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Sample records for probiotic bacterium escherichia

  1. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (Mutaflor): new insights into an old probiotic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Christoph A; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms which contribute health benefits to their host. The numerous mechanisms of the probiotic-acting microorganisms include the induction of expression of certain cytokines and increasing the secretion of IgA and mucin. They activate lymphocytes and macrophages and inhibit the adhesion and invasion of epithelial cells. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (Mutaflor) is one of the most investigated probiotic bacteria. While the number of reports discussing the underlying mechanisms of Mutaflor has increased rapidly in recent years, novel clinical studies are missing. Here we provide an overview of the mechanisms of action and clinical studies related to Mutaflor. While most of the studies had positive outcomes, there are also a few in which Mutaflor did not perform to its expectations. PMID:22179217

  2. Quorum sensing in the probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (Mutaflor) – evidence that furanosyl borate diester (AI-2) is influencing the cytokine expression in the DSS colitis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background “Quorum sensing” (QS) is the phenomenon which allows single bacterial cells to measure the concentration of bacterial signal molecules. Two principle different QS systems are known, the Autoinducer 1 system (AI-1) for the intraspecies communication using different Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) and AI-2 for the interspecies communication. Aim of this study was to investigate QS of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (Mutaflor). Results While E. coli Nissle is producing AI-2 in a density dependent manner, no AI-1 was produced. To study the effect of AI-2 in the DSS (dextran sulphate sodium) induced mouse model of acute colitis, we silenced the corresponding gene luxS by intron insertion. The mutant bacterium E. coli Nissle::luxS was equally effective in colonizing the colon and the mutation turned out to be 100% stable during the course of the experiment. Isolating RNA from the colon mucosa and performing semiquantitative RT PCR, we were able to show that the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-y was suppressed in mice being infected with the E. coli Nissle wild type. Mice infected with the E. coli Nissle::luxS mutant showed a suppressed expression of IL-10 compared to uninfected mice, while the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was higher in these mice. The expression of mBD-1 was suppressed in mice being infected with the mutant in comparison to the mice not infected or infected with the wild type. No differences were seen in the histological examination of the colon sections in the different groups of mice. Conclusions E. coli Nissle is producing AI-2 molecules, which are influencing the expression of cytokines in the mucosa of the colon in the DSS mice. However, if QS has a direct influence on the probiotic properties of E. coli Nissle remains to be elucidated. PMID:22862922

  3. Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V; Garg, R

    2009-01-01

    The term "probiotic" was first used in 1965, by Lilly and Stillwell, to describe substances secreted by one organism which stimulate the growth of another. The use of antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy and irradiation, amongst other means of treatment, may cause alterations in the composition and have an effect on the GIT flora. Therefore, the introduction of beneficial bacterial species to GI tract may be a very attractive option to re-establish the microbial equilibrium and prevent disease. Prebiotic is a non-digestible food ingredient that confers benefits on the host by selectively stimulating one bacterium or a group of bacteria in the colon with probiotic properties. Both probiotics and prebiotics are together called as Synbiotics. Various bacterial genera most commonly used in probiotic preparations are Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Escherichia, Enterococcus, Bacillus and Streptococcus . Some fungal strains belonging to Saccharomyces have also been used. Probiotics have been shown to be effective in varied clinical conditions- ranging from infantile diarrhoea, necrotizing enterocolitis, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, relapsing Clostridium difficle colitis, Helicobacter pylori infections, inflammatory bowel disease to cancer, female uro-genital infection and surgical infections. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has proven beneficial affects on intestinal immunity. It increases the number of IgA and other immunoglobulins secreting cells in the intestinal mucosa. It also stimulates local release of interferons. It facilitates antigen transport to underlying lymphoid cells, which serves to increase antigen uptake in Peyer's patches. Probiotics are live microorganisms, so it is possible that they may result in infection in the host. The risk and morbidity of sepsis due to probiotic bacteria should be weighed against the potential for sepsis due to more pathological bacteria and the morbidity of diseases for which probiotic bacteria are being used as therapeutic agents. Also, future, well-designed placebo controlled studies with validated results are required for ascertaining the true health benefits of probiotics The important point in this regard is careful selection of the probiotic agent, its dose standardization and a thorough knowledge of its beneficial effects. PMID:19584499

  4. Genotoxicity of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 strain cannot be dissociated from its probiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Olier, Maïwenn; Marcq, Ingrid; Salvador-Cartier, Christel; Secher, Thomas; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Boury, Michèle; Bacquié, Valérie; Pénary, Marie; Gaultier, Eric; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Fioramonti, Jean; Oswald, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Oral administration of the probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 improves chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, but the molecular basis for this therapeutic efficacy is unknown. E. coli Nissle 1917 harbors a cluster of genes coding for the biosynthesis of hybrid nonribosomal peptide-polyketide(s). This biosynthetic pathway confers the ability for bacteria to induce DNA double strand breaks in eukaryotic cells. Here we reveal that inactivation of the clbA gene within this genomic island abrogated the ability for the strain to induce DNA damage and chromosomal abnormalities in non-transformed cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells but is required for the probiotic activity of E. coli Nissle 1917. Thus, evaluation of colitis severity induced in rodent fed with E. coli Nissle 1917 or an isogenic non-genotoxic mutant demonstrated the need for a functional biosynthetic pathway both in the amelioration of the disease and in the modulation of cytokine expression. Feeding rodents with a complemented strain for which genotoxicity was restored confirmed that this biosynthetic pathway contributes to the health benefits of the probiotic by modulating its immunomodulatory properties. Our data provide additional evidence for the benefit of this currently used probiotic in colitis but remind us that an efficient probiotic may also have side effects as any other medication. PMID:22895085

  5. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1, a probiotic bacterium producing exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Xia, Xiudong; Chen, Xiaohong; Rui, Xin; Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Qiuqin; Zhou, Jianzhong; Dong, Mingsheng

    2015-09-10

    Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1 is a probiotic bacterium producing exopolysaccharides (EPS), which was isolated from traditional Sayram ropy fermented milk in southern Xinjiang, China. The genome consists of a circular 2,084,058bp chromosome with no plasmid. The genome sequence indicated that this strain includes a 15.20kb gene cluster involved in EPS biosynthesis. Genome sequencing information has provided the basis for understanding the potential molecular mechanism behind the EPS production. PMID:26065338

  6. Recombinant production of omega-3 fatty acids by probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917.

    PubMed

    Amiri-Jami, Mitra; Abdelhamid, Ahmed Ghamry; Hazaa, Mahmoud; Kakuda, Yukio; Griffths, Mansel W

    2015-10-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have beneficial effects on human health. The probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle is unable to produce either EPA or DHA. Escherichia coli Nissle was transformed with the pfBS-PS plasmid carrying the EPA/DHA gene cluster, previously isolated from a marine bacterium. The transgenic E. coli Nissle produced EPA when grown at 10ºC (16.52 ± 1.4 mg g(-1) cell dry weight), 15ºC (31.36 ± 0.25 mg g(-1) cell dry weight), 20ºC (13.71 ± 2.8 mg g(-1) cell dry weight), 25ºC (11.33 ± 0.44 mg g(-1) cell dry weight) or 30ºC (0.668 ± 0.073 mg g(-1) cell dry weight). Although DHA was also produced at all these temperatures, it comprised less than 0.2% of total extracted fatty acids. Transcriptomic analysis using Reverse Transcription qPCR showed upregulation of the entire gene cluster in E. coli Nissle. Among EPA/DHA genes, pfaB, pfaC and pfaD were overexpressed (expression ratio of 181.9, 39.86 and 131.61, respectively) as compared to pfaA (expression ratio of 3.40) and pfaE (expression ratio of 4.05). The EPA/DHA-producing probiotic E. coli Nissle may be used as a safe, alternative and economic source for the industrial and pharmaceutical production of EPA and DHA. PMID:26371149

  7. Molecular Characterization and In Vitro Analyses of a Sporogenous Bacterium with Potential Probiotic Properties.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ramkrishna; Pal, Dibyarupa; Kodali, Vidya Prabhakar; Das, Subhasish; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar

    2010-10-01

    The Gram-positive thin rods of a Bacillus species were identified and designated as Bacillus coagulans RK - 02 through the standard microbiological and biochemical characterization procedures, followed by data analysis and comparison with the characteristics given in Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. The culture was further characterized and confirmed as Bacillus coagulans by 16S rDNA sequence analysis wherein about 755 nucleotides of 16S rDNA was amplified and cloned in pGEM-T vector and subsequently sequenced. Sequence was blasted against the nr database of NCBI. Multiple alignments were done with some selected and related sequences using Clustal W. Phylogenetic trees were drawn with the same software after the distances were determined by neighbor-joining algorithm. The in vitro studies on the probiotic properties demonstrated that our isolate could prove to be a potential probiotic with spore-forming and lactic acid-producing abilities coupled with acid and bile tolerance properties and antimicrobial action. In addition to these characteristics, the bacterium also produced enzymes such as amylase, cellulase, lipase, protease, lactase and catalase, which can help in improving digestion and overall health, alleviate lactose intolerance and remove oxidative stresses, required for the well-being of the consumers. In our previously reported studies, an exopolysaccharide (EPS), a probioactive molecule produced by the same bacterium, showed very significant antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and emulsification activities. Thus, Bacillus coagulans RK - 02 is a well-characterized promising probiotic for its potential commercial applications to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and functional food formulations with care-free storage. PMID:26781238

  8. Alteration of the Canine Small-Intestinal Lactic Acid Bacterium Microbiota by Feeding of Potential Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Manninen, Titta J. K.; Rinkinen, Minna L.; Beasley, Shea S.; Saris, Per E. J.

    2006-01-01

    Five potentially probiotic canine fecal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus fermentum LAB8, Lactobacillus salivarius LAB9, Weissella confusa LAB10, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LAB11, and Lactobacillus mucosae LAB12, were fed to five permanently fistulated beagles for 7 days. The survival of the strains and their potential effects on the indigenous intestinal LAB microbiota were monitored for 17 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated that the five fed LAB strains survived in the upper gastrointestinal tract and modified the dominant preexisting indigenous jejunal LAB microbiota of the dogs. When the LAB supplementation was ceased, DGGE analysis of jejunal chyme showed that all the fed LAB strains were undetectable after 7 days. However, the diversity of the intestinal indigenous microbiota of the dogs, as characterized from jejunal chyme plated on Lactobacillus selective medium without acetic acid, was reduced and did not return to the original level during the study period. In all but one dog, an indigenous Lactobacillus acidophilus strain emerged as the dominant LAB strain. In conclusion, strains LAB8 to LAB12 have potential as probiotic strains for dogs as they survive in and dominate the jejunal LAB microbiota during feeding and have the ability to modify the intestinal microbiota. PMID:17021203

  9. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of an exopolysaccharide from a probiotic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Vidya Prabhakar; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2008-02-01

    Probiotic bacteria synthesize extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) with commercially significant physiological and therapeutic activities. This important class of biomolecules is also characterized by their ability to remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are formed in the intestine by various metabolic reactions; hence, they exhibit antioxidant activities. Our probiotic bacterium, Bacillus coagulans RK-02, produces an EPS during the exponential and stationary growth phases when grown in a glucose mineral salts medium. The time course of EPS synthesis was studied with respect to biomass growth. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of isolated EPS were studied by various methods, including the beta-carotene-linoleic acid model system, a superoxide radical scavenging assay using the PMS-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium system, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, a hydroxyl radical scavenging assay using the ascorbic acid-Cu(2+)-cytochrome c system and an in vitro microsome peroxidation inhibition study using a thiobarbituric acid assay. The antioxidant activities were compared to known antioxidants vitamin C and E, which were used as reference standards. The results showed that the EPS, which is a heteropolymer composed of four monosaccharides, produced by B. coagulans RK-02 had significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. PMID:18246578

  10. The General Composition of the Faecal Virome of Pigs Depends on Age, but Not on Feeding with a Probiotic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Sachsenröder, Jana; Twardziok, Sven O.; Scheuch, Matthias; Johne, Reimar

    2014-01-01

    Background The pig faecal virome, which comprises the community of viruses present in pig faeces, is complex and consists of pig viruses, bacteriophages, transiently passaged plant viruses and other minor virus species. Only little is known about factors influencing its general composition. Here, the effect of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) NCIMB 10415 on the pig faecal virome composition was analysed in a pig feeding trial with sows and their piglets, which received either the probiotic bacterium or not. Results From 8 pooled faecal samples derived from the feeding trial, DNA and RNA virus particles were prepared and subjected to process-controlled Next Generation Sequencing resulting in 390,650 sequence reads. In average, 14% of the reads showed significant sequence identities to known viruses. The percentage of detected mammalian virus sequences was highest (55–77%) in the samples of the youngest piglets and lowest (8–10%) in the samples of the sows. In contrast, the percentage of bacteriophage sequences increased from 22–44% in the youngest piglets to approximately 90% in the sows. The dominating mammalian viruses differed remarkably among 12 day-old piglets (kobuvirus), 54 day-old piglets (boca-, dependo- and pig stool-associated small circular DNA virus [PigSCV]) and the sows (PigSCV, circovirus and “circovirus-like” viruses CB-A and RW-A). In addition, the Shannon index, which reflects the diversity of sequences present in a sample, was generally higher for the sows as compared to the piglets. No consistent differences in the virome composition could be identified between the viromes of the probiotic bacterium-treated group and the control group. Conclusion The analysis indicates that the pig faecal virome shows a high variability and that its general composition is mainly dependent on the age of the pigs. Changes caused by feeding with the probiotic bacterium E. faecium could not be demonstrated using the applied metagenomics method. PMID:24586429

  11. Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 reduces growth, Shiga toxin expression, release and thus cytotoxicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Mashkoor; Guenther, Sebastian; Schierack, Peter; Tedin, Karsten; Wieler, Lothar H

    2015-01-01

    Due to increased release or production of Shiga toxin by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) after exposure to antimicrobial agents, the role of antimicrobial agents in EHEC mediated infections remains controversial. Probiotics are therefore rapidly gaining interest as an alternate therapeutic option. The well-known probiotic strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) was tested in vitro to determine its probiotic effects on growth, Shiga toxin (Stx) gene expression, Stx amount and associated cytotoxicity on the most important EHEC strains of serotype O104:H4 and O157:H7. Following co-culture of EcN:EHEC in broth for 4 and 24 h, the probiotic effects on EHEC growth, toxin gene expression, Stx amount and cytotoxicity were determined using quantitative real time-PCR, Stx-ELISA and Vero cytotoxicity assays. Probiotic EcN strongly reduced EHEC numbers (cfu) of O104:H4 up to (68%) and O157:H7 to (72.2%) (p<0.05) in LB broth medium whereas the non-probiotic E. coli strain MG1655 had no effect on EHEC growth. The level of stx expression was significantly down-regulated, particularly for the stx2a gene. The stx down-regulation in EcN co-culture was not due to reduced numbers of EHEC. A significant inhibition in Stx amounts and cytotoxicity were also observed in sterile supernatants of EcN:EHEC co-cultures. These findings indicate that probiotic EcN displays strong inhibitory effects on growth, Shiga toxin gene expression, amount and cytotoxicity of EHEC strains. Thus, EcN may be considered as a putative therapeutic candidate, in particular against EHEC O104:H4 and O157:H7. PMID:25465158

  12. Complete genome sequence of the gram-negative probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917.

    PubMed

    Reister, Marten; Hoffmeier, Klaus; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Bjoern; Liang, Chunguang; Rund, Stefan; Dandekar, Thomas; Sonnenborn, Ulrich; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A

    2014-10-10

    Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is the active principle of a probiotic preparation (trade name Mutaflor(®)) used for the treatment of patients with intestinal diseases such as ulcerative colitis and diarrhea. It has GRAS (generally recognized as save) status and has been shown to be a therapeutically effective drug (Sonnenborn and Schulze, 2009). The complete genomic DNA sequence will help in identifying genes and their products which are essential for the strains probiotic nature. Genbank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number: CP007799 (chromosome). PMID:25093936

  13. Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Gregor; Hammond, Jo-Anne

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To define the term probiotics, to indicate how to identify products that have been proven beneficial, and to assess the quality of evidence regarding probiotics. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE A few level I studies support the effectiveness of specific probiotics for certain diagnoses. For most so-called probiotics, however, weak or no evidence supports their effectiveness. MAIN MESSAGE Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Level I evidence supports use of VSL#3 for maintaining remission of inflammatory colitis. Probiotics for treating vaginal infections, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14, have level I evidence of effectiveness, but are not available in Canada. Specific probiotics taken for certain indications improve health and have few side effects. CONCLUSION Limited but good evidence supports the role of certain probiotics in medical practice. Because consumer pressure will undoubtedly stimulate further interest in probiotics, family doctors need to be informed about them so they can advise their patients appropriately. PMID:16353831

  14. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Altermann, Eric; Russell, W. Michael; Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Buck, B. Logan; McAuliffe, Olivia; Souther, Nicole; Dobson, Alleson; Duong, Tri; Callanan, Michael; Lick, Sonja; Hamrick, Alice; Cano, Raul; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a probiotic bacterium that has been produced commercially since 1972. The complete genome is 1,993,564 nt and devoid of plasmids. The average GC content is 34.71% with 1,864 predicted ORFs, of which 72.5% were functionally classified. Nine phage-related integrases were predicted, but no complete prophages were found. However, three unique regions designated as potential autonomous units (PAUs) were identified. These units resemble a unique structure and bear characteristics of both plasmids and phages. Analysis of the three PAUs revealed the presence of two R/M systems and a prophage maintenance system killer protein. A spacers interspersed direct repeat locus containing 32 nearly perfect 29-bp repeats was discovered and may provide a unique molecular signature for this organism. In silico analyses predicted 17 transposase genes and a chromosomal locus for lactacin B, a class II bacteriocin. Several mucus- and fibronectin-binding proteins, implicated in adhesion to human intestinal cells, were also identified. Gene clusters for transport of a diverse group of carbohydrates, including fructooligosaccharides and raffinose, were present and often accompanied by transcriptional regulators of the lacI family. For protein degradation and peptide utilization, the organism encoded 20 putative peptidases, homologs for PrtP and PrtM, and two complete oligopeptide transport systems. Nine two-component regulatory systems were predicted, some associated with determinants implicated in bacteriocin production and acid tolerance. Collectively, these features within the genome sequence of L. acidophilus are likely to contribute to the organisms' gastric survival and promote interactions with the intestinal mucosa and microbiota. PMID:15671160

  15. Proteomic analysis of outer membrane vesicles from the probiotic strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Laura; Toloza, Lorena; Giménez, Rosa; Odena, Antonia; Oliveira, Eliandre; Aguilar, Juan; Badia, Josefa; Baldomà, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is a probiotic used for the treatment of intestinal disorders. EcN improves gastrointestinal homeostasis and microbiota balance; however, little is known about how this probiotic delivers effector molecules to the host. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are constitutively produced by Gram-negative bacteria and have a relevant role in bacteria-host interactions. Using 1D SDS-PAGE and highly sensitive LC-MS/MS analysis we identified in this study 192 EcN vesicular proteins with high confidence in three independent biological replicates. Of these proteins, 18 were encoded by strain-linked genes and 57 were common to pathogen-derived OMVs. These proteins may contribute to the ability of this probiotic to colonize the human gut as they fulfil functions related to adhesion, immune modulation or bacterial survival in host niches. This study describes the first global OMV proteome of a probiotic strain and provides evidence that probiotic-derived OMVs contain proteins that can target these vesicles to the host and mediate their beneficial effects on intestinal function. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000367 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000367). PMID:24307187

  16. Use of probiotics to reduce faecal shedding of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rigobelo, E E C; Karapetkov, N; Maest, S A; Avila, F A; McIntosh, D

    2015-03-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic, foodborne pathogens of humans. Ruminants, including sheep, are the primary reservoirs of STEC and there is a need to develop intervention strategies to reduce the entry of STEC into the food chain. The initiation of the majority of bacterial, enteric infections involves colonisation of the gut mucosal surface by the pathogen. However, probiotic bacteria can serve to decrease the severity of infection via a number of mechanisms including competition for receptors and nutrients, and/or the synthesis of organic acids and bacteriocins that create an environment unfavourable for pathogen development. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the administration of a probiotic mixture to sheep experimentally infected with a non-O157 STEC strain, carrying stx1, stx2 and eae genes, was able to decrease faecal shedding of the pathogen. The probiotic mixture contained Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecium. The numbers of non-O157 STEC in faecal samples collected from sheep receiving daily doses of the probiotic mixture were significantly lower at the 3rd, 5th and 6th week post-inoculation when compared to the levels recorded in untreated animals. It was concluded that administration of the probiotic mixture reduced faecal shedding of non-O157 STEC in sheep, and holds potential as a pre-harvest intervention method to reduce transmission to humans. PMID:25380795

  17. Feeding of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 differentially affects shedding of enteric viruses in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Effects of probiotic bacteria on viral infections have been described previously. Here, two groups of sows and their piglets were fed with or without feed supplementation of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415. Shedding of enteric viruses naturally occurring in these pigs was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. No differences between the groups were recorded for hepatitis E virus, encephalomyocarditis virus and norovirus. In contrast, astrovirus was exclusively detected in the non-supplemented control group. Rotavirus was shedded later and with lower amounts in the probiotic piglet group (p?probiotic supplemented group compared to the non-supplemented control group. In addition, differences were evident for CD21/MHCII-positive (p?probiotic bacteria could have effects on virus shedding in naturally infected pigs, which depend on the virus type. These effects seem to be caused by immunological changes; however, the distinct mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. PMID:22838386

  18. Voluntarily exposure to a single, high dose of probiotic Escherichia coli results in prolonged colonisation.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, T M; Beimfohr, C; Geske, T; Zimmermann, K

    2014-12-01

    The ability of probiotic Escherichia coli to colonise the human gut was determined in a volunteer study following national (German) regulations. Five persons voluntarily took a single, high dose of Symbioflor®2, which contains 6 different probiotic E. coli genotypes, to assess tolerance of the product, after which presence of E. coli in their faeces was tested for a follow-up period of 30 weeks. Intake of the product did not result in severe side effect in any of the individuals, though mild side effects were observed. Stool analysis showed that the probiotic E. coli had colonised all five persons for a period of 10 to 30 weeks (mean: 18.7 weeks, median: 25.7 weeks). In two individuals there was evidence of competition between host E. coli and probiotic E. coli, while in two others total E. coli levels increased persistently with at least a factor of 10 as a result of the received dose. In one individual, who had lacked detectable levels of faecal E. coli at the start of the post-authorisation safety study, long-term colonisation was established, first by probiotic E. coli exclusively, which were later replaced by host E. coli strains. In four out of five individuals, total E. coli faecal counts were higher on average than at the start of the experiment, while in none total levels exceeded 5×107 cfu/g. When the specific genotypes of the 6 probiotic E. coli were analysed, it was found that one and the same common genotype was responsible for prolonged colonisation in all five individuals. PMID:24985025

  19. Antioxidants keep the potentially probiotic but highly oxygen-sensitive human gut bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii alive at ambient air.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Tanweer; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J M

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial human gut microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a 'probiotic of the future' since it produces high amounts of butyrate and anti-inflammatory compounds. However, this bacterium is highly oxygen-senstive, making it notoriously difficult to cultivate and preserve. This has so far precluded its clinical application in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. The present studies were therefore aimed at developing a strategy to keep F. prausnitzii alive at ambient air. Our previous research showed that F. prausnitzii can survive in moderately oxygenized environments like the gut mucosa by transfer of electrons to oxygen. For this purpose, the bacterium exploits extracellular antioxidants, such as riboflavin and cysteine, that are abundantly present in the gut. We therefore tested to what extent these antioxidants can sustain the viability of F. prausnitzii at ambient air. The present results show that cysteine can facilitate the survival of F. prausnitzii upon exposure to air, and that this effect is significantly enhanced the by addition of riboflavin and the cryoprotectant inulin. The highly oxygen-sensitive gut bacterium F. prausnitzii can be kept alive at ambient air for 24 h when formulated with the antioxidants cysteine and riboflavin plus the cryoprotectant inulin. Improved formulations were obtained by addition of the bulking agents corn starch and wheat bran. Our present findings pave the way towards the biomedical exploitation of F. prausnitzii in redox-based therapeutics for treatment of dysbiosis-related inflammatory disorders of the human gut. PMID:24798051

  20. Antioxidants Keep the Potentially Probiotic but Highly Oxygen-Sensitive Human Gut Bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Alive at Ambient Air

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. Tanweer; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial human gut microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a ‘probiotic of the future’ since it produces high amounts of butyrate and anti-inflammatory compounds. However, this bacterium is highly oxygen-senstive, making it notoriously difficult to cultivate and preserve. This has so far precluded its clinical application in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. The present studies were therefore aimed at developing a strategy to keep F. prausnitzii alive at ambient air. Our previous research showed that F. prausnitzii can survive in moderately oxygenized environments like the gut mucosa by transfer of electrons to oxygen. For this purpose, the bacterium exploits extracellular antioxidants, such as riboflavin and cysteine, that are abundantly present in the gut. We therefore tested to what extent these antioxidants can sustain the viability of F. prausnitzii at ambient air. The present results show that cysteine can facilitate the survival of F. prausnitzii upon exposure to air, and that this effect is significantly enhanced the by addition of riboflavin and the cryoprotectant inulin. The highly oxygen-sensitive gut bacterium F. prausnitzii can be kept alive at ambient air for 24 h when formulated with the antioxidants cysteine and riboflavin plus the cryoprotectant inulin. Improved formulations were obtained by addition of the bulking agents corn starch and wheat bran. Our present findings pave the way towards the biomedical exploitation of F. prausnitzii in redox-based therapeutics for treatment of dysbiosis-related inflammatory disorders of the human gut. PMID:24798051

  1. Multistep mechanism of probiotic bacterium, the effect on innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Amit-Romach, Einat; Uni, Zehava; Reifen, Ram

    2010-02-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease are still not fully understood. However, evidence from both animal models and clinical observations suggests luminal bacteria as the most probable inducer of this disease. The intestinal bacterial microbiota may be modified by dietary addition of viable probiotic bacteria, thereby constituting an alternative approach to disease prevention and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two probiotic regiments; Lactobacillus GG and a mixture of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium lactis (YO-MIX Y 109 FRO 1000) in both normal and trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid colitis-induced rats. Colon morphology and damage were evaluated histologically; colonic tissues were used for mRNA analysis, using real-time PCR. Administration of both probiotics reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6 and increased the expression of mucin 2 in compared with colitis group and reduced the inflammatory response. These results provide additional support for the positive effect of probiotics in the gut and may shed light on the mechanism by which probiotic bacteria exert their action in an animal model. PMID:19998380

  2. The probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 inhibits propagating colonic contractions in the rat isolated large intestine.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, J E; Mohan, V; Peters, J; Anderson, R C; Gopal, P K; Roy, N C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to test an in vitro motility model by investigating whether a probiotic that reduces diarrhea in humans would reduce motility in the rat colon in vitro. The probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) the active ingredient in Mutaflor® was used as an example probiotic because it is effective for treating infectious diarrheal diseases. The effect of EcN on motility was compared in two colonic preparations. In distal colon segments EcN extract decreased the tension of spontaneous contractions by 74% and frequency by 46% compared with pre-treatment controls. In the whole large intestine the number of synchronized spontaneous propagating contractions decreased by 86% when EcN extract was applied externally and 69% when applied via the lumen compared with pre-treatment. From the inhibition produced by EcN extract in the distal colon segment a myogenic action was inferred and in the whole large intestine neural involvement was implicated. Both are consistent with its anti-diarrheal effect in humans. PMID:25415771

  3. Response of nursery pigs to a synbiotic preparation of starch and an anti-Escherichia coli K88 probiotic.

    PubMed

    Krause, D O; Bhandari, S K; House, J D; Nyachoti, C M

    2010-12-01

    Postweaning diarrhea in pigs is frequently caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC). The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of E. coli probiotics (PRO) in young pigs challenged with E. coli K88. We also tested the synbiotic interaction with raw potato starch (RPS), which can be used as a prebiotic. Forty 17-day-old weaned piglets were randomly assigned to four treatments: treatment 1, positive-control diet (C), no probiotics or RPS but containing in-feed antibiotics; treatment 2, probiotic (PRO), no feed antibiotics plus a 50:50 mixture of probiotic E. coli strains UM-2 and UM-7; treatment 3, 14% RPS, no antibiotics (RPS); treatment 4, 14% RPS plus a 50:50 mixture of probiotic E. coli strains UM-2 and UM-7, no antibiotics (PRO-RPS). The pigs were challenged with pathogenic E. coli K88 strains on day 7 of the experiment (24-day-old pigs) and euthanized on day 10 of the experiment (35-day-old pigs). Probiotic and pathogenic E. coli strains were enumerated by selective enrichment on antibiotics, and microbial community analysis was conducted using terminal restriction length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes. The combination of raw potato starch and the probiotic had a beneficial effect on piglet growth performance and resulted in a reduction of diarrhea and increased microbial diversity in the gut. We conclude that the use of E. coli probiotic strains against E. coli K88 in the presence of raw potato starch is effective in reducing the negative effects of ETEC in a piglet challenge model. PMID:20952649

  4. Influence of Probiotic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the gut of wild shrimp Penaeus monodon in turn as a potent growth promoter and immune enhancer in Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Navinchandran, Manohar; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Moovendhan, Subramanian; Ramasubburayan, Ramasamy; Prakash, Santhiyagu; Immanuel, Grasian; Palavesam, Arunachalam

    2013-10-24

    A probiotic bacterium isolated from the gut of wild shrimp Penaeus monodon rendered maximum antagonistic activity against shrimp pathogens and was capable of producing extracellular enzymes. The probiotic bacterium was identified as Bacillus cereus through 16S rRNA sequencing. The lyophilized B.cereus was supplemented with shrimp basal diet at four different concentrations (0.1 - 0.4% / 100g feed) in D1-D4 diets. The viability of probiotic bacterium in the test diets was evaluated during the study period at various time intervals. The viability ranged from 50.24 1.42 to 180.34 1.30 CFU/g in D1 to D3 diets on the 30(th) day, whereas it was slightly declined from 45.23 1.30 to 169.13 1.18 CFU/g during the 90(th) day of storage. A control diet (C), devoid of probiotic supplementation was also simultaneously prepared. During experimentation, P. monodon post larvae (PL-15) were cultured in individual one tonne capacity FRP tanks in triplicates provided with equal amount of substratum (clay soil) and fed with these respective diets at ad libitum for 90 days. Survival was high (82.0 1.60%) in D4 diet fed shrimp as against a low survival of 65.0 1.33% displayed by control diet fed shrimp. Overall growth responses inferred that a maximum production of 10.45 0.275g, SGR of 4.40 0.179% and a better FCR of 1.27 0.081 were obtained in D4 diet fed shrimp. However, the water quality parameters showed non significant ( P> 0.05) variations among the control and the probiotic treated groups. The tested immunological parameters such as Total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst activity, lysozyme activity, plasma protein concentration and bactericidal activity were higher in D4 diet fed P.monodon, when compared to that of other diets fed shrimp. It is therefore suggested that lyophilized probiotic B.cereus at a concentration of 0.4%/100g feed was efficient in stimulating the growth and immunity in shrimp. PMID:24513496

  5. Influence of probiotic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the gut of wild shrimp Penaeus monodon in turn as a potent growth promoter and immune enhancer in P. monodon.

    PubMed

    NavinChandran, Manohar; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Moovendhan, Subramanian; Ramasubburayan, Ramasamy; Prakash, Santhiyagu; Immanuel, Grasian; Palavesam, Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    A probiotic bacterium isolated from the gut of wild shrimp Penaeus monodon rendered maximum antagonistic activity against shrimp pathogens and was capable of producing extracellular enzymes. The probiotic bacterium was identified as Bacillus cereus through 16S rRNA sequencing. The lyophilized B. cereus was supplemented with shrimp basal diet at four different concentrations (0.10.4%/100 g feed) in D1D4 diets. The viability of probiotic bacterium in the test diets was evaluated during the study period at various time intervals. The viability ranged from 50.24 1.42 to 180.34 1.30 CFU/g in D1 to D3 diets on the 30th day, whereas it was slightly declined from 45.23 1.30 to 169.13 1.18 CFU/g during the 90th day of storage. A control diet (C), devoid of probiotic supplementation was also simultaneously prepared. During experimentation, P. monodon postlarvae (PL-15) were cultured in individual one tonne capacity FRP tanks in triplicates provided with equal amount of substratum (clay soil) and fed with these respective diets at ad libitum for 90 days. Survival was high (82.0 1.60%) in D4 diet fed shrimp as against a low survival of 65.0 1.33% displayed by control diet fed shrimp. Overall growth responses inferred that a maximum production of 10.45 0.275 g, SGR of 4.40 0.179% and a better FCR of 1.27 0.081 were obtained in D4 diet fed shrimp. However, the water quality parameters showed nonsignificant (P > 0.05) variations among the control and the probiotic treated groups. The tested immunological parameters such as Total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst activity, lysozyme activity, plasma protein concentration and bactericidal activity were higher in D4 diet fed P. monodon, when compared to that of other diets fed shrimp. It is therefore suggested that lyophilized probiotic B. cereus at a concentration of 0.4%/100 g feed was efficient in stimulating the growth and immunity in shrimp. PMID:24516873

  6. Colicin E2 Expression in Lactobacillus brevis DT24, A Vaginal Probiotic Isolate, against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Disha; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to combat the urinary tract infection in women. During menstruation elevated protein concentration and increase in oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations with decrease in vaginal Lactobacilli all together contribute to urinary tract infections. Lactobacillus species are a predominant member of the vaginal microflora and are critical in the prevention of a number of urogenital diseases. In order to increase antimicrobial potential of vaginal Lactobacilli, bacteriocin colicin E2 which has specific activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli has been overexpressed in vaginal probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24. Recombinant Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 showed much higher inhibitory activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli than wild type L. brevis DT24 in vitro. Efficacy of probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 protein is required for further in vivo evaluation. PMID:24649377

  7. The Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 Reduces Pathogen Invasion and Modulates Cytokine Expression in Caco-2 Cells Infected with Crohn's Disease-Associated E. coli LF82 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Claudia; Ding, Yaoyao; Petermann, Ivonne; Knapp, Christoph; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2011-01-01

    Increased numbers of adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) have been found in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. In this report, we investigate the potential of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) to reduce features associated with AIEC pathogenicity in an already established infection with AIEC reference strain LF82. PMID:21317252

  8. The probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 reduces pathogen invasion and modulates cytokine expression in Caco-2 cells infected with Crohn's disease-associated E. coli LF82.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Claudia; Ding, Yaoyao; Petermann, Ivonne; Knapp, Christoph; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2011-04-01

    Increased numbers of adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) have been found in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. In this report, we investigate the potential of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) to reduce features associated with AIEC pathogenicity in an already established infection with AIEC reference strain LF82. PMID:21317252

  9. The probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 enhances early gastrointestinal maturation in young turkey poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns over the use of antibiotics as growth promoters has led to interest in finding alternative growth promoters such as natural compounds and probiotics. Supplementing feed with probiotics has shown to enhance the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development of chickens and turkeys. The human pro...

  10. Determinants of spontaneous mutation in the bacterium Escherichia coli as revealed by whole-genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Foster, Patricia L; Lee, Heewook; Popodi, Ellen; Townes, Jesse P; Tang, Haixu

    2015-11-01

    A complete understanding of evolutionary processes requires that factors determining spontaneous mutation rates and spectra be identified and characterized. Using mutation accumulation followed by whole-genome sequencing, we found that the mutation rates of three widely diverged commensal Escherichia coli strains differ only by about 50%, suggesting that a rate of 1-2 10(-3) mutations per generation per genome is common for this bacterium. Four major forces are postulated to contribute to spontaneous mutations: intrinsic DNA polymerase errors, endogenously induced DNA damage, DNA damage caused by exogenous agents, and the activities of error-prone polymerases. To determine the relative importance of these factors, we studied 11 strains, each defective for a major DNA repair pathway. The striking result was that only loss of the ability to prevent or repair oxidative DNA damage significantly impacted mutation rates or spectra. These results suggest that, with the exception of oxidative damage, endogenously induced DNA damage does not perturb the overall accuracy of DNA replication in normally growing cells and that repair pathways may exist primarily to defend against exogenously induced DNA damage. The thousands of mutations caused by oxidative damage recovered across the entire genome revealed strong local-sequence biases of these mutations. Specifically, we found that the identity of the 3' base can affect the mutability of a purine by oxidative damage by as much as eightfold. PMID:26460006

  11. Fermentation of Propionibacterium acnes, a Commensal Bacterium in the Human Skin Microbiome, as Skin Probiotics against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinghua; Kuo, Sherwin; Coda, Alvin; Jiang, Yong; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial interference creates an ecological competition between commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Through fermentation of milk with gut-friendly bacteria, yogurt is an excellent aid to balance the bacteriological ecosystem in the human intestine. Here, we demonstrate that fermentation of glycerol with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a skin commensal bacterium, can function as a skin probiotic for in vitro and in vivo growth suppression of USA300, the most prevalent community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). We also promote the notion that inappropriate use of antibiotics may eliminate the skin commensals, making it more difficult to fight pathogen infection. This study warrants further investigation to better understand the role of fermentation of skin commensals in infectious disease and the importance of the human skin microbiome in skin health. PMID:23405142

  12. ORAL TREATMENT WITH THE PROBIOTIC ESCHERICHIA COLI NISSLE 1917 IMPROVES BODY WEIGHT AND MODULATES THE STRESS RESPONSE OF POULTRY IN RESPIRATORY CHALLENGES WITH AVIAN PATHOGENIC E. COLI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic infection with Escherichia coli (colibacillosis) is an important problem in poultry production and requires antibiotics for both treatment and prevention. A commercially available human probiotic, E. coli Nissle 1917 (ECN), which has been shown to stimulate innate immunity in mammals, was ...

  13. A Dairy Bacterium Displays In Vitro Probiotic Properties for the Pharyngeal Mucosa by Antagonizing Group A Streptococci and Modulating the Immune Response▿

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Taverniti, Valentina; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; Zanoni, Ivan; Stuknyte, Milda; Granucci, Francesca; Karp, Matti; Mora, Diego

    2010-01-01

    The probiotic approach represents an alternative strategy in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, not only at the intestinal level but also at other sites of the body where the microbiota plays a role in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. In this context, we evaluated in vitro the potential abilities of probiotic and dairy bacteria in controlling Streptococcus pyogenes infections at the pharyngeal level. Initially, we analyzed bacterial adhesion to FaDu hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells and the ability to antagonize S. pyogenes on FaDu cell layers and HaCat keratinocytes. Due to its promising adhesive and antagonistic features, we studied the dairy strain Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5, also through in vitro immunological experiments. First, we performed quantification of several cytokines and measurement of NF-κB activation in FaDu cells. MIMLh5 efficiently reduced the induction of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), in a dose-dependent manner. After stimulation of cells with IL-1β, active NF-κB was still markedly lowered. Nevertheless, we observed an increased secretion of IL-6, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) under these conditions. These effects were associated with the ability of MIMLh5 to enhance the expression of the heat shock protein coding gene hsp70. In addition, MIMLh5 increased the GM-CSF/G-CSF ratio. This is compatible with a switch of the immune response toward a TH1 pathway, as supported by our observation that MIMLh5, once in contact with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, triggered the secretion of TNF-α and IL-2. In conclusion, we propose MIMLh5 as a potential probiotic bacterium for the human pharynx, with promising antagonistic and immunomodulatory properties. PMID:20732995

  14. Development and in vitro evaluation of an Escherichia coli probiotic able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic Escherichia coli K88.

    PubMed

    Setia, A; Bhandari, S K; House, J D; Nyachoti, C M; Krause, D O

    2009-06-01

    Weaned piglets commonly suffer from gastroenteritis caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88. Our aim was to produce E. coli strains that inhibited the growth of E. coli K88 and could be used as a probiotic against postweaning diarrhea. The inclusion criteria for the probiotics were that in addition to being able to inhibit E. coli K88, they also needed to be negative for virulence genes commonly associated with E. coli. A total of 463 E. coli isolates from the cattle rumen, cattle feces, swine feces, and soil were screened against 18 E. coli K88 clinical isolates using an agar diffusion technique. Growth inhibition of the most sensitive K88 indicator strain 2-12 occurred for 121/463 isolates: 96/358 from cattle feces, 0/33 from rumen fluid, 9/35 from swine feces, and 16/37 from soil. Of the 121 positive strains, 71/121 were negative for toxin genes (LT, STa, STb, VT1, and VT2). The 14 most inhibitory strains were screened against a range of substrates to assess the ability to utilize carbohydrates that could be included in the diet to enhance their ability to compete in the gut. Two strains, UM-2 and UM-7, were weak utilizers of starch and inulin. In vitro competition assays between the probiotic strains and E. coli K88 strain 2-12 were conducted with glucose as the only carbon source (minimal medium; MM), MM + 2% starch, or MM + 2% inulin. The UM-2 and UM-7 strains were able to outcompete strain 2-12 when glucose was the only carbon source, indicating that inhibitory activity was produced against 2-12 independent of carbon source. The UM-2 strain outcompeted strain 2-12 in assays in which potato starch or inulin was the only carbon source; the ability of 2-12 to maintain its concentrations in the culture were probably the result of cross feeding of breakdown sugars of starch and inulin that could be utilized by 2-12. In contrast, UM-7 did not grow as well as UM-2 on starch and inulin and 2-12 declined rapidly in successive cultures likely because of the lack of breakdown products of starch and inulin produced by UM-7. We conclude that probiotic E. coli without known toxins and that produce inhibitory activity against E. coli that cause postweaning diarrhea can be produced. In addition, the ability to utilize starch or inulin is an important phenotype because it likely gives the probiotic a competitive advantage in the gut. PMID:19286822

  15. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection has donor-dependent effect on human gut microbiota and may be antagonized by probiotic yeast during interaction with Peyer's patches.

    PubMed

    Thévenot, J; Cordonnier, C; Rougeron, A; Le Goff, O; Nguyen, H T T; Denis, S; Alric, M; Livrelli, V; Blanquet-Diot, S

    2015-11-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are major food-borne pathogens responsible for serious infections ranging from mild diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis and life-threatening complications. Shiga toxins (Stxs) are the main virulence factor of EHEC. The antagonistic effect of a prophylactic treatment with the probiotic strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae against EHEC O157:H7 was investigated using complementary in vitro human colonic model and in vivo murine ileal loop assays. In vitro, the probiotic treatment had no effect on O157:H7 survival but favorably influenced gut microbiota activity through modulation of short-chain fatty acid production, increasing acetate production and decreasing that of butyrate. Both pathogen and probiotic strains had individual-dependent effects on human gut microbiota. For the first time, stx expression was followed in human colonic environment: at 9 and 12 h post EHEC infection, probiotic treatment significantly decreased stx mRNA levels. Besides, in murine ileal loops, the probiotic yeast specifically exerted a trophic effect on intestinal mucosa and inhibited O157:H7 interactions with Peyer's patches and subsequent hemorrhagic lesions. Taken together, the results suggest that S. cerevisiae may be useful in the fight against EHEC infection and that host associated factors such as microbiota could influence clinical evolution of EHEC infection and the effectiveness of probiotics. PMID:26084888

  16. Administration of probiotics influences F4 (K88)-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli attachment and intestinal cytokine expression in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Daudelin, Jean-François; Lessard, Martin; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Nadeau, Eric; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Boutin, Yvan; Brousseau, Jean-Philippe; Lauzon, Karoline; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the probiotics Pediococcus acidilactici and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii on the intestinal colonization of O149 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli harbouring the F4 (K88) fimbriae (ETEC F4) and on the expression of ileal cytokines in weaned pigs. At birth, different litters of pigs were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: 1) control without antibiotics or probiotics (CTRL); 2) reference group in which chlortetracycline and tiamulin were added to weanling feed (ATB); 3) P. acidilactici; 4) S. cerevisiae boulardii; or 5) P. acidilactici + S. cerevisiae boulardii. Probiotics were administered daily (1 × 10(9) CFU per pig) during the lactation period and after weaning (day 21). At 28 days of age, all pigs were orally challenged with an ETEC F4 strain, and a necropsy was performed 24 h later. Intestinal segments were collected to evaluate bacterial colonization in the small intestine and ileal cytokine expressions. Attachment of ETEC F4 to the intestinal mucosa was significantly reduced in pigs treated with P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii in comparison with the ATB group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). In addition, proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, were upregulated in ETEC F4 challenged pigs treated with P. acidilactici alone or in combination with S. cerevisiae boulardii compared with the CTRL group. In conclusion, the administration of P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii was effective in reducing ETEC F4 attachment to the ileal mucosa, whereas the presence of P. acidilactici was required to modulate the expression of intestinal inflammatory cytokines in pigs challenged with ETEC F4. PMID:21605377

  17. Anti-inflammatory modulation of immune response by probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in human blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Güttsches, Anne-Katrin; Löseke, Stefan; Zähringer, Ulrich; Sonnenborn, Ulrich; Enders, Corinne; Gatermann, Sören; Bufe, Albrecht

    2012-04-01

    Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) bears a defect in its LPS biosynthesis leading to truncated variable oligosaccharide-antigen chains and a semi-rough phenotype. It is effectively inactivated by complement factors due to resolved serum resistance and is, therefore, safe as a probiotic strain, i.e. for the treatment of inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. It is unknown whether the modification of LPS in EcN contributes to its probiotic properties. Purified LPS from EcN and wild-type LPS from uropathogenic E. coli W536 together with raw lysates of both strains were analyzed for their gene expression activity with human PBMCs measured by microarrays. Comparing the two LPS molecules and the two lysate variants with each other, respectively, no differences of transcriptional patterns were observed. However, when comparing LPS with lysate patterns, pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12p40 was up-regulated by both LPS molecules and anti-inflammatory IL-10 by both lysates. The higher the lysate concentration, the higher IL-10 release from PBMCs, clearly exceeding LPS induced IL-12p40 release. Furthermore, inflammatory chemokine CCL24 (eotaxin) was down-regulated by lysates and quantitative real-time PCR revealed that EcN compared to wild-type LPS was 8 times stronger in down-regulation of CCL24. We conclude that truncated LPS may down-regulate CCL24-mediated inflammation and that EcN lysate contains as yet unidentified factors which preferably induce anti-inflammatory activity. Both effects may contribute to the probiotic properties of EcN. PMID:21382908

  18. Administration of probiotics influences F4 (K88)-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli attachment and intestinal cytokine expression in weaned pigs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the probiotics Pediococcus acidilactici and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii on the intestinal colonization of O149 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli harbouring the F4 (K88) fimbriae (ETEC F4) and on the expression of ileal cytokines in weaned pigs. At birth, different litters of pigs were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: 1) control without antibiotics or probiotics (CTRL); 2) reference group in which chlortetracycline and tiamulin were added to weanling feed (ATB); 3) P. acidilactici; 4) S. cerevisiae boulardii; or 5) P. acidilactici + S. cerevisiae boulardii. Probiotics were administered daily (1 × 109 CFU per pig) during the lactation period and after weaning (day 21). At 28 days of age, all pigs were orally challenged with an ETEC F4 strain, and a necropsy was performed 24 h later. Intestinal segments were collected to evaluate bacterial colonization in the small intestine and ileal cytokine expressions. Attachment of ETEC F4 to the intestinal mucosa was significantly reduced in pigs treated with P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii in comparison with the ATB group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). In addition, proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, were upregulated in ETEC F4 challenged pigs treated with P. acidilactici alone or in combination with S. cerevisiae boulardii compared with the CTRL group. In conclusion, the administration of P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii was effective in reducing ETEC F4 attachment to the ileal mucosa, whereas the presence of P. acidilactici was required to modulate the expression of intestinal inflammatory cytokines in pigs challenged with ETEC F4. PMID:21605377

  19. Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 activates DC and prevents house dust mite allergy through a TLR4-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emmanuelle; Delbrassine, Laurence; Bouillot, Cline; Reynders, Virginie; Mailleux, Anne-Catherine; Muraille, Eric; Jacquet, Alain

    2010-07-01

    Experimental animal and human studies have demonstrated that probiotic strains have beneficial effects on allergy. Here we report that the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 strain (EcN) is able to activate DC, as shown by important cytokine synthesis together with up-regulation of membrane expression of CD40, CD80 and CD86. This EcN-induced DC activation was strictly dependent on the TLR4 signaling pathway and was also associated with stimulation of NF-kappaB and MAPK. We next investigated the prophylactic potential of i.n. co-administration of EcN with a recombinant form of Der p 1 (ProDer p 1) in a murine model of mite allergy. I.n. vaccinations with EcN plus ProDer p 1 prevented the subsequent allergic response following Der p 1 sensitization and airway challenge with aerosolized mite extracts through the induction of an allergen-specific IgG2a response, the prevention of specific IgE production and a strong reduction of IL-5 secretion by allergen-restimulated splenocytes. EcN alone or in combination with ProDer p 1 inhibited the development of airway eosinophilia and neutrophilia. This in vivo protective effect of EcN was, in part, mediated by TLR4 signaling. Our results suggest that EcN represents an efficient adjuvant to prevent allergic responses. PMID:20432233

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Intraurethrally Administered Probiotic Lactobacillus casei in a Murine Model of Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Watanuki, Masaaki; Yokokura, Teruo

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the intraurethrally administered probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota against Escherichia coli in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model was examined. UTI was induced by intraurethral administration of Escherichia coli strain HU-1 (a clinical isolate from a UTI patient, positive for type 1 and P fimbriae), at a dose of 1 × 106 to 2 × 106 CFU in 20 μl of saline, into a C3H/HeN mouse bladder which had been traumatized with 0.1 N HCl followed immediately by neutralization with 0.1 N NaOH 24 h before the challenge infection. Chronic infection with the pathogen at 106 CFU in the urinary tract (bladder and kidneys) was maintained for more than 3 weeks after the challenge, and the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and myeloperoxidase activity in the urine were markedly elevated during the infection period. A single administration of L. casei Shirota at a dose of 108 CFU 24 h before the challenge infection dramatically inhibited E. coli growth and inflammatory responses in the urinary tract. Multiple daily treatments with L. casei Shirota during the postinfection period also showed antimicrobial activity in this UTI model. A heat-killed preparation of L. casei Shirota exerted significant antimicrobial effects not only with a single pretreatment (100 μg/mouse) but also with multiple daily treatments during the postinfection period. The other Lactobacillus strains tested, i.e., L. fermentum ATCC 14931T, L. jensenii ATCC 25258T, L. plantarum ATCC 14917T, and L. reuteri JCM 1112T, had no significant antimicrobial activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the probiotic L. casei strain Shirota is a potent therapeutic agent for UTI. PMID:11353622

  1. Immunomodulatory effect of non-viable components of probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus on holoxenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Ditu, L. M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Bezirtzoglou, E.; Marutescu, L.; Bleotu, C.; Pelinescu, D.; Mihaescu, G.; Lazar, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Competition of probiotic bacteria with other species from the intestinal microbiota involves different mechanisms that occur regardless of probiotics’ viability. The objective of this paper was to assess the cytokine serum levels in holoxenic mice after oral administration of non-viable components (NVC) of Enterococcus faecium probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus in comparison to NVC of unstimulated E. faecium probiotic culture. Methods Probiotic E. faecium CMGb 16 culture, grown in the presence of heat-inactivated cultures of E. coli and B. cereus CMGB 102, was subsequently separated into supernatant (SN) and heat-inactivated cellular sediment (CS) fractions by centrifugation. Each NVC was orally administered to holoxenic mice (balb C mouse strain), in three doses, given at 24 hours. Blood samples were collected from the retinal artery, at 7, 14, and 21 days after the first administration of the NVC. The serum concentrations of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) interleukins were assessed by ELISA method. Results After the oral administration of SN component obtained from the probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated cultures of B. cereus CMGB 102 and E. coli O28, the serum concentrations of IL-12 were maintained higher in the samples collected at 7 and 14 days post-administration. No specific TNF-α profile could be established, depending on stimulated or non-stimulated probiotic culture, NVC fraction, or harvesting time. Conclusion The obtained results demonstrate that non-viable fractions of probiotic bacteria, stimulated by other bacterial species, could induce immunostimulatory effects mediated by cytokines and act, therefore, as immunological adjuvants. PMID:25317114

  2. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Survival in an In Vitro Model of the Human Large Intestine and Interactions with Probiotic Yeasts and Resident Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Thvenot, Jonathan; Etienne-Mesmin, Lucie; Denis, Sylvain; Chalancon, Sandrine; Alric, Monique; Livrelli, Valrie

    2013-01-01

    This is the first report on the fate of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in simulated human colonic conditions. The pathogen was progressively eliminated from the bioreactor and did not modify the major populations of resident microbiota. The coadministration of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 probiotic strain led to a significant increase in acetate production but did not reduce pathogen viability. PMID:23204410

  3. Characterization of the genetic locus responsible for the production of ABP-118, a novel bacteriocin produced by the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC118.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Sarah; van Sinderen, Douwe; Thornton, Gerardine M; Holo, Helge; Nes, Ingolf F; Collins, J Kevin

    2002-04-01

    ABP-118, a small heat-stable bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC118, a strain isolated from the ileal-caecal region of the human gastrointestinal tract, was purified to homogeneity. Using reverse genetics, a DNA fragment specifying part of ABP-118 was identified on a 10769 bp chromosomal region. Analysis of this region revealed that ABP-118 was a Class IIb two-peptide bacteriocin composed of Abp118alpha, which exhibited the antimicrobial activity, and Abp118beta, which enhanced the antimicrobial activity. The gene conferring strain UCC118 immunity to the action of ABP-118, abpIM, was identified downstream of the abp118beta gene. Located further downstream of abp118beta, several ORFs were identified whose deduced proteins resembled those of proteins involved in bacteriocin regulation and secretion. Heterologous expression of ABP-118 was achieved in Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis and Bacillus cereus. In addition, the abp118 locus encoded an inducing peptide, AbpIP, which was shown to play a role in the regulation of ABP-118 production. This novel bacteriocin is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be isolated from a known human probiotic bacterium and to be characterized at the genetic level. PMID:11932444

  4. Mixed culture models for predicting intestinal microbial interactions between Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus in the presence of probiotic Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Yang, J J; Niu, C C; Guo, X H

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus has been proposed as a probiotic due to its in vivo effectiveness in the gastrointestinal tract through antimicrobial activities. The present study investigates the effects of Lactobacillus alone or in the presence of Bacillus subtilis MA139 on the inhibition of pathogenic Escherichia coli K88. Mixed cultures were used to predict the possible interactions among these bacteria within the intestinal tract of animals. B. subtilis MA139 was first assayed for its inhibition against E. coli K88 both under shaking and static culture conditions. A co-culture assay was employed under static conditions to test the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus reuteri on E. coli K88, with or without addition of B. subtilis MA139. The results showed that B. subtilis MA139 had marked inhibition against E. coli K88 under shaking conditions and weak inhibition under static conditions. Lactobacillus alone as well as in combination with B. subtilis MA139 spores exerted strong inhibition against E. coli K88 under static conditions. However, the inhibition by Lactobacillus in combination with B. subilis spores was much higher than that by Lactobacillus alone (P<0.01). B. subtilis MA139 significantly decreased the pH and oxidation-reduction potential values of the co-culture broth compared to that of Lactobacillus alone (P<0.05). The viability of Lactobacillus increased when co-cultured with B. subtilis MA139 because of significantly higher Lactobacillus counts and lower pH values in the broth (P<0.05). The role of Bacillus in the mixed culture models suggests that Bacillus may produce beneficial effects by increasing the viability of lactobacilli and subsequently inhibiting the growth of pathogenic E. coli. Therefore, the combination of Bacillus and Lactobacillus species as a probiotic is recommended. PMID:26259891

  5. Complete Sequence of Probiotic Symbioflor 2 Escherichiacoli Strain G3/10 and Draft Sequences of Symbioflor 2 E.coli Strains G1/2, G4/9, G5, G6/7, and G8.

    PubMed

    Zschttig, Anke; Auerbach, Christian; Meltke, Simone; Eichhorn, Christin; Brandt, Manuela; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Jarek, Michael; Scharfe, Maren; Zimmermann, Kurt; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Gunzer, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome of probiotic Escherichiacoli strain G3/10 is presented here. In addition, the probiotic E.coli strains G1/2, G4/9, G5, G6/7, and G8 are presented in draft form. These six strains together comprise the probiotic product Symbioflor 2 (DSM 17252). PMID:25745009

  6. Reduction of Carriage of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Cattle by Inoculation with Probiotic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P.; Harmon, Barry G.; Brown, Cathy A.; Mueller, P. O. Eric; Parks, Andrew H.

    1998-01-01

    Bacteria inhibitory to Escherichia coli O157:H7 were isolated from cattle and evaluated for their potential for reducing carriage of E. coli O157:H7 in calves. Eighteen of 1,200 bacterial isolates from cattle feces and intestinal tissue samples were screened and determined to inhibit the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in vitro. Seventeen of the isolates were E. coli and one was Proteus mirabilis. None produced Shiga toxin. Genomic DNA fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed 13 distinguishable profiles among the 18 isolates. Two calves inoculated perorally with a mixture of all 18 isolates (1010 CFU) appeared to be normal and did not develop signs of clinical disease throughout a 25- to 27-day observation period. These bacteria colonized segments of the gastrointestinal tract and were in feces at the termination of the experiment (25 and 27 days postinoculation) at levels of 50 to 200 CFU/g. Fifteen cannulated calves were studied to determine the efficiency of the probiotic bacteria in reducing or eliminating the carriage of E. coli O157:H7. Nine calves served as controls, with each animal receiving perorally 1010 CFU of E. coli O157:H7. E. coli O157:H7 was detected intermittently in the rumen samples from all control animals throughout 3 weeks postinoculation, whereas E. coli O157:H7 was shed at various levels in feces continuously throughout the experiment (mean, 28 days). E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from the rumens and colons of eight of nine and nine of nine calves, respectively, at the termination of the study. Six calves each received perorally 1010 CFU of probiotic bacteria and then 2 days later received 1010 CFU of E. coli O157:H7. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in the rumen for only 9 days postinoculation in two animals, for 16 days in one animal, for 17 days in two animals, and for 29 days in one animal. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in feces for only 11 days postinoculation in one animal, for 15 days in one animal, for 17 days in one animal, for 18 days in one animal, for 19 days in one animal, and for 29 days in one animal. At the end of the experiment (mean, 30 days), E. coli O157:H7 was not recovered from the rumen of any of the six animals treated with probiotic bacteria; however, E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from the feces of one of the animals. This animal was fasted twice postinoculation. These studies indicate that selected probiotic bacteria administered to cattle prior to exposure to E. coli O157:H7 can reduce the level of carriage of E. coli O157:H7 in most animals. PMID:9508288

  7. Effect of bovine colostrum, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma on the in vitro growth of probiotic bacteria and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Pouliot, Yves; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Lessard, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of defatted colostrum (Col), defatted decaseinated colostrum whey, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) as supplements of a growth medium (de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe (MRS) broth) on the multiplication of lactic acid bacteria, probiotic bacteria, and potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli. Using automated spectrophotometry (in vitro system), we evaluated the effect of the 4 supplements on maximum growth rate (μ(max)), lag time (LagT), and biomass (OD(max)) of 12 lactic acid bacteria and probiotic bacteria and of an E. coli culture. Enrichment of MRS broth with a Col concentration of 10 g/L increased the μ(max) of 5 of the 12 strains by up to 55%. Negative effects of Col or SDPP on growth rates were also observed with 3 probiotic strains; in one instance μ(max) was reduced by 40%. The most effective inhibitor of E. coli growth was SDPP, and this effect was not linked to its lysozyme content. The positive effect of enrichment with the dairy-based ingredient might be linked to enrichment in sugars and increased buffering power of the medium. These in vitro data suggest that both Col and SDPP could be considered as supplements to animal feeds to improve intestinal health because of their potential to promote growth of probiotic bacteria and to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli. PMID:24773334

  8. Experimental administration of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 results in decreased diversity of E. coli strains in pigs.

    PubMed

    Smajs, David; Bureš, Jan; Smarda, Jan; Chaloupková, Eva; Květina, Jaroslav; Förstl, Miroslav; Kohoutová, Darina; Kuneš, Martin; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Lesná, Jiřina; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2012-03-01

    The strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is widely used as an efficient probiotic in therapy and prevention of human infectious diseases, especially of the intestinal system. Concurrently, small adult pigs are being used as experimental omnivore models to study human gastrointestinal functions. EcN bacteria were applied to 6 adult healthy female pigs in a 2-week trial. 6 Control animals remained untreated. Altogether, 164 and 149 bacterial strains were isolated from smear samples taken from gastrointestinal mucosa in the experimental and control group, respectively. Each individual E. coli strain was then tested for the presence of 29 bacteriocin-encoding determinants as well as for DNA markers of A, B1, B2 and D phylogenetic groups. A profound reduction of E. coli genetic variance (from 32 variants to 13 ones, P = 0.0006) was found in the experimental group, accompanied by a lower incidence of bacteriocin producers in the experimental group when compared to control (21.3 and 34.9%, respectively; P = 0.007) and by changes in the incidence of individual bacteriocin types. The experimental administration of EcN strain was not sufficient for stable colonization of porcine gut, but induced significant changes in the enterobacterial microbiota. PMID:22116501

  9. Effects of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in a Pig and Human Epithelial Intestinal Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Lodemann, Ulrike; Strahlendorf, Julia; Schierack, Peter; Klingspor, Shanti; Aschenbach, Jörg R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to elucidate the effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on epithelial integrity in intestinal epithelial cells and whether pre- and coincubation with this strain can reproducibly prevent damage induced by enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Porcine (IPEC-J2) and human (Caco-2) intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with bacterial strains and epithelial integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and mannitol flux rates. E. faecium alone increased TEER of Caco-2 cells without affecting mannitol fluxes whereas the E. coli strains decreased TEER and concomitantly increased mannitol flux rates in both cell lines. Preincubation with E. faecium had no effect on the TEER decrease induced by E. coli in preliminary experiments. However, in a second set of experiments using a slightly different protocol, E. faecium ameliorated the TEER decrease induced by ETEC at 4 h in IPEC-J2 and at 2, 4, and 6 h in Caco-2 cells. We conclude that E. faecium positively affected epithelial integrity in monoinfected Caco-2 cells and could ameliorate the damage on TEER induced by an ETEC strain. Reproducibility of the results is, however, limited when experiments are performed with living bacteria over longer periods. PMID:25883829

  10. In vitro inhibition of growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Clostridia perfringens using Probiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens are pathogenic organisms found in horses [1] and they cause disease in animals or humans [2]. Due to concern over pathogens such as these, there is increasing interest in antimicrobial alternatives to prevent or reduce the prevalen...

  11. Comparative toxicities of putative phagocyte-generated oxidizing radicals toward a bacterium (Escherichia coli) and a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    PubMed

    King, David A; Sheafor, Mark W; Hurst, James K

    2006-09-01

    Toxicities of the radiolytically generated oxidizing radicals HO(*), CO(3)(-)(*), and NO(2)(*) toward suspension cultures of a bacterium (Escherichia coli) and a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were examined. As demonstrated by the absence of protection from the membrane-impermeable HO(*) scavenger polyethylene glycol (PEG), externally generated HO(*) was not bactericidal under these conditions; however, partial protection by PEG was observed for S. cerevisiae, indicating the presence of a fungicidal pathway involving external HO(*). For both organisms, conversion of external HO(*) to the secondary radical, CO(3)(-)(*), by reaction with HCO(3)(-) increases their susceptibility to radiolytic killing. In contrast, externally generated NO(2)(*) exhibited toxicity comparable to that of CO(3)(-)(*) toward E. coli, but completely blocked the extracellular toxicity of HO(*) toward S. cerevisiae. Cogeneration of equal fluxes of NO(2)(-)(*) and either HO(*) or CO(3)(-)(*) also essentially eliminated the extracellular microbicidal reactions. This behavior is consistent with expectations based upon relative rates of radical-radical self-coupling and cross-coupling reactions. The different patterns of toxicity observed imply fundamentally different microbicidal mechanisms for the two organisms, wherein the bacterium is susceptible to killing by oxidation of highly reactive targets on its cellular envelope but, despite undergoing similar oxidative insult, the fungus is not. PMID:16895797

  12. Residue Leu940 Has a Crucial Role in the Linkage and Reaction Specificity of the Glucansucrase GTF180 of the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri 180*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangfeng; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Pijning, Tjaard; Lpez, Cesar A.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2014-01-01

    Highly conserved glycoside hydrolase family 70 glucansucrases are able to catalyze the synthesis of ?-glucans with different structure from sucrose. The structural determinants of glucansucrase specificity have remained unclear. Residue Leu940 in domain B of GTF180, the glucansucrase of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri 180, was shown to vary in different glucansucrases and is close to the +1 glucosyl unit in the crystal structure of GTF180-?N in complex with maltose. Herein, we show that mutations in Leu940 of wild-type GTF180-?N all caused an increased percentage of (?1?6) linkages and a decreased percentage of (?1?3) linkages in the products. ?-Glucans with potential different physicochemical properties (containing 67100% of (?1?6) linkages) were produced by GTF180 and its Leu940 mutants. Mutant L940W was unable to form (?1?3) linkages and synthesized a smaller and linear glucan polysaccharide with only (?1?6) linkages. Docking studies revealed that the introduction of the large aromatic amino acid residue tryptophan at position 940 partially blocked the binding groove, preventing the isomalto-oligosaccharide acceptor to bind in an favorable orientation for the formation of (?1?3) linkages. Our data showed that the reaction specificity of GTF180 mutant was shifted either to increased polysaccharide synthesis (L940A, L940S, L940E, and L940F) or increased oligosaccharide synthesis (L940W). The L940W mutant is capable of producing a large amount of isomalto-oligosaccharides using released glucose from sucrose as acceptors. Thus, residue Leu940 in domain B is crucial for linkage and reaction specificity of GTF180. This study provides clear and novel insights into the structure-function relationships of glucansucrase enzymes. PMID:25288798

  13. Recombinant protein production data after expression in the bacterium Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cantu-Bustos, J. Enrique; Cano del Villar, Kevin D.; Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-01-01

    Fusion proteins have become essential for the expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. The metal-binding protein CusF has shown several features that make it an attractive fusion protein and affinity tag: "Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the metal-binding protein CusF" (Cantu-Bustos et al., 2016 [1]). Here we present accompanying data from protein expression experiments; we tested different protein tags, temperatures, expression times, cellular compartments, and concentrations of inducer in order to obtain soluble protein and low formation of inclusion bodies. Additionally, we present data from the purification of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged with CusF, using Ag(I) metal affinity chromatography. PMID:27014739

  14. Recombinant protein production data after expression in the bacterium Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cantu-Bustos, J Enrique; Cano Del Villar, Kevin D; Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-06-01

    Fusion proteins have become essential for the expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. The metal-binding protein CusF has shown several features that make it an attractive fusion protein and affinity tag: "Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the metal-binding protein CusF" (Cantu-Bustos et al., 2016 [1]). Here we present accompanying data from protein expression experiments; we tested different protein tags, temperatures, expression times, cellular compartments, and concentrations of inducer in order to obtain soluble protein and low formation of inclusion bodies. Additionally, we present data from the purification of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged with CusF, using Ag(I) metal affinity chromatography. PMID:27014739

  15. Partial Purification and Characterization of a Bacteriocin DT24 Produced by Probiotic Vaginal Lactobacillus brevis DT24 and Determination of its Anti-Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Potential.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Disha; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Patel, Jignesh Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2013-06-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance has increased the interest for finding new antimicrobials in the past decade. Probiotic Lactic acid bacteria producing antimicrobial proteins like bacteriocin can be excellent agents for development as novel therapeutic agents and complement to conventional antibiotic therapy. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli, most causative agent of Urinary tract infection, has developed resistance to various antibiotics. In the present investigation, antibacterial substance like bacteriocin (Bacteriocin DT24) produced by probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24 from vaginal sample of healthy Indian woman was partially purified and characterized. It was efficiently working against various pathogens, that is, Uropathogenic E. coli, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial peptide was relatively heat resistant and also active over a broad range of pH 2-10. It has been partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography and checked on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bacteriocin DT24 was approximately 7-kDa protein. The peptide is inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, trypsin and lipase but not when treated with catalase, ?-amylase and pepsin. It showed bacteriostatic mode of action against uropathogenic E. coli. Such characteristics indicate that this bacteriocin-producing probiotic may be a potential candidate for alternative agents to control urinary tract infections and other pathogens. PMID:26782739

  16. Horizontal transfer of chromosomal DNA between the marine bacterium Vibrio furnissii and Escherichia coli revealed by sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Charbit, A; Autret, N

    1998-01-01

    Previous in silico analysis of the 67.4-76.0 minutes region of the Escherichia coli genome led to the identification of a gene cluster (named aga) comprising five genes encoding homologs of the mannose transporter of E. coli, a member of the sugar-specific phosphoenolypyruvate/sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). In the present work, we compared the aga gene cluster of E. coli, which has been considered to be involved in N-acetylgalactosamine or N-acetylmannosamine transport and metabolism, to the region comprising the recently identified mannose transporter of the marine bacterium Vibrio furnissii. Our analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by three genes (agaV, agaW, and agaA), located in the proximal portion of the aga gene cluster, shared striking similarities with the proteins encoded by the manX (IIBMan), manY (IICMan), and manD (a putative deacetylase) genes of V. furnissii, respectively (70%-82.3% identity among the three pairs of proteins). Moreover, we found that the two following aga genes (agaS and agaY) were homologous to the sequences flanking the mannose operon of V. furnissii. These observations strongly support the idea of a horizontal transfer of the chromosomally encoded man operon of V. furnissii into the E. coli genome. PMID:9697096

  17. Characterization of probiotic Escherichia coli isolates with a novel pan-genome microarray

    PubMed Central

    Willenbrock, Hanni; Hallin, Peter F; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David W

    2007-01-01

    Background Microarrays have recently emerged as a novel procedure to evaluate the genetic content of bacterial species. So far, microarrays have mostly covered single or few strains from the same species. However, with cheaper high-throughput sequencing techniques emerging, multiple strains of the same species are rapidly becoming available, allowing for the definition and characterization of a whole species as a population of genomes - the 'pan-genome'. Results Using 32 Escherichia coli and Shigella genome sequences we estimate the pan- and core genome of the species. We designed a high-density microarray in order to provide a tool for characterization of the E. coli pan-genome. Technical performance of this pan-genome microarray based on control strain samples (E. coli K-12 and O157:H7) demonstrated a high sensitivity and relatively low false positive rate. A single-channel analysis approach is robust while allowing the possibility for deriving presence/absence predictions for any gene included on our pan-genome microarray. Moreover, the array was highly sufficient to investigate the gene content of non-pathogenic isolates, despite the strong bias towards pathogenic E. coli strains that have been sequenced so far. Conclusion This high-density microarray provides an excellent tool for characterizing the genetic makeup of unknown E. coli strains and can also deliver insights into phylogenetic relationships. Its design poses a considerably larger challenge and involves different considerations than the design of single strain microarrays. Here, lessons learned and future directions will be discussed in order to optimize design of microarrays targeting entire pan-genomes. PMID:18088402

  18. An electrochemical RNA hybridization assay for detection of the fecal indicator bacterium Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    LaGier, Michael J; Scholin, Christopher A; Fell, Jack W; Wang, Joseph; Goodwin, Kelly D

    2005-11-01

    Monitoring waters for indicator bacteria is required to protect the public from exposure to fecal pollution. Our proof-of-concept study describes a method for detecting fecal coliforms. The coliform Escherichia coli was used as a model fecal indicator. DNA probe-coated magnetic beads in combination with the electrochemical monitoring of the oxidation state of guanine nucleotides should allow for direct detection of bacterial RNA. To demonstrate this concept, we used voltammetry in connection with pencil electrodes to detect isolated E. coli 16S rRNA. Using this approach, 10(7) cells of E. coli were detected in a quantitative, reproducible fashion in 4h. Detection was achieved without a nucleic acid amplification step. The specificity of the assay for coliforms was demonstrated by testing against a panel of bacterial RNA. We also show that E. coli RNA can be detected directly from cell extracts. The method could be used for on-site detection and shows promise for adaptation into automated biosensors for water-quality monitoring. PMID:15922364

  19. An electrochemical RNA hybridization assay for detection of the fecal indicator bacterium Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    LaGier, Michael J.; Scholin, Christopher A.; Fell, Jack W.; Wang, Joseph; Goodwin, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring waters for indicator bacteria is required to protect the public from exposure to fecal pollution. Our proof-of-concept study describes a method for detecting fecal coliforms. The coliform Escherichia coli was used as a model fecal indicator. DNA probe-coated magnetic beads in combination with the electrochemical monitoring of the oxidation state of guanine nucleotides should allow for direct detection of bacterial RNA. To demonstrate this concept, we used voltammetry in connection with pencil electrodes to detect isolated E. coli 16S rRNA. Using this approach, 107 cells of E. coli were detected in a quantitative, reproducible fashion in 4 h. Detection was achieved without a nucleic acid amplification step. The specificity of the assay for coliforms was demonstrated by testing against a panel of bacterial RNA. We also show that E. coli RNA can be detected directly from cell extracts. The method could be used for on-site detection and shows promise for adaptation into automated biosensors for water-quality monitoring. PMID:15922364

  20. Testing probiotic strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (Mutaflor) for its ability to reduce carriage of multidrug-resistant E. coli by elderly residents in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Tannock, Gerald W; Tiong, Ing Soo; Priest, Patricia; Munro, Karen; Taylor, Corinda; Richardson, Alice; Schultz, Michael

    2011-03-01

    A high carriage rate of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (MDREC) was observed in elderly residents in long-term care facilities. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was carried out to determine whether the probiotic product E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (Mutaflor) would compete with MDREC in the bowel and thereby reduce the prevalence of the multiresistant bacteria in faeces and urine. Sixty-nine patients excreting norfloxacin-resistant E. coli were randomized to probiotic or placebo groups and administered capsules twice daily. The daily dose of probiotic was 5×10(9)-5×10(10) bacteria. Faecal and urine samples were cultured at baseline and during and after the treatment period. A reduction in baseline carriage was not influenced by probiotic administration. The probiotic strain was detected in faecal specimens collected during the treatment period of only two out of 12 probiotic group subjects that were tested. Genotyping of norfloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates showed that 32 strains were prevalent among the patients. Thus, E. coli Nissle 1917 does not have the capacity to compete effectively with MDREC in the bowel of elderly patients. PMID:21127156

  1. Efficacy of a novel prebiotic and a commercial probiotic in reducing mortality and production losses due to cold stress and Escherichia coli challenge of broiler chicks 1.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; El-Gohary, F A; Zhou, Z Y; Shini, S

    2015-05-01

    Prebiotics consisting of resistant starch may alter intestinal ecology, thus modulating inflammation and increasing intestinal health through increased cecal production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Probiotics may directly alter the intestinal microbiome, resulting in the same effects. We hypothesize that adding prebiotics and probiotics to feed may protect the gut of young chicks under stress. Studies 1, 2, and 3 evaluated treatments in a cold stress (CS) and Escherichia coli (EC) oral challenge to 430 day-old broiler chicks for 3 wk. In study 1, prebiotics were administered as 15% of the diet during the first week only and consisted of the following: Hi-Maize resistant starch (HM), potato starch (PS), or raw potato (RP). In studies 2 and 3, the PS treatment was identical to study 1, and an additional probiotic treatment (PRO) was administered in feed and water. In study 1, PS protected BW during the first week and decreased the mortality of CS/EC-challenged birds during the first week and wk 3, while RP decreased the mortality of warm-brooded birds challenged with EC during the first week. In study 2, PS decreased and PRO increased the main effect mean (MEM) of the first week BW. PS and PRO numerically decreased the feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 23 and 29 points, respectively, in CS/EC-challenged birds with no effects on mortality. In study 3, PS decreased and PRO increased the first week and wk 3 MEM BW. PS numerically increased FCR by 16 points, while PRO decreased FCR by 2 points. Both PS and PRO tended to increase overall mortality, and PRO significantly increased mortality in the CS/EC challenge. These results suggest that the effects of PS may be too variable in this challenge model for further study; however, the PRO treatment improved production values and may have potential as an alternative to antibiotics during the first weeks after hatch. PMID:25743418

  2. More than a marine propeller--the flagellum of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 is the major adhesin mediating binding to human mucus.

    PubMed

    Troge, Anja; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Bjoern O; Rund, Stefan A; Heuner, Klaus; Wehkamp, Jan; Stange, Eduard F; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A

    2012-12-01

    The flagellum of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is not just responsible for motility, but also for EcN's ability to induce the production of human β-defensin 2. Here, we report a third function of this EcN organell. In this study we investigated the role of the EcN flagellum in adhesion to different host tissues by ex vivo and in vitro studies. Ex vivo studies with cryosections of human gut biopsies revealed that the flagellum of EcN is most likely important for efficient adhesion to the human intestinal tract. These results and in vitro studies with different epithelial cells indicated that the presence of mucus is important for efficient mediation of adhesion by the flagellum of EcN. We observed direct interaction between isolated flagella from EcN wild type and porcine mucin 2 as well as human mucus. However, we could not observe any interaction of the flagella with murine mucus. For the first time, we identified the mucus component gluconate as one receptor for the binding of flagella from EcN and were able to exclude the flagellin domain D3 as a responsible interaction partner. We propose that the flagellum of EcN is its major adhesin in vivo, which enables this probiotic strain to compete efficiently for binding sites on host tissue with several bacterial pathogens. PMID:23131416

  3. Probiotic Escherichia coli CFR 16 producing pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) ameliorates 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced oxidative damage in colon and liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sumeet; Singh, Ashish; Kumar, Prasant; Chaudhari, Archana; Nareshkumar, G

    2014-06-01

    Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) genesis. Alleviation of oxidative stress is achieved by using antioxidants and probiotics. Present study investigates a synergistic effect of the probiotic Escherichia coli CFR 16 containing Vitreoscilla haemoglobin gene (vgb), green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene and pyrroloquinoline quinone (pqq) gene cluster on oxidative stress induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Adult virgin Charles foster male rats (3-4 months) weighing 200-250 g were administered with DMH (25 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) twice a week for eight consecutive weeks. Rats receiving only DMH dose showed increased lipid peroxidation in liver and intestinal tissues with reduced activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Oral dose of E. coli CFR 16::vgb-gfp harbouring pqq gene cluster increased rat faecal PQQ concentration by twofold, reduced lipid peroxidation and retained SOD, CAT and GPx activities close to normal levels in liver and colonic tissues following DMH treatment. In addition, significant protection was found in colonic histological sections of these rat groups. This study demonstrates a protective efficacy in the following order: E. coli CFR 16 < E. coli CFR 16::vgb-gfp < vitamin C = PQQ < E. coli CFR 16::vgb-gfp (pqq). PMID:24718737

  4. Role of F1C Fimbriae, Flagella, and Secreted Bacterial Components in the Inhibitory Effect of Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 on Atypical Enteropathogenic E. coli Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kleta, Sylvia; Nordhoff, Marcel; Tedin, Karsten; Wieler, Lothar H.; Kolenda, Rafal; Oswald, Sibylle; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A.; Blei, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is recognized as an important intestinal pathogen that frequently causes acute and persistent diarrhea in humans and animals. The use of probiotic bacteria to prevent diarrhea is gaining increasing interest. The probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is known to be effective in the treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders. While both in vitro and in vivo studies have described strong inhibitory effects of EcN on enteropathogenic bacteria, including pathogenic E. coli, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of EcN on infections of porcine intestinal epithelial cells with atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) with respect to single infection steps, including adhesion, microcolony formation, and the attaching and effacing phenotype. We show that EcN drastically reduced the infection efficiencies of aEPEC by inhibiting bacterial adhesion and growth of microcolonies, but not the attaching and effacing of adherent bacteria. The inhibitory effect correlated with EcN adhesion capacities and was predominantly mediated by F1C fimbriae, but also by H1 flagella, which served as bridges between EcN cells. Furthermore, EcN seemed to interfere with the initial adhesion of aEPEC to host cells by secretion of inhibitory components. These components do not appear to be specific to EcN, but we propose that the strong adhesion capacities enable EcN to secrete sufficient local concentrations of the inhibitory factors. The results of this study are consistent with a mode of action whereby EcN inhibits secretion of virulence-associated proteins of EPEC, but not their expression. PMID:24549324

  5. Role of F1C fimbriae, flagella, and secreted bacterial components in the inhibitory effect of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 on atypical enteropathogenic E. coli infection.

    PubMed

    Kleta, Sylvia; Nordhoff, Marcel; Tedin, Karsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Kolenda, Rafal; Oswald, Sibylle; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Bleiss, Wilfried; Schierack, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is recognized as an important intestinal pathogen that frequently causes acute and persistent diarrhea in humans and animals. The use of probiotic bacteria to prevent diarrhea is gaining increasing interest. The probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is known to be effective in the treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders. While both in vitro and in vivo studies have described strong inhibitory effects of EcN on enteropathogenic bacteria, including pathogenic E. coli, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of EcN on infections of porcine intestinal epithelial cells with atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) with respect to single infection steps, including adhesion, microcolony formation, and the attaching and effacing phenotype. We show that EcN drastically reduced the infection efficiencies of aEPEC by inhibiting bacterial adhesion and growth of microcolonies, but not the attaching and effacing of adherent bacteria. The inhibitory effect correlated with EcN adhesion capacities and was predominantly mediated by F1C fimbriae, but also by H1 flagella, which served as bridges between EcN cells. Furthermore, EcN seemed to interfere with the initial adhesion of aEPEC to host cells by secretion of inhibitory components. These components do not appear to be specific to EcN, but we propose that the strong adhesion capacities enable EcN to secrete sufficient local concentrations of the inhibitory factors. The results of this study are consistent with a mode of action whereby EcN inhibits secretion of virulence-associated proteins of EPEC, but not their expression. PMID:24549324

  6. The association of minocycline and the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 results in an additive beneficial effect in a DSS model of reactivated colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Utrilla, Pilar; Comalada, Mónica; Zorrilla, Pedro; Garrido-Mesa, José; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Cabezas, María Elena; Gálvez, Julio

    2011-12-15

    Antibiotics have been empirically used for human inflammatory bowel disease, being limited to short periods. Probiotics are able to attenuate intestinal inflammation due to its immunomodulatory properties, being considered as safe when chronically administered. The aim was to test the association of minocycline, a tetracycline with immunomodulatory properties, and the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) in a mouse model of reactivated colitis. For this purpose, female C57BL/6J mice were assigned to different groups: non-colitic and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-control groups (without treatment), minocycline (50 mg/kg/day; p.o.), EcN (5×10(8) CFU/day; p.o.), and minocycline plus EcN treated groups. Colitis was induced by adding DSS in the drinking water (3%) for 5 days; 2 weeks later, colitis was reactivated by subsequent exposure to DSS. The inflammatory status was evaluated daily by a disease activity index (DAI); colonic damage was assessed histologically and biochemically by evaluating mRNA relative expression of different mediators by qPCR. Finally, a microbiological analysis of the colonic contents was performed. Minocycline and EcN exerted intestinal anti-inflammatory effect and attenuated the reactivation of the colitis, as shown by the reduced DAI values, being these effects greater when combining both treatments. This was evidenced histologically and biochemically, by reduced expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-2, MIP-2, MCP-1, ICAM-1, iNOS and MMP-9, together with increased MUC-3 and ZO-1 expression. Finally, the altered microbiota composition of colitic mice was partially restored after the different treatments. In conclusion, EcN supplementation to minocycline treatment improves the recovery of the intestinal damage and prevents the reactivation of experimental colitis. PMID:21930116

  7. β-Carotene Biosynthesis in Probiotic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer K; Harrison, M Travis; D'Andrea, Annalisa; Endsley, Aaron N; Yin, Fangfang; Kodukula, Krishna; Watson, Douglas S

    2013-06-01

    Susceptibility to deadly diarrheal diseases is partly due to widespread pediatric vitamin A deficiency. To increase vitamin A coverage in malnourished children, we propose to engineer a probiotic bacterium that will produce β-carotene in the intestine, which will be metabolized to vitamin A. Such a therapy has the potential to broadly stimulate mucosal immunity and simultaneously reduce the incidence and duration of diarrheal disease. To that end, a β-carotene-producing variant of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN-BETA) was generated. Notably, the strain produces β-carotene under anaerobic conditions, reflective of the gut environment. EcN-BETA also retains β-carotene production capability after lyophilization, suggesting that it may be amenable to dry formulation. Moreover, EcN-BETA activates murine dendritic cells in vitro, suggesting that the presence of β-carotene may not diminish the immunostimulatory capacity of EcN. Finally, we present a framework through which further improvements may enable approaches such as the one described in this report to yield innovative life-saving therapies for the developing world. PMID:26782732

  8. Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukdeb; Tak, Yu Kyung; Song, Joon Myong

    2007-03-01

    In this work we investigated the antibacterial properties of differently shaped silver nanoparticles against the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, both in liquid systems and on agar plates. Energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy images revealed considerable changes in the cell membranes upon treatment, resulting in cell death. Truncated triangular silver nanoplates with a {111} lattice plane as the basal plane displayed the strongest biocidal action, compared with spherical and rod-shaped nanoparticles and with Ag(+) (in the form of AgNO(3)). It is proposed that nanoscale size and the presence of a {111} plane combine to promote this biocidal property. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative study on the bactericidal properties of silver nanoparticles of different shapes, and our results demonstrate that silver nanoparticles undergo a shape-dependent interaction with the gram-negative organism E. coli. PMID:17261510

  9. The effect of probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 lipopolysaccharide on the 5-aminosalicylic acid transepithelial transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Stětinová, Věra; Smetanová, Libuše; Kholová, Dagmar; Květina, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Zbyněk; Zídek, Zdeněk; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2013-09-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) (i) EcN lipopolysaccharide (EcN LPS) and (ii) bacteria-free supernatant of EcN suspension (EcN supernatant) on in vitro transepithelial transport of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA), the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory drug in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Effect of co-administered EcN LPS (100 µg/ml) or EcN supernatant (50 µg/ml) on the 5-ASA transport (300 µmol/l) was studied using the Caco-2 monolayer (a human colon carcinoma cell line) as a model of human intestinal absorption. Permeability characteristics for absorptive and secretory transport of parent drug and its intracellularly-formed metabolite were determined. The quantification of 5-ASA and its main metabolite N-acetyl-5-amino-salicylic acid (N-Ac-5-ASA) was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. Obtained results suggest that neither EcN LPS nor EcN supernatant had effect on the total 5-ASA transport (secretory flux greater than absorptive flux) and on the transport of intracellularly formed N-Ac-5-ASA (preferentially transported in the secretory direction). The percent cumulative transport of the total 5-ASA alone or in combination with EcN LPS or EcN supernatant did not exceed 1%. PMID:23846256

  10. Impact of the rpoS genotype for acid resistance patterns of pathogenic and probiotic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Coldewey, Sina M; Hartmann, Maike; Schmidt, Dorothea S; Engelking, Uta; Ukena, Sya N; Gunzer, Florian

    2007-01-01

    Background Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a subgroup of Shiga toxin (Stx) producing E. coli (STEC), may cause severe enteritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and is transmitted orally via contaminated foods or from person to person. The infectious dose is known to be very low, which requires most of the bacteria to survive the gastric acid barrier. Acid resistance therefore is an important mechanism of EHEC virulence. It should also be a relevant characteristic of E. coli strains used for therapeutic purposes such as the probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN). In E. coli and related enteric bacteria it has been extensively demonstrated, that the alternative sigma factor σS, encoded by the rpoS gene, acts as a master regulator mediating resistance to various environmental stress factors. Methods Using rpoS deletion mutants of a highly virulent EHEC O26:H11 patient isolate and the sequenced prototype EHEC EDL933 (ATCC 700927) of serotype O157:H7 we investigated the impact of a functional rpoS gene for orchestrating a satisfactory response to acid stress in these strains. We then functionally characterized rpoS of probiotic EcN and five rpoS genes selected from STEC isolates pre-investigated for acid resistance. Results First, we found out that ATCC isolate 700927 of EHEC EDL933 has a point mutation in rpoS, not present in the published sequence, leading to a premature stop codon. Moreover, to our surprise, one STEC strain as well as EcN was acid sensitive in our test environment, although their cloned rpoS genes could effectively complement acid sensitivity of an rpoS deletion mutant. Conclusion The attenuation of sequenced EHEC EDL933 might be of importance for anyone planning to do either in vitro or in vivo studies with this prototype strain. Furthermore our data supports recently published observations, that individual E. coli isolates are able to significantly modulate their acid resistance phenotype independent of their rpoS genotype. PMID:17386106

  11. The use of probiotics in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Hai, N V

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to present comprehensive notes for the use of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics have been proven to be positive promoters of aquatic animal growth, survival and health. In aquaculture, intestines, gills, the skin mucus of aquatic animals, and habitats or even culture collections and commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics, which have been identified as bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and nonbacteria (bacteriophages, microalgae and yeasts). While a bacterium is a pathogen to one aquatic animal, it can bring benefits to another fish species; a screening process plays a significant role in making a probiotic species specific. The administration of probiotics varies from oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is commonly used in aquaculture. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains, or even in combination with prebiotic, immunostimulants such as synbiotics and synbiotism, and in live or dead forms. Encapsulating probiotics with live feed is a suitable approach to convey probiotics to aquatic animals. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. Several modes of actions of probiotics are presented, while some others are not fully understood. Suggestions for further studies on the effects of probiotics in aquaculture are proposed. PMID:26119489

  12. A transgenic probiotic secreting a parasite immunomodulator for site-directed treatment of gut inflammation.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Rose A; Rausch, Sebastian; Ebner, Friederike; Günzel, Dorothee; Richter, Jan F; Hering, Nina A; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter; Kühl, Anja A; Keles, Ahmed; Janczyk, Pawel; Nöckler, Karsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Hartmann, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    New treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel disease are needed and parasitic nematode infections or application of helminth components improve clinical and experimental gut inflammation. We genetically modified the probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 to secrete the powerful nematode immunomodulator cystatin in the gut. This treatment was tested in a murine colitis model and on post-weaning intestinal inflammation in pigs, an outbred model with a gastrointestinal system similar to humans. Application of the transgenic probiotic significantly decreased intestinal inflammation in murine acute colitis, associated with increased frequencies of Foxp3(+) Tregs, suppressed local interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17A production, decreased macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/β, monocyte chemoattractant protein -1/3, and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted expression and fewer inflammatory macrophages in the colon. High dosages of the transgenic probiotic were well tolerated by post-weaning piglets. Despite being recognized by T cells, secreted cystatin did not lead to changes in cytokine expression or macrophage activation in the colon. However, colon transepithelial resistance and barrier function were significantly improved in pigs receiving the transgenic probotic and post-weaning colon inflammation was reduced. Thus, the anti-inflammatory efficiency of a probiotic can be improved by a nematode-derived immunoregulatory transgene. This treatment regimen should be further investigated as a potential therapeutic option for inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24985163

  13. A Transgenic Probiotic Secreting a Parasite Immunomodulator for Site-Directed Treatment of Gut Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Rose A; Rausch, Sebastian; Ebner, Friederike; Günzel, Dorothee; Richter, Jan F; Hering, Nina A; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter; Kühl, Anja A; Keles, Ahmed; Janczyk, Pawel; Nöckler, Karsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Hartmann, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    New treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel disease are needed and parasitic nematode infections or application of helminth components improve clinical and experimental gut inflammation. We genetically modified the probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 to secrete the powerful nematode immunomodulator cystatin in the gut. This treatment was tested in a murine colitis model and on post-weaning intestinal inflammation in pigs, an outbred model with a gastrointestinal system similar to humans. Application of the transgenic probiotic significantly decreased intestinal inflammation in murine acute colitis, associated with increased frequencies of Foxp3+ Tregs, suppressed local interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17A production, decreased macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/β, monocyte chemoattractant protein -1/3, and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted expression and fewer inflammatory macrophages in the colon. High dosages of the transgenic probiotic were well tolerated by post-weaning piglets. Despite being recognized by T cells, secreted cystatin did not lead to changes in cytokine expression or macrophage activation in the colon. However, colon transepithelial resistance and barrier function were significantly improved in pigs receiving the transgenic probotic and post-weaning colon inflammation was reduced. Thus, the anti-inflammatory efficiency of a probiotic can be improved by a nematode-derived immunoregulatory transgene. This treatment regimen should be further investigated as a potential therapeutic option for inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24985163

  14. An Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 Missense Mutant Colonizes the Streptomycin-Treated Mouse Intestine Better than the Wild Type but Is Not a Better Probiotic

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, Jimmy; Leatham-Jensen, Mary P.; Mokszycki, Matthew E.; Frimodt-Mller, Jakob; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Kazmierczak, Krystyna; Kenney, Linda J.; Conway, Tyrrell

    2014-01-01

    Previously we reported that the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine selected for two different Escherichia coli MG1655 mutants with improved colonizing ability: nonmotile E. coli MG1655 flhDC deletion mutants that grew 15% faster in vitro in mouse cecal mucus and motile E. coli MG1655 envZ missense mutants that grew slower in vitro in mouse cecal mucus yet were able to cocolonize with the faster-growing flhDC mutants. The E. coli MG1655 envZ gene encodes a histidine kinase that is a member of the envZ-ompR two-component signal transduction system, which regulates outer membrane protein profiles. In the present investigation, the envZP41L gene was transferred from the intestinally selected E. coli MG1655 mutant to E. coli Nissle 1917, a human probiotic strain used to treat gastrointestinal infections. Both the E. coli MG1655 and E. coli Nissle 1917 strains containing envZP41L produced more phosphorylated OmpR than their parents. The E. coli Nissle 1917 strain containing envZP41L also became more resistant to bile salts and colicin V and grew 50% slower in vitro in mucus and 15% to 30% slower on several sugars present in mucus, yet it was a 10-fold better colonizer than E. coli Nissle 1917. However, E. coli Nissle 1917 envZP41L was not better at preventing colonization by enterohemorrhagic E. coli EDL933. The data can be explained according to our restaurant hypothesis for commensal E. coli strains, i.e., that they colonize the intestine as sessile members of mixed biofilms, obtaining the sugars they need for growth locally, but compete for sugars with invading E. coli pathogens planktonically. PMID:24478082

  15. An Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 missense mutant colonizes the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine better than the wild type but is not a better probiotic.

    PubMed

    Adediran, Jimmy; Leatham-Jensen, Mary P; Mokszycki, Matthew E; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Krogfelt, Karen A; Kazmierczak, Krystyna; Kenney, Linda J; Conway, Tyrrell; Cohen, Paul S

    2014-02-01

    Previously we reported that the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine selected for two different Escherichia coli MG1655 mutants with improved colonizing ability: nonmotile E. coli MG1655 flhDC deletion mutants that grew 15% faster in vitro in mouse cecal mucus and motile E. coli MG1655 envZ missense mutants that grew slower in vitro in mouse cecal mucus yet were able to cocolonize with the faster-growing flhDC mutants. The E. coli MG1655 envZ gene encodes a histidine kinase that is a member of the envZ-ompR two-component signal transduction system, which regulates outer membrane protein profiles. In the present investigation, the envZP41L gene was transferred from the intestinally selected E. coli MG1655 mutant to E. coli Nissle 1917, a human probiotic strain used to treat gastrointestinal infections. Both the E. coli MG1655 and E. coli Nissle 1917 strains containing envZP41L produced more phosphorylated OmpR than their parents. The E. coli Nissle 1917 strain containing envZP41L also became more resistant to bile salts and colicin V and grew 50% slower in vitro in mucus and 15% to 30% slower on several sugars present in mucus, yet it was a 10-fold better colonizer than E. coli Nissle 1917. However, E. coli Nissle 1917 envZP41L was not better at preventing colonization by enterohemorrhagic E. coli EDL933. The data can be explained according to our "restaurant" hypothesis for commensal E. coli strains, i.e., that they colonize the intestine as sessile members of mixed biofilms, obtaining the sugars they need for growth locally, but compete for sugars with invading E. coli pathogens planktonically. PMID:24478082

  16. Probiotics: Properties, Examples, and Specific Applications

    PubMed Central

    Behnsen, Judith; Deriu, Elisa; Sassone-Corsi, Martina; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are beneficial components of the microbiota that have been used for centuries because of the health benefits they confer to the host. Only recently, however, has the contribution of probiotics to modulation of immunological, respiratory, and gastrointestinal functions started to be fully appreciated and scientifically evaluated. Probiotics such as Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and lactic acid bacteria are currently used to, or have been evaluated for use to, prevent or treat a range of intestinal maladies including inflammatory bowel disease, constipation, and colon cancer. Engineering these natural probiotics to produce immunomodulatory molecules may help to further increase the benefit to the host. In this article, we will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of probiotics as well as advances in the rational design of probiotics. PMID:23457295

  17. Probiotics: properties, examples, and specific applications.

    PubMed

    Behnsen, Judith; Deriu, Elisa; Sassone-Corsi, Martina; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2013-03-01

    Probiotics are beneficial components of the microbiota that have been used for centuries because of the health benefits they confer to the host. Only recently, however, has the contribution of probiotics to modulation of immunological, respiratory, and gastrointestinal functions started to be fully appreciated and scientifically evaluated. Probiotics such as Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and lactic acid bacteria are currently used to, or have been evaluated for use to, prevent or treat a range of intestinal maladies including inflammatory bowel disease, constipation, and colon cancer. Engineering these natural probiotics to produce immunomodulatory molecules may help to further increase the benefit to the host. In this article, we will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of probiotics as well as advances in the rational design of probiotics. PMID:23457295

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of the Shellfish Larval Probiotic Bacillus pumilus RI06-95

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Meagan; Spinard, Edward; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Nelson, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus RI06-95 is a marine bacterium isolated in Narragansett, Rhode Island, which has shown probiotic activity against marine pathogens in larval shellfish. We report the genome of B. pumilus RI06-95, which provides insight into the microbe’s probiotic ability and may be used in future studies of the probiotic mechanism. PMID:26337873

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Shellfish Larval Probiotic Bacillus pumilus RI06-95.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Meagan; Spinard, Edward; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Nelson, David R; Rowley, David C

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus RI06-95 is a marine bacterium isolated in Narragansett, Rhode Island, which has shown probiotic activity against marine pathogens in larval shellfish. We report the genome of B.pumilus RI06-95, which provides insight into the microbe's probiotic ability and may be used in future studies of the probiotic mechanism. PMID:26337873

  20. Effects of a novel encapsulating technique on the temperature tolerance and anti-colitis activity of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Yao; Ho, Yi-Fang; Chen, Yen-Po; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2015-04-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 (M1) has been shown to possess many different beneficial health effects including anti-colitis activity. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel and easily scaled-up encapsulating technique that would improve the temperature tolerance of the bacterium and reduce the sensitivity of the organism to gastrointestinal fluid. A mixture of sodium alginate, gellan gum and skim milk powder was used as a coating material to entrap M1. The M1 gel was then directly freeze dried in order to dehydrate the covering and form microcapsules. The viable cell numbers of M1 present only dropped ten folds after the freeze-drying encapsulation process. The viable cell counts remained constant at 5 × 10(7) CFU/g after heating from 25 °C to 75 °C and holding at 75 °C for 1 min. The viable cell counts were reduced to 10(6) CFU/g and 10(5) CFU/g after 8-week storage at 4 °C and subsequent heat treatment with simulated gastrointestinal fluid test (SGFT) and bile salts, respectively. The effect of encapsulated M1 on the organism's anti-colitis activity was evaluated using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced colitis mouse model. An in vivo study indicated that administration of heat treated encapsulated M1 was able to ameliorate DSS-induced colitis producing a significant reduction in the bleeding score and an attenuation of inflammatory score. These findings clearly demonstrate that encapsulation of M1 using this novel technique is able to provide good protection from temperature changes and SGFT treatment and also does not affect the organism's anti-colitis activity. PMID:25475320

  1. Effects of Probiotic and Prebiotic on Average Daily Gain, Fecal Shedding of Escherichia Coli, and Immune System Status in Newborn Female Calves

    PubMed Central

    Roodposhti, Pezhman Mohamadi; Dabiri, Najafgholi

    2012-01-01

    Thirty two Holstein female calves (initial body weight = 403.0 kg) were used to investigate the effects of probiotic and prebiotic on average daily gain (ADG), fecal E. coli count, white blood cell count, plasma IgG1 level and cell-mediated immune response to injection of phytohemagglutinin in suckling female calves. Calves were assigned randomly to one of the four treatments, including whole milk without additives (control), whole milk containing probiotic, whole milk containing prebiotic and whole milk containing probiotic and prebiotic (synbiotic). Average daily gain was greater in calves fed probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic at weeks 6, 7 and 8 (p<0.05). E. coli count was significantly lower in calves fed probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic on d 56 (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between treatments in blood samples and cell-mediated response. This study showed that addition of probiotic, prebiotic and combination of these additives to milk enhanced ADG and reduced fecal E. coli count in preruminant calves. PMID:25049688

  2. Antagonistic effects of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 on EHEC strains of serotype O104:H4 and O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Rund, Stefan A; Rohde, Holger; Sonnenborn, Ulrich; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A

    2013-01-01

    The largest EHEC outbreak up to now in Germany occurred in 2011. It was caused by the non-O157:H7 Shiga-toxinogenic enterohemorrhagic E. coli strain O104:H4. This strain encodes in addition to the Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), responsible for the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), several adhesins such as aggregative adherence fimbriae. Currently, there is no effective prophylaxis and treatment available for EHEC infections in humans. Especially antibiotics are not indicated for treatment as they may induce Stx production, thus worsening the symptoms. Alternative therapeutics are therefore desperately needed. We tested the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) for antagonistic effects on two O104:H4 EHEC isolates from the 2011 outbreak and on the classical O157:H7 EHEC strain EDL933. These tests included effects on adherence, growth, and Stx production in monoculture and co-culture together with EcN. The inoculum of each co-culture contained EcN and the respective EHEC strain either at a ratio of 1:1 or 10:1 (EcN:EHEC). Adhesion of EHEC strains to Caco-2 cells and to the mucin-producing LS-174T cells was reduced significantly in co-culture with EcN at the 1:1 ratio and very dramatically at the 10:1 ratio. This inhibitory effect of EcN on EHEC adherence was most likely not due to occupation of adhesion sites on the epithelial cells, because in monocultures EcN adhered with much lower bacterial numbers than the EHEC strains. Both EHEC strains of serotype O104:H4 showed reduced growth in the presence of EcN (10:1 ratio). EHEC strain EDL933 grew in co-culture with EcN only during the first 2h of incubation. Thereafter, EHEC counts declined. At 24h, the numbers of viable EDL933 was at or slightly below the numbers at the time of inoculation. The amount of Stx2 after 24h co-incubation with EcN (EcN:EHEC ratio 10:1) was for all 3 EHEC strains tested significantly reduced in comparison to EHEC monocultures. Obviously, EcN shows very efficient antagonistic activity on the EHEC strains of serotype O104:H4 and O157:H7 tested here regarding adherence to human gut epithelial cells, bacterial growth, and Stx2 production in vitro. PMID:23312798

  3. Oral Probiotics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... U V W X Y Z Probiotics: In Depth Share: On This Page What’s the Bottom Line ... NLM), PubMed® contains publication information and (in most cases) brief summaries of articles from scientific and medical ...

  4. Enhanced wound healing by recombinant Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 via human epidermal growth factor receptor in human intestinal epithelial cells: therapeutic implication using recombinant probiotics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Jin; Ahn, Jung Hoon; Park, Seong-Hwan; Do, Kee Hun; Kim, Juil; Moon, Yuseok

    2012-03-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa has a remarkable ability to repair damage with the support of epidermal growth factor (EGF), which stimulates epithelial migration and proliferative reepithelialization. For the treatment of mucosal injuries, it is important to develop efficient methods for the localized delivery of mucoactive biotherapeutics. The basic idea in the present study came from the assumption that an intestinal probiotic vehicle can carry and deliver key recombinant medicinal proteins to the injured epithelial target in patients with intestinal ulcerative diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. The study was focused on the use of the safe probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917, which was constructed to secrete human EGF in conjunction with the lipase ABC transporter recognition domain (LARD). Using the in vitro physically wounded monolayer model, ABC transporter-mediated EGF secretion by probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 was demonstrated to enhance the wound-healing migration of human enterocytes. Moreover, the epithelial wound closure was dependent on EGF receptor-linked activation, which exclusively involved the subsequent signaling pathway of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) extracellular-related kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). In particular, the migrating frontier of the wounded edge displayed the strongest EGF receptor-linked signaling activation in the presence of the recombinant probiotic. The present study provides a basis for the clinical application of human recombinant biotherapeutics via an efficient, safe probiotic vehicle. PMID:22184415

  5. Efficacy of a novel prebiotic and a commercial probiotic in reducing mortality and production losses due to cold stress/Escherichia coli challenge in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prebiotics consisting of resistant starch may alter intestinal ecology, thus modulating inflammation and increasing intestinal health through increased cecal production of short chain fatty acids. Probiotics may directly alter the intestinal microbiome resulting in the same effects. Trials 1, 2, and...

  6. Mechanisms involved in the immunostimulation by probiotic fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Galdeano, Carolina Maldonado; de Leblanc, Alejandra de Moreno; Carmuega, Esteban; Weill, Ricardo; Perdign, Gabriela

    2009-11-01

    The intestinal ecosystem contains a normal microbiota, non-immune cells and immune cells associated with the intestinal mucosa. The mechanisms involved in the modulation of the gut immune system by probiotics are not yet completely understood. The present work studies the effect of a fermented milk containing probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus (Lb.) casei DN114001 on different parameters of the gut immune system involved with the nonspecific, innate and adaptive response. BALB/c mice received the probiotic bacterium Lb. casei DN114001 or the probiotic fermented milk (PFM). The interaction of the probiotic bacteria with the intestine was studied by electron and fluorescence microscopy. The immunological parameters were studied in the intestinal tissue and in the supernatant of intestinal cells (IC). Results showed that the probiotic bacterium interact with the IC. The whole bacterium or its fragments make contact with the gut associated immune cells. The PFM stimulated the IC with IL-6 release, as well as cells related to the nonspecific barrier and with the immune cells associated with the gut. This last activity was observed through the increase in the population of different immune cells: T lymphocytes and IgA+ B lymphocytes, and by the expression of cell markers related to both innate and adaptive response (macrophages). PFM was also able to activate the enzyme calcineurine responsible for the activation of the transcriptional factor NFAT. PFM induced mucosal immune stimulation reinforcing the non-specific barrier and modulating the innate immune response in the gut, maintaining the intestinal homeostasis. PMID:19638260

  7. Probiotics in the Management of Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Chibbar, Richa; Dieleman, Levinus A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid progress has been made to understand the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases and to identify new treatments. Interaction of the gut microbiota on the host inflammatory response has suggested that alternative therapies, such as probiotics, might have a complementary role in treating and preventing disease flares. Multiple probiotics and their formulations have been studied for both the induction and maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis (UC); however, mainly Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and VSL#3 have been shown to provide significant benefits for the prevention and treatment of mild to moderate UC. Although these data are promising, there is still a paucity of robust, randomized-controlled trials to suggest that probiotics be utilized as part of a standard treatment regimen. With continued research and a movement toward carefully selected, individualized management based on an individual's specific microbiota composition and function, probiotics may become an integral part of tailored therapy for UC. PMID:26447965

  8. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  9. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results

  10. Probiotic bacteria reduce salmonella typhimurium intestinal colonization by competing for iron.

    PubMed

    Deriu, Elisa; Liu, Janet Z; Pezeshki, Milad; Edwards, Robert A; Ochoa, Roxanna J; Contreras, Heidi; Libby, Stephen J; Fang, Ferric C; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2013-07-17

    Host inflammation alters the availability of nutrients such as iron to limit microbial growth. However, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium thrives in the inflamed gut by scavenging for iron with siderophores. By administering Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, which assimilates iron by similar mechanisms, we show that this nonpathogenic bacterium can outcompete and reduce S. Typhimurium colonization in mouse models of acute colitis and chronic persistent infection. This probiotic activity depends on E. coli Nissle iron acquisition, given that mutants deficient in iron uptake colonize the intestine but do not reduce S. Typhimurium colonization. Additionally, the ability of E. coli Nissle to overcome iron restriction by the host protein lipocalin 2, which counteracts some siderophores, is essential, given that S. Typhimurium is unaffected by E. coli Nissle in lipocalin 2-deficient mice. Thus, iron availability impacts S. Typhimurium growth, and E. coli Nissle reduces S. Typhimurium intestinal colonization by competing for this limiting nutrient. PMID:23870311

  11. Probiotic Bacteria Reduce Salmonella Typhimurium Intestinal Colonization by Competing for Iron

    PubMed Central

    Deriu, Elisa; Liu, Janet Z.; Pezeshki, Milad; Edwards, Robert A.; Ochoa, Roxanna J.; Contreras, Heidi; Libby, Stephen J.; Fang, Ferric C.; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Summary Host inflammation alters the availability of nutrients such as iron to limit microbial growth. However, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium thrives in the inflamed gut by scavenging for iron with siderophores. By administering Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, which assimilates iron by similar mechanisms, we show that this non-pathogenic bacterium can outcompete and reduce S. Typhimurium colonization in mouse models of acute colitis and chronic persistent infection. This probiotic activity depends on E. coli Nissle iron acquisition as mutants deficient in iron uptake colonize the intestine but do not reduce S. Typhimurium colonization. Additionally, the ability of E. coli Nissle to overcome iron restriction by the host protein lipocalin-2, which counteracts some siderophores, is essential as S. Typhimurium is unaffected by E. coli Nissle in lipocalin-2-deficient mice. Thus, iron availability impacts S. Typhimurium growth and E. coli Nissle reduces S. Typhimurium intestinal colonization by competing for this limiting nutrient. PMID:23870311

  12. Protection against 1,2-di-methylhydrazine-induced systemic oxidative stress and altered brain neurotransmitter status by probiotic Escherichia coli CFR 16 secreting pyrroloquinoline quinone.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sumeet; Singh, Ashish; Chaudhari, Nirja; Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P; Kumar, G Naresh

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutant 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is attributed to systemic oxidative stress and is known to cause neurotropic effect by altering brain neurotransmitter status. Probiotics are opted as natural therapeutic against oxidative stress and also have the ability to modulate gut-brain axis. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is water-soluble, heat-stable antioxidant molecule. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant efficacy of PQQ-producing probiotic E. coli CFR 16 on DMH-induced systemic oxidative damage and altered neurotransmitter status in rat brain. Adult virgin Charles Forster rats (200-250 g) were given DMH dose (25 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) for 8 weeks. Blood lipid peroxidation levels exhibited a marked increase while antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase were found to be reduced in DMH-treated rats. Likewise, brain serotonin and norepinephrine levels displayed a significant decrease, whereas epinephrine levels demonstrated a marked increase in brain of these rats. PQQ-producing E. coli CFR 16 supplementation reduced systemic oxidative stress and also restored brain neurotransmitter status. However, E. coli CFR 16 did not show any effect on these parameters. In contrast, E. coli CFR 16:: vgb-gfp and E. coli CFR 16:: vgb-gfp vector exhibited some degree of protection again oxidative stress but they were not able to modulate neurotransmitter levels. In conclusion, continuous and sustained release of PQQ by probiotic E. coli in rat intestine ameliorates systemic oxidative stress and restored brain neurotransmitter levels. PMID:25586077

  13. Successful treatment of asymptomatic or clinically terminal bovine Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection (Johne disease) with the bacterium Dietzia used as a probiotic alone or in combination with dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A naturally occurring gastrointestinal disease, primarily of ruminants (Johne disease), is a chronic debilitating disease that is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). MAP infection occurs primarily in utero and in newborns. Outside our Dietzia probiotic treatment, there are no preventive/curative therapies for bovine paratuberculosis. Interestingly, MAP is at the center of controversy as to its role in (cause of) Crohn disease (CD) and more recently, its role in diabetes, ulcerative colitis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); the latter two, like CD, are considered to be a result of chronic intestinal inflammation. Treatments, both conventional and biologic agents, which induce and maintain remission are directed at curtailing processes that are an intricate part of inflammation. Most possess side effects of varying severity, lose therapeutic value, and more importantly, none routinely result in prevention and/or cures. Based on (a) similarities of Johne disease and Crohn disease, (b) a report that Dietzia inhibited growth of MAP under specific culture conditions, and (c) findings that Dietzia when used as a probiotic, (i) was therapeutic for adult bovine paratuberculosis, and (ii) prevented development of disease in MAP-infected calves, the goal of the present investigations was to design protocols that have applicability for IBD patients. Dietzia was found safe for cattle of all ages and for normal and immunodeficient mice. The results strongly warrant clinical evaluation as a probiotic, in combination with/without dexamethasone. PMID:21460639

  14. Genome Sequence of a Potential Probiotic Strain, Lactobacillus fermentum HFB3, Isolated from a Human Gut

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Madhu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of 2.04Mb is reported for Lactobacillus fermentum HFB3, which is a lactic acid bacterium with probiotic properties. The gene-coding clusters also predicted the presence of genes responsible for probiotic characteristics. PMID:26543124

  15. Genome Sequence of a Potential Probiotic Strain, Lactobacillus fermentum HFB3, Isolated from a Human Gut.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Madhu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of 2.04Mb is reported for Lactobacillus fermentum HFB3, which is a lactic acid bacterium with probiotic properties. The gene-coding clusters also predicted the presence of genes responsible for probiotic characteristics. PMID:26543124

  16. Functionality of probiotics - potential for product development.

    PubMed

    Dekker, James; Collett, Michael; Prasad, Jaya; Gopal, Pramod

    2007-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly accepted by consumers that live lactic acid bacteria do exert health benefits when eaten. In addition, it is also becoming recognised that not all probiotic bacteria are equal. It is now no longer just a question of providing sufficient numbers of viable bacteria in a product; industry must also provide proof of efficacy for each strain. In the early 1990s, Fonterra embarked on a programme to develop proprietary probiotic strains, and as a result, commercialised two strains, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. Over the past decade, Fonterra has developed a significant body of peerreviewed published reports around these strains, including studies showing safety in animal and human trials, protection against pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7, modulation of human and animal immune markers at realistic dose rates, and efficacy in human clinical trials. Based on this work, HN019 and HN001 have been applied to several functional foods both by Fonterra (under the DR10 and DR20 brands, respectively) and by third parties (e.g. under the HOWARU brand by Danisco). While the 'gold standard' of proof of efficacy is a phase III clinical trial, ethical considerations as well as expense preclude the use of clinical trials as screening tools for probiotics. Therefore, biomarkers have to be employed to identify strains with probiotic utility, and to define the different positive health benefits of existing probiotic strains. However, as the mechanisms by which most probiotic bacteria exert their health benefits remain unclear, the question of which biomarkers accurately reflect efficacy in vivo remains unresolved. With recent technological advances, and the shift toward probiotics targeted to specific conditions, researchers are beginning to tease out how probiotic bacteria work, and it is this knowledge that will inform biomarker development and improve the ability to offer the market safe and effective probiotic functional foods. PMID:17684416

  17. Escherichia coli O157:H7Clinical aspects and novel treatment approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Elias A.; Kazzi, Natalie; Nassar, Farah J.; Matar, Ghassan M.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a notorious pathogen often contracted by intake of contaminated water or food. Infection with this agent is associated with a broad spectrum of illness ranging from mild diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis to the potentially fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Treating E. coli O157:H7 infection with antimicrobial agents is associated with an increased risk of severe sequelae such as HUS. The difficulty in treating this bacterium using conventional modalities of antimicrobial agent administration has sparked an interest in investigating new therapeutic approaches to this bacterium. These approaches have included the use of probiotic agents and natural products with variable success rates. In addition, novel modalities and regimen of antimicrobial agent administration have been assessed in an attempt at decreasing their association with aggravating infection outcomes. PMID:23162800

  18. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics.

    PubMed

    de Vrese, Michael; Schrezenmeir, J

    2008-01-01

    According to the German definition, probiotics are defined viable microorganisms, sufficient amounts of which reach the intestine in an active state and thus exert positive health effects. Numerous probiotic microorganisms (e.g. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, bifidobacteria and certain strains of L. casei or the L. acidophilus-group) are used in probiotic food, particularly fermented milk products, or have been investigated--as well as Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, certain enterococci (Enterococcus faecium SF68) and the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii--with regard to their medicinal use. Among the numerous purported health benefits attributed to probiotic bacteria, the (transient) modulation of the intestinal microflora of the host and the capacity to interact with the immune system directly or mediated by the autochthonous microflora, are basic mechanisms. They are supported by an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo experiments using conventional and molecular biologic methods. In addition to these, a limited number of randomized, well-controlled human intervention trials have been reported. Well-established probiotic effects are: 1. Prevention and/or reduction of duration and complaints of rotavirus-induced or antibiotic-associated diarrhea as well as alleviation of complaints due to lactose intolerance. 2. Reduction of the concentration of cancer-promoting enzymes and/or putrefactive (bacterial) metabolites in the gut. 3. Prevention and alleviation of unspecific and irregular complaints of the gastrointestinal tracts in healthy people. 4. Beneficial effects on microbial aberrancies, inflammation and other complaints in connection with: inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, Helicobacter pylori infection or bacterial overgrowth. 5. Normalization of passing stool and stool consistency in subjects suffering from obstipation or an irritable colon. 6. Prevention or alleviation of allergies and atopic diseases in infants. 7. Prevention of respiratory tract infections (common cold, influenza) and other infectious diseases as well as treatment of urogenital infections. Insufficient or at most preliminary evidence exists with respect to cancer prevention, a so-called hypocholesterolemic effect, improvement of the mouth flora and caries prevention or prevention or therapy of ischemic heart diseases or amelioration of autoimmune diseases (e.g. arthritis). A prebiotic is "a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well being and health", whereas synergistic combinations of pro- and prebiotics are called synbiotics. Today, only bifidogenic, non-digestible oligosaccharides (particularly inulin, its hydrolysis product oligofructose, and (trans)galactooligosaccharides), fulfill all the criteria for prebiotic classification. They are dietary fibers with a well-established positive impact on the intestinal microflora. Other health effects of prebiotics (prevention of diarrhoea or obstipation, modulation of the metabolism of the intestinal flora, cancer prevention, positive effects on lipid metabolism, stimulation of mineral adsorption and immunomodulatory properties) are indirect, i.e. mediated by the intestinal microflora, and therefore less-well proven. In the last years, successful attempts have been reported to make infant formula more breast milk-like by the addition of fructo- and (primarily) galactooligosaccharides. PMID:18461293

  19. Microorganisms with Claimed Probiotic Properties: An Overview of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fijan, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Health benefits have mainly been demonstrated for specific probiotic strains of the following genera: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Escherichia coli. The human microbiota is getting a lot of attention today and research has already demonstrated that alteration of this microbiota may have far-reaching consequences. One of the possible routes for correcting dysbiosis is by consuming probiotics. The credibility of specific health claims of probiotics and their safety must be established through science-based clinical studies. This overview summarizes the most commonly used probiotic microorganisms and their demonstrated health claims. As probiotic properties have been shown to be strain specific, accurate identification of particular strains is also very important. On the other hand, it is also demonstrated that the use of various probiotics for immunocompromised patients or patients with a leaky gut has also yielded infections, sepsis, fungemia, bacteraemia. Although the vast majority of probiotics that are used today are generally regarded as safe and beneficial for healthy individuals, caution in selecting and monitoring of probiotics for patients is needed and complete consideration of risk-benefit ratio before prescribing is recommended. PMID:24859749

  20. Any benefits of probiotics in allergic disorders?

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Oner

    2010-01-01

    Development of the child's immune system tends to be directed toward a T-helper 2 (Th2) phenotype in infants. To prevent development of childhood allergic/atopic diseases, immature Th2-dominant neonatal responses must undergo environment-driven maturation via microbial contact in the early postnatal period. Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria are found more commonly in the composition of the intestinal flora of nonallergic children. Epidemiological data also showed that atopic children have a different intestinal flora from healthy children. Probiotics are ingested live health-promoting microbes that can modify intestinal microbial populations in a way that benefits the host; and enhanced presence of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota is found to correlate with protection against atopy. There is insufficient but very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics to foods for prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, especially atopic dermatitis. Clinical improvement especially in allergic rhinitis and IgE-sensitized (atopic) eczema has been reported too. Literature data for food allergy/hypersensitivity and asthma are not adequate for this guaranteed conclusion; however, clinical benefit of probiotic therapy depends on numerous factors, such as type of bacterium, dosing regimen, delivery method, and other underlying host factors, e.g., the age and diet of the host. The selection of the most beneficial probiotic strain, the dose, and the timing of supplementation still need to be determined. Accordingly, probiotics can not be recommended generally for primary prevention of atopic disease; and if probiotics are used in atopic infants/children for any reason, such as therapy or prevention, cautionary approach ought to be taken. PMID:20406592

  1. Recombinant probiotic therapy in experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Gardlik, R; Palffy, R; Celec, P

    2012-01-01

    Recently, high interest has been attracted to the research of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Recombinant probiotic bacteria may represent an interesting way to influence the course of IBD. Their benefits include cheap and simple production and easy manipulation of the genetic material. Several gene therapy and probiotic approaches already showed promising results in the past. The aim of this study was to test the probiotic potential of IL-10-expressing Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in a mouse model of IBD and to compare it with control bacterial strains. The dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of colitis was examined for this purpose. Animals received control probiotic bacteria or modified probiotics (expressing IL-10) via gastric gavage. Body weight, stool consistency, food and water consumption were monitored. At the end of the experiment, the parameters of inflammation, oxidative stress and carbonyl stress were analysed in the samples and statistical analysis was performed. We prepared an anti-inflammatory probiotic Escherichia coli strain that we designated Nissle 1917/pMEC-IL10 and proved its anti-inflammatory properties, which are similar to those of the control probiotic strains Nissle 1917 and Lactococcus lactis/pMEC-IL10 in vivo. The probiotic therapy was successful according to several parameters, including colon length, and oxidative and carbonyl stress. Bacterially produced IL-10 was detected in the plasma. The potential of bacterial anti-inflammatory therapy of IBD using modified probiotics was outlined. The results opened a way for upcoming studies using modified probiotics for therapy of systemic diseases. PMID:23438849

  2. Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression in Escherichia coli of the New Gene Encoding β-1,3-Xylanase from a Marine Bacterium, Vibrio sp. Strain XY-214

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Toshiyoshi; Hashikawa, Shinnosuke; Morishita, Tatsuo

    2000-01-01

    The Vibrio sp. strain XY-214 β-1,3-xylanase gene cloned in Escherichia coli DH5α consisted of an open reading frame of 1,383 nucleotides encoding a protein of 460 amino acids with a molecular mass of 51,323 Da and had a signal peptide of 22 amino acids. The transformant enzyme hydrolyzed β-1,3-xylan to produce several xylooligosaccharides. PMID:10742274

  3. Antibacterial activity and probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum HKN01: a new insight into the morphological changes of antibacterial compound-treated Escherichia coli by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Hakimeh; Maleki, Hadi; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Sajedinejad, Neda; Houshmand, Behzad; Vali, Hojatollah; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz

    2013-02-01

    Among several bacteria examined, an antibacterial-producing Lactobacillus strain with probiotic characteristics was selected and identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Subsequent purification and mode of action of the antibacterial compounds on target cells including E. coli were investigated. Maximum production of the antibacterial compound was recorded at 18 h incubation at 30 degrees C. Interestingly, antibacterial activity remained unchanged after heating at 121 degrees C for 45 min, 24 h storage in temperature range of 70 degrees C to room temperature, and 15 min exposure to UV light, and it was stable in the pH of range 2-10. The active compounds were inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, indicating their proteinaceous nature, and, therefore, referred to as bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. Isolation and partial purification of the effective agent was done by performing ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the GFC-purified active compound (~3 kDa) was determined by Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE. To predict the mechanisms of action, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of ultrathin sections of E. coli before and after antibacterial treatment was carried out. TEM analysis of antibacterial compounds-treated E. coli demonstrated that the completely altered bacteria appear much darker compared with the less altered bacteria, suggesting a change in the cytoplasmic composition. There were also some membrane-bound convoluted structures visible within the completely altered bacteria, which could be attributed to the response of the E. coli to the treatment with the antibacterial compound. According to the in vivo experiments oral administration of L. plantarum HKN01 resulted in recovery of infected BALB/c mice with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. PMID:23412066

  4. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  5. Inhibition of in vitro growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 by probiotic Lactobacillus strains due to production of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, M; Shimizu, K; Nomoto, K; Tanaka, R; Hamabata, T; Yamasaki, S; Takeda, T; Takeda, Y

    2001-08-15

    The inhibiting characteristics of lactic acid bacteria on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 (three strains, clinically isolated) was investigated by using a batch fermentation system. The species such as Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota or L. acidophilus YIT 0070 exert growth inhibitory and bactericidal activities on STEC. The pH value and undissociated lactic acid (U-LA) concentration of the culture medium of STEC cocultured with L. casei or L. acidophilus dramatically lowered or increased, respectively [corrected], when compared with those of the control culture. The cytotoxic properties of U-LA on STEC strain 89020087 analyzed in vitro was divided into two phases, i.e., the bacteriostatic phase (between 3.2 to 62 mM) and the bactericidal phase (over 62 mM). These data suggest that the bactericidal effect of Lactobacillus on STEC depends on its lactic acid production and pH reductive effect. PMID:11545213

  6. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  7. Clinical Uses of Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Islam, Saif Ul

    2016-02-01

    Probiotics are live nonpathogenic microorganisms. Many of these microorganisms are part of the normal human gut flora, where they live in a symbiotic relationship. Probiotics have been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI medical conditions. However, the data supporting their use are often conflicting, especially for non-GI-associated illnesses. The strongest evidence supporting the use of probiotics is related to the treatment of acute diarrhea and pouchitis. Atopic eczema in children and genitourinary infections are the only non-GI-related medical conditions where probiotics may have some beneficial effects. Product selection and dosing are not the same in all conditions, and the beneficial effects of each probiotic strain cannot be generalized.The purpose of this article is to provide most recent information about probiotics and its uses. In contrast with previously published reviews on probiotics, we also discuss the composition of various products (Table 1), indications for their use (Table 2), product selection, and dosing of probiotics.Probiotics are safe and appear to exert some beneficial effects in GI-related illnesses. The use of probiotics in non-GI illnesses is not sufficiently supported by current data. PMID:26844491

  8. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression in Escherichia coli of a gene coding for a. beta. -mannanase from the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldocellum saccharolyticum

    SciTech Connect

    Luethi, E.; Jasmat, N.B.; Grayling, R.A.; Love, D.R.; Bergquist, P.L. )

    1991-03-01

    A {lambda} recombinant phage expressing {beta}-mannanase activity in Escherichia coli has been isolated from a genomic library of the extremely thermophilic anaerobe Caldocellum saccharolyticum. The gene was cloned into pBR322 on a 5-kb BamHI fragment, and its location was obtained by deletion analysis. The sequence of a 2.1-kb fragment containing the mannanase gene has been determined. One open reading frame was found which could code for a protein of M{sub r} 38,904. The mannanase gene (manA) was overexpressed in E. coli by cloning the gene downstream from the lacZ promoter of pUC18. The enzyme was most active at pH 6 and 80 C and degraded locust bean gum, guar gum, Pinus radiata glucomannan, and konjak glucomannan. The noncoding region downstream from the mannanase gene showed strong homology to celB, a gene coding for a cellulase from the same organism, suggesting that the manA gene might have been inserted into its present position on the C. saccharolyticum genome by homologous recombination.

  9. Xylanase from the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldocellum saccharolyticum: Overexpression of the gene in Escherichia coli and characterization of the gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Luethi, E.; Jasmat, N.B.; Bergquist, P.L. )

    1990-09-01

    A xylanase encoded by the xynA gene of the extreme thermophile Caldocellum saccharolyticum was overexpressed in Escherichia coli by cloning the gene downstream from the temperature-inducible {lambda} P{sub R} and P{sub L} promoters of the expression vector pJLA602. Induction of up to 55 times was obtained by growing the cells at 42{degrees}C, and the xylanase made up of 20% of the whole-cell protein content. The enzyme was located in the cytoplasmic fraction in E.coli. The temperature and pH optima were determined to be 70{degrees}C and pH 5.5 to 6, respectively. The xylanase was stable for at least 72 h if incubated at 60{degrees}C, with half-lives of 8 to 9 h at 70{degrees}C and 2 to 3 min at 80{degrees}C. The enzyme had high activity on xylan and ortho-nitrophenyl {beta}-D-xylopyranoside and some activity on carboxymethyl cellulose and para-nitrophenyl {beta}-D-cellobioside. The gene was probably expressed from its own promoter in E. coli. Translation of the xylanase overproduced in E. coli seemed to initiate at a GTG codon and not at an ATG codon as previously determined.

  10. Allergen-free probiotics.

    PubMed

    Mogna, Giovanni; Strozzi, Gian Paolo; Mogna, Luca

    2008-09-01

    Food sensitivities are constantly increasing in "westernized" countries and may pose serious health risks to sensitized individuals. Severe allergy episodes have also been reported after the intake of probiotic products containing milk protein residues, especially in children. The need for safe and effective probiotic strains and food supplements, which contain them, is now emerging clearly. The present work describes the way of achieving this aim by the avoidance of any kind of raw materials at risk, both in probiotic strain industrial manufacturing and finished product formulation. Allergen-free probiotics represent, without any doubt, an innovative and safe tool for human health. PMID:18685500

  11. Taxonomy of Probiotic Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felis, Giovanna E.; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    When referring to probiotics, one refers to probiotic strains, i.e., the microbial individuals, sub-cultures of billion of almost identical cells ideally derived from the same mother cell. Therefore, beneficial effects attributed to probiotics are ascribed in fact to specific strains. However, these strains have to be, by law, clearly identified at the species level (Pineiro and Stanton, 2007). In fact, probiotics have to be safe for consumption, and the evaluation of QPS - qualified presumption of safety - status by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (Opinion, 2007) is discussed for species, not for single strains.

  12. Health aspects of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Arthur; Vesterlund, Satu

    2003-06-01

    Intestinal microbiota contribute in many different ways to our health; disturbances in the activity and/or composition of these microbiota may negatively influence health. In order to maintain a healthy intestinal microbiota, prebiotics and probiotics can be used. Selected probiotic strains safely shorten the duration of rotavirus diarrhea, relieve symptoms of lactose maldigestion and elicit beneficial immune-modulating effects. Other beneficial health effects have also been attributed to probiotics; however, these have not been sufficiently substantiated. Additional research into the mechanisms of probiotics is required. PMID:12811680

  13. Probiotics in allergy management.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoof, Jon A

    2008-11-01

    The gut contains a diverse bacterial flora that is acquired at birth and has a number of physiological functions. Administration of prebiotics or probiotics may favourably alter this gut microflora. Prebiotics are poorly digested oligosaccharides that promote the growth of desirable bacteria and may have other beneficial gastrointestinal and systemic effects. Probiotics are "helpful" human bacteria that provide a variety of health benefits when administered exogenously. Probiotics produce beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of traveller's diarrhoea, viral diarrhoea, and diarrhoea in day care centres. Moreover, probiotics have been shown to reduce relapses associated with Clostridium difficile, and Lactobacilli are effective in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Probiotics may also be efficacious in the treatment of gastroenteritis. Clinical studies of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease have proved disappointing, but beneficial effects in adults with irritable bowel syndrome have been reported with Bifidobacterium infantis 35624. Lactobacilli GG reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms and gut permeability in patients with atopic dermatitis, and administration of probiotics reduces the frequency and severity of atopic eczema when administered to pregnant women and then to newborn infants. In conclusion, probiotics are effective in the treatment and/or prevention of a number of conditions, including diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome and atopic dermatitis, and the product used should be selected based on the particular indication. PMID:18931598

  14. Probiotics for preventive health.

    PubMed

    Minocha, Anil

    2009-01-01

    Gut flora and probiotics have potential to affect health and disease far beyond the gut. There is increasing evidence that probiotics have beneficial effects in preventing a wide range of conditions and improving health. Randomized, double-blind studies have provided evidence of the effectiveness of probiotics for preventing various diarrheal illnesses as well as allergic disorders. Evidence for their efficacy for use in the prevention and treatment of bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infections is also mounting. In addition, probiotics may be useful for preventing respiratory infections, dental caries, necrotizing enterocolitis, and certain aspects of inflammatory bowel disease. Data also suggest that probiotics may promote good health in day care and work settings, and may enhance growth in healthy as well as ill and malnourished children. Results from meta-analyses and systematic reviews that combine results of studies from different types of probiotics to examine the effects in any disease state should be interpreted with caution. Specific strains are effective in specific disease states. No 2 probiotics are exactly alike; we should not expect reproducible results from studies that employ different species or strains, variable formulations, and diverse dosing schedules. PMID:19321897

  15. Probiotics and ileitis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Probiotics have gained tremendous popularity amongst individuals searching for alternative and “natural” means to promote intestinal health. It has been suggested that the probiotic formulation VSL#3 promotes several aspects of intestinal health including attenuation of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Although a definitive mechanism of action has not been clearly identified, it is generally accepted that probiotics suppress development of chronic inflammation by inhibiting activation of various inflammatory signaling pathways. This concept however needs to be revisited in light of a recent publication by Pagnini et al. showing that VSL#3 prevents development of ileitis through activation of NFκB and production of the prototypical inflammatory cytokine TNFα. PMID:21327025

  16. Immunological Effects of Probiotics and their Significance to Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Harsharn S.; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender K.; Gill, Preet

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit upon the host (FAO/WHO, 2001). Lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are commonly used as probiotics. Other less commonly used probiotics include the yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae and some non-pathogenic Escherichia coli and Bacillus species. Studies over the past 20 years have demonstrated that probiotic intake is able to confer a range of health benefits including modulation of the immune system, protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections, lowering of blood cholesterol levels, attenuation of overt immuno-inflammatory disorders (such as inflammatory bowel disease, allergies) and anti-cancer effects. However, the strongest clinical evidence for probiotics relates to their effectiveness in improving gut health and modulating (via stimulation or regulation) the host immune system. This chapter provides an overview of the current status of our knowledge regarding the immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory effects of probiotics on the immune system and their significance to human health.

  17. Probiotics-host communication

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Carissa M

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota includes a diverse group of functional microorganisms, including candidate probiotics or viable microorganisms that benefit the host. Beneficial effects of probiotics include enhancing intestinal epithelial cell function, protecting against physiologic stress, modulating cytokine secretion profiles, influencing T-lymphocyte populations, and enhancing antibody secretion. Probiotics have demonstrated significant potential as therapeutic options for a variety of diseases, but the mechanisms responsible for these effects remain to be fully elucidated. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that probiotics communicate with the host by modulating key signaling pathways, such as NFκB and MAPK, to either enhance or suppress activation and influence downstream pathways. Beneficial microbes can profoundly alter the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, and understanding these mechanisms may result in new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:20672012

  18. PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli is a bacterial species which inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of man and warm-blooded animals. Because of the ubiquity of this bacterium in the intestinal flora, it serves as an important indicator organism of fecal contamination. E. coli, aside from serving a...

  19. Probiotic and prebiotic-probiotic PEC microparticles for sustaining and enhancing intestinal probiotic growth.

    PubMed

    Harshitha, K; Kulkarni, P K; Vaghela, Rudra; Kumar Varma, V Naga Sravan; Deshpande, D Rohan; Hani, Umme

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate Polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) microparticles composing Lactobacillus Acidophilus (probiotic) and Fructo oligosaccharide-Lactobacillus Acidophilus (prebiotic-probiotic), for sustaining and enhancing intestinal growth of probiotic bacteria. Gum Karaya-Chitosan(GK-CH) was used to fabricate PEC microparticles by extrusion method. The prepared microparticles were characterized for FT-IR, DSC and particle size and evaluated for percentage yield, swelling, surface morphology, entrapment rate and further studied for influence of prebiotic over probiotic growth. The fabricated PEC microparticles composed of Probiotic and Prebiotic- Probiotic have exhibited sustainability of probiotic bacteria for 12 hrs in GIT conditions and presence of prebiotic in the preparation enhanced the probiotic cell growth. Hence, it can be concluded that PEC between GK-CH was found to be successful in sustaining cell release and presence of prebiotic was found to enhance the probiotic cell growth. PMID:25495646

  20. Complete genome sequence of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenyi; Sun, Zhihong; Bilige, Menghe; Zhang, Heping

    2015-01-10

    Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 is a probiotic bacterium, which shows high antibacterial activity. The genome consists of a circular 3,033,693-bp chromosome and six plasmids. Bioinformatics inspection of the genome revealed a gene cluster relating to bacteriocin production. Genome information has provided the basis for understanding the potential molecular mechanism behind the bacteriocin production. PMID:25444879

  1. Genome sequence of Lactobacillus salivarius GJ-24, a probiotic strain isolated from healthy adult intestine.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong-Joon; Choi, Jae Kyoung; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lim, Yea-Seul; Ham, Jun-Sang; Kang, Dae-Kyung; Chun, Jongsik; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Geun-Bae

    2011-09-01

    The draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus salivarius GJ-24 isolated from the feces of healthy adults was determined. Its properties, including milk fermentation activity and bacteriocin production, suggest its potential uses as a probiotic lactic acid bacterium and start culture for dairy products. PMID:21742893

  2. Probiotics: potential pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Saini, Amarpreet

    2002-02-01

    Realisation of the importance of human gut microbiota in health restoration and maintenance has kindled an interest in probiotics. Probiotics are defined as the microbial food supplements, which beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Probiotics are the health enhancing functional food ingredients used therapeutically to prevent diarrhea, improve lactose tolerance and modulate immunity. They may also have potential to prevent cancer and lower serum cholesterol levels. Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and several other microbial species are perceived to exert such effects by changing the composition of the gut microbiota. However, it is important that exogenously administered bacteria reach and establish themselves in the large intestine in an intact form. The use of non-digestible oligosaccharides ('prebiotics') can fortify intestinal microflora and stimulate their growth. The present review encompasses information regarding the probiotics and their proposed uses. It addresses the concepts of prebiotics and synbiotics, the application of genetic engineering to produce newer probiotics. Finally, the list of commercially available products are reviewed with discussion of questions regarding the reliability, utility and the safety of these products. PMID:11803126

  3. Draft genome sequence of the antifungal-producing plant-benefiting bacterium Burkholderia pyrrocinia CH-67.

    PubMed

    Song, Ju Yeon; Kwak, Min-Jung; Lee, Kwang Youll; Kong, Hyun Gi; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Jihyun F

    2012-12-01

    Burkholderia pyrrocinia CH-67 was isolated from forest soil as a biocontrol agent to be utilized in agriculture. Here, we report the 8.05-Mb draft genome sequence of this bacterium. Its genome contains genes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and plant growth promotion, which may contribute to probiotic effects on plants. PMID:23144399

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Antifungal-Producing Plant-Benefiting Bacterium Burkholderia pyrrocinia CH-67

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ju Yeon; Kwak, Min-Jung; Lee, Kwang Youll; Kong, Hyun Gi; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pyrrocinia CH-67 was isolated from forest soil as a biocontrol agent to be utilized in agriculture. Here, we report the 8.05-Mb draft genome sequence of this bacterium. Its genome contains genes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and plant growth promotion, which may contribute to probiotic effects on plants. PMID:23144399

  5. Probiotic-based strategies for therapeutic and prophylactic use against multiple gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Varankovich, Natallia V; Nickerson, Michael T; Korber, Darren R

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria offer a number of potential health benefits when administered in sufficient amounts that in part include reducing the number of harmful organisms in the intestine, producing antimicrobial substances and stimulating the body's immune response. However, precisely elucidating the probiotic effect of a specific bacterium has been challenging due to the complexity of the gut's microbial ecosystem and a lack of definitive means for its characterization. This review provides an overview of widely used and recently described probiotics, their impact on the human's gut microflora as a preventative treatment of disease, human/animal models being used to help show efficacy, and discusses the potential use of probiotics in gastrointestinal diseases associated with antibiotic administration. PMID:26236287

  6. Probiotic-based strategies for therapeutic and prophylactic use against multiple gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Varankovich, Natallia V.; Nickerson, Michael T.; Korber, Darren R.

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria offer a number of potential health benefits when administered in sufficient amounts that in part include reducing the number of harmful organisms in the intestine, producing antimicrobial substances and stimulating the body’s immune response. However, precisely elucidating the probiotic effect of a specific bacterium has been challenging due to the complexity of the gut’s microbial ecosystem and a lack of definitive means for its characterization. This review provides an overview of widely used and recently described probiotics, their impact on the human’s gut microflora as a preventative treatment of disease, human/animal models being used to help show efficacy, and discusses the potential use of probiotics in gastrointestinal diseases associated with antibiotic administration. PMID:26236287

  7. The role of probiotic cultures in the control of gastrointestinal health.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, R D

    2000-02-01

    The use of probiotics to enhance intestinal health has been proposed for many years. Probiotics are traditionally defined as viable microorganisms that have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of specific pathologic conditions when they are ingested. There is a relatively large volume of literature that supports the use of probiotics to prevent or treat intestinal disorders. However, the scientific basis of probiotic use has been firmly established only recently, and sound clinical studies have begun to be published. Currently, the best-studied probiotics are the lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium sp. However, other organisms used as probiotics in humans include Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Bacteroides sp., Bacillus sp., Propionibacterium sp. and various fungi. Some probiotic preparations contain mixtures of more than one bacterial strain. Probiotics have been examined for their effectiveness in the prevention and treatment of a diverse spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea (including Clostridium difficile-associated intestinal disease), infectious bacterial and viral diarrhea (including diarrhea caused by rotavirus, Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Vibrio cholerae and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency disorder, enteral feeding diarrhea, Helicobacter pylori gastroenteritis, sucrase maltase deficiency, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and lactose intolerance. Probiotics have been found to inhibit intestinal bacterial enzymes involved in the synthesis of colonic carcinogens. There are many mechanisms by which probiotics enhance intestinal health, including stimulation of immunity, competition for limited nutrients, inhibition of epithelial and mucosal adherence, inhibition of epithelial invasion and production of antimicrobial substances. Probiotics represent an exciting prophylactic and therapeutic advance, although additional investigations must be undertaken before their role in intestinal health can be delineated clearly. PMID:10721914

  8. Probiotics for allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    West, C E

    2016-03-11

    Probiotics, given either as a supplement or in infant foods, have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials for allergy prevention. Here, the aim is to give an overview of the results from these primary prevention studies and to discuss current strategies. In most studies, single strains or a mixture of strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been used - prenatally, postnatally or perinatally. Several meta-analyses have reported a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, and the most consistent effect has been observed with a combined perinatal intervention in infants at high risk of allergic disease due to familial predisposition. In a recent meta-analysis, the use of multi-strain probiotics appeared to be most effective for eczema prevention. No preventive effect has been shown for other allergic manifestations. As long-term follow-up data on later onset allergic conditions (asthma and allergic rhinitis) are available only from a few of the initiated studies, reports from ongoing follow-up studies that are adequately powered to examine long-term outcomes are anticipated to provide more insight. Arguably, the differences in many aspects of study design and the use of different probiotic strains and combinations have made direct comparison difficult. To date, expert bodies do not generally recommend probiotics for allergy prevention, although the World Allergy Organization (WAO) in their recently developed guidelines suggests considering using probiotics in pregnant women, during breastfeeding and/or to the infant if at high risk of developing allergic disease (based on heredity). However, in concordance with other expert bodies, the WAO guideline panel stressed the low level of evidence and the need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials and a more standardised approach before clinical recommendations on specific strains, dosages and timing can be given. PMID:26689229

  9. Probiotics and food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the “hygiene hypothesis” low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions. Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells. Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders. PMID:23895430

  10. Bacteria and chocolate: a successful combination for probiotic delivery.

    PubMed

    Possemiers, S; Marzorati, M; Verstraete, W; Van de Wiele, T

    2010-06-30

    In this work, chocolate has been evaluated as a potential protective carrier for oral delivery of a microencapsulated mixture of Lactobacillus helveticus CNCM I-1722 and Bifidobacterium longum CNCM I-3470. A sequential in vitro setup was used to evaluate the protection of the probiotics during passage through the stomach and small intestine, when embedded in dark and milk chocolate or liquid milk. Both chocolates offered superior protection (91% and 80% survival in milk chocolate for L. helveticus and B. longum, respectively compared to 20% and 31% found in milk). To simulate long-term administration, the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) was used. Plate counts, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and quantitative PCR showed that the two probiotics successfully reached the simulated colon compartments. This led to an increase in lactobacilli and bifidobacteria counts and the appearance of additional species in the fingerprints. These data indicate that the coating of the probiotics in chocolate is an excellent solution to protect them from environmental stress conditions and for optimal delivery. The simulation with our gastrointestinal model showed that the formulation of a probiotic strain in a specific food matrix could offer superior protection for the delivery of the bacterium into the colon. The chocolate example could act as a trigger for new research to identify new balanced matrices. PMID:20452073

  11. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Oral Candida in Frail Elderly.

    PubMed

    Kraft-Bodi, E; Jrgensen, M R; Keller, M K; Kragelund, C; Twetman, S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli on the prevalence and counts of oral Candida in frail elderly patients living in nursing homes. The study had a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled design with 2 parallel arms. The study group consisted of 215 older adults (range, 60 to 102 y) who were enrolled after informed consent. After baseline examination and randomization, the subjects were given 1 lozenge containing 2 strains of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) or placebo twice daily (morning and evening). The intervention period was 12 wk, and saliva and plaque samples were collected at baseline and follow-up. The primary end point was prevalence of high Candida counts assessed from chairside tests. Secondary end points were levels of dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The groups were balanced at baseline. The attrition rate to follow-up was 19%. There was a statistically significant reduction in the prevalence of high Candida counts in the probiotic group but not in the placebo group, and the difference was statistically significant in both saliva and plaque (P < 0.05). No significant differences between the groups were noted concerning the levels of supragingival plaque or bleeding on probing. Thus, daily use of probiotic lozenges may reduce the prevalence of high oral Candida counts in frail elderly nursing homes residents (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02391532). PMID:26202995

  12. Market potential for probiotics.

    PubMed

    Stanton, C; Gardiner, G; Meehan, H; Collins, K; Fitzgerald, G; Lynch, P B; Ross, R P

    2001-02-01

    "Functional foods" as a marketing term was initiated in Japan in the late 1980s and is used to describe foods fortified with ingredients capable of producing health benefits. This concept is becoming increasingly popular with consumers because of a heightened awareness of the link between health, nutrition, and diet. Food manufacturers are enthusiastic about developing such products because the added ingredients give increased value to food. The global market for functional foods in the coming years is predicted to grow rapidly. Although Japan currently accounts for about one-half of this market, the fastest rate of growth is expected to be in the United States. Probiotic products represent a strong growth area within the functional foods group and intense research efforts are under way to develop dairy products into which probiotic organisms such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are incorporated. Such probiotic foods may modulate gut microbial composition, thereby leading to improved gut health, for example, through improved tolerance to lactose in lactose-intolerant individuals or improved resistance to pathogenic bacteria. Large numbers of viable microorganisms are likely to be required in the food product, which should be consumed regularly to experience the health effect. The probiotic market, especially dairy products such as yogurts and fermented milks, has experienced rapid growth in Europe. The long-term exploitation of probiotics as health promoters is dependent on several factors, including sound, scientifically proven clinical evidence of health-promoting activity; accurate consumer information; effective marketing strategies; and, above all, a quality product that fulfills consumer expectations. PMID:11157361

  13. Removal of Cholera Toxin from Aqueous Solution by Probiotic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Heikkil, Jari E.; Nybom, Sonja M. K.; Salminen, Seppo J.; Meriluoto, Jussi A. O.

    2012-01-01

    Cholera remains a serious health problem, especially in developing countries where basic hygiene standards are not met. The symptoms of cholera are caused by cholera toxin, an enterotoxin, which is produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. We have recently shown that human probiotic bacteria are capable of removing cyanobacterial toxins from aqueous solutions. In the present study we investigate the ability of the human probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) and Bifidobacteriumlongum 46 (DSM 14583), to remove cholera toxin from solution in vitro. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Bifidobacteriumlongum 46 were able to remove 68% and 59% of cholera toxin from aqueous solutions during 18 h of incubation at 37 C, respectively. The effect was dependent on bacterial concentration and L. rhamnosus GG was more effective at lower bacterial concentrations. No significant effect on cholera toxin concentration was observed when nonviable bacteria or bacterial supernatant was used. PMID:24281668

  14. Escherich and Escherichia.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Herbert C

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this essay is threefold: to give an outline of the life and the various achievements of Theodor Escherich, to provide a background to his discovery of what he called Bacterium coli commune (now Escherichia coli), and to indicate the enormous impact of studies with this organism, long before it became the cornerstone of research in bacteriology and in molecular biology. PMID:26442939

  15. Probiotics improve survival of septic rats by suppressing conditioned pathogens in ascites

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Da-Quan; Gao, Qiao-Ying; Liu, Hong-Bin; Li, Dong-Hua; Wu, Shang-Wei

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the benefits of probiotics treatment in septic rats. METHODS: The septic rats were induced by cecal ligation and puncture. The animals of control, septic model and probiotics treated groups were treated with vehicle and mixed probiotics, respectively. The mixture of probiotics included Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. We observed the survival of septic rats using different amounts of mixed probiotics. We also detected the bacterial population in ascites and blood of experimental sepsis using cultivation and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The severity of mucosal inflammation in colonic tissues was determined. RESULTS: Probiotics treatment improved survival of the rats significantly and this effect was dose dependent. The survival rate was 30% for vehicle-treated septic model group. However, 1 and 1/4 doses of probiotics treatment increased survival rate significantly compared with septic model group (80% and 55% vs 30%, P < 0.05). The total viable counts of bacteria in ascites decreased significantly in probiotics treated group compared with septic model group (5.20 ± 0.57 vs 9.81 ± 0.67, P < 0.05). The total positive rate of hemoculture decreased significantly in probiotics treated group compared with septic model group (33.3% vs 100.0%, P < 0.05). The population of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in ascites of probiotics treated group were decreased significantly compared with that of septic model group (3.93 ± 0.73 vs 8.80 ± 0.83, P < 0.05; 2.80 ± 1.04 vs 5.39 ± 1.21, P < 0.05). With probiotics treatment, there was a decrease in the scores of inflammatory cell infiltration into the intestinal mucosa in septic animals (1.50 ± 0.25 vs 2.88 ± 0.14, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus may be primary pathogens in septic rats. Probiotics improve survival of septic rats by suppressing these conditioned pathogens. PMID:23840152

  16. Latest Developments in Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Frédéric; Falony, Gwen; Vuyst, Luc De

    Probiotic foods are a group of health-promoting, so-called functional foods, with large commercial interest and growing market shares (Arvanitoyannis & van Houwelingen-Koukaliaroglou, 2005). In general, their health benefits are based on the presence of selected strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that, when taken up in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. They are administered mostly through the consumption of fermented milks or yoghurts (Mercenier, Pavan, & Pot, 2003). In addition to their common use in the dairy industry, probiotic LAB strains may be used in other food products too, including fermented meats (Hammes & Hertel, 1998; Incze, 1998; Kröckel, 2006; Työppönen, Petäjä,& Mattila- Sandholm, 2003).

  17. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. HFC8, Isolated from Human Gut Using PacBio SMRT Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Madhu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a 3.07-Mb complete genome sequence of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. HFC8. The gene-coding clusters are predicated for probiotic characteristics, like bacteriocin production, cell adhesion, bile salt hydrolysis, lactose metabolism, autoaggregation, and tolerance to oxidative stress. PMID:26586884

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. HFC8, Isolated from Human Gut Using PacBio SMRT Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Madhu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    We report a 3.07-Mb complete genome sequence of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. HFC8. The gene-coding clusters are predicated for probiotic characteristics, like bacteriocin production, cell adhesion, bile salt hydrolysis, lactose metabolism, autoaggregation, and tolerance to oxidative stress. PMID:26586884

  20. Influence of a probiotic lactobacillus strain on the intestinal ecosystem in a stress model mouse.

    PubMed

    Palomar, Martin Manuel; Maldonado Galdeano, Carolina; Perdigón, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Daily exposure to stressful situations affects the health of humans and animals. It has been shown that psychological stress affects the immune system and can exacerbate diseases. Probiotics can act as biological immunomodulators in healthy people, increasing both intestinal and systemic immune responses. The use of probiotics in stress situations may aid in reinforcing the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a probiotic bacterium on the gut immune system of mice that were exposed to an experimental model of stress induced by food and mobility restriction. The current study focused on immune cells associated with the lamina propria of the intestine, including CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD11b+ macrophages, CD11c+ dendritic cells, and IgA+ B lymphocytes, as well as the concentrations of secretory IgA (S-IgA) and cytokine interferon gamma (INF-γ in intestinal fluid. We also evaluated the probiotic's influence on the gut microbiota. Probiotic administration increased IgA producing cells, CD4+ cells in the lamina propria of the small intestine, and S-IgA in the lumen; it also reduced the levels of IFN-γ that had increased during stress and improved the intestinal microbiota as measured by an increase in the lactobacilli population. The results obtained from administration of the probiotic to stressed mice suggest that the use of food containing these microorganisms may work as a palliative to reinforce the immune system. PMID:24016865

  1. Probiotics and Intestinal Colonization by Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Mice and Humans?

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Magali; Forestier, Christiane; Charbonnel, Nicolas; Henard, Sandrine; Rabaud, Christian; Lesens, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the impact of probiotics on the intestinal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35 but not Escherichia coli Nissle reduced, although not significantly, the density of VRE colonization in a murine model. No effect of Lcr35 was observed in a double-blind placebo randomized study, involving nine patients. PMID:20421444

  2. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Orel, Rok; Kamhi Trop, Tina

    2014-01-01

    It has been presumed that aberrant immune response to intestinal microorganisms in genetically predisposed individuals may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel disease, and there is a good deal of evidence supporting this hypothesis. Commensal enteric bacteria probably play a central role in pathogenesis, providing continuous antigenic stimulation that causes chronic intestinal injury. A strong biologic rationale supports the use of probiotics and prebiotics for inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Many probiotic strains exhibit anti-inflammatory properties through their effects on different immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion depression, and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines. There is very strong evidence supporting the use of multispecies probiotic VSL#3 for the prevention or recurrence of postoperative pouchitis in patients. For treatment of active ulcerative colitis, as well as for maintenance therapy, the clinical evidence of efficacy is strongest for VSL#3 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Moreover, some prebiotics, such as germinated barley foodstuff, Psyllium or oligofructose-enriched inulin, might provide some benefit in patients with active ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis in remission. The results of clinical trials in the treatment of active Crohn’s disease or the maintenance of its remission with probiotics and prebiotics are disappointing and do not support their use in this disease. The only exception is weak evidence of advantageous use of Saccharomyces boulardii concomitantly with medical therapy in maintenance treatment. PMID:25206258

  3. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Orel, Rok; Kamhi Trop, Tina

    2014-09-01

    It has been presumed that aberrant immune response to intestinal microorganisms in genetically predisposed individuals may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel disease, and there is a good deal of evidence supporting this hypothesis. Commensal enteric bacteria probably play a central role in pathogenesis, providing continuous antigenic stimulation that causes chronic intestinal injury. A strong biologic rationale supports the use of probiotics and prebiotics for inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Many probiotic strains exhibit anti-inflammatory properties through their effects on different immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion depression, and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines. There is very strong evidence supporting the use of multispecies probiotic VSL#3 for the prevention or recurrence of postoperative pouchitis in patients. For treatment of active ulcerative colitis, as well as for maintenance therapy, the clinical evidence of efficacy is strongest for VSL#3 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Moreover, some prebiotics, such as germinated barley foodstuff, Psyllium or oligofructose-enriched inulin, might provide some benefit in patients with active ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis in remission. The results of clinical trials in the treatment of active Crohn's disease or the maintenance of its remission with probiotics and prebiotics are disappointing and do not support their use in this disease. The only exception is weak evidence of advantageous use of Saccharomyces boulardii concomitantly with medical therapy in maintenance treatment. PMID:25206258

  4. Probiotic features of two oral Lactobacillus isolates

    PubMed Central

    Zavisic, Gordana; Petricevic, Sasa; Radulovic, Zeljka; Begovic, Jelena; Golic, Natasa; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Strahinic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we checked lactobacilli strains of human origin for their potential as probiotic. Samples were collected from oral mucosa of 16 healthy individuals, out of which twenty isolates were obtained and two of them were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (G1) and L. casei (G3). Both isolates exhibited antagonistic action towards pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, and Clostridium sporogenes, but not on the growth of Candida albicans. The bacteriocin activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6358-P was shown only by L. plantarum G1. Moreover, the isolates G1 and G3 showed good viability in the acid gastric environment and in the gut environment containing bovine bile salts. The viability of G1 and G3 isolates in the gastrointestinal tract, and the adhesion to the intestinal mucosa were also confirmed in vivo. The biochemical tests of blood samples revealed lower levels of serum triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as reduced activity of alkaline phosphatase in all lactobacilli-treated Wistar rats, compared to control ones. No toxicity for NMRI Ham mice was observed. According to our experimental results, these findings imply that L. plantarum G1 and L. casei G3 could be characterized as potential probiotics. PMID:24031847

  5. Business considerations in the development of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Freddie Ann

    2008-02-01

    Many opportunities exist for probiotics in the marketplace. Over the course of a 2-day workshop on probiotics, current and potential uses for probiotics were examined. This article discusses many of the elements that should be considered in the decision to market probiotics as foods, dietary supplements, or drugs. PMID:18181721

  6. Probiotics in transition: novel strategies.

    PubMed

    Gosálbez, Luis; Ramón, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Regulations regarding health claims made for probiotics demand their proven effectiveness and limit the array of microbial species regarded as safe for live consumption. Novel strategies such as moving to postbiotics and genetically modified probiotics may be necessary to increase the effectiveness of microbial products. PMID:25702610

  7. Gut Microbiota, Probiotics, and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    SUVOROV, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The review is devoted to the problems of microbiota and the ways of it correction employing beneficial life bacteria- probiotics. It covers the issues related to the functioning of human microbiota and its importance for the health, individual variability of microbial content, functioning of the probiotics in the human organism and the history of probiotic studies with particular focus on the microbiological investigations in the USSR. The article discusses the safety issues related to probiotics and the problems with probiotic therapy, trying to explain the reasons for the side effects caused by probiotics. The necessity of personified selection of the probiotic strain or individual microbial therapy autoprobiotics is also discussed. PMID:24936366

  8. Salmonella detection in probiotic products.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Han; Bidlas, Eva; Garofalo, Nicole

    2006-07-01

    The presence of large amounts of probiotic bacteria in a sample may interfere with the detection of undesirable microorganisms. To illustrate this, infant formula with various strains of probiotic bacteria and the corresponding probiotic culture powders and premixes were artificially contaminated with low levels of Salmonella. Recovery of Salmonella was generally very poor when the conventional pre-enrichment procedure using buffered peptone water (BPW) was applied. However, this problem was overcome by adding antimicrobial compounds to selectively suppress the growth and/or metabolic activity of the probiotic bacteria and increasing the buffering capacity of the pre-enrichment broth. It is recommended that these analytical constraints are already addressed during the development phase of new probiotic products. PMID:16690151

  9. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS. PMID:24106397

  10. Effect of the addition of four potential probiotic strains on the survival of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) following immersion challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Balczar, Jos Luis; Rojas-Luna, Tyrone; Cunningham, David P

    2007-10-01

    Four bacterial strains isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of adult shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, Vibrio alginolyticus UTM 102, Bacillus subtilis UTM 126, Roseobacter gallaeciensis SLV03, and Pseudomonas aestumarina SLV22, were evaluated for potential use as probiotics for shrimp. In vitro studies demonstrated antagonism against the shrimp-pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus PS-017. Feeding shrimp with diets containing the potential probiotics showed the best feed conversion ratio in comparison with the control groups. After feeding with the potential probiotics for 28 days, challenge by immersion indicated effectiveness at reducing disease caused by V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp. PMID:17544437

  11. Probiotics and allergy.

    PubMed

    Furrie, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    Allergy is caused by an immune reaction that is out of all proportion to the antigenic stimuli. Classical allergy is a type I hypersensitivity reaction mediated by the interaction of mast cells (and eosinophils) coated with allergen-specific IgE and a cross-linking allergen. The physiological outcome is inflammation commonly displayed by urticaria, rhinitis, vomiting and diarrhoea, depending on the route of allergen entry. In extreme reactions anaphylactic shock can result that may lead to death. Chronic allergic responses most commonly present themselves as asthma and eczema. All these symptoms are the consequence of an imbalanced immune system making an unsuitable response to an environmental or food antigen. On bacterial colonisation of the colon after birth the appropriate microbiological stimuli is essential to redress the balance of the skewed T-helper 2 immune response present in the newborn. This normal interaction between baby and microbes is thought to be compromised in the Western world, with a reduction in bifidobacteria and an increase in clostridial species, particularly in bottle-fed infants. The use of probiotic therapy to prevent allergic disease has been demonstrated in two studies using a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in neonates. A long-term reduction in allergy has been shown in the test group, with lactobacillus reducing the incidence of atopic eczema. Management of allergy through probiotics has also been demonstrated in infants, using lactobacilli to control atopic eczema and cow's milk allergy. Unfortunately, these positive results have not been repeated in studies with older children and young adults. PMID:16313688

  12. Actual concept of "probiotics": is it more functional to science or business?

    PubMed

    Caselli, Michele; Cassol, Francesca; Cal, Girolamo; Holton, John; Zuliani, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-03-14

    It is our contention that the concept of a probiotic as a living bacterium providing unspecified health benefits is inhibiting the development and establishment of an evidence base for the growing field of pharmacobiotics. We believe this is due in part to the current regulatory framework, lack of a clear definition of a probiotic, the ease with which currently defined probiotics can be positioned in the market place, and the enormous profits earned for minimum investment in research. To avoid this, we believe the following two actions are mandatory: international guidelines by a forum of stakeholders made available to scientists and clinicians, patient organizations, and governments; public research funds made available to the scientific community for performing independent rigorous studies both at the preclinical and clinical levels. PMID:23539674

  13. Actual concept of "probiotics": Is it more functional to science or business?

    PubMed Central

    Caselli, Michele; Cassol, Francesca; Calò, Girolamo; Holton, John; Zuliani, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    It is our contention that the concept of a probiotic as a living bacterium providing unspecified health benefits is inhibiting the development and establishment of an evidence base for the growing field of pharmacobiotics. We believe this is due in part to the current regulatory framework, lack of a clear definition of a probiotic, the ease with which currently defined probiotics can be positioned in the market place, and the enormous profits earned for minimum investment in research. To avoid this, we believe the following two actions are mandatory: international guidelines by a forum of stakeholders made available to scientists and clinicians, patient organizations, and governments; public research funds made available to the scientific community for performing independent rigorous studies both at the preclinical and clinical levels. PMID:23539674

  14. Occurrence of selected bacterial groups in the faeces of piglets fed with Bacillus coagulans as probiotic.

    PubMed

    Adami, A; Cavazzoni, V

    1999-01-01

    A microbiological analysis of piglet faeces was performed on samples collected from animals fed a diet without any additive, animals fed a diet that contained Bacillus coagulans CNCMI-1061 as probiotic, and animals fed a diet that contained Zn-bacitracin. The analysis was carried out in concurrence with a zootechnical trial. Selected bacterial groups (lactic acid bacteria, lacotococci, enterococci, aerobic and anaerobic cocci, total and faecal coliforms, clostridia, bacteroides, bifidobacteria) were determined at day 1 and after 1, 4 and 10 weeks of life. Numbers of enterococci, coliforms (especially faecal coliforms) showed a decrease over time with probiotic, more evident than with the antibiotic. Daily administration of B. coagulans allowed this bacterium to become integrated into the enteric microflora where it is transient. These results seem to show a positive effect of B. coagulans addition on cocci and faecal coliforms. We suggest that this probiotic may represent an alternative to antibiotics. PMID:10071861

  15. Probiotics and liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishal; Garg, Shashank; Aggarwal, Sourabh

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota play an important role in health and disease. The gut-liver axis provides for an interaction between bacterial components like lipopolysaccharide and hepatic receptors (Toll-like receptors). Dysbiosis and altered intestinal permeability may modulate this interaction and therefore result in hepatic disorders or worsening of hepatic disorders. Administration of health-promoting microbial strains may help ameliorate these harmful interactions and hepatic disorders. This review focuses on changes in gut microbiota in the context of liver disease and possible roles of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in liver disease. PMID:24361022

  16. Probiotics and diverticular disease.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Sheth A; Floch M

    2009-02-01

    Diverticular disease is one of the most common medical conditions affecting Western populations. Inflammatory complications are the most common manifestation of the disease and typically cause acute bouts of abdominal pain and fever. Chronic symptoms can also occur and can be mistakenly attributed to irritable bowel syndrome and rarely to inflammatory bowel disease. Alterations in peridiverticular bacterial flora are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of diverticular inflammation. This article discusses the rationale and reviews the existing clinical data regarding the role of probiotics in the management of diverticular disease.

  17. Probiotics and diverticular disease.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Anish; Floch, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Diverticular disease is one of the most common medical conditions affecting Western populations. Inflammatory complications are the most common manifestation of the disease and typically cause acute bouts of abdominal pain and fever. Chronic symptoms can also occur and can be mistakenly attributed to irritable bowel syndrome and rarely to inflammatory bowel disease. Alterations in peridiverticular bacterial flora are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of diverticular inflammation. This article discusses the rationale and reviews the existing clinical data regarding the role of probiotics in the management of diverticular disease. PMID:19244147

  18. The Basics of Probiotics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics The Basics of Probiotics Winter 2016 Table of Contents Millions use them. ... the facts? Photo courtest of Pixabay What Are Probiotics? Probiotics are live microorganisms (such as bacteria) that ...

  19. Effects of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on selected lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria in co-culture.

    PubMed

    Starke, I C; Zentek, J; Vahjen, W

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 is used as a probiotic for piglets and has been shown to modify the porcine intestinal microbiota. However, the mode of action of this probiotic modification is still unclear. One possible explanation is the direct growth inhibiting or stimulating effect of the probiotic on other indigenous bacteria. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the growth interactions of the probiotic with different indigenous porcine bacteria in vitro. Reference strains were cultivated with the probiotic E. faecium strain NCIMB10415 (SF68) in a checkerboard assay with 102 to 105 cells/ml inoculum per strain. Growth kinetics were recorded for 8 h and used to determine specific growth of the co-cultures. Additionally, total DNA was extracted from the co-cultures at the end of the incubation to verify which strain in the co-culture was affected. Co-cultivation with eight Enterococcus spp. tester strains showed strain-specific growth differences. Three of four E. faecium strains were not influenced by the probiotic strain. PCR results showed reduced growth of the probiotic strain in co-culture with E. faecium DSM 6177. Three of four Enterococcus faecalis strains showed reduced specific growth in co-culture with the probiotic strain. However, E. faecalis DSM 20478 impaired growth of the probiotic E. faecium strain. The growth of Lactobacillus johnsonii DSM 10533 and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 was enhanced in co-culture with the probiotic strain, but co-cultivations with Lactobacillus mucosae DSM13345 or Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM10533 showed no differences. Co-cultures with the probiotic E. faecium showed no impact on the growth rate of four different enterobacterial reference strains (2 strains of Salmonella enterica and 2 strains of Escherichia coli), but PCR results showed reduced cell numbers for a pathogenic E. coli isolate at higher concentration of the probiotic strain. As the in vitro effect of the probiotic E. faecium on enterococci was strain specific and the growth of certain Lactobacillus spp. was enhanced by the probiotic, these results indicate a direct effect of the probiotic on certain members of the porcine gastro intestinal microbiota. PMID:25519527

  20. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Castro, J. M.; Tornadijo, M. E.; Fresno, J. M.; Sandoval, H.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The physicochemical and technological parameters influencing the quality of these products have also to be measured so as to obtain a process optimization. PMID:25802862

  1. Probiotics as potential antioxidants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vijendra; Shah, Chandni; Mokashe, Narendra; Chavan, Rupesh; Yadav, Hariom; Prajapati, Jashbhai

    2015-04-15

    Probiotics are known for their health beneficial effects and are established as dietary adjuncts. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects. In this view, there is interest to find the potential probiotic strains that can exhibit antioxidant properties along with health benefits. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that probiotics exhibit antioxidant potential. In this view, consumption of probiotics alone or foods supplemented with probiotics may reduce oxidative damage, free radical scavenging rate, and modification in activity of crucial antioxidative enzymes in human cells. Incorporation of probiotics in foods can provide a good strategy to supply dietary antioxidants, but more studies are needed to standardize methods and evaluate antioxidant properties of probiotics before they can be recommended for antioxidant potential. In this paper, the literature related to known antioxidant potential of probiotics and proposing future perspectives to conduct such studies has been reviewed. PMID:25808285

  2. A Gastroenterologist’s Guide to Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Matthew A

    2012-01-01

    The enteric microbiota contributes to gastrointestinal health and its disruption has been associated with many disease states. Some patients consume probiotic products in attempts to manipulate the intestinal microbiota for health benefit. It is important for gastroenterologists to improve their understanding of the mechanisms of probiotics and the evidence that support their use in practice. Clinical trials have assessed the therapeutic effects of probiotics for several disorders, including antibiotic-or Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and the inflammatory bowel diseases. Although probiotic research is a rapidly evolving field, there are sufficient data to justify a trial of probiotics for treatment or prevention of some of these conditions. However, the capacity of probiotics to modify disease symptoms is likely to be modest and varies among probiotic strains—not all probiotics are right for all diseases. The current review provides condition-specific rationale for using probiotics as therapy and literature-based recommendations. PMID:22504002

  3. Probiotic viability – does it matter?

    PubMed Central

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are viable by definition, and viability of probiotics is often considered to be a prerequisite for the health benefits. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of clinical studies in the field have been performed with viable probiotics. However, it has also been speculated that some of the mechanisms behind the probiotic health effects may not be dependent on the viability of the cells and, therefore, is also possible that also non-viable probiotics could have some health benefits. The efficacy of non-viable probiotics has been assessed in a limited number of studies, with varying success. While it is clear that viable probiotics are more effective than non-viable probiotics and that, in many cases, viability is indeed a prerequisite for the health benefit, there are also some cases where it appears that non-viable probiotics could also have beneficial effects on human health. PMID:23990833

  4. New insights into probiotic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bienenstock, John; Gibson, Glenn; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Walker, W. Allan; Neish, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    There has been continued and expanding recognition of probiotic approaches for treating gastrointestinal and systemic disease, as well as increased acceptance of probiotic therapies by both the public and the medical community. A parallel development has been the increasing recognition of the diverse roles that the normal gut microbiota plays in the normal biology of the host. This advance has in turn has been fed by implementation of novel investigative technologies and conceptual paradigms focused on understanding the fundamental role of the microbiota and indeed all commensal bacteria, on known and previously unsuspected aspects of host physiology in health and disease. This review discusses current advances in the study of the host-microbiota interaction, especially as it relates to potential mechanisms of probiotics. It is hoped these new approaches will allow more rational selection and validation of probiotic usage in a variety of clinical conditions. PMID:23249742

  5. Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dan W; Greer, Frank R

    2010-12-01

    This clinical report reviews the currently known health benefits of probiotic and prebiotic products, including those added to commercially available infant formula and other food products for use in children. Probiotics are supplements or foods that contain viable microorganisms that cause alterations of the microflora of the host. Use of probiotics has been shown to be modestly effective in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in (1) treating acute viral gastroenteritis in healthy children; and (2) preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in healthy children. There is some evidence that probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants (birth weight between 1000 and 1500 g), but more studies are needed. The results of RCTs in which probiotics were used to treat childhood Helicobacter pylori gastritis, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic ulcerative colitis, and infantile colic, as well as in preventing childhood atopy, although encouraging, are preliminary and require further confirmation. Probiotics have not been proven to be beneficial in treating or preventing human cancers or in treating children with Crohn disease. There are also safety concerns with the use of probiotics in infants and children who are immunocompromised, chronically debilitated, or seriously ill with indwelling medical devices. Prebiotics are supplements or foods that contain a nondigestible food ingredient that selectively stimulates the favorable growth and/or activity of indigenous probiotic bacteria. Human milk contains substantial quantities of prebiotics. There is a paucity of RCTs examining prebiotics in children, although there may be some long-term benefit of prebiotics for the prevention of atopic eczema and common infections in healthy infants. Confirmatory well-designed clinical research studies are necessary. PMID:21115585

  6. Bacterial surface characteristics applied to selection of probiotic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Otero, Mara Claudia; Ocaa, Virginia S; Elena Nader-Macas, Mara

    2004-01-01

    For the study of probiotic microorganisms, the in vitro selection tests need to be based on a solid scientific foundation. Surface characteristics, one of the in vitro properties are used to evaluate the potentially probiotic strains of lactobacilli. Bacterial surface properties have been associated with attachment to a variety of substrata. Bacterial adhesion to tissues is considered the first step, and such adhesion can also determine the colonization capability of a microorganism. Through adhesion ability and colonization of tissues, probiotic microorganisms can prevent pathogen access by steric interactions or specific blockage on cell receptors. One of the main characteristics studied is the hydrophobic nature of the bacterial cell surface. To test this property, Rosenberg and Doyle divided microbial cell hydrophobicity assays into two categories. The first includes contact angle measurements (CAMs), partitioning of cells into one or another liquid phase (TTP), and adsorption of individual hydrophobic molecular probes at the cell surface. The second category includes microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH), hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), and adhesion to polystyrene and other hydrophobic solid surfaces. The tests included in the first category measure hydrophobic properties of the outer cell surface as a whole; those in the second measure hydrophobicity in terms of adhesion. Finally, those bacterium classified as hydrophobic can be considered as able to mediate adhesion. The objective of this chapter is to describe three different methods applied in our laboratory for the study of bacterial surface properties. They can be used to screen characteristics of lactobacillus strains for probiotic purposes. They are: Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH); Salt aggregation test (SAT); Hemagglutination (HA) reaction. PMID:15156054

  7. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Cruz, Patricia; Ibáñez, Ana L.; Monroy Hermosillo, Oscar A.; Ramírez Saad, Hugo C.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field. PMID:23762761

  8. Probiotic abilities of riboflavin-overproducing Lactobacillus strains: a novel promising application of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Arena, Mattia P; Russo, Pasquale; Capozzi, Vittorio; Lpez, Paloma; Fiocco, Daniela; Spano, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    The probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum strains, capable of overproducing riboflavin, was investigated. The riboflavin production was quantified in co-cultures of lactobacilli and human intestinal epithelial cells, and the riboflavin overproduction ability was confirmed. When milk and yogurt were used as carrier matrices, L. plantarum and L. fermentum strains displayed a significant ability to survive through simulated gastrointestinal transit. Adhesion was studied on both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Both strains adhered strongly on Caco-2 cells, negatively influenced the adhesion of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and strongly inhibited the growth of three reference pathogenic microbial strains. Resistance to major antibiotics and potential hemolytic activity were assayed. Overall, this study reveals that these Lactobacillus stains are endowed with promising probiotic properties and thus are candidates for the development of novel functional food which would be both enriched in riboflavin and induce additional health benefits, including a potential in situ riboflavin production, once the microorganisms colonize the host intestine. PMID:24903812

  9. Antibiotics, probiotics and prebiotics in IBD.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Charles N

    2014-01-01

    The dysbiosis theory of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) posits that there is an alteration in the gut microbiome as an important underpinning of disease etiology. It stands to reason then, that administering agents that could impact on the balance of microbes on the gut could be impactful on the course of IBD. Herein is a review of the controlled trials undertaken to assess the use of antibiotics that would kill or suppress potentially injurious microbes, probiotics that would overpopulate the gut with potentially beneficial microbes or prebiotics that provide a metabolic substrate that enhances the growth of potentially beneficial microbes. With regard to antibiotics, the best data are for the use of nitroimadoles postoperatively in Crohn's disease (CD) to prevent disease recurrence. Otherwise, the data are limited with the regard to any lasting benefit of antibiotics sustaining remission in either CD or ulcerative colitis (UC). A recent meta-analysis concluded that antibiotics are superior to placebo at inducing remission in CD or UC, although the meta-analysis grouped a variety of antibiotics with different spectra of activity. Despite the absence of robust clinical trial data, antibiotics are widely used to treat perineal fistulizing CD and acute and chronic pouchitis. Probiotics have not been shown to have a beneficial role in CD. However, Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 has comparable effects to low doses of mesalamine in maintaining remission in UC. VSL#3, a combination of 8 microbes, has been shown to have an effect in inducing remission in UC and preventing pouchitis. Prebiotics have yet to be shown to have an effect in any form of IBD, but to date controlled trials have been small. The use of antibiotics should be balanced against the risks they pose. Even probiotics may pose some risk and should not be assumed to be innocuous especially when ingested by persons with a compromised epithelial barrier. Prebiotics may not be harmful but may cause gastrointestinal side effects. Finally, the timing of ingestion of antibiotics and other dietary factors that may function as prebiotics, especially in early childhood, may be critical in shaping the gut microbiome and ultimately predisposing to or preventing IBD. Finding ways to impact on the gut microbiome to alter the course of IBD makes good sense, but should be undertaken in the setting of rigorously performed controlled trials to ensure that the interventions are truly effective and well tolerated. PMID:25227297

  10. Probiotics in shrimp aquaculture: avenues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ninawe, A S; Selvin, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    As an alternative strategy to antibiotic use in aquatic disease management, probiotics have recently attracted extensive attention in aquaculture. However, the use of terrestrial bacterial species as probiotics for aquaculture has had limited success, as bacterial strain characteristics are dependent upon the environment in which they thrive. Therefore, isolating potential probiotic bacteria from the marine environment in which they grow optimally is a better approach. Bacteria that have been used successfully as probiotics belong to the genus Vibrio and Bacillus, and the species Thalassobacter utilis. Most researchers have isolated these probiotic strains from shrimp culture water, or from the intestine of different penaeid species. The use of probiotic bacteria, based on the principle of competitive exclusion, and the use of immunostimulants are two of the most promising preventive methods developed in the fight against diseases during the last few years. It also noticed that probiotic bacteria could produce some digestive enzymes, which might improve the digestion of shrimp, thus enhancing the ability of stress resistance and health of the shrimp. However, the probiotics in aquatic environment remain to be a controversial concept, as there was no authentic evidence / real environment demonstrations on the successful use of probiotics and their mechanisms of action in vivo. The present review highlights the potential sources of probiotics, mechanism of action, diversity of probiotic microbes and challenges of probiotic usage in shrimp aquaculture. PMID:19514908

  11. Proteomics and Transcriptomics Characterization of Bile Stress Response in Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG*

    PubMed Central

    Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Laakso, Kati; Koponen, Johanna; Kankainen, Matti; Greco, Dario; Auvinen, Petri; Savijoki, Kirsi; Nyman, Tuula A.; Surakka, Anu; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; de Vos, Willem M.; Tynkkynen, Soile; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Varmanen, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) is a widely used and intensively studied probiotic bacterium. Although the health benefits of strain GG are well documented, the systematic exploration of mechanisms by which this strain exerts probiotic effects in the host has only recently been initiated. The ability to survive the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, including gastric juice containing bile salts, is one of the vital characteristics that enables a probiotic bacterium to transiently colonize the host. Here we used gene expression profiling at the transcriptome and proteome levels to investigate the cellular response of strain GG toward bile under defined bioreactor conditions. The analyses revealed that in response to growth of strain GG in the presence of 0.2% ox gall the transcript levels of 316 genes changed significantly (p < 0.01, t test), and 42 proteins, including both intracellular and surface-exposed proteins (i.e. surfome), were differentially abundant (p < 0.01, t test in total proteome analysis; p < 0.05, t test in surfome analysis). Protein abundance changes correlated with transcriptome level changes for 14 of these proteins. The identified proteins suggest diverse and specific changes in general stress responses as well as in cell envelope-related functions, including in pathways affecting fatty acid composition, cell surface charge, and thickness of the exopolysaccharide layer. These changes are likely to strengthen the cell envelope against bile-induced stress and signal the GG cells of gut entrance. Notably, the surfome analyses demonstrated significant reduction in the abundance of a protein catalyzing the synthesis of exopolysaccharides, whereas a protein dedicated for active removal of bile compounds from the cells was up-regulated. These findings suggest a role for these proteins in facilitating the well founded interaction of strain GG with the host mucus in the presence of sublethal doses of bile. The significance of these findings in terms of the functionality of a probiotic bacterium is discussed. PMID:21078892

  12. Proteomics and transcriptomics characterization of bile stress response in probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    PubMed

    Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Laakso, Kati; Koponen, Johanna; Kankainen, Matti; Greco, Dario; Auvinen, Petri; Savijoki, Kirsi; Nyman, Tuula A; Surakka, Anu; Salusjrvi, Tuomas; de Vos, Willem M; Tynkkynen, Soile; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Varmanen, Pekka

    2011-02-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) is a widely used and intensively studied probiotic bacterium. Although the health benefits of strain GG are well documented, the systematic exploration of mechanisms by which this strain exerts probiotic effects in the host has only recently been initiated. The ability to survive the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, including gastric juice containing bile salts, is one of the vital characteristics that enables a probiotic bacterium to transiently colonize the host. Here we used gene expression profiling at the transcriptome and proteome levels to investigate the cellular response of strain GG toward bile under defined bioreactor conditions. The analyses revealed that in response to growth of strain GG in the presence of 0.2% ox gall the transcript levels of 316 genes changed significantly (p < 0.01, t test), and 42 proteins, including both intracellular and surface-exposed proteins (i.e. surfome), were differentially abundant (p < 0.01, t test in total proteome analysis; p < 0.05, t test in surfome analysis). Protein abundance changes correlated with transcriptome level changes for 14 of these proteins. The identified proteins suggest diverse and specific changes in general stress responses as well as in cell envelope-related functions, including in pathways affecting fatty acid composition, cell surface charge, and thickness of the exopolysaccharide layer. These changes are likely to strengthen the cell envelope against bile-induced stress and signal the GG cells of gut entrance. Notably, the surfome analyses demonstrated significant reduction in the abundance of a protein catalyzing the synthesis of exopolysaccharides, whereas a protein dedicated for active removal of bile compounds from the cells was up-regulated. These findings suggest a role for these proteins in facilitating the well founded interaction of strain GG with the host mucus in the presence of sublethal doses of bile. The significance of these findings in terms of the functionality of a probiotic bacterium is discussed. PMID:21078892

  13. Probiotics and Medical Nutrition Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amy C.; Valiere, Ana

    2006-01-01

    Probiotics have been defined by The Food Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host.” They have been used for centuries in the form of dairy-based fermented products, but the potential use of probiotics as a form of medical nutrition therapy has not received formal recognition. A detailed literature review (from 1950 through February 2004) of English-language articles was undertaken to find articles showing a relationship between probiotic use and medical conditions. Medical conditions that have been reportedly treated or have the potential to be treated with probiotics include diarrhea, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), cancer, depressed immune function, inadequate lactase digestion, infant allergies, failure-to-thrive, hyperlipidemia, hepatic diseases, Helicobacter pylori infections, genitourinary tract infections, and others. The use of probiotics should be further investigated for possible benefits and side-effects in patients affected by these medical conditions. PMID:15481739

  14. Characterization of bacteriophages virulent for Clostridium perfringens and identification of phage lytic enzymes as alternatives to antibiotics for potential control of the bacterium1

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Bruce S.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a resurgent interest in the use of bacteriophages or their gene products to control bacterial pathogens as alternatives to currently used antibiotics. Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that plays a significant role in human foodborne disease as well as nonfoodborne human, animal, and avian diseases. Countries that have complied with the ban on antimicrobial growth promoters in feeds have reported increased incidences of C. perfringens-associated diseases in poultry. To address these issues, new antimicrobial agents, putative lysins encoded by the genomes of bacteriophages, are being identified in our laboratory. Poultry intestinal material, soil, sewage, and poultry processing drainage water were screened for virulent bacteriophages that could lyse C. perfringens and produce clear plaques in spot assays. Bacteriophages were isolated that had long noncontractile tails, members of the family Siphoviridae, and with short noncontractile tails, members of the family Podoviridae. Several bacteriophage genes were identified that encoded N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidases, lysozyme-endopeptidases, and a zinc carboxypeptidase domain that has not been previously reported in viral genomes. Putative phage lysin genes (ply) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant lysins were amidases capable of lysing both parental phage host strains of C. perfringens as well as other strains of the bacterium in spot and turbidity reduction assays, but did not lyse any clostridia beyond the species. Consequently, bacteriophage gene products could eventually be used to target bacterial pathogens, such as C. perfringens via a species-specific strategy, to control animal and human diseases without having deleterious effects on beneficial probiotic bacteria. PMID:23300321

  15. Characterization of bacteriophages virulent for Clostridium perfringens and identification of phage lytic enzymes as alternatives to antibiotics for potential control of the bacterium.

    PubMed

    Seal, Bruce S

    2013-02-01

    There has been a resurgent interest in the use of bacteriophages or their gene products to control bacterial pathogens as alternatives to currently used antibiotics. Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that plays a significant role in human foodborne disease as well as non-foodborne human, animal, and avian diseases. Countries that have complied with the ban on antimicrobial growth promoters in feeds have reported increased incidences of C. perfringens-associated diseases in poultry. To address these issues, new antimicrobial agents, putative lysins encoded by the genomes of bacteriophages, are being identified in our laboratory. Poultry intestinal material, soil, sewage, and poultry processing drainage water were screened for virulent bacteriophages that could lyse C. perfringens and produce clear plaques in spot assays. Bacteriophages were isolated that had long noncontractile tails, members of the family Siphoviridae, and with short noncontractile tails, members of the family Podoviridae. Several bacteriophage genes were identified that encoded N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidases, lysozyme-endopeptidases, and a zinc carboxypeptidase domain that has not been previously reported in viral genomes. Putative phage lysin genes (ply) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant lysins were amidases capable of lysing both parental phage host strains of C. perfringens as well as other strains of the bacterium in spot and turbidity reduction assays, but did not lyse any clostridia beyond the species. Consequently, bacteriophage gene products could eventually be used to target bacterial pathogens, such as C. perfringens via a species-specific strategy, to control animal and human diseases without having deleterious effects on beneficial probiotic bacteria. PMID:23300321

  16. Adhesive and chemokine stimulatory properties of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains.

    PubMed

    Vizoso Pinto, María G; Schuster, Tobias; Briviba, Karlis; Watzl, Bernhard; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

    2007-01-01

    Five Lactobacillus plantarum strains and two Lactobacillus johnsonii strains, stemming either from African traditionally fermented milk products or children's feces, were investigated for probiotic properties in vitro. The relationship between the hydrophobic-hydrophilic cell surface and adhesion ability to HT29 intestinal epithelial cells was investigated, and results indicated that especially the L. johnsonii strains, which exhibited both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface characteristics, adhered well to HT29 cells. Four L. plantarum and two L. johnsonii strains showed high adherence to HT29 cells, generally higher than that of the probiotic control strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Most strains with high adhesion ability also showed high autoaggregation ability. The two L. johnsonii strains coaggregated well with the intestinal pathogens Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028. The L. plantarum BFE 1685 and L. johnsonii 6128 strains furthermore inhibited the adhesion of at least two of these intestinal pathogens in coculture with HT29 cells in a strain-dependent way. These two potential probiotic strains also significantly increased interleukin-8 (IL-8) chemokine production by HT29 cells, although modulation of other cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), did not occur. Altogether, our results suggested that L. plantarum BFE 1685 and L. johnsonii BFE 6128 showed good adherence, coaggregated with pathogens, and stimulated chemokine production of intestinal epithelial cells, traits that may be considered promising for their development as probiotic strains. PMID:17265871

  17. Review: The market of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2015-11-01

    The advertising of probiotics in diary products on the market has claimed several health-improving properties, including prevention and treatment of obesity, cardiovascular diseases and cancer prophylaxis, osteoporosis and arthritis treatment, diabetes management and control of hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, it is reasonable to emphasize the perspective of a new self-care and integrative medicine season, where food industry is turned to research-oriented management with putative clinical goals to be achieved. We searched Pubmed/Medline using the terms "probiotics" and "market". Selected papers until 2013 were chosen on the basis of their content (clinical evidence-based quality). We performed an accurate investigation on the so-called "probiotic market", leading to better understanding the role of nutraceutical products in the human clinical nutrition physiology. As nutraceutical products are sold all over the world, information, provided by this review may be useful to evaluate their potential impact on human health. PMID:26639512

  18. New regulatory trends for probiotics.

    PubMed

    Prevot, Michela Bianco

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this paper (presented in Rome, Italy, at the 2nd Congress of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and New Food, September 7-9, 2003) was to provide an objective view of the regulatory trends at the European level specifically referring to probiotics, because until now they have never been directly mentioned nor officially or expressly regulated per food and/or dietary applications, excluding their use as "active principles" in pharmaceutical products. Such a report presented during a scientific congress could represent a potential link between the world of research and the world of industry, both of presently deeply engaged and attracted by the potentiality raised until now, as per the application of probiotics under different points of view. PMID:15220660

  19. Probiotics in the mechanism of protection against gut inflammation and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Dylag, Katarzyna; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Surmiak, Marcin; Szmyd, Jakub; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of experimental and clinical evidence supports the hypothesis that the intestinal microbiota markedly influences function and the structure of the mucosal lining. Intestinal microbiota can potentially cause damage to the mucosa either directly by releasing toxins or indirectly by causing a detrimental immune response. Probiotic bacteria have been defined as live microorganisms, which when consumed in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit for the host. In recent years, the therapeutic and preventive application of probiotics for several gastrointestinal and liver disorders has received increasing attention. Probiotics appear to be beneficial for premature infants who suffer necrotizing enterocolitis. The effectiveness of certain probiotics as treatment for infectious and antibioticassociated diarrhea in adults and for allergic disorders in children has been supported by clinical studies; however, the potential mechanism( s) remains to be studied. Experimental studies and clinical trials for probiotic treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have yielded conflicting results. Daily intake of selected probiotics was effective in the prevention of ulcerative colitis and the attenuation of the active onset of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis but others failed to show a beneficial effect. The combination of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces boulardi and the treatment with Escherichia coli Nissle were found beneficial in inducing and maintaining remission of disease activity of gut inflammation and moderately severe ulcerative colitis. Probiotic bacteria were considered in some studies as a safe adjuvant when added to triple eradication therapy against the symptoms induced by the major gastric pathogen, Helicobacter pylori. This review attempted to overview these new exciting advances in the role of these microbes in the pathogenesis, management and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:23755726

  20. Probiotics and athletic performance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Andrew W

    2007-07-01

    Probiotic bacteria are defined as live food ingredients that are beneficial to the health of the host. Probiotics occur naturally in fermented food products such as yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, cabbage kimchee, and soybean-based miso and natto. Numerous health benefits have been attributed to probiotics, including effects on gastrointestinal tract function and diseases, immune function, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and allergic conditions. A systematic review of the medical literature failed to identify any studies that directly investigated the potential ergogenic effects of probiotics on athletic performance. Two published articles suggest that probiotics may enhance the immune responses of fatigued athletes. In summary, although scientific evidence for an ergogenic effect of probiotics is lacking, probiotics may provide athletes with secondary health benefits that could positively affect athletic performance through enhanced recovery from fatigue, improved immune function, and maintenance of healthy gastrointestinal tract function. PMID:17618005

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Gary; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Chertkov, Olga; Land, Miriam L

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer-ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi-cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome squence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brelan E.; Xie, Gary; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas S; Han, Cliff; Detter, J. Chris; Pitluck, Sam; Land, Miriam L; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer- ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this spo- rogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attrac- tive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi- cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome se- quence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brélan E.; Xie, Gary; Glavina del Rio, T.; Dalin, E.; Tice, H.; Bruce, D.; Goodwin, L.; Chertkov, O.; Brettin, T.; Han, C.; Detter, C.; Pitluck, S.; Land, Miriam L.; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 and ferments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemicellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome sequence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed. PMID:22675583

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brlan E; Xie, Gary; Glavina Del Rio, T; Dalin, E; Tice, H; Bruce, D; Goodwin, L; Chertkov, O; Brettin, T; Han, C; Detter, C; Pitluck, S; Land, Miriam L; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-12-31

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and ferments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemicellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome sequence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed. PMID:22675583

  5. Aflatoxin, Fumonisin and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections in Calves and the Effectiveness of Celmanax®/Dairyman’s Choice™ Applications to Eliminate Morbidity and Mortality Losses

    PubMed Central

    Baines, Danica; Sumarah, Mark; Kuldau, Gretchen; Juba, Jean; Mazza, Alberto; Masson, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxin mixtures are associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in mature cattle. STEC are considered commensal bacteria in mature cattle suggesting that mycotoxins provide a mechanism that converts this bacterium to an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, we assessed the mycotoxin content of hemorrhaged mucosa in dairy calves during natural disease outbreaks, compared the virulence genes of the STECs, evaluated the effect of the mucosal mycotoxins on STEC toxin expression and evaluated a Celmanax®/Dairyman’s Choice™ application to alleviate disease. As for human infections, the OI-122 encoded nleB gene was common to STEC genotypes eliciting serious disease. Low levels of aflatoxin (1–3 ppb) and fumonisin (50–350 ppb) were detected in the hemorrhaged mucosa. Growth of the STECs with the mycotoxins altered the secreted protein concentration with a corresponding increase in cytotoxicity. Changes in intracellular calcium indicated that the mycotoxins increased enterotoxin and pore-forming toxin activity. A prebiotic/probiotic application eliminated the morbidity and mortality losses associated with the STEC infections. Our study demonstrates: the same STEC disease complex exists for immature and mature cattle; the significance of the OI-122 pathogenicity island to virulence; the significance of mycotoxins to STEC toxin activity; and, finally, provides further evidence that prebiotic/probiotic applications alleviate STEC shedding and mycotoxin/STEC interactions that lead to disease. PMID:24152990

  6. Escherichia Coli--Key to Modern Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregegere, Francois

    1982-01-01

    Mid-nineteenth century work by Mendel on plant hybrids and by Pasteur on fermentation gave birth by way of bacterial genetics to modern-day molecular biology. The bacterium Escherichia Coli has occupied a key position in genetic studies leading from early gene identification with DNA to current genetic engineering using recombinant DNA technology.

  7. Escherichia Coli--Key to Modern Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregegere, Francois

    1982-01-01

    Mid-nineteenth century work by Mendel on plant hybrids and by Pasteur on fermentation gave birth by way of bacterial genetics to modern-day molecular biology. The bacterium Escherichia Coli has occupied a key position in genetic studies leading from early gene identification with DNA to current genetic engineering using recombinant DNA technology.…

  8. African fermented foods and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Mathara, Julius Maina; Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Reid, Gregor; Galvez, Antonio; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2014-11-01

    Africa has an age old history of production of traditional fermented foods and is perhaps the continent with the richest variety of lactic acid fermented foods. These foods have a large impact on the nutrition, health and socio-economy of the people of the continent, often plagued by war, drought, famine and disease. Sub-Saharan Africa is the world's region with the highest percentage of chronically malnourished people and high child mortality. Further developing of traditional fermented foods with added probiotic health features would be an important contribution towards reaching the UN Millennium Development Goals of eradication of poverty and hunger, reduction in child mortality rates and improvement of maternal health. Specific probiotic strains with documented health benefits are sparsely available in Africa and not affordable to the majority of the population. Furthermore, they are not used in food fermentations. If such probiotic products could be developed especially for household food preparation, such as cereal or milk foods, it could make a profound impact on the health and well-being of adults and children. Suitable strains need to be chosen and efforts are needed to produce strains to make products which will be available for clinical studies. This can gauge the impact of probiotics on consumers' nutrition and health, and increase the number of people who can benefit. PMID:25203619

  9. Understanding immunomodulatory effects of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Pot, Bruno; Foligné, Benoît; Daniel, Catherine; Grangette, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is known to be a driving force in the development and maintenance of the immune system. While substantial shifts in the microbiota composition may influence immune functionality in a longer term, short occasional changes might also be sensed. The latter opens considerable perspectives for the use of nutritional interventions, intended to modulate immune functionality in a desired direction. Probiotics are discussed here as a possible way to achieve this goal. It seems that effects are not only strain specific, but will depend on many environmental factors that make the immune system receptive or not to the influences of a given probiotic strain. The interactions between probiotics on the one hand and enterocytes or immune cells on the other hand, are a complex interplay that is rarely mediated by a single mechanism. Immunomodulation through nutrition is therefore a complex phenomenon that needs careful consideration, understanding of immune functionality as well as insight into the mechanisms of probiotic activities. Only then can the proper clinical trials with proper readouts be set up to prove efficacy of each strain/mixture individually. PMID:24107498

  10. In glucose-limited continuous culture the minimum substrate concentration for growth, smin, is crucial in the competition between the enterobacterium Escherichia coli and Chelatobacter heintzii, an environmentally abundant bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Füchslin, Hans Peter; Schneider, Christian; Egli, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The competition for glucose between Escherichia coli ML30, a typical copiotrophic enterobacterium and Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC29600, an environmentally successful strain, was studied in a carbon-limited culture at low dilution rates. First, as a base for modelling, the kinetic parameters μmax and Ks were determined for growth with glucose. For both strains, μmax was determined in batch culture after different precultivation conditions. In the case of C. heintzii, μmax was virtually independent of precultivation conditions. When inoculated into a glucose-excess batch culture medium from a glucose-limited chemostat run at a dilution rate of 0.075 h−1 C. heintzii grew immediately with a μmax of 0.17±0.03 h−1. After five transfers in batch culture, μmax had increased only slightly to 0.18±0.03 h−1. A different pattern was observed in the case of E. coli. Inoculated from a glucose-limited chemostat at D=0.075 h−1 into glucose-excess batch medium E. coli grew only after an acceleration phase of ∼3.5 h with a μmax of 0.52 h−1. After 120 generations and several transfers into fresh medium, μmax had increased to 0.80±0.03 h−1. For long-term adapted chemostat-cultivated cells, a Ks for glucose of 15 μg l−1 for C. heintzii, and of 35 μg l−1 for E. coli, respectively, was determined in 14C-labelled glucose uptake experiments. In competition experiments, the population dynamics of the mixed culture was determined using specific surface antibodies against C. heintzii and a specific 16S rRNA probe for E. coli. C. heintzii outcompeted E. coli in glucose-limited continuous culture at the low dilution rates of 0.05 and 0.075 h−1. Using the determined pure culture parameter values for Ks and μmax, it was only possible to simulate the population dynamics during competition with an extended form of the Monod model, which includes a finite substrate concentration at zero growth rate (smin). The values estimated for smin were dependent on growth rate; at D=0.05 h−1, it was 12.6 and 0 μg l−1 for E. coli and C. heintzii, respectively. To fit the data at D=0.075 h−1, smin for E. coli had to be raised to 34.9 μg l−1 whereas smin for C. heintzii remained zero. The results of the mathematical simulation suggest that it is not so much the higher Ks value, which is responsible for the unsuccessful competition of E. coli at low residual glucose concentration, but rather the existence of a significant smin. PMID:22030672

  11. Feeding Probiotic Bacteria To Swine Enhances Immunity To Ascaris Suum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotic bacterial species are included in the diet to promote health. Probiotics purportedly protect the intestine against pathogenic microorganisms and can reduce inflammation; however, quantitative measurement of probiotic growth and related effects on intestinal function are often lacking. Asca...

  12. Enhancing the stress responses of probiotics for a lifestyle from gut to product and back again

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Before a probiotic bacterium can even begin to fulfill its biological role, it must survive a battery of environmental stresses imposed during food processing and passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Food processing stresses include extremes in temperature, as well as osmotic, oxidative and food matrix stresses. Passage through the GIT is a hazardous journey for any bacteria with deleterious lows in pH encountered in the stomach to the detergent-like properties of bile in the duodenum. However, bacteria are equipped with an array of defense mechanisms to counteract intracellular damage or to enhance the robustness of the cell to withstand lethal external environments. Understanding these mechanisms in probiotic bacteria and indeed other bacterial groups has resulted in the development of a molecular toolbox to augment the technological and gastrointestinal performance of probiotics. This has been greatly aided by studies which examine the global cellular responses to stress highlighting distinct regulatory networks and which also identify novel mechanisms used by cells to cope with hazardous environments. This review highlights the latest studies which have exploited the bacterial stress response with a view to producing next-generation probiotic cultures and highlights the significance of studies which view the global bacterial stress response from an integrative systems biology perspective. PMID:21995734

  13. Surface binding of toxins and heavy metals by probiotics.

    PubMed

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Removal of toxic metals and toxins using microbial biomass has been introduced as an inexpensive, new promising method on top of conventional methods for decontamination of food, raw material and concentrated. In this article the potential application of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts as the most familiar probiotics to eliminate, inactivate or reduce bioavailability of contamination in foods and feed has been reviewed. After fast glance to beneficial health effects and preservative properties of lactic acid bacteria, the mechanisms which explain antibacterial and antifungal efficiency as well as their antifungal metabolites are mentioned. Then the article has been focused on potential application of single strain or combination of lactic acid bacteria for removal of heavy metals (copper, lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic), cyanotoxins (microcystin-LR, -RR, -LF) and mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, B2, B2a, M1, M2, G1, G2, patulin, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1 and B2, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon, nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin, zearalenone and its derivative, etc) from aqueous solutions in vitro. Wherever possible the mechanism of decontamination and the factors influencing yield of removal are discussed. Some factors which can facilitate metal removal capacity of lactic acid bacteria including the strains, surface charge, pH, temperature, presence of other cations are introduced. The cell wall structure of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts are also introduced for further explanation of mechanism of action in complex binding of probiotic to contaminants and strength of mycotoxin- bacterium interaction. PMID:24329992

  14. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics- a review.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kavita R; Naik, Suresh R; Vakil, Babu V

    2015-12-01

    The health benefits imparted by probiotics and prebiotics as well as synbiotics have been the subject of extensive research in the past few decades. These food supplements termed as functional foods have been demonstrated to alter, modify and reinstate the pre-existing intestinal flora. They also facilitate smooth functions of the intestinal environment. Most commonly used probiotic strains are: Bifidobacterium, Lactobacilli, S. boulardii, B. coagulans. Prebiotics like FOS, GOS, XOS, Inulin; fructans are the most commonly used fibers which when used together with probiotics are termed synbiotics and are able to improve the viability of the probiotics. Present review focuses on composition and roles of Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics in human health. Furthermore, additional health benefits like immune-modulation, cancer prevention, inflammatory bowel disease etc. are also discussed. Graphical abstractPictorial summary of health benefits imparted by probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. PMID:26604335

  15. Health impact of probiotics - vision and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the role of the microbiota in our gut and other sites in our body is rapidly emerging and could lead to many new and innovative approaches for health care. The promise of the potential role of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of enteric and other infections as an effective solution needs to be realized. The meeting report summarizes the insights and learning from a recent symposium, "Health Impact of Probiotics - Vision and Opportunities" conducted in Mumbai by the Yakult India Microbiota and Probiotic Science Foundation and P.D. Hinduja National Hospital, Mumbai. The symposium reflected its objective of unraveling the potential role of probiotics for health benefits through presentations and discussions. Experts clearly highlighted the role of probiotics in improving various aspects of health and in immune modulation. The report also captures the debate and discussions on the challenges that are likely to be encountered for the use of probiotics in the country. PMID:22410274

  16. Clinical indications for probiotics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Goldin, B R; Gorbach, S L

    2008-02-01

    Probiotic bacteria are used to treat or prevent a broad range of human diseases, conditions, and syndromes. In addition, there are areas of medical use that have been proposed for future probiotic applications. Randomized double-blind studies have provided evidence of probiotic effectiveness for the treatment and prevention of acute diarrhea and antibiotic-induced diarrhea, as well as for the prevention of cow milk-induced food allergy in infants and young children. Research studies have also provided evidence of effectiveness for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea, relapsing Clostridium difficile-induced colitis, and urinary tract infections. There are also studies indicating that probiotics may be useful for prevention of respiratory infections in children, dental caries, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Areas of future interest for the application of probiotics include colon and bladder cancers, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. The probiotics with the greatest number of proven benefits are Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Saccharomyces boulardii. PMID:18181732

  17. Probiotics and human health: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Gill, H S; Guarner, F

    2004-09-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that administration of probiotics could be effective in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhoea in children and the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and nosocomial/community acquired diarrhoea. Encouraging evidence is also emerging for the effectiveness of probiotics in the prevention and management of pouchitis and paediatric atopic diseases, and the prevention of postoperative infections. There is also strong evidence that certain probiotic strains are able to enhance immune function, especially in subjects with less than adequate immune function such as the elderly. Efficacy of probiotics in the prevention of traveller's diarrhoea, sepsis associated with severe acute pancreatitis, and cancers, the management of ulcerative colitis, and lowering of blood cholesterol remains unproven. In addition to firm evidence of efficacy (for a range of conditions), major gaps exist in our knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which probiotics modulate various physiological functions and the optimum dose, frequency, and duration of treatment for different probiotic strains. PMID:15356352

  18. Bioprotection of ready-to-eat probiotic artichokes processed with Lactobacillus paracasei LMGP22043 against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Francesca; Lonigro, Stella Lisa; Di Biase, Mariaelena; de Candia, Silvia; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2013-11-01

    The survival of 3 pathogens Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19115, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ATCC13311, and Escherichia coli ATCC8739 was evaluated over time in ready-to-eat (RTE) artichoke products processed or not with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei LMGP22043. Both probiotic and standard products (final pH about 4.0; aw = 0.98) dressed with oil and packaged in modified atmosphere were inoculated with pathogens at a level of about 3 log CFU/g and stored at 4 ºC for 45 d. Pathogens decreased in the probiotic product in 2 descent phases, without shoulder and/or tailing as observed by fitting the models available in the GInaFit software to the experimental data. S. enterica subsp. enterica was completely inactivated after 14 and 28 d in probiotic and standard products, respectively; E. coli was inhibited in the probiotic food at day 4 (count probiotic product at day 1 reaching values below the DL after 14 d, while 21 d were needed in the standard product, and survived in both samples until the end of the experimental period. Therefore, the probiotic strain, representing always more than the 93% of lactic acid bacteria (about 7 log CFU/g) during the entire experimental period, combines the efficacy of a protective culture, which can control the development of pathogens during storage with probiotic benefits. PMID:24245894

  19. Probiotic Activity of a Bacterial Strain Isolated from Ancient Permafrost Against Salmonella Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fursova, O; Potapov, V; Brouchkov, A; Pogorelko, G; Griva, G; Fursova, N; Ignatov, S

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus cereus strain F, collected from relict permafrost located in Siberia, was analyzed for probiotic activity in the mouse Salmonella enterica model. Viable bacterial cells were found in frozen soils taken at Mammoth Mountain in Yakutia from a depth below the level of seasonal thawing. Geological data indicated the absence of a thawing within millions of years of deposited soils, which helped to ensure the ancient origin of our sample. According to DNA analysis, bacterial cells collected from the relict permafrost appeared to be B. cereus strain F. The morphology of these bacteria was analyzed using atomic force microscopy. B. cereus strain F was assessed as a nonpathogenic bacterium by evaluation of its pathogenicity. A S. enterica model is described in mice after per oral inoculation and serves as a model for the human carrier state. Using this model, probiotic activity by the bacterial strain isolated from the ancient permafrost has been shown against Salmonella infection in mice. PMID:26782040

  20. In vitro importance of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum related to medical field

    PubMed Central

    Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Choi, Ki Choon; Srigopalram, Srisesharam

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a Gram positive lactic acid bacterium commonly found in fermented food and in the gastro intestinal tract and is commonly used in the food industry as a potential starter probiotic. Recently, the consumption of food together with probiotics has tremendously increased. Among the lactic acid bacteria, L. plantarum attracted many researchers because of its wide applications in the medical field with antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anti-obesity and antidiabetic properties. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro importance of L. plantarum toward medical applications. Moreover, this report short listed various reports related to the applications of this promising strain. In conclusion, this study would attract the researchers in commercializing this strain toward the welfare of humans related to medical needs. PMID:26858567

  1. Probiotics: achieving a better regulatory fit.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Diane E; Fraser, Claire M; Palumbo, Francis; Ravel, Jacques; Rowthorn, Virginia; Schwartz, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The development and marketing of new probiotic products, substances containing live microorganisms that have a beneficial effect on the human body, have dramatically increased over the last few years. This article examines how the Food and Drug Administration and Federal Trade Commission currently regulate probiotics and makes recommendations as to changes that might be made to ensure that probiotic products are made available to the general public in a way that is both safe and effective. PMID:25163211

  2. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon-Andreas G; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2013-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei) isolated from table olives were screened for their probiotic potential. Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. casei Shirota were used as reference strains. The in vitro tests included survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity (against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7), Caco-2 surface adhesion, resistance to 9 antibiotics and haemolytic activity. Three (3) Lb. pentosus, 4 Lb. plantarum and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains demonstrated the highest final population (>8 log cfu/ml) after 3 h of exposure at low pH. The majority of the tested strains were resistant to bile salts even after 4 h of exposure, while 5 Lb. plantarum and 7 Lb. pentosus strains exhibited partial bile salt hydrolase activity. None of the strains inhibited the growth of the pathogens tested. Variable efficiency to adhere to Caco-2 cells was observed. This was the same regarding strains' susceptibility towards different antibiotics. None of the strains exhibited ?-haemolytic activity. As a whole, 4 strains of Lb. pentosus, 3 strains of Lb. plantarum and 2 strains of Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei were found to possess desirable in vitro probiotic properties similar to or even better than the reference probiotic strains Lb. casei Shirota and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains are good candidates for further investigation both with in vivo studies to elucidate their potential health benefits and in olive fermentation processes to assess their technological performance as novel probiotic starters. PMID:23200662

  3. A review of avian probiotics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeanne Marie

    2014-06-01

    Probiotics have been used in poultry for decades and have become common in the pet bird industry. Desirable characteristics of probiotic organisms are that they are nonpathogenic, have the ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells, have the ability to colonize and reproduce in the host, have the ability to be host-specific, survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and exposure to stomach acid and bile, produce metabolites that inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria, modulate gastrointestinal immune responses, and survive processing and storage. Purported benefits in birds are disease prevention and promotion of growth. Recommendations for use in avian species are for periodic use to replenish normal flora, use after antibiotic therapy to reestablish normal flora, and use during periods of stress to counter effects of immunosuppression. PMID:25115036

  4. Probiotics, gut microbiota and health.

    PubMed

    Butel, M-J

    2014-01-01

    The human gut is a huge complex ecosystem where microbiota, nutrients, and host cells interact extensively, a process crucial for the gut homeostasis and host development with a real partnership. The various bacterial communities that make up the gut microbiota have many functions including metabolic, barrier effect, and trophic functions. Hence, any dysbiosis could have negative consequences in terms of health and many diseases have been associated to impairment of the gut microbiota. These close relationships between gut microbiota, health, and disease, have led to great interest in using probiotics (i.e. live micro-organisms), or prebiotics (i.e. non-digestible substrates) to positively modulate the gut microbiota to prevent or treat some diseases. This review focuses on probiotics, their mechanisms of action, safety, and major health benefits. Health benefits remain to be proven in some indications, and further studies on the best strain(s), dose, and algorithm of administration to be used are needed. Nevertheless, probiotic administration seems to have a great potential in terms of health that justifies more research. PMID:24290962

  5. Gut microbiota, probiotics and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a condition of multifactorial origin, involving several molecular mechanisms related to the intestinal microbiota for its development. In type 2 diabetes, receptor activation and recognition by microorganisms from the intestinal lumen may trigger inflammatory responses, inducing the phosphorylation of serine residues in insulin receptor substrate-1, reducing insulin sensitivity. In type 1 diabetes, the lowered expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium favours a greater immune response that may result in destruction of pancreatic β cells by CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and increased expression of interleukin-17, related to autoimmunity. Research in animal models and humans has hypothesized whether the administration of probiotics may improve the prognosis of diabetes through modulation of gut microbiota. We have shown in this review that a large body of evidence suggests probiotics reduce the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, as well as increase the expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium, reducing intestinal permeability. Such effects increase insulin sensitivity and reduce autoimmune response. However, further investigations are required to clarify whether the administration of probiotics can be efficiently used for the prevention and management of diabetes. PMID:24939063

  6. [Probiotics, immunity and pediatric health].

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Jos M

    2011-01-01

    Early bacterial stimulation of gut associated immune cells is essential for the development and maturation of the infant's immune response. This "microbial experience" has been affected due to a decrease in vaginal births (which are the first source of bacterial exposure for an infant), the substitution of breast feeding, in favor of almost sterile formulas, an increase use of antibiotics, and an increasingly "cleaner" environment. Increased hygienic measures and pasteurization perpetuate this decreased microbe-host interaction. These changes in environmental and gut microbiota are associated with an altered and inadequate development of immune response, with related health implications. The inadequate host response to infectious diseases, as well as the epidemic of immune related chronic conditions (such as allergy) can be explained in great measure by these changes. The consumption of certain probiotics (specific dietary bacteria that provide a benefit to the host) has positive effects on gut barrier function and immune response. Thus, probiotics are a means of improving host-microbe interactions for health maintenance, and for the management of a number of illnesses. This paper summarizes important aspects of these interactions as well as the role that probiotic bacteria can play in pediatric health. PMID:22352124

  7. Isolation and screening of probiotic candidates from marron, Cherax cainii (Austin, 2002) gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and commercial probiotic products for the use in marron culture.

    PubMed

    Ambas, I; Buller, N; Fotedar, R

    2015-05-01

    Six strains of bacteria including Bacillus mycoides (A10) and Shewanella species (A12) isolated from healthy marron intestine, Bacillus species (PM1), Bacillus subtilis (PM3), Bacillus sp. (PM4) and Bacillus sp. (AQ) from commercial probiotic products were investigated for probiotic potential in marron culture. Antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated PM3 and PM4 were susceptible to all nine antibiotics evaluated. A10, A12 and AQ were resistant to class penicillins, whereas PM1 was resistant to class penicillin and macrolides. All strains were non-pathogenic for marron. Strong inhibition against Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio cholerae non-01 was exhibited by PM4 and PM3. A10 inhibited V.mimicus at 72h of growth, but not V.cholerae non-01, whereas A12 inhibited V.cholerae non-01 but not V.mimicus, and AQ showed no inhibition activity. A wide range of enzymes were produced by A10 and AQ using the API ZYM test. Protease enzymes were produced by PM3, PM4, AQ and PM1. In order of effectiveness, the following bacteria have probiotic potential: B.subtilis (PM3), Bacillus sp. (PM4) and B.mycoides (A10). Further study is required to determine the bacterium or any combination that gives a multibeneficial effect on marron. PMID:24917311

  8. Role of probiotics and functional foods in health: gut immune stimulation by two probiotic strains and a potential probiotic yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Maldonado Galdeano, Carolina; Novotny Nuez, Ivanna; Carmuega, Esteban; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Perdign, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    There are numerous reports that show the benefits on the health attributed to the probiotic consumptions. Most of the studies were performed using animal models and only some of them were validated in controlled human trials. The present review is divided in two sections. In the first section we describe how the probiotic microorganisms can interact with the intestinal epithelial cells that are the first line of cell in the mucosal site, focusing in the studies of two probiotic strains: Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 (actually Lactobacillus paracasei CNCMI-1518) and Lactobacillus casei CRL 431. Then we describe same beneficial effects attributed to probiotic administration and the administration of fermented milks containing these microorganisms or potential probiotic yoghurt, principally on the immune system and on the intestinal barrier in different experimental mouse models like enteropathogenic infection, malnutrition, cancer and intestinal inflammation. PMID:25516152

  9. Activation of multiple chemotherapeutic prodrugs by the natural enzymolome of tumour-localised probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lehouritis, Panos; Stanton, Michael; McCarthy, Florence O; Jeavons, Matthieu; Tangney, Mark

    2016-01-28

    Some chemotherapeutic drugs (prodrugs) require activation by an enzyme for efficacy. We and others have demonstrated the ability of probiotic bacteria to grow specifically within solid tumours following systemic administration, and we hypothesised that the natural enzymatic activity of these tumour-localised bacteria may be suitable for activation of certain such chemotherapeutic drugs. Several wild-type probiotic bacteria; Escherichia coli Nissle, Bifidobacterium breve, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus species, were screened against a panel of popular prodrugs. All strains were capable of activating at least one prodrug. E. coli Nissle 1917 was selected for further studies because of its ability to activate numerous prodrugs and its resistance to prodrug toxicity. HPLC data confirmed biochemical transformation of prodrugs to their toxic counterparts. Further analysis demonstrated that different enzymes can complement prodrug activation, while simultaneous activation of multiple prodrugs (CB1954, 5-FC, AQ4N and Fludarabine phosphate) by E. coli was confirmed, resulting in significant efficacy improvement. Experiments in mice harbouring murine tumours validated in vitro findings, with significant reduction in tumour growth and increase in survival of mice treated with probiotic bacteria and a combination of prodrugs. These findings demonstrate the ability of probiotic bacteria, without the requirement for genetic modification, to enable high-level activation of multiple prodrugs specifically at the site of action. PMID:26655063

  10. Programmable probiotics for detection of cancer in urine.

    PubMed

    Danino, Tal; Prindle, Arthur; Kwong, Gabriel A; Skalak, Matthew; Li, Howard; Allen, Kaitlin; Hasty, Jeff; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2015-05-27

    Rapid advances in the forward engineering of genetic circuitry in living cells has positioned synthetic biology as a potential means to solve numerous biomedical problems, including disease diagnosis and therapy. One challenge in exploiting synthetic biology for translational applications is to engineer microbes that are well tolerated by patients and seamlessly integrate with existing clinical methods. We use the safe and widely used probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 to develop an orally administered diagnostic that can noninvasively indicate the presence of liver metastasis by producing easily detectable signals in urine. Our microbial diagnostic generated a high-contrast urine signal through selective expansion in liver metastases (10(6)-fold enrichment) and high expression of a lacZ reporter maintained by engineering a stable plasmid system. The lacZ reporter cleaves a substrate to produce a small molecule that can be detected in urine. E. coli Nissle 1917 robustly colonized tumor tissue in rodent models of liver metastasis after oral delivery but did not colonize healthy organs or fibrotic liver tissue. We saw no deleterious health effects on the mice for more than 12 months after oral delivery. Our results demonstrate that probiotics can be programmed to safely and selectively deliver synthetic gene circuits to diseased tissue microenvironments in vivo. PMID:26019220

  11. Programmable probiotics for detection of cancer in urine

    PubMed Central

    Danino, Tal; Prindle, Arthur; Kwong, Gabriel A.; Skalak, Matthew; Li, Howard; Allen, Kaitlin; Hasty, Jeff; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in the forward engineering of genetic circuitry in living cells has positioned synthetic biology as a potential means to solve numerous biomedical problems, including disease diagnosis and therapy. One challenge in exploiting synthetic biology for translational applications is to engineer microbes that are well tolerated by patients and seamlessly integrate with existing clinical methods. We use the safe and widely used probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 to develop an orally administered diagnostic that can noninvasively indicate the presence of liver metastasis by producing easily detectable signals in urine. Our microbial diagnostic generated a high-contrast urine signal through selective expansion in liver metastases (106-fold enrichment) and high expression of a lacZ reporter maintained by engineering a stable plasmid system. The lacZ reporter cleaves a substrate to produce a small molecule that can be detected in urine. E. coli Nissle 1917 robustly colonized tumor tissue in rodent models of liver metastasis after oral delivery but did not colonize healthy organs or fibrotic liver tissue. We saw no deleterious health effects on the mice for more than 12 months after oral delivery. Our results demonstrate that probiotics can be programmed to safely and selectively deliver synthetic gene circuits to diseased tissue microenvironments in vivo. PMID:26019220

  12. Regulation of the production of extracellular pectinase, cellulase, and protease in the soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora: evidence that aepH of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora 71 activates gene expression in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Murata, H; Chatterjee, A; Liu, Y; Chatterjee, A K

    1994-01-01

    The production of pectolytic enzymes (pectate lyase [Pel] and polygalacturonase [Peh]), cellulase (Cel), and protease (Prt) is activated in the soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora by aepA (activator of extracellular protein production) and celery extract (Y. Liu, H. Murata, A. Chatterjee, and A. K. Chatterjee, Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 6:299-308, 1993). We recently isolated a new class of mutants of strain E. carotovora subsp. carotovora 71 which overproduces Pel, Peh, Cel, and Prt. From the overproducing strain AC5034, we identified an activator locus, designated aepH*, which stimulated Pel, Peh, Cel, and Prt production in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora 71 or its derivatives. The nucleotide sequence of the aepH* DNA segment revealed an open reading frame of 141 bp that could encode a small (5.45-kDa) highly basic (pI 11.7) protein of 47 amino acid residues. Analyses of deletions and MudI insertions indicated that the activator function required the 508-bp DNA segment which contains this open reading frame. The wild-type locus, aepH+, is localized within a DNA segment upstream of aepA. An AepH- strain constructed by exchanging aepH+ with aepH*::MudI was deficient in Pel, Peh, Cel, and Prt production; exoenzyme production was restored upon the introduction of a plasmid carrying aepH+ or aepH*. Plasmids carrying either aepH+ or aepH* activated the production of Pel-1, Peh-1, and Cel in Escherichia coli HB101 carrying the cognate genes. The aepH effect in E. coli was due to the activation of transcription, as indicated by assays of pel-1 and peh-1 mRNAs. The aepH+ and aepH* plasmids also stimulated Pel, Peh, Cel, and Prt production in other wild-type E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strains as well as in E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica. Although the stimulatory effect was generally more pronounced with aepH* than with aepH+, the extent of activation in the wild-type strains depended upon the bacterial strain and the growth medium. Southern blot hybridization revealed the presence of aepH homologs in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, and provided physical evidence for linkage between aepA and aepH homologs in genomes of these bacteria. We conclude that aepH-mediated activation of exoprotein gene expression is a feature common to most strains of E. carotovora. Images PMID:7944360

  13. Safety assessment of probiotics for human use

    PubMed Central

    Akkermans, Louis MA; Haller, Dirk; Hammerman, Cathy; Heimbach, James; Hörmannsperger, Gabriele; Huys, Geert; Levy, Dan D; Lutgendorff, Femke; Mack, David; Phothirath, Phoukham; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Vaughan, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The safety of probiotics is tied to their intended use, which includes consideration of potential vulnerability of the consumer or patient, dose and duration of consumption, and both the manner and frequency of administration. Unique to probiotics is that they are alive when administered, and unlike other food or drug ingredients, possess the potential for infectivity or in situ toxin production. Since numerous types of microbes are used as probiotics, safety is also intricately tied to the nature of the specific microbe being used. The presence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes, which comprises a theoretical risk of transfer to a less innocuous member of the gut microbial community, must also be considered. Genetic stability of the probiotic over time, deleterious metabolic activities, and the potential for pathogenicity or toxicogenicity must be assessed depending on the characteristics of the genus and species of the microbe being used. Immunological effects must be considered, especially in certain vulnerable populations, including infants with undeveloped immune function. A few reports about negative probiotic effects have surfaced, the significance of which would be better understood with more complete understanding of the mechanisms of probiotic interaction with the host and colonizing microbes. Use of readily available and low cost genomic sequencing technologies to assure the absence of genes of concern is advisable for candidate probiotic strains. The field of probiotic safety is characterized by the scarcity of studies specifically designed to assess safety contrasted with the long history of safe use of many of these microbes in foods. PMID:21327023

  14. Safety assessment of probiotics for human use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The safety of probiotics is tied to their intended use, which includes consideration of the potential vulnerability of the consumer or patient, dose and duration of consumption, and both the manner and frequency of administration. Unique to probiotics is that they are living organisms when administ...

  15. Probiotics: a comprehensive approach toward health foods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Mridula

    2014-01-01

    Food products containing probiotics and prebiotics are an important development in Health foods, which enhance health promoting microbial flora in the intestine. Probiotic refers to viable microorganism that promotes or support a beneficial balance of the autochthonous microbial population of the gastrointestinal tract. A number of genera of bacteria (and yeast) are used as probiotics, including Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, and Enterococcus, but the main species believed to have probiotic characteristics are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp., and L. casei. Probiotics can reduce diarrheal incidence, lactose intolerance, lower serum cholesterol, stimulate the immune system, control infections, act as antibiotics, suppress tumors, and protect against colon or bladder cancer by maintaining a healthy intestinal microflora balance. Lactic acid bacteria produce biopreservatives such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and bacteriocins that are used to retard both spoilage and the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Food, particularly dairy products are considered as an ideal vehicle for delivering probiotic bacteria to the human gastrointestinal tract. Cereals being rich source of prebiotics such as ?-glucan and arabinoxylan, galacto-, and fructooligosaccharides are considered for development of probiotic foods. Good manufacturing practices must be applied in the manufacture of probiotic foods with quality assurance, and shelf-life conditions established. PMID:24237003

  16. In vitro effects of food extracts on selected probiotic and pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Juliet; Miles, Michelle; Hedderley, Duncan; Li, Jessie; Devoy, Sarah; Sutton, Kevin; Lauren, Denis

    2009-12-01

    A panel of 148 extracts from 37 food products was prepared using organic and aqueous solvents and both neutral and acidic conditions. The panel of food products tested included fruits, vegetables, grains, herbs and spices, most of which are common in a normal European-style diet. The impact of these extracts on the growth of selected probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacteria lactis) and pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Escherichia coli LF82) was assessed using a standard minimum inhibitory concentration method. The results showed that aqueous extractions of garlic and black peppercorns significantly enhanced the growth of one strain of probiotic bacteria (L. reuteri) whilst inhibiting both pathogenic strains of E. coli at a 1:50 dilution. Aqueous extracts of banana, apple and orange all enhanced the growth of the three probiotic strains significantly, and inhibited the pathogens to approximately 80% of the controls (not significant). Both aqueous and organic extractions of ginger significantly inhibited the growth of one or both E. coli strains, respectively (also at the 1:50 dilution). PMID:19919519

  17. Probiotic Bacteria Induce a Glow of Health

    PubMed Central

    Smillie, Christopher; Varian, Bernard J.; Ibrahim, Yassin M.; Lakritz, Jessica R.; Alm, Eric J.; Erdman, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Radiant skin and hair are universally recognized as indications of good health. However, this glow of health display remains poorly understood. We found that feeding of probiotic bacteria to aged mice induced integumentary changes mimicking peak health and reproductive fitness characteristic of much younger animals. Eating probiotic yogurt triggered epithelial follicular anagen-phase shift with sebocytogenesis resulting in thick lustrous fur due to a bacteria-triggered interleukin-10-dependent mechanism. Aged male animals eating probiotics exhibited increased subcuticular folliculogenesis, when compared with matched controls, yielding luxuriant fur only in probiotic-fed subjects. Female animals displayed probiotic-induced hyperacidity coinciding with shinier hair, a feature that also aligns with fertility in human females. Together these data provide insights into mammalian evolution and novel strategies for integumentary health. PMID:23342023

  18. Profiles and technological requirements of urogenital probiotics.

    PubMed

    Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina

    2015-09-15

    Probiotics, defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, are considered a valid and novel alternative for the prevention and treatment of female urogenital tract infections. Lactobacilli, the predominant microorganisms of the healthy human vaginal microbiome, can be included as active pharmaceutical ingredients in probiotics products. Several requirements must be considered or criteria fulfilled during the development of a probiotic product or formula for the female urogenital tract. This review deals with the main selection criteria for urogenital probiotic microorganisms: host specificity, potential beneficial properties, functional specifications, technological characteristics and clinical trials used to test their effect on certain physiological and pathological conditions. Further studies are required to complement the current knowledge and support the clinical applications of probiotics in the urogenital tract. This therapy will allow the restoration of the ecological equilibrium of the urogenital tract microbiome as well as the recovery of the sexual and reproductive health of women. PMID:25858665

  19. The role of Probiotics in allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Michail, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Allergic disorders are very common in the pediatric age group. While the exact etiology is unclear, evidence is mounting to incriminate environmental factors and an aberrant gut microbiota with a shift of the Th1/Th2 balance towards a Th2 response. Probiotics have been shown to modulate the immune system back to a Th1 response. Several in vitro studies suggest a role for probiotics in treating allergic disorders. Human trials demonstrate a limited benefit for the use of probiotics in atopic dermatitis in a preventive as well as a therapeutic capacity. Data supporting their use in allergic rhinitis are less robust. Currently, there is no role for probiotic therapy in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Future studies will be critical in determining the exact role of probiotics in allergic disorders. PMID:19946408

  20. Sources, isolation, characterisation and evaluation of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luis; Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Muoz-Quezada, Sergio; Gil, Angel

    2013-01-01

    According to the FAO and the WHO, probiotics are 'live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host'. The strains most frequently used as probiotics include lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, which are isolated from traditional fermented products and the gut, faeces and breast milk of human subjects. The identification of microorganisms is the first step in the selection of potential probiotics. The present techniques, including genetic fingerprinting, gene sequencing, oligonucleotide probes and specific primer selection, discriminate closely related bacteria with varying degrees of success. Additional molecular methods, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis/temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescence in situ hybridisation, are employed to identify and characterise probiotics. The ability to examine fully sequenced genomes has accelerated the application of genetic approaches to the elucidation of the functional roles of probiotics. One of the best-demonstrated clinical benefits of probiotics is the prevention and treatment of acute and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea;however, there is mounting evidence for a potential role for probiotics in the treatment of allergies and intestinal, liver and metabolic diseases. There are various mechanisms by which probiotics exert their beneficial effects: regulation of intestinal permeability, normalisation of host intestinal microbiota, improvement of gut immune barrier function, and adjustment between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The number of studies carried out to test the effects of probiotics in vitro and in animals is enormous. However, the most reliable method of assessing the therapeutic benefits of any probiotic strain is the use of randomised, placebo-controlled trials, which are reviewed in this article [corrected]. PMID:23360880

  1. Probiotics in the Arabian Gulf Region

    PubMed Central

    Senok, Abiola C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Available reports on adherence to recommended guidelines for labeling of probiotic products are based on assessment of these products in developed countries. In the Arabian Gulf region, there is a paucity of data on the characterization of probiotic products and an absence of local guidelines for their labeling. This study, carried out in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), represents the first evaluation of probiotic products available in the Arabian Peninsula. Methods Probiotic products were purchased over the counter from a variety of sources, including pharmacies, healthfood stores, and supermarkets across the UAE. All identified products were listed and information regarding type of product preparation and labeling information were recorded. Results A total of 37 probiotic products, 15 dairy-based and 22 non-dairy-based were identified. The dairy products comprised of 12 yogurts, two fermented milk products and one powdered baby formula. The majority of non-dairy products were in capsule form (n = 16). While all the non-dairy products gave information about the strain of probiotic microorganism and number present at time of manufacture, this information was provided for only one dairy-based product. Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were the most common probiotic organisms identified. However, one probiotic product listed Enterococcus faecalis (750 million viable bacteria per capsule) as a component. With the exception of one non-dairy-based product, all health-related claims were structure/function statements, according to the US Food and Drug Administration nomenclature. Conclusion These findings indicate that a wide variety of probiotic products are available in the Arabian Gulf. Development of guidelines for labeling of these probiotic products and use of structure/function statements and health claims should be addressed. PMID:19266044

  2. Mucosal immunity and probiotics in fish.

    PubMed

    Lazado, Carlo C; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A

    2014-07-01

    Teleost mucosal immunity has become the subject of unprecedented research studies in recent years because of its diversity and defining characteristics. Its immune repertoire is governed by the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) which are divided into gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissues (GIALT). The direct contact with its immediate environment makes the mucosal surfaces of fish susceptible to a wide variety of pathogens. The inherent immunocompetent cells and factors in the mucosal surfaces together with the commensal microbiota have pivotal role against pathogens. Immunomodulation is a popular prophylactic strategy in teleost and probiotics possess this beneficial feature. Most of the studies on the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics in fish mainly discussed their impacts on systemic immunity. In contrast, few of these studies discussed the immunomodulatory features of probiotics in mucosal surfaces and are concentrated on the influences in the gut. Significant attention should be devoted in understanding the relationship of mucosal immunity and probiotics as the present knowledge is limited and are mostly based on extrapolations of studies in humans and terrestrial vertebrates. In the course of the advancement of mucosal immunity and probiotics, new perspectives in probiotics research, e.g., probiogenomics have emerged. This review affirms the relevance of probiotics in the mucosal immunity of fish by revisiting and bridging the current knowledge on teleost mucosal immunity, mucosal microbiota and immunomodulation of mucosal surfaces by probiotics. Expanding the knowledge of immunomodulatory properties of probiotics especially on mucosal immunity is essential in advancing the use of probiotics as a sustainable and viable strategy for successful fish husbandry. PMID:24795079

  3. Chemotaxis in marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Li

    We investigated the motility pattern and chemotaxis system of the polarly flagellated marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus. V. alginolyticus executes 3-step (run-reverse-flick) cycles which are distinctively different from the 2-step (run-tumble) pattern of Escherichia coli. This marine bacterium backtracks its forward swimming path and randomizes its moving direction by flicking its flagellum at the end of the backward swimming interval. V. alginolyticus has a similar chemotaxis system as E. coli, and our study showed that their chemotaxis networks respond to chemical cues in the same manner. However, at contrast to E. coli, in which the motor bias is regulate by the chemotaxis network, in V. alginolyticus, the switching rates of the flagellar motor is modulated so that swimming intervals in a favorable direction can be lengthened regardless of the motor rotation direction. As a result, despite their different motility patterns, both E. coli and V. alginolyticus use a biased random walk to migrate toward a nutrient source. To understand the effect of motility patterns on chemotaxis capacity, master equations similar to convection-diffusion equations were developed to describe the motion of these two bacteria in a chemical profile. It was found that by adopting the run-reverse-flick motility pattern, a 3-step swimmer has the same drift velocity but its diffusivity is reduced by half compared to a 2-step swimmer. As a result of the smaller diffusivity, the former localizes better around a nutrient source but does not explore as efficiently as the latter. We thus speculate that the 3-step motility pattern suits better for the marine environment where searching is unproductive and it is more important to exploit an existing, though transient, resource.

  4. Porcine E. coli: Virulence-Associated Genes, Resistance Genes and Adhesion and Probiotic Activity Tested by a New Screening Method

    PubMed Central

    Schierack, Peter; Rdiger, Stefan; Kuhl, Christoph; Hiemann, Rico; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Li, Ganwu; Weinreich, Jrg; Berger, Enrico; Nolan, Lisa K.; Nicholson, Bryon; Rmer, Antje; Frmmel, Ulrike; Wieler, Lothar H.; Schrder, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We established an automated screening method to characterize adhesion of Escherichia coli to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and their probiotic activity against infection by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). 104 intestinal E. coli isolates from domestic pigs were tested by PCR for the occurrence of virulence-associated genes, genes coding for resistances to antimicrobial agents and metals, and for phylogenetic origin by PCR. Adhesion rates and probiotic activity were examined for correlation with the presence of these genes. Finally, data were compared with those from 93 E. coli isolates from wild boars. Isolates from domestic pigs carried a broad variety of all tested genes and showed great diversity in gene patterns. Adhesions varied with a maximum of 18.3 or 24.2 mean bacteria adherence per epithelial cell after 2 or 6 hours respectively. Most isolates from domestic pigs and wild boars showed low adherence, with no correlation between adhesion/probiotic activity and E. coli genes or gene clusters. The gene sfa/foc, encoding for a subunit of F1C fimbriae did show a positive correlative association with adherence and probiotic activity; however E. coli isolates from wild boars with the sfa/foc gene showed less adhesion and probiotic activity than E. coli with the sfa/foc gene isolated from domestic pigs after 6 hour incubation. In conclusion, screening porcine E. coli for virulence associated genes genes, adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, and probiotic activity revealed a single important adhesion factor, several probiotic candidates, and showed important differences between E. coli of domestic pigs and wild boars. PMID:23658605

  5. Probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented dairy milks on antiproliferation of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Thirabunyanon, Mongkol; Boonprasom, Pongphun; Niamsup, Piyanuch

    2009-04-01

    Fifty-four strains of lactic acid bacteria obtained from fermented dairy milks were investigated for possible use as probiotics and for colon cancer biological products. Five of these strains inhibited growth of eight food-borne pathogens including Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium. Three of these strains survived at pH 2.5 and in 0.3% bile salts. Additionally they produced no haemolysis, were resistant to kanamycin and adhered to Caco-2 cells. 16S rRNA gene sequences of probiotic strains indicated that RM11 and RM28 were Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus fermentum, respectively. Both the cultured medium and live whole cells from probiotic strains were tested for antiproliferation of colon cancer cells through MTT and Trypan Blue exclusion assays. The probiotic strains of E. faecium RM11 and L. fermentum RM28 also triggered antiproliferation of colon cancer cells at the rates of 21-29%, and 22-29%, respectively. This suggested that both strains could be used as potential probiotics in functional food or for colon cancer biological products. PMID:19116692

  6. Probiotics for mother and child.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor; Devillard, Estelle

    2004-07-01

    For the survival of humankind, nothing can be as important as the health of a mother and a child. As the world's population grows to more than 6 billion, it might seem ridiculous to suggest that any real threat exists to the human species. Diseases have long ravaged populations, as have wars, poverty, and malnutrition. Life today is no different with new and emerging diseases such as SARS and Mad Cow Disease leaving a trail of concern around the planet. All that being said, the AIDS crisis is threatening humans like no other. In countries such as Botswana, close to half the population of pregnant women is infected. Of great concern, the disease is now prevalent among women and teenage girls, threatening not only their lives but those of their offspring. Efforts to control this spread are quite abysmal, albeit well intentioned. Likewise, the death of a child every 15 seconds from diarrheal disease is not being addressed with the same vigor as SARS, even though the risk of dying from the latter for most people is similar to being struck by lightning. In the end, it is the economy and politics that dictate health spending. Image and perception are everything. While deaths mount among women and children from AIDS and other infections, the potential to intervene with a low-risk natural concept of probiotics seemed all too distant. As evidence mounts of the attributes of certain probiotic strains to treat diarrhea and reduce the risk of urogenital and other diseases, the developing world has failed to embrace it, support its evaluation and implementation, and take it to where it is needed the most. In this review, the case for and against probiotics for urogenital and intestinal infections is presented based on current literature. The story is far from complete, but the potential for improving the health of the mother and child is significant. United Nations and World Health Organization guidelines have now been developed to vanquish the unproved marketing hype products that have given probiotics a bad name. It is now up to science to deliver the remedies, and to society to make sure that only proven products reach the marketplace and the people in most need. PMID:15220669

  7. Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Ljungh, Asa; Wadstrm, Torkel

    2006-09-01

    A number of Lactobacillus species, Bifidobacterium sp, Saccharomyces boulardii, and some other microbes have been proposed as and are used as probiotic strains, i.e. live microorganisms as food supplement in order to benefit health. The health claims range from rather vague as regulation of bowel activity and increasing of well-being to more specific, such as exerting antagonistic effect on the gastroenteric pathogens Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and rotavirus, neutralising food mutagens produced in colon, shifting the immune response towards a Th2 response, and thereby alleviating allergic reactions, and lowering serum cholesterol (Tannock, 2002). Unfortunately, most publications are case reports, uncontrolled studies in humans, or reports of animal or in vitro studies. Whether or not the probiotic strains employed shall be of human origin is a matter of debate but this is not a matter of concern, as long as the strains can be shown to survive the transport in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and to colonise the human large intestine. This includes survival in the stressful environment of the stomach - acidic pH and bile - with induction of new genes encoding a number of stress proteins. Since the availability of antioxidants decreases rostrally in the GI tract production of antioxidants by colonic bacteria provides a beneficial effect in scavenging free radicals. LAB strains commonly produce antimicrobial substance(s) with activity against the homologous strain, but LAB strains also often produce microbicidal substances with effect against gastric and intestinal pathogens and other microbes, or compete for cell surface and mucin binding sites. This could be the mechanism behind reports that some probiotic strains inhibit or decrease translocation of bacteria from the gut to the liver. A protective effect against cancer development can be ascribed to binding of mutagens by intestinal bacteria, reduction of the enzymes beta-glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase, and deconjugation of bile acids, or merely by enhancing the immune system of the host. The latter has attracted considerable interest, and LAB have been tested in several clinical trials in allergic diseases. Characteristics ascribed to a probiotic strain are in general strain specific, and individual strains have to be tested for each property. Survival of strains during production, packing and storage of a viable cell mass has to be tested and declared. PMID:16875422

  8. In vitro growth characteristics of five candidate aquaculture probiotics and two fish pathogens grown in fish intestinal mucus.

    PubMed

    Vine, Niall G; Leukes, Winston D; Kaiser, Horst

    2004-02-01

    The selection of probiotics for aquaculture is usually based on their antagonism towards pathogens. However, other criteria such as growth, attachment to intestinal mucus and production of beneficial compounds should also be considered. We suggest a protocol for the isolation and selection of potential probiotic bacteria based on their in vitro growth characteristics and propose a ranking index (RI) to screen potential aquaculture probionts. We suggest that the lag period and doubling time are the most important criteria for the comparison of growth curves, hence the RI is based on the doubling time (t(d)) and lag period (lambda) obtained from the growth profile of each bacterium. Bacteria were isolated from the gut of the common clownfish, Amphiprion percula, and screened for antagonistic activity towards seven aquatic pathogens. All five candidate probiotics showed antagonism to various aquatic pathogens. When grown in intestinal fish mucus no probiotic had a RI higher than the two tested pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio alginolyticus). However, candidate probiont AP1 had a faster specific growth rate (micro) (0.05) than the pathogens (0.049 and 0.047 respectively), while AP5 grown in marine broth had a shorter lag period than the pathogens. Strategies to increase probiotic concentration include the inoculation of high concentrations and the preconditioning of these bacteria to reduce the lag period. It should be tested whether or not such strategies will allow the probiotic bacteria to dominate initially and thereby gain a competitive advantage. This could become an important aspect under in vivo conditions where both attachment and nutrient supply differ from that found in in vitro studies. PMID:14769479

  9. Immune system stimulation by probiotic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-01-01

    Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. This review is presented to provide detailed informations about how probiotics stimulate our immune system. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, Bifidobacterium lactis DR10, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii are the most investigated probiotic cultures for their immunomodulation properties. Probiotics can enhance nonspecific cellular immune response characterized by activation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in strain-specific and dose-dependent manner. Mixture and type (gram-positive and gram-negative) of probiotic organisms may induce different cytokine responses. Supplementation of probiotic organisms in infancy could help prevent immune-mediated diseases in childhood, whereas their intervention in pregnancy could affect fetal immune parameters, such as cord blood interferon (IFN)-γ levels, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels, and breast milk immunoglobulin (Ig)A. Probiotics that can be delivered via fermented milk or yogurt could improve the gut mucosal immune system by increasing the number of IgA(+) cells and cytokine-producing cells in the effector site of the intestine. PMID:24499072

  10. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia in an elderly patient following probiotic treatment].

    PubMed

    Eren, Zehra; Gurol, Yeşim; Sonmezoglu, Meral; Eren, Hatice Seyma; Celik, Gülden; Kantarci, Gülçin

    2014-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as baker's yeast, is also used as a probiotic agent to treat gastroenteritis by modulating the endogenous flora and immune system. However, since there have been increasing reports of fungemia due to S.cerevisiae and its subspecies S.boulardii, it is recommended that probiotics should be cautiously used in immunosuppressed patients, people with underlying diseases and low-birth weight babies. To emphasize this phenomenon, in this report, a case of S.cerevisiae fungemia developed in a patient given probiotic treatment for antibiotic-associated diarrhea, was presented. An 88-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with left hip pain, hypotension, and confusion. Her medical history included hypertension, chronic renal failure, left knee replacement surgery, and recurrent urinary tract infections due to neurogenic bladder. She was transferred to the intensive care unit with the diagnosis of urosepsis. After obtaining blood and urine samples for culture, empirical meropenem (2 x 500 mg) and linezolid (1 x 600 mg) treatment were administered. A central venous catheter (CVC) was inserted and after one day of inotropic support, her hemodynamic parameters were stabilized. The urine culture obtained on admission yielded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Urine culture was repeated after three days and no bacteria were isolated. On the 4th day of admission she developed diarrhea. Toxin A/B tests for Clostridium difficile were negative. To relieve diarrhea, S.boulardii (Reflor 250 mg capsules, Sanofi Aventis, Turkey) was administered twice a day, without opening capsules. Two days later, her C-reactive protein (CRP) level increased from 23.2 mg/L to 100 mg/L without fever. Her blood culture taken from the CVC yielded S.cerevisiae. Linezolid and meropenem therapies were stopped on the 13th and 14th days, respectively, while prophylactic fluconazole therapy was replaced with caspofungin 1 x 50 mg on the fifth day. After seven days of therapy CRP and serum creatinine levels decreased to 9.1 mg/L and 1.2 mg/dl, respectively; and she was discharged from the hospital with improvement. The probiotic capsules were used unopen, thus, it was proposed that S.cerevisiae fungemia originated from translocation from the intestinal mucosa. Since it was not possible to investigate the molecular genetics of the strain isolated from the blood culture and the strain present in the probiotic, a definite conclusion about the origin of the strain could not be reached. It was thought that old age and underlying disease of the patient were the related predisposing factors for S.cerevisiae fungemia. This case emphasized that clinicians should be cautious in case of probiotic application even though in encapsulated form, even in immunocompetent patients with a history of long-term hospital stay and use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials since there may be a risk of S.cerevisiae fungemia development. PMID:24819274

  11. Identification of specific miRNAs targeting proteins of the apical junctional complex that simulate the probiotic effect of E. coli Nissle 1917 on T84 epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Katharina; Hummel, Stephanie; Cichon, Christoph; Sonnenborn, Ulrich; Schmidt, Marcus Alexander

    2012-02-01

    In the intestine, dysregulation of miRNA is associated with inflammation, disruption of the gastrointestinal barrier, and the onset of gastrointestinal disorders. This study identifies miRNAs involved in the maintenance of intercellular junctions and barrier integrity. For the functional identification of barrier affecting miRNAs, we took advantage of the barrier-enforcing effects of the probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) which can be monitored by enhanced transepithelial resistance (TER). miRNA-profiling of T84 monolayers prior and after co-incubation with EcN revealed for the first time differentially regulated miRNAs (miR-203, miR-483-3p, miR-595) targeting tight junction (TJ) proteins. Using real-time PCR, Western blotting and specific miRNA mimics, we showed that these miRNAs are involved in the regulation of barrier function by modulating the expression of regulatory and structural components of tight junctional complexes. Furthermore, specific inhibitors directed at these miRNA abrogated the disturbance of tight junctions induced by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) was determined to 340 nM by monitoring inhibitor kinetics. In summary, we conclude that specific miRNAs effect regulatory as well as structural proteins of the junctional complex which in turn are involved in the barrier enhancing effect of EcN. Hence, we suggest that the application of miRNAs might be refined and further developed as a novel supportive strategy for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:22101077

  12. Impact of a probiotic, inulin, or their combination on the piglets' microbiota at different intestinal locations.

    PubMed

    Sattler, V A; Bayer, K; Schatzmayr, G; Haslberger, A G; Klose, V

    2015-01-01

    Natural feed additives are used to maintain health and to promote performance of pigs without antibiotics. Effects of a probiotic, inulin, and their combination (synbiotic), on the microbial diversity and composition at different intestinal locations were analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time PCR, and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacterial diversity assessed by DGGE and/or pyrosequencing was increased by inulin in all three gut locations and by the synbiotic in the caecum and colon. In contrast, the probiotic did only affect the microbiota diversity in the ileum. Shifts in the DGGE microbiota profiles of the caecum and colon were detected for the pro- and synbiotic fed animals, whereas inulin profiles were more similar to the ones of the control. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed that all three additives could reduce Escherichia species in each gut location, indicating a potential beneficial effect on the gut microbiota. An increase of relative abundance of Clostridiaceae in the large intestine was found in the inulin group and of Enterococcaceae in the ileum of probiotic fed pigs. Furthermore, real-time PCR results showed that the probiotic and synbiotic increased bifidobacterial numbers in the ileum, which was supported by sequencing results. The probiotic and inulin, to different extents, changed the diversity, relative abundance of phylotypes, and community profiles of the porcine microbiota. However, alterations of the bacterial community were not uniformly between gut locations, demonstrating that functionality of feed additives is site specific. Therefore, gut sampling from various locations is crucial when investigations aim to identify the composition of a healthy gut microbiota after its manipulation through feed additives. PMID:25380797

  13. Single Bacterium Detection Using Sers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S. A.; Baikova, T. V.; Alushin, M. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Minaeva, S. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work is devoted to the study of a single Staphylococcus aureus bacterium detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonant Raman spectroscopy (RS). It was shown that SERS allows increasing sensitivity of predominantly low frequency lines connected with the vibrations of Amide, Proteins and DNA. At the same time the lines of carotenoids inherent to this kind of bacterium are well-detected due to the resonance Raman scattering mechanism. The reproducibility and stability of Raman spectra strongly depend on the characteristics of nanostructured substrate, and molecular structure and size of the tested biological object.

  14. Production and Biomedical Applications of Probiotic Biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Fariq, Anila; Saeed, Ayesha

    2016-04-01

    Biosurfactants have been widely used for environmental and industrial applications. However, their use in medical field is still limited. Probiotic biosurfactants possess an immense antimicrobial, anti-adhesive, antitumor, and antibiofilm potential. Moreover, they have an additional advantage over conventional microbial surfactants because probiotics are an integral part of normal human microflora and their biosurfactants are innocuous to human. So, they can be effectively exploited for medicinal use. Present review is aimed to discourse the production and biomedical applications of probiotic biosurfactants. PMID:26742771

  15. [Prebiotics and probiotics in infant nutrition].

    PubMed

    Zuppa, A A; Savarese, I; Scorrano, A; Calabrese, V; D'Andrea, V; Fracchiolla, A; Cota, E; Sindico, P; Romagnoli, C

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have recently analyzed the modulation of the intestinal microflora showing a benefic effects reducing the number of enteritis, improving the oligoelements absorption and stimulating the immunitary system. To do so three way are available: the use of prebiotics, the use of probiotics and the symbiotic way. Prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides that can stimulate selectively the growth bifidogenus bacteria. Probiotics are dietary supplements made of live micro-organisms which improve the microbial environment of the gut. In this review literature is examined the possible efficacy of prebiotics and probiotics in the pediatric age; however, the studies available do not permit to obtain definitive conclusions. PMID:17461094

  16. [Autochthonous microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics].

    PubMed

    Surez, Juan Evaristo

    2015-01-01

    The autochthonous microbiota is the community of microorganisms that colonizes the skin and mucosal surfaces. The symbiosis is, generally, mutualistic but it can become parasitic due to immune response alterations. The skin microbiota includes bacteria (95%), lipophilic fungi and mites. In the digestive apparatus, each cavity presents its own microbiota, which reaches its target organ during the perinatal period, originating complex and stable communities (homeostasis). The vaginal microbiota varies with the endocrine activity, significantly increasing during the fertile and pregnancy periods, when lactobacilli are the most abundant organisms. Four are the main benefits of the autochthonous microbiota: i) delivery of essential nutrients, such as vitamins and some amino acids; ii) utilization of undigestible diet components, the colonic microbiota degrades complex glycans and fulfils almost 20% of the calories present in a normal diet; iii) development of the immune system: the continuous contact with the immune system maintains it alert and in good shape to repel pathogens efficaciously and iv) microbial antagonism, hinders colonization of our mucosal surfaces by alochthonous, potentially pathogenic, organisms. This works through three mechanisms: colonization interference, production of antimicrobials and co-aggregation with the potential pathogens. The microbiota can, sporadically, produce damages: opportunistic endogenous infections and generation of carcinogenic compounds. Probiotics are "live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the consumer". Prebiotics are undigestible glycans that enhance the growth or activity of the intestinal microbiota, thus generating a health benefit. Synbiotics are mixes of probiotics and prebiotics that exert a synergistic health effect. PMID:25659048

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Isolated from the Bloody Stool Sample of a Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Hanako; Inoue, Takashi; Yasuda, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Itoh, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Escherichia coli strain R811. This bacterium was isolated from the bloody stool sample of a common marmoset, and was categorized as enteropathogenic E.coli because it possessed eae. PMID:26450733

  18. Consumer perception of beneficial effects of probiotics for human health.

    PubMed

    Rijkers, G T; Bimmel, D; Grevers, D; den Haan, N; Hristova, Y

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, perception and buying behaviour of probiotics. 72 participants in Middelburg, the Netherlands, filled out a detailed questionnaire regarding probiotics and their customer and consumer behaviour. It can be concluded from this study that the concept of probiotics is generally poorly understood. Health-conscious consumers seem to be the group most aware of the correct meaning of the term probiotics. Almost 50% of the participants did not believe that probiotics had any health effect. Independent organisations and/or government agencies appeared to be the preferred source of information on the functionality of probiotics. PMID:23434950

  19. Probiotics: current trends in the treatment of diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Sujatha S; Jalgaonkar, Sharmila; Shahani, S; Kulkarni, Vijaya N

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, research into and public interest in probiotics and probiotic foods have risen. Lactobacilli and bifidobacterium are the most commonly used probiotics while yoghurt and kefir are popular foods containing probiotics. Probiotics have been used to manage diarrhoea. Many things cause diarrhoea, including bacterial, viral and protozoal infections, radiation and antibiotic therapy. Different studies have found that probiotics may also enhance the immune response, reduce serum cholesterol, prevent colonic cancer, prevent dental caries, prevent ulcers due to Helicobacter pylori, maintain urogenital health, and ameliorate hepatic encephalopathy. Further studies are required to establish their role in these conditions. PMID:20519758

  20. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations. PMID:26903962

  1. Prophylactic use of probiotics ameliorates infantile colic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colic is a common but distressing condition in young infants. We were asked to comment on a recently published study which found that a certain type of probiotic ("good bacteria") could be used to treat colic....

  2. Interactions between Innate Immunity, Microbiota, and Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Giorgetti, GianMarco; Brandimarte, Giovanni; Fabiocchi, Federica; Ricci, Salvatore; Flamini, Paolo; Sandri, Giancarlo; Trotta, Maria Cristina; Elisei, Walter; Penna, Antonio; Lecca, Piera Giuseppina; Picchio, Marcello; Tursi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The term "microbiota" means genetic inheritance associated with microbiota, which is about 100 times larger than the guest. The tolerance of the resident bacterial flora is an important key element of immune cell function. A key role in the interaction between the host and the microbiota is played by Paneth cell, which is able to synthesize and secrete proteins and antimicrobial peptides, such as α/β defensins, cathelicidin, 14 β-glycosidases, C-type lectins, and ribonuclease, in response to various stimuli. Recent studies found probiotics able to preserve intestinal homeostasis by downmodulating the immune response and inducing the development of T regulatory cells. Specific probiotic strain, as well as probiotic-driven metabolic products called "postbiotics," has been recently recognized and it is able to influence innate immunity. New therapeutic approaches based on probiotics are now available, and further treatments based on postbiotics will come in the future. PMID:26090492

  3. Probiotics in the dental practice: a review.

    PubMed

    Laleman, Isabelle; Teughels, Wim

    2015-03-01

    During the last decade an increased interest in alternative, preventive, and therapeutic strategies in dentistry has arisen. Probiotics are living microorganisms which, if administered in sufficient amounts, provide a health benefit to the host. Their precise mechanisms of action have not been identified, but they are able to interfere with the imbalance occurring in biofilm-associated infections. In other fields of medicine, mainly in gastroenterology, their usefulness is already proven. Concerning oral threats, probiotic bacteria may reduce the numbers of pathogens associated with dental caries (mutans streptococci). Clinically, results are encouraging, but further research is needed to demonstrate apparent effects of certain probiotic strains on oral health as well as their desired concentration and vehicle. The use of probiotics in prevention and treatment of caries, periodontal diseases, halitosis, and other oral diseases needs to be further investigated. PMID:25485319

  4. Interactions between Innate Immunity, Microbiota, and Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Giorgetti, GianMarco; Brandimarte, Giovanni; Fabiocchi, Federica; Ricci, Salvatore; Flamini, Paolo; Sandri, Giancarlo; Trotta, Maria Cristina; Elisei, Walter; Penna, Antonio; Lecca, Piera Giuseppina; Picchio, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The term “microbiota” means genetic inheritance associated with microbiota, which is about 100 times larger than the guest. The tolerance of the resident bacterial flora is an important key element of immune cell function. A key role in the interaction between the host and the microbiota is played by Paneth cell, which is able to synthesize and secrete proteins and antimicrobial peptides, such as α/β defensins, cathelicidin, 14 β-glycosidases, C-type lectins, and ribonuclease, in response to various stimuli. Recent studies found probiotics able to preserve intestinal homeostasis by downmodulating the immune response and inducing the development of T regulatory cells. Specific probiotic strain, as well as probiotic-driven metabolic products called “postbiotics,” has been recently recognized and it is able to influence innate immunity. New therapeutic approaches based on probiotics are now available, and further treatments based on postbiotics will come in the future. PMID:26090492

  5. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations. PMID:26903962

  6. Probiotics and blood pressure: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Upadrasta, Aditya; Madempudi, Ratna Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota play a significant role in host metabolic processes, and recent metagenomic surveys have revealed that they are involved in host immune modulation and influence host development and physiology (organ development). Initially, probiotics are identified as potential therapeutics to treat gastrointestinal disorders and to revitalize the disturbed gut ecosystem. Currently, studies are exploring the potential for expanded uses of probiotics for improving the health conditions in metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Further investigations are required to evaluate targeted and effective use of the wide variety of probiotic strains in various metabolic disorders to improve the overall health status of the host. This review addresses the causes of hypertension and the hypotensive effect of probiotics, with a focus on their mechanistic action. PMID:26955291

  7. Probiotics and blood pressure: current insights.

    PubMed

    Upadrasta, Aditya; Madempudi, Ratna Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota play a significant role in host metabolic processes, and recent metagenomic surveys have revealed that they are involved in host immune modulation and influence host development and physiology (organ development). Initially, probiotics are identified as potential therapeutics to treat gastrointestinal disorders and to revitalize the disturbed gut ecosystem. Currently, studies are exploring the potential for expanded uses of probiotics for improving the health conditions in metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Further investigations are required to evaluate targeted and effective use of the wide variety of probiotic strains in various metabolic disorders to improve the overall health status of the host. This review addresses the causes of hypertension and the hypotensive effect of probiotics, with a focus on their mechanistic action. PMID:26955291

  8. Bacteriotherapy and probiotics' role on oral health.

    PubMed

    Caglar, E; Kargul, B; Tanboga, I

    2005-05-01

    Oral infections constitute some of the most common and costly forms of infections in humans. The concept of microbial ecological change as a mechanism for preventing dental disease is an important one while altered microbial ecology may lead to dental disease. New methods such as probiotic approaches (i.e. whole bacteria replacement therapy) to eliminate pathogenic members of the microbiota can be investigated. Bacteriotherapy is an alternative and promising way to combat infections by using harmless bacteria to displace pathogenic microorganisms. Probiotics are one of these new agents which are widely used for their therapeutic action. Limited research is available showing that some probiotic cultures may help dental improvement. Present paper focuses on possible oral benefits of probiotics. PMID:15888102

  9. Probiotics in the management of colonic disorders.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2007-10-01

    Probiotics have been used in humans for almost a century and widely recommended for the treatment of a variety of ills assumed to be of colonic origin, including diarrhea, constipation, bloating, and flatulence. More recently, probiotics have been evaluated in the management of specific colonic disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and Clostridium difficile colitis. It is evident that no two probiotics are exactly alike; why then should we expect reproducible results from studies that employ different species or strains, variable formulations, and diverse dosing schedules? When probiotics have been studied with the rigor appropriate to a new therapeutic modality, some coherent results have emerged: specific strains are effective in certain diarrheal states, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis, as well as in the prevention of C. difficile-related colitis. Even here, not to mention other colonic disorders, further adequately powered and appropriately designed trials are needed. PMID:17991347

  10. Probiotics in periodontal health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Bhattacharya, Hirak; Kandwal, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Macfarlane Burnett stated in 1962 that By the late twentieth century, we can anticipate the virtual elimination of infectious diseases as a significant factor in social life. Probiotics have become of interest to researchers in recent times. Time has come to shift the paradigm of treatment from specific bacteria elimination to altering bacterial ecology by probiotics. The development of resistance to a range of antibiotics by some important pathogens has raised the possibility of a return to the pre-antibiotic dark ages. Here, probiotics provide an effective alternative way, which is economical and natural to combat periodontal disease. Thus, a mere change in diet by including probiotic foods may halt, retard, or even significantly delay the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, promoting a healthy lifestyle to fight periodontal infections. PMID:21772717

  11. Protection of probiotic bacteria in synbiotic matrices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotics, like Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, when encapsulated with prebiotic fibers such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), inulin (I) and pectic-oligosaccharides (POS), formed a synbiotic matrix system that protected the bacteria ...

  12. Probiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Alfredo; Guandalini, Stefano; Lo Vecchio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used for prevention and treatment of diarrhea more in children than in adults. Given the broad spectrum of diarrhea, this review focuses on the main etiologies: acute gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). For each, we reviewed randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and guidelines. For acute gastroenteritis we found 12 guidelines: 5 recommended probiotics and 7 did not. However, the guidelines containing positive recommendations provided proof of evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Saccharomyces boulardii had the most compelling evidence of efficacy as they reduced the duration of the disease by 1 day. For AAD 4 meta-analyses were found, reporting variable efficacy of probiotics in preventing diarrhea, based on the setting, patient's age, and antibiotics. The most effective strains were LGG and S. boulardii. For NEC, we found 3 randomized controlled trials, 5 meta-analyses, and 4 position papers. Probiotics reduced the risk of NEC enterocolitis and mortality in preterm babies. Guidelines did not support a routine use of probiotics and asked for further data for such sensitive implications. In conclusion, there is strong and solid proof of efficacy of probiotics as active treatment of gastroenteritis in addition to rehydration. There is solid evidence that probiotics have some efficacy in prevention of AAD, but the number needed to treat is an issue. For both etiologies LGG and S. boulardii have the strongest evidence. In NEC the indications are more debated, yet on the basis of available data and their implications, probiotics should be carefully considered. PMID:26447963

  13. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    PubMed Central

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Nedovic, Viktor; Goyal, Arun; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed. PMID:24288597

  14. Should yoghurt cultures be considered probiotic?

    PubMed

    Guarner, Francisco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Corthier, Grard; Salminen, Seppo; Koletzko, Berthold; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2005-06-01

    Probiotics are live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Consumption of yoghurt has been shown to induce measurable health benefits linked to the presence of live bacteria. A number of human studies have clearly demonstrated that yoghurt containing viable bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus) improves lactose digestion and eliminates symptoms of lactose intolerance. Thus, these cultures clearly fulfil the current concept of probiotics. PMID:16022746

  15. Probiotics as drugs against human gastrointestinal infections.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Yolanda; Nadal, Inmaculada; Snchez, Ester

    2007-06-01

    The commensal gut microbiota confer health benefits to their host by helping dietary digestion, regulating gut immunity, maintaining the microbial balance, and preventing pathogen colonization. A number of probiotic strains have been introduced in the market in dietary and pharmaceutical forms. Lactic acid bacteria (e.g. Lactobacillus) and Bifidobacterium constitute the main group of probiotics commercialized for human consumption. The treatment of gastrointestinal infections continues to be complicated due to the expansion of antibiotic resistances. Of the benefits of probiotics, those related to their preventive and therapeutic uses against gastrointestinal infections have an outstanding position, as reflected in a large number of patents. The mechanisms of action of probiotics against gastrointestinal pathogens addressed in diverse patent applications include: (i) modification of the environmental conditions, (ii) competition for nutrients and adhesion sites, (iii) production of antimicrobial metabolites and (iv) modulation of the immune and non-immune defense mechanisms of the host. The bioactive components of probiotics include cell-wall fractions, surface proteins, nucleic acids, organic and short-chain fatty acids, antimicrobial proteins and other less-well identified soluble factors. The effectiveness of probiotics is supported by solid clinical studies mainly on treatment of acute diarrhea in children and prevention of antibiotic associated disorders. Currently, probiotics and their bioactive compounds constitute attractive alternative drugs that can help to reduce the use of antibiotics as well as to improve conventional pharmacological therapies. The advances on the knowledge of the intricate host-microbe dialogues within the intestine and extraintestinal sites will result in the future development of a new generation probiotic-based products targeting broader range of pathologies and their etiologic agents. PMID:18221171

  16. Probiotics: from functional foods to pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Tripta; Garg, Sanjay

    2008-08-01

    The concept of probiotics now has been around for more than a century, with its consumption increasing exponentially; owing to exciting scientific and clinical findings, limiting side effects of existing pharmaceutical agents and increased consumer demand for natural products. But, the evidence for their safety and efficacy has largely been anecdotal, lacking an integrated scientific basis. Clinical studies conducted with probiotics were of inadequate design and resulted in unreliable data. That is the reason why despite having innumerable potential therapeutic uses probiotics are not being universally accepted. The purpose of present article is to amalgamate various branches of research which would help in development of "better", "commercial" and "pharmaceutical" probiotic products with defined strength, mechanism of action and indication. Probiotics have been classified into oral and vaginal in accordance to their route of administration, describing the health benefits. The article summarizes the research on significance of strain selection, interactions with co-administered agents and appropriate clinical studies uncovering the safety issues. There is a special emphasis on pharmaceutical issues including probiotic delivery systems, technological challenges during formulation, regulatory concerns, quality control and market potential. Developments in the techniques for in vitro evaluation have also been discussed. PMID:18691088

  17. Probiotics and prebiotics--perspectives and challenges.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Gonzlez, Ivonne; Quijano, Guillermo; Ramrez, Gerardo; Cruz-Guerrero, Alma

    2011-06-01

    Owing to their health benefits, probiotics and prebiotics are nowadays widely used in yogurts and fermented milks, which are leader products of functional foods worldwide. The world market for functional foods has grown rapidly in the last three decades, with an estimated size in 2003 of ca US$ 33 billion, while the European market estimation exceeded US$ 2 billion in the same year. However, the production of probiotics and prebiotics at industrial scale faces several challenges, including the search for economical and abundant raw materials for prebiotic production, the low-cost production of probiotics and the improvement of probiotic viability after storage or during the manufacturing process of the functional food. In this review, functional foods based on probiotics and prebiotics are introduced as a key biotechnological field with tremendous potential for innovation. A concise state of the art addressing the fundamentals and challenges for the development of new probiotic- and prebiotic-based foods is presented, the niches for future research being clearly identified and discussed. PMID:21445871

  18. Fermented milks, probiotic cultures, and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Saikali, Joumana; Picard, Celine; Freitas, Miguel; Holt, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of death from cancer in the Western world. Approximately 70% of CRC is associated with environmental factors, probably mainly the diet. There is interest in the potential protective role of fermented milks containing probiotic cultures against CRC. This article analyzes the existing data from human, animal, and in vitro studies that explore whether consumption of milks fermented with probiotic cultures could play a role in colon cancer risk reduction. Cohort studies have failed to detect significant effects, but most case-control studies favor a protective role of fermented milks against colon cancer. Interventional studies have shown a shift of intermediate markers of CRC risk in human subjects from a high- to low-risk pattern after ingestion of fermented milks or probiotics. Animal studies consistently show a reduction in chemically induced colorectal tumor incidence and aberrant crypt formation accompanying probiotic administration. In vitro studies also provide evidence of protection, and permit a better understanding of active compounds involved, and of the mechanisms underlying their anticarcinogenic effects. Probiotics may beneficially modulate several major intestinal functions: detoxification, colonic fermentation, transit, and immune status, which may accompany the development of colon cancer. Although the evidence is not conclusive and much further research is required, the data reviewed constitute a promising body of evidence supporting the protective role of milks fermented with probiotic cultures in colon cancer risk reduction. PMID:15456631

  19. Development of marine probiotics: prospects and approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Bhatnagar, Ira; Kang, Kyong-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    The term probiotics stands for bacterial strain acting for the upliftment of beneficial gut microflora as well as restricting the growth of decay or disease causing bacteria and other agents. They protect us from disease causing microorganisms and are vital for the digestion of nutrients and food. Researchers are now trying to explore the possibilities of therapeutic applications of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease, treating diarrhea, eczema prevention in children, and reducing bladder cancer recurrence and urinary tract infections. The best known probiotic strains are Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, and Streptococcus thermophilus and can be found in food products such as yoghurts, fermented and unfermented milk, miso, tempeh, and some juices and soy beverages. Thus, as a substitute to the use of antibiotics, the dietary supplementation with probiotic bacteria is being widely employed in the aquaculture industry. This chapter is an attempt to shift the paradigm of research in probiotic area to the marine environment and to find ways of expanding the research in marine probiotics development. PMID:22361199

  20. Antimicrobial potential for the combination of bovine lactoferrin or its hydrolysate with lactoferrin-resistant probiotics against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chen, P-W; Jheng, T T; Shyu, C-L; Mao, F C

    2013-03-01

    Previous reports have shown that several probiotic strains can resist the antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin (bLf), but the results are inconsistent. Moreover, a portion of orally administered apo-bLf is digested in vivo by pepsin to yield bLf hydrolysate, which produces stronger antibacterial activity than that observed with apo-bLf. However, whether bLf hydrolysate affects the growth of probiotic strains is unclear. Therefore, various probiotic strains in Taiwan were collected and evaluated for activity against apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate in vitro. Thirteen probiotic strains were evaluated, and the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707, and Bifidobacterium lactis BCRC 17394 were inhibited by both apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate. The growth of 8 strains were not affected by apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, including L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272, Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 11739, Lactobacillus coryniformis ATCC 25602, L. acidophilus BCRC 14065, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697, Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8081. However, apo-bLf and its hydrolysate inhibited the growth of foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, the supernatants produced by L. fermentum, B. lactis, and B. longum inhibited the growth of most pathogens. Importantly, a combination of apo-bLf or bLf hydrolysate with the supernatants of cultures of the organisms described above showed synergistic or partially synergistic effects against the growth of most of the selected pathogens. In conclusion, several probiotic strains are resistant to apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, warranting clinical studies to evaluate the antimicrobial potential for the combination of apo-bLf or its hydrolysate with specific probiotics. PMID:23332852

  1. Determining the role of a probiotic in the restoration of intestinal microbial balance by molecular and cultural techniques.

    PubMed

    Shoaib, Affhan; Dachang, W; Xin, Y

    2015-01-01

    The human intestine has a vast variety of microorganisms, and their balance is dependent on several factors. Antibiotics affect microfloral balance and allow naturally opportunistic organisms to multiply. Azithromycin is the most widely used macrolide antibiotic, active against a wide number of pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. It is currently used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis patients. The use of probiotics has advantages in gastrointestinal conditions, including infectious diarrhea and imbalance due to antibiotic use. In this research, the effect of azithromycin on the intestinal microbiota of Sprague Dawley rats and the role of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the restoration of the balance by employing molecular and cultural techniques was investigated. PCR with universal primers targeting the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene followed by DGGE was used to characterize the overall intestinal microbiota composition. Cultivable fecal bacteria count using microbiological media and semi-quantitative PCR with group-specific primers were also utilized to analyze the effects of antibiotic and probiotic on microflora. We found that the total amount of 16S rRNA gene and fecal aerobic bacterial count was reduced following azithromycin administration along with elimination of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli, but it was restored by the use of the probiotic. The results from PCR with group-specific primers showed that Bacteroides sp was present in the control and probiotic groups, but it was nearly eliminated in the antibiotic group. Moreover, semi-quantitative PCR revealed that the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae were nearly the same in the probiotic group and decreased in the antibiotic group, while Bifidobacterium was significantly increased in the probiotic group and decreased in the antibiotic group (P < 0.05) as compared with that in the control group. Azithromycin-induced dysbiosis can result in prolonged deleterious effects on the host. The present study revealed that the use of lactic acid bacteria particularly L. acidophilus helped to restore intestinal microfloral balance. PMID:25730092

  2. Study of Lactic Acid Bacteria Community From Raw Milk of Iranian One Humped Camel and Evaluation of Their Probiotic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Davati, Nafiseh; Tabatabaee Yazdi, Farideh; Zibaee, Saeed; Shahidi, Fakhri; Edalatian, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Camel milk is amongst valuable food sources in Iran. On the other hand, due to the presence of probiotic bacteria and bacteriocin producers in camel milk, probiotic bacteria can be isolated and identified from this food product. Objectives: The objectives of the present research were the isolation and molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria from camel milk and evaluation of their probiotic properties. Materials and Methods: A total of ten samples of camel milk were collected from the Golestan province of Iran under aseptic conditions. Bacteria were isolated by culturing the samples on selective medium. Isolates were identified by amplification of the 16S rDNA and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and were then screened and grouped by the Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) method. To evaluate probiotic properties, representative isolates of different ARDRA profiles were analyzed. The antimicrobial activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) against Pediococcus pentosaceus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus was examined by the agar diffusion assay. Acid and bile tolerance of isolates were evaluated. Results: A total of 64 isolates were analyzed based on biochemical tests and morphological characteristics. The most frequently isolated LAB was Enterococci. Weissella, Leuconostoc, Lactobacilli and Pediococci were less frequently found. Based on restriction analysis of the ITS, the isolates were grouped into nine different ARDRA patterns that were identified by ribosomal DNA sequencing as P. pentosaceus, Enterococcus faecium strain Y-2, E. faecium strain JZ1-1, E. faecium strain E6, E. durans, E. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus casei and Weissella cibaria. The results showed that antimicrobial activity of the tested isolates was remarkable and P. pentosaceus showed the most antibacterial activity. In addition, E. durans, E. lactis, L. casei and P. pentosaceus were selected as probiotic bacteria. Conclusions: This study revealed the presence of bacteriocin-producing bacteria and probiotic bacteria in camel milk from the Golestan province of Iran. PMID:26060561

  3. Probiotics May Not Shield 'Preemies' from Serious Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... life-threatening complication of an infection) occurred in 11 percent of the probiotic group and 12 percent of the placebo group, the study found. Necrotizing enterocolitis occurred in 9 percent of the probiotic group and 10 percent ...

  4. What are the indications for using probiotics in children?

    PubMed

    Szajewska, Hania

    2016-04-01

    The health benefits of probiotics have been the subject of extensive research. Still, some questions are being repeatedly asked: should one use or not use probiotics? If yes, how and when should probiotics be used? The purpose of this review is to summarise current evidence on specific probiotics' efficacy and safety to help healthcare professionals make evidence-based decisions on the indications for using specific probiotic strains or combinations in children. To identify relevant data, searches of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library databases were performed in July 2015 to locate randomised controlled trials or their meta-analyses published in the last five years. The MEDLINE database also was searched for evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, developed by scientific societies. Considering that probiotics have strain-specific effects, the main focus was on data on individual probiotic strains, not on probiotics in general. PMID:26347386

  5. Probiotic Feeding Experiments with Juvenile Channel Catfish and Nile Tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotic microbial feed supplements are gaining wide acceptance in livestock production, and may be applicable to aquaculture production systems. We have conducted a series of experiments using commercial probiotics added to diets of juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), and...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio sp. Strain Evh12, a Bacterium Retrieved from the Gorgonian Coral Eunicella verrucosa

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Telma; Califano, Gianmaria; Gonçalves, Ana C. S.; Cúcio, Catarina

    2016-01-01

    To shed light on the associations established between Vibrio species and soft corals in coastal ecosystems, we report here the draft genome sequence of Vibrio sp. strain Evh12, a bacterium that has been isolated from the gorgonian coral Eunicella verrucosa and that shows antagonistic activity against Escherichia coli. PMID:26868405

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio sp. Strain Evh12, a Bacterium Retrieved from the Gorgonian Coral Eunicella verrucosa.

    PubMed

    Franco, Telma; Califano, Gianmaria; Gonçalves, Ana C S; Cúcio, Catarina; Costa, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    To shed light on the associations established between Vibrio species and soft corals in coastal ecosystems, we report here the draft genome sequence of Vibrio sp. strain Evh12, a bacterium that has been isolated from the gorgonian coral Eunicella verrucosa and that shows antagonistic activity against Escherichia coli. PMID:26868405

  8. Fresh-Cut Pineapple as a New Carrier of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Pasquale; de Chiara, Maria Lucia Valeria; Vernile, Anna; Amodio, Maria Luisa; Arena, Mattia Pia; Capozzi, Vittorio; Massa, Salvatore; Spano, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing interest for healthy foods, the feasibility of using fresh-cut fruits to vehicle probiotic microorganisms is arising scientific interest. With this aim, the survival of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum species, was monitored on artificially inoculated pineapple pieces throughout storage. The main nutritional, physicochemical, and sensorial parameters of minimally processed pineapples were monitored. Finally, probiotic Lactobacillus were further investigated for their antagonistic effect against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on pineapple plugs. Our results show that at eight days of storage, the concentration of L. plantarum and L. fermentum on pineapples pieces ranged between 7.3 and 6.3 log cfu g−1, respectively, without affecting the final quality of the fresh-cut pineapple. The antagonistic assays indicated that L. plantarum was able to inhibit the growth of both pathogens, while L. fermentum was effective only against L. monocytogenes. This study suggests that both L. plantarum and L. fermentum could be successfully applied during processing of fresh-cut pineapples, contributing at the same time to inducing a protective effect against relevant foodborne pathogens. PMID:25093163

  9. Probiotic characterization of potential hydrolases producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolated from pickled yam.

    PubMed

    Bhanwar, Seema; Singh, Arashdeep; Ganguli, Abhijit

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize potential probiotic strain co-producing ?-amylase and ?-galactosidase. Sixty-three strains, isolated from pickle samples were screened for their hydrolase producing capacity by utilizing different starches as carbon source. One out of 63 strains, isolated from traditionally fermented pickled yam showing maximum hydrolase activity (?-amylase (36.9?U/ml) and ?-galactosidase (42.6?U/ml)) within a period of 48 hours was identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Further, it was assessed for the probiotic characteristics under gastrointestinal conditions like acidic, alkaline, proteolytic enzymes, bile stress and found to exhibit tolerance to these stresses. The therapeutic potential of the isolate is implicated because of its antagonistic effect against enteric foodborne pathogens (Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica and Aeromonas hydrophila). The results of this study entail a potential applicability of the isolate in developing future probiotic foods besides the production of industrially significant hydrolases. PMID:24020495

  10. Regulation of the IL-10/IL-12 axis in human dendritic cells with probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gad, Monika; Ravn, Peter; Søborg, Ditte A; Lund-Jensen, Karina; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Jensen, Simon S

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we have used monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) to design a screening model for the selection of microorganisms with the ability to suppress DC-secreted IL-12p70, a critical cytokine for the induction of T-helper cell type 1 immune responses under inflammatory conditions. By the treatment of DCs with cocktails containing TLR agonists and proinflammatory cytokines, the cells increased the secretion of the Th1-promoting cytokine IL-12p70. Clinically used probiotics were tested for their IL-10- and IL-12p70-stimulating properties in immature DCs, and showed a dose-dependent change in the IL-10/IL-12p70 balance. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM(™) and the probiotic mixture VSL#3 showed a strong induction of IL-12p70, whereas Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 and Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 preferentially induced IL-10. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 induced both IL-10 and IL-12p70, whereas the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii induced low levels of cytokines. When combining these microorganisms with the Th1-promoting cocktails, E. coli Nissle 1917 and B. infantis 35624 were potent suppressors of IL-12p70 secretion in an IL-10-independent manner, indicating a suppressive effect on Th1-inducing antigen-presenting cells. The present model, using cocktail-stimulated DCs with potent IL-12p70-stimulating capacity, may be used as an efficient tool to assess the anti-inflammatory properties of microorganisms for potential clinical use. PMID:21707779

  11. Virulence genes in a probiotic E. coli product with a recorded long history of safe use

    PubMed Central

    Zschüttig, Anke; Beimfohr, Claudia; Geske, Thomas; Auerbach, Christian; Cook, Helen; Zimmermann, Kurt; Gunzer, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The probiotic product Symbioflor2 (DSM 17252) is a bacterial concentrate of six different Escherichia coli genotypes, whose complete genome sequences are compared here, between each other as well as to other E. coli genomes. The genome sequences of Symbioflor2 E. coli components contained a number of virulence-associated genes. Their presence seems to be in conflict with a recorded history of safe use, and with the observed low frequency of adverse effects over a period of more than 6 years. The genome sequences were used to identify unique sequences for each component, for which strain-specific hybridization probes were designed. A colonization study was conducted whereby five volunteers were exposed to an exceptionally high single dose. The results showed that the probiotic E. coli could be detected for 3 months or longer in their stools, and this was in particular the case for those components containing higher numbers of virulence-associated genes. Adverse effects from this long-term colonization were absent. Thus, the presence of the identified virulence genes does not result in a pathogenic phenotype in the genetic background of these probiotic E. coli. PMID:25883796

  12. Assessment of the Knowledge and Beliefs regarding Probiotic Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanczak, Melanie; Heuberger, Roschelle

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although there is mounting evidence of the benefits of probiotics, many consumers are unaware of the definition of probiotics and are unable to state which foods contain these live microorganisms. Purpose: This study attempted to determine if participants were able to state the definition of probiotics, whether they utilize these…

  13. Potential probiotic effects of lactic acid bacteria on ruminant performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotics are microbial feed supplements that benefit animals by improving the microbial community of the digestive tract. In humans, probiotics are species that can survive the stomach and influence the intestinal microflora. The mode of action of human probiotics is not as yet proven. However, th...

  14. The genome sequence of the probiotic intestinal bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533

    PubMed Central

    Pridmore, R. David; Berger, Bernard; Desiere, Frank; Vilanova, David; Barretto, Caroline; Pittet, Anne-Cecile; Zwahlen, Marie-Camille; Rouvet, Martine; Altermann, Eric; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Mollet, Beat; Mercenier, Annick; Klaenhammer, Todd; Arigoni, Fabrizio; Schell, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 is a member of the acidophilus group of intestinal lactobacilli that has been extensively studied for their “probiotic” activities that include, pathogen inhibition, epithelial cell attachment, and immunomodulation. To gain insight into its physiology and identify genes potentially involved in interactions with the host, we sequenced and analyzed the 1.99-Mb genome of L. johnsonii NCC 533. Strikingly, the organism completely lacked genes encoding biosynthetic pathways for amino acids, purine nucleotides, and most cofactors. In apparent compensation, a remarkable number of uncommon and often duplicated amino acid permeases, peptidases, and phosphotransferase-type transporters were discovered, suggesting a strong dependency of NCC 533 on the host or other intestinal microbes to provide simple monomeric nutrients. Genome analysis also predicted an abundance (>12) of large and unusual cell-surface proteins, including fimbrial subunits, which may be involved in adhesion to glycoproteins or other components of mucin, a characteristic expected to affect persistence in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Three bile salt hydrolases and two bile acid transporters, proteins apparently critical for GIT survival, were also detected. In silico genome comparisons with the >95% complete genome sequence of the closely related Lactobacillus gasseri revealed extensive synteny punctuated by clear-cut insertions or deletions of single genes or operons. Many of these regions of difference appear to encode metabolic or structural components that could affect the organisms competitiveness or interactions with the GIT ecosystem. PMID:14983040

  15. Manufacturing process influences properties of probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Grześkowiak, Łukasz; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2011-03-01

    Production and manufacturing methods and the food carrier may influence the properties of probiotic strains, and have an impact on the outcome of clinical intervention studies. The aim of the present study was to establish whether the properties of a specific probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, may differ depending on the product and source of the strain. In total, fifteen different L. rhamnosus isolates, among them fourteen labelled as L. rhamnosus GG, were isolated from specific probiotic products. The micro-organisms were phenotypically and genotypically characterised. Their adhesion properties were compared using the human intestinal mucus model, and the ability of the isolates to influence model pathogen adhesion to human colonic mucus was assessed. All L. rhamnosus isolates used were confirmed as members of the species L. rhamnosus. Except the reference strain OL, all L. rhamnosus isolates showed randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103). All L. rhamnosus isolates showed similar tolerance to acid and were able to bind to human colonic mucus. However, pathogen exclusion by inhibition and competition varied significantly among the different L. rhamnosus isolates and pathogens tested. The results suggest that different sources of the same probiotic may have significantly altered strain properties. This should be considered in in vivo studies on human subjects and also for quality control of probiotic products. PMID:21059281

  16. Defining microbiota for developing new probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The human body harbors complex communities of microbes that play a prominent role in human health. Detailed characterization of the microbiota in the target population forms the basis of probiotic use. Probiotics are defined as live bacterial preparations with clinically documented health effects in humans, and independent of their genus and species, probiotic strains are unique and their beneficial properties on human health have to be assessed in a case-by-case manner. Understanding the mechanisms by which probiotics influence microbiota would facilitate the use of probiotics for both dietary management and reduction in risk of specific diseases. The development of high throughput sequencing methods has allowed metagenomic approaches to study the human microbiome. These efforts are starting to generate an inventory of bacterial taxons and functional features bound to particular health or disease status that allow inferring aspects of the microbiome's function. In the future, this information will allow the rational design of dietary interventions aimed to improve consumer's health via modulation of the microbiota. PMID:23990820

  17. Probiotics in clinical practice: an overview.

    PubMed

    Zuccotti, G V; Meneghin, F; Raimondi, C; Dilillo, D; Agostoni, C; Riva, E; Giovannini, M

    2008-01-01

    The observation that intestinal bacterial microflora might be able to influence immune system surveillance through changed nutritional habits has raised awareness of the role of probiotics. These are live microorganisms that are able to reach the gastrointestinal tract and alter its microfloral composition, producing beneficial health effects when consumed in adequate amounts. Recent clinical trials have evaluated the clinical effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of a wide range of acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases, and also non-gastrointestinal diseases, such as atopy, respiratory infections, vaginitis and hypercholesterolaemia. Probiotic supplements are generally regarded as safe because the microorganisms they contain are identical to those found in human gastrointestinal and vaginal microflora. Guidelines on the use of probiotics in the clinical setting require periodical updates for the latest data to be included in clinical applications. The purpose of this clinical report is to review current evidence on the use of probiotics in a variety of gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:18230282

  18. Analysis of in vitro and in vivo effects of probiotics against Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Bratz, Katharina; Gölz, Greta; Janczyk, Pawel; Nöckler, Karsten; Alter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter (C.) spp. are well recognised as the leading cause of bacterial food-borne diarrheal disease worldwide, with C. jejuni and C. coli as the most important species: C. coli is highly abundant in pigs and pork meat has often been implicated as a source for human infection. Intestinal colonisation of C. coli in pigs plays a role in carcass contamination during slaughter. Different pre-harvest intervention measures are proposed to reduce the C. coli burden in the porcine intestine. Among others, the use of probiotics to prevent or reduce the colonisation of intestinal pathogens is discussed. One aim of this study was to screen a variety of probiotics to evaluate their inhibitory activity against Campylobacter spp. in vitro. Therefore, cell-free culture supernatants of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415, and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 were tested against C. jejuni and C. coli by a well-diffusion agar assay. Seven out of eleven Lactobacillus strains showed an inhibitory activity against at least one of the three tested Campylobacter strains. This antagonistic activity against Campylobacter spp. was caused by the production of organic acids that lowered the pH. Application with pH neutralised cell-free culture supernatants abolished this inhibitory effect. Other tested strains with probiotic properties showed no inhibitory activity against any Campylobacter spp. strain. The strain E. faecium NCIMB 10415 was chosen to test its inhibitory activity against C. coli in vivo. Twenty weaned piglets were allocated into two groups, a probiotic group and a control group.The diet of the probiotic group was supplemented with E. faecium NCIMB 10415 (10(9) cfu/kg feed, Cylactin) since weaning, whereas the control group received no probiotic treatment. All piglets were naturally colonised with C. coli. The excretion load of C. coli was monitored for 28 days. The results indicate that dietary supplementation of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 did not significantly affect C. coli excretion levels in pigs. In this study, E. faecium NCIMB 10415 showed no antagonistic activity against C. coli in vitro and in vivo and had no impact on the growth performance of weaned piglets. PMID:25876276

  19. Proteomics as a Quality Control Tool of Pharmaceutical Probiotic Bacterial Lysate Products

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Gnter; Schanstra, Joost P.; Hoffmann, Janosch; Mischak, Harald; Siwy, Justyna; Zimmermann, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria have a wide range of applications in veterinary and human therapeutics. Inactivated probiotics are complex samples and quality control (QC) should measure as many molecular features as possible. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE/MS) has been used as a multidimensional and high throughput method for the identification and validation of biomarkers of disease in complex biological samples such as biofluids. In this study we evaluate the suitability of CE/MS to measure the consistency of different lots of the probiotic formulation Pro-Symbioflor which is a bacterial lysate of heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Over 5000 peptides were detected by CE/MS in 5 different lots of the bacterial lysate and in a sample of culture medium. 71 to 75% of the total peptide content was identical in all lots. This percentage increased to 8789% when allowing the absence of a peptide in one of the 5 samples. These results, based on over 2000 peptides, suggest high similarity of the 5 different lots. Sequence analysis identified peptides of both E. coli and E. faecalis and peptides originating from the culture medium, thus confirming the presence of the strains in the formulation. Ontology analysis suggested that the majority of the peptides identified for E. coli originated from the cell membrane or the fimbrium, while peptides identified for E. faecalis were enriched for peptides originating from the cytoplasm. The bacterial lysate peptides as a whole are recognised as highly conserved molecular patterns by the innate immune system as microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP). Sequence analysis also identified the presence of soybean, yeast and casein protein fragments that are part of the formulation of the culture medium. In conclusion CE/MS seems an appropriate QC tool to analyze complex biological products such as inactivated probiotic formulations and allows determining the similarity between lots. PMID:23840518

  20. Evaluation of profertility effect of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 2621 in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Praveen; Prabha, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Urogenital infections of bacterial origin have a high incidence among the female population at reproductive age, affecting the fertility. Strains of Escherichia coli can colonize the vagina and replace natural microflora. Lactobacillus the predominant vaginal microorganism in healthy women, maintains the acidic vaginal pH which inhibits pathogenic microorganisms. Studies on Lactobacillus have shown that these can inhibit E. coli growth and vaginal colonization. An alternative therapeutic approach to antimicrobial therapy is to re-establish Lactobacillus in this microbiome through probiotic administration to resurge fertility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the capability of L. plantarum 2621 strain with probiotic properties, to prevent the vaginal colonization of E. coli causing agglutination of sperms and to evaluate its profertility effect in a murine model. Methods: Screened mice were divided into five groups i.e. control group, E. coli group, Lactobacillus group, prophylactic and therapeutic groups. The control group was infused with 20 l PBS, E.coli group was administered with 106 cfu/20 l E. coli, and probiotic group was administered with Lactobacillus (108 cfu/20 l) for 10 consecutive days. In prophylactic group, the vagina was colonized with 10 consecutive doses of Lactobacillus (108 cfu/20 l). After 24 h, it was followed by 10 day intravaginal infection with E. coli (106 cfu/20 l) whereas for the therapeutic group vagina was colonized with (106 cfu/20 l) E. coli for 10 consecutive days, followed by 10 day intravaginal administration with Lactobacillus after 24 h. Results: Upon mating and completion of gestation period, control, probiotic and the therapeutic groups had litters in contrast to the prophylactic group and the group administered with E. coli. Interpretation & conclusions: Results indicated that Lactobacillus intermitted colonization of pathogenic strains that resulted in reinforcement of natural microflora and resurge fertility. PMID:26261170

  1. Lactobacillus crustorum KH: novel prospective probiotic strain isolated from Iranian traditional dairy products.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Hakimeh; Derakhshan, Venos; Paknejad, Mojgan; Alidoust, Leila; Tohidi, Azadeh; Pornour, Majid; Hajfarajollah, Hamidreza; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, exploring novel probiotic strains for therapeutic intervention has been raised due to the significant increase in market demand. This study aimed to investigate the certain probiotic properties of 15 Lactobacillus isolates from Iranian traditional dairy products. Among them, a novel potential probiotic strain was isolated and identified as Lactobacillus crustorum. The characteristics of potential probiotics were examined in terms of resistance to acidity, bile, and salinity as well as antibiotic tolerance and antibacterial activity. L. crustorum KH has shown tolerance property to bile (0.3 % w), acidity (pH 2-9), and salinity (1-5 % NaCl) and strong antibacterial activity against tested enteropathogens by well-diffusion assay. Furthermore, in vivo study and histological assays were performed to study whether live and heat-killed cells of L. crustorum KH are able to protect against the challenge of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the gastrointestinal tract of mice used as an experimental model. Therefore, heat-killed and live cells of L. crustorum KH were inoculated by gavage to different groups of 4-6-week-old female BALB/c mice in doses of 10(8) colony-forming unit (CFU)/dose. Thereafter, these mice were challenged with E. coli O157:H7 also inoculated in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the animals. The results showed that heat-killed cells of L. crustorum KH exert a protective effect against E. coli O157:H7 colonization at different degrees, being lower than that produced by viable cells. PMID:25467945

  2. Probiotics and Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Finding the Missing Pieces of the Probiotic Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Luedtke, Sherry A.; Yang, Jacob T.; Wild, Heather E.

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the leading causes of death in the neonatal intensive care unit. Morbidity and mortality rates significantly increase with decreases in gestational age and birth weight. Strong evidence suggests probiotic prophylaxis may significantly decrease the incidence of NEC and should therefore be incorporated into the standard of care for preterm infants. However, debate still remains because of limitations of completed studies. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the controversies regarding probiotic use in preterm infants and to shed light on the practical considerations for implementation of probiotic supplementation. PMID:23412969

  3. Perspectives on super-shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by cattle.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Munns KD; Selinger LB; Stanford K; Guan L; Callaway TR; McAllister TA

    2015-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that causes illness in humans worldwide. Cattle are the primary reservoir of this bacterium, with the concentration and frequency of E. coli O157:H7 shedding varying greatly among individuals. The term "super-shedder" has been applied to cattle that shed concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 ? 10? colony-forming units/g feces. Super-shedders have been reported to have a substantial impact on the prevalence and transmission of E. coli O157:H7 in the environment. The specific factors responsible for super-shedding are unknown, but are presumably mediated by characteristics of the bacterium, animal host, and environment. Super-shedding is sporadic and inconsistent, suggesting that biofilms of E. coli O157:H7 colonizing the intestinal epithelium in cattle are intermittently released into feces. Phenotypic and genotypic differences have been noted in E. coli O157:H7 recovered from super-shedders as compared to low-shedding cattle, including differences in phage type (PT21/28), carbon utilization, degree of clonal relatedness, tir polymorphisms, and differences in the presence of stx2a and stx2c, as well as antiterminator Q gene alleles. There is also some evidence to support that the native fecal microbiome is distinct between super-shedders and low-shedders and that low-shedders have higher levels of lytic phage within feces. Consequently, conditions within the host may determine whether E. coli O157:H7 can proliferate sufficiently for the host to obtain super-shedding status. Targeting super-shedders for mitigation of E. coli O157:H7 has been proposed as a means of reducing the incidence and spread of this pathogen to the environment. If super-shedders could be easily identified, strategies such as bacteriophage therapy, probiotics, vaccination, or dietary inclusion of plant secondary compounds could be specifically targeted at this subpopulation. Evidence that super-shedder isolates share a commonality with isolates linked to human illness makes it imperative that the etiology of this phenomenon be characterized.

  4. Perspectives on super-shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by cattle.

    PubMed

    Munns, Krysty D; Selinger, L Brent; Stanford, Kim; Guan, Leluo; Callaway, Todd R; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that causes illness in humans worldwide. Cattle are the primary reservoir of this bacterium, with the concentration and frequency of E. coli O157:H7 shedding varying greatly among individuals. The term "super-shedder" has been applied to cattle that shed concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 ≥ 10⁴ colony-forming units/g feces. Super-shedders have been reported to have a substantial impact on the prevalence and transmission of E. coli O157:H7 in the environment. The specific factors responsible for super-shedding are unknown, but are presumably mediated by characteristics of the bacterium, animal host, and environment. Super-shedding is sporadic and inconsistent, suggesting that biofilms of E. coli O157:H7 colonizing the intestinal epithelium in cattle are intermittently released into feces. Phenotypic and genotypic differences have been noted in E. coli O157:H7 recovered from super-shedders as compared to low-shedding cattle, including differences in phage type (PT21/28), carbon utilization, degree of clonal relatedness, tir polymorphisms, and differences in the presence of stx2a and stx2c, as well as antiterminator Q gene alleles. There is also some evidence to support that the native fecal microbiome is distinct between super-shedders and low-shedders and that low-shedders have higher levels of lytic phage within feces. Consequently, conditions within the host may determine whether E. coli O157:H7 can proliferate sufficiently for the host to obtain super-shedding status. Targeting super-shedders for mitigation of E. coli O157:H7 has been proposed as a means of reducing the incidence and spread of this pathogen to the environment. If super-shedders could be easily identified, strategies such as bacteriophage therapy, probiotics, vaccination, or dietary inclusion of plant secondary compounds could be specifically targeted at this subpopulation. Evidence that super-shedder isolates share a commonality with isolates linked to human illness makes it imperative that the etiology of this phenomenon be characterized. PMID:25514549

  5. Safety assessment and probiotic evaluation of Enterococcus faecium YF5 isolated from sourdough.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qianglai; Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Peng, Shanshan; Dong, Suqin; Wang, Baogui; Li, Ping; Chen, Tingtao; Xu, Feng; Wei, Hua

    2013-04-01

    Enterococcus faecium YF5, a strain previously isolated from sourdough, was assessed for safety and probiotic potential. Its virulence and antibiotic resistant phenotypes (cytolysin and gelatinase production, antibiotic susceptibility) and genes (cylA, gelE, ace, agg, esp, and vanA) were surveyed. Results indicated that the tested virulence determinants were nontoxic. In addition, E. faecium YF5 was sensitive to 3 antibiotics such as amoxicillin, vancomycin, and chloramphenicol. Furthermore, results of in vivo animal acute oral toxicity of E. faecium YF5 studies were similar to the control group that indicated no abnormalities. In addition, E. faecium YF5 stably survived in low pH, bile salts, gastric, and intestinal fluids in vitro. Moreover, E. faecium YF5 was found to adhere to human colon cancer cell line HT-29 at 3.39 (0.67) 10(5) CFU/mL. When cocultured with pathogenic organisms (Enterobacter sakazakii CMCC45402, Escherichia coli CMCC44102, enterohemorrhage Escherichia coli O157: H7 CMCC44828, Salmonella Typhimurium CMCC50071, Shigella flexneri 301, and Shigella sonnei ATCC 29930) and 2 gram-positive strains (Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54001 and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC 26003), it inhibited these foodborne pathogens with exception of S. aureus. Therefore, E. faecium YF5 can be regarded as a safe strain and it may be used as a probiotic preparation or for microecologics. PMID:23488799

  6. Health Benefits of Probiotics: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriadi, Dimitra; Gyftopoulou, Konstantina; Skarmoutsou, Nikoletta

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria have become increasingly popular during the last two decades as a result of the continuously expanding scientific evidence pointing to their beneficial effects on human health. As a result they have been applied as various products with the food industry having been very active in studying and promoting them. Within this market the probiotics have been incorporated in various products, mainly fermented dairy foods. In light of this ongoing trend and despite the strong scientific evidence associating these microorganisms to various health benefits, further research is needed in order to establish them and evaluate their safety as well as their nutritional aspects. The purpose of this paper is to review the current documentation on the concept and the possible beneficial properties of probiotic bacteria in the literature, focusing on those available in food. PMID:24959545

  7. Intestinal Microbiota and Probiotics in Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grzeskowiak, Lukasz Marcin; de Sales Teixeira, Tatiana Fiche; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Celiac disease (CD) is a common chronic autoimmune enteropathy caused by gluten intake. To date, the only therapy for CD is the complete exclusion of dietary sources of grains and any food containing gluten. It has been hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota is somehow involved in CD. For this reason, probiotics are appearing as an interesting adjuvant in the dietetic management of CD. This review aims to discuss the characteristics of the microbiota in CD subjects and the use of probiotics as a novel therapy for CD. Comparisons between children with CD and controls show that their microbiota profiles differ; the former have fewer lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Specific probiotics have been found to digest or alter gluten polypeptides. It has also been demonstrated that some bacterial species belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium exert protective properties on epithelial cells from damage caused by gliadin. PMID:24982318

  8. Pre-treatment with probiotics prolongs survival after experimental infection by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rodents: an effect on sepsis-induced immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Machairas, Nikolaos; Pistiki, Aikaterini; Droggiti, Dionyssia-Irini; Georgitsi, Marianna; Pelekanos, Nikolaos; Damoraki, Georgia; Kouraklis, Grigorios; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2015-04-01

    Based on several randomised clinical studies indicating benefit from oral probiotic intake for the prevention of hospital-acquired infections in critically ill patients, this study aimed to explain the mechanism of action of probiotics for the prevention of lethal experimental infection by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Experiments using an Escherichia coli strain susceptible to all antimicrobials were also conducted. C57BL/6 mice were pre-treated intraperitoneally with sterile water for injection or Lactobacillus plantarum. Survival was recorded and mice were sacrificed for measurement of apoptosis and tissue bacterial overgrowth and for isolation and culture of splenocytes for cytokine production. Experiments were repeated after pre-treatment with a commercial preparation of four probiotics (L. plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Saccharomyces boulardii and Bifidobacterium lactis; LactoLevure(®)). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy volunteers were stimulated by heat-killed P. aeruginosa following pre-treatment with medium or probiotics. Pre-treatment with L. plantarum significantly prolonged survival after challenge by either MDR P. aeruginosa (66.7% vs. 31.3%; P=0.026) or E. coli (56.0% vs. 12.0%, P=0.003). Survival benefit was even more pronounced when mice were pre-treated with LactoLevure(®). Tissue bacterial outgrowth and apoptosis of white blood cells and splenocytes were not altered. TNFα and IL-10 production by splenocytes of mice pre-treated with probiotic was increased and IFNγ production was decreased. Pre-treatment with LactoLevure(®) restored production of IL-17. Stimulation of human PBMCs after probiotic pre-treatment was accompanied by reduced gene expression of SOCS3. The results suggest that the protective effect of probiotics is mediated through prevention of sepsis-induced immunosuppression. PMID:25601531

  9. Human milk: mother nature's prototypical probiotic food?

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "probiotic" is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: "a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host." As such, answering the fundamental question posed here-"Is human milk a probiotic?"-requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother's and/or the recipient infant's health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known. PMID:25593150

  10. Probiotic bacteria: selective enumeration and survival in dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Shah, N P

    2000-04-01

    A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp., and Lactobacillus casei. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. However, studies have shown low viability of probiotics in market preparations. In order to assess viability of probiotic bacteria, it is important to have a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria. Viability of probiotic bacteria is important in order to provide health benefits. Viability of probiotic bacteria can be improved by appropriate selection of acid and bile resistant strains, use of oxygen impermeable containers, two-step fermentation, micro-encapsulation, stress adaptation, incorporation of micronutrients such as peptides and amino acids and by sonication of yogurt bacteria. This review will cover selective enumeration and survival of probiotic bacteria in dairy foods. PMID:10791807

  11. Prebiotics and Probiotics and Oral Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurman, J. H.

    The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect to the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics. The second part of the chapter then concentrates on research data on prebiotics and probiotics in the oral health perspective, ending up with conclusions and visions for future research.

  12. Anti-Aging Effects of Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divya; Kober, Mary-Margaret; Bowe, Whitney P

    2016-01-01

    The body of evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of probiotics on the skin continues to grow in the published literature. Insights into their effects at the molecular level, in animal models, and in human clinical trials build the case for their role in slowing the skin manifestations of both intrinsic and extrinsic aging. The reports reviewed in this manuscript demonstrate that probiotics can restore acidic skin pH, alleviate oxidative stress, attenuate photoaging, improve skin barrier function, and enhance hair quality.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(1):9-12. PMID:26741377

  13. The Differential Proteome of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Grown on the Potential Prebiotic Cellobiose Shows Upregulation of Two ?-Glycoside Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    van Zanten, Gabriella C.; Sparding, Nadja; Majumder, Avishek; Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Svensson, Birte; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is, synbiotics, are known to exert beneficial health effects in humans; however interactions between pro- and prebiotics remain poorly understood at the molecular level. The present study describes changes in abundance of different proteins of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) when grown on the potential prebiotic cellobiose as compared to glucose. Cytosolic cell extract proteomes after harvest at late exponential phase of NCFM grown on cellobiose or glucose were analyzed by two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in the acidic (pH 47) and the alkaline (pH 611) regions showing a total of 136 spots to change in abundance. Proteins were identified by MS or MS/MS from 81 of these spots representing 49 unique proteins and either increasing 1.513.9-fold or decreasing 1.57.8-fold in relative abundance. Many of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, including the cellobiose related glycoside hydrolases phospho-?-glucosidase (LBA0881) and phospho-?-galactosidase II (LBA0726). The data provide insight into the utilization of the candidate prebiotic cellobiose by the probiotic bacterium NCFM. Several of the upregulated or downregulated identified proteins associated with utilization of cellobiose indicate the presence of carbon catabolite repression and regulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:25961012

  14. Histological changes in intestine of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) following in vitro exposure to pathogenic and probiotic bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Ring, E; Salinas, I; Olsen, R E; Nyhaug, A; Myklebust, R; Mayhew, T M

    2007-04-01

    Furunculosis and vibriosis are diseases that cause severe economic losses in the fish-farming industry. The foregut of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was exposed in vitro to two fish pathogens, Aeromonas salmonicida (causative agent of furunculosis) and Vibrio anguillarum (causative agent of vibriosis), and to one probiotic strain, Carnobacterium divergens, at 6 x 10(4) or 6 x 10(6) viable bacteria per milliliter. Histological changes following bacterial exposure were assessed by light and electron microscopy. Control samples (foregut exposed to Ringer's solution only) and samples exposed only to C. divergens had a similar appearance to intact intestinal mucosal epithelium, with no signs of damage. However, exposure of the foregut to the pathogenic bacteria resulted in damaged epithelial cells, cell debris in the lumen, and disorganization of the microvilli. Co-incubation of the foregut with a pathogen and C. divergens did not reverse the damaging effects caused by the pathogen, although these were alleviated when probiotic bacteria were used. Based on these results, we suggest that the probiotic bacterium, C. divergens, is able to prevent, to some extent, pathogen-induced damage in the Atlantic salmon foregut. PMID:17120052

  15. Alterations of digestive enzyme activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, fed dietary probiotics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Cheng; Ma, Mingyang; Ji, Hong; Ren, Tongjun; Mims, Steven D

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation of probiotics on digestive enzymes activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) were studied. A total of 400 fish were reared in two cages and fed with a basal diet (control group, CG) or diet supplemented with commercial probiotics (treatment group, TG) for 80 days. Enzymes activities analysis indicated that protease and ?-amylase activities increased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in TG. Light microscopy observation demonstrated the decrease of wall thickness and muscularis thickness in foregut (P < 0.01), the increase of those in hindgut (P < 0.05), the increase of folds height in foregut (P < 0.01) and midgut in TG (P < 0.05). DGGE results of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA confirmed that the richness and diversity of intestinal microbial species increased in TG. The similarity between the commercial bacteria product and intestinal microbiota of TG were higher than the microbiota from CG. The quantities of bacterium, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, present an increasing trend from foregut to hindgut both in two groups. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study to reveal the effect of dietary probiotics on intestinal digestive enzymes activities, morphology and microbiota in paddlefish. PMID:25403154

  16. Effect of non-thermal processing by High Hydrostatic Pressure on the survival of probiotic microorganisms: study on Bifidobacteria spp.

    PubMed

    Tsevdou, M S; Taoukis, P S

    2011-12-01

    High Hydrostatic Pressure (HP) processing has been suggested as an alternative method to improve textural attributes of dairy products. Since, the global market seeks improved functional foods, it is important to investigate whether HP processing can be applied to fermented dairy probiotic products. The inactivation kinetics of Bifidobacterium spp. in a model system of acid pH value under high pressure (100-400 MPa) combined with moderate temperature (20-35C) was investigated. Bifidobacterium spp. inactivation followed first order kinetics at all pressure-temperature combinations used. Pressure and temperature were found to act synergistically on the viability loss of the bacterium. The corresponding z(T) and z(P) values of inactivation were also estimated and, values of 41.5C and 93.5 MPa at reference pressure of 200 MPa and reference temperature of 25C were estimated, respectively. HP treatment of 200 MPa at 20-25C for 10-15 min, recommended for textural modification, is not detrimental to the viability of the studied probiotic culture and would be suitable for respective fermented probiotic products. PMID:21726655

  17. Fast Neutron Irradiation of the Highly Radioresistant Bacterium Deinococcus Radiodurans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Diane Louise

    Fast neutron dose survival curves were generated for the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, which is renowned for its unusually high resistance to gamma, x-ray, and ultraviolet radiation, but for which fast neutron response was unknown. The fast neutrons were produced by the University of Massachusetts Lowell 5.5-MV, type CN Van de Graaff accelerator through the ^7Li(p,n)^7 Be reaction by bombarding a thick metallic lithium target with a 4-MeV proton beam. The bacteria were uniformly distributed on 150-mm agar plates and were exposed to the fast neutron beam under conditions of charged particle equilibrium. The plates were subdivided into concentric rings of increasing diameter from the center to the periphery of the plate, within which the average neutron dose was calculated as the product of the precisely known neutron fluence at the average radius of the ring and the neutron energy dependent kerma factor. The neutron fluence and dose ranged from approximately 3 times 1013 n cm^ {-2} to 1 times 1012 n cm^ {-2}, and 200 kilorad to 5 kilorad, respectively, from the center to the periphery of the plate. Percent survival for Deinococcus radiodurans as a function of fast neutron dose was derived from the ability of the irradiated cells to produce visible colonies within each ring compared to that of a nonirradiated control population. The bacterium Escherichia coli B/r (CSH) was irradiated under identical conditions for comparative purposes. The survival response of Deinococcus radiodurans as a result of cumulative fast neutron exposures was also investigated. The quantification of the ability of Deinococcus radiodurans to survive cellular insult from secondary charged particles, which are produced by fast neutron interactions in biological materials, will provide valuable information about damage and repair mechanisms under extreme cellular stress, and may provide new insight into the origin of this bacterium's unprecedented radiation resistance.

  18. Isolation and microencapsulation of Lactobacillus spp. from corn silage for probiotic application

    PubMed Central

    Kasra Kermanshahi, R; Fooladi, J; Peymanfar, S

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Probiotics including strains of Lactobacillus spp. are living microorganisms including which are beneficial to human and animals health. In this study, Lactobacillus has been isolated from corn silage in a cold region of Iran by anaerobic culture. Materials and Methods The bacteriological and biochemical standard methods were used for identification and phenotypic characterization of isolated organism. To increase the stability of organism in the environment, we used microencapsulation technique using stabilizer polymers (Alginate and Chitosan). Results The isolated Lactobacillus spp. was able to ferment tested carbohydrates and grow at 10C50C. Using microencapsulation, the stability and survival of this bacterium increased. Conclusion microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria with alginate and chitosan coating offers an effective way of delivering viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during refrigerated storage. PMID:22347557

  19. Is Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans strain Mz5T suitable as a probiotic? An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Cepeljnik, T; Zorec, M; Kostanjsek, R; Nekrep, F V; Marinsek-Logar, R

    2003-01-01

    Rumen bacterium Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans strain Mz5T possessed a potent xylanolytic enzyme system consisting of at least 7 different xylan hydrolases with molar mass 27-145 kDa. Three of them were successfully isolated in active native form. This strain produced butyrate and lactate on different saccharides. cis-9, trans-11-Conjugated linoleic acid was also detected in the culture medium. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances of Mz5T were active against some strains of rumen bacteria and against selected Salmonella and E. coli isolates from poultry meat. The strain Mz5T retained viability and xylanolytic activity also under not fully anaerobic conditions; its cells attached to the Caco-2 cells so that its successful association with gut epithelial cells may be expected. These in vitro results confirmed several probiotic traits of the isolate Mz5T and justified further in vivo experiments to test its ability to improve animal health and performance. PMID:12879743

  20. Potential Uses of Probiotics in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Gregor; Jass, Jana; Sebulsky, M. Tom; McCormick, John K.

    2003-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. There is now mounting evidence that selected probiotic strains can provide health benefits to their human hosts. Numerous clinical trials show that certain strains can improve the outcome of intestinal infections by reducing the duration of diarrhea. Further investigations have shown benefits in reducing the recurrence of urogenital infections in women, while promising studies in cancer and allergies require research into the mechanisms of activity for particular strains and better-designed trials. At present, only a small percentage of physicians either know of probiotics or understand their potential applicability to patient care. Thus, probiotics are not yet part of the clinical arsenal for prevention and treatment of disease or maintenance of health. The establishment of accepted standards and guidelines, proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization, represents a key step in ensuring that reliable products with suitable, informative health claims become available. Based upon the evidence to date, future advances with single- and multiple-strain therapies are on the horizon for the management of a number of debilitating and even fatal conditions. PMID:14557292

  1. Can Probiotics Cure Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

    PubMed

    Korada, Siva Kumar; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Bishayee, Anupam; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Aruna Lakshmi, K; Arunasree, M K; Dananajaya, B L; Mishra, Vijendra

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, especially microbial dysbiosis play role in several GI ailments such as irritable bowel syndrome, colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Role of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is multifactorial as it involves loss of maintaining intestinal epithelial barrier integrity, increased release of pro-inflammatory molecules, and microbial dysbiosis in gut microflora. Some specific pathogens also play a key role in the IBD development. The origin and causation are still in unfathomable condition and the exact root cause is unknown. Recently probiotic studies have been gaining importance because of their positive responses in their IBD experimental results. According to joint Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organisation working group, probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer health benefit on the host. These live beneficial microorganisms are considered helpful in improving gut colonization and perseverance thereby improves prophylactic effect. In the direction of IBD research, a number of studies are needed to standardize its methodology and its applicability on human usage. The particular review presents an overview of gut microflora and its impact on host health, types of IBD and existing therapies to treat this disorder, mechanism of several probiotic actions, role of probiotics in IBD prevention with their supporting evidences. PMID:26648465

  2. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

  3. Clinical review: Probiotics in critical care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Patients in ICUs represent a relatively small subgroup of hospitalised patients, but they account for approximately 25% of all hospital infections. Approximately 30% of ICU patients suffer from infection as a complication of critical illness, which increases the length of ICU stay, morbidity, mortality and cost. Gram-negative bacteria are the predominant cause of ICU-related infections and with the rise in multidrug-resistant strains we should focus our attention on nonantibiotic strategies in the prevention and treatment of nosocomial infections. Probiotics have been proposed as one option in this quest; however, mechanisms of action in the critically ill population require further investigation. Some of the beneficial effects appear to be associated with improvement in gastrointestinal barrier function, restoration of normal intestinal permeability and motility, modification of the balance of intestinal microbiota and immunomodulation. However, the information we have to date on the use of probiotics in the critical care setting is difficult to interpret due to small sample sizes, differences in ICU populations, the variety of probiotic combinations studied and differences in administration techniques. In this review we shall examine the use of probiotics in the critical care setting, look at some of the proposed mechanisms of action and discuss their potential benefits and drawbacks.

  4. The history of probiotics: the untold story.

    PubMed

    Ozen, M; Dinleyici, E C

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic, a word derived from Latin, means 'for life'. A long time before the awareness of probiotic microorganisms, fermented products, such as beer, bread, wine, kefir, kumis and cheese had been very frequently used for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. It is widely believed that fermented products were probably found, or better to say, discovered spontaneously. The legend tells that yoghurt is most likely resulted from a fermentation process within the animal skin bags used for transportation of water and milk in regions with low humidity and high temperatures (Middle Asia and Middle East). The history of probiotics goes paralel with the evolution of human race and, thanks to the sophisticated techniques at the moment, can be traced back to the ancient times, nearly 10,000 years ago. The aims of this review are to highlight the important events for probiotic history, to correct the widely available anonymous misinformation in the literature and to remind to the readers important characters in its history. PMID:25576593

  5. Lactobacillus salivarius: bacteriocin and probiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, S; Manai, M; Kergourlay, G; Prévost, H; Connil, N; Chobert, J-M; Dousset, X

    2013-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) antimicrobial peptides typically exhibit antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens, as well as spoilage bacteria. Therefore, they have attracted the greatest attention as tools for food biopreservation. In some countries LAB are already extensively used as probiotics in food processing and preservation. LAB derived bacteriocins have been utilized as oral, topical antibiotics or disinfectants. Lactobacillus salivarius is a promising probiotic candidate commonly isolated from human, porcine, and avian gastrointestinal tracts (GIT), many of which are producers of unmodified bacteriocins of sub-classes IIa, IIb and IId. It is a well-characterized bacteriocin producer and probiotic organism. Bacteriocins may facilitate the introduction of a producer into an established niche, directly inhibit the invasion of competing strains or pathogens, or modulate the composition of the microbiota and influence the host immune system. This review gives an up-to-date overview of all L. salivarius strains, isolated from different origins, known as bacteriocin producing and/or potential probiotic. PMID:24010610

  6. Stimulation of Mucosal Immunity with Probiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immune system of neonatal chicks is functionally immature during the first week of life. Researchers have previously demonstrated that the avian humoral response can be increased through the use of probiotics. Although the humoral response provides the chick with an effective mechanism to comb...

  7. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  8. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  9. Nonfunctional gut? Try a probiotic food.

    PubMed

    Vogelzang, J L

    2001-08-01

    This month's Nutrition column discusses the problem of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The overgrowth of the "good" bacteria, Clostridium difficile, can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, and diarrhea. This article examines the benefits of including probiotics in a meal plan when the use of antibiotics is medically indicated. PMID:11982180

  10. Exercise, intestinal barrier dysfunction and probiotic supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Manfred; Frauwallner, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Athletes exposed to high-intensity exercise show an increased occurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms like cramps, diarrhea, bloating, nausea, and bleeding. These problems have been associated with alterations in intestinal permeability and decreased gut barrier function. The increased GI permeability, a so-called 'leaky gut', also leads to endotoxemia, and results in increased susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases, due to absorption of pathogens/toxins into tissue and the bloodstream. Key components that determine intestinal barrier function and GI permeability are tight junctions, protein structures located in the paracellular channels between epithelial cells of the intestinal wall. The integrity of tight junctions depends on sophisticated interactions between the gut residents and their expressed substances, the intestinal epithelial cell metabolism and the activities of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Probiotic supplements are an upcoming group of nutraceuticals that could offer positive effects on athlete's gut and entire health. Some results demonstrate promising benefits for probiotic use on the athlete's immune system. There is also evidence that probiotic supplementation can beneficially influence intestinal barrier integrity in acute diseases. With regard to exercise-induced GI permeability problems, there is still a lack of studies with appropriate data and a gap to understand the underlying mechanisms to support such health beneficial statements implicitly. This article refers (i) to exercise-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction, (ii) provides suggestions to estimate increased gut barrier permeability in athletes, and (iii) discusses the potential of probiotic supplementation to counteract an exercise-induced leaky gut. PMID:23075554

  11. Probiotics as antiviral agents in shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Viswanath, Buddolla; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

  12. Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Gut Microbiota and Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Beom Jae

    2011-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder characterized by abdominal symptoms including chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS is multifactorial, as abnormal gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed neural function of the brain-gut axis and an abnormal autonomic nervous system are all implicated in disease progression. Based on recent experimental and clinical studies, it has been suggested that additional etiological factors including low-grade inflammation, altered gut microbiota and alteration in the gut immune system play important roles in the pathogenesis of IBS. Therefore, therapeutic restoration of altered intestinal microbiota may be an ideal treatment for IBS. Probiotics are live organisms that are believed to cause no harm and result in health benefits for the host. Clinical efficacy of probiotics has been shown in the treatment or prevention of some gastrointestinal inflammation-associated disorders including traveler's diarrhea, antibiotics-associated diarrhea, pouchitis of the restorative ileal pouch and necrotizing enterocolitis. The molecular mechanisms, as cause of IBS pathogenesis, affected by altered gut microbiota and gut inflammation-immunity are reviewed. The effect of probiotics on the gut inflammation-immune systems and the results from clinical trials of probiotics for the treatment of IBS are also summarized. PMID:21860817

  13. Stability of Microbiota Facilitated by Host Immune Regulation: Informing Probiotic Strategies to Manage Amphibian Disease

    PubMed Central

    Küng, Denise; Bigler, Laurent; Davis, Leyla R.; Gratwicke, Brian; Griffith, Edgardo; Woodhams, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities can augment host immune responses and probiotic therapies are under development to prevent or treat diseases of humans, crops, livestock, and wildlife including an emerging fungal disease of amphibians, chytridiomycosis. However, little is known about the stability of host-associated microbiota, or how the microbiota is structured by innate immune factors including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) abundant in the skin secretions of many amphibians. Thus, conservation medicine including therapies targeting the skin will benefit from investigations of amphibian microbial ecology that provide a model for vertebrate host-symbiont interactions on mucosal surfaces. Here, we tested whether the cutaneous microbiota of Panamanian rocket frogs, Colostethus panamansis, was resistant to colonization or altered by treatment. Under semi-natural outdoor mesocosm conditions in Panama, we exposed frogs to one of three treatments including: (1) probiotic - the potentially beneficial bacterium Lysinibacillus fusiformis, (2) transplant – skin washes from the chytridiomycosis-resistant glass frog Espadarana prosoblepon, and (3) control – sterile water. Microbial assemblages were analyzed by a culture-independent T-RFLP analysis. We found that skin microbiota of C. panamansis was resistant to colonization and did not differ among treatments, but shifted through time in the mesocosms. We describe regulation of host AMPs that may function to maintain microbial community stability. Colonization resistance was metabolically costly and microbe-treated frogs lost 7–12% of body mass. The discovery of strong colonization resistance of skin microbiota suggests a well-regulated, rather than dynamic, host-symbiont relationship, and suggests that probiotic therapies aiming to enhance host immunity may require an approach that circumvents host mechanisms maintaining equilibrium in microbial communities. PMID:24489847

  14. Dietary supplementation of probiotics affects growth, immune response and disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio fry.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Akhil; Gupta, Paromita; Dhawan, Asha

    2014-12-01

    The effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans (MTCC 9872), Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 6824) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (MTCC 122) supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio fry. Laboratory maintained B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa were used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy fish fry were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. Fish were fed for 80 days with control basal diet (B0) and experimental diets containing B. coagulans (B1), B. licheniformis (B2) and P. polymyxa (B3) at 10(9) CFU/g diet. Fish fry (mean weight 0.329 0.01 g) were fed these diets and growth performance, various non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 80 days post-feeding. The antagonism study showed inhibition zone against A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi. All the probiotic bacterial strains were harmless to fish fry as neither mortality nor morbidities were observed of the challenge. The growth-promoting influences of probiotic supplemented dietary treatments were observed with fish fry and the optimum survival, growth and feed utilization were obtained with P. polymyxa (B3) supplemented diet. Study of different non-specific innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay and myeloperoxidase content showed significant (p < 0.05) higher values in fish fry fed B3 diet at 10(9) CFU/g. The challenge test showed dietary supplementation of B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the resistance of fish fry against bacterial challenge. These results collectively suggests that P. polymyxa is a potential probiotic species and can be used in aquaculture to improve growth, feed utilization, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of fry common carp, C. carpio. PMID:25160796

  15. Soluble Proteins Produced by Probiotic Bacteria Regulate Intestinal Epithelial Cell Survival and Growth

    PubMed Central

    YAN, FANG; CAO, HANWEI; COVER, TIMOTHY L.; WHITEHEAD, ROBERT; WASHINGTON, M. KAY; POLK, D. BRENT

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Increased inflammatory cytokine levels and intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis leading to disruption of epithelial integrity are major pathologic factors in inflammatory bowel diseases. The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and factors recovered from LGG broth culture supernatant (LGG-s) prevent cytokine-induced apoptosis in human and mouse intestinal epithelial cells by regulating signaling pathways. Here, we purify and characterize 2 secreted LGG proteins that regulate intestinal epithelial cell antiapoptotic and proliferation responses. Methods LGG proteins were purified from LGG-s, analyzed, and used to generate polyclonal antibodies for immunodepletion of respective proteins from LGG-conditioned cell culture media (CM). Mouse colon epithelial cells and cultured colon explants were treated with purified proteins in the absence or presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Akt activation, proliferation, tissue injury, apoptosis, and caspase-3 activation were determined. Results We purified 2 novel proteins, p75 (75 kilodaltons) and p40 (40 kilodaltons), from LGG-s. Each of these purified protein preparations activated Akt, inhibited cytokine-induced epithelial cell apoptosis, and promoted cell growth in human and mouse colon epithelial cells and cultured mouse colon explants. TNF-induced colon epithelial damage was significantly reduced by p75 and p40. Immunodepletion of p75 and p40 from LGG-CM reversed LGG-CM activation of Akt and its inhibitory effects on cytokine-induced apoptosis and loss of intestinal epithelial cells. Conclusions p75 and p40 are the first probiotic bacterial proteins demonstrated to promote intestinal epithelial homeostasis through specific signaling pathways. These findings suggest that probiotic bacterial components may be useful for preventing cytokine-mediated gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:17258729

  16. Probiotics: a proactive approach to health. A symposium report.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Linda V; Suzuki, Kaori; Zhao, Jia

    2015-12-01

    This report summarises talks given at the 8th International Yakult Symposium, held on 23-24 April 2015 in Berlin. Two presentations explored different aspects of probiotic intervention: the small intestine as a probiotic target and inclusion of probiotics into integrative approaches to gastroenterology. Probiotic recommendations in gastroenterology guidelines and current data on probiotic efficacy in paediatric patients were reviewed. Updates were given on probiotic and gut microbiota research in obesity and obesity-related diseases, the gut-brain axis and development of psychobiotics, and the protective effects of equol-producing strains for prostate cancer. Recent studies were presented on probiotic benefit for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and people with HIV, as well as protection against the adverse effects of a short-term high-fat diet. Aspects of probiotic mechanisms of activity were discussed, including immunomodulatory mechanisms and metabolite effects, the anti-inflammatory properties of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, the relationship between periodontitis, microbial production of butyrate in the oral cavity and ageing, and the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter. Finally, an insight was given on a recent expert meeting, which re-examined the probiotic definition, advised on the appropriate use and scope of the term and outlined different probiotic categories and the prevalence of different mechanisms of activity. PMID:26548336

  17. Invitro evaluation of the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus salivarius SMXD51.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, S; Madi, A; Prvost, H; Feuilloley, M; Manai, M; Dousset, X; Connil, N

    2012-12-01

    Lactobacillus salivarius SMXD51 was previously isolated from the cecum of a Tunisian poultry and found to produce a bacteriocin-like substance highly active against the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The aim of this study was to examine some probiotic properties of the strain: acid and bile tolerance, capacity of adhesion, stimulation of immune defences (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and ?-defensin 2), and modulation of the barrier integrity. The results showed that L.salivarius SMXD51 can tolerate gastrointestinal conditions (acid and bile), adhere to intestinal cells and stimulate the immune system. The bacterium strengthened the intestinal barrier functions through the increase of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and reinforcement of the F-actin cytoskeleton. One hour pretreatment with L.salivarius SMXD51 protected against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1-induced decrease of TEER and damage of the F-actin cytoskeleton. Our results highlight that L.salivarius SMXD51 fulfils the principle requirements of an efficient probiotic and may be seen as a reliable candidate for further validation studies in chicken. PMID:23122647

  18. Micromonospora from nitrogen fixing nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A new promising Plant Probiotic Bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Galindo-Villardón, Purificación; Igual, José M.; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio

    2014-01-01

    Biotic interactions can improve agricultural productivity without costly and environmentally challenging inputs. Micromonospora strains have recently been reported as natural endophytes of legume nodules but their significance for plant development and productivity has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and function of Micromonospora isolated from Medicago sativa root nodules. Micromonospora-like strains from field alfalfa nodules were characterized by BOX-PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The ecological role of the interaction of the 15 selected representative Micromonospora strains was tested in M. sativa. Nodulation, plant growth and nutrition parameters were analyzed. Alfalfa nodules naturally contain abundant and highly diverse populations of Micromonospora, both at the intra- and at interspecific level. Selected Micromonospora isolates significantly increase the nodulation of alfalfa by Ensifer meliloti 1021 and also the efficiency of the plant for nitrogen nutrition. Moreover, they promote aerial growth, the shoot-to-root ratio, and raise the level of essential nutrients. Our results indicate that Micromonospora acts as a Rhizobia Helper Bacteria (RHB) agent and has probiotic effects, promoting plant growth and increasing nutrition efficiency. Its ecological role, biotechnological potential and advantages as a plant probiotic bacterium (PPB) are also discussed. PMID:25227415

  19. Probiotics for Standard Triple Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Goran; Salkic, Nermin; Vukelic, Karina; JajacKnez, Alenka; Stimac, Davor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The primary objective in the study is determination of efficacy of probiotic preparation as a supportive therapy in eradication of Helicobacter pylori. The study was multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, and double-blind. The subjects first filled out a specially designed questionnaire to assess the severity of the 10 symptoms, which can be related to eradication therapy to be monitored during the trial. Each subject then received 28 capsules of probiotic preparation or matching placebo capsules, which they were supposed to take over the following 14 days, twice a day, at least 2 hours prior to or after the antibiotic therapy administration. A total of 804 patients were enrolled in the trial, of which 650 (80.85%) were included in the analysis. The results show a significantly larger share of cured subjects in the probiotic arm versus the placebo arm (87.38% vs 72.55%; P < 0.001). Additionally, presence and intensity of epigastric pain, bloating, flatulence, taste disturbance, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, rash, and diarrhea were monitored over the study period. At 15 days postinclusion, probiotic treatment was found superior to placebo in 7 of 10 mentioned symptoms. Average intensity for symptoms potentially related to antibiotic therapy was significantly higher in the placebo group, 0.76 vs 0.55 (P < 0.001). Adding probiotics to the standard triple therapy for H pylori eradication significantly contributes to treatment efficacy and distinctly decreases the adverse effects of therapy and the symptoms of the underlying disease. PMID:25929897

  20. Isolation and identification of a bacterium from marine shrimp digestive tract: A new degrader of starch and protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiqiu; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen

    2011-09-01

    It is a practical approach to select candidate probiotic bacterial stains on the basis of their special traits. Production of digestive enzyme was used as a trait to select a candidate probiotic bacterial strain in this study. In order to select a bacterium with the ability to degrade both starch and protein, an ideal bacterial strain STE was isolated from marine shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) intestines by using multiple selective media. The selected isolate STE was identified on the basis of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as molecular analyses. Results of degradation experiments confirmed the ability of the selected isolate to degrade both starch and casein. The isolate STE was aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile and non-spore-forming, and had catalase and oxidase activities but no glucose fermentation activity. Among the tested carbon/nitrogen sources, only Tween40, alanyl-glycine, aspartyl-glycine, and glycyl-l-glutamic acid were utilized by the isolate STE. Results of homology comparison analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolate STE had a high similarity to several Pseudoalteromonas species and, in the phylogenetic tree, grouped with P. ruthenica with maximum bootstrap support (100%). In conclusion, the isolate STE was characterized as a novel strain belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. This study provides a further example of a probiotic bacterial strain with specific characteristics isolated from the host gastrointestinal tract.

  1. How can probiotics and prebiotics impact mucosal immunity?

    PubMed Central

    Pot, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    The study of probiotics and prebiotics is an expanding field of interest and scientific research that has resulted in insights related to the host immune response. Recent advances have naturally led to key questions. What are the specific probiotic components that mediate immunomodulation? Can we extrapolate the results of in vitro studies in animal and human trials? Which biomarkers and immune parameters should be measured in probiotic and prebiotic intervention studies? These questions were part of a discussion entitled “How Can Probiotics and Prebiotics Impact Mucosal Immunity” at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP). This review highlights recent knowledge about the modulation of mucosal immunity by probiotics and prebiotics, as well as considerations for measuring their effects on mucosal immunity. A list of biomarkers and immune parameters to be measured in human clinical trials is included. PMID:21327037

  2. How science will help shape future clinical applications of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor

    2008-02-01

    The recent increased interest in probiotics among clinicians has many causes, primarily the concern about the limitations of the current armamentarium of pharmaceutical agents. Although probiotics have been used mostly in dietary supplements and foods to maintain health, scientific and clinical studies are recognizing the potential of some probiotics to be therapeutic in function. Scientific breakthroughs in understanding the source and composition of the human microbiota, the key nutritional factors that influence these microbes, and their immunomodulatory effects; the creation of disease-targeted recombinant strains; the isolation and characterization of signaling molecules that can modulate microbial biofilms and infectious processes; and advances in biomedical engineering that will provide new delivery systems for probiotics will shape the future of clinical applications of probiotics. In time and with rigorous documentation, some probiotics will likely find an important place in medical practice. PMID:18181725

  3. Is There a Role for Probiotics in Liver Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Robert S.; Austin, Andrew S.; Freeman, Jan G.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota plays an important role in health and disease. Alteration in its healthy homeostasis may result in the development of numerous liver disorders including complications of liver cirrhosis. On the other hand, restoration and modulation of intestinal flora through the use of probiotics is potentially an emerging therapeutic strategy. There is mounting evidence that probiotics are effective in the treatment of covert and overt hepatic encephalopathy, as well as in the prevention of recurrence of encephalopathy. The beneficial effect of probiotics also extends to liver function in cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and alcoholic liver disease. On the other hand, data associating probiotics and portal hypertension is scanty and conflicting. Probiotic therapy has also not been shown to prevent primary or secondary spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Larger clinical studies are required before probiotics can be recommended as a treatment modality in liver diseases. PMID:25436233

  4. Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis with Probiotics: An Alternative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a skewed immune reaction to common antigens in the nasal mucosa; current therapy is not satisfactory and can cause a variety of complications. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic rhinitis is increasing every year. Published studies indicate that probiotics are beneficial in treating allergic rhinitis. This review aims to help in understanding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. We referred to the PubMed database as data source. This review focuses on the following aspects: The types of probiotics using in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, approaches of administration, its safety, mechanisms of action, treating results, and the perspectives to improve effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review reports the recent findings regarding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Probiotics are a useful therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, but its underlying mechanisms remain to be further investigated. PMID:24083221

  5. Probiotic attributes, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuromodulatory effects of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003: in vitro and in vivo evidence.

    PubMed

    Divyashri, G; Krishna, G; Muralidhara; Prapulla, S G

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that probiotic bacteria play a vital role in modulating various aspects integral to the health and well-being of humans. In the present study, probiotic attributes and the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuromodulatory potential of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003 were investigated by employing suitable model systems. E. faecium exhibited robust resistance to gastrointestinal stress conditions as it could withstand acid stress at pH 1.5, 2 and 3. The bacterium also survived at a bile salt concentration of 0.45 %, and better tolerance was observed towards pepsin and trypsin. E. faecium produced lactic acid as a major metabolic product, followed by butyric acid. Lyophilized cell-free supernatant (LCS) of E. faecium exhibited significant antioxidant capacity evaluated against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, ascorbate auto-oxidation, oxygen radical absorbance and reducing power. Interestingly, E. faecium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG MTCC 1408 and LCS showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect by negatively modulating TNF-α production and upregulating IL-10 levels in LPS-stimulated macrophage cell lines. In an in vivo mice model, the propensity of probiotic supplements to modulate endogenous oxidative markers and redox status in brain regions was assessed. Young mice provided with oral supplements (daily for 28 days) of E. faecium and L. rhamnosus exhibited diminished oxidative markers in the brain and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes with a concomitant increase in γ-aminobutyric acid and dopamine levels. Collectively, our findings clearly suggest the propensity of these bacteria to protect against tissue damage mediated through free radicals and inflammatory cytokines. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms need further studies, it is tempting to speculate that probiotics confer a neuroprotective advantage in vivo against oxidative damage-mediated neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:26450608

  6. Hydrogen production by recombinant Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez‐Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrogen via microbial biotechnology is an active field of research. Given its ease of manipulation, the best‐studied bacterium Escherichia coli has become a workhorse for enhanced hydrogen production through metabolic engineering, heterologous gene expression, adaptive evolution, and protein engineering. Herein, the utility of E. coli strains to produce hydrogen, via native hydrogenases or heterologous ones, is reviewed. In addition, potential strategies for increasing hydrogen production are outlined and whole‐cell systems and cell‐free systems are compared. PMID:21895995

  7. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria: technology and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Kailasapathy, Kaila

    2002-09-01

    In the recent past, there has been an explosion of probiotic health-based products. Many reports indicated that there is poor survival of probiotic bacteria in these products. Further, the survival of these bacteria in the human gastro-intestinal system is questionable. Providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier against adverse environmental conditions is therefore an approach currently receiving considerable interest. The technology of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells evolved from the immobilised cell culture technology used in the biotechnological industry. Several methods of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria have been reported and include spray drying, extrusion, emulsion and phase separation. None of these reported methods however, has resulted in the large numbers of shelf-stable, viable probiotic bacterial cells necessary for use in industry for development of new probiotic products. The most commonly reported micro-encapsulation procedure is based on the calcium-alginate gel capsule formation. Kappa-carrageenan, gellan gum, gelatin and starch are also used as excipients for the micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria. The currently available equipment for micro-encapsulation is not able to generate large quantities of uniform sized micro or nano capsules. There is a need to design and develop equipment that will be able to generate precise and uniform micro or nano capsules in large quantities for industrial applications. The reported food vehicles for delivery of encapsulated probiotic bacteria are yoghurt, cheese, ice cream and mayonnaise. Studies need to be done on the application of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria in other food systems. The number of probiotic supplements will increase in the future. More studies, however, need to be conducted on the efficacy of micro-encapsulation to deliver probiotic bacteria and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:12400637

  8. Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Thomlinson, J. R.; Buxton, A.

    1963-01-01

    Pigs were subjected to active anaphylactic shock using egg albumin and to reversed passive anaphylaxis using Escherichia coli (O138). The symptoms and lesions closely resembled those of oedema disease and haemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Catarrhal enteritis was also observed. There was a relationship between the character of the lesions which were produced and the severity and duration of the anaphylactic symptoms. Further evidence confirmed earlier observations that clinically normal pigs may develop a hypersensitivity to those serotypes of E. coli which are associated with these conditions. The results are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of these diseases, and it is considered that oedema disease and haemorrhagic gastro-enteritis develop from an anaphylactic type of hypersensitivity to E. coli rather than from a direct toxaemia arising from the sudden absorption of increased quantities of bacterial polysaccharide. ImagesFIGS. 1-2FIGS. 3-4FIGS. 5-6FIG. 7FIGS. 8-9FIGS. 10-11 PMID:13981132

  9. Probiotics and the gut microbiota in intestinal health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Gareau, Mélanie G.; Sherman, Philip M.; Walker, W. Allan

    2016-01-01

    The use of probiotics is increasing in popularity for both the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases. While a growing number of well-conducted, prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical trials are emerging and investigations of underlying mechanisms of action are being undertaken, questions remain with respect to the specific immune and physiological effects of probiotics in health and disease. This Review considers recent advances in clinical trials of probiotics for intestinal disorders in both adult and pediatric populations. An overview of recent in vitro and in vivo research related to potential mechanisms of action of various probiotic formulations is also considered. PMID:20664519

  10. Probiotics as flourishing benefactors for the human body.

    PubMed

    Broekaert, Ilse J; Walker, W Allan

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of the beneficial effects of various strains of probiotics in preventing and treating certain diseases. Currently, changed lifestyles as well as the increased use of antibiotics are significant factors challenging the preservation of a healthy intestinal microflora. The concept of probiotics is to restore and uphold a microflora advantageous for the human body. Probiotics are found in a number of fermented dairy products, infant formula, and dietary supplements. In the presence of prebiotics, which are nondigestible food ingredients favorable for probiotic growth, their survival in the intestine is ameliorated. PMID:16552297

  11. Probiotic Encapsulation Technology: From Microencapsulation to Release into the Gut

    PubMed Central

    Gbassi, Gildas K.; Vandamme, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic encapsulation technology (PET) has the potential to protect microorgansisms and to deliver them into the gut. Because of the promising preclinical and clinical results, probiotics have been incorporated into a range of products. However, there are still many challenges to overcome with respect to the microencapsulation process and the conditions prevailing in the gut. This paper reviews the methodological approach of probiotics encapsulation including biomaterials selection, choice of appropriate technology, in vitro release studies of encapsulated probiotics, and highlights the challenges to be overcome in this area. PMID:24300185

  12. The evidence to support health claims for probiotics.

    PubMed

    Farnworth, Edward R

    2008-06-01

    As the health benefits of ingesting live bacteria become more evident, foods are now being produced that contain probiotic bacteria. The data to support label health claims for probiotic products are often difficult to provide. The experimental evidence to identify probiotic microorganisms and to demonstrate their efficacy in clinical trials is more challenging than for other potential functional foods because effects are mediated by living microorganisms and may therefore be influenced by the status of these microorganisms. Clinical trials to show efficacy are expensive. Obtaining appropriate samples is difficult. A scientific consensus is building to support the claim that the ingestion of certain probiotic bacteria reduces lactose intolerance and can reduce the duration of rotavirus diarrheas. Some probiotic bacteria have "generally accepted as safe" status; proof of the safety of any probiotic is essential. Japanese health regulatory officials, using their Foods for Specific Health Use system, have approved human health claims for over 20 probiotic products. On the other hand, at this time, no probiotic product is sold in Canada that carries a label health claim. This illustrates the considerable discrepancies across countries in perception of health effects of probiotics. PMID:18492865

  13. Decreased Plasma Myeloperoxidase Associated with Probiotic Therapy in Autistic Children

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    AIM To assess plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in autistic children and to test the hypothesis that there is an association between decreased MPO concentration and probiotic therapy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Plasma from 49 autistic children (39 males; mean age 11.4 years) (17 with diagnosed gastrointestinal (GI) disease chronic diarrhea and/or constipation (10 of these GI patients were taking probiotics) and 26 receiving probiotic therapy) and 36 neurotypical controls (29 males; mean age 10.2 years; controls were not assessed for GI disease) were tested for MPO plasma concentration using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs). Plasma concentration of MPO in autistic individuals was compared to plasma concentration of copper and zinc. RESULTS We found that individuals with autism, receiving no therapy, did not have significantly lower plasma MPO levels when compared to controls. In the autistic group, MPO levels were significantly lower in individuals taking probiotic therapy. In addition, plasma copper levels were significantly lower in autistic individuals taking probiotics compared to those not taking probiotics, but plasma zinc levels were not different in the probiotic group. DISCUSSION These results suggest a relationship between low MPO levels found in a group of autistic individuals and probiotic therapy. By possibly changing gut bacterial flora and thereby changing absorption properties in the gut, probiotic therapy was also associated with lower copper levels. PMID:25674031

  14. The potential of probiotics to prevent Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Allen, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to antibiotics is the major risk factor for Clostridium difficile diarrhea (CDD), suggesting that impairment of colonization resistance due to depletion of the gut flora is a significant underlying disease susceptibility factor. Many properties of probiotic organisms indicate that they may be able to replenish the depleted gut flora and restore colonization resistance. However, despite numerous clinical trials, the evidence base for probiotics in the prevention of CDD remains weak. A recent large trial of a multistrain, high-dose probiotic did not show clear evidence of efficacy. The role of probiotics in the prevention of CDD remains unclear. PMID:25677707

  15. The Emerging Therapeutic Role of Probiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Matthew; Wollins, Eric; Toles, Anastasia; Borum, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Nonpathogenic bacteria in a genetically susceptible individual play a suggestive role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Probiotics are living organisms that exert a protective effect on intestinal mucosa. Although evidence supporting their use for inducing or maintaining remission of IBD remains limited, it may be reasonable to use probiotics as an adjunct to standard therapy for mild-to-moderate disease. Genetically modified probiotics may provide novel delivery methods of therapeutic payloads to inflamed intestinal mucosa. This review focuses on the emerging use of probiotics in the treatment of IBD. PMID:22798747

  16. Probiotics for the treatment of Clostridium difficile associated disease

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Leo R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to update the current and potential future role of probiotics for Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Included in this review, is an update on the testing of newer probiotics (e.g., Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) in animal models of CDAD. There is a focus on the modulation of signal transduction pathways (i.e., transcription factors like cAMP response element-binding, activator protein 1, and nuclear factor kappa B), as well as the inhibition of certain kinases (e.g., p38 mitogen activated protein kinases) by probiotics. Inhibition of signal transduction by probiotics, such as Saccharomyces boulardii, result in multiple effects on intestinal fluid secretion, neutrophil influx into the colon, inflammation, and colonocyte apoptosis that may positively impact CDAD. Recent clinical approaches with probiotics, for the prevention of primary and recurrent CDAD, are also summarized in this review paper. Future directions for the treatment of CDAD by probiotics are also mentioned in this review. In particular, the use of multi-strain probiotic formulations such as Ecologic AAD and VSL #3 may represent a rationale pharmacological approach, particularly as adjunctive therapies for CDAD. Understanding the mechanistic basis of CDAD, and how probiotics interfere at ceratin steps in the pathogenic process, may also present the opportunity to design other multi-strain probiotics that could have a future impact on CDAD. PMID:23946887

  17. Probiotics for the treatment of Clostridium difficile associated disease.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Leo R

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this review paper is to update the current and potential future role of probiotics for Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Included in this review, is an update on the testing of newer probiotics (e.g., Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) in animal models of CDAD. There is a focus on the modulation of signal transduction pathways (i.e., transcription factors like cAMP response element-binding, activator protein 1, and nuclear factor kappa B), as well as the inhibition of certain kinases (e.g., p38 mitogen activated protein kinases) by probiotics. Inhibition of signal transduction by probiotics, such as Saccharomyces boulardii, result in multiple effects on intestinal fluid secretion, neutrophil influx into the colon, inflammation, and colonocyte apoptosis that may positively impact CDAD. Recent clinical approaches with probiotics, for the prevention of primary and recurrent CDAD, are also summarized in this review paper. Future directions for the treatment of CDAD by probiotics are also mentioned in this review. In particular, the use of multi-strain probiotic formulations such as Ecologic() AAD and VSL #3() may represent a rationale pharmacological approach, particularly as adjunctive therapies for CDAD. Understanding the mechanistic basis of CDAD, and how probiotics interfere at ceratin steps in the pathogenic process, may also present the opportunity to design other multi-strain probiotics that could have a future impact on CDAD. PMID:23946887

  18. Probiotics for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Doron, Shira Idit; Hibberd, Patricia L; Gorbach, Sherwood L

    2008-07-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) occurs in approximately 25% of patients receiving antibiotics. Hospitalized patients with AAD are at increased risk for nosocomial infections and have a higher mortality. Probiotics are living microorganisms used to restore gut health by changing the intestinal microbiota. Several have been studied for the prevention of AAD. Five meta-analyses of trials of probiotics for the prevention of AAD have been performed. The results showed an overall reduction in the risk of AAD when probiotics were coadministered with antibiotics. McFarland conducted the largest meta-analysis to date analyzing 25 randomized controlled trials of probiotics for the prevention of AAD including 2810 subjects. More than half of the trials demonstrated efficacy of the probiotic. In particular, Lactobacillus GG, Saccharomyces boulardii, and the probiotic mixtures were effective. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews published a review of the literature on the use of probiotics for the prevention of pediatric AAD, including 10 randomized trials testing 1986 children. The per protocol pooled analysis, but not the intent-to-treat analysis, showed that probiotics are effective for preventing AAD with the number needed to treat to prevent 1 case of diarrhea being 10. Lactobacillus GG, Bacillus coagulans, and S. boulardii appeared to be most effective. Probiotics are generally safe, however, they should be used with caution in patients who have compromise of either the immune system or the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, and in the presence of a central venous catheter. PMID:18542041

  19. Anti-carcinogenicity of probiotics and prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Burns, A J; Rowland, I R

    2000-03-01

    Yoghurt, and the lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB; probiotics) that it contains, have received much attention as potential cancer-preventing agents in the diet. It is usually considered that the mechanism of the action is by increasing the numbers of LAB in the colon, which modifies the ability of the microflora to produce carcinogens. Prebiotics such as non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) appear to have similar effects on the microflora by selectively stimulating the growth of LAB in the colon. Evidence for cancer-preventing properties of pro- and prebiotics is derived from studies on faecal enzyme activities in animals and humans, inhibition of genotoxicity of known carcinogens in vitro and In vivo, suppression of carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions and tumours in laboratory animals. Some of these studies indicate that combinations of pro and prebiotics ('synbiotics') are more effective. Epidemiological and intervention studies provide some, albelt limited, evidence for protective effects of products containing probiotics in humans. PMID:11709850

  20. Health-benefit claims for probiotic products.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, James T

    2008-02-01

    Manufacturers wish to communicate the benefits of probiotics in advertising and labeling with lawful and adequately substantiated claims. Regulatory and substantiation requirements differ for products intended to cure, treat, prevent, or mitigate a disease; to reduce a healthy individual's risk of developing a disease; or to affect the structure or function of the body. Food labeling is regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration, and advertising is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission; the standards and methods used by these agencies differ. Food manufacturers must design their claims regarding the benefits of probiotics with the regulatory environment in mind and must develop their research plans to provide evidence that satisfies the agencies' substantiation requirements. This article offers an overview of the applicable laws and regulations, what they mandate regarding legitimate claims, and the issues regarding the design of research to substantiate such claims. PMID:18181716

  1. Probiotics and Nonalcoholic Fatty liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eslamparast, Tannaz; Eghtesad, Sareh; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Poustchi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide, both in adults and in children. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver diseases that range from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. However, NAFLD is more prevalent in overweight and obese individuals. Evidences thus far suggest that hepatic triglyceride accumulation is not always derived from obesity; gut microbiota can also play a role in the development of insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, necroinflammation and fibrosis. On the other hand, probiotics can strengthen the intestinal wall, reducing its permeability, bacterial translocation, and endotoxemia according to animal and human studies. They can also reduce oxidative and inflammatory liver damage, while improving the histological state in certain situations. This review article focuses on research that has been conducted on probiotics and NAFLD, highlighting their efficacy as a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of this condition. PMID:24829682

  2. Probiotics--compensation for lactase insufficiency.

    PubMed

    de Vrese, M; Stegelmann, A; Richter, B; Fenselau, S; Laue, C; Schrezenmeir, J

    2001-02-01

    Yogurt and other conventional starter cultures and probiotic bacteria in fermented and unfermented milk products improve lactose digestion and eliminate symptoms of intolerance in lactose maldigesters. These beneficial effects are due to microbial beta-galactosidase in the (fermented) milk product, delayed gastrointestinal transit, positive effects on intestinal functions and colonic microflora, and reduced sensitivity to symptoms. Intact bacterial cell walls, which act as a mechanical protection of lactase during gastric transit, and the release of the enzyme into the small intestine are determinants of efficiency. There is a poor correlation between lactose maldigestion and intolerance; in some studies, low hydrogen exhalation without significant improvement of clinical symptoms was observed. Probiotic bacteria, which by definition target the colon, normally promote lactose digestion in the small intestine less efficiently than do yogurt cultures. They may, however, alleviate clinical symptoms brought about by undigested lactose or other reasons. PMID:11157352

  3. Probiotics as control agents in aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geovanny D, Gmez R.; Balczar, Jos Luis; Ma, Shen

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

  4. Luminal Conversion and Immunoregulation by Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Bhanu Priya; Versalovic, James

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microbes are responsible for the synthesis of nutrients and metabolites that are likely important for the maintenance of mammalian health. Many nutrients and metabolites derived from the gut microbiota by luminal conversion have been implicated in the development, homeostasis and function of innate and adaptive immunity. These factors clearly suggest that intestinal microbiota may influence host immunity via microbial metabolite-dependent mechanisms. We describe how intestinal microbes including probiotics generate microbial metabolites that modulate mucosal and systemic immunity. PMID:26617521

  5. Modulation of immunity and inflammatory gene expression in the gut, in inflammatory diseases of the gut and in the liver by probiotics.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Fontana, Luis; Gil, Angel

    2014-11-14

    The potential for the positive manipulation of the gut microbiome through the introduction of beneficial microbes, as also known as probiotics, is currently an active area of investigation. The FAO/WHO define probiotics as live microorganisms that confer a health benefit to the host when administered in adequate amounts. However, dead bacteria and bacterial molecular components may also exhibit probiotic properties. The results of clinical studies have demonstrated the clinical potential of probiotics in many pathologies, such as allergic diseases, diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and viral infection. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the beneficial effects of probiotics, most of which involve gene expression regulation in specific tissues, particularly the intestine and liver. Therefore, the modulation of gene expression mediated by probiotics is an important issue that warrants further investigation. In the present paper, we performed a systematic review of the probiotic-mediated modulation of gene expression that is associated with the immune system and inflammation. Between January 1990 to February 2014, PubMed was searched for articles that were published in English using the MeSH terms "probiotics" and "gene expression" combined with "intestines", "liver", "enterocytes", "antigen-presenting cells", "dendritic cells", "immune system", and "inflammation". Two hundred and five original articles matching these criteria were initially selected, although only those articles that included specific gene expression results (77) were later considered for this review and separated into three major topics: the regulation of immunity and inflammatory gene expression in the gut, in inflammatory diseases of the gut and in the liver. Particular strains of Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, Propionibacterium, Bacillus and Saccharomyces influence the gene expression of mucins, Toll-like receptors, caspases, nuclear factor-κB, and interleukins and lead mainly to an anti-inflammatory response in cultured enterocytes. In addition, the interaction of commensal bacteria and probiotics with the surface of antigen-presenting cells in vitro results in the downregulation of pro-inflammatory genes that are linked to inflammatory signaling pathways, whereas other anti-inflammatory genes are upregulated. The effects of probiotics have been extensively investigated in animal models ranging from fish to mice, rats and piglets. These bacteria induce a tolerogenic and hyporesponsive immune response in which many genes that are related to the immune system, in particular those genes expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines, are upregulated. By contrast, information related to gene expression in human intestinal cells mediated by the action of probiotics is scarce. There is a need for further clinical studies that evaluate the mechanism of action of probiotics both in healthy humans and in patients with chronic diseases. These types of clinical studies are necessary for addressing the influence of these microorganisms in gene expression for different pathways, particularly those that are associated with the immune response, and to better understand the role that probiotics might have in the prevention and treatment of disease. PMID:25400447

  6. Modulation of immunity and inflammatory gene expression in the gut, in inflammatory diseases of the gut and in the liver by probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Fontana, Luis; Gil, Angel

    2014-01-01

    The potential for the positive manipulation of the gut microbiome through the introduction of beneficial microbes, as also known as probiotics, is currently an active area of investigation. The FAO/WHO define probiotics as live microorganisms that confer a health benefit to the host when administered in adequate amounts. However, dead bacteria and bacterial molecular components may also exhibit probiotic properties. The results of clinical studies have demonstrated the clinical potential of probiotics in many pathologies, such as allergic diseases, diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and viral infection. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the beneficial effects of probiotics, most of which involve gene expression regulation in specific tissues, particularly the intestine and liver. Therefore, the modulation of gene expression mediated by probiotics is an important issue that warrants further investigation. In the present paper, we performed a systematic review of the probiotic-mediated modulation of gene expression that is associated with the immune system and inflammation. Between January 1990 to February 2014, PubMed was searched for articles that were published in English using the MeSH terms “probiotics" and "gene expression" combined with “intestines", "liver", "enterocytes", "antigen-presenting cells", "dendritic cells", "immune system", and "inflammation". Two hundred and five original articles matching these criteria were initially selected, although only those articles that included specific gene expression results (77) were later considered for this review and separated into three major topics: the regulation of immunity and inflammatory gene expression in the gut, in inflammatory diseases of the gut and in the liver. Particular strains of Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, Propionibacterium, Bacillus and Saccharomyces influence the gene expression of mucins, Toll-like receptors, caspases, nuclear factor-κB, and interleukins and lead mainly to an anti-inflammatory response in cultured enterocytes. In addition, the interaction of commensal bacteria and probiotics with the surface of antigen-presenting cells in vitro results in the downregulation of pro-inflammatory genes that are linked to inflammatory signaling pathways, whereas other anti-inflammatory genes are upregulated. The effects of probiotics have been extensively investigated in animal models ranging from fish to mice, rats and piglets. These bacteria induce a tolerogenic and hyporesponsive immune response in which many genes that are related to the immune system, in particular those genes expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines, are upregulated. By contrast, information related to gene expression in human intestinal cells mediated by the action of probiotics is scarce. There is a need for further clinical studies that evaluate the mechanism of action of probiotics both in healthy humans and in patients with chronic diseases. These types of clinical studies are necessary for addressing the influence of these microorganisms in gene expression for different pathways, particularly those that are associated with the immune response, and to better understand the role that probiotics might have in the prevention and treatment of disease. PMID:25400447

  7. Probiotics as Complementary Treatment for Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Le Barz, Mélanie; Anhê, Fernando F.; Varin, Thibaut V.; Desjardins, Yves; Levy, Emile; Roy, Denis; Urdaci, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, growing evidence has established the gut microbiota as one of the most important determinants of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, obesogenic diet can drastically alter bacterial populations (i.e., dysbiosis) leading to activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms and metabolic endotoxemia, therefore promoting insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders. To counteract these deleterious effects, probiotic strains have been developed with the aim of reshaping the microbiome to improve gut health. In this review, we focus on benefits of widely used probiotics describing their potential mechanisms of action, especially their ability to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by restoring the disrupted intestinal mucosal barrier. We also discuss the perspective of using new bacterial strains such as butyrate-producing bacteria and the mucolytic Akkermansia muciniphila, as well as the use of prebiotics to enhance the functionality of probiotics. Finally, this review introduces the notion of genetically engineered bacterial strains specifically developed to deliver anti-inflammatory molecules to the gut. PMID:26301190

  8. Probiotics as Complementary Treatment for Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Le Barz, Mélanie; Anhê, Fernando F; Varin, Thibaut V; Desjardins, Yves; Levy, Emile; Roy, Denis; Urdaci, Maria C; Marette, André

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, growing evidence has established the gut microbiota as one of the most important determinants of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, obesogenic diet can drastically alter bacterial populations (i.e., dysbiosis) leading to activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms and metabolic endotoxemia, therefore promoting insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders. To counteract these deleterious effects, probiotic strains have been developed with the aim of reshaping the microbiome to improve gut health. In this review, we focus on benefits of widely used probiotics describing their potential mechanisms of action, especially their ability to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by restoring the disrupted intestinal mucosal barrier. We also discuss the perspective of using new bacterial strains such as butyrate-producing bacteria and the mucolytic Akkermansia muciniphila, as well as the use of prebiotics to enhance the functionality of probiotics. Finally, this review introduces the notion of genetically engineered bacterial strains specifically developed to deliver anti-inflammatory molecules to the gut. PMID:26301190

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Probiotic Efficacy for Gastrointestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Marina L.; Romanuk, Tamara N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Meta-analyses on the effects of probiotics on specific gastrointestinal diseases have generally shown positive effects on disease prevention and treatment; however, the relative efficacy of probiotic use for treatment and prevention across different gastrointestinal diseases, with differing etiology and mechanisms of action, has not been addressed. Methods/Principal Findings We included randomized controlled trials in humans that used a specified probiotic in the treatment or prevention of Pouchitis, Infectious diarrhea, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile Disease, Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea, Traveler's Diarrhea, or Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Random effects models were used to evaluate efficacy as pooled relative risks across the eight diseases as well as across probiotic species, single vs. multiple species, patient ages, dosages, and length of treatment. Probiotics had a positive significant effect across all eight gastrointestinal diseases with a relative risk of 0.58 (95% (CI) 0.510.65). Six of the eight diseases: Pouchitis, Infectious diarrhea, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile Disease, and Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea, showed positive significant effects. Traveler's Diarrhea and Necrotizing Enterocolitis did not show significant effects of probiotcs. Of the 11 species and species mixtures, all showed positive significant effects except for Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bifidobacterium infantis. Across all diseases and probiotic species, positive significant effects of probiotics were observed for all age groups, single vs. multiple species, and treatment lengths. Conclusions/Significance Probiotics are generally beneficial in treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases. Efficacy was not observed for Traveler's Diarrhea or Necrotizing Enterocolitis or for the probiotic species L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, and B. infantis. When choosing to use probiotics in the treatment or prevention of gastrointestinal disease, the type of disease and probiotic species (strain) are the most important factors to take into consideration. PMID:22529959

  10. Screening of Lactobacillus strains of domestic goose origin against bacterial poultry pathogens for use as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Dec, Marta; Puchalski, Andrzej; Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Lactobacilli are natural inhabitants of human and animal mucous membranes, including the avian gastrointestinal tract. Recently, increasing attention has been given to their probiotic, health-promoting capacities, among which their antagonistic potential against pathogens plays a key role. A study was conducted to evaluate probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from feces or cloacae of domestic geese. Among the 104 examined isolates, previously identified to the species level by whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and analysis of 16S-23S regions of rDNA, dominated Lactobacillus salivarius (35%), followed by Lactobacillus johnsonii (18%) and Lactobacillus ingluviei (11%). All lactobacilli were screened for antimicrobial activity toward Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida, and Riemerella anatipestifer using the agar slab method and the well diffusion method. Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum exhibited particularly strong antagonism toward all of the indicator strains. In the agar slab method, the highest sensitivity to Lactobacillus was observed in R. anatipestifer and P. multocida, and the lowest in E. coli and S. aureus. The ability to produce H₂O₂was exhibited by 92% of isolates, but there was no correlation between the rate of production of this reactive oxygen species and the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus sp. All lactobacilli showed resistance to pH 3.0 and 3.5 and to 2% bile. The data demonstrate that Lactobacillus isolates from geese may have probiotic potential in reducing bacterial infections. The antibacterial activity of the selected lactobacilli is mainly due to lactic acid production by these bacteria. The selected Lactobacillus strains that strongly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and were also resistant to low pH and bile salts, can potentially restore the balance of intestinal microflora in geese and could offer an alternative to antibiotic therapy. PMID:25104766

  11. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Showing Antioxidative and Probiotic Activities from Kimchi and Infant Feces.

    PubMed

    Ji, Keunho; Jang, Na Young; Kim, Young Tae

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lactic acid bacteria with antioxidative and probiotic activities isolated from Korean healthy infant feces and kimchi. Isolates A1, A2, S1, S2, and S3 were assigned to Lactobacillus sp. and isolates A3, A4, E1, E2, E3, and E4 were assigned to Leuconostoc sp. on the basis of their physiological properties and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Most strains were confirmed as safe bioresources through nonhemolytic activities and non-production of harmful enzymes such as β-glucosidase, β- glucuronidase and tryptophanase. The 11 isolates showed different resistance to acid and bile acids. In addition, they exhibited antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, all strains showed significantly high levels of hydrophobicity. The antioxidant effects of culture filtrates of the 11 strains included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2.2'- azino-bis (2-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase activity. The results revealed that most of the culture filtrates have effective scavenging activity for DPPH and ABTS radicals. All strains appeared to have effective superoxide dismutase activity. In conclusion, the isolated strains A1, A3, S1, and S3 have significant probiotic activities applicable to the development of functional foods and health-related products. These strains might also contribute to preventing and controlling several diseases associated with oxidative stress, when used as probiotics. PMID:25951843

  12. Potential probiotic attributes of a new strain of Bacillus coagulans CGMCC 9951 isolated from healthy piglet feces.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shao-Bin; Zhao, Li-Na; Wu, Ying; Li, Shi-Chang; Sun, Jian-Rui; Huang, Jing-Fang; Li, Dan-Dan

    2015-06-01

    A new strain of Bacillus coagulans CGMCC 9551, which has a broad range of antibacterial activities against six main pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O8, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis, Streptococcus suis, Listeria monocytogenes and Pasteurella multocida, was isolated from healthy piglet feces. In adhesion assay, the isolate exhibited a stronger adhesion to pig intestinal mucus than that of B. subtilis JT143 and L. acidophilus LY24 respectively isolated from BioPlus()2B and FloraFIT() Probiotics (P < 0.05). The adhesion activity reached 44.5 3.2, 48.9 2.6, 42.6 3.3 and 37.6 2.4% to jejunum, ileum, transverse colon and sigmoid colon, separately. The survival rate of B. coagulans CGMCC 9551 was reduced by only 20% at 4 h exposure under 0.9% w/v bile salt. The strain was fully resistant to pH 2 for 2 h with 90.1 3.5% survival and susceptible to 15 antibiotics commonly used in veterinary medicine. Additionally, the bacteria showed amylase, protease and cellulase activities. The safety assessment demonstrated the lack of toxicity potential in B. coagulans CGMCC 9551 by ligated rabbit ileal loop assay, acute and subchronic toxicity test. These results implied that that the new strain of B. coagulans CGMCC 9951 isolated from healthy piglet feces has promising probiotic characteristics and offers desirable opportunities for its successful commercialization as one excellent candidate probiotic. PMID:25752235

  13. Potential probiotic attributes of a new strain of Bacillus coagulans CGMCC 9951 isolated from healthy piglet feces.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Gu SB; Zhao LN; Wu Y; Li SC; Sun JR; Huang JF; Li DD

    2015-06-01

    A new strain of Bacillus coagulans CGMCC 9551, which has a broad range of antibacterial activities against six main pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O8, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis, Streptococcus suis, Listeria monocytogenes and Pasteurella multocida, was isolated from healthy piglet feces. In adhesion assay, the isolate exhibited a stronger adhesion to pig intestinal mucus than that of B. subtilis JT143 and L. acidophilus LY24 respectively isolated from BioPlus()2B and FloraFIT() Probiotics (P < 0.05). The adhesion activity reached 44.5 3.2, 48.9 2.6, 42.6 3.3 and 37.6 2.4% to jejunum, ileum, transverse colon and sigmoid colon, separately. The survival rate of B. coagulans CGMCC 9551 was reduced by only 20% at 4 h exposure under 0.9% w/v bile salt. The strain was fully resistant to pH 2 for 2 h with 90.1 3.5% survival and susceptible to 15 antibiotics commonly used in veterinary medicine. Additionally, the bacteria showed amylase, protease and cellulase activities. The safety assessment demonstrated the lack of toxicity potential in B. coagulans CGMCC 9551 by ligated rabbit ileal loop assay, acute and subchronic toxicity test. These results implied that that the new strain of B. coagulans CGMCC 9951 isolated from healthy piglet feces has promising probiotic characteristics and offers desirable opportunities for its successful commercialization as one excellent candidate probiotic.

  14. Isolation and characterization of lactobacilli from human faeces and indigenous fermented foods for their potential application as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Hemanti; Jariwala, Ruchi; Bagchi, Tamishraha

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to select Lactobacillus strains from various sources on the basis of their probiotic attributes, such as acid and bile tolerance, binding to intestinal cells, and antimicrobial activity. Twelve isolates were obtained from human and food sources and were evaluated against standard probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). Isolates were also studied for their antibiotic susceptibility. Isolate Lactobacillus fermentum GPI-6 showed the best survival profile at 0.3% and 1% bile salt, as compared with LGG. Isolates Lactobacillus plantarum GRI-2 and Lactobacillus salivarius GPI-4 showed no reduction in survival rate at pH 2.5. As expected, isolates showed strain-specific differences when comparing various attributes. Isolates GPI-4, GPI-7, and FA-5 showed better adhesion to HT-29, while isolate GPI-4 adhered better to Caco-2 cells than did LGG. However, when studying their ability to compete with Escherichia coli O26:H11, isolates GPI-6 and GPI-7 significantly inhibited E. coli adhesion to both HT-29 and Caco-2 cells compared with LGG. In conclusion, isolates GPI-4, GPI-7, and FA-5 showed excellent binding ability and antagonistic activity and better tolerance to acidic pH (pH 2.5) and to different bile salt concentrations in comparison with LGG, and hence, they could be considered as potential probiotic candidates. PMID:26928011

  15. Oral administration of a probiotic Lactobacillus modulates cytokine production and TLR expression improving the immune response against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diarrheal infections caused by Salmonella, are one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Salmonella causes various diseases that range from mild gastroenteritis to enteric fever, depending on the serovar involved, infective dose, species, age and immune status of the host. Probiotics are proposed as an attractive alternative possibility in the prevention against this pathogen infection. Previously we demonstrated that continuous Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 administration to BALB/c mice before and after challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) decreased the severity of Salmonella infection. The aim of the present work was to deep into the knowledge about how this probiotic bacterium exerts its effect, by assessing its impact on the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory (TNFα, IFNγ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in the inductor and effector sites of the gut immune response, and analyzing toll-like receptor (TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9) expressions in both healthy and infected mice. Results Probiotic administration to healthy mice increased the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and improved the production and secretion of TNFα, IFNγ and IL-10 in the inductor sites of the gut immune response (Peyer's patches). Post infection, the continuous probiotic administration, before and after Salmonella challenge, protected the host by modulating the inflammatory response, mainly in the immune effector site of the gut, decreasing TNFα and increasing IFNγ, IL-6 and IL-10 production in the lamina propria of the small intestine. Conclusions The oral administration of L. casei CRL 431 induces variations in the cytokine profile and in the TLRs expression previous and also after the challenge with S. Typhimurium. These changes show some of the immune mechanisms implicated in the protective effect of this probiotic strain against S. Typhimurium, providing an alternative way to reduce the severity of the infection. PMID:21813005

  16. Screening of lactic acid bacteria toward their selection as a source of chicken probiotic.

    PubMed

    Taheri, H R; Moravej, H; Tabandeh, F; Zaghari, M; Shivazad, M

    2009-08-01

    In this study, 332 lactic acid bacteria of broiler gut origin were investigated as putative probiotic candidates. Sixty-two bacteria showed the highest aggregation while showing antibacterial effects against Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O78:K80. Enzymatic activities of the selected bacteria were examined. No lipase activity was detected, but all of them showed almost similar proteolytic activities. However, they had different amylase and phytase activities. Four of the 62 bacterial strains were selected as a result of aggregation and amylase tests. They were chosen for the following attributes: high cell surface hydrophobicity, co-aggregation, and resistance to bile salts and also acidic conditions. Finally, Lactobacillus crispatus was selected as a source of potential probiotic because of its predominant characteristics in comparison to the other isolated strains from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens. This study has provided a good arrangement of rapid methods for screening a high number of bacteria: a series of beneficial tests that are used together for the first time on chickens, and not any other animals. PMID:19590072

  17. Locally sourced probiotics, the next opportunity for developing countries?

    PubMed

    Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Lee, Yuan-Kun

    2015-04-01

    We describe factors promoting the exploration of locally sourced probiotics, targeting local populations to balance human needs and market opportunities. This would be particularly beneficial for people in developing countries, who generally lack access to affordable probiotics and are often exposed to poor hygiene conditions, toxic compounds, malnutrition, and chronic enteric infections. PMID:25812840

  18. Probiotic fermentation of plant based products: possibilities and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shilpi; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen

    2012-01-01

    Functional foods are claimed to have several health-specific advantages. In addition to their basic nutritive value, they contain a proper balance of ingredients which help in the prevention and treatment of illnesses and diseases. Within this category, products containing lactic acid bacteria or probiotics are increasingly gaining importance. The recognition of the beneficial effects of dairy products containing probiotics has been well established. The allergy to dairy products, lactose intolerance, and cholesterol content are the major drawbacks related to the use of fermented dairy products for a large percentage of consumers. Modern consumers are increasingly interested in their personal health, and expect the food that they eat to be healthy or even capable of preventing illness. Because of this, probiotic food products made out of fermentation of cereals and fruits and vegetables is receiving attention from the scientific world as well as consumers and constitutes the major part of this review. The use of mathematical models for the probiotic fermentation will help in reducing the time and effort involved in the optimization of the probiotic fermentation process. We have tried to summarize the developments in the use of mathematical models for probiotic fermentation. Future technological prospects exist in innovations which represent solutions for the stability and viability problems of probiotics in new food environments. Current research on novel probiotic formulations and microencapsulation technologies exploiting biological carrier and barrier materials has also been discussed. PMID:22059963

  19. A novel method for screening of potential probiotics for high adhesion capability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wu, Qinglong; Deng, Kan; Wei, Qiang; Hu, Ping; He, Jingjing; Liu, Huan; Zheng, Yong; Wei, Hua; Shah, Nagendra P; Chen, Tingtao

    2015-07-01

    To screen for potential probiotics with high adhesion capability, a chemostat model-based cultured human feces and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods were applied, and the adhesion capability of the isolates was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Lactobacillus plantarum (HM218749), Lactobacillus reuteri (EU547310), and Enterococcus faecalis (HM218543) were isolated from the slime on the chemostat wall, as these organisms could grow better at 37C in an anaerobic environment and could resist harsh conditions (pH 1.5 and 0.30% bile salt). Lactobacillus plantarum, L. reuteri, and E. faecalis could adhere to HT-29 cells and reduce the adhesion of Shigella dysenteriae 2457, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan1, Enterobacter sakazakii 45401, and Escherichia coli 44102 to HT-29 cells. Moreover, the animal experiment showed that L. plantarum could adhere to mice intestine, increasing the number of lactobacilli and decreasing the number of enterococci. PMID:25912863

  20. Bioengineered probiotics, a strategic approach to control enteric infections.

    PubMed

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Enteric infections account for high morbidity and mortality and are considered to be the fifth leading cause of death at all ages worldwide. Seventy percent of all enteric infections are foodborne. Thus significant efforts have been directed toward the detection, control and prevention of foodborne diseases. Many antimicrobials including antibiotics have been used for their control and prevention. However, probiotics offer a potential alternative intervention strategy owing to their general health beneficial properties and inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens. Often, antimicrobial probiotic action is non-specific and non-discriminatory or may be ineffective. In such cases, bioengineered probiotics expressing foreign gene products to achieve specific function is highly desirable. In this review we summarize the strategic development of recombinant bioengineered probiotics to control enteric infections, and to examine how scientific advancements in the human microbiome and their immunomodulatory effects help develop such novel and safe bioengineered probiotics. PMID:23327986

  1. Bioengineered probiotics, a strategic approach to control enteric infections

    PubMed Central

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Enteric infections account for high morbidity and mortality and are considered to be the fifth leading cause of death at all ages worldwide. Seventy percent of all enteric infections are foodborne. Thus significant efforts have been directed toward the detection, control and prevention of foodborne diseases. Many antimicrobials including antibiotics have been used for their control and prevention. However, probiotics offer a potential alternative intervention strategy owing to their general health beneficial properties and inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens. Often, antimicrobial probiotic action is non-specific and non-discriminatory or may be ineffective. In such cases, bioengineered probiotics expressing foreign gene products to achieve specific function is highly desirable. In this review we summarize the strategic development of recombinant bioengineered probiotics to control enteric infections, and to examine how scientific advancements in the human microbiome and their immunomodulatory effects help develop such novel and safe bioengineered probiotics. PMID:23327986

  2. Role of Probiotics in Crohn's Disease and in Pouchitis.

    PubMed

    Guslandi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The alterations in the gut microbiota observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in particular in Crohn's disease and in ulcerative colitis patients with pouchitis, provide the rationale for administering probiotic agents in the medical treatment of those conditions. In the maintenance treatment of inactive Crohn's disease probiotics, when administered alone, were found ineffective in preventing clinical and/or endoscopic recurrence. By contrast, a combination of a probiotic agent (eg, Saccharomyces boulardii) with standard pharmacological therapy can promote clinical benefit. In patients with pouchitis, so far only the probiotic mixture VSL #3 proved to effectively prevent relapses after successful antibiotic treatment of active inflammation. Further controlled studies, enrolling higher numbers of patients, are needed to better identify the exact role of probiotics in this area. PMID:26447964

  3. Probiotics for the Control of Parasites: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Marie-Agnès; Florent, Isabelle; Kohl, Linda; Grellier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live organisms, which confer benefits to the host. Their efficiency was demonstrated for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections, and allergic symptoms, but their use is mostly limited to bacterial and viral diseases. During the last decade, probiotics as means for the control of parasite infections were reported covering mainly intestinal diseases but also some nongut infections, that are all of human and veterinary importance. In most cases, evidence for a beneficial effect was obtained by studies using animal models. In a few cases, cellular interactions between probiotics and pathogens or relevant host cells were also investigated using in vitro culture systems. However, molecular mechanisms mediating the beneficial effects are as yet poorly understood. These studies indicate that probiotics might indeed provide a strain-specific protection against parasites, probably through multiple mechanisms. But more unravelling studies are needed to justify probiotic utilisation in therapeutics. PMID:21966589

  4. In vitro screening of potential probiotic activities of selected lactobacilli isolated from unpasteurized milk products for incorporation into soft cheese.

    PubMed

    Coeuret, Valrie; Gueguen, Micheline; Vernoux, Jean Paul

    2004-11-01

    The aim was to select potentially probiotic lactobacilli from 88 strains isolated from unpasteurized milk and cheese products, and to incorporate these bacteria in a viable state into a soft cheese, without changing its quality. The survival of these bacteria was assessed in acidic and bile conditions, after freezing at -80 degrees C. Four strains from unpasteurized Camembert--two Lactobacillus plantarum strains and two Lb. paracasei/casei strains--were identified and typed by PCR and PFGE and were found to display potentially probiotic characteristics in addition to resistance to low pH and bile. These characteristics were resistance to lysozyme, adhesion to CACO-2 cells, antimicrobial effects against common foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, innocuity following the ingestion of high doses by mice and appropriate antibiotic susceptibility profiles. The potential of Lb. plantarum strain UCMA 3037 for incorporation into a soft cheese (Pont-l'Eveque registered designation of origin (RDO)) was investigated. This strain grew well and survived in sufficient numbers (more than 10(7) cfu/g throughout the shelf-life of the product) in the cheese. This strain did not change the quality score of the product until the best before date (75 days after manufacture). Thus, unpasteurized Camembert is a natural source of potentially probiotic lactobacilli, which could be used as an additive in the development of potentially probiotic soft cheeses. Further work is required to demonstrate the persistence and efficacy of these strains in the human host upon ingestion. PMID:15605712

  5. The immunomodulatory properties of probiotic microorganisms beyond their viability (ghost probiotics: proposal of paraprobiotic concept).

    PubMed

    Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2011-08-01

    The probiotic approach represents a potentially effective and mild alternative strategy for the prevention and treatment of either inflammatory or allergic diseases. Several studies have shown that different bacterial strains can exert their probiotic abilities by influencing the host's immune system, thereby modulating immune responses. However, the emerging concern regarding safety problems arising from the extensive use of live microbial cells is enhancing the interest in non-viable microorganisms or microbial cell extracts, as they could eliminate shelf-life problems and reduce the risks of microbial translocation and infection. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the scientific literature concerning studies in which dead microbial cells or crude microbial cell fractions have been used as health-promoting agents. Particular attention will be given to the modulation of host immune responses. Possible mechanisms determining the effect on the immune system will also be discussed. Finally, in the light of the FAO/WHO definition of probiotics, indicating that the word 'probiotic' should be restricted to products that contain live microorganisms, and considering the scientific evidence indicating that inactivated microbes can positively affect human health, we propose the new term 'paraprobiotic' to indicate the use of inactivated microbial cells or cell fractions to confer a health benefit to the consumer. PMID:21499799

  6. Perspectives on super-shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that causes illness in humans worldwide. Cattle are the primary reservoir of this bacterium with the concentration and frequency of E. coli O157:H7 shedding varying greatly among individuals. The term supershedder has been applied to cattle that sh...

  7. Evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG using an Escherichia coli K88 model of piglet diarrhoea: Effects on diarrhoea incidence, faecal microflora and immune responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Xu, Yong-Qian; Liu, Hao-Yu; Lai, Ting; Ma, Jin-Lei; Wang, Jiu-Feng; Zhu, Yao-Hong

    2010-02-24

    Probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been demonstrated to adhere to pig intestinal mucus, and is able to displace and inhibit pathogens, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), in vitro. However, currently there are few data concerning the effects of LGG on piglet health. The objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of LGG in reducing the incidence and severity of post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets, and to investigate its mechanisms of action. Eighteen weaned barrows were allocated to nonchallenged control (NCN), challenged control (CCN) and LGG treatment (LGG) groups. Diarrhoea incidence was significantly lower in group LGG than group CCN after E. coli challenge. Faecal coliform bacteria counts were significantly increased, while lactobacilli and bifidobacteria counts were decreased, in group CCN compared with the other groups after challenge. In the jejunum and ileum, secretory immunoglobin A (SIgA) concentrations were significantly higher in group LGG than in group CCN. In group LGG, administration of short-term LGG before E. coli infection attenuated the elevation of serum IL-6 induced by E. coli. Significantly higher concentrations of TNF-alpha were observed in group LGG than NCN and CCN at 6h. IL-1beta concentrations in group NCN were significantly higher than LGG at 6h and higher than CCN at 24h. In conclusion, LGG was effective in ameliorating diarrhoea in post-weaning piglets induced by E. coli K88, possibly via modulation of intestinal microflora, enhancement of intestinal antibody defence, and regulation of production of systemic inflammatory cytokines. PMID:19782483

  8. Development of antimicrobial synbiotics using potentially-probiotic faecal isolates of Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacterium longum.

    PubMed

    Likotrafiti, Eleni; Tuohy, Kieran M; Gibson, Glenn R; Rastall, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate invitro the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacterium longum, isolated from faeces of healthy elderly individuals, against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E.coli O157:H7) and enteropathogenic E.coli (E.coli O86), to determine the capability of the selected strains to tolerate acid and bile invitro, to select suitable carbohydrates in order to enhance the growth and maximise antimicrobial activity of the putative probiotic organisms and examine the adhesion properties of the synbiotics. Antimicrobial activity of the putative probiotics and synbiotics was investigated by a microtitre method using cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS). Results of the antimicrobial assay showed that both putative probiotic strains produced compounds at pH 5 that lead to higher lag phases of both E.coli O157:H7 and E.coli O86. When half the quantity of cell-free culture supernatants of both probiotic strains was used at pH 5, B.longum maintained the same antimicrobial effect against both strains of E.coli, whereas L.fermentum lead to a higher lag phase of E.coli O86 only. Neutralization of the culture supernatants with alkali reduced the antimicrobial effect with only cell-free supernatant of L.fermentum causing lower maximum growth rates of E.coli O157:H7 and E.coli O86. L.fermentum appeared to be acid tolerant whereas B.longum was more susceptible to acid and both isolates were bile tolerant. A short chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) and an isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) proved to be the most effective substrates, enhancing antimicrobial activity for L.fermentum and B.longum respectively. The adhesion of the synbiotic combinations showed that L.fermentum, exhibited higher percentage of adhesion when grown on glucose and as a synbiotic combination with scFOS whereas B.longum exhibited lowest percentage of adhesion when grown on both glucose and IMO. PMID:23354005

  9. Treating infant colic with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 reduces crying or fussing in a broad community based sample of breastfed infants and formula fed infants with colic aged less than 3 months. Design Double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial. Setting Community based sample (primary and secondary level care centres) in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 167 breastfed infants or formula fed infants aged less than 3 months meeting Wessels criteria for crying or fussing: 85 were randomised to receive probiotic and 82 to receive placebo. Interventions Oral daily L reuteri (1108 colony forming units) versus placebo for one month. Main outcomes measures The primary outcome was daily duration of cry or fuss at 1 month. Secondary outcomes were duration of cry or fuss; number of cry or fuss episodes; sleep duration of infant at 7, 14, and 21 days, and 1 and 6 months; maternal mental health (Edinburgh postnatal depression subscale); family functioning (paediatric quality of life inventory), parent quality adjusted life years (assessment of quality of life) at 1 and 6 months; infant functioning (paediatric quality of life inventory) at 6 months; infant faecal microbiota (microbial diversity, colonisation with Escherichia coli), and calprotectin levels at 1 month. In intention to treat analyses the two groups were compared using regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Results Of 167 infants randomised from August 2011 to August 2012, 127 (76%) were retained to primary outcome; of these, a subset was analysed for faecal microbial diversity, E coli colonisation, and calprotectin levels. Adherence was high. Mean daily cry or fuss time fell steadily in both groups. At 1 month, the probiotic group cried or fussed 49 minutes more than the placebo group (95% confidence interval 8 to 90 minutes, P=0.02); this mainly reflected more fussing, especially for formula fed infants. The groups were similar on all secondary outcomes. No study related adverse events occurred. Conclusions L reuteri DSM 17938 did not benefit a community sample of breastfed infants and formula fed infants with colic. These findings differ from previous smaller trials of selected populations and do not support a general recommendation for the use of probiotics to treat colic in infants. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN95287767. PMID:24690625

  10. Probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria present in home made curd in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Ramadass; Chandragunasekaran, Aarthi Sophia; Chellappan, Gowri; Rajaram, Krithika; Ramamoorthi, Gayathri; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: The human gut microbiota play a significant role in nutritional processes. The concept of probiotics has led to widespread consumption of food preparations containing probiotic microbes such as curd and yogurt. Curd prepared at home is consumed every day in most homes in southern India. In this study the home-made curd was evaluated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic potential. Methods: Fifteen LAB (12 lactobacilli, 1 Lactococcus, 2 Leuconostoc) and one yeast isolated from home-made curd were evaluated for resistance to acid, pepsin, pancreatin and bile salts; antimicrobial resistance; intrinsic antimicrobial activity; adherence to Caco-2 epithelial cells; ability to block pathogen adherence to Caco-2 cells; ability to inhibit interleukin (IL)-8 secretion from HT-29 epithelial cells in response to Vibrio cholerae; and ability to induce anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in THP-1 monocyte cells. Results: Lactobacillus abundance in fermenting curd peaked sharply at 12 h. Nine of the strains survived exposure to acid (pH 3.0) for at least one hour, and all strains survived in the presence of pancreatin or bile salts for 3 h. None showed haemolytic activity. All were resistant to most antimicrobials tested, but were sensitive to imipenem. Most strains inhibited the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium while five inhibited growth of V. cholerae O139. Seven strains showed adherence to Caco-2 cells ranging from 20-104 per cent of adherence of an adherent strain of Escherichia coli, but all inhibited V. cholerae adherence to Caco-2 cells by 20-100 per cent. They inhibited interleukin-8 secretion from HT-29 cells, in response to V. cholerae, by 50-80 per cent. Two strains induced IL-10 and IL-12 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression in THP-1 cells. Interpretation & conclusions: LAB in curd had properties consistent with probiotic potential, but these were not consistent across species. LAB abundance in curd increased rapidly at 12 h of fermentation at room temperature and declined thereafter. PMID:25366201

  11. Prebiotics and Probiotics Provide Alternatives to Antibiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research examined the effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS, Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY) as a potential feed additive in channel catfish. In the first study, MOS was fed at 2 g/kg diet for six weeks followed by challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri, the bacterium that causes Enteric Septicemi...

  12. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  13. Functional foods as carriers for SYNBIO, a probiotic bacteria combination.

    PubMed

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2012-07-16

    The popularity of functional foods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10?CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502 mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10? and 10?CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Bscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date. PMID:22727086

  14. Modulation of vaccine response by concomitant probiotic administration

    PubMed Central

    Maidens, Catherine; Childs, Caroline; Przemska, Agnieszka; Dayel, Iman Bin; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that probiotic bacteria modulate both innate and adaptive immunity in the host, and in some situations can result in reduced severity of common illnesses, such as acute rotavirus infection and respiratory infections. Responses to vaccination are increasingly being used to provide high quality information on the immunomodulatory effects of dietary components in humans. The present review focuses on the effect of probiotic administration upon vaccination response. The majority of studies investigating the impact of probiotics on responses to vaccination have been conducted in healthy adults, and at best they show modest effects of probiotics on serum or salivary IgA titres. Studies in infants and in elderly subjects are very limited, and it is too early to draw any firm conclusions regarding the potential for probiotics to act as adjuvants in vaccination. Although some studies are comparable in terms of duration of the intervention, age and characteristics of the subjects, most differ in terms of the probiotic selected. Further well designed, randomized, placebo?controlled studies are needed to understand fully the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics, whether the effects exerted are strain?dependent and age?dependent and their clinical relevance in enhancing immune protection following vaccination. PMID:22845346

  15. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  16. Timely approaches to identify probiotic species of the genus Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades the use of probiotics in food has increased largely due to the manufacturer’s interest in placing “healthy” food on the market based on the consumer’s ambitions to live healthy. Due to this trend, health benefits of products containing probiotic strains such as lactobacilli are promoted and probiotic strains have been established in many different products with their numbers increasing steadily. Probiotics are used as starter cultures in dairy products such as cheese or yoghurts and in addition they are also utilized in non-dairy products such as fermented vegetables, fermented meat and pharmaceuticals, thereby, covering a large variety of products. To assure quality management, several pheno-, physico- and genotyping methods have been established to unambiguously identify probiotic lactobacilli. These methods are often specific enough to identify the probiotic strains at genus and species levels. However, the probiotic ability is often strain dependent and it is impossible to distinguish strains by basic microbiological methods. Therefore, this review aims to critically summarize and evaluate conventional identification methods for the genus Lactobacillus, complemented by techniques that are currently being developed. PMID:24063519

  17. Influence of phenolic compounds of Kangra tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O Kuntze] on bacterial pathogens and indigenous bacterial probiotics of Western Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Sourabh, Aditi; Kanwar, S.S.; Sud, R.G.; Ghabru, Arti; Sharma, O.P.

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds of nutraceutical importance viz., catechins (C), (?)-epicatechin (EC), (?)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (?)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) were estimated in fresh green tea shoots of Camellia sinensis (L) O Kuntze cultivar. The total polyphenols and total catechins were in the range of 219.90 to 317.81 and 140.83 to 271.39 g/kg, respectively in monthly samples of tea. The values of C, EC, EGC, EGCG and ECG in tea powders as analyzed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were in the range of 1.560 to 3.661, 13.338 to 27.766, 26.515 to 39.597, 62.903 to 102.168 and 18.969 to 39.469 mg/g, respectively. Effect of tea extracts and standard flavanols against five pathogenic bacteria viz., Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC-839), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-741), Bacillus cereus (MTCC-1272), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96) and Escherichia coli (MTCC-443), and eleven indigenous potential bacterial probiotics belonging to genera Enterococcus, Bacillus and Lactobacillus spp. obtained from fermented foods of Western Himalayas, was investigated. EGCG, ECG and EGC exhibited antibacterial activity but, C and EC did not show this activity. Tea extracts having high concentrations of EGCG and ECG were more potent in antibacterial action against bacterial pathogens. Tea extracts and standard flavan-3-ols augmented viability of potential probiotics in an order of EGCG > EGC > ECG > EC > C. Tea extracts and standard flavanols had no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443) but, in combination with probiotic culture supernatants, this activity was seen. The Kangra tea thus, exerts antibacterial effect on bacterial pathogens through EGCG, ECG and EGC constituents while stimulatory effect on growth of indigenous potential probiotics. PMID:24516437

  18. Probiotics: determinants of survival and growth in the gut.

    PubMed

    Bezkorovainy, A

    2001-02-01

    Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are purportedly beneficial to human health and are called probiotics. Their survival during passage through the human gut, when administered in fermented milk products, has been investigated intensely in recent years. Well-controlled, small-scale studies on diarrhea in both adults and infants have shown that probiotics are beneficial and that they survive in sufficient numbers to affect gut microbial metabolism. Survival rates have been estimated at 20-40% for selected strains, the main obstacles to survival being gastric acidity and the action of bile salts. Although it is believed that the maximum probiotic effect can be achieved if the organisms adhere to intestinal mucosal cells, there is no evidence that exogenously administered probiotics do adhere to the mucosal cells. Instead, they seem to pass into the feces without having adhered or multiplied. Thus, to obtain a continuous exogenous probiotic effect, the probiotic culture must be ingested continually. Certain exogenously administered substances enhance the action of both exogenous and endogenous probiotics. Human milk contains many substances that stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in vitro and also in the small intestine of infants; however, it is unlikely that they function in the colon. However, lactulose and certain fructose-containing compounds, called prebiotics, are not digested in the small intestine but pass into the cecum unchanged, where they are selectively utilized by probiotics. Beneficial effects may thus accrue from exogenously administered probiotics, often administered with prebiotics, or by endogenous bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, whose metabolic activity and growth may also be enhanced by the administration of prebiotics. PMID:11157348

  19. Functional Characterization of a Mucus-Specific LPXTG Surface Adhesin from Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ▿

    PubMed Central

    von Ossowski, Ingemar; Satokari, Reetta; Reunanen, Justus; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Vos, Willem M.; Palva, Airi

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological niche as a comparatively less stringent allochthonous intestine-dwelling bacterium. To uncover additional surface proteins involved in mucosal adhesion, we investigated the adherence properties of the only predicted protein (LGG_02337) in L. rhamnosus GG that exhibits homology with a known mucus-binding domain. We cloned a recombinant form of the gene for this putative mucus adhesin and established that the purified protein readily adheres to human intestinal mucus. We also showed that this mucus adhesin is visibly distributed throughout the cell surface and participates in the adhesive interaction between L. rhamnosus GG and mucus, although less prominently than the mucus-binding pili in this strain. Based on primary structural comparisons, we concluded that the current annotation of the LGG_02337 protein likely does not accurately reflect its predicted properties, and we propose that this mucus-specific adhesin be called the mucus-binding factor (MBF). Finally, we interpret our results to mean that L. rhamnosus GG MBF, as an active mucus-specific surface adhesin with a presumed ancillary involvement in pilus-mediated mucosal adhesion, plays a part in the adherent mechanisms during intestinal colonization by this probiotic. PMID:21602388

  20. A new zebrafish model of oro-intestinal pathogen colonization reveals a key role for adhesion in protection by probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rendueles, Olaya; Ferrires, Lionel; Frtaud, Maxence; Bgaud, Evelyne; Herbomel, Philippe; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial contribution of commensal bacteria to host health and homeostasis led to the concept that exogenous non-pathogenic bacteria called probiotics could be used to limit disease caused by pathogens. However, despite recent progress using gnotobiotic mammal and invertebrate models, mechanisms underlying protection afforded by commensal and probiotic bacteria against pathogens remain poorly understood. Here we developed a zebrafish model of controlled co-infection in which germ-free zebrafish raised on axenic living protozoa enabled the study of interactions between host and commensal and pathogenic bacteria. We screened enteric fish pathogens and identified Edwardsiella ictaluri as a virulent strain inducing a strong inflammatory response and rapid mortality in zebrafish larvae infected by the natural oro-intestinal route. Using mortality induced by infection as a phenotypic read-out, we pre-colonized zebrafish larvae with 37 potential probiotic bacterial strains and screened for survival upon E. ictaluri infection. We identified 3 robustly protective strains, including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and 2 Escherichia coli strains. We showed that the observed protective effect of E. coli was not correlated with a reduced host inflammatory response, nor with the release of biocidal molecules by protective bacteria, but rather with the presence of specific adhesion factors such as F pili that promote the emergence of probiotic bacteria in zebrafish larvae. Our study therefore provides new insights into the molecular events underlying the probiotic effect and constitutes a potentially high-throughput in vivo approach to the study of the molecular basis of pathogen exclusion in a relevant model of vertebrate oro-intestinal infection. PMID:22911651

  1. A New Zebrafish Model of Oro-Intestinal Pathogen Colonization Reveals a Key Role for Adhesion in Protection by Probiotic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bgaud, Evelyne; Herbomel, Philippe; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial contribution of commensal bacteria to host health and homeostasis led to the concept that exogenous non-pathogenic bacteria called probiotics could be used to limit disease caused by pathogens. However, despite recent progress using gnotobiotic mammal and invertebrate models, mechanisms underlying protection afforded by commensal and probiotic bacteria against pathogens remain poorly understood. Here we developed a zebrafish model of controlled co-infection in which germ-free zebrafish raised on axenic living protozoa enabled the study of interactions between host and commensal and pathogenic bacteria. We screened enteric fish pathogens and identified Edwardsiella ictaluri as a virulent strain inducing a strong inflammatory response and rapid mortality in zebrafish larvae infected by the natural oro-intestinal route. Using mortality induced by infection as a phenotypic read-out, we pre-colonized zebrafish larvae with 37 potential probiotic bacterial strains and screened for survival upon E. ictaluri infection. We identified 3 robustly protective strains, including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and 2 Escherichia coli strains. We showed that the observed protective effect of E. coli was not correlated with a reduced host inflammatory response, nor with the release of biocidal molecules by protective bacteria, but rather with the presence of specific adhesion factors such as F pili that promote the emergence of probiotic bacteria in zebrafish larvae. Our study therefore provides new insights into the molecular events underlying the probiotic effect and constitutes a potentially high-throughput in vivo approach to the study of the molecular basis of pathogen exclusion in a relevant model of vertebrate oro-intestinal infection. PMID:22911651

  2. Probiotics and the gastrointestinal tract: where are we in 2005?

    PubMed

    Chermesh, Irit; Eliakim, Rami

    2006-02-14

    Probiotic agents are live microbes or components of microbes that have a positive effect on the host. They exert their action through interplay with the immune system of the host. Some of this effect is local and some is systemic. The full story is yet to be discovered. Probiotics have a definite positive effect on rotavirus diarrhea, post antibiotic diarrhea and pouchitis. Their exact role in inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, other forms of infectious diarrhea, and prevention of cancer is yet to be determined. This review summarizes the data about probiotics in these conditions. PMID:16521211

  3. Probiotics as efficient immunopotentiators: Translational role in cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Shida, Kan; Nomoto, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidences indicate that some diseases are triggered by abnormalities of the gut microbiota. Among these, immune-related diseases can be the promising targets for probiotcs. Several studies have proved the efficacy of probiotics for preventing such diseases including cancers, infections, allergies, inflammatory bowel diseases and autoimmune diseases. Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) is one of the most popular probiotics, benefits of which in health maintenance and disease control have been supported by several science-based evidences. This review summarizes human clinical trials with this probiotic against cancer development and also discusses the possible immunomodulatory mechanisms by which LcS exerts anti-cancer activity. PMID:24434333

  4. Clinical research on probiotics: the interface between science and regulation.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Carmen

    2008-02-01

    Although there exists some evidence of the safety and efficacy of probiotics for treatment of disease, many of the clinical trials have lacked methodological quality, particularly with regard to protocol design, selection of population, and product characterization. Depending on the regulatory route, data need to be collected carefully to satisfy regulatory requirements in the United States and elsewhere. This article discusses how the regulations for probiotics affect clinical research. It also describes clinical trial design and issues that affect the design of trials for probiotics conducted to improve the scientific evidence for these products. PMID:18181711

  5. Is There a Role for Probiotics in Helicobacter pylori Therapy?

    PubMed

    Dore, Maria P; Goni, Elisabetta; Di Mario, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    The role of probiotics in Helicobacter pylori therapy remains unclear. Lactobacilli can be shown to inhibit H pylori in vitro. Some strains of Lactobacilli may exert specific antimicrobial effects. There is no strong evidence of a benefit on eradication rate when probiotics are added to a regimen. Despite promising results obtained using compounds of L reuteri and S boulardii, high-quality trials are needed to define the role of probiotics as adjuvant therapy. Variables that remain to be studied with L reuteri, currently the most promising strain, include dosage, frequency of administration, administration in relation to meals, and duration of therapy. PMID:26314668

  6. Probiotics and the gastrointestinal tract: Where are we in 2005?

    PubMed Central

    Chermesh, Irit; Eliakim, Rami

    2006-01-01

    Probiotic agents are live microbes or components of microbes that have a positive effect on the host. They exert their action through interplay with the immune system of the host. Some of this effect is local and some is systemic. The full story is yet to be discovered. Probiotics have a definite positive effect on rotavirus diarrhea, post antibiotic diarrhea and pouchitis. Their exact role in inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, other forms of infectious diarrhea, and prevention of cancer is yet to be determined. This review summarizes the data about probiotics in these conditions. PMID:16521211

  7. Microencapsulation of probiotics for gastrointestinal delivery.

    PubMed

    Cook, Michael T; Tzortzis, George; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

    2012-08-20

    The administration of probiotic bacteria as nutraceuticals is an area that has rapidly expanded in recent years, with a global market worth $32.6 billion predicted by 2014. Many of the health promoting claims attributed to these bacteria are dependent on the cells being both viable and sufficiently numerous in the intestinal tract. The oral administration of most bacteria results in a large loss of viability associated with passage through the stomach, which is attributed to the high acid and bile salt concentrations present. This loss of viability effectively lowers the efficacy of the administered supplement. The formulation of these probiotics into microcapsules is an emerging method to reduce cell death during GI passage, as well as an opportunity to control release of these cells across the intestinal tract. The majority of this technology is based on the immobilization of bacteria into a polymer matrix, which retains its structure in the stomach before degrading and dissolving in the intestine, unlike the diffusion based unloading of most controlled release devices for small molecules. This review shall provide an overview of progress in this field as well as draw attention to areas where studies have fallen short. This will be followed by a discussion of emerging trends in the field, highlighting key areas in which further research is necessary. PMID:22698940

  8. Probiotics, immunity and exercise: a review.

    PubMed

    West, N P; Pyne, D B; Peake, J M; Cripps, A W

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional practices that promote good health and optimal athletic performance are of interest to athletes, coaches, exercise scientists and dietitians. Probiotic supplements modulate the intestinal microbial flora and offer promise as a practical means of enhancing gut and immune function. The intestinal microbial flora consists of diverse bacterial species that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. These bacteria are integral to the ontogeny and regulation of the immune system, protection of the body from infection, and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. The interaction of the gut microbial flora with intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells exerts beneficial effects on the upper respiratory tract, skin and uro-genital tract. The capacity for probiotics to modulate perturbations in immune function after exercise highlight their potential for use in individuals exposed to high degrees of physical and environment stress. Future studies are required to address issues of dose-response in various exercise settings, the magnitude of species-specific effects, mechanisms of action and clinical outcomes in terms of health and performance. PMID:19957873

  9. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics: Gut and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Usha; Ranganathan, Natarajan

    2012-01-01

    The human intestinal tract has been colonized by thousands of species of bacteria during the coevolution of man and microbes. Gut-borne microbes outnumber the total number of body tissue cells by a factor of ten. Recent metagenomic analysis of the human gut microbiota has revealed the presence of some 3.3 million genes, as compared to the mere 23 thousand genes present in the cells of the tissues in the entire human body. Evidence for various beneficial roles of the intestinal microbiota in human health and disease is expanding rapidly. Perturbation of the intestinal microbiota may lead to chronic diseases such as autoimmune diseases, colon cancers, gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, functional bowel diseases, and obesity. Restoration of the gut microbiota may be difficult to accomplish, but the use of probiotics has led to promising results in a large number of well-designed (clinical) studies. Microbiomics has spurred a dramatic increase in scientific, industrial, and public interest in probiotics and prebiotics as possible agents for gut microbiota management and control. Genomics and bioinformatics tools may allow us to establish mechanistic relationships among gut microbiota, health status, and the effects of drugs in the individual. This will hopefully provide perspectives for personalized gut microbiota management. PMID:23049548

  10. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Potentially Probiotic Vaginal Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Ocaa, Virginia; Silva, Clara; Nader-Macas, Mara Elena

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To study the antimicrobial susceptibility of six vaginal probiotic lactobacilli. Methods. The disc diffusion method in Meller Hinton, LAPTg and MRS agars by the NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) procedure was performed. Due to the absence of a Lactobacillus reference strains, the results were compared to those of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) with 21 different antibiotics in LAPTg agar and broth was also determined. Results. LAPTg and MRS agars are suitable media to study antimicrobial susceptibility of lactobacilli. However, the NCCLS procedure needs to be standardized for this genus. The MICs have shown that all Lactobacillus strains grew at concentrations above 10 ?g/mL of chloramphenicol, aztreonam, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, streptomycin and kanamycin. Four lactobacilli were sensitive to 1 ?g/mL vancomycin and all of them were resistant to 1000 ?g/mL of metronidazole. Sensitivity to other antibiotics depended on each particular strain. Conclusions. The NCCLS method needs to be standardized in an appropriate medium to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus. Vaginal probiotic lactobacilli do not display uniform susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to high concentrations of metronidazole suggests that lactobacilli could be simultaneously used with a bacterial vaginosis treatment to restore the vaginal normal flora. PMID:17485797

  11. Nutritional and probiotic supplementation in colitis models.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Nanau RM; Neuman MG

    2012-11-01

    In vitro and animals models have long been used to study human diseases and identify novel therapeutic approaches that can be applied to combat these conditions. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the two main entities of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There is an intricate relationship between IBD features in human patients, in vitro and animal colitis models, mechanisms and possible therapeutic approaches in these models, and strategies that can be extrapolated and applied in humans. Malnutrition, particularly protein-energy malnutrition and vitamin and micronutrient deficiencies, as well as dysregulation of the intestinal microbiota, are common features of IBD. Based on these observations, dietary supplementation with essential nutrients known to be in short supply in the diet in IBD patients and with other molecules believed to provide beneficial anti-inflammatory effects, as well as with probiotic organisms that stimulate immune functions and resistance to infection has been tested in colitis models. Here we review current knowledge on nutritional and probiotic supplementation in in vitro and animal colitis models. While some of these strategies require further fine-tuning before they can be applied in human IBD patients, their intended purpose is to prevent, delay or treat disease symptoms in a non-pharmaceutical manner.

  12. Nutritional and probiotic supplementation in colitis models.

    PubMed

    Nanau, Radu M; Neuman, Manuela G

    2012-11-01

    In vitro and animals models have long been used to study human diseases and identify novel therapeutic approaches that can be applied to combat these conditions. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the two main entities of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There is an intricate relationship between IBD features in human patients, in vitro and animal colitis models, mechanisms and possible therapeutic approaches in these models, and strategies that can be extrapolated and applied in humans. Malnutrition, particularly protein-energy malnutrition and vitamin and micronutrient deficiencies, as well as dysregulation of the intestinal microbiota, are common features of IBD. Based on these observations, dietary supplementation with essential nutrients known to be in short supply in the diet in IBD patients and with other molecules believed to provide beneficial anti-inflammatory effects, as well as with probiotic organisms that stimulate immune functions and resistance to infection has been tested in colitis models. Here we review current knowledge on nutritional and probiotic supplementation in in vitro and animal colitis models. While some of these strategies require further fine-tuning before they can be applied in human IBD patients, their intended purpose is to prevent, delay or treat disease symptoms in a non-pharmaceutical manner. PMID:22736018

  13. [Microbiota in women; clinical applications of probiotics].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Calatayud, Guillermo; Suárez, Evaristo; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Pérez-Moreno, Jimena

    2015-01-01

    The main function of vaginal microbiota is to protect the mucosa against the colonization and growth of pathogenic microorganisms. This microbiota is modified by hormonal activity. Its maximum concentration and effectiveness occurs during the fertile period, where there is a predominance of lactobacilli. When it is reduced (microbiota dysbiosis) leads to bacterial vaginosis and candida vaginitis which are common diseases in women. Consequently, instillation of lactobacilli in the vagina has beneficial effects on the symptomatology and prognosis of these illnesses. Breast milk is one of the key factors in the development of gut microbiota of the infant. There is an enteric-breast circulation, which is higher at the end of pregnancy and during breastfeeding. This circulation could explain the modulation of the breast microbiota by using probiotics. It could have a positive impact not only for the health of the mother, who would reduce the incidence of mastitis, but also for their infant. The use of probiotics is a hopeful alternative in various gynecological pathologies. However, it's is necessary first some well-designed, randomized trials with standardized methods and with a significant number of patients in order to confirm its benefits and allow us its use in protocols. PMID:26267776

  14. A unique in vivo experimental approach reveals metabolic adaptation of the probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii to the colon environment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a food grade bacterium consumed both in cheeses and in probiotic preparations. Its promising probiotic potential, relying largely on the active release of beneficial metabolites within the gut as well as the expression of key surface proteins involved in immunomodulation, deserves to be explored more deeply. Adaptation to the colon environment is requisite for the active release of propionibacterial beneficial metabolites and constitutes a bottleneck for metabolic activity in vivo. Mechanisms allowing P. freudenreichii to adapt to digestive stresses have been only studied in vitro so far. Our aim was therefore to study P. freudenreichii metabolic adaptation to intra-colonic conditions in situ. Results We maintained a pure culture of the type strain P. freudenreichii CIRM BIA 1, contained in a dialysis bag, within the colon of vigilant piglets during 24 hours. A transcriptomic analysis compared gene expression to identify the metabolic pathways induced by this environment, versus control cultures maintained in spent culture medium. We observed drastic changes in the catabolism of sugars and amino-acids. Glycolysis, the Wood-Werkman cycle and the oxidative phosphorylation pathways were down-regulated but induction of specific carbohydrate catabolisms and alternative pathways were induced to produce NADH, NADPH, ATP and precursors (utilizing of propanediol, gluconate, lactate, purine and pyrimidine and amino-acids). Genes involved in stress response were down-regulated and genes specifically expressed during cell division were induced, suggesting that P. freudenreichii adapted its metabolism to the conditions encountered in the colon. Conclusions This study constitutes the first molecular demonstration of P. freudenreichii activity and physiological adaptation in vivo within the colon. Our data are likely specific to our pig microbiota composition but opens an avenue towards understanding probiotic action within the gut in further studies comparing bacterial adaptation to different microbiota. PMID:24365073

  15. Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, a butyrate producer with probiotic potential, is intrinsically tolerant to stomach and small intestine conditions.

    PubMed

    Geirnaert, Annelies; Steyaert, Alix; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Debruyne, Bo; Arends, Jan B A; Van Immerseel, Filip; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Butyrate has several beneficial properties that are essential to maintain gastrointestinal health. Therefore butyrate-producing bacteria are seen as the next generation of probiotics. The butyrate-producing bacterium Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum (a clostridial cluster IV strain) is such a promising probiotic candidate for people suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. To exert its beneficial properties, it is crucial that B. pullicaecorum survives the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract to arrive in the colon in a viable and metabolically active state. Before developing a stable formulation of B. pullicaecorum for oral administration, it is important to know its intrinsic acid and bile tolerance. We monitored the survival during and short chain fatty acid production after incubation in conditions simulating the stomach and small intestine using in vitro batch experiments. In case of acid conditions (pH 2 and pH 3), B. pullicaecorum was viable and active but not cultivable. Cultivability was restored during subsequent small intestine conditions. Importantly, bile and pancreatic juice had no lethal effect. Milk, as a suspension medium, only had a protective effect on the cultivability during the first hour at pH 2. B. pullicaecorum was still metabolically active after upper gastrointestinal conditions and produced short chain fatty acids, but a shift from butyrate to acetate production was observed. Although the butyrate-producing anaerobe B. pullicaecorum showed good intrinsic acid and bile tolerance in terms of viability and metabolic activity, colonization efficiency and butyrate production under colon conditions is needed to further evaluate its probiotic potential. PMID:25179909

  16. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2015-08-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important challenges in the field include survival of probiotics during microencapsulation, stability of microencapsulated probiotics in fermented milks, sensory quality of fermented milks with microencapsulated probiotics, and efficacy of microencapsulation to deliver probiotics and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. This study reviews the current knowledge, and the future prospects and challenges of microencapsulation of probiotics used in fermented milk products. In addition, the influence of microencapsulation on probiotics viability and survival is reviewed. PMID:26243890

  17. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of LSJC7 towards tetracycline. The concentrations of heavy metals required to induce antibiotic resistance, i.e., the minimum heavy metal concentrations (MHCs), were far below (up to 64-fold) the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of LSJC7. This finding indicates that the relatively low heavy metal levels in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficient to induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. In addition, heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance was also observed for a combination of arsenate and chloramphenicol in LSJC7, and copper/zinc and tetracycline in antibiotic susceptible strain Escherichia coli DH5α. Overall, this study implies that heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance might be ubiquitous among various microbial species and suggests that it might play a role in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in metal and antibiotic co-contaminated environments. PMID:26426011

  18. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of LSJC7 towards tetracycline. The concentrations of heavy metals required to induce antibiotic resistance, i.e., the minimum heavy metal concentrations (MHCs), were far below (up to 64-fold) the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of LSJC7. This finding indicates that the relatively low heavy metal levels in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficient to induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. In addition, heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance was also observed for a combination of arsenate and chloramphenicol in LSJC7, and copper/zinc and tetracycline in antibiotic susceptible strain Escherichia coli DH5?. Overall, this study implies that heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance might be ubiquitous among various microbial species and suggests that it might play a role in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in metal and antibiotic co-contaminated environments. PMID:26426011

  19. Mutation of bacterium Vibrio gazogenes for selective preparation of colorants.

    PubMed

    Alihosseini, Farzaneh; Lango, Jozsef; Ju, Kou-San; Hammock, Bruce D; Sun, Gang

    2010-01-01

    A novel marine bacterium strain effectively produced prodiginine type pigments. These colorants could dye wool, silk and synthetic fabrics such as polyester and polyacrylic and also show antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria on the dyed products. Methyl nitrosoguanidine was used as a mutation agent to increase the genetic diversity and the production yield of the bacteria of the family of Vibrio gazogenes. The analysis of the mutated samples showed that two new main colorants as well as three previously found ones were produced. Liquid chromatography electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques were used to elucidate the structures of the newly produced colorants. Mass measurements revealed that the colorants C1, C2, C3, C4 have molecular masses of 321, 323, 351, and 295 Da. One unstable colorant C5 with molecular mass of 309 Da was detected as well. The mutated bacteria strains increased the yield of pigment production by about 81% and produced prodigiosin in 97% purity. The antibiotic activities of pure colorants are discussed as well. Based on their bio-activity and excellent dyeing capabilities, these colorants could be employed in cosmetic and textile industries. PMID:19902486

  20. The angiogenic effect of probiotic Bacillus polyfermenticus on human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells is mediated by IL-8

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Cho Hee; Fiocchi, Claudio; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis is required for wound healing and repair, but dysregulated angiogenesis is involved in gastrointestinal inflammation. Bacillus polyfermenticus (B.P.) is a probiotic bacterium clinically used for a variety of intestinal disorders in East Asia. Here we investigated the effect of B.P. on angiogenesis of human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMECs) and wound healing in intestinal mucosa. Exposure of HIMECs to the conditioned medium of B.P. cultures (B.P. CM) increased cell migration, permeability, and tube formation. Production of the proangiogenic cytokine IL-8 was increased by B.P. CM, and neutralizing antibodies against IL-8 or IL-8 receptor CXCR2 reduced tube formation as well as actin stress fiber formation. B.P. CM also increased NF-?B activation, and inhibitors of NF-?B suppressed B.P. CM-induced tube formation and IL-8 production. Furthermore, B.P. facilitated recovery of mice from colitis as shown by increased body weight and reduced rectal bleeding and histological severity. B.P. also increased angiogenesis and mouse IL-8 production in the mucosal layer. Collectively, these results show that B.P. increases angiogenesis of HIMECs in a NF-?B/IL-8/CXCR2-dependent manner. Moreover, B.P. promotes angiogenesis in the mucosa during recovery of mice from colitis, suggesting that this probiotic may be clinically used to facilitate intestinal wound healing. PMID:20501448

  1. Immunology and probiotic impact of the newborn and young children intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Stavropoulou, Elisabeth

    2011-12-01

    Human body has developed a holistic defence system, which mission is either to recognize and destroy the aggressive invaders or to evolve mechanisms permitting to minimize or restore the consequences of harmful actions. The host immune system keeps the capital role to preserve the microbial intestinal balance via the barrier effect. Specifically, pathogenic invaders such as, bacteria, parasites, viruses and other xenobiotic invaders are rejected out of the body via barriers formed by the skin, mucosa and intestinal flora. In case physical barriers are breached, the immune system with its many components comes into action in order to fence infection. The intestine itself is considered as an "active organ" due to its abundant bacterial flora and to its large metabolic activity. The variation among different species or even among different strains within a species reflects the complexity of the genetic polymorphism which regulates the immune system functions. Additionally factors such as, gender, particular habits, smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, religion, age, gender, precedent infections and vaccinations must be involved. Hormonal profile and stress seems to be associated to the integrity microbiota and inducing immune system alterations. Which bacterial species are needed for inducing a proper barrier effect is not known, but it is generally accepted that this barrier function can be strongly supported by providing benefic alimentary supplements called functional foods. In this vein it is stressed the fact that early intestinal colonization with organisms such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria and possibly subsequent protection from many different types of diseases. Moreover, this benefic microflora dominated but Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli support the concept of their ability to modify the gut microbiota by reducing the risk of cancer following their capacity to decrease ?-glucoronidase and carcinogen levels. Because of their beneficial roles in the human gastrointestinal tract, LAB are referred to as "probiotics", and efforts are underway to employ them in modern nutrition habits with so-called functional foods. Members of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera are normal residents of the microbiota in the human gastrointestinal tract, in which they developed soon after birth. But, whether such probiotic strains derived from the human gut should be commercially employed in the so-called functional foods is a matter of debate between scientists and the industrial world. Within a few hours from birth the newborn develops its normal bacterial flora. Indeed human milk frequently contains low amounts of non-pathogenic bacteria like Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Bifidobacterium. In general, bacteria start to appear in feces within a few hours after birth. Colonization by Bifidobacterium occurs generally within 4 days of life. Claims have been made for positive effects of Bifidobacterium on infant growth and health. The effect of certain bacteria having a benefic action on the intestinal ecosystem is largely discussed during the last years by many authors. Bifidobacterium is reported to be a probiotic bacterium, exercising a beneficial effect on the intestinal flora. An antagonism has been reported between B. bifidum and C. perfringens in the intestine of newborns delivered by cesarean section. The aim of the probiotic approach is to repair the deficiencies in the gut flora and restore the protective effect. However, the possible ways in which the gut microbiota is being influenced by probiotics is yet unknown. PMID:21515397

  2. Early Probiotic Supplementation for the Prevention of Atopic Disease in NewbornsProbiotics and the Hygiene Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    CABANA, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors during early infancy could theoretically affect immune system development and subsequent risk of allergic disease. One potentially helpful exposure is early infant supplementation with specific probiotic strains. Unlike other exposures, probiotic supplementation is feasible and has a good safety profile. A review of recent randomized, controlled trials suggests that the effect of supplementation with probiotics on preventing the development of allergic disease is mixed. Further studies are needed to define potential mechanisms of action, such as effects on infant microbiota, as well as potential subgroups of patients that may benefit from these interventions. PMID:25045318

  3. The dual role of bacteriocins as anti- and probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Gillor, O.; Etzion, A.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria employed in probiotic applications help to maintain or restore a host's natural microbial floral. The ability of probiotic bacteria to successfully outcompete undesired species is often due to, or enhanced by, the production of potent antimicrobial toxins. The most commonly encountered of these are bacteriocins, a large and functionally diverse family of antimicrobials found in all major lineages of Bacteria. Recent studies reveal that these proteinaceous toxins play a critical role in mediating competitive dynamics between bacterial strains and closely related species. The potential use of bacteriocin-producing strains as probiotic and bioprotective agents has recently received increased attention. This review will report on recent efforts involving the use of such strains, with a particular focus on emerging probiotic therapies for humans, livestock, and aquaculture. PMID:18853155

  4. Five probiotic drops a day to keep infantile colic away?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colic is a common but distressing condition in young infants. We were asked to comment on a recently published study which found that a certain type of probiotic ("good bacteria") could be used to treat colic....

  5. Probiotic Administration in Congenital Heart Disease: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Collin L.; Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Kalanetra, Karen M.; Mirmiran, Majid; Elumalai, Jagadish; Haapanen, Lori; Schegg, Tiffany; Rutledge, John C.; Raff, Gary; Mills, David A.; Underwood, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Investigate the impact of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum ssp infantis on the fecal microbiota and plasma cytokines in neonates with congenital heart disease. Study design Sixteen infants with congenital heart disease were randomly assigned to receive either B. infantis (4.2 109 cfu twice daily) or placebo for 8 weeks. Stool specimens from enrolled infants and from six term infants without heart disease were analyzed for microbial composition. Plasma cytokines were analyzed weekly in the infants with heart disease. Results Healthy control infants had increased total bacteria, total Bacteroidetes, and total bifidobacteria compared to the infants with heart disease, but there were no significant differences between the placebo and probiotic groups. Plasma IL10, IFN?, and IL1? levels were transiently higher in the probiotic group. Conclusions Congenital heart disease in infants is associated with dysbiosis. Probiotic B. infantis did not significantly alter the fecal microbiota. Alterations in plasma cytokines were inconsistent. PMID:23599119

  6. Time to Talk: 5 Things to Know about Probiotics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español Be An Informed Consumer What Is Complementary, Alternative or Integrative ... some evidence that probiotics may be helpful for acute diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and atopic eczema (a skin condition ...

  7. Do probiotics have a therapeutic role in gastroenterology?

    PubMed Central

    Limdi, Jimmy K; O’Neill, Catherine; McLaughlin, John

    2006-01-01

    Several hundred species of bacteria inhabit the gut, and affect its cell biology, morphology and homeostasis. Many bacteria are however potential pathogens, especially if the integrity of the epithelial barrier is physically or functionally breached. Conversely, the interaction between host and commensal microbes can confer important health benefits. This has led to commercial and public interest in 'probiotics', live microbes principally taken as food supplements. Might probiotics also be used in disease therapy Experimental evidence that probiotics modulate gut physiology, particularly barrier integrity and immunological function, underpins exciting new gastroenterological research. We discuss below the scientific basis for probiotic effects and present a critical perspective for their use in relation to gastrointestinal disease. PMID:17006980

  8. Use of probiotics and yogurts in maintenance of health.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2008-07-01

    The role of probiotics in treating or preventing diarrheal diseases is well known. Less understood is the impact probiotics may have on maintaining health. Although it can be a challenge to demonstrate improved health of an already healthy population, some recent studies provide evidence that probiotics may reduce the risk of getting sick in populations that are at risk by nature of environmental exposure (eg, children in day care centers), physical status (eg, premature infants or people taking antibiotics), or family history of disease (eg, infants with a primary relative with atopic disease). These benefits may be the result of improved immune status, fewer intestinal infections, or improved intestinal integrity. The live microorganisms mediating these effects may be delivered in different formats, but the role of yogurt as a delivery vehicle for efficacious probiotics is specifically discussed. PMID:18542039

  9. Bacterial munch for infants: potential pediatric therapeutic interventions of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Mohsin; Aslam, Bilal; Nisar, Muhammad Atif; Akbar, Rubab; Rahman, Hazir; Khan, Abdul Arif; Rasool, Muhammad Hidayat

    2015-11-01

    Probiotics are viable microorganisms with the capacity to alter the gastrointestinal microbiota of the host. The recent scientific advancements and development of probiotic formulations have rekindled the importance of these clinical interpretations, underlining the starring role of the gut flora in host metabolism, defense and immune regulation. Despite encouraging preliminary results from randomized clinical trials of probiotics for various clinical conditions including irritable bowel syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, infantile colic, and improvement of digestion and immune function, further evidence is needed to determine the reproducibility of the findings and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In this review, we have considered the postnatal development of gut flora and appraised the role of probiotics in health and disease condition among infants. PMID:26515509

  10. Novel Waddlia Intracellular Bacterium in Artibeus intermedius Fruit Bats, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pierl, Sebastin Aguilar; Morales, Cirani Obregn; Martnez, Leonardo Perea; Ceballos, Nidia Archiga; Rivero, Juan Jos Prez; Daz, Osvaldo Lpez; Brayton, Kelly A; Setin, Alvaro Aguilar

    2015-12-01

    An intracellular bacterium was isolated from fruit bats (Artibeus intermedius) in Cocoyoc, Mexico. The bacterium caused severe lesions in the lungs and spleens of bats and intracytoplasmic vacuoles in cell cultures. Sequence analyses showed it is related to Waddlia spp. (order Chlamydiales). We propose to call this bacterium Waddlia cocoyoc. PMID:26583968

  11. Novel Waddlia Intracellular Bacterium in Artibeus intermedius Fruit Bats, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Morales, Cirani Obregón; Martínez, Leonardo Perea; Ceballos, Nidia Aréchiga; Rivero, Juan José Pérez; Díaz, Osvaldo López; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    An intracellular bacterium was isolated from fruit bats (Artibeus intermedius) in Cocoyoc, Mexico. The bacterium caused severe lesions in the lungs and spleens of bats and intracytoplasmic vacuoles in cell cultures. Sequence analyses showed it is related to Waddlia spp. (order Chlamydiales). We propose to call this bacterium Waddlia cocoyoc. PMID:26583968

  12. Influence of a probiotic mixture on antibiotic induced microbiota disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Forssten, Sofia; Evans, Malkanthi; Wilson, Dale; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of probiotic consumption on the faecal microbiota during and after antibiotic exposure. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study with a two species probiotic combination [Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) ATCC 700396 and Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) ATCC SD5220] on healthy adults during and after antibiotic treatment (amoxicillin 875 and 125 mg clavulanate). The dominant faecal microbiota was studied by real time-polymerase chain reaction to determine if this probiotic preparation could facilitate restoring the microbiota to its pre-antibiotic state and influence the prevalence of beta-lactam resistance. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded by questionnaire and Bristol stool scale. RESULTS: Subjects on the probiotic combination had significantly higher faecal counts of L. acidophilus ATCC 700396 and B. lactis at day 8 (end of antibiotic treatment period) vs those on placebo. Furthermore, subjects on the probiotic combination had significantly higher faecal counts of L. acidophilus ATCC 700396 and B. lactis at Day 15 (end of probiotic treatment) vs those on placebo. Lactobacillus counts remained stable in the probiotic group over the course of the study, while Clostridium XIV group was higher at the end of the study and closer to baseline levels; this in contrast to the placebo group. Beta-lactam resistance in creased after antibiotic exposure and was not different between both treatment groups. Gastrointestinal symptoms were generally mild and did not differ between the treatment groups, which correlates with the generally small changes in the microbiota. CONCLUSION: Consumption of the probiotic combination mainly leads to an increase in the faecal levels of the species included in the preparation. PMID:25206295

  13. Probiotics in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Science and the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2015-01-01

    Although probiotics have been used for many years by those who suffer from what would now be defined as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a scientific rationale for their use in this indication and clinical evidence to support their benefits have only emerged very recently. Evidence to support considering strategies, such as probiotics, that modulate the gut microbiome, in IBS, has been provided by laboratory studies implicating the microbiome and the host response to the enteric microenvironment in IBS, as well as in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating the ability of various commensal bacteria to influence such relevant functions as motility, visceral sensation, gut barrier integrity, and brain-gut interactions. Clinical studies supporting a role for probiotics in the management of IBS predated such experimental data, and randomized controlled trials of probiotics in IBS continue to be reported. Their interpretation is hampered by the less than optimal quality of many studies; nevertheless, it is apparent that probiotics, as a category, do exert significant effects in IBS. Defining the optimal strain, dose, formulation, and duration of therapy is more challenging given the limitations of available data. There is also an urgent need for appropriately powered and rigorously designed clinical trials of appropriate duration of probiotics in IBS; such studies should also help to define those who are most likely to respond to probiotics. Future laboratory and translational research should attempt to define the mechanism(s) of action of probiotics in IBS and explore the response to bacterial components or products in this common and oftentimes troublesome disorder. PMID:26447967

  14. Performance of broiler chickens supplemented with Bacillus coagulans as probiotic.

    PubMed

    Cavazzoni, V; Adami, A; Castrovilli, C

    1998-09-01

    1. A newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain as probiotic was assayed as the only dietary additive for chickens. 2. Chickens receiving no additive at all or only virginiamycin were used for comparison. 3. Two trials each carried out on 75 chickens showed that, in terms of efficacy in growth and food conversion ratio, the B. coagulans biomass as a probiotic had a growth-promoting, prophylactic effect comparable to that of virginiamycin. PMID:9800038

  15. Probiotics and gut health: A special focus on liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, Silvia Wilson; Mykkanen, Hannu; El-Nezami, Hani S

    2010-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria have well-established beneficial effects in the management of diarrhoeal diseases. Newer evidence suggests that probiotics have the potential to reduce the risk of developing inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal bacterial overgrowth after gut surgery. In liver health, the main benefits of probiotics might occur through preventing the production and/or uptake of lipopolysaccharides in the gut, and therefore reducing levels of low-grade inflammation. Specific immune stimulation by probiotics through processes involving dendritic cells might also be beneficial to the host immunological status and help prevent pathogen translocation. Hepatic fat metabolism also seems to be influenced by the presence of commensal bacteria, and potentially by probiotics; although the mechanisms by which probiotic might act on the liver are still unclear. However, this might be of major importance in the future because low-grade inflammation, hepatic fat infiltration, and hepatitis might become more prevalent as a result of high fat intake and the increased prevalence of obesity. PMID:20101763

  16. Probiotic Properties of Lyophilized Cell Free Extract of Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Saadatzadeh, Afrooz; Fazeli, Mohamma Reza; Jamalifar, Hossein; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years there have been considerable interests in the use of probiotic live cells for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. This strategy can be concomitant with some limitations such as survival of live cell during the GI-transit and their effective delivery to target tissues upon ingestion. Several attempts have been made to overcome these limitations such as their microencapsulation, spray-drying and lyophilization. Objectives In this study extract of cultured probiotics without cells was evaluated for its antimicrobial effects, antioxidant activity, and its stability. Materials and Methods In this work the potential of lyophilized-cell-free-probiotic-extract (LPE) as a suitable alternative strategy for the preparation of probiotic-products was investigated. The main aim of this study was to find out the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of LPE and also its stability. LPE was obtained by centrifugation and subsequent lyophilization of the collected supernatant from culture media of Lactobacillus casei. An enzymatic reagent-kit was used for detection of its content of lactic acid. Antibacterial test was performed using agar cup-plat-method, the DPPH scavenging -assay was used to determine its antioxidant activity and during a storage course, LPE was under a long-term stability study. Results Results showed that, LPE had more antipathogenic effects, antioxidant activity, and stability during storage-time when compared to fresh probiotic-extract. Conclusions Employing the LPE as a new approach, gives novel concept of probiotic-products in food and medical marketing. PMID:24624202

  17. The magic of magic bugs in oral cavity: Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Anusha, Rangare Lakshman; Umar, Dilshad; Basheer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an update about the current status of probiotics in the field of dentistry. Oral infections are the most common forms of infections. It is necessary to understand the role of the ecology and microbiology of the oral cavity in better understanding of the pathogenesis of various oral diseases. The concept of bacteriotherapy has been an emerging field in dentistry. The use of health-beneficial micro-organisms to heal diseases or support immune function was first introduced in the beginning of the 20(th) century. Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeasts and it has been found to be beneficial to the host health. In medicine, probiotics are used mainly in support therapy for gastro-intestinal diseases. In recent years, probiotics have been used as a treatment to promote oral health. This approach has shown promising results in the oral cavity with respect to control of chronic diseases such as dental caries, periodontitis, and recurring problems such as halitosis and candidal infections. Despite the immense potential of probiotics, data are still deficient on the probiotic action in the oral cavity, which further mandates randomized trials before any concrete clinical recommendations can be arrived. PMID:25878972

  18. Acute probiotic ingestion reduces gastrointestinal oxalate absorption in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahsh, Ismail; Wu, Yan; Liebman, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Both a high dietary oxalate intake and increased intestinal absorption appear to be major causes of elevated urine oxalate, a risk factor for kidney stone formation. A number of recent studies have assessed whether daily ingestion of a probiotic containing oxalate-degrading bacteria could lead to sufficient gut colonization to increase oxalate degradation, thereby reducing urinary oxalate. In contrast, the present study assessed whether simultaneous ingestion of oxalate-degrading probiotic bacteria with a 176 mg oxalate load could lead to decreased urinary oxalate in a population of 11 healthy non-stone formers (8 females, 3 males), aged 21-45 years. The results indicated that both the single and double doses of VSL#3(®) probiotic solutions were effective in reducing urinary oxalate and estimated oxalate absorption with no significant difference between the two probiotic doses. The timing of the reduction in urinary oxalate suggested a small intestinal and possibly gastric reduction in oxalate absorption. Similar to what had been reported for chronic or daily probiotic ingestion, individuals characterized by high oxalate absorption were most likely to experience clinically significant reductions in urinary oxalate in response to acute probiotic ingestion. PMID:21874572

  19. Acute probiotic ingestion reduces gastrointestinal oxalate absorption in healthy subjects.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Al-Wahsh I; Wu Y; Liebman M

    2012-06-01

    Both a high dietary oxalate intake and increased intestinal absorption appear to be major causes of elevated urine oxalate, a risk factor for kidney stone formation. A number of recent studies have assessed whether daily ingestion of a probiotic containing oxalate-degrading bacteria could lead to sufficient gut colonization to increase oxalate degradation, thereby reducing urinary oxalate. In contrast, the present study assessed whether simultaneous ingestion of oxalate-degrading probiotic bacteria with a 176 mg oxalate load could lead to decreased urinary oxalate in a population of 11 healthy non-stone formers (8 females, 3 males), aged 21-45 years. The results indicated that both the single and double doses of VSL#3(®) probiotic solutions were effective in reducing urinary oxalate and estimated oxalate absorption with no significant difference between the two probiotic doses. The timing of the reduction in urinary oxalate suggested a small intestinal and possibly gastric reduction in oxalate absorption. Similar to what had been reported for chronic or daily probiotic ingestion, individuals characterized by high oxalate absorption were most likely to experience clinically significant reductions in urinary oxalate in response to acute probiotic ingestion.

  20. Metabiotics: novel idea or natural development of probiotic conception

    PubMed Central

    Shenderov, Boris A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, probiotics on the base of live microorganisms are considered to be both beneficial and safe. Unfortunately, their effects may have short-term success or are absent or uncertain. Some symbiotic (probiotic) microorganisms with known beneficial health affects may cause opportunistic infections, increase incidence of allergic sensitization and autoimmune disorders, produce microecological imbalance, modify gene expression, transfer antibiotic resistant and virulence genes, cause disorders in epigenome and genome integrity, induce chromosomal DNA damage, and activate signaling pathways associated with cancer and other chronic diseases. The commercially available probiotics should be considered as a first generation means of correcting microecological disorders. Further, their development will include the selection of natural metabiotics and/or working out the synthetic (or semi-synthetic) metabiotics that will be analogies or improved copies of natural bioactives, produced by symbiotic (probiotic) microorganisms. Metabiotics are the structural components of probiotic microorganisms and/or their metabolites and/or signaling molecules with a determined (known) chemical structure that can optimize host-specific physiological functions, regulator, metabolic and/or behavior reactions connected with the activity of host indigenous microbiota. Metabiotics have some advantages because of their exact chemical structure, well dosed, very safe and long shelf-life. Thus, now metabiotics should not consider myth; they are the result of the natural evolution of probiotic conception. PMID:23990841

  1. Probiotics and gastrointestinal disease: successes, problems and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide each year. Treatment of chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal conditions such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease is difficult due to the ambiguity surrounding their precise aetiology. Infectious gastrointestinal diseases, such as various types of diarrheal disease are also becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to the increasing dissemination of antibiotic resistance among microorganisms and the emergence of the so-called 'superbugs'. Taking into consideration these problems, the need for novel therapeutics is essential. Although described for over a century probiotics have only been extensively researched in recent years. Their use in the treatment and prevention of disease, particularly gastrointestinal disease, has yielded many successful results, some of which we outline in this review. Although promising, many probiotics are hindered by inherent physiological and technological weaknesses and often the most clinically promising strains are unusable. Consequently we discuss various strategies whereby probiotics may be engineered to create designer probiotics. Such innovative approaches include; a receptor mimicry strategy to create probiotics that target specific pathogens and toxins, a patho-biotechnology approach using pathogen-derived genes to create more robust probiotic stains with increased host and processing-associated stress tolerance profiles and meta-biotechnology, whereby, functional metagenomics may be used to identify novel genes from diverse and vastly unexplored environments, such as the human gut, for use in biotechnology and medicine. PMID:19930635

  2. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermdez-Humarn, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. PMID:26325197

  3. Probiotics in the Treatment of Chronic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Matthias F.; Heath, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (CRS) are relevant health conditions affecting significant percentages of the western population. They are frequently coexisting and aggravating diseases. Both are chronic, noninfectious, and inflammatory conditions sharing to a certain extent important pathophysiologic similarities. Beneficial effects of probiotics are long known to mankind. Research is beginning to unravel the true nature of the human microbiome and its interaction with the immune system. The growing prevalence of atopic diseases in the developed world led to the proposition of the “hygiene hypothesis.” Dysbiosis is linked to atopic diseases; probiotic supplementation is able to alter the microbiome and certain probiotic strains have immunomodulatory effects in favour of a suppression of Th-2 and stimulation of a Th1 profile. This review focuses on randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigating clinical parameters in the treatment of chronic rhinitis and CRS. An emerging number of publications demonstrate beneficial effects using probiotics in clinical double-blind placebo-controlled (dbpc) trials in allergic rhinitis (AR). Using probiotics as complementary treatment options in AR seems to be a promising concept although the evidence is of a preliminary nature to date and more convincing trials are needed. There are no current data to support the use of probiotics in non-AR or CRS. PMID:24872820

  4. The magic of magic bugs in oral cavity: Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Anusha, Rangare Lakshman; Umar, Dilshad; Basheer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an update about the current status of probiotics in the field of dentistry. Oral infections are the most common forms of infections. It is necessary to understand the role of the ecology and microbiology of the oral cavity in better understanding of the pathogenesis of various oral diseases. The concept of bacteriotherapy has been an emerging field in dentistry. The use of health-beneficial micro-organisms to heal diseases or support immune function was first introduced in the beginning of the 20th century. Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeasts and it has been found to be beneficial to the host health. In medicine, probiotics are used mainly in support therapy for gastro-intestinal diseases. In recent years, probiotics have been used as a treatment to promote oral health. This approach has shown promising results in the oral cavity with respect to control of chronic diseases such as dental caries, periodontitis, and recurring problems such as halitosis and candidal infections. Despite the immense potential of probiotics, data are still deficient on the probiotic action in the oral cavity, which further mandates randomized trials before any concrete clinical recommendations can be arrived. PMID:25878972

  5. Cell Viability and Functionality of Probiotic Bacteria in Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Vinderola, Gabriel; Binetti, Ana; Burns, Patricia; Reinheimer, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria, according to the definition adopted by the World Health Organization in 2002, are live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host. Recent studies show that the same probiotic strain produced and/or preserved under different storage conditions, may present different responses regarding their susceptibility to the adverse conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, its capacity to adhere to the intestinal epithelium, or its immunomodulating capacity, the functionality being affected without changes in cell viability. This could imply that the control of cell viability is not always enough to guarantee the functionality (probiotic capacity) of a strain. Therefore, a new challenge arises for food technologists and microbiologists when it comes to designing and monitoring probiotic food: to be able to monitor the functionality of a probiotic microorganism throughout all the stages the strain goes through from the moment it is produced and included in the food vehicle, until the moment of consumption. Conventional methodological tools or others still to be developed must be used. The application of cell membrane functionality markers, the use of tests of resistance to intestinal barriers, the study of surface properties and the application of in vivo models come together as complementary tools to assess the actual capacity of a probiotic organism in a specific food, to exert functional effects regardless of the number of viable cells present at the moment of consumption. PMID:21833320

  6. Effect of special Hungarian probiotic kefir on faecal microflora

    PubMed Central

    Figler, Mária; Mózsik, Gyula; Schaffer, Béla; Gasztonyi, Beáta; Ács, Pongrác; Szili, Béla; Rab, Regina; Szakály, Sándor

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a four-week consumption of a special Hungarian probiotic agent (Biofir®) on the faecal microflora in human healthy subjects. METHODS: The effect of Biofir® with 106/cm3 initial germs on the faecal microflora was studied in 120 healthy volunteers (71 females, 49 males). The traditional Russian type kefir was used as control. The various germ groups and pH values were determined in wk 2, 4 and 6. RESULTS: The number of all microbes increased during the 4-week probiotic treatment. The number of microbes increased 4.3-fold in the control group and 6.8-fold in Biofir-treated group. The probiotic kefir caused multiplication of the probiotic flora, meanwhile the undesired bacteria multiplied in the control group. No significant change of pH values of the faeces was found in both groups. CONCLUSION: The Hungarian probiotic kefir (Biofir®) is capable of promoting multiplication of probiotic bacterial flora in the large bowel. PMID:16534858

  7. Probiotics: their role in the treatment and prevention of disease.

    PubMed

    Doron, Shira; Gorbach, Sherwood L

    2006-04-01

    A probiotic is a "live microbial food ingredients that, when ingested in sufficient quantities, exerts health benefits on the consumer". Probiotics exert their benefits through several mechanisms; they prevent colonization, cellular adhesion and invasion by pathogenic organisms, they have direct antimicrobial activity and they modulate the host immune response. The strongest evidence for the clinical effectiveness of probiotics has been in their use for the prevention of symptoms of lactose intolerance, treatment of acute diarrhea, attenuation of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side effects and the prevention and treatment of allergy manifestations. More research needs to be carried out to clarify conflicting findings on the use of probiotics for prevention of travelers' diarrhea, infections in children in daycare and dental caries, and elimination of nasal colonization with potentially pathogenic bacteria. Promising ongoing research is being conducted on the use of probiotics for the treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis, treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and prevention of relapse, treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, treatment of intestinal inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients, and prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. Finally, areas of future research include the use of probiotics for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, prevention of cancer and the treatment of graft-versus-host disease in bone marrow transplant recipients. PMID:16597207

  8. Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health.

    PubMed

    Parvez, S; Malik, K A; Ah Kang, S; Kim, H-Y

    2006-06-01

    Probiotics are usually defined as microbial food supplements with beneficial effects on the consumers. Most probiotics fall into the group of organisms' known as lactic acid-producing bacteria and are normally consumed in the form of yogurt, fermented milks or other fermented foods. Some of the beneficial effect of lactic acid bacteria consumption include: (i) improving intestinal tract health; (ii) enhancing the immune system, synthesizing and enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients; (iii) reducing symptoms of lactose intolerance, decreasing the prevalence of allergy in susceptible individuals; and (iv) reducing risk of certain cancers. The mechanisms by which probiotics exert their effects are largely unknown, but may involve modifying gut pH, antagonizing pathogens through production of antimicrobial compounds, competing for pathogen binding and receptor sites as well as for available nutrients and growth factors, stimulating immunomodulatory cells, and producing lactase. Selection criteria, efficacy, food and supplement sources and safety issues around probiotics are reviewed. Recent scientific investigation has supported the important role of probiotics as a part of a healthy diet for human as well as for animals and may be an avenue to provide a safe, cost effective, and 'natural' approach that adds a barrier against microbial infection. This paper presents a review of probiotics in health maintenance and disease prevention. PMID:16696665

  9. Probiotics and prebiotics: immunological and clinical effects in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mimi L K

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in immune development and may play a role in the development of allergic disorders. Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota may therefore offer an approach to the prevention or treatment of allergic diseases. Probiotics and prebiotics, used alone or together (synbiotics), can influence the intestinal microbiota and modulate immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Clinical studies suggest a potential role for selected probiotics (alone or in combination with prebiotics) in the prevention of atopic eczema. A prenatal component of treatment appears important for beneficial effects. Effects are dependent upon the specific bacteria and characteristics of the study population. One study reported beneficial effects for prebiotics in the prevention of eczema in high-risk infants, however, further studies are required to confirm this. The use of probiotics in the treatment of allergic disease is less promising. A Cochrane meta-analysis concluded that probiotics are not effective for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Probiotic effects in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis are conflicting. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics offer potential treatments for the prevention of atopic eczema; however, there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend their use in clinical practice. Studies to clarify the optimal dose, bacterial species/strains, whether there is added benefit with synbiotics, the optimal timing for intervention, and the patient populations who would benefit most from such therapies are warranted. PMID:19710525

  10. ATOPIC DERMATITIS: IS THERE A ROLE FOR PROBIOTICS?

    PubMed

    Licari, A; Marseglia, A; Castellazzi, A M; Ricci, A; Tagliacarne, C; Valsecchi, C; Castagnoli, R; Marseglia, G L

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that commonly presents during early childhood. In the last decades the prevalence of AD has increased, especially in western societies. This frequently relapsing inflammatory condition has a strong impact on the quality of life of patients and families. The recent advances in the understanding of this disease have paved the way for the development of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of AD. Among the new therapeutic options, there is increasing interest in the potential benefit of probiotic supplementation. It has been widely demonstrated that the human microbiota plays a fundamental role not only in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis through the interaction between microorganisms and the innate immune system, but also in the microbiota-mediated development of adaptive immunity. In addition, several studies have demonstrated that probiotics are able to influence the composition of gut microbiota and may exert immunomodulatory effects. According to these promising results, the possible application of probiotics in the therapeutic management of allergic diseases has been investigated in many studies. In particular, a considerable body of literature has been published analyzing the effects of probiotics on patients with AD. In order to shed light on frequently conflicting results, we reviewed the data regarding the application of probiotics in AD, with the aim to provide a state-of-the-art assessment of the most important studies exploring the role of probiotics both in the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:26634583

  11. Probiotic modulation of dendritic cell function is influenced by ageing

    PubMed Central

    You, Jialu; Dong, Honglin; Mann, Elizabeth R.; Knight, Stella C.; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for the generation of T-cell responses. DC function may be modulated by probiotics, which confer health benefits in immunocompromised individuals, such as the elderly. This study investigated the effects of four probiotics, Bifidobacterium longum bv. infantis CCUG 52486, B. longum SP 07/3, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L.GG) and L. casei Shirota (LcS), on DC function in an allogeneic mixed leucocyte reaction (MLR) model, using DCs and T-cells from young and older donors in different combinations. All four probiotics enhanced expression of CD40, CD80 and CCR7 on both young and older DCs, but enhanced cytokine production (TGF-β, TNF-α) by old DCs only. LcS induced IL-12 and IFNγ production by DC to a greater degree than other strains, while B. longum bv. infantis CCUG 52486 favoured IL-10 production. Stimulation of young T cells in an allogeneic MLR with DC was enhanced by probiotic pretreatment of old DCs, which demonstrated greater activation (CD25) than untreated controls. However, pretreatment of young or old DCs with LPS or probiotics failed to enhance the proliferation of T-cells derived from older donors. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ageing increases the responsiveness of DCs to probiotics, but this is not sufficient to overcome the impact of immunosenescence in the MLR. PMID:24094416

  12. Genes and Molecules of Lactobacilli Supporting Probiotic Action

    PubMed Central

    Lebeer, Sarah; Vanderleyden, Jos; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Lactobacilli have been crucial for the production of fermented products for centuries. They are also members of the mutualistic microbiota present in the human gastrointestinal and urogenital tract. Recently, increasing attention has been given to their probiotic, health-promoting capacities. Many human intervention studies demonstrating health effects have been published. However, as not all studies resulted in positive outcomes, scientific interest arose regarding the precise mechanisms of action of probiotics. Many reported mechanistic studies have addressed mainly the host responses, with less attention being focused on the specificities of the bacterial partners, notwithstanding the completion of Lactobacillus genome sequencing projects, and increasing possibilities of genomics-based and dedicated mutant analyses. In this emerging and highly interdisciplinary field, microbiologists are facing the challenge of molecular characterization of probiotic traits. This review addresses the advances in the understanding of the probiotic-host interaction with a focus on the molecular microbiology of lactobacilli. Insight into the molecules and genes involved should contribute to a more judicious application of probiotic lactobacilli and to improved screening of novel potential probiotics. PMID:19052326

  13. [Probiotics: history, definition, requirements and possible therapeutic applications].

    PubMed

    Montalto, Massimo; Arancio, Fabiola; Izzi, Donatello; Cuoco, Lucio; Curigliano, Valentina; Manna, Raffaele; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    The ingestion of probiotics is associated with various beneficial effects on human health and modifies the physiological homeostasis of the intestinal flora. Probiotics are microorganisms with some particular characteristics: human origin, safety in human use, bile and acid resistance, survival in the intestine, at least temporary colonization of the human gut, adhesion to the mucosa and bacteriocine production. Thanks to these characteristics, probiotics block the invasion of human intestinal cells by the enteroinvasive bacteria. Furthermore, they should be able to stimulate and modulate the intestinal immune response, and to protect and stabilize the mucosal barrier. Finally, the efficacy of probiotics should be evident and documented with valid studies. All their properties should be maintained during processing and storage. Probiotics are usually used to protect the host from pathogens. With regard to this, they are useful in the prevention of antibiotic and traveler's diarrhea and they may play a role in the management of gastric Helicobacter pylori infection. Furthermore, their efficacy in the treatment of infectious diarrhea, in inflammatory bowel diseases, in pouchitis and in food allergy has been shown. Probiotics can improve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and of lactose malabsorption. Finally, it has been suggested that such microorganisms may play a role in the prevention of carcinogenesis and of tumor growth. PMID:12402663

  14. Vitamin D receptor pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaoping; Yoon, Sonia; Zhang, Yong-Guo; Lu, Rong; Xia, Yinglin; Wan, Jiandi; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C; Chen, Di; Sun, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Low expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and dysfunction of vitamin D/VDR signaling are reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); therefore, restoration of VDR function to control inflammation in IBD is desirable. Probiotics have been used in the treatment of IBD. However, the role of probiotics in the modulation of VDR signaling to effectively reduce inflammation is unknown. We identified a novel role of probiotics in activating VDR activity, thus inhibiting inflammation, using cell models and VDR knockout mice. We found that the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) increased VDR protein expression in both mouse and human intestinal epithelial cells. Using the VDR luciferase reporter vector, we detected increased transcriptional activity of VDR after probiotic treatment. Probiotics increased the expression of the VDR target genes, such as antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, the role of probiotics in regulating VDR signaling was tested in vivo using a Salmonella-colitis model in VDR knockout mice. Probiotic treatment conferred physiological and histologic protection from Salmonella-induced colitis in VDR(+/+) mice, whereas probiotics had no effects in the VDR(-/-) mice. Probiotic treatment also enhanced numbers of Paneth cells, which secrete AMPs for host defense. These data indicate that the VDR pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis. Understanding how probiotics enhance VDR signaling and inhibit inflammation will allow probiotics to be used effectively, resulting in innovative approaches to the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation. PMID:26159695

  15. Probiotics and functional gastrointestinal disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Benninga, Marc

    2009-04-01

    Chronic constipation is one of the most frequent complaints in childhood. Although there is evidence that gastrointestinal flora is important in gut motility, there is little evidence that gut flora is abnormal in constipation. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria increase stool frequency and decrease consistency in normal individuals. But, according to several reviews, the evidence of probiotics for efficacy in constipation is limited. Fiber supplements, lactose-free diets, and lactobacillus supplementation are effective in the management of children with recurrent abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome. Several studies with Lactobacillus GG in children showed negative results in children with chronic constipation. Because Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 has been shown to be effective in adults with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome this study should also be performed in a well-designed large placebo-controlled trial in children with constipation. PMID:19300120

  16. Probiotics in digestive diseases: focus on Lactobacillus GG.

    PubMed

    Pace, F; Pace, M; Quartarone, G

    2015-12-01

    Probiotics are becoming increasingly important in basic and clinical research, but they are also a subject of considerable economic interest due to their expanding popularity. They are live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. From this very well-known definition, it is clear that, unlike drugs, probiotics might be useful in healthy subjects to reduce the risk of developing certain diseases or to optimise some physiological functions. They also may offer some advantages in already ill persons in relieving symptoms and signs, e.g. people with acute diarrhea. According to current definitions, probiotics should survive both gastric acid and bile to reach the small intestine and colon, where they exert their effects. Many of these are available in a lyophilized (freeze-dried) pill form, though some are available in yogurt or as packets (sachets), which can be mixed into non-carbonated drinks. The present review focuses on three main issues: 1) understanding why, at present, probiotics are so interesting for doctors and consumers; 2) reviewing the available data on probiotic use in digestive diseases, in particular irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), (prevention of) infectious diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and colorectal cancer (CRC); 3) highlighting the individual profile of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in the above contexts, providing an assessment as well as recommendations on its use in gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) disorders. Research studies conducted in animals and humans with the main probiotics strains for GIT diseases, and published from the early 1990s to 2014 have been considered. PubMed, Medline and Ovid were the main sources adopted for data retrieving. The increasing attention on probiotics is a direct consequence of the improvement in the techniques for studying microbiota. Until recently, its composition has been analysed by culture-based methods that use differential media to select for specific populations of bacteria according to their metabolic requirements. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are by and large the most commonly used probiotics. Strictly speaking, however, the term "probiotic" should be reserved for live microbes that have been shown in controlled human studies to provide a health benefit. Taking into account patients suffering from the most common gastrointestinal diseases, in whose establishment the GI microbiota plays a key role, probiotics have to be considered as very promising agents, capable of beneficially modulating the intestinal ecosystem, which is perturbed in cases of dysbiosis. Although more clinical data are still needed to better assess the clinical relevance of probiotics, to date, procariota such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli strains, and eucariota such as some Saccharomyces strains are among the most widely used agents in GIT disorders. LGG is a well-known probiotic strain that was isolated more than 20 years ago by Goldin and Gorbach from a faecal sample of a healthy adult, based on several selection criteria: high adhesion in vitro, high resistance against gastric acidity and high antimicrobial activity against pathogens such as Salmonella. In vivo studies have also shown a good persistence of LGG in the human GIT. Since its isolation, LGG has become one of the best clinically documented probiotic strains. A growing body of evidence suggests benefits such as prevention and relief of various types of diarrhoea, and treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis. Thus, with respect to both adaptation to the GIT and probiotic effects, LGG can be regarded as a prototypical probiotic strain. PMID:26657927

  17. The gastrointestinal tract microbiome, probiotics, and mood.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Bambling, Matthew; Alford, Hollie

    2014-12-01

    Mental health is closely linked to physical health. Depression (e.g., major depression) is highly prevalent worldwide and a major cause of disability. In a subgroup with treatment-resistant depression, standard pharmacotherapy interventions provide small if any incremental improvement in patient outcomes and may also require the application of an alternate approach. Therefore, in addition to the standard pharmacotherapies prescribed, patients will also be advised on the benefits of psychological counseling, electroconvulsive therapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation or increasing physical activity and reducing harmful substance consumption. Numerous nutraceuticals have a beneficial role in treatment-resistant depression and include, herbal medicines of which Hypericum perforatum is the best studied, omega-3 fatty acid preparations, S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe), various mineral formulations (e.g., magnesium) and folate (singly or in combination with B group vitamins) are prescribed to a lesser extent. Furthermore, a largely neglected area of research activity has been the role of live probiotic cultures that contribute to repairing dysbiosis (aleaky gut barrier abnormality) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In this commentary, we build a hypothesis that in addition suggests that GIT metabolites that are elaborated by the microbiome cohort may provide novel and significant avenues for efficacious therapeutic interventions for mood disorders. We posit that the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract is implicit as an important participant for the amelioration of adverse mood conditions via the diverse metabolic activities provided by live beneficial bacteria (probiotics) as an active adjuvant treatment. This activity is in part triggered by a controlled release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hence further questions the antioxidant/oxidative stress postulate. PMID:25266952

  18. Use of probiotics for management of acute gastroenteritis: a position paper by the ESPGHAN Working Group for Probiotics and Prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Szajewska, Hania; Guarino, Alfredo; Hojsak, Iva; Indrio, Flavia; Kolacek, Sanja; Shamir, Raanan; Vandenplas, Yvan; Weizman, Zvi

    2014-04-01

    The use of probiotics has been suggested in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in addition to early rehydration and avoidance of dietary restrictions. This document provides recommendations for the use of probiotics for the treatment of AGE in previously healthy infants and children based on a systematic review of previously completed systematic reviews and of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published subsequently to these reviews. The recommendations were formulated only if at least 2 RCTs that used a given probiotic (with strain specification) were available. The GRADE system developed by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations Working Group, was used to grade the strength of evidence and grades of recommendations used in these guidelines. It offers 4 categories of the quality of the evidence (high, moderate, low, and very low) and 2 categories of the strength of recommendation (strong or weak). The use of the following probiotics (in alphabetical order) may be considered in the management of children with AGE in addition to rehydration therapy: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (low quality of evidence, strong recommendation) and Saccharomyces boulardii (low quality of evidence, strong recommendation). Less compelling evidence is available for Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (very low quality of evidence, weak recommendation) and heat-inactivated Lactobacillus acidophilus LB (very low quality of evidence, weak recommendation). The latter, although traditionally discussed with other probiotics, does not fit with the definition of probiotics. Other strains or combinations of strains have been tested, but evidence of their efficacy is weak or preliminary. PMID:24614141

  19. SEROLOGICAL CROSS-REACTIONS BETWEEN ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 AND OTHER SPECIES OF THE GENUS ESCHERICHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia hermannii, a sorbitol-negative species of the genus Escherichia, has been reported to be agglutinated by Escherichia coli 0157 and four sorbitol-negative species of the genus Escherichia: . hermannii (24 isolates), Escherichia fergusonii (12 isolates), Escherichia vul...

  20. Biochemical patterns in ovine cheese: influence of probiotic strains.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Trani, A; Faccia, M

    2010-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of lamb rennet paste containing probiotic strains on proteolysis, lipolysis, and glycolysis of ovine cheese manufactured with starter cultures. Cheeses included control cheese made with rennet paste, cheese made with rennet paste containing Lactobacillus acidophilus culture (LA-5), and cheese made with rennet paste containing a mix of Bifidobacterium lactis (BB-12) and Bifidobacterium longum (BB-46). Cheeses were sampled at 1, 7, 15, and 30 d of ripening. Starter cultures coupled with probiotics strains contained in rennet paste affected the acidification and coagulation phases leading to the lowest pH in curd and cheese containing probiotics during ripening. As consequence, maturing cheese profiles were different among cheese treatments. Cheeses produced using rennet paste containing probiotics displayed higher percentages of alpha(S1)-I-casein fraction than traditional cheese up to 15 d of ripening. This result could be an outcome of the greater hydrolysis of alpha-casein fraction, attributed to higher activity of the residual chymosin. Further evidence for this trend is available in chromatograms of water-soluble nitrogen fractions, which indicated a more complex profile in cheeses made using lamb paste containing probiotics versus traditional cheese. Differences can be observed for the peaks eluted in the highly hydrophobic zone being higher in cheeses containing probiotics. The proteolytic activity of probiotic bacteria led to increased accumulation of free amino acids. Their concentrations in cheese made with rennet paste containing Lb. acidophilus culture and cheese made with rennet paste containing a mix of B. lactis and B. longum were approximately 2.5 and 3.0 times higher, respectively, than in traditional cheese. Principal component analysis showed a more intense lipolysis in terms of both free fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid content in probiotic cheeses; in particular, the lipolytic pattern of cheeses containing Lb. acidophilus is distinguished from the other cheeses on the basis of highest content of health-promoting molecules. The metabolic activity of the cheese microflora was also monitored by measuring acetic, lactic, and citric acids during cheese ripening. Cheese acceptability was expressed for color, smell, taste, and texture perceived during cheese consumption. Use of probiotics in trial cheeses did not adversely affect preference or acceptability; in fact, panelists scored probiotic cheeses higher in preference over traditional cheese, albeit not significantly. PMID:20655416

  1. [The role of Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 in the gastro-intestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Różańska, Dorota; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Choroszy-Król, Irena; Ilow, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a review of the researches on the role of Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) in gastrointestinal diseases was presented. EcN is a non-pathogenic strain of the Enterobacteriaceae family, which has probiotic properties. In a number of studies conducted among humans and  experimental animals the application of EcN in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases was observed. Most studies about EcN has been devoted to this organism efficacy in ulcerative colitis treatment. Comparable results were obtained, by citied authors, in the treatment (sustaining remission) of EcN and mesalazine in ulcerative colitis. Moreover, this probiotic therapy, compared to placebo, contributes to obtaining a faster remission and improvement of intestinal histopathology. The use of EcN in Crohn's disease has not been the subject of as many studies as in the case of ulcerative colitis. Assessing the importance of EcN in treatment of other gastrointestinal disorders, authors of the studies observed, that in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, who receiving this probiotic there was a pain, nausea and bloating reduction. In studies conducted among children a positive impact of EcN in prevention and treatment of diarrhea was demonstrated. Similar results were obtained in studies conducted in experimental animals. Based on the presented review it can be concluded that the strain of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 is useful in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, especially in treatment of ulcerative colitis. This probiotic may constitute a part of treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhea. The effectiveness of this strain in treatment of Crohn's disease is not clearly established and further research are require. PMID:25380207

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Strain BL23▿

    PubMed Central

    Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

  3. Live feed enrichment with probiotics: current methods and future perspectives on increasing finfish larviculture success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotics - active or inactive microorganisms incorporated to animal feeds - are considered a potential alternative to other treatments intended to enhance immune response, growth, or feed efficiency in animal rearing systems. While probiotics are extensively used in livestock practices, their use ...

  4. Synergistic interaction in dual-species biofilms formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Ralstonia spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Ralstonia spp., a heterotrophic bacterium that are isolated from produce processing environments as part of the native microflora, have strong potentials for formaing biofilms on various surfaces. When co-cultured, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) and Ralstonia spp. displayed a synerg...

  5. Goose-Type Lysozyme Inhibitor (PliG) Enhances Survival of Escherichia coli in Goose Egg Albumen ?

    PubMed Central

    Vanderkelen, Lise; Van Herreweghe, Joris M.; Callewaert, Lien; Michiels, Chris W.

    2011-01-01

    The goose-type lysozyme inhibitor PliG enhances the survival of Escherichia coli in goose but not in chicken egg white, which contains goose- and chicken-type lysozymes, respectively. These results indicate that both the type of host lysozyme and the type of bacterial lysozyme inhibitor may affect bacterium-host interactions. PMID:21602367

  6. Pneumonia caused by a previously undescribed bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Hopfer, R L; Mills, K; Fainstein, V; Fischer, H E; Luna, M P

    1982-01-01

    A new and as yet unidentified bacterium was isolated from the lung tissue of a cancer patient with bilateral pneumonia. Clinically, the pneumonia was consistent with legionellosis; the organism cultured from the lung grew only on the charcoal-yeast extract agar routinely used for Legionella isolation. Subsequent testing, however, showed the organism to be quite distinct from the known Legionella species in its biochemical, antigenic, and growth characteristics. Images PMID:7130363

  7. Paradigms: examples from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The history of advances in research on Xylella fastidiosa provides excellent examples of how paradigms both advance and limit our scientific understanding of plant pathogens and the plant diseases they cause. I describe this from a personal perspective, having been directly involved with many persons who made paradigm-changing discoveries, beginning with the discovery that a bacterium, not a virus, causes Pierce's disease of grape and other plant diseases in numerous plant species, including important crop and forest species. PMID:23682911

  8. Characterization of a novel extremely alkalophilic bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, K. A.; Deal, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    A new alkalophilic bacterium, isolated from a natural spring of high pH is characterized. It is a Gram-positive, non-sporulating, motile rod requiring aerobic and alkaline conditions for growth. The characteristics of this organism resemble those of the coryneform group of bacteria; however, there are no accepted genera within this group with which this organism can be closely matched. Therefore, a new genus may be warranted.

  9. Probiotic features of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Ragusano and Pecorino Siciliano cheeses.

    PubMed

    Caggia, C; De Angelis, M; Pitino, I; Pino, A; Randazzo, C L

    2015-09-01

    In the present study 177 Lactobacillus spp. strains, isolated from Ragusano and Pecorino Siciliano cheeses, were in vitro screened for probiotic traits, and their characteristics were compared to those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, commercial strain. Based on acidic and bile salt resistance, thirteen Lactobacillus strains were selected. The multiplex-PCR application revealed that nine strains belonged to L. rhamnosus species and four to Lactobacillus paracasei species. All selected strains were further investigated for transit tolerance in simulated upper gastrointestinal tract (GI), for adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines, for hydrophobicity, for co-aggregation and auto-aggregation and for antimicrobial activities. Moreover, antibiotic resistance, hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities were investigated for safety assessment. Viable counts after simulated gastric and duodenal transit revealed that overall the selected lactobacilli tolerated better pancreatic juice and bile salts than acidic juice. In particular, three L. rhamnosus strains (FS10, FS2, and PS11) and one L. paracasei strain (PM8) increased their cell density after the simulated GI transit. The same strains showed also high percentage of auto-aggregation and co-aggregation with Escherichia coli. All strains were effective against both Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli and variability was achieved versus Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis used as pathogenic indicator strains. Different behavior was revealed by strains for adhesion ability and hydrophobicity, which are not always linked each other and are strongly strain-dependent. From the safety point of view, no isolate showed hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities, except one, and most of the strains were sensitive to a broad range of clinical antibiotics. This work showed that the L. rhamnosus FS10 and the L. paracasei PM8 are good promising probiotic candidates for further in vivo investigations. PMID:25998823

  10. In vitro probiotic properties of Lactobacillus fermentum SK5 isolated from vagina of a healthy woman.

    PubMed

    Kaewnopparat, Sanae; Dangmanee, Nattakan; Kaewnopparat, Nattha; Srichana, Teerapol; Chulasiri, Malyn; Settharaksa, Sukanya

    2013-08-01

    A lactobacillus strain isolated from a vaginal tract of a healthy woman was examined invitro for its probiotic potential. This strain, identified as Lactobacillus fermentum SK5, was able to survive at pH 3-4 and 0.1-0.2% bile, and unaffected by pepsin (3gl(-1)) and pancreatin (1gl(-1)), but was susceptible to all tested antibiotics except metronidazole. L.fermentum SK5 had an antimicrobial potential against gastrointestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli and vaginal pathogenic Gardnerella vaginalis. The effective substance was suspected to be a bacteriocin-like compound with a molecular weight of more than 10kDa, but hydrogen peroxide was also detected. Further studies revealed that L.fermentum SK5 had good autoaggregation characteristic and a high surface hydrophobicity that enhanced its adhesion ability to epithelial cells and for biofilm formation. This lactobacillus showed coaggregation with E.coli and G.vaginalis to affect their adhesion and colonization. The adhesion of L.fermentum SK5 to HeLa, HT-29 and Caco-2 cells and its inhibition of E.coli and G.vaginalis adherence to these cells were demonstrated. These incidences provided evidence of the possible colonization of L.fermentum SK5 that would prevent binding and growth of E.coli and G.vaginalis onto intestinal and vaginal epithelial cells. On the basis of the ability of L.fermentum SK5 to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms through coaggregation and antimicrobial substances, it is likely that this lactobacillus strain could be a potential probiotic candidate for beneficial use in protecting against gastrointestinal and vaginal microbial infections. PMID:23624069

  11. Probiotic L. reuteri treatment prevents bone loss in a menopausal ovariectomized mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Robert A.; Irwin, Regina; Quach, Darin; Schaefer, Laura; Zhang, Jing; Lee, Taehyung; Parameswaran, Narayanan; McCabe, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis that is associated with bone inflammation and resorption. Half of women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, thus novel therapies are needed to combat post-menopausal bone loss. Recent studies suggest an important role for gut-bone signaling pathways and the microbiota in regulating bone health. Given that the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (L. reuteri) secretes beneficial immunomodulatory factors, we examined if this candidate probiotic could reduce bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency in an ovariectomized (Ovx) mouse menopausal model. Strikingly, L. reuteri treatment significantly protected Ovx mice from bone loss. Osteoclast bone resorption markers and activators (Trap5 and RANKL) as well as osteoclastogenesis are significantly decreased in L. reuteri treated mice. Consistent with this, L. reuteri suppressed Ovx-induced increases in bone marrow CD4+ T-lymphocytes (which promote osteoclastogenesis) and directly suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro. We also identif ied that L. reuteri treatment modifies microbial communities in the Ovx mouse gut. Together, our studies demonstrate that L. reuteri treatment suppresses bone resorption and loss associated with estrogen deficiency. Thus, L. reuteri treatment may be a straightforward and cost-effective approach to reduce post-menopausal bone loss. PMID:24677054

  12. Extended Safety Data for the Oral Cavity Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12.

    PubMed

    Burton, J P; Chilcott, C N; Wescombe, P A; Tagg, J R

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies of the bacteriocin-producing Streptococcus salivarius K12 monitored a variety of intrinsic strain characteristics of potential relevance to its application as an oral probiotic in humans. These included the content of antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants, the production of deleterious metabolic by-products and its genetic stability. In the present study, we examined additional safety factors including the responses of rats to either short- or long-term oral dosing with strain K12 preparations. In addition, the potential genotoxicity of strain K12 was tested using a bacterial reverse mutation assay. To determine the occurrence and concentrations in human saliva of S. salivarius having the same bacteriocin phenotype as strain K12, saliva samples from 780 children were evaluated. The level of dosing with strain K12 required to achieve oral cavity colonization levels similar to those occurring naturally for this type of bacteriocin-producing S. salivarius was established using 100 human subjects. Following the oral instillation of lyophilized S. salivarius K12 cells in these subjects, its persistence was not at levels higher than those found naturally for this type of bacterium. The various sets of data obtained in this study showed no evidence of genotoxicity and no acute or subacute toxicity effects associated with strain K12. Based on the previously published data, the long history of use by humans and the information presented here, it is concluded that S. salivarius K12 is safe for human consumption. PMID:26781236

  13. Streptococcal bacteriocins and the case for Streptococcus salivarius as model oral probiotics.

    PubMed

    Wescombe, Philip A; Heng, Nicholas C K; Burton, Jeremy P; Chilcott, Chris N; Tagg, John R

    2009-09-01

    Members of the Gram-positive bacterial genus Streptococcus are a diverse collection of species inhabiting many body sites and range from benign, nonpathogenic species to those causing life-threatening infections. The streptococci are also prolific producers of bacteriocins, which are ribosomally synthesized proteinaceous antibiotics that kill or inhibit species closely related to the producer bacterium. With the emergence of bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics, there is an impetus to discover, and implement, new and preferably 'natural' antibiotics to treat or prevent bacterial infections, a niche that bacterial interference therapy mediated by bacteriocins could easily fill. This review focuses on describing the diversity of bacteriocins produced by streptococci and also puts forth a case for Streptococcus salivarius, a nonpathogenic and numerically predominant oral species, as an ideal candidate for development as the model probiotic for the oral cavity. S. salivarius is a safe species that not only produces broad-spectrum bacteriocins but harbors bacteriocin-encoding (and bacteriocin-inducing) transmissible DNA entities (megaplasmids). PMID:19722837

  14. Biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using a probiotic from coal fly ash effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Babitha, S; Korrapati, Purna Sai

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metal resistant probiotic species was isolated from coal fly ash effluent site. • Uniform sized anatase form of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized using Propionibacterium jensenii. • Diffraction patterns confirmed the anatase – TiO{sub 2} NPs with average size <80 nm. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle incorporated wound dressing exhibits better wound healing. - Abstract: The synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO{sub 2} NP) has gained importance in the recent years owing to its wide range of potential biological applications. The present study demonstrates the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs by a metal resistant bacterium isolated from the coal fly ash effluent. This bacterial strain was identified on the basis of morphology and 16s rDNA gene sequence [KC545833]. The physico-chemical characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles is completely elucidated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM). The crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was confirmed by X-RD pattern. Further, cell viability and haemolytic assays confirmed the biocompatible and non toxic nature of the NPs. The TiO{sub 2} NPs was found to enhance the collagen stabilization and thereby enabling the preparation of collagen based biological wound dressing. The paper essentially provides scope for an easy bioprocess for the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs from the metal oxide enriched effluent sample for future biological applications.

  15. Functional characterization of probiotic surface layer protein-carrying Lactobacillus amylovorus strains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adhesiveness to intestinal epithelium, beneficial immunomodulating effects and the production of pathogen-inhibitory compounds are generally considered as beneficial characteristics of probiotic organisms. We showed the potential health-promoting properties and the mechanisms of probiotic action of seven swine intestinal Lactobacillus amylovorus isolates plus the type strain (DSM 20531T) by investigating their adherence to porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-1) and mucus as well as the capacities of the strains to i) inhibit the adherence of Escherichia coli to IPEC-1 cells, ii) to produce soluble inhibitors against intestinal pathogens and iii) to induce immune signaling in dendritic cells (DCs). Moreover, the role of the L. amylovorus surface (S) –layers - symmetric, porous arrays of identical protein subunits present as the outermost layer of the cell envelope - in adherence to IPEC-1 cells was assessed using a novel approach which utilized purified cell wall fragments of the strains as carriers for the recombinantly produced S-layer proteins. Results Three of the L. amylovorus strains studied adhered to IPEC-1 cells, while four strains inhibited the adherence of E. coli, indicating additional mechanisms other than competition for binding sites being involved in the inhibition. None of the strains bound to porcine mucus. The culture supernatants of all of the strains exerted inhibitory effects on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella, Listeria and Yersinia, and a variable, strain-dependent induction was observed of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human DCs. L. amylovorus DSM 16698 was shown to carry two S-layer-like proteins on its surface in addition to the major S-layer protein SlpA. In contrast to expectations, none of the major S-layer proteins of the IPEC-1 -adhering strains mediated bacterial adherence. Conclusions We demonstrated adhesive and significant pathogen inhibitory efficacies among the swine intestinal L. amylovorus strains studied, pointing to their potential use as probiotic feed supplements, but no independent role could be demonstrated for the major S-layer proteins in adherence to epithelial cells. The results indicate that many intestinal bacteria may coexist with and confer benefits to the host by mechanisms not attributable to adhesion to epithelial cells or mucus. PMID:25070625

  16. Probiotic potential of lactobacillus strains isolated from sorghum-based traditional fermented food.

    PubMed

    Rao, K Poornachandra; Chennappa, G; Suraj, U; Nagaraja, H; Raj, A P Charith; Sreenivasa, M Y

    2015-06-01

    Sorghum-based traditional fermented food was screened for potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates were identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species identification was done by 16s rRNA sequence analysis. The functional probiotic potential of the two Lactobacillus species viz., Lactobacillus plantarum (Lact. plantarum) and Lactobacillus pentosus (Lact. pentosus) was assessed by different standard parameters. The strains were tolerant to pH 2 for 1 h and resistant to methicillin, kanamycin, vancomycin and norfloxacin. Two (Lact. plantarum COORG-3 and Lact. pentosus COORG-8) out of eight isolates recorded the cell surface hydrophobicity to be 59.12 and 64.06%, respectively. All the strains showed tolerance to artificial duodenum juice (pH 2) for 3 h, positive for bile salt hydrolase test and negative for haemolytic test. The neutralized cell-free supernatant of the strains Lact. pentosus COORG-4, Lact. plantarum COORG-1, Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-8 and Lact. plantarum COORG-3 showed good antibiofilm activity. Lact. pentosus COORG-8 exhibited 74% activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-MTCC 7903 and Lact. plantarum COORG-7 showed 68% inhibition of biofilm against Klebsiella pneumonia MTCC 7407. Three (Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-5 and Lact. pentosus COORG 8) out of eight isolates exhibited a good antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and five isolates (Lact. pentosus COORG 2, Lact. plantarum COORG 1, Lact. plantarum COORG 4, Lact. pentosus COORG 3 and Lact. plantarum COORG 6) are active against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis. The study also evaluated the cholesterol lowering property of the Lactobacillus strains using hen egg yolk as the cholesterol source. The cholesterol in hen egg yolk was assimilated by 74.12 and 68.26% by Lact. plantarum COORG 4 and Lact. pentosus COORG 7, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that the Lactobacillus strains isolated and characterized from sorghum-based fermented product may be used as probiotic strains for therapeutic applications. PMID:25666113

  17. Probiotic as a Novel Treatment Strategy Against Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Khani, Soghra; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2013-01-01

    Context A symbiotic relationship between the liver and intestinal tract enables the healthy status of both organs. Microflora resident in intestinal lumen plays a significant role in hepatocytes function. Alterations to the type and amount of microorganisms that live in the intestinal tract can result in serious and harmful liver dysfunctions such as cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and hepatic encephalopathy. An increased number of pathogens, especially enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, and streptococci species causes the elevation of intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation. The presence of high levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial substances in the blood result in a portal hypertension and ensuing hepatocytes damage. Several methods including the usage of antibiotics, prebiotics, and probiotics can be used to prevent the overgrowth of pathogens. Compared to prebiotic and antibiotic therapy, probiotics strains are a safer and less expensive therapy. Probiotics are "live microorganisms (according to the FAO/WHO) which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Evidence Acquisitions Data from numerous preclinical and clinical trials allows for control of the flora bacteria quantity, decreases in compounds derived from bacteria, and lowers proinflammatory production such as TNF-?, IL-6 and IFN-? via down-regulation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-? B). Results On the other hand, probiotic can reduce the urease activity of bacterial microflora. Furthermore, probiotic decreases fecal pH value and reduces ammonia adsorption. In addition, the serum level of liver enzymes and other substances synthesized by the liver are modulated subsequent to probiotic consumption. Conclusions According to our knowledge, Probiotic therapy as a safe, inexpensive and a noninvasive strategy can reduce pathophysiological symptoms and improve different types of liver diseases without side effects. PMID:23610585

  18. Use of Probiotics as Prophylaxis for Postoperative Infections

    PubMed Central

    Jeppsson, Bengt; Mangell, Peter; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative bacterial infections are common despite prophylactic administration of antibiotics. The wide-spread use of antibiotics in patients has contributed to the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. A restricted use of antibiotics must be followed in most clinical situations. In surgical patients there are several reasons for an altered microbial flora in the gut in combination with an altered barrier function leading to an enhanced inflammatory response to surgery. Several experimental and clinical studies have shown that probiotics (mainly lactobacilli) may reduce the number of potentially pathogenia bacteria (PPM) and restore a deranged barrier function. It is therefore of interest to test if these abilities of probiotics can be utilized in preoperative prophylaxis. These factors may be corrected by perioperative administration of probiotics in addition to antibiotics. Fourteen randomized clinical trials have been presented in which the effect of such regimens has been tested. It seems that in patients undergoing liver transplantation or elective surgery in the upper gastrointestinal tract prophylactic administration of different probiotic strains in combination with different fibers results in a three-fold reduction in postoperative infections. In parallel there seems to be a reduction in postoperative inflammation, although that has not been studied in a systematic way. The use of similar concepts in colorectal surgery has not been successful in reducing postoperative infections. Reasons for this difference are not obvious. It may be that higher doses of probiotics with longer duration are needed to influence microbiota in the lower gastrointestinal tract or that immune function in colorectal patients may not be as important as in transplantation or surgery in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The favorable results for the use of prophylactic probiotics in some settings warrant further controlled studies to elucidate potential mechanisms, impact on gut microbiota and influence on clinical management. The use of probiotics must be better delineated in relation to type of bacteria, dose and length of administration. PMID:22254113

  19. Drivers of liking for yogurt drinks with prebiotics and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Allgeyer, L C; Miller, M J; Lee, S-Y

    2010-05-01

    Several studies have addressed the sensory properties of yogurt. However, as the market for yogurt continues to expand and new varieties of yogurt with novel ingredients emerge, additional sensory tests are needed to ensure the quality of the products. Three selected prebiotics, soluble corn fiber, polydextrose, and chicory inulin, were each added at an excellent source of fiber (5 g fiber/serving) or a good fiber source (2.5 g fiber/serving) levels into a yogurt drink base. Three additional yogurt drinks contained 5 g of each of the separate prebiotics along with a mixture of probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5). A control sample with no prebiotics or probiotics was also included in the experimental design. Yogurt drinks were evaluated by 110 consumers for overall acceptance, acceptance of aroma, appearance, taste, and texture, and purchase intent. Demographic information pertaining to consumer knowledge of prebiotics and probiotics was collected. Consumer data were correlated with previously obtained descriptive analysis data to identify drivers of liking. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), Fisher's least significant difference (LSD), cluster analysis, internal preference mapping, and external preference mapping. Total variance explained by the internal and external preference maps were 32.2% and 64.6%, respectively, which showed higher levels of the prebiotics with probiotics drove consumer liking compared to lower levels without probiotics. In terms of ingredients added, chicory inulin and polydextrose were preferred over soluble corn fiber. Yogurt drinks with these prebiotics included and probiotics were characterized by a medium level of sweetness and high viscosity. Development of new prebiotic and probiotic containing drinkable yogurts should strive for a medium level of sweetness and high viscosity for maximum consumer acceptance. PMID:20546424

  20. Probiotics modulated gut microbiota suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Sung, Cecilia Ying Ju; Lee, Nikki; Ni, Yueqiong; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Panagiotou, Gianni; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-03-01

    The beneficial roles of probiotics in lowering the gastrointestinal inflammation and preventing colorectal cancer have been frequently demonstrated, but their immunomodulatory effects and mechanism in suppressing the growth of extraintestinal tumors remain unexplored. Here, we adopted a mouse model and metagenome sequencing to investigate the efficacy of probiotic feeding in controlling s.c. hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying mechanism suppressing the tumor progression. Our result demonstrated that Prohep, a novel probiotic mixture, slows down the tumor growth significantly and reduces the tumor size and weight by 40% compared with the control. From a mechanistic point of view the down-regulated IL-17 cytokine and its major producer Th17 cells, whose levels decreased drastically, played critical roles in tumor reduction upon probiotics feeding. Cell staining illustrated that the reduced Th17 cells in the tumor of the probiotic-treated group is mainly caused by the reduced frequency of migratory Th17 cells from the intestine and peripheral blood. In addition, shotgun-metagenome sequencing revealed the crosstalk between gut microbial metabolites and the HCC development. Probiotics shifted the gut microbial community toward certain beneficial bacteria, including Prevotella and Oscillibacter, that are known producers of antiinflammatory metabolites, which subsequently reduced the Th17 polarization and promoted the differentiation of antiinflammatory Treg/Tr1 cells in the gut. Overall, our study offers novel insights into the mechanism by which probiotic treatment modulates the microbiota and influences the regulation of the T-cell differentiation in the gut, which in turn alters the level of the proinflammatory cytokines in the extraintestinal tumor microenvironment. PMID:26884164

  1. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of a range of probiotics against pathogens: evidence for the effects of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Tejero-Sariena, Sandra; Barlow, Janine; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn R; Rowland, Ian

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of fifteen selected strains belonging to the Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus genera against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. In vitro antibacterial activity was initially investigated by an agar spot method. Results from the agar spot test showed that most of the selected strains were able to produce active compounds on solid media with antagonistic properties against Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile. These results were also confirmed when cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS) from the putative probiotics were used in an agar well diffusion assay. Neutralization of the culture supernatants with alkali reduced the antagonistic effects. These experiments are able to confirm the capacity of potential probiotics to inhibit selected pathogens. One of the main inhibitory mechanisms may result from the production of organic acids from glucose fermentation and consequent lowering of culture pH. This observation was confirmed when the profile of organic acids was analysed demonstrating that lactic and acetic acid were the principal end products of probiotic metabolism. Furthermore, the assessment of the haemolytic activity and the susceptibility of the strains to the most commonly used antimicrobials, considered as basic safety aspects, were also studied. The observed antimicrobial activity was mainly genus-specific, additionally significant differences could be observed among species. PMID:22959627

  2. Heterologous expression and purification of a multiheme cytochrome from a Gram-positive bacterium capable of performing extracellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Costa, N L; Carlson, H K; Coates, J D; Louro, R O; Paquete, C M

    2015-07-01

    Microbial electrochemical technologies are emerging as environmentally friendly biotechnological processes. Recently, a thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium capable of electricity production in a microbial fuel cell was isolated. Thermincola potens JR contains several multiheme c-type cytochromes that were implicated in the process of electricity production. In order to understand the molecular basis by which Gram-positive bacteria perform extracellular electron transfer, the relevant proteins need to be characterized in detail. Towards this end, a chimeric gene containing the signal peptide from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 small tetraheme cytochrome c (STC) and the gene sequence of the target protein TherJR_0333 was constructed. This manuscript reports the successful expression of this chimeric gene in the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and its subsequent purification and characterization. This methodology opens the possibility to study other multiheme cytochromes from Gram-positive bacteria, allowing the extracellular electron transfer mechanisms of this class of organisms to be unraveled. PMID:25797208

  3. Purification and partial elucidation of the structure of an antioxidant carbohydrate biopolymer from the probiotic bacterium Bacillus coagulans RK-02.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Vidya P; Perali, Ramu S; Sen, R

    2011-08-26

    An exopolysaccharide (EPS) was isolated from Bacillus coagulans RK-02 and purified by size exclusion chromatography. The purified, homogeneous EPS had an average molecular weight of ?3 10? Da by comparison with FITC-labeled dextran standards. In vivo evaluations showed that, like other reported polysaccharides, this EPS displayed significant antioxidant activity. FTIR spectroscopy analysis showed the presence of hydroxy, carboxy, and ?-glycosidic linkages and a mannose residue. GC analysis indicated that the EPS was a heteropolymer composed of glucose, mannose, galactose, glucosamine, and fucose as monomeric constituent units. Partial elucidation of the structure of the carbohydrate biopolymer based on GC-MS and NMR analysis showed the presence of two unique sets of tetrasaccharide repeating units that have 1?3 and 1?6 glycosidic linkages. This is also the first report of a Gram-positive bacterial polysaccharide with both fucose as a sugar monomer and 1?3 and 1?6 glycosidic linkages in the molecular backbone. PMID:21800834

  4. High protective efficacy of rice bran against human rotavirus diarrhea via enhancing probiotic growth, gut barrier function, and innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xingdong; Twitchell, Erica; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Weiss, Mariah; Kocher, Jacob; Lei, Shaohua; Ramesh, Ashwin; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Yuan, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we showed that rice bran (RB) was able to reduce human rotavirus (HRV) diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Here, we investigated its effect on the growth of diarrhea-reducing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN), and the resulting effects on HRV diarrhea, gut epithelial health, permeability and innate immune responses during virulent HRV challenge. On 3, 5, and 7 days of age pigs were inoculated with 2 × 104 colony-forming-units LGG+EcN to initiate colonization. Daily RB supplementation (replacing 10% calorie intake) was started at 5 days of age and continued until euthanasia. A subset of pigs in each group was challenged orally with 105 focus-forming-units of virulent HRV at 33 days of age. RB completely prevented HRV diarrhea in LGG+EcN colonized pigs. RB significantly promoted the growth of both probiotic strains in the gut (~5 logs) and increased the body-weight-gain at 4–5 weeks of age compared to non-RB group. After HRV challenge, RB-fed pigs had significantly lower ileal mitotic index and villus width, and significantly increased intestinal IFN-γ and total IgA levels compared to non-RB group. Therefore, RB plus LGG+EcN colonization may represent a highly effective therapeutic approach against HRV and potentially a variety of other diarrhea-inducing enteric pathogens. PMID:26459937

  5. High protective efficacy of rice bran against human rotavirus diarrhea via enhancing probiotic growth, gut barrier function, and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingdong; Twitchell, Erica; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Weiss, Mariah; Kocher, Jacob; Lei, Shaohua; Ramesh, Ashwin; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Yuan, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we showed that rice bran (RB) was able to reduce human rotavirus (HRV) diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Here, we investigated its effect on the growth of diarrhea-reducing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN), and the resulting effects on HRV diarrhea, gut epithelial health, permeability and innate immune responses during virulent HRV challenge. On 3, 5, and 7 days of age pigs were inoculated with 2 × 10(4) colony-forming-units LGG+EcN to initiate colonization. Daily RB supplementation (replacing 10% calorie intake) was started at 5 days of age and continued until euthanasia. A subset of pigs in each group was challenged orally with 10(5) focus-forming-units of virulent HRV at 33 days of age. RB completely prevented HRV diarrhea in LGG+EcN colonized pigs. RB significantly promoted the growth of both probiotic strains in the gut (~5 logs) and increased the body-weight-gain at 4-5 weeks of age compared to non-RB group. After HRV challenge, RB-fed pigs had significantly lower ileal mitotic index and villus width, and significantly increased intestinal IFN-γ and total IgA levels compared to non-RB group. Therefore, RB plus LGG+EcN colonization may represent a highly effective therapeutic approach against HRV and potentially a variety of other diarrhea-inducing enteric pathogens. PMID:26459937

  6. Guidance for substantiating the evidence for beneficial effects of probiotics: prevention and management of infections by probiotics.

    PubMed

    Wolvers, Danielle; Antoine, Jean-Michel; Myllyluoma, Eveliina; Schrezenmeir, Juergen; Szajewska, Hania; Rijkers, Ger T

    2010-03-01

    The rationale for the use of probiotics in the management of infectious diseases is supported by their potential to influence and stabilize the composition of gut microbiota, enhance colonization resistance, and modulate immune function parameters. A literature review was conducted to determine the efficacy of using probiotics in selected infections: 1) infectious diarrhea in infants and children, 2) traveler's diarrhea, 3) necrotizing enterocolitis in infants, 4) Helicobacter pylori infection, 5) respiratory tract infections in adults and children, 6) ear, nose, and throat infections, and 7) infectious complications in surgical and critically ill patients. The different types of infections that have been subject to clinical studies with different probiotics obviously prevent any generic conclusions. Furthermore, the lack of consistency among studies focusing on 1 specific infection, in study design, applied probiotic strains, outcome parameters, and study population, along with the still limited number of studies, preclude clear and definite conclusions on the efficacy of probiotics and illustrate the need for better-aligned study designs and methodology. Exceptions were the management of infectious diarrhea in infants and traveler's diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Sufficient consistent data exist for these applications to conclude that certain probiotics, under certain conditions, and in certain target populations, are beneficial in reducing the risk of infection. In addition, some evidence exists, although conclusions are premature, for the management of Helicobacter pylori infection and possible reduction of treatment side effects. Certain probiotics may also reduce the risk of various symptoms of respiratory tract infections in adults and children, including ear, nose, and throat infections, although data are currently far too limited to distill any clinical recommendations in this area. Positive but also negative results have been obtained in prevention of infectious complications in surgical and critically ill patients. For future studies it is recommended that researchers provide adequate power, identify pathogens, and report both clinical outcomes and immune biomarkers relating to putative underlying mechanisms. PMID:20107143

  7. Effect of probiotics on the expression of Barrett's oesophagus biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari namin, Behrooz; Daryani, Nasser Ebrahimi; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Yazdi, Mohammad Kazem Sharifi; Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan

    2015-04-01

    Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is a complicated condition at the gastroesophageal junction in which normal squamous epithelium is changed to columnar and leads to oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OA). In the past decades, the prevalence of Barrett's disease and mortality rate of adenocarcinoma has significantly increased throughout the word. Data has shown that molecular pathogenesis of disease has not been clearly identified. However, a wide-range and successful administration of probiotics in cancer and gastrointestinal diseases has lead to the investigation into the possible inhibitory role of probiotics in oesophageal cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effect of probiotics on the expression of biomarkers in an in vitro model. Two different Barrett's oesophageal cell lines were selected to co-culture with B. longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus to measure expression of IL-18, TNF?, p53 (tumour suppressor gene), cyclooxygenase 2 and CDX1 (caudal type homeobox 1) genes. In addition, two different aspects of probiotic administration, therapeutic and prophylactic test were also examined. Results showed that micro-organisms could inhibit expression of biomarkers and therapeutic culture conditions were more effective than prophylactic tests. The results obtained suggest that it is possible to incorporate the administration of probiotics in BO and OA prevention. PMID:25666837

  8. Probiotics: role in pathophysiology and prevention in necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Camilia R; Walker, W Allan

    2008-04-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory bowel disease largely affecting low birth weight, premature infants. Once acquired, NEC is accompanied by significant mortality and morbid sequelae. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of NEC continues to evolve, and the development of NEC is likely multifactorial with resultant bowel injury mediated through a final, common inflammatory pathway. The predisposition for NEC appears to involve the interplay between intestinal integrity and function, enteral feeding and bacterial colonization, and regulation of the gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory response. Commensal organisms or probiotics have been shown to be crucial in the development and modulation of each of these factors within the intestinal epithelium. As a result, probiotic supplementation has been proposed as a promising new intervention for the prevention of NEC. To understand the potential utility of probiotics in NEC, we will discuss: the components of gut defense; the role of the intestinal ecosystem in modulating immunity and inflammation; bacterial colonization patterns in the preterm infant compared with patterns seen in the healthy, full-term infant; the evidence for probiotic use in other populations and diseases; and finally, the evidence of probiotic use specific to the preterm infant and NEC. PMID:18346537

  9. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus inhibits the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps.

    PubMed

    Vong, Linda; Lorentz, Robert J; Assa, Amit; Glogauer, Michael; Sherman, Philip M

    2014-02-15

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are an essential component of the antimicrobial repertoire and represent an effective means by which neutrophils capture, contain, and kill microorganisms. However, the uncontrolled or excessive liberation of NETs also damages surrounding cells and can contribute to disease pathophysiology. Alterations in the gut microbiota, as well as the presence of local and systemic markers of inflammation, are strongly associated with the manifestation of a spectrum of intestinal disorders, including chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Although probiotics exert beneficial effects on gut homeostasis, their direct effect on neutrophils, which are abundant in the setting of intestinal inflammation, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of nonpathogenic, enteropathogenic, and probiotic bacteria on the dynamics of NET formation. Using murine bone marrow-derived neutrophils and the neutrophil-differentiated human myeloid cell line d.HL-60, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG inhibits both PMA- and Staphylococcus aureus-induced formation of NETs. Moreover, probiotic L. rhamnosus strain GG had potent antioxidative activity: dampening reactive oxygen species production and phagocytic capacity of the neutrophils while protecting against cell cytotoxicity. Within the milieu of the gut, this represents a novel mechanism by which probiotics can locally dampen innate immune responses and confer desensitization toward luminal Ags. PMID:24465012

  10. Probiotics: Interaction with gut microbiome and antiobesity potential.

    PubMed

    Arora, Tulika; Singh, Satvinder; Sharma, Raj Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disorder afflicting people globally. There has been a pivotal advancement in the understanding of the intestinal microbiota composition and its implication in extraintestinal (metabolic) diseases. Therefore, any agent modulating gut microbiota may produce an influential effect in preventing the pathogenesis of disease. Probiotics are live microbes that, when administered in adequate amounts, have been shown to confer health benefits to the host. Over the years, probiotics have been a part of the human diet in the form of different fermented foods consumed around the world. Their influence on different physiologic functions in the host is increasingly being documented. The antiobesity potential of probiotics is also gaining wide attention because of increasing evidence of the role of gut microbiota in energy homeostasis and fat accumulation. Probiotics have also been shown to interact with the resident bacterial members already present in the gut by altering their properties, which may also affect the metabolic pathways involved in the regulation of fat metabolism. The underlying pathways governing the antiobesity effects of probiotics remain unclear. However, it is hoped that the evidence presented and discussed in this review will encourage and thus drive more extensive research in this field. PMID:23287068

  11. Prospects of using marine actinobacteria as probiotics in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Das, Surajit; Ward, Louise R; Burke, Chris

    2008-12-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents have been banned for disease management in aquaculture systems due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance gene and enduring residual effects in the environments. Instead, microbial interventions in sustainable aquaculture have been proposed, and among them, the most popular and practical approach is the use of probiotics. A range of microorganisms have been used so far as probiotics, which include Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, bacteriophages, and unicellular algae. The results are satisfactory and promising; however, to combat the latest infectious diseases, the search for a new strain for probiotics is essential. Marine actinobacteria were designated as the chemical factory a long time ago, and quite a large number of chemical substances have been isolated to date. The potent actinobacterial genera are Streptomyces; Micromonospora; and a novel, recently described genus, Salinispora. Despite the existence of all the significant features of a good probiont, actinobacteria have been hardly used as probiotics in aquaculture. However, this group of bacteria promises to supply the most potential probiotic strains in the future. PMID:18841358

  12. Probiotics: Healthy bugs and nourishing elements of diet.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vijayendra; Berwal, Vikas; Solanki, Neeraj; Malik, Narender Singh

    2015-01-01

    The use of probiotics is based on the concept that adding the right live microbes to the complex human system can result in physiological benefits. The benefit of fermented milk in human diet has been acknowledged since Vedic times; however, the scientific interest in this field was evoked by Ellie Metchinkoff who recommended that people should consume fermented milk containing lactobacilli to prolong their lives, as accelerated aging is due to autointoxication caused by the toxins produced by the gut microflora. They have been used to improve gastrointestinal health and their attractiveness has evinced interest to study their role in the promotion of oral health also. Studies have been widely carried out to establish the role of intestinal lactobacilli as probiotic to treat various gastrointestinal disorders, but only limited studies are available on the oral use of probiotics. The probiotic products usually contain lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, and their demand in the market is growing day by day. This paper provides an overview of various studies in the literature that emphasize on the role of probiotics to combat oral diseases and encourages more research in this field. PMID:25992331

  13. Probiotics: Healthy bugs and nourishing elements of diet

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Vijayendra; Berwal, Vikas; Solanki, Neeraj; Malik, Narender Singh

    2015-01-01

    The use of probiotics is based on the concept that adding the right live microbes to the complex human system can result in physiological benefits. The benefit of fermented milk in human diet has been acknowledged since Vedic times; however, the scientific interest in this field was evoked by Ellie Metchinkoff who recommended that people should consume fermented milk containing lactobacilli to prolong their lives, as accelerated aging is due to autointoxication caused by the toxins produced by the gut microflora. They have been used to improve gastrointestinal health and their attractiveness has evinced interest to study their role in the promotion of oral health also. Studies have been widely carried out to establish the role of intestinal lactobacilli as probiotic to treat various gastrointestinal disorders, but only limited studies are available on the oral use of probiotics. The probiotic products usually contain lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, and their demand in the market is growing day by day. This paper provides an overview of various studies in the literature that emphasize on the role of probiotics to combat oral diseases and encourages more research in this field. PMID:25992331

  14. Probiotics for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John Frederick; Bonci, Enea; Romaggioli, Sara; Baldini, Rossella; Chiesa, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The combination of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin or metronidazole) has been the recommended first-line therapy since the first guidelines for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in children were published. In recent years, the success of eradication therapies has declined, in part due to the development of H. pylori resistant strains. Alternative anti-H. pylori treatments are currently becoming more popular than the traditional eradication methods. Components that may be used either as a monotherapy or, in combination with antimicrobials, resulting in a more effective anti-H. pylori therapy have been investigated in depth by several researchers. One of the potential therapies is probiotic cultures; promising results have been observed in initial studies with numerous probiotic strains. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered. In this article, we comprehensively review the possible mechanisms of action of probiotics on H. pylori infection, and present the results of published studies using probiotics as possible agents to control H. pylori infection in children. The effect of the addition of probiotics to the standard H. pylori eradication therapy for the prevention of antibiotic associated side-effects is also discussed. PMID:24574741

  15. Aquaculture and stress management: a review of probiotic intervention.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S; Chakraborty, T; Kumar, V; DeBoeck, G; Mohanta, K N

    2013-06-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand for animal protein, aquaculture continuously requires new techniques to increase the production yield. However, with every step towards intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in stress level on the animal as well as on the environment. Feeding practices in aqua farming usually plays an important role, and the addition of various additives to a balanced feed formula to achieve better growth is a common practice among the fish and shrimp culturists. Probiotics, also known as 'bio-friendly agents', such as LAB (Lactobacillus), yeasts and Bacillus sp., can be introduced into the culture environment to control and compete with pathogenic bacteria as well as to promote the growth of the cultured organisms. In addition, probiotics are non-pathogenic and non-toxic micro-organisms, having no undesirable side effects when administered to aquatic organisms. Probiotics are also known to play an important role in developing innate immunity among the fishes, and hence help them to fight against any pathogenic bacterias as well as against environmental stressors. The present review is a brief but informative compilation of the different essential and desirable traits of probiotics, their mode of action and their useful effects on fishes. The review also highlights the role of probiotics in helping the fishes to combat against the different physical, chemical and biological stress. PMID:22512693

  16. The effect of prebiotics on adherence of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Kadlec, Robert; Jakubec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Prebiotics are generally considered to promote the function or viability of probiotics via their fermentation, but their effect on the adherence of probiotics is still unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of 4 commercially available prebiotics [Orafti GR, Orafti P95, and Orafti Synergy (Beneo GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), and Vivinal (Friesland Foods Domo, Amersfoort, the Netherlands)] and 3 simple saccharides (glucose, galactose, and lactose) on the adherence of 5 probiotic type strains, 2 lactococci starter cultures, and 5 potential dairy probiotic strains from the Culture Collection of Dairy Microorganisms (Tbor, Czech Republic). Adherence was tested in microtiter plates on the following types of substrate: polystyrene alone and polystyrene coated with either porcine mucus or cocultures of the human colon cell lines Caco2 and HT29-MXT (1:9 ratio of HT29-MXT:Caco2). Adherence was evaluated as a change in fluorescence in the well of a microtiter plate. The most commonly observed effect (with a few exceptions) of prebiotics was decreased adherence of the tested strains observed on all types of substrate. The tested saccharides, which are part of the residual compounds of the used prebiotics, had a very similar effect-eliciting a decrease in adherence ability in the majority of the probiotic strains. PMID:24485681

  17. The probiotic content of commercial yogurts in west virginia.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Brian S; Yu, Hongwei; Elitsur, Yoram

    2009-06-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that can confer health benefits. Current recommendations for probiotic dosing in pediatrics for acute gastroenteritis range from 109 to 1011 colony forming units (CFUs)/day. In the present study, commercial yogurts were investigated for probiotic content and concentration. A total of 10 yogurts and 1 probiotic supplement were tested. Culture and enumeration were performed on Lactobacillus specific agar, and presence of gram positive rods were confirmed with gram staining. Various PCR techniques were also used to identify different Lactobacillus species. Good colony growth was noted on all cultures, with enumeration results ranging from 4.8 x 109 to 9.5 x 1010 CFU in a single 100mL serving. A wide variety of bacterial species was noted, including unidentified bacteria. All yogurt samples had enough probiotic content to meet current recommendations for treatment of acute gastroenteritis. Physicians should use yogurts with caution in this setting until full bacterial repertoires are available for commercial yogurts. PMID:19246412

  18. Probiotics and prebiotics associated with aquaculture: A review.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Najeeb; Wu, Bin; Memon, Aamir Mahmood; Mohsin, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    There is a rapidly growing literature, indicating success of probiotics and prebiotics in immunomodulation, namely the stimulation of innate, cellular and humoral immune response. Probiotics are considered to be living microorganisms administered orally and lead to health benefits. These Probiotics are microorganisms in sufficient amount to alter the microflora (by implantation or colonization) in specific host's compartment exerting beneficial health effects at this host. Nevertheless, Prebiotics are indigestible fiber which enhances beneficial commensally gut bacteria resulting in improved health of the host. The beneficial effects of prebiotics are due to by-products derived from the fermentation of intestinal commensal bacteria. Among the many health benefits attributed to probiotics and prebiotics, the modulation of the immune system is one of the most anticipated benefits and their ability to stimulate systemic and local immunity, deserves attention. They directly enhance the innate immune response, including the activation of phagocytosis, activation of neutrophils, activation of the alternative complement system, an increase in lysozyme activity, and so on. Prebiotics acting as immunosaccharides directly impact on the innate immune system of fish and shellfish. Therefore, both probiotics and prebiotics influence the immunomodulatory activity boosting up the health benefits in aquatic animals. PMID:26044743

  19. Traditional and high potency probiotic preparations for oral bacteriotherapy.

    PubMed

    Famularo, G; De Simone, C; Matteuzzi, D; Pirovano, F

    1999-12-01

    Current research continues to improve the treatment options available to clinicians for oral bacteriotherapy. Recently, a greater understanding of the role of endogenous digestive microflora has generated renewed interest in the potential of oral bacteriotherapy for the management of a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal and systemic disorders. Several treatment strategies for oral bacteriotherapy have already entered clinical trials and it is hoped that some of these strategies will become widely available in the near future. This review summarises the current status of oral probiotic preparations for bacteriotherapy and discusses any obstacles to their successful clinical development. Newer probiotic preparations include high potency preparations that are greatly enriched in lactic acid bacteria, both in terms of bacterial concentrations and the number of bacterial strains. These preparations have a greater potential for clinical effectiveness than traditional preparations and are entering clinical evaluation especially in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and pouchitis, irritable bowel syndrome, or cryptosporidiosis. The pitfalls of previous clinical investigations of traditional probiotic preparations and the perils of future clinical trials with high potency preparations are discussed in the context of unmet needs and realistic expectations of success. Although considerable progress has been made in oral bacteriotherapy, focused efforts by basic scientists and clinical investigators and continued support from pharmaceutical companies is required to successfully develop probiotics for use in clinical medicine. Newer high potency probiotic preparations appear to have a great advantage over traditional preparations and should be the area of most active biomedical research in the field. PMID:18031194

  20. Protective Effect of Laminaria japonica with Probiotics on Murine Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Youngmin; Bae, Jinhyun; Bang, Yu-mi; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Hyejung; Beom-Joon, Lee; Hyun, Yoo Hye

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ) is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE) at doses from 100 to 300?mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300?mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40), IL-12 (P70), IL-17, and TNF-? were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1? and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-12 (P40) but not IFN-?, IL-10, and IL-12 (P70). In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics. PMID:24948848

  1. Catheter Related Escherichia hermannii Sepsis in a Haemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Rank, Cecilie Utke; Lommer Kristensen, Peter; Schrøder Hansen, Dennis; Brandi, Lisbet

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia hermannii is an extremely rare etiological agent of invasive infection, and thus, the bacterium was initially considered non-pathogenic. However, in five previously reported case reports E. hermannii has been implicated as the sole pathogen. Our case report describes blood stream infection with E. hermannii in a haemodialysis patient with persisting symptoms, high fever and inflammatory markers despite appropriate antibiotic treatment until replacement of the dialysis catheter. We suspect biofilm formation to be a crucial pathogenic feature for E. hermannii in the maintenance of an infection, which stresses the necessity of antibiotic treatment along with catheter replacement in bloodstream- and catheter-related infection with E. hermannii. PMID:27006723

  2. Genetic engineering of ethanol production in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L.O.; Conway, T.; Clark, D.P.; Sewell, G.W.; Preston, J.F.

    1987-10-01

    The genes encoding essential enzymes of the fermentative pathway for ethanol production in Zymomonas mobilis, an obligately ethanologenic bacterium, were inserted into Escherichia coli under the control of a common promoter. Alcohol dehydrogenase II and pyruvate decarboxylase from Z. mobilis were expressed at high levels in E. coli, resulting in increased cell growth and the production of ethanol as the principal fermentation product from glucose. These results demonstrate that it is possible to change the fermentation products of an organism, such as E. coli, by the addition of genes encoding appropriate enzymes which form an alternative system for the regeneration of NAD/sup +/.

  3. Escherichia coli as a model active colloid: A practical introduction.

    PubMed

    Schwarz-Linek, Jana; Arlt, Jochen; Jepson, Alys; Dawson, Angela; Vissers, Teun; Miroli, Dario; Pilizota, Teuta; Martinez, Vincent A; Poon, Wilson C K

    2016-01-01

    The flagellated bacterium Escherichia coli is increasingly used experimentally as a self-propelled swimmer. To obtain meaningful, quantitative results that are comparable between different laboratories, reproducible protocols are needed to control, 'tune' and monitor the swimming behaviour of these motile cells. We critically review the knowledge needed to do so, explain methods for characterising the colloidal and motile properties of E. coli cells, and propose a protocol for keeping them swimming at constant speed at finite bulk concentrations. In the process of establishing this protocol, we use motility as a high-throughput probe of aspects of cellular physiology via the coupling between swimming speed and the proton motive force. PMID:26310235

  4. Probiotics-containing yogurts suppress Helicobacter pylori load and modify immune response and intestinal microbiota in the Helicobacter pylori-infected children.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Yang YJ; Sheu BS

    2012-08-01

    BACKGROUND:  The benefits of probiotics to the pediatric Helicobacter pylori infection remain uncertain. We tested whether the H. pylori-infected children have an altered gut microflora, and whether probiotics-containing yogurt can restore such change and improve their H. pylori-related immune cascades.METHODS: We prospectively included 38 children with H. pylori infection confirmed by a positive ¹³C-urea breath test (UBT) and 38 age- and sex-matched noninfected controls. All of them have provided the serum and stool samples before and after 4-week ingestion of probiotics-containing yogurt. The serum samples were tested for the TNF-α, IL-10, IL-6, immunoglobulin (Ig) A, G, E, pepsinogens I and II levels. The stool samples were tested for the colony counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and Escherichia coli. The follow-up UBT indirectly assessed the H. pylori loads after yogurt usage.RESULTS:  The H. pylori-infected children had lower fecal Bifidobacterium spp. count (p = .009), Bifidobacterium spp./E. coli ratio (p = .04), serum IgA titer (p = .04), and pepsinogens I/II ratio (p < .001) than in controls. In the H. pylori-infected children, 4-week yogurt ingestion reduced the IL-6 level (p < .01) and H. pylori loads (p = .046), but elevated the serum IgA and pepsinogen II levels (p < .001). Moreover, yogurt ingestion can improve the childhood fecal Bifidobacterium spp./E. coli ratio (p = .03).CONCLUSIONS:  The H. pylori-infected children have a lower Bifidobacterium microflora in gut. The probiotics-containing yogurt can offer benefits to restore Bifidobacterium spp./E. coli ratio in children and suppress the H. pylori load with increment of serum IgA but with reduction in IL-6 in H. pylori-infected children.

  5. Study of antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus strains as probiotics on multi drug resistant (MDR) bacteria isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs)

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Atiyeh; Kasra-Kermanshahi, Roha; Gharavi, Sara; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Saffarian, Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by bacteria is one of the most frequent infections in human population. Inappropriate use of antibiotics, often leads to appearance of drug resistance in bacteria. However, use of probiotic bacteria has been suggested as a partial replacement. This study was aimed to assess the antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus standard strains against bacteria isolated from UTI infections. Materials and Methods: Among 600 samples; those with ?10,000 cfu/ml were selected as UTI positive samples. Enterococcus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter sp., and Escherichia coli were found the most prevalent UTI causative agents. All isolates were screened for multi drug resistance and subjected to the antimicrobial effects of three Lactobacillus strains by using microplate technique and the MICs amounts were determined. In order to verify the origin of antibiotic resistance of isolates, plasmid curing using ethidium bromide and acridine orange was carried out. Results: No antagonistic activity in Lactobacilli suspension was detected against test on Enterococcus and Enterobacter strains and K. pneumoniae, which were resistant to most antibiotics. However, an inhibitory effect was observed for E. coli which were resistant to 8-9 antibiotics. In addition, L. casei was determined to be the most effective probiotic. Results from replica plating suggested one of the plasmids could be related to the gene responsible for ampicillin resistance. Conclusion: Treatment of E. coli with probiotic suspension was not effective on inhibition of the plasmid carrying hypothetical ampicillin resistant gene. Moreover, the plasmid profiles obtained from probiotic-treated isolates were identical to untreated isolates. PMID:24847423

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain Nissle 1917 (Serovar O6:K5:H1).

    PubMed

    Cress, Brady F; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2013-01-01

    We announce the availability of the 5.023-Mbp high-quality draft assembly of the Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (serovar O6:K5:H1) genome. Short genomic segments from this important probiotic strain have been available in public databases, but the full genome sequence has remained inaccessible. Thus, high-coverage, whole genome sequencing of E. coli Nissle 1917 is presented herein. Reannotation and metabolic reconstruction will enable comparative genomics analysis and model-guided predictions of genetic manipulations leading to increased production of the K5 capsular polysaccharide known as N-acetyl heparosan, a precursor to the anticoagulant pharmaceutical heparin. PMID:23516190

  7. Probiotics: Isolated bacteria strain or mixtures of different strains? Two different approaches in the use of probiotics as therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Karimi, O; Pena, A S

    2003-08-01

    Probiotics are cultures of beneficial bacteria from the healthy gut microflora that improve the balance of the intestinal milieu by modifying the intestinal microflora and suppressing enhanced inflammatory responses. Probiotics are currently the subject of intense and widespread research as functional foods since they are known to induce health benefits, may be used as pharmaceutical preparations, and have achieved a "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) status. Lactobacillus strains can also be genetically engineered for use in oral immunotherapeutic applications, such as vaccination and delivery of immunoregulatory substances. In the present review we evaluate the two different approaches to the therapeutic use of probiotics. We also focus on recent findings in the field of molecular biology and genetics of the intestinal immune response related to the microflora and intestinal ecology, in order to understand the mechanisms of action of probiotics and their present indications in gastrointestinal diseases. Finally, with a view to future perspectives we provide some examples of probiotics that are being assessed and have great potential in improving the health of animals and man. PMID:14566382

  8. Vaginal Microbiota and the Use of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Cribby, Sarah; Taylor, Michelle; Reid, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    The human vagina is inhabited by a range of microbes from a pool of over 50 species. Lactobacilli are the most common, particularly in healthy women. The microbiota can change composition rapidly, for reasons that are not fully clear. This can lead to infection or to a state in which organisms with pathogenic potential coexist with other commensals. The most common urogenital infection in premenopausal women is bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition characterized by a depletion of lactobacilli population and the presence of Gram-negative anaerobes, or in some cases Gram-positive cocci, and aerobic pathogens. Treatment of BV traditionally involves the antibiotics metronidazole or clindamycin, however, the recurrence rate remains high, and this treatment is not designed to restore the lactobacilli. In vitro studies have shown that Lactobacillus strains can disrupt BV and yeast biofilms and inhibit the growth of urogenital pathogens. The use of probiotics to populate the vagina and prevent or treat infection has been considered for some time, but only quite recently have data emerged to show efficacy, including supplementation of antimicrobial treatment to improve cure rates and prevent recurrences. PMID:19343185

  9. Gut Microbiota and Probiotics in Colon Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuanmin; Luo, T. Michelle; Jobin, Christian; Young, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex and abundant microbial community reaching as high as 1013–1014 microorganisms in the colon. This endogenous microbiota forms a symbiotic relationship with their eukaryotic host and this close partnership helps maintain homeostasis by performing essential and non-redundant tasks (e.g. nutrition/energy and, immune system balance, pathogen exclusion). Although this relationship is essential and beneficial to the host, various events (e.g. infection, diet, stress, inflammation) may impact microbial composition, leading to the formation of a dysbiotic microbiota, further impacting on health and disease states. For example, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, collectively termed inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), have been associated with the establishment of a dysbiotic microbiota. In addition, extra-intestinal disorders such as obesity and metabolic syndrome are also associated with the development of a dysbiotic microbiota. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in harnessing the power of the microbiome and modulating its composition as a means to alleviate intestinal pathologies/disorders and maintain health status. In this review we will discuss the emerging relationship between the microbiota and development of colorectal cancer as well as present evidence that microbial manipulation (probiotic, prebiotic) impacts disease development. PMID:21741763

  10. Genetic mechanisms of prebiotic oligosaccharide metabolism in probiotic microbes.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2015-01-01

    Recent insights into the relationship between the human gut and its resident microbiota have revolutionized our appreciation of this symbiosis and its impact on health and disease development. Accumulating evidence on probiotic and prebiotic interventions has demonstrated promising effects on promoting gastrointestinal health by modulating the microbiota toward the enrichment of beneficial microorganisms. However, the precise mechanisms of how prebiotic nondigestible oligosaccharides are metabolized by these beneficial microbes in vivo remain largely unknown. Genome sequencing of probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has revealed versatile carbohydrate metabolic gene repertoires dedicated to the catabolism of various oligosaccharides. In this review, we highlight recent findings on the genetic mechanisms involved in the utilization of prebiotic fructooligosaccharides, ?-galactooligosaccharides, human milk oligosaccharides, and other prebiotic candidates by these probiotic microbes. PMID:25532597

  11. Recommendations for Probiotic Use in Humans—A 2014 Update

    PubMed Central

    Floch, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have gained worldwide use during the last two decades. However, which probiotic to use in which clinical condition has remained confusing in some clinical conditions. We convened a workshop at Yale in conjunction with Harvard in 2005, inviting a spectrum of probiotic authorities to discuss and reach conclusions on recommendations for use in common clinical conditions; the workshop was reconvened again in 2008 and in 2011. Each time the group of authorities was enlarged and varied depending on research studies. This article lists the recommendations updated from 2011 and is amended to bring it up to date in childhood and adult diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, allergic disorders, and radiation enteritis pending our 4th Triennial Yale/Harvard workshop to be convened in 2015. PMID:25310351

  12. Intestinal mucosal defense system, Part 2. Probiotics and prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Murgua-Peniche, Teresa; Mihatsch, Walter A; Zegarra, Jaime; Supapannachart, Sarayut; Ding, Zong-Yi; Neu, Josef

    2013-03-01

    The interplay between microorganisms and the intestine of newborn infants is associated with diverse functional and clinical outcomes that result from the specific interactions among microbial communities, their products, and the unique characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract. Multiple mechanisms of action for infant formula ingredients with probiotic activity appear to exist. These mechanisms are thought to protect the host not only from intestinal diseases but also from systemic infection. However, questions about the safety of probiotics for preterm infants remain unanswered, particularly with regard to sepsis, immunomodulatory effects, and microbial resistance. Few well-designed studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic ingredients on relevant clinical outcomes in preterm infants. Although existing data are encouraging, there is insufficient evidence to recommend the routine use of these ingredients in all preterm infants. PMID:23445850

  13. Health benefits of probiotics and prebiotics in women.

    PubMed

    de Vrese, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Among the numerous positive effects of probiotic microorganisms and prebiotic carbohydrates observed in clinical studies--the majority of which, however, does not fulfil the criteria of pharmaceutical verification--some are of specific relevance to female health. The present review addresses--besides some notes concerning the potential microbiota-hormone interactions--the first line with preventive and/or therapeutic applications of probiotic bacteria in order to maintain a balanced intestinal and urogenital flora, as well as in the case of irritable bowel syndrome, constipation (idiopathic slow-transit) and urogenital tract infections. Further aspects are the promotion of bone health and osteoporosis prevention brought about by inulin, oligofructose and galactooligosaccharides. Some further conditions, namely anorexia nervosa, the premenstrual syndrome as well as prevention or alleviation of climacteric and menopausal disorders, for which the use of probiotics is rather hypothetical or is largely studied by alternative medicine practising physicians, are addressed briefly. PMID:19237621

  14. Probiotics and Alcoholic Liver Disease: Treatment and Potential Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengyuan; Duan, Kangmin; Wang, Cuiling; McClain, Craig; Feng, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive research, alcohol remains one of the most common causes of liver disease in the United States. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders, including steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis. Although many agents and approaches have been tested in patients with ALD and in animals with experimental ALD in the past, there is still no FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved therapy for any stage of ALD. With the increasing recognition of the importance of gut microbiota in the onset and development of a variety of diseases, the potential use of probiotics in ALD is receiving increasing investigative and clinical attention. In this review, we summarize recent studies on probiotic intervention in the prevention and treatment of ALD in experimental animal models and patients. Potential mechanisms underlying the probiotic function are also discussed. PMID:26839540

  15. Novel probiotics and prebiotics: road to the market.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Verhagen, Hans; Rowland, Ian; Heimbach, Jim; Bañares, Silvia; Young, Tony; Nomoto, Koji; Lalonde, Mélanie

    2015-04-01

    Novel probiotics and prebiotics designed to manipulate the gut microbiota for improving health outcomes are in demand as the importance of the gut microbiota in human health is revealed. The regulations governing introduction of novel probiotics and prebiotics vary by geographical region. Novel foods and foods with health claims fall under specific regulations in several countries. The paper reviews the main requirements of the regulations in the EU, USA, Canada and Japan. We propose a number of areas that need to be addressed in any safety assessment of novel probiotics and prebiotics. These include publication of the genomic sequence, antibiotic resistance profiling, selection of appropriate in vivo model, toxicological studies (including toxin production) and definition of target population. PMID:25499742

  16. Probiotics in the development and treatment of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Isolauri, Erika; Rautava, Samuli; Salminen, Seppo

    2012-12-01

    Gut microbiota composition can discriminate between allergic and healthy children, and the distinction may precede clinical manifestations of disease. The mother provides the first inoculum of bacteria, which influences the risk of becoming allergic later in life. Bifidobacterium species are major determinants of disease risk. Specific probiotics may modulate early microbial colonization, which represents the first intervention target in allergic disease, together with their ability to reverse the increased intestinal permeability characteristic of children with atopic eczema and food allergy. Probiotics also enhance gut-specific IgA responses, which are frequently defective in children with food allergy. In addition, probiotics have the potential to alleviate allergic inflammation locally and systemically. PMID:23101685

  17. Probiotics and Alcoholic Liver Disease: Treatment and Potential Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengyuan; Duan, Kangmin; Wang, Cuiling; McClain, Craig; Feng, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive research, alcohol remains one of the most common causes of liver disease in the United States. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders, including steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis. Although many agents and approaches have been tested in patients with ALD and in animals with experimental ALD in the past, there is still no FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved therapy for any stage of ALD. With the increasing recognition of the importance of gut microbiota in the onset and development of a variety of diseases, the potential use of probiotics in ALD is receiving increasing investigative and clinical attention. In this review, we summarize recent studies on probiotic intervention in the prevention and treatment of ALD in experimental animal models and patients. Potential mechanisms underlying the probiotic function are also discussed. PMID:26839540

  18. Comparative secretome analysis of four isogenic Bacillus clausii probiotic strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The spore-bearing alkaliphilic Bacillus species constitute a large, heterogeneous group of microorganisms, important for their ability to produce enzymes, antibodies and metabolites of potential medical use. Some Bacillus species are currently being used for manufacturing probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores, exhibiting specific features (colonization, immune-stimulation and antimicrobial activity) that can account for their claimed probiotic properties. In the present work a comparative proteomic study was performed aimed at characterizing the secretome of four closely related isogenic O/C, SIN, N/R and T B. clausii strains, already marketed in a pharmaceutical mixture as probiotics. Results Proteomic analyses revealed a high degree of concordance among the four secretomes, although some proteins exhibited considerable variations in their expression level in the four strains. Among these, some proteins with documented activity in the interaction with host cells were identified, such as the glycolytic enzyme enolase, with a putative plasminogen-binding activity, GroEL, a molecular chaperone shown to be able to bind to mucin, and flagellin protein, a structural flagella protein and a putative immunomodulation agent. Conclusion This study shows, for the first time, differences in the secretome of the OC, SIN, NR and T B. clausii strains. These differences indicate that specific secretome features characterize each of the four strains despite their genotypic similarity. This could confer to the B. clausii strains specific probiotic functions associated with the differentially expressed proteins and indicate that they can cooperate as probiotics as the secretome components of each strain could contribute to the overall activity of a mixed probiotic preparation. PMID:23816335

  19. Role of probiotics in reducing the risk of gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Isolauri, E; Rautava, S; Collado, M C; Salminen, S

    2015-08-01

    Overweight and obesity currently constitute a major threat to human well-being. Almost half of the female population are currently overweight. Pregnant overweight women are at risk of gestational diabetes affecting the health of the mother and the child, in both the short and long term. Notwithstanding the extensive scientific interest centred on the problem, research efforts have thus far been unable to devise preventive strategies. Recent scientific advances point to a gut microbiota dysbiosis, with ensuing low-grade inflammation as a contributing element, in obesity and its comorbidities. Such findings would suggest a role for specific probiotics in the search for preventive and therapeutic adjunct applications in gestational diabetes. The aim of the present paper was to critically review recent demonstrations of the role of intestinal microbes in immune and metabolic regulation, which could be exploited in nutritional management of pregnant women by probiotic bacteria. By modulating specific target functions, probiotic dietary intervention may exert clinical effects beyond the nutritional impact of food. As this approach in pregnancy is new, an overview of the role of gut microbiota in shaping host metabolism, together with the definition of probiotics are presented, and finally, specific targets and potential mechanisms for probiotics in pregnancy are discussed. Pregnancy appears to be the most critical stage for interventions aiming to reduce the risk of non-communicable disease in future generations, beyond the immediate dangers attributable to the health of the mother, labour and the neonate. Specific probiotic interventions during pregnancy provide an opportunity, therefore, to promote the health not only of the mother but also of the child. PMID:25885278

  20. Microbiota and probiotics in canine and feline welfare.

    PubMed

    Grześkowiak, Łukasz; Endo, Akihito; Beasley, Shea; Salminen, Seppo

    2015-08-01

    Dogs and cats have been cohabiting with us for thousands of years. They are the major hu