteers as a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study. The efficacy of the test product (active agents polihexanide 0.02–0.03% and tosylchloramide sodium 0.004–0.006%) was compared to an aqueous solution of polihexanide (0.02–0.03%) and to Ringer solution as negative control. The efficacy was measured as the reduction of colony forming units (cfu) on buccal mucosa after aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. After determination of pre-values, the volunteers performed mouthrinsing for 30 sec with each of the 3 tested solutions. After 1, 10 and 60 minutes, cfu numbers were determined again. The reduction factor was calculated as the difference between log10 of the measured cfu before and after mouthrinsing with the test solution. The sampling was performed using a template with a smear area of 1 x 1 cm. Results: Using Ringer solution led to a slight mechanically-induced reduction of cfu in the oral cavity 1 min after rinsing the mouth cavity with the solution. After 10 min and 60 min, no influence on the cfu number could be detected. Using Jack pro Spülung Plus led to a bacteriostatic effect up to 60 min after mouthrinsing; 10 min and 60 min after rinsing the efficacy of Ringer solution was also significantly surpassed. The aqueous solution of polihexanide was less effective than Jack pro Spülung Plus after 10 and 60 min. Conclusion: Based on these observations, we conclude that Jack pro Spülung Plus is suitable for improvement

  19. Rapid Increases in proBDNF after Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus in Mice Are Associated with Reduced proBDNF Cleavage Machinery123

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Del Angel, Yasmin; Gonzalez, Marco I.; Carrel, Andrew J.; Carlsen, Jessica; Lam, Philip M.; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Russek, Shelley. J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are elevated after status epilepticus (SE), leading to activation of multiple signaling pathways, including the janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway that mediates a decrease in GABAA receptor α1 subunits in the hippocampus (Lund et al., 2008). While BDNF can signal via its pro or mature form, the relative contribution of these forms to signaling after SE is not fully known. In the current study, we investigate changes in proBDNF levels acutely after SE in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast to previous reports (Unsain et al., 2008; Volosin et al., 2008; VonDran et al., 2014), our studies found that levels of proBDNF in the hippocampus are markedly elevated as early as 3 h after SE onset and remain elevated for 7 d. Immunohistochemistry studies indicate that seizure-induced BDNF localizes to all hippocampal subfields, predominantly in principal neurons and also in astrocytes. Analysis of the proteolytic machinery that cleaves proBDNF to produce mature BDNF demonstrates that acutely after SE there is a decrease in tissue plasminogen activator and an increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), an inhibitor of extracellular and intracellular cleavage, which normalizes over the first week after SE. In vitro treatment of hippocampal slices from animals 24 h after SE with a PAI-1 inhibitor reduces proBDNF levels. These findings suggest that rapid proBDNF increases following SE are due in part to reduced cleavage, and that proBDNF may be part of the initial neurotrophin response driving intracellular signaling during the acute phase of epileptogenesis. PMID:27057559

  20. ATUS-PRO: A FEM-based solver for the time-dependent and stationary Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marojević, Želimir; Göklü, Ertan; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    2016-05-01

    ATUS-PRO is a solver-package written in C++ designed for the calculation of numerical solutions of the stationary- and the time dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation for local two-particle contact interaction utilising finite element methods. These are implemented by means of the deal.II library (Bangerth et al., 0000) [1], (Bangerth et al., 2007) [2]. The code can be used in order to perform simulations of Bose-Einstein condensates in gravito-optical surface traps, isotropic and full anisotropic harmonic traps, as well as for arbitrary trap geometries. A special feature of this package is the possibility to calculate non-ground state solutions (topological modes, excited states) (Marojević et al., 2013), (Yukalov et al., 1997, 2004) [3,4] for an arbitrarily high non-linearity term. The solver-package is designed to run on parallel distributed machines and can be applied to problems in one, two, or three spatial dimensions with axial symmetry or in Cartesian coordinates. The time dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation is solved by means of the fully implicit Crank-Nicolson method, whereas stationary states are obtained with a modified version based on our own constrained Newton method (Marojević et al., 2013). The latter method enables to find the excited state solutions.

  1. Self-interest and pro-environmental behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Laurel; Maio, Gregory R.; Corner, Adam; Hodgetts, Carl J.; Ahmed, Sameera; Hahn, Ulrike

    2013-02-01

    Inspired by the principles used to market physical products, campaigns to promote pro-environmental behaviour have increasingly emphasized self-interested (for example, economic) reasons for engaging with a self-transcendent cause (that is, protecting the environment). Yet, psychological evidence about values and behaviour suggests that giving self-interested reasons, rather than self-transcending reasons, to carry out a self-transcending action should be ineffective at increasing self-transcending behaviour more generally. In other words, such a campaign may fail to cause spillover, or an increase in other, different environmental behaviours. Here we show that recycling rates are dependent on the information participants receive about a separate environmental behaviour, car-sharing (carpooling in the USA). In two experiments, we found that recycling was significantly higher than control when participants received environmental information about car-sharing, but was no different from control when they received financial information or (in experiment 2) received both financial and environmental information. Our results suggest that, congruent with value theory, positive spillover from one environmental message to another behaviour (car-sharing to recycling) may occur primarily when self-transcending reasons alone are made salient.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Lipophilic Doxorubicin Pro-drug Micelles.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Snow-Davis, Candace; Du, Chengan; Bondarev, Mikhail L; Saulsbury, Marilyn D; Heyliger, Simone O

    2016-01-01

    Micelles have been successfully used for the delivery of anticancer drugs. Amphiphilic polymers form core-shell structured micelles in an aqueous environment through self-assembly. The hydrophobic core of micelles functions as a drug reservoir and encapsulates hydrophobic drugs. The hydrophilic shell prevents the aggregation of micelles and also prolongs their systemic circulation in vivo. In this protocol, we describe a method to synthesize a doxorubicin lipophilic pro-drug, doxorubicin-palmitic acid (DOX-PA), which will enhance drug loading into micelles. A pH-sensitive hydrazone linker was used to conjugate doxorubicin with the lipid, which facilitates the release of free doxorubicin inside cancer cells. Synthesized DOX-PA was purified with a silica gel column using dichloromethane/methanol as the eluent. Purified DOX-PA was analyzed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) and (1)H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR). A film dispersion method was used to prepare DOX-PA loaded DSPE-PEG micelles. In addition, several methods for characterizing micelle formulations are described, including determination of DOX-PA concentration and encapsulation efficiency, measurement of particle size and distribution, and assessment of in vitro anticancer activities. This protocol provides useful information regarding the preparation and characterization of drug-loaded micelles and thus will facilitate the research and development of novel micelle-based cancer nanomedicines. PMID:27584689

  3. Quid Pro Quo: Tobacco Companies and the Black Press

    PubMed Central

    McCandless, Phyra M.; Yerger, Valerie B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the relationship between tobacco companies and the Black press, which plays an important role in conveying information and opinions to Black communities. Methods. In this archival case study, we analyzed data from internal tobacco industry documents and archives of the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA), the trade association of the Black press. Results. In exchange for advertising dollars and other support, the tobacco industry expected and received support from Black newspapers for tobacco industry policy positions. Beginning in the 1990s, resistance from within the Black community and reduced advertising budgets created counterpressures. The tobacco industry, however, continued to sustain NNPA support. Conclusions. The quid pro quo between tobacco companies and the Black press violated journalistic standards and represented an unequal trade. Although numerous factors explain today's tobacco-related health disparities, the Black press's service to tobacco companies is problematic because of the trust that the community placed in such media. Understanding the relationship between the tobacco industry and the NNPA provides insight into strategies that the tobacco industry may use in other communities and countries. PMID:21852652

  4. Multifunctional CD40L: pro- and anti-neoplastic activity.

    PubMed

    Korniluk, Aleksandra; Kemona, Halina; Dymicka-Piekarska, Violetta

    2014-10-01

    The CD40 ligand is a type I transmembrane protein that belongs to a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. It is present not only on the surface of activated CD4+ T cells, B cells, blood platelets, monocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells but also on cancer cells. The receptor for ligand is constitutively expressed on cells, TNF family protein: CD40. The role of the CD40/CD40L pathway in the induction of body immunity, in inflammation, or in hemostasis has been well documented, whereas its involvement in neoplastic disease is still under investigation. CD40L ligand may potentiate apoptosis of tumor cells by activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), AP-1, CD95, or caspase-depended pathways and stimulate host immunity to defend against cancer. Although CD40L has a major contribution to anti-cancer activity, many reports point at its ambivalent nature. CD40L enhance release of strongly pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and activator of coagulation, TF, the level of which is correlated with tumor metastasis. CD40L involvement in the inhibition of tumor progression has led to the emergence of not only therapy using recombinant forms of the ligand and vaccines in the treatment of cancer but also therapy consisting of inhibiting platelets-main source of CD40L. This article is a review of studies on the ambivalent role of CD40L in neoplastic diseases. PMID:25117071

  5. [Clastogenic, aneugenic, pro- and antioxidant properties of some neurotropic preparations].

    PubMed

    Gaĭtetdinova, D D; Semenov, V V; Ismagilov, M F; Kharitonov, V S

    2006-01-01

    In experimental and clinical investigations, assessment was made of mutagenous, antimutagenous, pro- and antiradical activity of some neurotropic preparations--cerebrolysin, encephabol (pyritinol), nootropil (piracetam), actovegin and cavinton (vinpocetine). In chemical, fermentative and cellular model systems, cerebrolysin inhibited generation of superoxide anion-radical, nitrogen monoxide and final products of degradation of fatty acids. Other preparations showed both anti- and prooxidant effect. The most pronounced anticlastogenic activity during expriments on C. capillaries had a cerebrolysin. Encephabol had the most prooxidant effect and low anticlastogenic activity. The ability of such preparations as ceredrolysin and encephabol to decrease erythrocyte high level with micronuclei in peripheric blood of patients with infantile cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia) was clinically investigated. The modifying effect of preparations was not univalent: it was cerebrolysin that decreased intensivity of aneu- and clastogenesis in patients in a greater degree than encephabol. A protective effect of these preparations was pronounced on the 10th day in group of the boys, and on the 20th day in the group of the girls. PMID:16878503

  6. Harnessing Satellite Imageries in Feature Extraction Using Google Earth Pro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Sim Joseph; Milano, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has been a long-time concern worldwide. Impending flooding, for one, is among its unwanted consequences. The Phil-LiDAR 1 project of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), Republic of the Philippines, has developed an early warning system in regards to flood hazards. The project utilizes the use of remote sensing technologies in determining the lives in probable dire danger by mapping and attributing building features using LiDAR dataset and satellite imageries. A free mapping software named Google Earth Pro (GEP) is used to load these satellite imageries as base maps. Geotagging of building features has been done so far with the use of handheld Global Positioning System (GPS). Alternatively, mapping and attribution of building features using GEP saves a substantial amount of resources such as manpower, time and budget. Accuracy-wise, geotagging by GEP is dependent on either the satellite imageries or orthophotograph images of half-meter resolution obtained during LiDAR acquisition and not on the GPS of three-meter accuracy. The attributed building features are overlain to the flood hazard map of Phil-LiDAR 1 in order to determine the exposed population. The building features as obtained from satellite imageries may not only be used in flood exposure assessment but may also be used in assessing other hazards and a number of other uses. Several other features may also be extracted from the satellite imageries.

  7. BERLinPro Booster Cavity Design, Fabrication and Test Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Burrill, Andrew; Anders, W; Frahm, A.; Knobloch, Jens; Neumann, Axel; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Turlington, Larry D.

    2014-12-01

    The bERLinPro project, a 100 mA, 50 MeV superconducting RF (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is under construction at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for the purpose of studying the technical challenges and physics of operating a high current, c.w., 1.3 GHz ERL. This machine will utilize three unique SRF cryomodules for the injector, booster and linac module respectively. The booster cryomodule will contain three 2-cell SRF cavities, based on the original design by Cornell University, and will be equipped with twin 115 kW RF power couplers in order to provide the appropriate acceleration to the high current electron beam. This paper will review the status of the fabrication of the 4 booster cavities that have been built for this project by Jefferson Laboratory and look at the challenges presented by the incorporation of fundamental power couplers capable of delivering 115 kW. The test plan for the cavities and couplers will be given along with a brief overview of the cryomodule design.

  8. The pro-sequence domain of streptopain directs the folding of the mature enzyme.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Elizabeth T; Winter, Laurie A; Fernsten, Phil; Olmsted, Stephen B; Matsuka, Yury V

    2005-04-15

    The cysteine endopeptidase streptopain, an extracellular enzyme from pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes, is synthesized as a precursor containing an NH2-terminal pro-sequence. The pro-sequence of streptopain was expressed in Escherichia coli and subjected to structural and functional investigation. Heat-induced denaturation of the pro-sequence studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that it forms a compact structure and represents an independently folded domain. The isolated pro-sequence exhibits high affinity towards mature streptopain and associates with its cognate enzyme by forming an equimolar complex. Refolding of denatured streptopain in the presence of pro-sequence in vitro facilitated recovery of active enzyme. Expression of the mature streptopain in E. coli either alone, or in trans with its pro-sequence as an independent polypeptide, led to the formation of insoluble protein aggregates or functionally active enzyme, respectively. These results demonstrate that the pro-sequence domain acts as an intramolecular chaperone that directs the correct folding of the mature streptopain. PMID:15797242

  9. Pro-NGF secreted by astrocytes promotes motor neuron cell death

    PubMed Central

    Domeniconi, Marco; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Chao, Moses V.

    2007-01-01

    It is well established that motor neurons depend for their survival on many trophic factors. In this study, we show that the precursor form of NGF (proNGF) can induce the death of motor neurons via engagement of the p75 neurotrophin receptor. The pro-apoptotic activity was dependent upon the presence of sortilin, a p75 co-receptor expressed on motor neurons. One potential source of proNGF is reactive astrocytes, which upregulate the levels of proNGF in response to peroxynitrite, an oxidant and producer of free radicals. Indeed, motor neuron viability was sensitive to conditioned media from cultured astrocytes treated with peroxynitrite and this effect could be reversed using a specific antibody against the pro-domain of proNGF. These results are consistent with a role for activated astrocytes and proNGF in the induction of motor neuron death and suggest a possible therapeutic target for the treatment of motor neuron disease. PMID:17188890

  10. Longitudinal effects of pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco messages on adolescent smoking susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Cen, Steven; Schuster, Darleen V; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, C Anderson; Mouttapa, Michele; Schreiner, William S; Cruz, Tess Boley

    2006-06-01

    We examined the longitudinal impact of self-reported exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco media on adolescents' susceptibility to smoking, using in-school surveys from a culturally diverse sample. Ethnicity and acculturation also were examined as potential moderators. Middle-school students (N = 2,292) completed self-report questionnaires during the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. Chi-square analyses were conducted to determine whether reported exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco media varied according to ethnicity, acculturation, and immigration status. Logistic regression models were used to examine whether pro- and anti-tobacco media exposure in 6th grade was associated with susceptibility to smoking by later grades. Recall of people smoking in television programs and pro-tobacco advertisements in stores was associated with adolescent smoking susceptibility. Exposure to anti-tobacco advertisements on television protected against susceptibility. No significant interaction effects between pro- and anti-tobacco media exposure on smoking susceptibility were found. Ethnicity and acculturation did not moderate these associations. Our longitudinal study provides evidence that pro-tobacco media and advertising increases susceptibility to smoking over time. More important, anti-tobacco advertisements are not sufficient to reduce the harmful effects of adolescent exposure to pro-tobacco media. Policy-level interventions such as restrictions in tobacco advertising may be necessary to prevent adolescent smoking. PMID:16801303

  11. Role of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) to mature BDNF conversion in activity-dependent competition at developing neuromuscular synapses

    PubMed Central

    Je, H. Shawn; Yang, Feng; Ji, Yuanyuan; Nagappan, Guhan; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Lu, Bai

    2012-01-01

    Formation of specific neuronal connections often involves competition between adjacent axons, leading to stabilization of the active terminal, while retraction of the less active ones. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We show that activity-dependent conversion of pro–brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) to mature (m)BDNF mediates synaptic competition. Stimulation of motoneurons triggers proteolytic conversion of proBDNF to mBDNF at nerve terminals. In Xenopus nerve–muscle cocultures, in which two motoneurons innervate one myocyte, proBDNF-p75NTR signaling promotes retraction of the less active terminal, whereas mBDNF–tyrosine-related kinase B (TrkB) p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor) facilitates stabilization of the active one. Thus, proBDNF and mBDNF may serve as potential “punishment” and “reward” signals for inactive and active terminals, respectively, and activity-dependent conversion of proBDNF to mBDNF may regulate synapse elimination. PMID:23019376

  12. Fibroblasts profiling in scarring trachoma identifies IL-6 as a functional component of a fibroblast-macrophage pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Kechagia, Jenny Z; Ezra, Daniel G; Burton, Matthew J; Bailly, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    Trachoma is a conjunctiva scarring disease, which is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying progressive fibrosis in trachoma are unknown. To investigate the contribution of local resident fibroblasts to disease progression, we isolated conjunctival fibroblasts from patients with scarring trachoma and matching control individuals, and compared their gene expression profiles and functional properties in vitro. We show that scarring trachoma fibroblasts substantially differ from control counterparts, displaying pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory features matched by an altered gene expression profile. This pro-inflammatory signature was exemplified by increased IL-6 expression and secretion, and a stronger response to macrophage-mediated stimulation of contraction. We further demonstrate that scarring trachoma fibroblasts can promote Akt phosphorylation in macrophages in an IL-6 -dependent manner. Overall this work has uncovered a distinctive molecular fingerprint for scarring trachoma fibroblasts, and identified IL-6- as a potential contributor to the chronic conjunctival fibrosis, mediating reciprocal pro-fibrotic/pro-inflammatory interactions between macrophages and fibroblasts. PMID:27321784

  13. Fibroblasts profiling in scarring trachoma identifies IL-6 as a functional component of a fibroblast-macrophage pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Kechagia, Jenny Z.; Ezra, Daniel G.; Burton, Matthew J.; Bailly, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    Trachoma is a conjunctiva scarring disease, which is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying progressive fibrosis in trachoma are unknown. To investigate the contribution of local resident fibroblasts to disease progression, we isolated conjunctival fibroblasts from patients with scarring trachoma and matching control individuals, and compared their gene expression profiles and functional properties in vitro. We show that scarring trachoma fibroblasts substantially differ from control counterparts, displaying pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory features matched by an altered gene expression profile. This pro-inflammatory signature was exemplified by increased IL-6 expression and secretion, and a stronger response to macrophage-mediated stimulation of contraction. We further demonstrate that scarring trachoma fibroblasts can promote Akt phosphorylation in macrophages in an IL-6 –dependent manner. Overall this work has uncovered a distinctive molecular fingerprint for scarring trachoma fibroblasts, and identified IL-6- as a potential contributor to the chronic conjunctival fibrosis, mediating reciprocal pro-fibrotic/pro-inflammatory interactions between macrophages and fibroblasts. PMID:27321784

  14. 26 CFR 1.955-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.955-1 Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of... controlled foreign corporation must include in its gross income its pro rata share (as determined...

  15. 26 CFR 1.956-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled...) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.956-1 Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled... required to include in his gross income his pro rata share, as determined in accordance with paragraph...

  16. 17 CFR 270.17a-5 - Pro rata distribution neither “sale” nor “purchase.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata distribution neither... EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.17a-5 Pro rata distribution neither “sale” nor “purchase.” When a company makes a pro rata distribution in cash or in...

  17. 75 FR 5147 - Corning, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Pro Unlimited, Piedmont Prime Care...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Corning, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Pro..., Inc., including on-site leased workers from Adecco, Pro Unlimited, Piedmont Prime Care, and Computer... follows: All workers of Corning, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Adecco, Pro...

  18. 26 CFR 1.955-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.955-1 Shareholder's pro rata share... States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation must include in its gross income its pro...

  19. 17 CFR 270.17a-5 - Pro rata distribution neither “sale” nor “purchase.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata distribution neither... EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.17a-5 Pro rata distribution neither “sale” nor “purchase.” When a company makes a pro rata distribution in cash or in...

  20. Contact Lens Solution Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Contact Lens Solution Toxicity Information for adults A A A This image shows a reaction to contact lens solution. The prominent blood vessels and redness ...

  1. Spectroscopic studies of solutes in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chai, Bing-hua; Zheng, Jian-ming; Zhao, Qing; Pollack, Gerald H

    2008-03-20

    Absorption and fluorescence characteristics of aqueous solutions of salts, sugars, and amino acids were studied using UV-vis spectroscopy and spectrofluorometry. Motivation stemmed from unanticipated absorption spectral and fluorescence features of the "exclusion zone" seen adjacent to various hydrophilic surfaces. Those features implied a structure distinct from that of bulk water (Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 2006, 127, 19). Absorption peaks at approximately 270 nm similar to those observed in the exclusion zone were seen in solutions of the following substances: salts, Nafion 117 solution/film, l-lysine, d-alanine, d-glucose and sucrose. To determine the fate of the absorbed energy, we studied the fluorescence properties of these solutions. The salts showed fluorescence emission around 480-490 nm under different excitation wavelengths. The fluorescence intensity of LiCl was higher than NaCl, which was in turn higher than KCl-the same ordering as the absorption intensities. Fluorescence of Nafion 117 solution/film, l-lysine, d-alanine, d-glucose and sucrose were observed as well, with multiple excitation wavelengths. Hence, at least some of the absorbed energy is released as fluorescence. The results show features closely similar to those observed in the exclusion zone, implying that the aqueous region around the solutes resembles the aqueous zone adjacent to hydrophilic surfaces. Both may be more extensively ordered than previously thought. PMID:18298105

  2. Development of Composite Indices to Measure the Adoption of Pro-Environmental Behaviours across Canadian Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Canuel, Magalie; Abdous, Belkacem; Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective The adoption of pro-environmental behaviours reduces anthropogenic environmental impacts and subsequent human health effects. This study developed composite indices measuring adoption of pro-environmental behaviours at the household level in Canada. Methods The 2007 Households and the Environment Survey conducted by Statistics Canada collected data on Canadian environmental behaviours at households' level. A subset of 55 retained questions from this survey was analyzed by Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to develop the index. Weights attributed by MCA were used to compute scores for each Canadian province as well as for socio-demographic strata. Scores were classified into four categories reflecting different levels of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours. Results Two indices were finally created: one based on 23 questions related to behaviours done inside the dwelling and a second based on 16 questions measuring behaviours done outside of the dwelling. British Columbia, Quebec, Prince-Edward-Island and Nova-Scotia appeared in one of the two top categories of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours for both indices. Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Newfoundland-and-Labrador were classified in one of the two last categories of pro-environmental behaviours adoption for both indices. Households with a higher income, educational attainment, or greater number of persons adopted more indoor pro-environmental behaviours, while on the outdoor index, they adopted fewer such behaviours. Households with low-income fared better on the adoption of outdoors pro-environmental behaviours. Conclusion MCA was successfully applied in creating Indoor and Outdoor composite Indices of pro-environmental behaviours. The Indices cover a good range of environmental themes and the analysis could be applied to similar surveys worldwide (as baseline weights) enabling temporal trend comparison for recurring themes. Much more than voluntary measures, the study shows that

  3. Binding and aggregation of pro-atrial natriuretic factor by calcium.

    PubMed

    Thibault, G; Doubell, A F

    1992-04-01

    Analysis of atrial secretory granule content by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis followed by a 45Ca2+ overlay assay indicates that a 17,000 protein binds 45Ca2+. This protein, which can be immunostained by atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) antiserum, corresponds to proANF. Ca2+ binding is proportional to the amount of proANF and pH dependent. Generation of ANF-(1-98) by thrombin digestion of proANF does not affect Ca2+ binding. Blocking the carboxyl groups of proANF and the use of NH2-terminal fragments bearing those carboxyl groups demonstrated that the Ca(2+)-interaction site is probably located within the highly acidic portion (11-30) of the propeptide. Ca2+ binding to proANF induces its aggregation that can be verified by sedimentation. ProANF aggregation is Ca2+ dependent, being optimal at 10 mM, partially pH dependent, and greatly increased by high concentrations of proANF. However, because of its relatively low-binding affinity, Ca2+ can be substituted by other divalent cations such as Sr2+, Ba2+, or Mg2+. The high level of Ca2+ in atrial secretory granules and the aggregation of proANF in the presence of Ca2+ suggest a possible involvement of these physicochemical properties in the condensed state of the matrix of secretory granules. Indeed, detergent solubilization of the membrane of the secretory granules in presence of Ca2+ resulted only in a partial dissolution of the dense core matrix. We therefore postulate that, in the Golgi complex, proANF and Ca2+ associate to form a condensed aggregate that helps package secretory material into secretory vesicles. PMID:1533094

  4. The electromagnetic spike solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nungesser, Ernesto; Lim, Woei Chet

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to use the existing relation between polarized electromagnetic Gowdy spacetimes and vacuum Gowdy spacetimes to find explicit solutions for electromagnetic spikes by a procedure which has been developed by one of the authors for gravitational spikes. We present new inhomogeneous solutions which we call the EME and MEM electromagnetic spike solutions.

  5. ProBNP1-108 Processing and Degradation in Human Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, Brenda K.; Sandberg, Sharon M.; Heublein, Denise M.; Sangaralingham, S. Jeson; Burnett, John C.; Ichiki, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Background We have reported that proBNP1-108 circulates and is processed to mature BNP1-32 in human blood. Building on these findings, we sought to determine whether proBNP1-108 processed forms in normal circulation are biologically active and stimulate cGMP, and whether proBNP1-108 processing and activity are altered in human heart failure (HF) compared to normal. Since BNP1-32 is deficient while proBNP1-108 is abundant in HF, we hypothesize that proBNP1-108 processing and degradation are impaired in HF patients ex vivo. Methods and Results We measured circulating molecular forms including BNP1-32, proBNP1-108, and NT-proBNP and all were significantly higher in HF patients compared to normals. Fresh serum samples from normals or HF patients were incubated with or without exogenous non-glycosylated proBNP1-108 tagged with 6 C-terminal Histidines to facilitate peptide isolation. His-tag ProBNP1-108 was efficiently processed into BNP1-32/3-32 at 5 min in normal serum, persisted for 15 min, then disappeared. Delayed processing of proBNP1-108 was observed in HF samples and the degradation pattern differed depending on LV function. The 5 min processed forms from both normal and HF serums were active and generated cGMP via GC-A receptors, however the 180 min samples were not active. The proBNP1-108 processing enzyme corin and BNP degrading enzyme DPPIV were reduced in HF versus normal, perhaps contributing to differential BNP metabolism in HF. Conclusions Exogenous proBNP1-108 is processed into active BNP1-32 and ultimately degraded in normal circulation. The processing and degradation of BNP molecular forms was altered but complete in HF which may contribute the pathophysiology of HF. PMID:25339504

  6. ProSEDS Telemetry System Utilization of GPS Position Data for Transmitter Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Paul; Sims, Herb

    2000-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center will launch the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment in late 2000. ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system and will utilize a conducting wire tether to generate limited spacecraft power. This paper will provide an overview of the ProSEDS mission and will discuss the design, development and test of the spacecraft telemetry system which utilizes a custom designed GPS subsystem to determine spacecraft position relative to ground station location and to control transmitter on/off cycling based on spacecraft state vector and ground station visibility.

  7. Using the Vernier LabPro as an Ohmmeter and Multimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Word, Robert C.; Bodegom, Erik; Honohan, Ian

    2004-10-01

    Vernier Software and Technology's LabPro® data acquisition device has the cursorily documented2 ability to measure resistance. Here we describe how to build a resistance probe and how to configure Vernier's Logger Pro® data acquisition software to automatically detect and understand the probe. We discuss the range, accuracy, and limitations of this ohm-meter. When this probe is used with voltage and current probes already available from Vernier, the LabPro may be used as a digital multimeter.

  8. Novel Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators in Inflammation Are Leads for Resolution Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Serhan, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    Preface Advances on mechanisms in resolution of acute inflammation uncovered a new genus of pro-resolving lipid mediators that include separate families of molecules: lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins, collectively coined specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM). Synthetic SPM possess potent bioactions when administered in vivo. In animal experiments, SPM evoke anti-inflammatory and novel pro-resolving mechanisms as well as enhance microbial clearance. While identified in inflammation-resolution, SPM are conserved structures with functions also in host defense, pain, organ protection and tissue remodeling. This review covers SPM mechanisms and new omega-3 essential fatty acid pathways that open a path for physiologic functions. PMID:24899309

  9. An N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP) 'aggregation-prone' segment involved in isolated atrial amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Louros, Nikolaos N; Iconomidou, Vassiliki A; Tsiolaki, Paraskevi L; Chrysina, Evangelia D; Baltatzis, Georgios E; Patsouris, Efstratios S; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2014-01-01

    Isolated atrial amyloidosis (IAA) is a common localized form of amyloid deposition within the atria of the aging heart. The main constituents of amyloid fibrils are atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the N-terminal part of its precursor form (NT-proANP). An 'aggregation-prone' heptapeptide ((114)KLRALLT(120)) was located within the NT-proANP sequence. This peptide self-assembles into amyloid-like fibrils in vitro, as electron microscopy, X-ray fiber diffraction, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy and Congo red staining studies reveal. Consequently, remedies/drugs designed to inhibit the aggregation tendency of this 'aggregation-prone' segment of NT-proANP may assist in prevention/treatment of IAA, congestive heart failure (CHF) or atrial fibrillation (AF). PMID:24220659

  10. ICPEAC XX: A Retro- and Pro-Spective Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.

    1997-12-31

    There is something magical about ``round birthdays.`` They make one stop and think about where he is, how he got there, and where he is going. The same is apparently true of conferences, especially those like ICPEAC which represent the periodic coming together of a broad range of scientists in a reasonably well-defined discipline. This Vienna conference is the 20th in the ICPEAC series, and a retro- and pro-spective analysis seems appropriate. At the first ICPEAC in New York (1958), there were about 50 participants. In Vienna (1997), there were more than 800 participants. How do we account for this growth? ICPEAC is one of the most democratic conferences of its size. For example, input from a general committee of 50 representing the many geographic and sub- disciplinary areas gives continuous refreshment of ideas for the invited program. And, as in any democracy, there is a constant state of turmoil and self doubt. After all, atomic collisions is a ``mature`` field, and was a ``mature`` field at the time of the first ICPEAC in 1958, 50 what can one expect in new developments? This self doubt is best expressed in the comment of Ben Bederson (the ``Father of ICPEAC``) following the second in Boulder, Colorado, in 1961: ``This conference is the second in a series of informal meetings organized by a group of workers in the general field of electronic and atomic collisions. The first such meeting was held at New York University in 1958, and we will probably continue to meet at irregular intervals in the future....`` As part of my ``keynote`` talk at the New York ICPEAC XVI in 1989, I gave a brief history of the conference which we can build on to round things off for our twentieth.

  11. Plasma Soluble (Pro)renin Receptor Reflects Renal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Naro; Isobe, Shinsuke; Ishigaki, Sayaka; Suzuki, Takahisa; Iwakura, Takamasa; Ono, Masafumi; Fujikura, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Takayuki; Otsuka, Atsushi; Ishii, Yasuo; Furuse, Hiroshi; Kato, Akihiko; Ozono, Seiichiro; Yasuda, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Background (Pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, was identified as a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). (P)RR is cleaved by furin, and soluble (P)RR [s(P)RR] is secreted into the extracellular space. Previous reports have indicated that plasma s(P)RR levels show a significant positive relationship with urinary protein levels, which represent renal damage. However, it is not fully known whether plasma s(P)RR reflects renal damage. Methods We recruited 25 patients who were admitted to our hospital to undergo heminephrectomy. Plasma s(P)RR levels were examined from blood samples drawn before nephrectomy. The extent of renal damage was evaluated by the levels of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemical analysis of intrarenal (P)RR and cell surface markers (cluster of differentiation [CD]3, CD19, and CD68) was performed on samples taken from the removed kidney. Moreover, double staining of (P)RR and cell surface markers was also performed. Results There were significant positive relationships between plasma s(P)RR and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in all the patients and those not receiving RAS blocker therapy. Significant positive relationships were found between plasma s(P)RR levels and the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis after adjustment for age, sex, body weight, blood pressure, and plasma angiotensin II, in all the patients and those not receiving RAS blockers. Moreover, (P)RR expression was elevated in infiltrated mononuclear cells but not connecting tubules or collecting ducts and vessels. Infiltrated cells positive for (P)RR consisted of CD3 and CD68 but not CD19. Conclusions These data suggest that plasma s(P)RR levels may reflect (P)RR expression levels in infiltrated mononuclear cells, which can be a surrogate marker of renal damage. PMID:27228084

  12. Macrophage Pro-Resolving Mediators—the When and Where

    PubMed Central

    DALLI, JESMOND; SERHAN, CHARLES

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages and neutrophils orchestrate acute inflammation and host defense as well as the resolution phase and return to homeostasis. In this article, we review the contribution of macrophages to local lipid mediator (LM) levels and the regulation of macrophage LM profiles by neutrophils and neutrophil-derived microparticles. We carried out LM metabololipidomics profiling distinct phagocytes: neutrophils (PMN), apoptotic PMN, and macrophages. Efferocytosis increased specialized proresolving mediator (SPM) biosynthesis, including Resolvin D1 (RvD1), RvD2, and RvE2, which were further elevated by PMN microparticles. Using deuterium-labeled precursors (d8-arachidonic acid, d5-eicosapentaenoic acid, and d5-docosahexaenoic acid), apoptotic PMN and microparticles contributed to SPM biosynthesis during efferocytosis. Assessment of macrophage LM profiles in M2 macrophages demonstrated higher SPM levels in this macrophage subset, including maresin 1 (MaR1), and lower amounts of leukotriene B4 and prostaglandins than M1. Apoptotic PMN uptake by both macrophage subtypes led to modulation of their LM profiles. Leukotriene B4 was down-regulated in M2 whereas SPM including lipoxin A4 were increased. Conversely, uptake of apoptotic PMN by M2 macrophages reduced (~ 25%) overall LM. MaR1 displays potent tissue regenerative and anti-nociceptive actions in addition to its pro-resolving and anti-inflammatory actions. In addition the MaR1 biosynthetic intermediate 13S,14S-epoxy-Maresin is also bioactive, inhibiting LTB4 biosynthesis and switching macrophage phenotypes from M1 to M2. Together, these results establish LM signature profiles of human phagocytes and related subpopulations. They demonstrate microparticle regulation of specific macrophage endogenous LM during defined stages of acute inflammation and their dynamic changes in human primary phagocytes. PMID:27337457

  13. Power increase at first ProCure21 project.

    PubMed

    2007-06-01

    Throughout the UK, hospitals are embarking on new-build programmes to meet the needs of growing communities. However, site acreage and accommodation are often already under pressure, as Dale Power Solutions found when it was commissioned to increase standby power availability at the Friarage Hospital in Northallerton, North Yorkshire. PMID:17724955

  14. Expression of biologically active procorticotrophin-releasing hormone (proCRH) in stably transfected CHO-K1 cells: characterization of nuclear proCRH.

    PubMed

    Morrison, E; Tomasec, P; Linton, E A; Lowry, P J; Lowenstein, P R; Castro, M G

    1995-04-01

    Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a 41 amino acid neuropeptide which is cleaved at a pair of dibasic amino acids from a larger precursor molecule (pre-proCRH) by the action of endopeptidases. In cells possessing a regulated secretory pathway, sorting of proneuropeptides and prohormones occurs within the trans-Golgi network, where they are finally packaged into secretory vesicles to be released in response to an external stimulus. Such cells also possess a constitutive secretory pathway, and neuropeptides are also translocated into this subcellular compartment. We have recently established stably transfected CHO-K1 cells expressing the rat pre-proCRH cDNA, and shown that proCRH was localized within the secretory pathway and the nucleus of transfected cells. Both the cytoplasmic and nuclear species of IR-CRH displayed an apparent molecular weight approximately 19 kDa, consistent with the size of the uncleaved CRH precursor molecule. In this paper, we further characterized the bitopological, i.e. nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of proCRH within transfected CHO-K1 cells. Immunoreactive nuclear CRH was not extractable using detergents (Triton X-100 and CHAPS), 10 mM salt washes or RNase digestion but could be abolished by digestion with DNase I. These results therefore suggest that nuclear proCRH is in close association with DNA/chromatin. Treatment of transfected cells with inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis for up to 24 h had no effect upon immunoreactive nuclear CRH, indicating that it is very stable with a long half life. Brefeldin A treatment had no effect upon the nuclear translocation of newly synthesized proCRH, suggesting that late stages of the secretory pathway (i.e. post rough endoplasmic reticulum compartments) of the transfected cells do not play a role in proCRH nuclear transport. We also demonstrate that proCRH synthesized within stably transfected CHO-K1 cells is capable of stimulating ACTH release from primary cultures of anterior

  15. The limits to pride: A test of the pro-anorexia hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Talea; Blanton, Hart

    2016-01-01

    Many social psychological models propose that positive self-conceptions promote self-esteem. An extreme version of this hypothesis is advanced in "pro-anorexia" communities: identifying with anorexia, in conjunction with disordered eating, can lead to higher self-esteem. The current study empirically tested this hypothesis. Results challenge the pro-anorexia hypothesis. Although those with higher levels of pro-anorexia identification trended towards higher self-esteem with increased disordered eating, this did not overcome the strong negative main effect of pro-anorexia identification. These data suggest a more effective strategy for promoting self-esteem is to encourage rejection of disordered eating and an anorexic identity. PMID:25658245

  16. Exaggerated NT-proBNP production in patients with hematologic malignancies: a case series.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Aileen; Guglin, Maya

    2012-01-01

    ©2011 Wiley Periodicals Inc. Extremely elevated serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in cancer patients is a poorly understood phenomenon. The authors report three cases of patients with hematologic malignancies and serial N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) measurements with values in the range of tens to hundred thousands pg/mL. Through matching NT-proBNP results with clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic and radiologic data, the authors found that these patients demonstrated exaggerated responses to fluid overload. Patients with hematologic malignancies may have higher than expected values of NT-proBNP in response to hypervolemic states. The authors hypothesize that this may be related to possible infiltration of the myocardium by substances produced in the setting of these diseases or due to proteins interfering with the assay.Congest Heart Fail. PMID:23167814

  17. Pro-fragrant ionic liquids with stable hemiacetal motifs: water-triggered release of fragrances.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, H Q Nimal; Nockemann, Peter; Seddon, Kenneth R

    2015-03-14

    Stable liquid and solid salts in the form of elusive hemiacetals, appended with fragrant alcohols, have been synthesised as pro-fragrances, and the controlled release of these fragrances, triggered by water, is demonstrated. PMID:25679944

  18. Management of Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Alerts in Clinical Trials: A Cross Sectional Survey.

    PubMed Central

    Kyte, Derek; Ives, Jonathan; Draper, Heather; Calvert, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessment of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) provides valuable information to inform patient-centered care, but may also reveal ‘PRO alerts’: psychological distress or physical symptoms that may require an immediate response. Ad-hoc management of PRO alerts in clinical trials may result in suboptimal patient care or potentially bias trial results. To gain greater understanding of current practice in PRO alert management we conducted a national survey of personnel involved in clinical trials with a PRO endpoint. Methods and Findings We conducted a national cross-sectional survey of 767 UK-based research nurses, data managers/coordinators, trial managers and chief/principal investigators involved in clinical trials using PROs. Respondents were self-selected volunteers from a non-randomised sample of eligible individuals recruited via 55 UK Clinical Research Collaboration Registered Clinical Trials Units and 19 Comprehensive Local Research Networks. Questions centred on the proportion of trial personnel encountering alerts, how staff responded to PRO alerts and whether current guidance was deemed sufficient to support research personnel. We undertook descriptive analyses of the quantitative data and directed thematic analysis of free-text comments. 20% of research nurses did not view completed PRO questionnaires and were not in a position to discover alerts, 39–50% of the remaining respondent group participants reported encountering PRO alerts. Of these, 83% of research nurses and 54% of data managers/trial coordinators reported taking action to assist the trial participant, but less than half were able to record the intervention in the trial documentation. Research personnel reported current PRO alert guidance/training was insufficient. Conclusions Research personnel are intermittently exposed to PRO alerts. Some intervene to help trial participants, but are not able to record this intervention in the trial documentation, risking co

  19. Relating reverse and forward solute diffusion to membrane fouling in osmotically driven membrane processes.

    PubMed

    She, Qianhong; Jin, Xue; Li, Qinghua; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2012-05-01

    Osmotically driven membrane processes, such as forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), are attracting increasing interest in research and applications in environment and energy related fields. In this study, we systematically investigated the alginate fouling on an osmotic membrane during FO operation using four types of draw solutions (NaCl, MgCl(2), CaCl(2) and Ca(NO(3))(2)) to elucidate the relationships between reverse (from draw solution to feed solution) and forward (from feed solution to draw solution) solute diffusion, and membrane fouling. At the same water flux level (achieved by adjusting the draw solution concentration), the greatest reverse solute diffusion rate was observed for NaCl draw solution, followed by Ca(NO(3))(2) draw solution, and then CaCl(2) draw solution and MgCl(2) draw solution, the order of which was consistent with that of their solute permeability coefficients. Moreover, the reverse solute diffusion of draw solute (especially divalent cation) can change the feed solution chemistry and thus enhance membrane fouling by alginate, the extent of which is related to the rate of the reverse draw solute diffusion and its ability to interact with the foulant. The extent of fouling for the four types of draw solution followed an order of Ca(NO(3))(2) > CaCl(2) > MgCl(2) > NaCl. On the other hand, the rate of forward diffusion of feed solute (e.g., Na(+)) was in turn promoted under severe membrane fouling in active layer facing draw solution orientation, which may be attributed to the fouling enhanced concentration polarization (pore clogging enhanced ICP and cake enhanced concentration polarization). The enhanced concentration polarization can lead to additional water flux reduction and is an important mechanism governing the water flux behavior during FO membrane fouling. Findings have significant implications for the draw solution selection and membrane fouling control in osmotically driven membrane processes. PMID:22386887

  20. NT-proBNP Is Predictive of the Weaning from Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Seok; Bae, Eunjin; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yon Su; Han, Jin Suk; Joo, Kwon Wook

    2016-01-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is a dialysis modality used to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury. Nevertheless, there is limited information on the predictors of weaning from CRRT. The present study examined whether the N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) can predict weaning from CRRT, based on the fact that this cardiac neurohormone is known to predict kidney dysfunction. Plasma NT-proBNP and several other baseline parameters at the time of starting CRRT were retrieved from 160 patients. The odds ratio (OR) for weaning from the CRRT within two weeks was calculated using a multivariate stepwise logistic model. We calculated the cut off value predicting weaning outcome by using the receiver operating characteristic curve and corresponding Youden index, and then divided patients into high (n = 74) and low (n = 86) NT-proBNP groups. The high NT-proBNP group had a lower weaning rate than the low NT-proBNP group [adjusted OR, 0.36 (0.170-0.756); P = 0.007]. We additionally found other predictors of weaning, such as sex, serum creatinine, urine output, and the score from the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, but all of these were not better than NT-proBNP in the predictability of weaning outcome. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, a well-known biomarker of acute kidney injury and originating from kidney, was not related with the CRRT weaning, which indicated the usefulness of NT-proBNP in the cases of CRRT despite originating from heart. The present study addresses the potential of NT-proBNP as an independent predictor of weaning from CRRT. PMID:27109635

  1. Features of Pro-σK Important for Cleavage by SpoIVFB, an Intramembrane Metalloprotease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kangming; Xiang, Xianling; Gu, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Intramembrane proteases regulate diverse processes by cleaving substrates within a transmembrane segment or near the membrane surface. Bacillus subtilis SpoIVFB is an intramembrane metalloprotease that cleaves Pro-σK during sporulation. To elucidate features of Pro-σK important for cleavage by SpoIVFB, coexpression of the two proteins in Escherichia coli was used along with cell fractionation. In the absence of SpoIVFB, a portion of the Pro-σK was peripherally membrane associated. This portion was not observed in the presence of SpoIVFB, suggesting that it serves as the substrate. Deletion of Pro-σK residues 2 to 8, addition of residues at its N terminus, or certain single-residue substitutions near the cleavage site impaired cleavage. Certain multiresidue substitutions near the cleavage site changed the position of cleavage, revealing preferences for a small residue preceding the cleavage site N-terminally (i.e., at the P1 position) and a hydrophobic residue at the second position following the cleavage site C-terminally (i.e., P2′). These features appear to be conserved among Pro-σK orthologs. SpoIVFB did not tolerate an aromatic residue at P1 or P2′ of Pro-σK. A Lys residue at P3′ of Pro-σK could not be replaced with Ala unless a Lys was provided farther C-terminally (e.g., at P9′). α-Helix-destabilizing residues near the cleavage site were not crucial for SpoIVFB to cleave Pro-σK. The preferences and tolerances of SpoIVFB are somewhat different from those of other intramembrane metalloproteases, perhaps reflecting differences in the interaction of the substrate with the membrane and the enzyme. PMID:23585539

  2. Circulating pro-surfactant protein B as a risk biomarker for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Ayumu; Hanash, Samir; Rundle, Andrew; McKeague, Ian; Tang, Deliang; Darakjy, Salima; Gaziano, J. Michael; Sesso, Howard D.; Perera, Frederica

    2013-01-01

    Background Our prior studies of lung cancer suggested that a novel biomarker (pro-surfactant protein B or pro-SFTPB) might serve as a predictive marker for this disease. We aimed to determine the potential utility of pro-SFTPB for distinguishing lung cancer cases from matched controls as a risk marker. Methods Study subjects were drawn from the longitudinal Physicians’ Health Study (PHS). Cases (n = 188) included individuals who were cancer-free at study enrollment but developed lung cancer during follow-up. Controls (n = 337) were subjects who did not develop lung cancer. Cases and controls were matched on date of study enrollment, age at enrollment, and smoking status and amount. Baseline plasma samples drawn at enrollment were analyzed for pro-SFTPB using ELISA to detect differences in protein expression levels for cases and controls. Results Pro-SFTPB-non-detectable status was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (OR = 5.88, 95% CI 1.24, 27.48). Among subjects with detectable levels of the protein, increasing plasma concentration of pro-SFTPB was associated with higher lung cancer risk (OR = 1.41 per unit increase in log pro-SFTPB, 95% CI 1.08, 1.84). Conclusion These results suggest a non-linear, J-shaped association between plasma pro-SFTPB levels and lung cancer risk, with both non-detectable and higher levels of the marker being associated with lung cancer. Impact These results show promise of a risk marker that could contribute to predicting risk for lung cancer development and to narrowing the high risk population for low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. PMID:23897585

  3. Momentary Effects of Exposure to Pro-Smoking Media on College Students’ Future Smoking Risk

    PubMed Central

    Shadel, William G.; Martino, Steven C.; Setodji, Claude; Scharf, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study used ecological momentary assessment to examine acute changes in college students’ future smoking risk as a function of their exposure to pro-smoking media (e.g., smoking in movies, paid advertising, point-of-sale promotions). Methods A sample of 135 college students (ever and never smokers) carried handheld computers for 21 days, recording their exposures to all forms of pro-smoking media during the assessment period. They also responded to three investigator-initiated control prompts during each day of the assessment period (i.e., programmed to occur randomly). After each pro-media smoking exposure and after each random control prompt they answered questions that measured their risk of future smoking. Responses between pro-smoking media encounters were compared to responses made during random control prompts. Results Compliance with the study protocol was high, with participants responding to over 83% of all random prompts. Participants recorded nearly three encounters with pro-smoking media each week. Results of linear mixed modeling indicated that all participants had higher future smoking risk following exposure to pro-smoking media compared with control prompts (p < 0.05); this pattern of response did not differ between ever and never smokers (p = 0.769). Additional modeling of the variances around participants’ risk of future smoking revealed that the response of never smokers to pro-smoking media was significantly more variable than the response of ever smokers. Conclusions Exposure to pro-smoking media is associated with acute changes in future smoking risk, and never smokers and ever smokers respond differently to these exposures. PMID:22353027

  4. Pro-Nets versus No-Nets: Differences in Urban Older Adults' Predilections for Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresci, M. Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Morrell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Enthusiasm for information technology (IT) is growing among older adults. Many older adults enjoy IT and the Internet (Pro-Nets), but others have no desire to use it (No-Nets). This study found that Pro-Nets and No-Nets were different on a number of variables that might predict IT use. No-Nets were older, had less education and income, were…

  5. Artist's Concept of Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS). ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The initial flight of ProSEDS is scheduled to fly aboard an Air Force Delta II rocket in summer of 2002. In orbit, ProSEDS will deploy from a Delta II second stage. It will be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire tether cornected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  6. SMOC Binds to Pro-EGF, but Does Not Induce Erk Phosphorylation via the EGFR

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J. Terrig; Chhuy-Hy, Lina; Andrykovich, Kristin R.; Moos, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to identify the cell-associated protein(s) through which SMOC (Secreted Modular Calcium binding protein) induces mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) became a candidate. However, although in 32D/EGFR cells, the EGFR was phosphorylated in the presence of a commercially available human SMOC-1 (hSMOC-1), only minimal phosphorylation was observed in the presence of Xenopus SMOC-1 (XSMOC-1) or human SMOC-2. Analysis of the commercial hSMOC-1 product demonstrated the presence of pro-EGF as an impurity. When the pro-EGF was removed, only minimal EGFR activation was observed, indicating that SMOC does not signal primarily through EGFR and its receptor remains unidentified. Investigation of SMOC/pro-EGF binding affinity revealed a strong interaction that does not require the C-terminal extracellular calcium-binding (EC) domain of SMOC or the EGF domain of pro-EGF. SMOC does not appear to potentiate or inhibit MAPK signaling in response to pro-EGF, but the interaction could provide a mechanism for retaining soluble pro-EGF at the cell surface. PMID:27101391

  7. Glucagon-like peptide-1: effect on pro-atrial natriuretic peptide in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Skov, Jeppe; Holst, Jens Juul; Gøtze, Jens Peter; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2014-01-01

    The antihypertensive actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor agonists have been linked to the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in mice. Whether a GLP1-ANP axis exists in humans is unknown. In this study, we examined 12 healthy young males in a randomized, controlled, double-blinded, single-day, cross-over study to evaluate the effects of a 2-h native GLP1 infusion. Plasma proANP concentrations were measured by an automated mid-region-directed proANP immunoassay and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) on Roche Modular E170. Urine was collected for measurements of sodium excretion. Although GLP1 infusion increased the urinary sodium excretion markedly, there were no significant changes in either proANP or proBNP concentrations. When GLP1 infusion was stopped, sodium excretion declined rapidly. As proANP concentration reflects ANP secretion, our data could not confirm the existence of a GLP1-ANP axis in humans. Especially, the natriuretic effects of GLP1 seem unlikely to be mediated exclusively via ANP. PMID:24327600

  8. Identification of a Linear Epitope in Sortilin That Partakes in Pro-neurotrophin Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Serup Andersen, Olga; Boisguerin, Prisca; Glerup, Simon; Skeldal, Sune; Volkmer, Rudolf; Willnow, Thomas E.; Nykjær, Anders; Andersen, Olav M.

    2010-01-01

    Sortilin acts as a cell surface receptor for pro-neurotrophins (pro-NT) that upon complex formation with the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is able to signal neuronal cell death. Here we screened a sortilin peptide library comprising 16-mer overlapping sequences for binding of the pro-domains of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. We find that a linear surface-exposed sequence, 163RIFRSSDFAKNF174, constitutes an important pro-NT binding epitope in sortilin. Systematic mutational analysis revealed residues Arg163, Phe165, Arg166, and Phe170 to be critical for the interaction. Expression of a sortilin mutant in which these four amino acids were substituted by alanines disrupted pro-NT binding without affecting receptor heterodimerization with p75NTR or binding of ligands that selectively engages the centrally located tunnel in the β-propeller of sortilin. We furthermore demonstrate that a peptide comprising the ligand-binding epitope can prevent pro-NT-induced apoptosis in RN22 schwannoma cells. PMID:20159974

  9. The Lone Inventor: Low Success Rates and Common Errors Associated with Pro-Se Patent Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gaudry, Kate S.

    2012-01-01

    A pro-se patent applicant is an inventor who chooses to represent himself while pursuing (“prosecuting”) a patent application. To the author's knowledge, this paper is the first empirical study addressing how applications filed by pro-se inventors fare compared to applications in which inventors were represented by patent attorneys or agents. The prosecution history of 500 patent applications filed at the United States Patent and Trademark Office were analyzed: inventors were represented by a patent professional for 250 of the applications (“represented applications”) but not in the other 250 (“pro-se applications”). 76% of the pro-se applications became abandoned (not issuing as a patent), as compared to 35% of the represented applications. Further, among applications that issued as patents, pro-se patents' claims appear to be narrower and therefore of less value than claims in the represented patent set. Case-specific data suggests that a substantial portion of pro-se applicants unintentionally abandon their applications, terminate the examination process relatively early, and/or fail to take advantage of interview opportunities that may resolve issues stalling allowance of the application. PMID:22470439

  10. Benefit-incidence analysis: are government health expenditures more pro-rich than we think?

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2012-04-01

    Authors of benefit-incidence analyses (BIA) have to impute subsidies using assumptions about the relationship between unobserved subsidies 'captured' by the household and what can be observed at the household and aggregate levels. This paper shows that one of the two assumptions used in BIA studies to date will necessarily produce a more pro-rich (or less pro-poor) picture of government health spending than the other, depending on whether utilization is more pro-rich or pro-poor than fees paid to public providers. Both assumptions have their disadvantages, and the paper suggests a couple of alternatives that explicitly link fees paid to the costliness of care. It shows that in the most likely case where fees are distributed in a more pro-rich fashion than utilization, the two traditional assumptions will produce less pro-rich distributions of subsidies than the two new alternatives. Also considered are three complications that arise in BIA studies, including factoring in social health insurance. The paper's theoretical results are illustrated with an empirical BIA for Vietnam. PMID:21394820

  11. p75NTR, but not proNGF, is upregulated following status epilepticus in mice.

    PubMed

    VonDran, Melissa W; LaFrancois, John; Padow, Victoria A; Friedman, Wilma J; Scharfman, Helen E; Milner, Teresa A; Hempstead, Barbara L

    2014-01-01

    ProNGF and p75(NTR) are upregulated and induce cell death following status epilepticus (SE) in rats. However, less is known about the proneurotrophin response to SE in mice, a more genetically tractable species where mechanisms can be more readily dissected. We evaluated the temporal- and cell-specific induction of the proneurotrophins and their receptors, including p75(NTR), sortilin, and sorCS2, following mild SE induced with kainic acid (KA) or severe SE induced by pilocarpine. We found that mature NGF, p75(NTR), and proBDNF were upregulated following SE, while proNGF was not altered, indicating potential mechanistic differences between rats and mice. ProBDNF was localized to mossy fibers and microglia following SE. p75(NTR) was transiently induced primarily in axons and axon terminals following SE, as well as in neuron and astrocyte cell bodies. ProBDNF and p75(NTR) increased independently of cell death and their localization was different depending on the severity of SE. We also examined the expression of proneurotrophin co-receptors, sortilin and sorCS2. Following severe SE, sorCS2, but not sortilin, was elevated in neurons and astrocytes. These data indicate that important differences exist between rat and mouse in the proneurotrophin response following SE. Moreover, the proBDNF and p75(NTR) increase after seizures in the absence of significant cell death suggests that proneurotrophin signaling may play other roles following SE. PMID:25290065

  12. The InterPro Database, 2003 brings increased coverage and new features.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K; Bairoch, Amos; Barrell, Daniel; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Biswas, Margaret; Bradley, Paul; Bork, Peer; Bucher, Phillip; Copley, Richard R; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Das, Ujjwal; Durbin, Richard; Falquet, Laurent; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Haft, Daniel; Harte, Nicola; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Lonsdale, David; Silventoinen, Ville; Orchard, Sandra E; Pagni, Marco; Peyruc, David; Ponting, Chris P; Selengut, Jeremy D; Servant, Florence; Sigrist, Christian J A; Vaughan, Robert; Zdobnov, Evgueni M

    2003-01-01

    InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created in 1999 as a means of amalgamating the major protein signature databases into one comprehensive resource. PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART and TIGRFAMs have been manually integrated and curated and are available in InterPro for text- and sequence-based searching. The results are provided in a single format that rationalises the results that would be obtained by searching the member databases individually. The latest release of InterPro contains 5629 entries describing 4280 families, 1239 domains, 95 repeats and 15 post-translational modifications. Currently, the combined signatures in InterPro cover more than 74% of all proteins in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL, an increase of nearly 15% since the inception of InterPro. New features of the database include improved searching capabilities and enhanced graphical user interfaces for visualisation of the data. The database is available via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro) and anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro). PMID:12520011

  13. The InterPro Database, 2003 brings increased coverage and new features

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K.; Bairoch, Amos; Barrell, Daniel; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Biswas, Margaret; Bradley, Paul; Bork, Peer; Bucher, Phillip; Copley, Richard R.; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Das, Ujjwal; Durbin, Richard; Falquet, Laurent; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Haft, Daniel; Harte, Nicola; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Lonsdale, David; Silventoinen, Ville; Orchard, Sandra E.; Pagni, Marco; Peyruc, David; Ponting, Chris P.; Selengut, Jeremy D.; Servant, Florence; Sigrist, Christian J. A.; Vaughan, Robert; Zdobnov, Evgueni M.

    2003-01-01

    InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created in 1999 as a means of amalgamating the major protein signature databases into one comprehensive resource. PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART and TIGRFAMs have been manually integrated and curated and are available in InterPro for text- and sequence-based searching. The results are provided in a single format that rationalises the results that would be obtained by searching the member databases individually. The latest release of InterPro contains 5629 entries describing 4280 families, 1239 domains, 95 repeats and 15 post-translational modifications. Currently, the combined signatures in InterPro cover more than 74% of all proteins in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL, an increase of nearly 15% since the inception of InterPro. New features of the database include improved searching capabilities and enhanced graphical user interfaces for visualisation of the data. The database is available via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro) and anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro). PMID:12520011

  14. Potent and specific peptide inhibitors of human pro-survival protein Bcl-xL

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Sanjib; Ryan, Jeremy; Chen, T. Scott; Kougentakis, Christos; Letai, Anthony; Keating, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    The Bcl-2 family of proteins plays a critical role regulating apoptosis, and pro-survival Bcl-2 family members are important therapeutic targets due to their overexpression in different cancers. Pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins antagonize pro-survival Bcl-2 protein functions by binding directly to them, and a sub-class of BH3-only proteins termed sensitizers can initiate apoptosis via this mechanism in response to diverse signals. The five pro-survival proteins Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Bfl-1 differ in their binding preferences, with Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w sharing similar interaction profiles for many natural sensitizers and small molecules. Peptides that bind selectively to just one or a subset of family members have shown utility in assays that diagnose apoptotic blockades in cancer cells and as reagents for dissecting apoptotic mechanism. Combining computational design, combinatorial library screening and rational mutagenesis, we designed a series of BH3 sensitizer peptides that bind Bcl-xL with sub-nanomolar affinity and selectivity up to 1000-fold over each of the four competing pro-survival proteins. We demonstrate the efficacy of our designed BH3 peptides in assays that differentiate between cancer cells that are dependent on different pro-survival proteins. PMID:25451027

  15. Solution deposition assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  16. Sugar-sweetened beverages coverage in the British media: an analysis of public health advocacy versus pro-industry messaging

    PubMed Central

    Elliott-Green, Alex; Hyseni, Lirije; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Capewell, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the extent of media-based public health advocacy versus pro-industry messaging regarding sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Design We conducted a systematic analysis to identify and examine all articles regarding SSBs published in all mainstream British print newspapers and their online news websites from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. We initially conducted a brief literature search to develop appropriate search terms and categorisations for grouping and analysing the articles. Articles were then coded according to the publishing newspaper, article type, topic, prominence and slant (pro-SSB or anti-SSB). A contextual analysis was undertaken to examine key messages in the articles. Results We identified 374 articles published during 2014. The majority of articles (81%) suggested that SSBs are unhealthy. Messaging from experts, campaign groups and health organisations was fairly consistent about the detrimental effects of SSB on health. However, relatively few articles assessed any approaches or solutions to potentially combat the problems associated with SSBs. Only one-quarter (24%) suggested any policy change. Meanwhile, articles concerning the food industry produced consistent messages emphasising consumer choice and individual responsibility for making choices regarding SSB consumption, and promoting and advertising their products. The food industry thus often managed to avoid association with the negative press that their products were receiving. Conclusions SSBs were frequently published in mainstream British print newspapers and their online news websites during 2014. Public health media advocacy was prominent throughout, with a growing consensus that sugary drinks are bad for people's health. However, the challenge for public health will be to mobilise supportive public opinion to help implement effective regulatory policies. Only then will our population's excess consumption of SSBs come under control. PMID:27436666

  17. Mechanism of the pro-inflammatory activity of sympathomimetic amines in thermic oedema of the rat paw.

    PubMed

    Green, K L

    1974-02-01

    1 Thermic oedema induced by heating rat paws at 46.5 degrees C was potentiated by local injection of adrenaline, noradrenaline or high doses of isoprenaline. The pro-inflammatory effect of sympathomimetic amines was antagonized by phenoxybenzamine or phentolamine but not by propranolol.2 The subcutaneous space of heated rat paws was perfused with Tyrode solution and the perfusate collected and assayed for bradykinin, bradykininogen, kinin-forming activity and kininase activity. When adrenaline (0.5 mug/ml) was included in the perfusion fluid, kininase activity of the perfusate was increased by 76% and free bradykinin reduced by 46%.3 Increased vascular permeability induced by injection of bradykinin or kallikrein was reduced by adrenaline or noradrenaline, but isoprenaline had no significant effect.4 Pretreatment with soya bean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) or heparin did not antagonize the pro-inflammatory effect of adrenaline or thermic oedema per se.5 Potentiation of thermic oedema similar to that induced by sympathomimetic amines was obtained by injecting paws with vasopressin prior to heating, or by applying a ligature to stop blood flow to the paw for the first 15 min of heating.6 Thermistor probes inserted beneath the paw skin showed that sympathomimetic amines increased the internal temperature of heated paws. This was significant, as small changes in temperature had a marked effect on the development of thermic oedema.7 It is suggested that sympathomimetic amines potentiate thermic oedema of rat paws heated at 46.5 degrees C by reducing blood flow to the paw, thereby causing a greater rise in paw temperature and consequently greater injury. PMID:4371900

  18. Activation of a synapse weakening pathway by human Val66 but not Met66 pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF)

    PubMed Central

    Kailainathan, Sumangali; Piers, Thomas M.; Yi, Jee Hyun; Choi, Seongmin; Fahey, Mark S.; Borger, Eva; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.; O’Neill, Laurie; Lever, Michael; Whitcomb, Daniel J.; Cho, Kwangwook; Allen, Shelley J.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a fundamental functional difference between the two main polymorphisms of the pro-form of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF), providing an explanation as to why these forms have such different age-related neurological outcomes. Healthy young carriers of the Met66 form (present in ∼30% Caucasians) have reduced hippocampal volume and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory function, yet the same polymorphic population shows enhanced cognitive recovery after traumatic brain injury, delayed cognitive dysfunction during aging, and lower risk of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) compared to those with the more common Val66 polymorphism. To examine the differences between the protein polymorphisms in structure, kinetics of binding to proBDNF receptors and in vitro function, we generated purified cleavage-resistant human variants. Intriguingly, we found no statistical differences in those characteristics. As anticipated, exogenous application of proBDNF Val66 to rat hippocampal slices dysregulated synaptic plasticity, inhibiting long-term potentiation (LTP) and facilitating long-term depression (LTD). We subsequently observed that this occurred via the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activation pathway. However, surprisingly, we found that Met66 had no such effects on either LTP or LTD. These novel findings suggest that, unlike Val66, the Met66 variant does not facilitate synapse weakening signaling, perhaps accounting for its protective effects with aging. PMID:26687096

  19. Topical diclofenac solution.

    PubMed

    Moen, Marit D

    2009-01-01

    Topical diclofenac solution (Pennsaid) is a liquid formulation containing the NSAID diclofenac sodium (1.5% w/w). The solution base contains 45% w/w dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to enhance the absorption of diclofenac through the skin. Topical diclofenac solution is applied directly to the knee for treatment of symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. In well designed 4- to 12-week trials in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee, topical diclofenac solution (40 drops four times daily) was significantly more effective than placebo or vehicle control (carrier solution without diclofenac) for improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain and physical function, and improving patient global assessment (PGA) and/or patient overall health assessment scores from baseline to the final assessments. Topical diclofenac solution (50 drops three times daily) was as effective as oral diclofenac 150 mg/day for improving WOMAC pain and physical function and PGA scores in a 12-week double-blind study in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Topical diclofenac solution was generally well tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event experienced by topical diclofenac solution recipients was dry skin at the application site. Gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal laboratory parameters were less common with topical diclofenac solution than with oral diclofenac. PMID:19943711

  20. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  1. Wormholes in Wyman's solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formiga, J. B.; Almeida, T. S.

    2014-10-01

    The most general solution of the Einstein field equations coupled with a massless scalar field is known as Wyman's solution. This solution is also present in the Brans-Dicke theory and, due to its importance, it has been studied in detail by many authors. However, this solutions has not been studied from the perspective of a possible wormhole. In this paper, we perform a detailed analysis of this issue. It turns out that there is a wormhole. Although we prove that the so-called throat cannot be traversed by human beings, it can be traversed by particles and bodies that can last long enough.

  2. Autochelation in dipeptide boronic acids: pH-dependent structures and equilibria of Asp-boroPro and His-boroPro by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sudmeier, James L; Zhou, Yuhong; Lai, Jack H; Maw, Hlaing H; Wu, Wengen; Bachovchin, William W

    2005-06-01

    Many dipeptide boronic acids of the type H(2)N-X-Y-B(OH)(2) are potent protease inhibitors. Interest in these compounds as drugs for cancer, diabetes, and other diseases is growing. Because of the great mutual B-N affinity, cyclization through the N- and B-termini, forming six-membered rings, is a common occurrence at neutral pH and higher where the terminal amino group is unprotonated. Here we report the discovery that when X, the N-terminal amino acid, contains a side chain having a functional group with boron affinity and suitable geometry, additional cyclization in the form of bidentate intramolecular chelation or "autochelation" may occur, predominantly at mid pH. NMR studies of two compounds, l-Aspartyl-l-boroProline (Asp-boroPro) and l-Histidyl-l-boroProline (His-boroPro), are reported here from pH 0.5 to pH 12 by (1)H, (15)N, (13)C, and (11)B NMR. Both of these previously unreported autochelates contain two fused six-membered rings, cis-proline, chiral boron, and -NH(2)(+) protons in slow exchange with water, even at 25 degrees C and pH as high as 4. Using microscopic acid-base equilibrium constants, we show that at high pH (>8 for Asp-boroPro and >10 for His-boroPro) hydroxide competes with the side chains for boron, reducing the chelates from bidentate to monodentate. At low pH (<0.5), proton competition for N-terminal nitrogens causes both compounds to become noncyclic. High chelate stability causes a reduction of the apparent acidic dissociation constant of the protonated N-terminal amino group greater than eight units. In the His-boroPro autochelate, imidazolate anion is produced at the extraordinarily low pH value of approximately 9. PMID:15926838

  3. The NQO1 Pro187Ser polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility: evidence from an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) plays a central role in catalyzing the two-electron reduction of quinoid compounds into hydroquinones. The NQO1 Pro187Ser polymorphism was found to correlate with a lower enzymatic activity, which may result in increased incidence of carcinomas including breast cancer. Previous studies investigating the association between NQO1 Pro187Ser polymorphism and breast cancer risk showed inconsistent results. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the possible association. Methods All studies published from January 1966 to February 2014 on the association between NQO1 Pro187Ser polymorphism and breast cancer risk were identified by searching electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM). The association between NQO1 Pro187Ser polymorphism and breast cancer risk was assessed by odds ratios (ORs) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Ten studies with 2,773 cases and 4,076 controls were finally included in the meta-analysis. We did not observe a significant association between NQO1 Pro187Ser polymorphism and breast cancer risk when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant increased breast cancer risk was found in Caucasians (Ser/Pro vs. Pro/Pro: OR = 1.145, 95% CI = 1.008–1.301, P = 0.038; Ser/Ser + Ser/Pro vs. Pro/Pro: OR = 1.177, 95% CI = 1.041–1.331, P = 0.009). When stratified by source of control, significant increased breast cancer risk was found in population-based studies (Ser/Pro vs. Pro/Pro: OR = 1.180, 95% CI = 1.035–1.344, P = 0.013; Ser/Ser + Ser/Pro vs. Pro/Pro: OR = 1.191, 95% CI = 1.050–1.350, P = 0.007). However, in subgroup analyses according to menopausal status, quality score, and HWE in controls, no any significant association was detected. Conclusions Our meta-analysis provides the evidence that the NQO1

  4. Cromolyn Sodium Nasal Solution

    MedlinePlus

    Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...

  5. Quantifying the Persistence of Pro-Smoking Media Effects on College Students’ Smoking Risk

    PubMed Central

    Setodji, Claude M.; Martino, Steven C.; Scharf, Deborah M.; Shadel, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To quantify the persistence of pro-smoking media exposure effects on college students’ intentions to smoke and smoking refusal self-efficacy. Method A total of 134 college students (ages 18–24) were enrolled in an ecological momentary assessment study in which they carried handheld data collection devices for three weeks and reported their exposures to pro-smoking media as they occurred in the real world. Smoking intentions and smoking refusal self-efficacy were assessed after each exposure to pro-smoking media and at random prompts during each day of the three-week assessment period. A generalized additive model was used to determine how long the effect of an exposure to pro-smoking media persisted. Results The effect of pro-smoking media exposures persisted for 7 days. After exposure, smoking intentions immediately increased (0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.26, 0.87]) and then steadily decreased (−0.12; 95% CI: [−0.19, −0.05]) each day for 7 days, while smoking refusal self-efficacy immediately decreased (−0.42; 95% CI: [−0.75, −0.10]) and then steadily increased (0.09; 95% CI: [0.02, 0.16]) each day for 7 days. Daily changes occurring after 7 days were not statistically significant, suggesting that smoking intentions and refusal self-efficacy had stabilized and were no longer affected by pro-smoking media exposure. Conclusions Exposures to pro-smoking media may have strong implications for emerging young adults smoking risk as the impact of an individual exposure appears to persist for at least a week. PMID:24268361

  6. Cognitive defects are reversible in inducible mice expressing pro-aggregant full-length human Tau

    PubMed Central

    Sydow, Astrid; Hofmann, Anne; Wu, Dan; Messing, Lars; Balschun, Detlef; D'Hooge, Rudi; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibrillary lesions of abnormal Tau are hallmarks of Alzheimer´s disease and frontotemporal dementias. Our regulatable (Tet-OFF) mouse models of tauopathy express variants of human full-length Tau in the forebrain (CaMKIIα promoter) either with mutation ΔK280 (pro-aggregant) or ΔK280/I277P/I308P (anti-aggregant). Co-expression of luciferase enables in vivo quantification of gene expression by bioluminescence imaging. Pro-aggregant mice develop synapse loss and Tau pathology including missorting, phosphorylation and early pretangle formation, whereas anti-aggregant mice do not. We correlated hippocampal Tau pathology with learning/memory performance and synaptic plasticity. Pro-aggregant mice at 16 months of gene expression exhibited severe cognitive deficits in Morris water-maze and in passive-avoidance paradigms, whereas anti-aggregant mice were comparable to controls. Cognitive impairment of pro-aggregant mice was accompanied by loss of hippocampal LTP in CA1 and CA3 areas and by a reduction of synaptic proteins and dendritic spines, although no neuronal loss was observed. Remarkably, memory and LTP recovered when pro-aggregant Tau was switched-OFF for ∼4 months, Tau phosphorylation and missorting were reversed, and synapses recovered. Moreover soluble and insoluble pro-aggregant hTau40 disappeared while insoluble mouse Tau was still present. This study links early Tau pathology without neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal death to cognitive decline and synaptic dysfunction. It demonstrates that Tau-induced impairments are reversible after switching-OFF pro-aggregant Tau. Therefore our mouse model may mimic an early phase of AD when the hippocampus does not yet suffer from irreversible cell death but cognitive deficits are already striking. It offers potential to evaluate drugs with regard to learning and memory performance. PMID:22532069

  7. NT-proBNP Changes in Patients with Ascites during Large Volume Paracentesis

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Rob; Harnett, Paul; Chan, Henry; Vootakuru, Nikitha; Khan, Montaha; Phillips, Shani; George, Jacob; van der Poorten, David

    2013-01-01

    Background. N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a hormone involved in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Changes in serum NT-proBNP during large volume paracentesis (LVP) in patients with ascites have never before been examined. Aims. To determine if significant changes in serum NT-proBNP occur in patients undergoing LVP and the associated clinical correlates in patients with cirrhosis. Method. A total of 45 patients with ascites were prospectively recruited. Serum NT-proBNP, biochemistry, and haemodynamics were determined at baseline and at key time points during and after paracentesis. Results. 34 patients were analysed; 19 had ascites due to cirrhosis and 15 from malignancy. In those with cirrhosis, NT-proBNP decreased by 77.3 pg/mL at 2 L of drainage and 94.3 pg/mL at the end of paracentesis, compared with an increase of 10.5 pg/mL and 77.2 pg/mL in cancer patients at the same time points (P = 0.05 and P = 0.03). Only congestive cardiac failure (CCF) was an independent predictor of significant NT-proBNP changes at the end of drainage in cirrhotic patients (P < 0.01). There were no significant changes in haemodynamics or renal biochemistry for either group. Conclusion. Significant reductions in serum NT-proBNP during LVP occur in patients with cirrhosis but not malignancy, and only comorbid CCF appeared to predict such changes.

  8. Phenotypic expression of the p.Leu1077Pro CFTR mutation in Sicilian cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The p.Leu1077Pro CFTR mutation was firstly described in 1992 as a mild allele that confers a pancreatic sufficiency phenotype but the information collected in database CFTR2 lead to consider p.Leu1077Pro as a severe CF mutation. Although it is typical of Southern Italy, p.Leu1077Pro is not included in the mutation panel firstly tested in individuals originated from this area. The aim of our study was to describe prevalence and clinical features in patients bearing this mutation followed in our Cystic Fibrosis Centre to demonstrate that this mutation should be included in the mutation panel firstly tested in patients originated from Southern Italy. Findings We reviewed data from a cohort of 111 cystic fibrosis patients. 4 patients who were heterozygous for the p.Leu1077Pro mutation were included in the study. In our Cystic Fibrosis Centre, the prevalence of p.Leu1077Pro is 3.6% among all mutations. All patients had positive sweat test values, pancreatic insufficiency and pulmonary exacerbations. One out of four patients even showed both FEV1 and FVC values significantly below the normal range, the presence of bronchiectasis and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization. Conclusions We found that the p.Leu1077Pro CFTR mutation is associated with a classic CF phenotype confirming what is reported in CFTR2 database. The relatively high prevalence of p.Leu1077Pro associated with the severe clinical course of the disease in patients bearing this mutation is of interest for genetic counselling purposes, as it should be part of mutation panel to be tested in individuals originated from Southern Italy. PMID:24225052

  9. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts express pro-inflammatory factors in human breast and ovarian tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Erez, Neta; Glanz, Sarah; Raz, Yael; Avivi, Camilla; Barshack, Iris

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express pro-inflammatory factors. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors correlates with tumor invasiveness. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors is associated with NF-κb activation in CAFs. -- Abstract: Inflammation has been established in recent years as a hallmark of cancer. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion. We previously demonstrated that CAFs also mediate tumor-enhancing inflammation in a mouse model of skin carcinoma. Breast and ovarian carcinomas are amongst the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in women and cancer-related inflammation is linked with both these tumor types. However, the role of CAFs in mediating inflammation in these malignancies remains obscure. Here we show that CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express high levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-6, COX-2 and CXCL1, previously identified to be part of a CAF pro-inflammatory gene signature. Moreover, we show that both pro-inflammatory signaling by CAFs and leukocyte infiltration of tumors are enhanced in invasive ductal carcinoma as compared with ductal carcinoma in situ. The pro-inflammatory genes expressed by CAFs are known NF-κB targets and we show that NF-κB is up-regulated in breast and ovarian CAFs. Our data imply that CAFs mediate tumor-promoting inflammation in human breast and ovarian tumors and thus may be an attractive target for stromal-directed therapeutics.

  10. Age-adjusted plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Heul; Ko, Kyung Ok; Lim, Jae Woo; Yoon, Jung Min; Lee, Gyung Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent reports showed that plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could be a useful biomarker of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) unresponsiveness and coronary artery lesion (CAL) development in Kawasaki disease (KD). The levels of these peptides are critically influenced by age; hence, the normal range and upper limits for infants and children are different. We performed an age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level to validate its clinical use in the diagnosis of KD. Methods The data of 131 patients with KD were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into 2 groups—group I (high NT-proBNP group) and group II (normal NT-proBNP group)—comprising patients with NT-proBNP concentrations higher and lower than the 95th percentile of the reference value, respectively. We compared the laboratory data, responsiveness to IVIG, and the risk of CAL in both groups. Results Group I showed significantly higher white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, C-reactive protein level, aspartate aminotransferase level, and troponin-I level than group II (P<0.05). The risk of CAL was also significantly higher in group I (odds ratio, 5.78; P=0.012). IVIG unresponsiveness in group I was three times that in group II (odds ratio, 3.35; P= 0.005). Conclusion Age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level could be helpful in predicting IVIG unresponsiveness and risk of CAL development in patients with KD. PMID:27588030

  11. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, J.C.

    1984-03-13

    A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  12. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  13. The refined 1.9 A crystal structure of human alpha-thrombin: interaction with D-Phe-Pro-Arg chloromethylketone and significance of the Tyr-Pro-Pro-Trp insertion segment.

    PubMed Central

    Bode, W; Mayr, I; Baumann, U; Huber, R; Stone, S R; Hofsteenge, J

    1989-01-01

    A stoichiometric complex formed between human alpha-thrombin and D-Phe-Pro-Arg chloromethylketone was crystallized in an orthorhombic crystal form. Orientation and position of a starting model derived from homologous modelling were determined by Patterson search methods. The thrombin model was completed in a cyclic modelling-crystallographic refinement procedure to a final R-value of 0.171 for X-ray data to 1.92 A. The structure is in full agreement with published cDNA sequence data. The A-chain, ordered only in its central part, is positioned along the molecular surface opposite to the active site. The B-chain exhibits the characteristic polypeptide fold of trypsin-like proteinases. Several extended insertions form, however, large protuberances; most important for interaction with macromolecular substrates is the characteristic thrombin loop around Tyr60A-Pro60B-Pro60C-Trp60D (chymotrypsinogen numbering) and the enlarged loop around the unique Trp148. The former considerably restricts the active site cleft and seems likely to be responsible for poor binding of most natural proteinase inhibitors to thrombin. The exceptional specificity of D-Phe-Pro-Arg chloromethylketone can be explained by a hydrophobic cage formed by Ile174, Trp215, Leu99, His57, Tyr60A and Trp60D. The narrow active site cleft, with a more polar base and hydrophobic rims, extends towards the arginine-rich surface of loop Lys70-Glu80 that probably represents part of the anionic binding region for hirudin and fibrinogen. Images PMID:2583108

  14. A comparative evaluation of working length with digital radiography and third generation apex locator (ProPex) in the presence of various intracanal irrigants: An in vivo/ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Khursheed, Irfana; Bansal, Ruchika; Bansal, Tajinder; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Yadav, Madhulika; Reddy, K. Jetender

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accurate working length determination is a pre-requisite for a successful endodontic treatment. Even with improved systems of working length measurement, different readings may be recorded in different electrolytes present in the canal. The purpose of this in vivo/ex vivo comparative study was to determine the accuracy in measuring the working length of root canal using Direct Digital Radiographic Method (Radiovisiography or RVG) and ProPex electronic apex locator in the presence of three different irrigating solutions: 0.9% normal saline, 2% chlorhexidine, 3% NaOCl solutions. Materials and Methods: Forty single-rooted human teeth scheduled for extraction with mature apices were selected for this study. Measurements were performed by using RVG and ProPex in the presence of irrigating solutions. After extraction of the teeth, light microscope was used to confirm visually the relationship of the tip of the endodontic file to the apical foramen, and actual lengths were determined by reducing 0.5 mm from this length. The statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA test and Tukey-HSD post hoc procedure. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: No significant difference was found between overall mean electronic working length and digital radiographic length; however, prediction error (P < 0.05) was significant with respect to different irrigants. Among the irrigating solutions, chlorhexidine gluconate had the smallest distance to the actual lengths, whereas NaOCl had the greatest. Conclusion: Electronic apex locator ProPex yielded best result in the presence of chlorhexidine, whereas the largest error was demonstrated with NaOCl indicating that higher electroconductive irrigating solutions affect the precision of multi-frequency apex locators. PMID:24688561

  15. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.

    1980-03-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. This material is useful for engineers, scientists, technologists, and designers of all disciplines, particularly those who design thermal systems or estimate temperatures and heat transfer rates in structures. More than 500 problem solutions and relevant data are tabulated for easy retrieval. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. A case number is assigned to each problem for cross-referencing, and also for future reference. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. At least one source reference is given so that the user can review the methods used to derive the solutions. Problem solutions are given in the form of equations, graphs, and tables of data, all of which are also identified by problem case numbers and source references.

  16. Heterosides--compatible solutes occurring in prokaryotic and eukaryotic phototrophs.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, M; Pade, N

    2015-09-01

    The acclimation to osmotic and/or salt stress conditions induces an integrated response at different cellular levels. One acclimation strategy relies on the massive accumulation of low molecular mass compounds, so-called compatible solutes, to balance osmotic gradients and to directly protect critical macromolecules. Heterosides are compounds composed of a sugar and a polyol moiety that represent one chemical class of compatible solutes with interesting features. Well-investigated examples are glucosylglycerol, which is found in many cyanobacteria, and galactosylglycerols (floridoside and isofloridoside), which are accumulated by eukaryotic algae under salt stress conditions. Here, we review knowledge on physiology, biochemistry and genetics of heteroside accumulation in pro- and eukaryotic photoautotrophic organisms. PMID:25996303

  17. Harnessing the Power of SharePoint for Library Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Lisa A.; Tims, Randy S.

    2010-01-01

    Back in 2008, the authors were looking for a tool that would replace the library's Outlook folders and much of what the library had stored on shared network drives. So they were mainly looking for something that would hold their documents, allow them to better organize those documents, offer an easy way to search for those documents, and be easy…

  18. ProGlycProt: a repository of experimentally characterized prokaryotic glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Aadil H.; Mondal, Homchoru; Chauhan, Jagat S.; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.; Methi, Amrish; Rao, Alka

    2012-01-01

    ProGlycProt (http://www.proglycprot.org/) is an open access, manually curated, comprehensive repository of bacterial and archaeal glycoproteins with at least one experimentally validated glycosite (glycosylated residue). To facilitate maximum information at one point, the database is arranged under two sections: (i) ProCGP—the main data section consisting of 95 entries with experimentally characterized glycosites and (ii) ProUGP—a supplementary data section containing 245 entries with experimentally identified glycosylation but uncharacterized glycosites. Every entry in the database is fully cross-referenced and enriched with available published information about source organism, coding gene, protein, glycosites, glycosylation type, attached glycan, associated oligosaccharyl/glycosyl transferases (OSTs/GTs), supporting references, and applicable additional information. Interestingly, ProGlycProt contains as many as 174 entries for which information is unavailable or the characterized glycosites are unannotated in Swiss-Prot release 2011_07. The website supports a dedicated structure gallery of homology models and crystal structures of characterized glycoproteins in addition to two new tools developed in view of emerging information about prokaryotic sequons (conserved sequences of amino acids around glycosites) that are never or rarely seen in eukaryotic glycoproteins. ProGlycProt provides an extensive compilation of experimentally identified glycosites (334) and glycoproteins (340) of prokaryotes that could serve as an information resource for research and technology applications in glycobiology. PMID:22039152

  19. Pro-socially shareable entertainment television programmes: a programming alternative in developing countries?

    PubMed

    Singhal, A; Svenkerud, P J

    1994-12-01

    Over the period 1975-82, the Mexican television network created and aired seven entertainment soap operas promoting educational-development themes like adult literacy, smaller family size norms, and an higher social status for women. These emissions earned high ratings in Mexico and in other Latin American countries where they were subsequently broadcast. Evidence suggests that many of the social objectives of the soaps were met. In light of such success, the authors investigated the potential of pro-socially shareable entertainment television programs in developing countries. These programs use entertaining media formats to carry pro-social messages to a wide, yet culturally-proximate audience group. Entertainment television genres such as melodramatic soap operas offer certain advantages for carrying pro-socially shareable messages to audiences. The possibility of using other television genres and media channels, however, also needs to be seriously considered. Pro-socially shareable entertainment programs do have their limitations and problems, with a certain degree of message dilution invariably accompanying the quest for shareability. Targeting specific problems in specific audience groups is difficult and the identity of a relatively small homogeneous group can be threatened in a larger culturally proximate group. The value-laden nature of pro-social content can also be problematic. PMID:12345805

  20. Pro-oxidant actions of alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Cakatay, Ufuk

    2006-01-01

    There is strong accumulating evidence that a alpha-lipoic acid (LA) supplement is good insurance, and would markedly improve human health. LA is readily absorbed from the diet, transported to cells and reduced to dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA). Of the two compounds, DHLA evidently has greater antioxidant activity. Much research has focused on the antioxidant properties of these compounds. Aside from its antioxidant role, in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that LA and its reduced form DHLA also act as a pro-oxidant properties. Limited number of studies concerning the pro-oxidant potential of LA and DHLA were performed only in recent years. The ability of LA and/or DHLA to function as either anti- or pro-oxidants, at least in part, is determined by the type of oxidant stress and the physiological circumstances. These pro-oxidant actions suggest that LA and DHLA act by multiple mechanisms, many of which are only now being explored. LA has been reported to have a number of potentially beneficial effects in both prevention and treatment of oxygen-related diseases. Selection of appropriate pharmacological doses of LA for use in oxygen-related diseases is critical. On the other hand, much of the discussion in clinical studies has been devoted to the pro-oxidant role of LA. This aspect remains to be elucidated. In further studies, careful evaluation will be necessary for the decision in the biological system whether LA administration is beneficial or harmful. PMID:16165311

  1. Genie Pro: robust image classification using shape, texture, and spectral information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Simon; Edlund, Kim; Esch-Mosher, Diana; Eads, Damian; Harvey, Neal; Brumby, Steven

    2005-06-01

    We present Genie Pro, a new software tool for image analysis produced by the ISIS (Intelligent Search in Images and Signals) group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Like the earlier GENIE tool produced by the same group, Genie Pro is a general purpose adaptive tool that derives automatic pixel classification algorithms for satellite/aerial imagery, from training input provided by a human expert. Genie Pro is a complete rewrite of our earlier work that incorporates many new ideas and concepts. In particular, the new software integrates spectral information; and spatial cues such as texture, local morphology and large-scale shape information; in a much more sophisticated way. In addition, attention has been paid to how the human expert interacts with the software: Genie Pro facilitates highly efficient training through an interactive and iterative "training dialog". Finally, the new software runs on both Linux and Windows platforms, increasing its versatility. We give detailed descriptions of the new techniques and ideas in Genie Pro, and summarize the results of a recent evaluation of the software.

  2. Surgical video recording with a modified GoPro Hero 4 camera

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lily Koo

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical videography can provide analytical self-examination for the surgeon, teaching opportunities for trainees, and allow for surgical case presentations. This study examined if a modified GoPro Hero 4 camera with a 25 mm lens could prove to be a cost-effective method of surgical videography with enough detail for oculoplastic and strabismus surgery. Method The stock lens mount and lens were removed from a GoPro Hero 4 camera, and was refitted with a Peau Productions SuperMount and 25 mm lens. The modified GoPro Hero 4 camera was then fixed to an overhead surgical light. Results Camera settings were set to 1080p video resolution. The 25 mm lens allowed for nine times the magnification as the GoPro stock lens. There was no noticeable video distortion. The entire cost was less than 600 USD. Conclusion The adapted GoPro Hero 4 with a 25 mm lens allows for high-definition, cost-effective, portable video capture of oculoplastic and strabismus surgery. The 25 mm lens allows for detailed videography that can enhance surgical teaching and self-examination. PMID:26834455

  3. Effects of AKAP5 Pro100Leu genotype on working memory for emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Richter, Sylvia; Gorny, Xenia; Machts, Judith; Behnisch, Gusalija; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Herbort, Maike C; Münte, Thomas F; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Schott, Björn H

    2013-01-01

    Recent investigations addressing the role of the synaptic multiadaptor molecule AKAP5 in human emotion and behavior suggest that the AKAP5 Pro100Leu polymorphism (rs2230491) contributes to individual differences in affective control. Carriers of the less common Leu allele show a higher control of anger as indicated by behavioral measures and dACC brain response on emotional distracters when compared to Pro homozygotes. In the current fMRI study we used an emotional working memory task according to the n-back scheme with neutral and negative emotional faces as target stimuli. Pro homozygotes showed a performance advantage at the behavioral level and exhibited enhanced activation of the amygdala and fusiform face area during working memory for emotional faces. On the other hand, Leu carriers exhibited increased activation of the dACC during performance of the 2-back condition. Our results suggest that AKAP5 Pro100Leu effects on emotion processing might be task-dependent with Pro homozygotes showing lower control of emotional interference, but more efficient processing of task-relevant emotional stimuli. PMID:23383244

  4. Effects of AKAP5 Pro100Leu Genotype on Working Memory for Emotional Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Sylvia; Gorny, Xenia; Machts, Judith; Behnisch, Gusalija; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Herbort, Maike C.; Münte, Thomas F.; Seidenbecher, Constanze I.; Schott, Björn H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent investigations addressing the role of the synaptic multiadaptor molecule AKAP5 in human emotion and behavior suggest that the AKAP5 Pro100Leu polymorphism (rs2230491) contributes to individual differences in affective control. Carriers of the less common Leu allele show a higher control of anger as indicated by behavioral measures and dACC brain response on emotional distracters when compared to Pro homozygotes. In the current fMRI study we used an emotional working memory task according to the n-back scheme with neutral and negative emotional faces as target stimuli. Pro homozygotes showed a performance advantage at the behavioral level and exhibited enhanced activation of the amygdala and fusiform face area during working memory for emotional faces. On the other hand, Leu carriers exhibited increased activation of the dACC during performance of the 2-back condition. Our results suggest that AKAP5 Pro100Leu effects on emotion processing might be task-dependent with Pro homozygotes showing lower control of emotional interference, but more efficient processing of task-relevant emotional stimuli. PMID:23383244

  5. What's eating the internet? Content and perceived harm of pro-eating disorder websites.

    PubMed

    Steakley-Freeman, Diana M; Jarvis-Creasey, Zachary L; Wesselmann, Eric D

    2015-12-01

    The internet is a popular tool for information dissemination and community building, serving many purposes from social networking to support seeking. However, there may be a downside to using some online support communities. For individuals with eating disorders (EDs), it is possible that certain online communities may reinforce the negative social aspects that encourage these disorders, rather than positive aspects that would facilitate treatment and recovery. Previous research identified several linguistic themes present on pro-eating disorder websites in an attempt to better understand the web-based conversation in the pro-eating disorder movement. We hypothesized that differences in theme presentation may predict changes in perceived harm. The present study sought to understand the perceived harm, and presentation patterns of pro-eating disorder (Pro-ED) website content. We replicated and extended previous research by having laypersons code these websites' content using previously identified linguistic themes and rate perceived harm. Our data replicate and extend the previous research by finding the same associations between co-occurring themes, and investigating associated perceived harm. We found that themes of Sacrifice, Control, Deceit, and Solidarity were associated with the highest perceived harm scores. In addition, we suggest an initial conceptualization of the "Eating Disorder Lifestyle", and its associations with the themes of Isolation, Success, and Solidarity. This research may provide clinicians with information to better understand the potential influence these sites have on eating disorders. PMID:26363674

  6. Increased Peripheral Blood Pro-Inflammatory/Cytotoxic Lymphocytes in Children with Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, G.; Upham, J. W.; Chang, A. B.; Baines, K. J.; Yerkovich, S. T.; Pizzutto, S. J.; Hodge, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Bronchiectasis (BE) in children is common in some communities including Indigenous children in Australia. Relatively little is known about the nature of systemic inflammation in these children, especially the contribution of specific pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets: T-cells, natural killer (NK) cells and NKT-like cells. We have shown that these cells produce increased cytotoxic (granzyme b and perforin) and inflammatory (IFNγ and TNFα) mediators in several adult chronic lung diseases and hypothesised that similar changes would be evident in children with BE. Methods Intracellular cytotoxic mediators perforin and granzyme b and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in T cell subsets, NKT-like and NK cells from blood and bronchoalveolar samples from 12 children with BE and 10 aged-matched control children using flow cytometry. Results There was a significant increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells and T and NKT-like subsets expressing perforin/granzyme and IFNγ and TNFα in blood in BE compared with controls. There was a further increase in the percentage of pro-inflammatory cytotoxic T cells in Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous children. There was no change in any of these mediators in BAL. Conclusions Childhood bronchiectasis is associated with increased systemic pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Future studies need to examine the extent to which elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytotoxic cells predict future co-morbidities. PMID:26258716

  7. PRO-051, an antisense oligonucleotide for the potential treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Suzan M; Wood, Matthew Ja

    2010-08-01

    PRO-051 (GSK-2402968), being developed by GlaxoSmithKline plc, under license from Leiden University Medical Center and Prosensa Therapeutics BV, is a 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide for the potential treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The PRO-051 oligonucleotide sequence induces skipping of exon 51 of the dystrophin gene by binding to a sequence within the dystrophin pre-mRNA and masking the exon inclusion signals that are used for splicing. Removal of exon 51 from an exon 45 to 50, 47 to 50, 48 to 50, 49 to 50, 50, 52 or 52 to 63 deleted transcript allows restoration of the open reading frame and synthesis of an internally truncated, semi-functional dystrophin protein. By targeting exon 51, approximately 13% of patients with DMD could be treated, the largest proportion of patients that could benefit from targeting a single dystrophin exon. A proof-of-concept clinical trial of PRO-051 in patients with DMD demonstrated that a single intramuscular administration of PRO-051 induced exon skipping within muscle fibers adjacent to the injection site, while biopsies revealed dystrophin expression in treated but not control muscle fibers. At the time of publication, a phase I/IIa trial to evaluate subcutaneous delivery of PRO-051 had been completed, although full results were yet to be published. PMID:20677099

  8. The InterPro database, an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites.

    PubMed

    Apweiler, R; Attwood, T K; Bairoch, A; Bateman, A; Birney, E; Biswas, M; Bucher, P; Cerutti, L; Corpet, F; Croning, M D; Durbin, R; Falquet, L; Fleischmann, W; Gouzy, J; Hermjakob, H; Hulo, N; Jonassen, I; Kahn, D; Kanapin, A; Karavidopoulou, Y; Lopez, R; Marx, B; Mulder, N J; Oinn, T M; Pagni, M; Servant, F; Sigrist, C J; Zdobnov, E M

    2001-01-01

    Signature databases are vital tools for identifying distant relationships in novel sequences and hence for inferring protein function. InterPro is an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, which amalgamates the efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects. Each InterPro entry includes a functional description, annotation, literature references and links back to the relevant member database(s). Release 2.0 of InterPro (October 2000) contains over 3000 entries, representing families, domains, repeats and sites of post-translational modification encoded by a total of 6804 different regular expressions, profiles, fingerprints and Hidden Markov Models. Each InterPro entry lists all the matches against SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL (more than 1,000,000 hits from 462,500 proteins in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL). The database is accessible for text- and sequence-based searches at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/. Questions can be emailed to interhelp@ebi.ac.uk. PMID:11125043

  9. The InterPro database, an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites

    PubMed Central

    Apweiler, R.; Attwood, T. K.; Bairoch, A.; Bateman, A.; Birney, E.; Biswas, M.; Bucher, P.; Cerutti, L.; Corpet, F.; Croning, M. D. R.; Durbin, R.; Falquet, L.; Fleischmann, W.; Gouzy, J.; Hermjakob, H.; Hulo, N.; Jonassen, I.; Kahn, D.; Kanapin, A.; Karavidopoulou, Y.; Lopez, R.; Marx, B.; Mulder, N. J.; Oinn, T. M.; Pagni, M.; Servant, F.; Sigrist, C. J. A.; Zdobnov, E. M.

    2001-01-01

    Signature databases are vital tools for identifying distant relationships in novel sequences and hence for inferring protein function. InterPro is an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, which amalgamates the efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects. Each InterPro entry includes a functional description, annotation, literature references and links back to the relevant member database(s). Release 2.0 of InterPro (October 2000) contains over 3000 entries, representing families, domains, repeats and sites of post-translational modification encoded by a total of 6804 different regular expressions, profiles, fingerprints and Hidden Markov Models. Each InterPro entry lists all the matches against SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL (more than 1 000 000 hits from 462 500 proteins in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL). The database is accessible for text- and sequence-based searches at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/. Questions can be emailed to interhelp@ebi.ac.uk. PMID:11125043

  10. Depot-Based Delivery Systems for Pro-Angiogenic Peptides: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Van Hove, Amy H.; Benoit, Danielle S. W.

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient vascularization currently limits the size and complexity for all tissue engineering approaches. Additionally, increasing or re-initiating blood flow is the first step toward restoration of ischemic tissue homeostasis. However, no FDA-approved pro-angiogenic treatments exist, despite the many pre-clinical approaches that have been developed. The relatively small size of peptides gives advantages over protein-based treatments, specifically with respect to synthesis and stability. While many pro-angiogenic peptides have been identified and shown promising results in vitro and in vivo, the majority of biomaterials developed for pro-angiogenic drug delivery focus on protein delivery. This narrow focus limits pro-angiogenic therapeutics as peptides, similar to proteins, suffer from poor pharmacokinetics in vivo, necessitating the development of controlled release systems. This review discusses pro-angiogenic peptides and the biomaterials delivery systems that have been developed, or that could easily be adapted for peptide delivery, with a particular focus on depot-based delivery systems. PMID:26236708

  11. Effects of pre- and pro-sequence of thaumatin on the secretion by Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Ide, Nobuyuki; Masuda, Tetsuya; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2007-11-23

    Thaumatin is a 22-kDa sweet-tasting protein containing eight disulfide bonds. When thaumatin is expressed in Pichia pastoris using the thaumatin cDNA fused with both the alpha-factor signal sequence and the Kex2 protease cleavage site from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the N-terminal sequence of the secreted thaumatin molecule is not processed correctly. To examine the role of the thaumatin cDNA-encoded N-terminal pre-sequence and C-terminal pro-sequence on the processing of thaumatin and efficiency of thaumatin production in P. pastoris, four expression plasmids with different pre-sequence and pro-sequence were constructed and transformed into P. pastoris. The transformants containing pre-thaumatin gene that has the native plant signal, secreted thaumatin molecules in the medium. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the secreted thaumatin molecule was processed correctly. The production yield of thaumatin was not affected by the C-terminal pro-sequence, and the pro-sequence was not processed in P. pastoris, indicating that pro-sequence is not necessary for thaumatin synthesis. PMID:17897626

  12. proBDNF negatively regulates neuronal remodeling, synaptic transmission, and synaptic plasticity in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianmin; Harte-Hargrove, Lauren C; Siao, Chia-Jen; Marinic, Tina; Clarke, Roshelle; Ma, Qian; Jing, Deqiang; Lafrancois, John J; Bath, Kevin G; Mark, Willie; Ballon, Douglas; Lee, Francis S; Scharfman, Helen E; Hempstead, Barbara L

    2014-05-01

    Experience-dependent plasticity shapes postnatal development of neural circuits, but the mechanisms that refine dendritic arbors, remodel spines, and impair synaptic activity are poorly understood. Mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) via TrkB activation. BDNF is initially translated as proBDNF, which binds p75(NTR). In vitro, recombinant proBDNF modulates neuronal structure and alters hippocampal long-term plasticity, but the actions of endogenously expressed proBDNF are unclear. Therefore, we generated a cleavage-resistant probdnf knockin mouse. Our results demonstrate that proBDNF negatively regulates hippocampal dendritic complexity and spine density through p75(NTR). Hippocampal slices from probdnf mice exhibit depressed synaptic transmission, impaired LTP, and enhanced long-term depression (LTD) in area CA1. These results suggest that proBDNF acts in vivo as a biologically active factor that regulates hippocampal structure, synaptic transmission, and plasticity, effects that are distinct from those of mature BDNF. PMID:24746813

  13. BNP and NT-proBNP as prognostic markers in persons with chronic stable heart failure.

    PubMed

    Oremus, Mark; Don-Wauchope, Andrew; McKelvie, Robert; Santaguida, Pasqualina L; Hill, Stephen; Balion, Cynthia; Booth, Ronald; Brown, Judy A; Ali, Usman; Bustamam, Amy; Sohel, Nazmul; Raina, Parminder

    2014-08-01

    Prognosis permits clinicians to separate persons with heart failure (HF) into subgroups based on likely health outcomes. Treatment is partly guided by these likely outcomes. This systematic review explores whether brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) are independent predictors of prognosis in persons with chronic stable HF. We electronically searched Medline, Embase, AMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL for English-language articles published between 1989 and mid-2012. We utilized trained reviewers and standardized forms to screen articles for inclusion and extracted data from included articles. All included studies were summarized in narrative and tabular form. We used the Hayden criteria to assess the risk of bias. Sixteen BNP publications and 88 NT-proBNP publications were included in the systematic review. BNP was positively associated with all-cause and HF mortality. NT-proBNP was positively associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. BNP and NT-proBNP levels are useful for estimating prognosis in persons with chronic stable HF. Further research is required to establish optimal cutpoints and to assess whether prognostic effects differ by age, sex, or time period. PMID:24986335

  14. SAS-Pro: Simultaneous Residue Assignment and Structure Superposition for Protein Structure Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shweta B.; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V.

    2012-01-01

    Protein structure alignment is the problem of determining an assignment between the amino-acid residues of two given proteins in a way that maximizes a measure of similarity between the two superimposed protein structures. By identifying geometric similarities, structure alignment algorithms provide critical insights into protein functional similarities. Existing structure alignment tools adopt a two-stage approach to structure alignment by decoupling and iterating between the assignment evaluation and structure superposition problems. We introduce a novel approach, SAS-Pro, which addresses the assignment evaluation and structure superposition simultaneously by formulating the alignment problem as a single bilevel optimization problem. The new formulation does not require the sequentiality constraints, thus generalizing the scope of the alignment methodology to include non-sequential protein alignments. We employ derivative-free optimization methodologies for searching for the global optimum of the highly nonlinear and non-differentiable RMSD function encountered in the proposed model. Alignments obtained with SAS-Pro have better RMSD values and larger lengths than those obtained from other alignment tools. For non-sequential alignment problems, SAS-Pro leads to alignments with high degree of similarity with known reference alignments. The source code of SAS-Pro is available for download at http://eudoxus.cheme.cmu.edu/saspro/SAS-Pro.html. PMID:22662161

  15. Chemistry of soil solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Elprince, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers, this book serves as an introduction to the field of soil chemistry and associated fields such as aquatic chemistry, geochemistry, environmental chemistry, oceanography, and public health. The volume includes discussions on the structure of adsorbed water, adsorption of inorganics, solubility, redox, solute transport, chemical modeling, and sampling and monitoring the soil solution. Important papers on these topics together with editor's comments place each of the carefully chosen papers in the proper context. Because the chemistry of soil solutions requires the knowledge of many aspects of science, introductory information is provided for each topic to cover its history of development, present knowledge, and future prospects.

  16. Performance evaluation of trimethylamine-carbon dioxide thermolytic draw solution for engineered osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Boo, C; Khalil, YF; Elimelech, M

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of trimethylamine-carbon dioxide (TMA-CO2) as a potential thermolytic draw solution for engineered osmosis. Water flux and reverse solute flux with TMA-CO2 draw solution were measured in forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) modes using thin-film composite (TFC) and cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membranes. Water flux with the TMA-CO2 draw solution was comparable to that obtained with the more common ammonia-carbon dioxide (NH3-CO2) thermolytic draw solution at similar (1 M) concentration. Using a TFC-FO membrane, the water fluxes produced by 1 M TMA-CO2 and NH3-CO2 draw solutions with a DI water feed were, respectively, 33.4 and 35.6 L m(-2) h(-1) in PRO mode and 14.5 and 152 L m(-2) h(-1) in FO mode. Reverse draw permeation of TMA-CO2 was relatively low compared to NH3-CO2, ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 mol m(-2) h(-1) in all experiments, due to the larger molecular size of TMA. Thermal separation and recovery efficiency for TMA-CO2 was compared to NH3-CO2 by modeling low-temperature vacuum distillation utilizing low-grade heat sources. We also discuss possible challenges in the use TMA-CO2, including potential adverse impact on human health and environments. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Isospinning baby Skyrmion solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike

    2013-12-01

    We perform full two-dimensional (2D) numerical relaxations of isospinning soliton solutions in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken by the 2D analogue of the pion mass term in the Skyrme model. In our calculations we explicitly allow the isospinning solitons to deform and to break the symmetries of the static configurations. We find that stable isospinning baby Skyrme solutions can be constructed numerically for all angular frequencies ω≤min⁡(μ,1), where μ is the mass parameter of the model. Stable, rotationally symmetric baby Skyrmion solutions for higher angular velocities are simply an artefact of the hedgehog approximation. Isospinning multisoliton solutions of topological charge B turn out to be unstable to break up into their B charge-1 constituents at some critical breakup frequency value. Furthermore, we find that for μ sufficiently large the rotational symmetry of charge-2 baby Skyrmions becomes broken at a critical angular frequency ω.

  18. The Conductivity of Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical background and modern explanations for the popular demonstration of showing conductivity of solutions through the insertion of a light-bulb conductivity tester into deionized water and water with salt in it. (PR)

  19. Neurotoxic and neurotrophic roles of proNGF and the receptor sortilin in the adult and ageing nervous system.

    PubMed

    Al-Shawi, Raya; Hafner, Angela; Olsen, Jessica; Olson, Jessica; Chun, Soyon; Raza, Saba; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Lovestone, Simon; Killick, Richard; Simons, Paul; Cowen, Timothy

    2008-04-01

    The precursor form of the nerve growth factor (proNGF), forms a heterotrimeric complex with the receptors p75 and sortilin; this complex has been implicated in neuron cell death. However, it is not known whether proNGF and the receptors p75 and sortilin contribute to age- and disease-related neurodegeneration. Here we show that proNGF induces cell death in subpopulations of basal forebrain and peripheral sympathetic neurons of old, but not of young, adult rodents. In contrast, proNGF appears to induce neurite outgrowth rather than cell death of young adult sympathetic neurons. We have examined the neurotoxic role of proNGF in old age, and find that proNGF protein is elevated during ageing in the projection areas of some populations of vulnerable central and peripheral neurons; caloric restriction, which has known neuroprotective effects, partially prevents these increases. Sortilin was found to play a significant part in the observed patterns of age-related proNGF-mediated neurotoxicity. In particular, survival of aged neurons was rescued by neurotensin, an alternative sortilin ligand that blocks the sortilin-mediated effects of proNGF. Furthermore, sortilin immunoreactivity increases markedly in ageing rodent basal forebrain and sympathetic neurons; in contrast, p75 levels are either unchanged or reduced. From these data we propose that selective age-related neuronal atrophy and neurodegeneration may be mediated by increased sortilin expression in neurons, together with elevated levels of proNGF expression in some targets. PMID:18412630

  20. Pro-eating disorder search patterns: the possible influence of celebrity eating disorder stories in the media.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephen P; Klauninger, Laura; Marcincinova, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Pro eating disorder websites often contain celebrity-focused content (e.g., images) used as thinspiration to engage in unhealthy eating disorder behaviours. The current study was conducted to examine whether news media stories covering eating disorder disclosures of celebrities corresponded with increases in Internet searches for pro eating disorder material. Results indicated that search volumes for pro eating disorder terms spiked in the month immediately following such news coverage but only for particularly high-profile celebrities. Hence, there may be utility in providing recovery-oriented resources within the search results for pro-eating disorder Internet searches and within news stories of this nature. PMID:26941955

  1. Characterization of the effects of C-terminal pro-sequence on self-inactivation of Stereum purpureum endopolygalacturonase I.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Shigeki; Toda, Kensuke; Ogawa, Sayaka; Kubota, Keisuke; Miyairi, Kazuo

    2015-09-01

    Endpolygalacturonase I from Stereum purpureum has been identified as a causative substance for the silver-leaf disease in apples. It possesses a unique pro-sequence in the C-terminal region that lacks endpolygalacturonases from any other origin. In this study, we analyzed and compared enzymatic characteristics between pro-form (pro-endoPG I) and mature form processed by V8 protease (endoPG I) and described the suppression activity of the pro-sequence. Of note, the optimal pH for pro-endoPG I activity shifted to pH 4.0 from pH 4.5-5.0 of endoPG I. The kinetic parameters indicated that the activity inhibition resulted from a pH-independent decrease of substrate affinity and pH-dependent deterioration of velocity by the pro-sequence. Analysis of site-directed mutations within pro-endoPG I showed that its α-helical structure includes two glutamates (E364 and E366) and alanine (A365), and its orientation by prolines (especially P348) in the pro-sequence played a significant role in its suppression activity. As for mutations in the mature domain, a marked reduction of suppression was observed for enzymes with mutations in H150, R220 and K253, indicating that the pro-sequence interacts with the active cleft by a few ionic bonds. PMID:26293910

  2. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  3. Reflectance of aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querry, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The optical properties and optical constants of water and aqueous solutions were studied to develop an accurate tabulation of graphical representations of the optical constants through a broad spectrum. Manuscripts of articles are presented concerning extinction coefficients, relative specular reflectance, and temperature effect on the water spectrum. Graphs of absolute reflectance, phase shifts, index of refraction, and extinction coefficients for water, heavy water and aqueous solutions are included.

  4. Shaping ability of ProTaper NEXT, ProTaper Universal and iRace files in simulated S-shaped canals.

    PubMed

    Hiran-Us, Sirawut; Pimkhaokham, Somsinee; Sawasdichai, Jirapat; Ebihara, Arata; Suda, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of three nickel-titanium endodontic file systems by comparing three parameters: canal deviation, apical foramen position and instrumentation time. A glide path was established in 30 simulated S-shaped canal blocks that were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 10): ProTaper Universal, ProTaper NEXT and iRace. Each group was instrumented per its manufacturer's directions. Pre- and postoperative images were superimposed to determine any canal deviation or change in apical foramen position. The instrumentation times were recorded. The iRace system resulted in the least mean canal deviation. The apical foramen position was least shifted by the iRace system. The iRace system also required the least instrumentation time. The iRace system demonstrated the most favourable shaping ability in all three parameters. PMID:26420685

  5. EnsemPro: an ensemble approach to predicting transcription start sites in human genomic DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Won, Hong-Hee; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Seonwoo; Kim, Jong-Won

    2008-03-01

    Although several computational methods have been developed to identify transcription start sites (TSSs)/promoters, the computational prediction still needs improvement. Due to low performance, the promoter prediction programs can provide misleading results in functional genomic studies. To improve the prediction accuracy, we propose the use of an ensemble approach, EnsemPro (Ensemble Promoter), which combines the prediction results of the existing promoter predictors. We schematically compared the prediction performance of the currently available promoter prediction programs in an identical evaluating environment, and the results served as a guide for choosing the combined predictors. We applied three representative ensemble schemes-the majority voting, the weighted voting, and the Bayesian approach-for the TSS prediction of hundreds of human genomic sequences. EnsemPro identified the TSSs more precisely than other combining methods as well as the currently available individual predictor programs. The source code of EnsemPro is available on request from the authors. PMID:18164178

  6. The Resolution Code of Acute Inflammation: Novel Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators in Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Serhan, Charles N.; Chiang, Nan; Dalli, Jesmond

    2015-01-01

    Studies into the mechanisms in resolution of self-limited inflammation and acute reperfusion injury have uncovered a new genus of pro-resolving lipid mediators coined specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) including lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins that are each temporally produced by resolving-exudates with distinct actions for return to homeostasis. SPM evoke potent anti-inflammatory and novel pro-resolving mechanisms as well as enhance microbial clearance. While born in inflammation-resolution, SPM are conserved structures with functions discovered in microbial defense, pain, organ protection and tissue regeneration, wound healing, cancer, reproduction, and neurobiology-cognition. This review covers these SPM mechanisms and other new omega-3 PUFA pathways that open their path for functions in resolution physiology. PMID:25857211

  7. Development of a standardised pro forma for specialist palliative care multidisciplinary team meetings.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Jennifer; Forman, Margaret Louise

    2012-05-01

    A pro forma of the caseload of the community palliative care clinical nurse specialists in the Central Lancashire Community Specialist Palliative Care Team was devised to provide a brief overview of each patient's plan of care for use in the multidisciplinary team meetings and as a consequence of preparing for the UK Department of Health's peer review process. The pro forma was also designed to be used in everyday clinical practice in Gold Standards Framework meetings in the community. It has been evaluated by the team and found to be helpful for highlighting key issues in clinical practice, such as symptoms, psychological and emotional needs, and Preferred Priorities of Care. Over the past 2 years, it has also complemented the organisation's drive to become 'paperless'. This article looks at how the pro forma was developed, how it has evolved over time, and how it works today. Consideration has also been given to its benefits and limitations. PMID:22885862

  8. [An establishment of theoretical structure of PRO questionnaire in treating chronic liver disease by Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Hua; Yuan, Wei-An; Wang, Yi-Xing; Tang, Jie; Cui, Chen; Zeng, Jin; Miao, Ping; Jiang, Jian

    2014-11-01

    By reviewing research contents of patient-reported outcome (PRO) and discussing Chinese medicine (CM) theories related to chronic liver disease (CLD), we have followed international PRO questionnaire development specification, combined CM theories such as uniformed spirit and body, correspondence between human and the universe, yin in property and yang in function of Gan, and seven emotions, and constructed theoretical structure of PRO questionnaire of treating CLD, including four major areas as physiology, psychology, independence, and society and nature. Of them, the physiological field contained six aspects such as blood deficiency, yin deficiency, bleeding, disorder of qi movement, improper transformation and transportation of Pi-Wei, and abnormal biliary excretion. The psychological field contained two aspects: Gan-related emotions and general disease related emotions. The independence field contained two aspects: daily life and study and work. The field of society and nature contains three aspects: social relations, social environment, and natural adaptability. PMID:25566635

  9. Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES) User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a User's Guide for the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES). ProDiMES is a standard benchmarking problem and a set of evaluation metrics to enable the comparison of candidate aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods. This Matlab (The Mathworks, Inc.) based software tool enables users to independently develop and evaluate diagnostic methods. Additionally, a set of blind test case data is also distributed as part of the software. This will enable the side-by-side comparison of diagnostic approaches developed by multiple users. The Users Guide describes the various components of ProDiMES, and provides instructions for the installation and operation of the tool.

  10. Helping a cagemate in need: empathy and pro-social behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bartal, Inbal Ben-Ami; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Whereas human pro-social behavior is often driven by empathic concern for another, it is unclear whether non-primate mammals experience a similar motivational state. To test for empathically motivated pro-social behavior in rodents, a free rat was placed in an arena with a cagemate trapped in a restrainer. Within days, the free rat acted deliberately and quickly to open the restrainer and free the cagemate. Rats did not open an empty or object-containing restrainer. Rats freed cagemates even when rewarding social contact was prevented. When liberating a cagemate was pitted against chocolate contained within a second restrainer, rats opened both restrainers and in most trials, shared the chocolate. Thus, rats behave pro-socially in response to a conspecific’s distress, providing strong evidence for biological roots of empathy. PMID:22158823

  11. Radioimmunoassay of Pro-. gamma. -melanotropin, the amino-terminal fragment of proopiolipomelanocortin. [Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Ekman, R.; Hakanson, R.; Larsson, I.; Sundler, F.; Thorell, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    A RIA has been developed for natural porcine pro-..gamma..-MSH, the 103-amino acid peptide that represents the amino-terminal part of proopiolipomelanocortin. Rabbits were immunized with the purified peptide polymerized with glutaraldehyde. The antiserum is directed against the amino-terminial end of the antigen and does not cross-react with corticotropin, ..beta..-lipotropin, ..beta..-endorphin, ..gamma../sub 3/MSH, or ..gamma../sub 2/MSH. The minimum detectable concentration is 0.15 ng/ml standard pro-..gamma..MSH (15 pg/tube). Pro-..gamma..MSH-like immunoreactivity was detected in plasma and extracts of the hypothalamus and pituitary of pigs. Gel chromatography of these extracts revealed at least three immunoreactive peaks in the anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, wheras two immunoreactive peaks were found in extracts of the hypothalalmus. (Endocrinology 111:578,1982)

  12. Informative value of Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO) in Health Technology Assessment (HTA)

    PubMed Central

    Brettschneider, Christian; Lühmann, Dagmar; Raspe, Heiner

    2011-01-01

    Background “Patient-Reported Outcome” (PRO) is used as an umbrella term for different concepts for measuring subjectively perceived health status e. g. as treatment effects. Their common characteristic is, that the appraisal of the health status is reported by the patient himself. In order to describe the informative value of PRO in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) first an overview of concepts, classifications and methods of measurement is given. The overview is complemented by an empirical analysis of clinical trials and HTA-reports on rheumatoid arthritis and breast cancer in order to report on type, frequency and consequences of PRO used in these documents. Methods For both issues systematic reviews of the literature have been performed. The search for methodological literature covers the publication period from 1990 to 2009, the search for clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis and breast cancer covers the period 2005 to 2009. Both searches were performed in the medical databases of the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI). The search for HTA-reports and methodological papers of HTA-agencies was performed in the CRD-Databases (CRD = Centre for Reviews and Dissemination) and by handsearching the websites of INAHTA member agencies (INAHTA = International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment). For all issues specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined. The methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCT) was assessed by a modified version of the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. For the methodological part information extraction from the literature is structured by the report’s chapters, for the empirical part data extraction sheets were constructed. All information is summarized in a qualitative manner. Results Concerning the methodological issues the literature search retrieved 158 documents (87 documents related to definition or classification, 125 documents related to operationalisation of

  13. The enhanced Software Life Cyle Support Environment (ProSLCSE): Automation for enterprise and process modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milligan, James R.; Dutton, James E.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we have introduced a comprehensive method for enterprise modeling that addresses the three important aspects of how an organization goes about its business. FirstEP includes infrastructure modeling, information modeling, and process modeling notations that are intended to be easy to learn and use. The notations stress the use of straightforward visual languages that are intuitive, syntactically simple, and semantically rich. ProSLCSE will be developed with automated tools and services to facilitate enterprise modeling and process enactment. In the spirit of FirstEP, ProSLCSE tools will also be seductively easy to use. Achieving fully managed, optimized software development and support processes will be long and arduous for most software organizations, and many serious problems will have to be solved along the way. ProSLCSE will provide the ability to document, communicate, and modify existing processes, which is the necessary first step.

  14. Pro-Nuclear Environmentalism: Should We Learn to Stop Worrying and Love Nuclear Energy?

    PubMed

    van Munster, Rens; Sylvest, Casper

    2015-10-01

    In light of repeated failures to reach political agreement on effective policies to combat climate change, pro-nuclear environmentalists have set out to reverse the traditionally anti-nuclear inclinations of environmentalists. This essay examines the ideological commitments and assumptions of pro-nuclear environmentalism by performing a critical, historical analysis of the nuclear-environment nexus through the prism of documentary film. We focus on the work and career of documentary filmmaker Rob Stone, whose most recent production, Pandora's Promise (PP) (2013), has emerged as a central statement of this creed. PP actively forges a new political imaginary that replaces the apocalyptic image of nuclear fallout with that of catastrophic climate change. In terms of its rhetorical and visual strategies, however, PP also reveals that pro-nuclear environmentalist arguments have a long lineage. A close study of such continuities reveals a number of political implications that call for reflection as well as caution. PMID:26593709

  15. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.

    1983-08-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equations, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. Some discussion is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correlations, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. 155 figs., 92 refs., 9 tabs.

  16. Windows NT Workstation Performance Evaluation Based on Pro/E 2000i BENCHMARK

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS,SEAN M.

    2000-08-02

    A performance evaluation of several computers was necessary, so an evaluation program, or benchmark, was run on each computer to determine maximum possible performance. The program was used to test the Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) ability of each computer by monitoring the speed with which several functions were executed. The main objective of the benchmarking program was to record assembly loading times and image regeneration times and then compile a composite score that could be compared with the same tests on other computers. The three computers that were tested were the Compaq AP550, the SGI 230, and the Hewlett-PackardP750C. The Compaq and SGI computers each had a Pentium III 733mhz processor, while the Hewlett-Packard had a Pentium III 750mhz processor. The size and speed of Random Access Memory (RAM) in each computer varied, as did the type of graphics card. Each computer that was tested was using Windows NT 4.0 and Pro/ENGINEER{trademark} 2000i CAD benchmark software provided by Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC). The benchmarking program came with its own assembly, automatically loaded and ran tests on the assembly, then compiled the time each test took to complete. Due to the automation of the tests, any sort of user error affecting test scores was virtually eliminated. After all the tests were completed, scores were then compiled and compared. The Silicon Graphics 230 was by far the overall winner with a composite score of 8.57. The Compaq AP550 was next with a score of 5.19, while the Hewlett-Packard P750C performed dismally, achieving a score of 3.34. Several factors, including motherboard chipset, graphics card, and the size and speed of RAM, were involved in the differing scores of the three machines. Surprisingly the Hewlett-Packard, which had the fastest processor, came back with the lowest score. The above factors most likely contributed to the poor performance of the Hewlett-Packard. Based on the results of the benchmark test

  17. CD200 expression in human cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is induced by pro-osteogenic and pro-inflammatory cues.

    PubMed

    Pontikoglou, Charalampos; Langonné, Alain; Ba, Mamadou Aliou; Varin, Audrey; Rosset, Philippe; Charbord, Pierre; Sensébé, Luc; Deschaseaux, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Similar to other adult tissue stem/progenitor cells, bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM MSCs) exhibit heterogeneity at the phenotypic level and in terms of proliferation and differentiation potential. In this study such a heterogeneity was reflected by the CD200 protein. We thus characterized CD200(pos) cells sorted from whole BM MSC cultures and we investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating CD200 expression. After sorting, measurement of lineage markers showed that the osteoblastic genes RUNX2 and DLX5 were up-regulated in CD200(pos) cells compared to CD200(neg) fraction. At the functional level, CD200(pos) cells were prone to mineralize the extra-cellular matrix in vitro after sole addition of phosphates. In addition, osteogenic cues generated by bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) or BMP7 strongly induced CD200 expression. These data suggest that CD200 expression is related to commitment/differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage. Immunohistochemistry of trephine bone marrow biopsies further corroborates the osteoblastic fate of CD200(pos) cells. However, when dexamethasone was used to direct osteogenic differentiation in vitro, CD200 was consistently down-regulated. As dexamethasone has anti-inflammatory properties, we assessed the effects of different immunological stimuli on CD200 expression. The pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α increased CD200 membrane expression but down-regulated osteoblastic gene expression suggesting an additional regulatory pathway of CD200 expression. Surprisingly, whatever the context, i.e. pro-inflammatory or pro-osteogenic, CD200 expression was down-regulated when nuclear-factor (NF)-κB was inhibited by chemical or adenoviral agents. In conclusion, CD200 expression by cultured BM MSCs can be induced by both osteogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokines through the same pathway: NF-κB. PMID:26773707

  18. Gonadal Identity in the Absence of Pro-Testis Factor SOX9 and Pro-Ovary Factor Beta-Catenin in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Barbara; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2015-08-01

    Sex-reversal cases in humans and genetic models in mice have revealed that the fate of the bipotential gonad hinges upon the balance between pro-testis SOX9 and pro-ovary beta-catenin pathways. Our central query was: if SOX9 and beta-catenin define the gonad's identity, then what do the gonads become when both factors are absent? To answer this question, we developed mouse models that lack either Sox9, beta-catenin, or both in the somatic cells of the fetal gonads and examined the morphological outcomes and transcriptome profiles. In the absence of Sox9 and beta-catenin, both XX and XY gonads progressively lean toward the testis fate, indicating that expression of certain pro-testis genes requires the repression of the beta-catenin pathway, rather than a direct activation by SOX9. We also observed that XY double knockout gonads were more masculinized than their XX counterpart. To identify the genes responsible for the initial events of masculinization and to determine how the genetic context (XX vs. XY) affects this process, we compared the transcriptomes of Sox9/beta-catenin mutant gonads and found that early molecular changes underlying the XY-specific masculinization involve the expression of Sry and 21 SRY direct target genes, such as Sox8 and Cyp26b1. These results imply that when both Sox9 and beta-catenin are absent, Sry is capable of activating other pro-testis genes and drive testis differentiation. Our findings not only provide insight into the mechanism of sex determination, but also identify candidate genes that are potentially involved in disorders of sex development. PMID:26108792

  19. Exposure to pro-tobacco messages and smoking status among Mexican origin youth.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Carey, Felicia R; Spitz, Margaret R

    2014-06-01

    Though several studies have found a positive relationship between exposure to tobacco advertising and/or promotional marketing and smoking status among youth, few have examined these relationships specifically for youth of Mexican origin. The current analysis examines the relationship between perceived exposure to pro-tobacco messages and progression through the smoking continuum from trying to repeated use in a cohort of Mexican origin youth ages 14-19. Data were collected via personal in-home interviews at two time points-in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011 (N = 942). Smoking status, exposure to pro-tobacco messages from five major media sources, demographic variables and established risk factors for adolescent smoking were measured at both waves. Data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi square tests, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression. Adolescent perception of the number of pro-tobacco messages seen in 2008-2009 was unrelated to smoking less than one cigarette assessed in 2010-2011. However, having seen a higher number of pro-tobacco messages was significantly associated with being more likely to have smoked more than one cigarette (OR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.03-1.42) controlling for demographic factors and known psychosocial risk factors of smoking behavior. Results suggest that the more pro-tobacco messages Mexican origin youth are able to recall, the further their progression through the smoking trajectory a year later. These youth are clearly susceptible to pro-tobacco messaging, and our results underscore the need to restrict all forms of messaging that promote tobacco use. PMID:23584711

  20. Root and shoot parts of strawberry: factories for production of functional human pro-insulin.

    PubMed

    Tavizi, Ashkan; Javaran, Mokhtar Jalali; Moieni, Ahmad; Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh, Manijeh; Mohebodini, Mehdi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes, a disease caused by excessive blood sugar, is caused by the lack of insulin. For commercial production, insulin is made in bacteria or yeast by protein recombinant technology. The focus of this research is evaluating another resource and producing of recombinant insulin protein in as strawberry as this plant has high potential in production of pharmaceutical proteins. Strawberry is a suitable bioreactor for production of recombinant proteins especially edible vaccines. In this research, human pro-insulin gene was cloned in pCAMBIA1304 vector under CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator. Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, AGL1, EHA105, EHA101, C58, C58 (pGV2260) and C58 (pGV3101) strains were used for transformation of pro-insulin gene into strawberry cv. Camarosa, Selva, Sarian Hybrid, Pajaro, Paros, Gaviota, Alpine. Additionally, Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599, R1000, A4 and MSU440 strains were utilized for gene transformation into hairy roots. PCR analysis indicated the presence of transformed human pro-insulin gene in the strawberry and hairy roots. Also, its transcription was confirmed using RT-PCR. Furthermore, the analysis of plants, fruits and hairy roots at the level of proteins using dot blot, ELISA, SDS-PAGE and ECL tests re-confirmed the expression of this protein in the transgenic plants as well as hairy roots. Protein purification of human pro-insulin from transgenic tissues was performed using affinity chromatography. Finally, the bioassay of recombinant pro-insulin was performed. The analysis of second generations of transgenic plants (T1) at DNA and protein levels was also performed as a complementary experiment. This study opens a new avenue in molecular farming of human pro-insulin through its mass production in roots and shoots of strawberry. PMID:25403333

  1. MASH Suite Pro: A Comprehensive Software Tool for Top-Down Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenxuan; Guner, Huseyin; Gregorich, Zachery R; Chen, Albert J; Ayaz-Guner, Serife; Peng, Ying; Valeja, Santosh G; Liu, Xiaowen; Ge, Ying

    2016-02-01

    Top-down mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is arguably a disruptive technology for the comprehensive analysis of all proteoforms arising from genetic variation, alternative splicing, and posttranslational modifications (PTMs). However, the complexity of top-down high-resolution mass spectra presents a significant challenge for data analysis. In contrast to the well-developed software packages available for data analysis in bottom-up proteomics, the data analysis tools in top-down proteomics remain underdeveloped. Moreover, despite recent efforts to develop algorithms and tools for the deconvolution of top-down high-resolution mass spectra and the identification of proteins from complex mixtures, a multifunctional software platform, which allows for the identification, quantitation, and characterization of proteoforms with visual validation, is still lacking. Herein, we have developed MASH Suite Pro, a comprehensive software tool for top-down proteomics with multifaceted functionality. MASH Suite Pro is capable of processing high-resolution MS and tandem MS (MS/MS) data using two deconvolution algorithms to optimize protein identification results. In addition, MASH Suite Pro allows for the characterization of PTMs and sequence variations, as well as the relative quantitation of multiple proteoforms in different experimental conditions. The program also provides visualization components for validation and correction of the computational outputs. Furthermore, MASH Suite Pro facilitates data reporting and presentation via direct output of the graphics. Thus, MASH Suite Pro significantly simplifies and speeds up the interpretation of high-resolution top-down proteomics data by integrating tools for protein identification, quantitation, characterization, and visual validation into a customizable and user-friendly interface. We envision that MASH Suite Pro will play an integral role in advancing the burgeoning field of top-down proteomics. PMID:26598644

  2. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in the Pro-Mature Complex Form Enhances Bovine Oocyte Developmental Competence

    PubMed Central

    Sudiman, Jaqueline; Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L.; Ritter, Lesley J.; White, Melissa A.; Mottershead, David G.; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Gilchrist, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental competence of in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes needs to be improved and this can potentially be achieved by adding recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) or growth differentiation factor (GDF9) to IVM. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a purified pro-mature complex form of recombinant human BMP15 versus the commercially available bioactive forms of BMP15 and GDF9 (both isolated mature regions) during IVM on bovine embryo development and metabolic activity. Bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in vitro in control medium or treated with 100 ng/ml pro-mature BMP15, mature BMP15 or mature GDF9 +/− FSH. Metabolic measures of glucose uptake and lactate production from COCs and autofluorescence of NAD(P)H, FAD and GSH were measured in oocytes after IVM. Following in vitro fertilisation and embryo culture, day 8 blastocysts were stained for cell numbers. COCs matured in medium +/− FSH containing pro-mature BMP15 displayed significantly improved blastocyst development (57.7±3.9%, 43.5±4.2%) compared to controls (43.3±2.4%, 28.9±3.7%) and to mature GDF9+FSH (36.1±3.0%). The mature form of BMP15 produced intermediate levels of blastocyst development; not significantly different to control or pro-mature BMP15 levels. Pro-mature BMP15 increased intra-oocyte NAD(P)H, and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were increased by both forms of BMP15 in the absence of FSH. Exogenous BMP15 in its pro-mature form during IVM provides a functional source of oocyte-secreted factors to improve bovine blastocyst development. This form of BMP15 may prove useful for improving cattle and human artificial reproductive technologies. PMID:25058588

  3. Complex Formed between Intramembrane Metalloprotease SpoIVFB and Its Substrate, Pro-σK.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Halder, Sabyasachi; Kerr, Richard A; Parrell, Daniel; Ruotolo, Brandon; Kroos, Lee

    2016-05-01

    Intramembrane metalloproteases (IMMPs) are conserved from bacteria to humans and control many important signaling pathways, but little is known about how IMMPs interact with their substrates. SpoIVFB is an IMMP that cleaves Pro-σ(K) during Bacillus subtilis endospore formation. When catalytically inactive SpoIVFB was coexpressed with C-terminally truncated Pro-σ(K)(1-126) (which can be cleaved by active SpoIVFB) in Escherichia coli, the substrate dramatically improved solubilization of the enzyme from membranes with mild detergents. Both the Pro(1-20) and σ(K)(21-126) parts contributed to improving SpoIVFB solubilization from membranes, but only the σ(K) part was needed to form a stable complex with SpoIVFB in a pulldown assay. The last 10 residues of SpoIVFB were required for improved solubilization from membranes by Pro-σ(K)(1-126) and for normal interaction with the substrate. The inactive SpoIVFB·Pro-σ(K)(1-126)-His6 complex was stable during affinity purification and gel filtration chromatography. Disulfide cross-linking of the purified complex indicated that it resembled the complex formed in vivo Ion mobility-mass spectrometry analysis resulted in an observed mass consistent with a 4:2 SpoIVFB·Pro-σ(K)(1-126)-His6 complex. Stepwise photobleaching of SpoIVFB fused to a fluorescent protein supported the notion that the enzyme is tetrameric during B. subtilis sporulation. The results provide the first evidence that an IMMP acts as a tetramer, give new insights into how SpoIVFB interacts with its substrate, and lay the foundation for further biochemical analysis of the enzyme·substrate complex and future structural studies. PMID:26953342

  4. Exposure to pro-tobacco messages and smoking status among Mexican origin youth

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Carey, Felicia R; Spitz, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Though several studies have found a positive relationship between exposure to tobacco advertising and/or promotional marketing and smoking status among youth, few have examined these relationships specifically for youth of Mexican origin. The current analysis examines the relationship between perceived exposure to pro-tobacco messages and progression through the smoking continuum from trying to repeated use in a cohort of Mexican origin youth ages 14 to 19. Methods Data were collected via personal in-home interviews at two time points – in 2008-09 and 2010-11 (N=942). Smoking status, exposure to pro-tobacco messages from five major media sources, demographic variables and established risk factors for adolescent smoking were measured at both waves. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square tests, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression. Results Adolescent perception of the number of pro-tobacco messages seen in 2008-09 was unrelated to smoking less than one cigarette assessed in 2010-11. However, having seen a higher number of pro-tobacco messages was significantly associated with being more likely to have smoked more than one cigarette (OR=1.21; 95% CI: 1.03-1.42) controlling for demographic factors and known psychosocial risk factors of smoking behavior. Conclusion Results suggest that the more pro-tobacco messages Mexican origin youth are able to recall, the further their progression through the smoking trajectory a year later. These youth are clearly susceptible to pro-tobacco messaging, and our results underscore the need to restrict all forms of messaging that promote tobacco use. PMID:23584711

  5. Parallel evolution of circulating FABP4 and NT-proBNP in heart failure patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) levels are considered to be a link between obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular (CV) diseases. In vitro, FABP4 has exhibited cardiodepressant activity by suppressing cardiomyocyte contraction. We have explored the relationship between FABP4 and the N-terminal fragment of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as a clinical parameter of heart failure (HF). Methods We included 179 stable HF patients who were referred to a specialized HF unit, 108 of whom were prospectively followed for up to 6 months. A group of 163 non-HF patients attending a CV risk unit was used as the non-HF control group for the FABP4 comparisons. Results In the HF patients, FABP4 and NT-proBNP were assayed, along with a clinical and functional assessment of the heart at baseline and after 6 months of specialized monitoring. The FABP4 levels were higher in the patients with HF than in the non-HF high CV risk control group (p<0.001). The FABP4 levels were associated with the NT-proBNP levels in patients with HF (r=0.601, p<0.001), and this association was stronger in the diabetic patients. FABP4 was also associated with heart rate and the results of the 6-minute walk test. After the follow-up period, FABP4 decreased in parallel to NT-proBNP and to the clinical parameters of HF. Conclusions FABP4 is associated with the clinical manifestations and biomarkers of HF. It exhibits a parallel evolution with the circulating levels of NT-proBNP in HF patients. PMID:23642261

  6. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Modulate Bone Marrow-Derived Pro-Inflammatory Monocyte Production and Survival

    PubMed Central

    St-Pierre, Stéphanie; Jiang, Wei; Roy, Patrick; Champigny, Camille; LeBlanc, Éric; Morley, Barbara J.; Hao, Junwei; Simard, Alain R.

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in immune regulation, and that their activation can protect against inflammatory diseases. Previous data have shown that nicotine diminishes the numbers of peripheral monocytes and macrophages, especially those of the pro-inflammatory phenotype. The goal of the present study was to determine if nicotine modulates the production of bone marrow -derived monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we first found that murine bone marrow cells express multiple nAChR subunits, and that the α7 and α9 nAChRs most predominant subtypes found in immune cells and their precursors. Using primary cultures of murine bone marrow cells, we then determined the effect of nicotine on monocyte colony-stimulating factor and interferon gamma (IFNγ)-induced monocyte production. We found that nicotine lowered the overall number of monocytes, and more specifically, inhibited the IFNγ-induced increase in pro-inflammatory monocytes by reducing cell proliferation and viability. These data suggested that nicotine diminishes the ratio of pro-inflammatory versus anti-inflammatory monocyte produced in the bone marrow. We thus confirmed this hypothesis by measuring cytokine expression, where we found that nicotine inhibited the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-12, while stimulating the secretion of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Finally, nicotine also reduced the number of pro-inflammatory monocytes in the bone marrow of LPS-challenged mice. Overall, our data demonstrate that both α7 and α9 nAChRs are involved in the regulation of pro-inflammatory M1 monocyte numbers. PMID:26925951

  7. Sharing knowledge of Planetary Datasets through the Web-Based PRoGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, M. G.; Morley, J. M.; Muller, J. P. M.; Barnes, R. B.; Tao, Y. T.

    2015-10-01

    The large amount of raw and derived data available from various planetary surface missions (e.g. Mars and Moon in our case) has been integrated withco-registered and geocoded orbital image data to provide rover traverses and camera site locations in universal global co-ordinates [1]. This then allows an integrated GIS to use these geocoded products for scientific applications: we aim to create a web interface, PRoGIS, with minimal controls focusing on the usability and visualisation of the data, to allow planetary geologists to share annotated surface observations. These observations in a common context are shared between different tools and software (PRoGIS, Pro3D, 3D point cloud viewer). Our aim is to use only Open Source components that integrate Open Web Services for planetary data to make available an universal platform with a WebGIS interface, as well as a 3D point cloud and a Panorama viewer to explore derived data. On top of these tools we are building capabilities to make and share annotations amongst users. We use Python and Django for the server-side framework and Open Layers 3 for the WebGIS client. For good performance previewing 3D data (point clouds, pictures on the surface and panoramas) we employ ThreeJS, a WebGL Javascript library. Additionally, user and group controls allow scientists to store and share their observations. PRoGIS not only displays data but also launches sophisticated 3D vision reprocessing (PRoVIP) and an immersive 3D analysis environment (PRo3D).

  8. Binding of pro-prion to filamin A: by design or an unfortunate blunder

    PubMed Central

    Li, C; Xin, W; Sy, M-S

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades, cancer research has focused on tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. Genes in other cellular pathways has received less attention. Between 0.5% to 1% of the mammalian genome encodes for proteins that are tethered on the cell membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor. The GPI modification pathway is complex and not completely understood. Prion (PrP), a GPI-anchored protein, is infamous for being the only normal protein that when misfolded can cause and transmit a deadly disease. Though widely expressed and highly conserved, little is known about the functions of PrP. Pancreatic cancer and melanoma cell lines express PrP. However, in these cell lines the PrP exists as a pro-PrP as defined by retaining its GPI anchor peptide signal sequence (GPI-PSS). Unexpectedly, the GPI-PSS of PrP has a filamin A (FLNA) binding motif and binds FLNA. FLNA is a cytolinker protein, and an integrator of cell mechanics and signaling. Binding of pro-PrP to FLNA disrupts the normal FLNA functions. Although normal pancreatic ductal cells lack PrP, about 40% of patients with pancreatic ductal cell adenocarcinoma express PrP in their cancers. These patients have significantly shorter survival time compared with patients whose cancers lack PrP. Pro-PrP is also detected in melanoma in situ but is undetectable in normal melanocyte, and invasive melanoma expresses more pro-PrP. In this review, we will discuss the underlying mechanisms by which binding of pro-PrP to FLNA disrupts normal cellular physiology and contributes to tumorigenesis, and the potential mechanisms that cause the accumulation of pro-PrP in cancer cells. PMID:20697352

  9. The cisproline(i - 1)-aromatic(i) interaction: folding of the Ala-cisPro-Tyr peptide characterized by NMR and theoretical approaches.

    PubMed

    Nardi, F; Kemmink, J; Sattler, M; Wade, R C

    2000-05-01

    Cisproline(i - 1)-aromatic(i) interactions have been detected in several short peptides in aqueous solution by analysis of anomalous chemical shifts measured by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. This formation of local structure is of importance for protein folding and binding properties. To obtain an atomic-detail characterisation of the cisproline(i - 1)-aromatic(i) interaction in terms of structure, energetics and dynamics, we studied the minimal peptide unit, blocked Ala-cisPro-Tyr, using computational and experimental techniques. Structural database analyses and a systematic search revealed two groups of conformations displaying a cisproline(i - 1)-aromatic(i) interaction. These conformations were taken as seeds for molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent at 278 K. During a total of 33.6 ns of simulation, all the 'folded' conformations and some 'unfolded' states were sampled. 1H- and 13C-chemical shifts and 3J-coupling constants were measured for the Ala-Pro-Tyr peptide. Excellent agreement was found between all the measured and computed NMR properties, showing the good quality of the force field. We find that under the experimental and simulation conditions, the Ala-cisPro-Tyr peptide is folded 90% of the time and displays two types of folded conformation which we denote 'a' and 'b'. The type a conformations are twice as populated as the type b conformations. The former have the tyrosine ring interacting with the alanine alpha proton and are enthalpically stabilised. The latter have the aromatic ring interacting with the proline side chain and are entropically stabilised. The combined and complementary use of computational and experimental techniques permitted derivation of a detailed scenario of the 'folding' of this peptide. PMID:10909867

  10. Pro32Pro33 mutations in the integrin β3 PSI domain result in αIIbβ3 priming and enhanced adhesion: reversal of the hypercoagulability phenotype by the Src inhibitor SKI-606.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Kendra H; Jessen, Tammy; Crawford, Emily L; Chung, Chang Y; Sutcliffe, James S; Carneiro, Ana M

    2014-06-01

    The plasma-membrane integrin αIIbβ3 (CD41/CD61, GPIIbIIIa) is a major functional receptor in platelets during clotting. A common isoform of integrin β3, Leu33Pro is associated with enhanced platelet function and increased risk for coronary thrombosis and stroke, although these findings remain controversial. To better understand the molecular mechanisms by which this sequence variation modifies platelet function, we produced transgenic knockin mice expressing a Pro32Pro33 integrin β3. Consistent with reports utilizing human platelets, we found significantly reduced bleeding and clotting times, as well as increased in vivo thrombosis, in Pro32Pro33 homozygous mice. These alterations paralleled increases in platelet attachment and spreading onto fibrinogen resulting from enhanced integrin αIIbβ3 function. Activation with protease-activated receptor 4- activating peptide, the main thrombin signaling receptor in mice, showed no significant difference in activation of Pro32Pro33 mice as compared with controls, suggesting that inside-out signaling remains intact. However, under unstimulated conditions, the Pro32Pro33 mutation led to elevated Src phosphorylation, facilitated by increased talin interactions with the β3 cytoplasmic domain, indicating that the αIIbβ3 intracellular domains are primed for activation while the ligand-binding domain remains unchanged. Acute dosing of animals with a Src inhibitor was sufficient to rescue the clotting phenotype in knockin mice to wild-type levels. Together, our data establish that the Pro32Pro33 structural alteration modifies the function of integrin αIIbβ3, priming the integrin for outside-in signaling, ultimately leading to hypercoagulability. Furthermore, our data may support a novel approach to antiplatelet therapy by Src inhibition where hemostasis is maintained while reducing risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:24695082

  11. Pro-soft Val-boroPro: a strategy for enhancing in vivo performance of boronic acid inhibitors of serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Poplawski, Sarah E; Lai, Jack H; Sanford, David G; Sudmeier, James L; Wu, Wengen; Bachovchin, William W

    2011-04-14

    Val-boroPro, 1, is a potent, but relatively nonspecific inhibitor of the prolyl peptidases. It has antihyperglycemic activity from inhibition of DPPIV but also striking anticancer activity and a toxicity for which the mechanisms are unknown. 1 cyclizes at physiological pH, which attenuates its inhibitory potency >100-fold, which is a "soft drug" effect. Here we show that this phenomenon can be exploited to create prodrugs with unique properties and potential for selective in vivo targeting. Enzyme-mediated release delivers 1 to the target in the active form at physiological pH; cyclization attenuates systemic pharmacological effects from subsequent diffusion. This "pro-soft" design is demonstrated with a construct activated by and targeted to DPPIV, including in vivo results showing improved antihyperglycemic activity and reduced toxicity relative to 1. Pro-soft derivatives of 1 can help to illuminate the mechanisms underlying the three biological activities, or to help localize 1 at a tumor and thereby lead to improved anticancer agents with reduced toxicity. The design concept can also be applied to a variety of other boronic acid inhibitors. PMID:21388136

  12. Discovery of novel peptides targeting pro-atherogenic endothelium in disturbed flow regions -Targeted siRNA delivery to pro-atherogenic endothelium in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jihwa; Shim, Hyunbo; Kim, Kwanchang; Lee, Duhwan; Kim, Won Jong; Kang, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Won; Jo, Hanjoong; Kwon, Kihwan

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis occurs preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed blood flow. Targeting these pro-atherogenic regions is a potential anti-atherogenic therapeutic approach, but it has been extremely challenging. Here, using in vivo phage display approach and the partial carotid ligation model of flow-induced atherosclerosis in mouse, we identified novel peptides that specifically bind to endothelial cells (ECs) exposed to disturbed flow condition in pro-atherogenic regions. Two peptides, CLIRRTSIC and CPRRSHPIC, selectively bound to arterial ECs exposed to disturbed flow not only in the partially ligated carotids but also in the lesser curvature and branching point of the aortic arch in mice as well as human pulmonary artery branches. Peptides were conjugated to branched polyethylenimine-polyethylene glycol polymer to generate polyplexes carrying siRNA targeting intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (siICAM-1). In mouse model, CLIRRTSIC polyplexes carrying si-ICAM-1 specifically bound to endothelium in disturbed flow regions, reducing endothelial ICAM-1 expression. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that non-muscle myosin heavy chain II A (NMHC IIA) is a protein targeted by CLIRRTSIC peptide. Further studies showed that shear stress regulates NMHC IIA expression and localization in ECs. The CLIRRTSIC is a novel peptide that could be used for targeted delivery of therapeutics such as siRNAs to pro-atherogenic endothelium. PMID:27173134

  13. In vitro cellular responses to silicon carbide particles manufactured through the Acheson process: impact of physico-chemical features on pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative effects.

    PubMed

    Boudard, Delphine; Forest, Valérie; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boumahdi, Najih; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Guilhot, Bernard; Cottier, Michèle; Grosseau, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) an industrial-scale product manufactured through the Acheson process, is largely employed in various applications. Its toxicity has been poorly investigated. Our study aims at characterizing the physico-chemical features and the in vitro impact on biological activity of five manufactured SiC powders: two coarse powders (SiC C1/C2), two fine powders (SiC F1/F2) and a powder rich in iron impurities (SiC I). RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the different SiC particles and the cellular responses were evaluated. Contrary to what happens with silica, no SiC cytotoxicity was observed but pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses of variable intensity were evidenced. Oxidative stress (H₂O₂ production) appeared related to SiC particle size, while iron level regulated pro-inflammatory response (TNFα production). To investigate the impact of surface reactivity on the biological responses, coarse SiC C1 and fine SiC F1 powders were submitted to different thermal treatments (650-1400 °C) in order to alter the oxidation state of the particle surface. At 1400 °C a decrease in TNFα production and an increase in HO·, COO(·-) radicals production were observed in correlation with the formation of a surface layer of crystalline silica. Finally, a strong correlation was observed between surface oxidation state and in vitro toxicity. PMID:24603312

  14. Harmonizing international trials of early goal-directed resuscitation for severe sepsis and septic shock: methodology of ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMISe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe and compare the design of three independent but collaborating multicenter trials of early goal-directed resuscitation for severe sepsis and septic shock. Methods We reviewed the three current trials, one each in the USA (ProCESS: protocolized care for early septic shock), Australasia (ARISE: Australasian resuscitation in sepsis evaluation), and the UK (ProMISe: protocolised management in sepsis). We used the 2010 CONSORT (consolidated standards of reporting trials) statement and the 2008 CONSORT extension for trials assessing non-pharmacologic treatments to describe and compare the underlying rationale, commonalities, and differences. Results All three trials conform to CONSORT guidelines, address the same fundamental questions, and share key design elements. Each trial is a patient-level, equal-randomized, parallel-group superiority trial that seeks to enroll emergency department patients with inclusion criteria that are consistent with the original early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) trial (suspected or confirmed infection, two or more systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, and refractory hypotension or elevated lactate), is powered to detect a 6–8 % absolute mortality reduction (hospital or 90-day), and uses trained teams to deliver EGDT. Design differences appear to primarily be driven by between-country variation in health care context. The main difference between the trials is the inclusion of a third, alternative resuscitation strategy arm in ProCESS. Conclusions Harmonization of study design and methods between severe sepsis trials is feasible and may facilitate pooling of data on completion of the trials. PMID:23958738

  15. Exercise as a pro-cognitive, pro-neurogenic and anti-inflammatory intervention in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sinéad M; Kelly, Áine M

    2016-05-01

    It is now well established, at least in animal models, that exercise elicits potent pro-cognitive and pro-neurogenic effects. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia and represents one of the greatest burdens on healthcare systems worldwide, with no effective treatment for the disease to date. Exercise presents a promising non-pharmacological option to potentially delay the onset of or slow down the progression of AD. Exercise interventions in mouse models of AD have been explored and have been found to reduce amyloid pathology and improve cognitive function. More recent studies have expanded the research question by investigating potential pro-neurogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. In this review we summarise studies that have examined exercise-mediated effects on AD pathology, cognitive function, hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroinflammation in transgenic mouse models of AD. Furthermore, we attempt to identify the optimum exercise conditions required to elicit the greatest benefits, taking into account age and pathology of the model, as well as type and duration of exercise. PMID:27039886

  16. An in vitro model for the pro-fibrotic effects of retinoids: mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, A C; Hendry, B M; Corcoran, J P; Xu, Q

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Retinoids, including all-trans retinoic acid (tRA), have dose-dependent pro-fibrotic effects in experimental kidney diseases. To understand and eventually prevent such adverse effects, it is important to establish relevant in vitro models and unravel their mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Fibrogenic effects of retinoids were assessed in NRK-49F renal fibroblasts using picro-Sirius red staining for collagens and quantified by spectrophotometric analysis of the eluted stain. Other methods included RT-qPCR, immunoassays and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity assays. KEY RESULTS With or without TGF-β1, tRA was dose-dependently pro-fibrotic, notably increasing collagen accumulation. tRA and TGF-β1 additively suppressed expression of mRNA for MMP2, 3 and 13 and suppressed MMP activity. tRA, in the presence of TGF-β1, induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mRNA and they additively induced PAI-1 protein expression. A PAI-1 inhibitor, a pan-retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonist and a pan-retinoid X receptor (RXR) antagonist each partially prevented the pro-fibrotic effect of tRA. The dose-dependent pro-fibrotic effects of a pan-RXR agonist were similar to those of tRA. A pan-RAR agonist showed weaker, less dose-dependent pro-fibrotic effects and the pro-fibrotic effects of RARα and RARβ-selective agonists were even smaller. An RARγ-selective agonist did not affect fibrogenesis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS An in vitro model for the pro-fibrotic effects of retinoids was established in NRK-49F cells. It was associated with reduced MMP activity and increased PAI-1 expression, and was probably mediated by RXR and RAR. To avoid or antagonize the pro-fibrotic activity of tRA, further studies on RAR isotype-selective agonists and PAI-1 inhibitors might be of value. PMID:23992207

  17. The importance of balanced pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in diffuse lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Michael P; Strieter, Robert M

    2002-01-01

    The lung responds to a variety of insults in a remarkably consistent fashion but with inconsistent outcomes that vary from complete resolution and return to normal to the destruction of normal architecture and progressive fibrosis. Increasing evidence indicates that diffuse lung disease results from an imbalance between the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, with a persistent imbalance that favors pro-inflammatory mediators dictating the development of chronic diffuse lung disease. This review focuses on the mediators that influence this imbalance. PMID:11806840

  18. Life Testing of the Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor for the ProSEDS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd A.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta 11 unmanned expendable booster. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma. A hollow cathode plasma contactor emits the collected electrons from the Delta II, completing the electrical circuit with the ambient plasma. The current flowing through the tether generates thrust based on the Lorentz Force Law. The thrust will be generated opposite to the velocity vector, slowing down the spacecraft and causing it to de-orbit in approximately 14 days compared to the normal 6 months. A 10-km non-conductive tether is between the conductive tether and an endmass containing several scientific instruments. The ProSEDS mission lifetime was set at I day because most of the primary objectives can be met in that time. The extended ProSEDS mission will be for as many days as possible, until the Delta 11 second stage burns up or the tether is severed by a micrometeoroid or space debris particle. The Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor (HCPC) unit has been designed for a 12-day mission. Because of the science requirements to measure the background ambient plasma, the HCPC must operate on a duty cycle. Later in the ProSEDS mission, the HCPC is operated in a manner to allow charging of the secondary battery. Due to the unusual operating requirements by the ProSEDS mission, a development unit of the HCPC was built for thorough testing. This developmental unit was tested for a simulated ProSEDS mission, with measurements of the ability to start and stop during the duty cycle. These tests also provided valuable data for the ProSEDS software requirements. Qualification tests of the HCPC flight hardware are also discussed.

  19. Prevention of sodium lauryl sulfate irritant contact dermatitis by Pro-Q aerosol foam skin protectant.

    PubMed

    Patterson, S E; Williams, J V; Marks, J G

    1999-05-01

    Eczematous skin disease is a serious work-related illness. Since 1995, reimbursement by insurance companies for treatment of skin diseases has become the largest cost source in some countries. This study was a randomized controlled trial (N = 20) of the efficacy of Pro-Q, a skin protectant product, in the prevention of contact dermatitis from sodium lauryl sulfate and urushiol, the resinous sap of poison ivy and poison oak. Pro-Q was significantly effective in reducing the irritation from sodium lauryl sulfate but did not prevent the allergic reaction to urushiol. PMID:10321615

  20. Developing a pro-regenerative biomaterial scaffold microenvironment requires T helper 2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sadtler, Kaitlyn; Estrellas, Kenneth; Allen, Brian W.; Wolf, Matthew T.; Fan, Hongni; Tam, Ada J.; Patel, Chirag H.; Luber, Brandon S.; Wang, Hao; Wagner, Kathryn R.; Powell, Jonathan D.; Housseau, Franck; Pardoll, Drew M.

    2016-01-01

    Immune-mediated tissue regeneration driven by a biomaterial scaffold is emerging as an innovative regenerative strategy to repair damaged tissues. We investigated how biomaterial scaffolds shape the immune microenvironment in traumatic muscle wounds to improve tissue regeneration. The scaffolds induced a pro-regenerative response, characterized by an mTOR/Rictor-dependent T helper 2 pathway that guides interleukin-4–dependent macrophage polarization, which is critical for functional muscle recovery. Manipulating the adaptive immune system using biomaterials engineering may support the development of therapies that promote both systemic and local pro-regenerative immune responses, ultimately stimulating tissue repair. PMID:27081073

  1. Developing a pro-regenerative biomaterial scaffold microenvironment requires T helper 2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sadtler, Kaitlyn; Estrellas, Kenneth; Allen, Brian W; Wolf, Matthew T; Fan, Hongni; Tam, Ada J; Patel, Chirag H; Luber, Brandon S; Wang, Hao; Wagner, Kathryn R; Powell, Jonathan D; Housseau, Franck; Pardoll, Drew M; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2016-04-15

    Immune-mediated tissue regeneration driven by a biomaterial scaffold is emerging as an innovative regenerative strategy to repair damaged tissues. We investigated how biomaterial scaffolds shape the immune microenvironment in traumatic muscle wounds to improve tissue regeneration. The scaffolds induced a pro-regenerative response, characterized by an mTOR/Rictor-dependent T helper 2 pathway that guides interleukin-4-dependent macrophage polarization, which is critical for functional muscle recovery. Manipulating the adaptive immune system using biomaterials engineering may support the development of therapies that promote both systemic and local pro-regenerative immune responses, ultimately stimulating tissue repair. PMID:27081073

  2. ProPhenol-Catalyzed Asymmetric Additions by Spontaneously Assembled Dinuclear Main Group Metal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus The development of catalytic enantioselective transformations has been the focus of many research groups over the past half century and is of paramount importance to the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. Since the award of the Nobel Prize in 2001, the field of enantioselective transition metal catalysis has soared to new heights, with the development of more efficient catalysts and new catalytic transformations at increasing frequency. Furthermore, catalytic reactions that allow higher levels of redox- and step-economy are being developed. Thus, alternatives to asymmetric alkene dihydroxylation and the enantioselective reduction of α,β-unsaturated ketones can invoke more strategic C–C bond forming reactions, such as asymmetric aldol reactions of an aldehyde with α-hydroxyketone donors or enantioselective alkynylation of an aldehyde, respectively. To facilitate catalytic enantioselective addition reactions, including the aforementioned aldol and alkynylation reactions, our lab has developed the ProPhenol ligand. In this Account, we describe the development and application of the ProPhenol ligand for asymmetric additions of both carbon- and heteroatom-based nucleophiles to various electrophiles. The ProPhenol ligand spontaneously forms chiral dinuclear metal complexes when treated with an alkyl metal reagent, such as Et2Zn or Bu2Mg. The resulting complex contains both a Lewis acidic site to activate an electrophile and a Brønsted basic site to deprotonate a pronucleophile. Initially, our research focused on the use of Zn-ProPhenol complexes to facilitate the direct aldol reaction. Fine tuning of the reaction through ligand modification and the use of additives enabled the direct aldol reaction to proceed in high yields and stereoselectivities with a broad range of donor substrates, including acetophenones, methyl ynones, methyl vinyl ketone, acetone, α-hydroxy carbonyl compounds, and glycine Schiff bases. Additionally, an analogous

  3. 1DTempPro: analyzing temperature profiles for groundwater/surface-water exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voytek, Emily B.; Drenkelfuss, Anja; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Healy, Richard; Lane, Jr., John W.; Werkema, Dale

    2014-01-01

    A new computer program, 1DTempPro, is presented for the analysis of vertical one-dimensional (1D) temperature profiles under saturated flow conditions. 1DTempPro is a graphical user interface to the U.S. Geological Survey code Variably Saturated 2-Dimensional Heat Transport (VS2DH), which numerically solves the flow and heat-transport equations. Pre- and postprocessor features allow the user to calibrate VS2DH models to estimate vertical groundwater/surface-water exchange and also hydraulic conductivity for cases where hydraulic head is known.

  4. Evol and ProDy for bridging protein sequence evolution and structural dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Wenzhi; Liu, Ying; Chennubhotla, Chakra; Lezon, Timothy R.; Bahar, Ivet

    2014-01-01

    Correlations between sequence evolution and structural dynamics are of utmost importance in understanding the molecular mechanisms of function and their evolution. We have integrated Evol, a new package for fast and efficient comparative analysis of evolutionary patterns and conformational dynamics, into ProDy, a computational toolbox designed for inferring protein dynamics from experimental and theoretical data. Using information-theoretic approaches, Evol coanalyzes conservation and coevolution profiles extracted from multiple sequence alignments of protein families with their inferred dynamics. Availability and implementation: ProDy and Evol are open-source and freely available under MIT License from http://prody.csb.pitt.edu/. Contact: bahar@pitt.edu PMID:24849577

  5. Resolvins, Specialized Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators and their Potential Roles in Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Spite, Matthew; Clària, Joan; Serhan, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with development of diseases characterized by altered nutrient metabolism. While an acute inflammatory response is host-protective and normally self-limited, chronic low-grade inflammation associated with metabolic diseases is sustained and detrimental. Resolution of inflammation involves termination of neutrophil recruitment, counter-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators, stimulation of macrophage-mediated clearance and tissue remodeling. Specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM) -- resolvins, protectins and maresins -- are novel autacoids that resolve inflammation, protect organs, and stimulate tissue regeneration. Here, we review evidence that failure of resolution programs contributes to metabolic diseases and that SPM may play pivotal roles in their resolution. PMID:24239568

  6. Testing for BNP and NT-proBNP in the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Balion, C; Santaguida, P L; Hill, S; Worster, A; McQueen, M; Oremus, M; McKelvie, R; Booker, L; Fagbemi, J; Reichert, S; Raina, P

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate BNP and NT-proBNP to: (a) identify determinants, (b) establish their diagnostic performance in heart failure (HF) patients, (c) determine their predictive ability with respect to mortality and other cardiac endpoints, and (d) determine their value in monitoring HF treatment. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central, and AMED from 1989 to February 2005 were searched for primary studies. REVIEW METHODS Standard systematic review methodology, including meta-analysis, was employed. All study designs were included. Eligibility criteria included English-only studies and restricted the number of test methods to maximize generalizability. Outcomes for prognosis were limited to mortality and specific cardiac events. Further specific criteria were developed for each research question. RESULTS Determinants: There were 103 determinants identified including age, gender, disease, treatment, as well as biochemical and physiological measures. Few studies reported independent associations and of those that did age, female gender and creatinine levels were positively associated with BNP and NT-proBNP. DIAGNOSIS Pooled sensitivity and specificity values were 94 and 66 percent for BNP and 92 and 65 percent for NT-proBNP; there was minimal difference among settings (emergency, specialized clinics, and primary care). B-type natriuretic peptides also added independent diagnostic information above traditional measures for HF. PROGNOSIS Both BNP and NT-proBNP were found to be independent predictors of mortality and other cardiac composite endpoints in patients with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) (risk estimate range = 1.10 to 5.40), diagnosed CAD (risk estimate range = 1.50 to 3.00), and diagnosed HF patients (risk estimate range = 2.11 to 9.35). With respect to screening, the AUC values (range = 0.57 to 0.88) suggested poor performance. Monitoring Treatment: Studies showed therapy reduced BNP and NT-pro

  7. Structure and function of transmembrane segment XII in osmosensor and osmoprotectant transporter ProP of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Culham, Doreen E; Vernikovska, Yaroslava I; Keates, Robert A B; Boggs, Joan M; Wood, Janet M

    2007-05-15

    Escherichia coli transporter ProP acts as both an osmosensor and an osmoregulator. As medium osmolality rises, ProP is activated and mediates H+-coupled uptake of osmolytes like proline. A homology model of ProP with 12-transmembrane (TM) helices and cytoplasmic termini was created, and the protein's topology was substantiated experimentally. Residues 468-497, at the end of the C-terminal domain and linked to TM XII, form an intermolecular, homodimeric alpha-helical coiled-coil that tunes the transporter's response to osmolality. We aim to further define the structure and function of ProP residues Q415-E440, predicted to include TM XII. Each residue was replaced with cysteine (Cys) in a histidine-tagged, Cys-less ProP variant (ProP*). Cys at positions 415-418 and 438-440 were most reactive with Oregon Green Maleimide (OGM), suggesting that residues 419 through 437 are in the membrane. Except for V429-I433, reactivity of those Cys varied with helical periodicity. Cys predicted to face the interior of ProP were more reactive than Cys predicted to face the lipid. The former may be exposed to hydrated polar residues in the protein interior, particularly on the periplasmic side. Intermolecular cross-links formed when ProP* variants with Cys at positions 419, 420, 422, and 439 were treated with DTME. Thus TM XII can participate, along its entire length, in the dimer interface of ProP. Cys substitution E440C rendered ProP* inactive. All other variants retained more than 30% of the proline uptake activity of ProP* at high osmolality. Most variants with Cys substitutions in the periplasmic half of TM XII activated at lower osmolalities than ProP*. Variants with Cys substitutions on one face of the cytoplasmic half of TM XII required a higher osmolality to activate. They included elements of a GXXXG motif that are predicted to form the interface of TM XII with TM VII. These studies define the position of ProP TM XII within the membrane, further support the predicted

  8. Salinity-Dependent Impacts of ProQ, Prc, and Spr Deficiencies on Escherichia coli Cell Structure

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Craig H.; Culham, Doreen E.; Marom, David

    2014-01-01

    ProQ is a cytoplasmic protein with RNA chaperone activities that reside in FinO- and Hfq-like domains. Lesions at proQ decrease the level of the osmoregulatory glycine betaine transporter ProP. Lesions at proQ eliminated ProQ and Prc, the periplasmic protease encoded by the downstream gene prc. They dramatically slowed the growth of Escherichia coli populations and altered the morphologies of E. coli cells in high-salinity medium. ProQ and Prc deficiencies were associated with different phenotypes. ProQ-deficient bacteria were elongated unless glycine betaine was provided. High-salinity cultures of Prc-deficient bacteria included spherical cells with an enlarged periplasm and an eccentric nucleoid. The nucleoid-containing compartment was bounded by the cytoplasmic membrane and peptidoglycan. This phenotype was not evident in bacteria cultivated at low or moderate salinity, nor was it associated with murein lipoprotein (Lpp) deficiency, and it differed from those elicited by the MreB inhibitor A-22 or the FtsI inhibitor aztreonam at low or high salinity. It was suppressed by deletion of spr, which encodes one of three murein hydrolases that are redundantly essential for enlargement of the murein sacculus. Prc deficiency may alter bacterial morphology by impairing control of Spr activity at high salinity. ProQ and Prc deficiencies lowered the ProP activity of bacteria cultivated at moderate salinity by approximately 70% and 30%, respectively, but did not affect other osmoregulatory functions. The effects of ProQ and Prc deficiencies on ProP activity are indirect, reflecting their roles in the maintenance of cell structure. PMID:24443528

  9. Efinaconazole 10% Solution

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Barry; Smith, Kathleen; Miller, Terri

    2013-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis is a chronic condition that often requires long-term management to eradicate the causative fungus, allow a healthy nail to grow, and prevent relapse. As a successful outcome depends highly on patient adherence with treatment, a low risk of periungual skin irritation with topical medication is clinically relevant. Objectives: To study the potential for efinaconazole 10% solution and its corresponding vehicle to induce delayed contact skin sensitization and evaluate its skin irritation potential. Methods: Efinaconazole 10% solution and its vehicle were studied in 239 healthy volunteers for the potential to induce contact skin sensitization. This included a series of induction, challenge, and re-challenge phases. An additional 21-day cumulative irritation study was undertaken in 35 healthy volunteers to compare three concentrations of efinaconazole (1%, 5%, and 10%), vehicle, and positive/negative controls. Results: There was no evidence of induced contact sensitization under occlusive, semi-occlusive, and open (open rub-in) applications of efinaconazole 10% solution. Efinaconazole 1%, 5%, and 10% solutions have mean cumulative irritancy indices of 1.12, 1.26, and 1.18, respectively, where a range of >0 to ≤1 is classified as “mildly irritating.” Results were comparable to vehicle (1.04). Conclusion: Efinaconazole 10% solution did not cause contact sensitization and induced only minimal skin irritation in the studies completed. PMID:23556032

  10. Decontamination solution development studies

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study was conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Hanford Grout Technology Program (HGTP). The objective of this study was to identify decontamination solutions capable of removing radioactive contaminants and grout from the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) process equipment and to determine the impact of these solutions on equipment components and disposal options. The reference grout used in this study was prepared with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) and a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % blast furnace slag, 28 wt % fly ash, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement.

  11. Plutonium in Concentrated Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Sue B.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2002-08-01

    Complex, high ionic strength media are used throughout the plutonium cycle, from its processing and purification in nitric acid, to waste storage and processing in alkaline solutions of concentrated electrolytes, to geologic disposal in brines. Plutonium oxidation/reduction, stability, radiolysis, solution and solid phase chemistry have been studied in such systems. In some cases, predictive models for describing Pu chemistry under such non-ideal conditions have been developed, which are usually based on empirical databases describing specific ion interactions. In Chapter 11, Non-Ideal Systems, studies on the behavior of Pu in various complex media and available model descriptions are reviewed.

  12. Dimensionally continued wormhole solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. School of Science, East China University of Science Technology, Shanghai 200237 )

    1994-09-15

    In this paper we consider wormhole solutions for the action of special Lovelock gravity'' recently discussed by Banados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli. This action is, in odd dimensions, the Chern-Simons form for the anti--de Sitter group and, in even dimensions, the Euler density constructed with the Lorentz part of the anti--de Sitter curvature tensor. We present a systematic study of classical wormhole solutions in the special Lovelock theory with various matter content, including a perfect fluid energy-momentum tensor, axionic field, and conformal scalar field.

  13. Fissile solution measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

    1984-06-11

    An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

  14. 3 CFR 8919 - Proclamation 8919 of December 18, 2012. Death of Senator Daniel K. Inouye, President Pro Tempore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proclamation 8919 of December 18, 2012. Death of Senator Daniel K. Inouye, President Pro Tempore of the Senate 8919 Proclamation 8919 Presidential..., President Pro Tempore of the SenateBy the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As a...

  15. Pro-Social and Anti-Social Behaviors on Commercial Television in 1975-76. Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Bradley S.; And Others

    This study investigates pro-social and anti-social behaviors portrayed on prime time and Saturday morning television during the 1975-76 season. An initial review of relevant research in this behavioral area is followed by a description of the basic content categories for pro-social and anti-social behaviors, motives and consequences of these…

  16. 77 FR 16890 - In the Matter of ProElite, Inc. and Universal Guardian Holdings, Inc.: Order of Suspension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of ProElite, Inc. and Universal Guardian Holdings, Inc.: Order of Suspension of... current and accurate information concerning the securities of ProElite, Inc. because it has not filed...

  17. 26 CFR 1.956-1T - Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property (temporary). 1.956-1T... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.956-1T Shareholder's pro rata...

  18. 20 CFR 404.440 - Partial monthly benefits; pro-rated share of partial payment exceeds the benefit before deduction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partial monthly benefits; pro-rated share of partial payment exceeds the benefit before deduction for excess earnings. 404.440 Section 404.440...- ) Deductions; Reductions; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.440 Partial monthly benefits; pro-rated share...

  19. The integrated project NF-PRO: recent advances in European research on the near-field system

    SciTech Connect

    Sneyers, Alain; Grambow, Bernd; Aranyossy, Jean-Francois; Johnson, Lawrence

    2007-07-01

    The Integrated Project NF-PRO (Sixth Framework Programme by the European Commission) investigates key-processes in the near-field of a geological repository for the disposal of high-level vitrified waste and spent fuel. The paper discusses the project scope and content and gives a summary overview of advances made by NF-PRO. (authors)

  20. Endomorphin synthesis in rat brain from intracerebroventricularly injected [3H]-Tyr-Pro: a possible biosynthetic route for endomorphins.

    PubMed

    Rónai, András Z; Szemenyei, Erzsébet; Kató, Erzsébet; Kocsis, László; Orosz, György; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Tóth, Géza

    2006-03-15

    In spite of concentrated efforts, the biosynthetic route of mu-opioid receptor agonist brain tetrapeptide endomorphins (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2 and Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2), discovered in 1997, is still obscure. We report presently that 30 min after intracerebroventricular injection of 20 or 200 microCi [3H]Tyr-Pro (49.9 Ci mmol(-1)) the incorporated radioactivity was found in endomorphin-related tetra- and tripeptides in rat brain extracts. As detected by the combination of HPLC with radiodetection, a peak corresponding to endomorphin-2-OH could be identified in two of four extracts of "20 microCi" series. Radioactive peaks in position of Tyr, Tyr-Pro, Tyr-Pro-Phe or Tyr-Pro-Trp appeared regularly in both series and also in the "tetrapeptide cluster" constituted by endomorphins and their free carboxylic forms. In one of the four extracts in the "200 microCi" series a robust active peak in the position of endomorphin 2 could be detected. Intracerebroventricularly injected 100 nmol, but not 10 or 1000 nmol cold Tyr-Pro (devoid of opioid activity in vitro), caused a naloxone-reversible prolongation of tail-flick latency in rats, peaking between 15 and 30 min. We suggest that Tyr-Pro may serve as a biosynthetic precursor to endomorphin synthesis. PMID:16464510

  1. Children's Perceived Reality of Television and the Effects of Pro- and Anti-Social TV Content on Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Byron

    Interviews were conducted with 721 students in fourth, sixth, and eighth grades to study whether children's perceived reality of television would affect the relationship between pro-social and anti-social television content and pro-social and anti-social behavior. Social behavior variables, a perceived reality index, and television exposure…

  2. Models that Teach about the Computer: AppleWorks and ProDOS, the Computer's Memory and Disk Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niess, Margaret L.

    1989-01-01

    This final article in a series on creating models for teaching about computer memory and disk storage and retrieval focuses on AppleWorks software and the Professional Disk Operating System (ProDOS). Instructions for creating a paper model of the AppleWorks menu system and the ProDOS disk file are given. (LRW)

  3. Utilising a Blended Ethnographic Approach to Explore the Online and Offline Lives of Pro-Ana Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The article critically interrogates contemporary discourses and practices around "anorexia nervosa" through an ethnographic study that moves between two sites: an online pro-anorexia (pro-ana) community, and a Local Authority-funded eating disorder prevention project located in schools and youth centres in the north of England. The article…

  4. alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin is the human plasma inhibitor of macrophage ectoenzymes that cleave pro-macrophage stimulating protein.

    PubMed

    Skeel, A; Leonard, E J

    2001-06-15

    Macrophage stimulating protein (MSP) is secreted as 78-kDa single chain pro-MSP, which is converted to biologically active, disulfide-linked alphabeta chain MSP by cleavage at Arg(483)-Val(484). Murine resident peritoneal macrophages have two cell surface proteolytic activities that cleave pro-MSP. One is a pro-MSP convertase, which cleaves pro-MSP to active MSP; the other degrades pro-MSP. The degrading protease is inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor or by low concentrations of blood plasma, which allows the convertase to cleave pro-MSP to MSP. Using pro-MSP cleavage as the assay, we purified the inhibitor from human plasma. The bulk of the plasma protein was removed by salting out and by isoelectric precipitation of albumin. Highly purified inhibitor was then obtained in three steps: dye-ligand binding and elution, ion exchange chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography gel filtration. After SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transfer to a polyvinylidene membrane, N-terminal sequencing of the product identified it as alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin. The mean concentration of alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin in human plasma is 7 micrometer. At this concentration, alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin inhibits both macrophage enzymes. A concentration of 0.4 micrometer, which is in the expected concentration range in extracellular fluid, preferentially inhibits the degrading enzyme, which allows for cleavage to active MSP by the pro-MSP convertase. PMID:11274154

  5. The WW Domain Protein PRO40 Is Required for Fungal Fertility and Associates with Woronin Bodies▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Engh, Ines; Würtz, Christian; Witzel-Schlömp, Konstanze; Zhang, Hai Yu; Hoff, Birgit; Nowrousian, Minou; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter; Kück, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Fruiting body formation in ascomycetes is a highly complex process that is under polygenic control and is a fundamental part of the fungal sexual life cycle. However, the molecular determinants regulating this cellular process are largely unknown. Here we show that the sterile pro40 mutant is defective in a 120-kDa WW domain protein that plays a pivotal role in fruiting body maturation of the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. Although WW domains occur in many eukaryotic proteins, homologs of PRO40 are present only in filamentous ascomycetes. Complementation analysis with different pro40 mutant strains, using full-sized or truncated versions of the wild-type pro40 gene, revealed that the C terminus of PRO40 is crucial for restoring the fertile phenotype. Using differential centrifugation and protease protection assays, we determined that a PRO40-FLAG fusion protein is located within organelles. Further microscopic investigations of fusion proteins with DsRed or green fluorescent protein polypeptides showed a colocalization of PRO40 with HEX-1, a Woronin body-specific protein. However, the integrity of Woronin bodies is not affected in mutant strains of S. macrospora and Neurospora crassa, as shown by fluorescence microscopy, sedimentation, and immunoblot analyses. We discuss the function of PRO40 in fruiting body formation. PMID:17351077

  6. Strategic Pay Reform: A Student Outcomes-Based Evaluation of Denver's ProComp Teacher Pay Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Walch, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Denver Public Schools utilizes one of the nation's highest profile alternative teacher compensation systems, and a key element of Denver's Professional Compensation System for Teachers (ProComp) is pay for performance. This study analyzes the student achievement implications of ProComp utilizing matched student- and teacher-level data from 2003 to…

  7. Blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Eik, W.; Marcon, S.S.; Krupek, T.; Previdelli, I.T.S.; Pereira, O.C.N.; Silva, M.A.R.C.P.; Bazotte, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of postprandial glycemia on blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in non-diabetic patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia. Eleven patients with clinical symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia received an oral glucose solution (75 g) Blood was collected at 0 (baseline), 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion and the plasma concentrations of interferon-α (IFN-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin 13 (IL-13), interleukin 15 (IL-15), interleukin 17 (IL-17), IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-basic), eotaxin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and 1β (MIP-1β) were evaluated. Overall, glycemic levels increased, reached its maximum at 30 min (phase 1), returned to baseline levels at 120 min (phase 2), followed by a mild hypoglycemia at 180 min (phase 3). During phase 1, cytokine blood levels were maintained. However, we observed a synchronous fall (P<0.05) in the concentrations of pro-inflammatory (IL-15, IL-17, MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (FGF-basic, IL-13, IL-1RA) during phase 2. Furthermore, a simultaneous rise (P<0.05) of pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IL-5, IL-17) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-13, FGF-basic) occurred during phase 3. Thus, mild acute hypoglycemia but not a physiological increase of glycemia

  8. 78 FR 34570 - Special Local Regulations; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Lake Dora; Tavares, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... Dora; Tavares, FL in the Federal Register (78 FR 22808). The Coast Guard received no comments on the... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Lake...

  9. 78 FR 22808 - Special Local Regulations; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Lake Dora; Tavares, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Lake...

  10. The application of phosphoramidate ProTide technology to acyclovir confers anti-HIV inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Derudas, Marco; Carta, Davide; Brancale, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Lisco, Andrea; Margolis, Leonid; Balzarini, Jan; McGuigan, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that phosphorylated acyclovir (ACVa) inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase in a cell free system. To deliver phosphorylated ACV inside cells we designed ACV monophosphorylated derivatives using ProTide technology. We found that the L-alanine derivatived ProTides show anti-HIV activity at non-cytotoxic concentrations; ester and aryl variation was tolerated. ACV ProTides with other amino acids, other than L-phenylalanine, showed no detectable activity against HIV in cell culture. The inhibitory activity of the prodrugs against herpes simplex virus (HSV) type -1, -2 and thymidine kinase-deficient HSV-1 revealed different structure-activity relationships, but was again consistent with successful nucleoside kinase bypass. Enzymatic and molecular modelling studies have been performed in order to better understand the antiviral behaviour of these compounds. ProTides showing diminished carboxypeptidase lability translated to poor anti-HIV agents and vice versa, so the assay became predictive. PMID:19645484

  11. In-Depth Characterization of a Pro-Antibody-Drug Conjugate by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boning; Guo, Huaizu; Zhang, Junjie; Xue, Jingya; Yang, Yun; Qin, Ting; Xu, Jin; Guo, Qingcheng; Zhang, Dapeng; Qian, Weizhu; Li, Bohua; Hou, Sheng; Dai, Jianxin; Guo, Yajun; Wang, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Pro-antibody-drug conjugate (PDC) is a hybrid structural format of immunoconjugate, where the structural complexity of pro-antibody and intrinsic heterogeneity of ADCs impose a prominent analytical challenge to the in-depth characterization of PDCs. In the present study, we successfully prepared and characterized PanP-DM1 as a model of PDCs, which is an anti-EGFR pro-antibody following conjugation with DM1 at lysine residues. The drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) of PanP-DM1 was determined by LC-MS after deglycosylation, and verified by UV/vis spectroscopy. Following reduction or IdeS digestion, the pro-antibody fragments linked with DM1 were investigated by middle-down mass spectrometry. Furthermore, more than 20 modified lysine conjugation sites were determined by peptide mapping after trypsin digestion. Additionally, more than ten glycoforms of PanP-DM1 were also identified and quantified. In summary, critical quality attributes (CQAs) of PDCs including DAR, drug load distribution, and conjugation sites were fully characterized, which would contribute to the development of other PDCs for cancer treatment. PMID:27377124

  12. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour. PMID:24821503

  13. Questions and Answers on Gift Substantiation and Quid Pro Quo Disclosure Statement Requirements for Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Catholic Conference, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a guide to recent tax law changes affecting requirements about acknowledging gifts to education institutions and about quid pro quo disclosure. The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 states that donors may not deduct cash or noncash contributions of $250 or more to a private school or other charitable organization unless…

  14. Pro-apoptotic cell death genes, hid and reaper, from the tephritid pest species, Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pro-apoptotic proteins from the reaper, hid, grim (RHG) family are primary regulators of programmed cell death in Drosophila due to their antagonistic effect on inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, thereby releasing IAP inhibition of caspases that effect apoptosis. Using a degenerate PCR approach ...

  15. 75 FR 55777 - Pro-Pac Distributing Corp., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... COMMISSION Pro-Pac Distributing Corp., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY... check payable to the order of the United States Treasury. 18. Upon provisional acceptance of the... is published in the Federal Register. 19. Upon the Commission's final acceptance of the Agreement...

  16. The Construction of Pro-Science and Technology Discourse in Chinese Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yongbing

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the pro-science and technology discourse constructed in Chinese language textbooks currently used for primary school students nationwide in China. By applying analytical techniques of critical discourse analysis (CDA), the paper critically investigates how the discourse is constructed and what ideological forces are manifested…

  17. Reconciling Faith and Fact: Pro-life Women Discuss Media, Science and the Abortion Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Andrea L.; Cole, Elizabeth R.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that pro-life women actively searched for authorities and authoritative information that were not "corrupted" by the values of secular society. Finds that, paradoxically, they drew on secular forms of argument, claiming scientific authenticity for their own sources, and that their selective viewing habits resulted in the construction of an…

  18. Influence of a glide path on the dentinal crack formation of ProTaper Next system

    PubMed Central

    Uzunoğlu, Emel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to evaluate dentinal crack formation after root canal preparation with ProTaper Next system (PTN) with and without a glide path. Materials and Methods Forty-five mesial roots of mandibular first molars were selected. Fifteen teeth were left unprepared and served as controls. The experimental groups consist of mesiobuccal and mesiolingual root canals of remaining 30 teeth, which were divided into 2 groups (n = 15): Group PG/PTN, glide path was created with ProGlider (PG) and then canals were shaped with PTN system; Group PTN, glide path was not prepared and canals were shaped with PTN system only. All roots were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 mm from the apex, and the sections were observed under a stereomicroscope. The presence/absence of cracks was recorded. Data were analyzed with chi-square tests with Yates correction. Results There were no significant differences in crack formation between the PTN with and without glide path preparation. The incidence of cracks observed in PG/PTN and PTN groups was 17.8% and 28.9%, respectively. Conclusions The creation of a glide path with ProGlider before ProTaper Next rotary system did not influence dentinal crack formation in root canals. PMID:26587414

  19. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada; Quaroni, Andrea; Autore, Giuseppina; Severino, Lorella; Marzocco, Stefania

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. - Highlights: • Nivalenol induces oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). • Nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effects in IECs. • Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trigger antioxidant response IECs. • These results indicate the importance of mycotoxins co-contamination.

  20. Proximal disruptor aided ligation (ProDAL) of kilobase-long RNAs.

    PubMed

    Zhovmer, Alexander; Qu, Xiaohui

    2016-07-01

    RNA with site-specific modification is a useful tool for RNA biology studies. However, generating kilobase (kb) -long RNA with internal modification at a site distant from RNA termini remains challenging. Here we report an enhanced splint ligation technique, proximal disruptor aided ligation (ProDAL), which allows adequate efficiency toward this purpose. The key to our approach is using multiple DNA oligonucleotides, 'proximal disruptors', to target the RNA substrate sequence next to the ligation site. The binding of disruptors helps to free the ligation site from intramolecular RNA basepairing, and consequently promotes more efficient formation of the pre-ligation complex and a higher overall ligation yield. We used naturally occurring 1.0 kb renilla and 1.9 kb firefly luciferase mRNA sequences to test the efficacy of our approach. ProDAL yielded 9-14% efficiency for the ligation between two RNA substrates, both of which were between 414 and 1313 nucleotides (nt) long. ProDAL also allowed similarly high efficiency for generating kb-long RNA with site-specific internal modification by a simple three-part ligation between two long RNA substrates and a modification-carrying RNA oligonucleotide. In comparison, classical splint ligation yielded a significantly lower efficiency of 0-2% in all cases. We expect that ProDAL will benefit studies involving kb-long RNAs, including translation, long non-coding RNAs, RNA splicing and modification, and large ribonucleoprotein complexes. PMID:27211284

  1. Silver nanoparticles induce pro-inflammatory gene expression and inflammasome activation in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Murphy, A; Casey, A; Byrne, G; Chambers, G; Howe, O

    2016-10-01

    A complete cytotoxic profile of exposure to silver (AgNP) nanoparticles investigating their biological effects on the innate immune response of circulating white blood cells is required to form a complete understanding of the risk posed. This was explored by measuring AgNP-stimulated gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in THP-1 monocytes. A further study, on human monocytes extracted from a cohort of blood samples, was carried out to compare with the AgNP immune response in THP-1 cells along with the detection of pro-IL-1β which is a key mediator of the inflammasome complex. The aims of the study were to clearly demonstrate that AgNP can significantly up-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in both THP-1 cells and primary blood monocytes thus indicating a rapid response to AgNP in circulation. Furthermore, a role for the inflammasome in AgNP response was indicated by pro-IL-1β cleavage and release. These results highlight the potential inflammatory effects of AgNP exposure and the responses evoked should be considered with respect to the potential harm that exposure may cause. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26968431

  2. Pro-Social Behaviour and Behaviour Problems Independently Predict Maternal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Alexandra; Hastings, Richard; Daley, Dave; Stevenson, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities generally report more stress than other parents. Child behavioural features, and specifically their behaviour problems, have been shown to account for some of the variation in parents' experience of stress. However, there has been no exploration of whether the child's pro-social…

  3. Pro-Social Behavior Amongst Students of Tertiary Institutions: An Explorative and a Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quain, Samuel; Yidana, Xiaaba Dantallah; Ambotumah, Bernard Baba; Mensah-Livivnstone, Ike Joe Nii Annang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore antecedents of pro-social behavior amongst university students, using a private university as a case study. Following an explorative research, the study was guided by some theories relating to the phenomenon, focusing on gender and location factors. A quantitative approach was used in the follow up to the…

  4. PRO-COAGULANT CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION IN RESPONSE TO PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    PRO-COAGULANT CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION IN RESPONSE TO PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE
    PS Gilmour, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, and UP Kodavanti, CEMALB, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, and US-EPA, DURHAM, NC.

    Zinc is one of the major transition metal components of ambient and combustio...

  5. Legal Bans on Pro-Suicide Web Sites: An Early Retrospective from Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirkis, Jane; Neal, Luke; Dare, Andrew; Blood, R. Warwick; Studdert, David

    2009-01-01

    There are worldwide concerns that pro-suicide web sites may trigger suicidal behaviors among vulnerable individuals. In 2006, Australia became the first country to criminalize such sites, sparking heated debate. Concerns were expressed that the law casts the criminal net too widely; inappropriately interferes with the autonomy of those who wish to…

  6. 17 CFR 229.914 - (Item 914) Pro forma financial statements: selected financial data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... transaction. (b) Provide pro forma financial information (including oil and gas reserves and cash flow... fiscal year and the latest interim period; (3) Statement of cash flows for the most recent fiscal year... Item (§ 229.914) that is not material for the exercise of prudent judgment in regard to the matter...

  7. 17 CFR 229.914 - (Item 914) Pro forma financial statements: selected financial data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... transaction. (b) Provide pro forma financial information (including oil and gas reserves and cash flow... fiscal year and the latest interim period; (3) Statement of cash flows for the most recent fiscal year... Item (§ 229.914) that is not material for the exercise of prudent judgment in regard to the matter...

  8. 17 CFR 229.914 - (Item 914) Pro forma financial statements: selected financial data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... transaction. (b) Provide pro forma financial information (including oil and gas reserves and cash flow... fiscal year and the latest interim period; (3) Statement of cash flows for the most recent fiscal year... Item (§ 229.914) that is not material for the exercise of prudent judgment in regard to the matter...

  9. 17 CFR 229.914 - (Item 914) Pro forma financial statements: selected financial data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transaction. (b) Provide pro forma financial information (including oil and gas reserves and cash flow... fiscal year and the latest interim period; (3) Statement of cash flows for the most recent fiscal year... Item (§ 229.914) that is not material for the exercise of prudent judgment in regard to the matter...

  10. Pro-B-cell-specific transcription and proapoptotic function of protein kinase Ceta.

    PubMed

    Morrow, T A; Muljo, S A; Zhang, J; Hardwick, J M; Schlissel, M S

    1999-08-01

    Using a subtractive cloning scheme on cDNA prepared from primary pro-B and pre-B cells, we identified several genes whose products regulate apoptosis. We further characterized one of these genes, encoding protein kinase Ceta (PKCeta). PKCeta transcripts were readily detected in pro-B cells but were absent in pre-B cells. Although both a full-length and a truncated form of PKCeta were detectable in bone marrow pro-B cells, transition to the pre-B-cell stage was associated with increased relative levels of truncated PKCeta. We found that PKCeta is proteolyzed in apoptotic lymphocytes, generating a kinase-active fragment identical to the truncated form which is capable of inducing apoptosis when expressed in a pro-B cell line. Caspase-3 can generate an identical PKCeta cleavage product in vitro, and caspase inhibitors prevent the generation of this product during apoptosis in transfected cell lines. Inducible overexpression of either the full-length or truncated form of PKCeta results in cell cycle arrest at the G(1)/S transition. These results suggest that the expression and proteolytic activation of PKCeta play an important role in the regulation of cell division and cell death during early B-cell development. PMID:10409750

  11. 75 FR 38911 - Death of Senator Robert C. Byrd, President Pro Tempore of the Senate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TR06JY10.002 [FR Doc. 2010... two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-16595 Filed 7-2-10; 11:15 am] Billing... 8540 of June 30, 2010 Death of Senator Robert C. Byrd, President Pro Tempore of the Senate By...

  12. Naloxone pro-drug rescues morphine induced respiratory depression in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Wallisch, Michael; El Rody, Nehad M; Huang, Baohua; Koop, Dennis R; Baker, James R; Olsen, George D

    2012-01-15

    Respiratory depression is the main obstacle for the safe administration of morphine for acute pain after injury. Due to this complication, new delivery methods are needed to insure that safe and effective doses of opioid analgesics are administered during emergencies. A depot formulation containing a naloxone pro-drug was designed to release the antidote when morphine causes dangerous hypoxic conditions in the blood. The aim of this work was to test the naloxone release in vivo in response to a severe overdose of morphine in the Sprague-Dawley rat model. Non-invasive two-chamber plethysmography was used to monitor and record respiration and to test the capability of the naloxone pro-drug to respond to and rescue morphine-induced respiratory depression in the animal. We show that the pro-drug formulation can both prevent and reverse severe morphine induced respiratory depression. The animal model demonstrates that co-administration of the naloxone pro-drug reliably antagonizes profound respiratory depressive effects of morphine. PMID:22027217

  13. Thermodynamic effects of replacements of Pro residues in helix interiors of maltose-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, R S; Lingaraju, G M; Bacchawat, Kiran; Surolia, Avadhesha; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2003-12-01

    Introduction of Pro residues into helix interiors results in protein destabilization. It is currently unclear if the converse substitution (i.e., replacement of Pro residues that naturally occur in helix interiors would be stabilizing). Maltose-binding protein is a large 370-amino acid protein that contains 21 Pro residues. Of these, three nonconserved residues (P48, P133, and P159) occur at helix interiors. Each of the residues was replaced with Ala and Ser. Stabilities were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as a function of pH and by isothermal urea denaturation studies as a function of temperature. The P48S and P48A mutants were found to be marginally more stable than the wild-type protein. In the pH range of 5-9, there is an average increase in T(m) values of P48A and P48S of 0.4 degrees C and 0.2 degrees C, respectively, relative to the wild-type protein. The other mutants are less stable than the wild type. Analysis of the effects of such Pro substitutions in MBP and in three other proteins studied to date suggests that substitutions are more likely to be stabilizing if the carbonyl group i-3 or i-4 to the mutation site is not hydrogen bonded in the wild-type protein. PMID:14635128

  14. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS PROGRAM (HAP-PRO): AUTOMATED HAP AND VOC CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the Hazardous Air Pollutant Program (HAP-PRO), version 1.0, automated hazardous air pollutant (HAP) and volatile organic compound (VOC) control technology assessment software, designed to assist permit engineers in reviewing applications for control of air tox...

  15. The antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of green tea polyphenols: a role in cancer prevention*

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Joshua D.; Elias, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, of which (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Studies in animal models of carcinogenesis have shown that green tea and EGCG can inhibit tumorigenesis during the initiation, promotion and progression stages. Many potential mechanisms have been proposed including both antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects, but questions remain regarding the relevance of these mechanisms to cancer prevention. In the present review we will discuss the redox chemistry of the tea catechins and the current literature on the antioxidant and pro-oxidative effects of the green tea polyphenols as they relate to cancer prevention. We report that although the catechins are chemical antioxidants which can quench free radical species and chelate transition metals, there is evidence that some of the effects of these compounds may be related to induction of oxidative stress. Such pro-oxidant effects appear to be responsible for the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. These pro-oxidant effects may also induce endogenous antioxidant systems in normal tissues that offer protection against carcinogenic insult. This review is meant point out understudied areas and stimulate research on the topic with the hope that insights into the mechanisms of cancer preventive activity of tea polyphenols will result. PMID:20558130

  16. "We Don't Know Enough": Environmental Education and Pro-Environmental Behaviour Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajaps, Sandra; McLellan, Ros

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to understand environmental knowledge and attitudes among young people to explain the relationship between environmental education (EE) and reported pro-environmental behaviours (PEB). A mixed-methods design was employed: 88 university students in the UK and Nigeria were surveyed and 6 were subsequently interviewed. The findings…

  17. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1 to be distributed on the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1A to be distributed on the...

  19. Think leader, think White? Capturing and weakening an implicit pro-White leadership bias.

    PubMed

    Gündemir, Seval; Homan, Astrid C; de Dreu, Carsten K W; van Vugt, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Across four studies, we found evidence for an implicit pro-White leadership bias that helps explain the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions. Both White-majority and ethnic minority participants reacted significantly faster when ethnically White names and leadership roles (e.g., manager; Study 1) or leadership traits (e.g., decisiveness; Study 2 & 3) were paired in an Implicit Association Test (IAT) rather than when ethnic minority names and leadership traits were paired. Moreover, the implicit pro-White leadership bias showed discriminant validity with the conventional implicit bias measures (Study 3). Importantly, results showed that the pro-White leadership bias can be weakened when situational cues increase the salience of a dual identity (Study 4). This, in turn, can diminish the explicit pro-White bias in promotion related decision making processes (Study 4). This research offers a new tool to measure the implicit psychological processes underlying the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions and proposes interventions to weaken such biases. PMID:24416181

  20. DL-PRO: A Novel Deep Learning Method for Protein Model Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Son P.; Shang, Yi; Xu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Computational protein structure prediction is very important for many applications in bioinformatics. In the process of predicting protein structures, it is essential to accurately assess the quality of generated models. Although many single-model quality assessment (QA) methods have been developed, their accuracy is not high enough for most real applications. In this paper, a new approach based on C-α atoms distance matrix and machine learning methods is proposed for single-model QA and the identification of native-like models. Different from existing energy/scoring functions and consensus approaches, this new approach is purely geometry based. Furthermore, a novel algorithm based on deep learning techniques, called DL-Pro, is proposed. For a protein model, DL-Pro uses its distance matrix that contains pairwise distances between two residues’ C-α atoms in the model, which sometimes is also called contact map, as an orientation-independent representation. From training examples of distance matrices corresponding to good and bad models, DL-Pro learns a stacked autoencoder network as a classifier. In experiments on selected targets from the Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction (CASP) competition, DL-Pro obtained promising results, outperforming state-of-the-art energy/scoring functions, including OPUS-CA, DOPE, DFIRE, and RW. PMID:25392745