Science.gov

Sample records for probiotic blend 5203-l

  1. Ileal and cecal microbial populations in broilers given specific essential oil blends and probiotics in two consecutive grow-outs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digestive microbial populations (MP) are key components for sustained healthy broiler production. Specific essential oil (EO) blends and probiotics used as feed additives have shown to promote healthy digestive microbials, resulting in improved poultry production. Two consecutive experiments were ...

  2. [Probiotics].

    PubMed

    Capurso, Lucio

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the currently available literature, which includes well-designed clinical trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, certain effects can be ascribed to probiotics as a general class. It is accepted that sufficient evidence has accumulated to support the concept of benefits of certain probiotics; it is reasonable to expect that evidence gained from a defined class of live microbes might be appropriate for certain, but not all, health outcomes. Moreover there is a need for clear communication to consumers and health-care providers of the activity of differentiate probiotic products. PMID:27362718

  3. Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Kligler, Benjamin; Cohrssen, Andreas

    2008-11-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms with potential health benefits. They may be used to prevent and treat antibiotic-associated diarrhea and acute infectious diarrhea. They may also be effective in relieving symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, and in treating atopic dermatitis in children. Species commonly used include Lactobacillus sp., Bifidobacterium sp., Streptococcus thermophilus, and Saccharomyces boulardii. Typical dosages vary based on the product, but common dosages range from 5 to 10 billion colony-forming units per day for children, and from 10 to 20 billion colony-forming units per day for adults. Significant adverse effects are rare, and there are no known interactions with medications. PMID:19007054

  4. Use of pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the effects of probiotics and essential oil blends on digestive microflora in broilers under mixed Eimeria infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A protective digestive microflora helps prevent and reduce broiler infection and colonization by enteropathogens. In the current experiment, broilers fed corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with probiotics and essential oil blends (EO) were infected with mixed Eimeria spp. to determine effects bro...

  5. Use of pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the effects of probiotics and essential oil blends on digestive microflora in broilers under mixed Eimeria infection.

    PubMed

    Hume, Michael E; Barbosa, Nei A; Dowd, Scot E; Sakomura, Nilva K; Nalian, Armen G; Martynova-Van Kley, Alexandra; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O

    2011-11-01

    A protective digestive microflora helps prevent and reduce broiler infection and colonization by enteropathogens. In the current experiment, broilers fed diets supplemented with probiotics and essential oil (EO) blends were infected with a standard mixed Eimeria spp. to determine effects of performance enhancers on ileal and cecal microbial communities (MCs). Eight treatment groups included four controls (uninfected-unmedicated [UU], unmedicated-infected, the antibiotic BMD plus the ionophore Coban as positive control, and the ionophore as negative control), and four treatments (probiotics BC-30 and Calsporin; and EO, Crina Poultry Plus, and Crina PoultryAF). Day-old broilers were raised to 14 days in floor pens on used litter and then were moved to Petersime batteries and inoculated at 15 days with mixed Eimeria spp. Ileal and cecal samples were collected at 14 days and 7 days postinfection. Digesta DNA was subjected to pyrosequencing for sequencing of individual cecal bacteria and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for determination of changes in ileal and cecal MC according to percentage similarity coefficient (%SC). Pyrosequencing is very sensitive detecting shifts in individual bacterial sequences, whereas DGGE is able to detect gross shifts in entire MC. These combined techniques offer versatility toward identifying feed additive and mild Eimeria infection modulation of broiler MC. Pyrosequencing detected 147 bacterial species sequences. Additionally, pyrosequencing revealed the presence of relatively low levels of the potential human enteropathogens Campylobacter sp. and four Shigella spp. as well as the potential poultry pathogen Clostridiun perfringens. Pre- and postinfection changes in ileal (56%SC) and cecal (78.5%SC) DGGE profiles resulted from the coccidia infection and with increased broiler age. Probiotics and EO changed MC from those seen in UU ilea and ceca. Results potentially reflect the performance enhancement above expectations in

  6. Molecular identification and characterization of ileal and cecal fungus communities in broilers given probiotics, specific essential oil blends, and under mixed Eimeria infection.

    PubMed

    Hume, Michael E; Hernandez, Charles A; Barbosa, Nei A; Sakomura, Nilva K; Dowd, Scott E; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O

    2012-09-01

    Broiler digestive tract fungal communities have gained far less scrutiny than that given corresponding bacterial communities. Attention given poultry-associated fungi have focused primarily on feed-associated toxin-producers, yeast, and yeast products. The current project focused on the use of pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to identify and monitor broiler digestive fungal communities. Eight different treatments were included. Four controls were an Uninfected-Unmedicated Control, an Unmedicated-Infected Control, the antibiotic bacitracin methylene disalicylate plus the ionophore monensin as Positive Control, and the ionophore monensin alone as a Negative Control. Four treatments were two probiotics (BC-30 and Calsporin) and two specific essential oil blends (Crina Poultry Plus and Crina Poultry AF). All chickens except the Unmedicated-Uninfected Control were given, at 15 days of age, a standard oral Eimeria inoculum of sporulated oocysts. Ileal and cecal digesta were collected at pre-Eimeria infection at 14 days of age and at 7 days post-Eimeria infection at 22 days of age. Extracted cecal DNA was analyzed by pyrosequencing to examine the impact of diet supplements and Eimeria infection on individual constituents in the fungal community, while DGGE was used to compare more qualitative changes in ileal and cecal communities. Pyrosequencing identified three phyla, seven classes, eight orders, 13 families, 17 genera, and 23 fungal species. Ileal and cecal DGGE patterns showed fungal communities were clustered mainly into pre- and post-infection patterns. Post-infection Unmedicated-Uninfected patterns were clustered with pre-infection groups demonstrating a strong effect of Eimeria infection on digestive fungal populations. These combined techniques offered added versatility towards unraveling the effects of enteropathogen infection and performance enhancing feed additives on broiler digestive microflora. PMID:22779701

  7. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  8. Clinical Uses of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Saif Ul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Probiotics are live nonpathogenic microorganisms. Many of these microorganisms are part of the normal human gut flora, where they live in a symbiotic relationship. Probiotics have been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI medical conditions. However, the data supporting their use are often conflicting, especially for non-GI-associated illnesses. The strongest evidence supporting the use of probiotics is related to the treatment of acute diarrhea and pouchitis. Atopic eczema in children and genitourinary infections are the only non-GI-related medical conditions where probiotics may have some beneficial effects. Product selection and dosing are not the same in all conditions, and the beneficial effects of each probiotic strain cannot be generalized. The purpose of this article is to provide most recent information about probiotics and its uses. In contrast with previously published reviews on probiotics, we also discuss the composition of various products (Table 1), indications for their use (Table 2), product selection, and dosing of probiotics. Probiotics are safe and appear to exert some beneficial effects in GI-related illnesses. The use of probiotics in non-GI illnesses is not sufficiently supported by current data. PMID:26844491

  9. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  10. Probiotics in transition.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Fergus; Dinan, Timothy G; Ross, Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-11-01

    Despite the hyperbole often linked with a popular research field, the scientific rationale for probiotics is sound. The probiotic concept is not new but is undergoing transition as knowledge of the gut microbiota in health and disease becomes translated to the clinic. Operationally, a probiotic represents a mimic of and/or supplement to the normal gut microbiota. Much confusion has arisen among consumers because of media misportrayals of probiotics as all being the same. However, with clarification of the molecular basis of host-microbe interactions, the selection criteria for probiotics and the delineation of their distinct mechanisms of action are improving. Most probiotics are from the genus Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium; this is likely to change and diversify. Similarly, the development of new therapeutic strategies, such as the development of phagebiotics, psychobiotics, and genetically modified pharmabiotics, is poised to become a therapeutic reality. PMID:23010563

  11. Health benefits of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Goldin, B R

    1998-10-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for the claims of health benefits derived from the use of probiotics. A brief history of probiotics and the types of probiotics currently used and the criteria for the selection of probiotics is discussed. The ability of probiotics to enhance the nutritional content and bioavailability of nutrients and the scientific evidence for the usefulness of probiotics in alleviating the symptoms of lactose intolerance and in enhancing growth development is examined. The remainder of the review focuses on studies of a specific probiotic, Lactobacillus GG which has been extensively investigated for its health benefits in humans and animals. These studies severe as a model for the potential benefits of probiotics. The ability of Lactobacillus GG to treat or prevent diarrhoeal disease, to serve as an adjuvant for vaccines, to prevent rotavirus-induced diarrhoea, to prevent milk-based allergic reactions, alcohol-induced liver disease and colon cancer are presented. The review concludes with a discussion of the data supporting the safety of probiotics. PMID:9924285

  12. Taxonomy of Probiotic Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felis, Giovanna E.; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    When referring to probiotics, one refers to probiotic strains, i.e., the microbial individuals, sub-cultures of billion of almost identical cells ideally derived from the same mother cell. Therefore, beneficial effects attributed to probiotics are ascribed in fact to specific strains. However, these strains have to be, by law, clearly identified at the species level (Pineiro and Stanton, 2007). In fact, probiotics have to be safe for consumption, and the evaluation of QPS - qualified presumption of safety - status by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (Opinion, 2007) is discussed for species, not for single strains.

  13. [Probiotics and their future].

    PubMed

    Pardio Sedas, V T; Waliszewski Kubiak, K N; Robledo López, G R

    1996-03-01

    This review examines recent scientific information about probiotics, their microbiological composition, general characteristics, function and methods of action as well as factor which determine their activity. The principal producers of probiotics and their future in human and animal nutrition are also discussed. PMID:9161452

  14. Probiotics in allergy management.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoof, Jon A

    2008-11-01

    The gut contains a diverse bacterial flora that is acquired at birth and has a number of physiological functions. Administration of prebiotics or probiotics may favourably alter this gut microflora. Prebiotics are poorly digested oligosaccharides that promote the growth of desirable bacteria and may have other beneficial gastrointestinal and systemic effects. Probiotics are "helpful" human bacteria that provide a variety of health benefits when administered exogenously. Probiotics produce beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of traveller's diarrhoea, viral diarrhoea, and diarrhoea in day care centres. Moreover, probiotics have been shown to reduce relapses associated with Clostridium difficile, and Lactobacilli are effective in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Probiotics may also be efficacious in the treatment of gastroenteritis. Clinical studies of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease have proved disappointing, but beneficial effects in adults with irritable bowel syndrome have been reported with Bifidobacterium infantis 35624. Lactobacilli GG reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms and gut permeability in patients with atopic dermatitis, and administration of probiotics reduces the frequency and severity of atopic eczema when administered to pregnant women and then to newborn infants. In conclusion, probiotics are effective in the treatment and/or prevention of a number of conditions, including diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome and atopic dermatitis, and the product used should be selected based on the particular indication. PMID:18931598

  15. The safety of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Snydman, David R

    2008-02-01

    Probiotics are generally defined as microorganisms that, when consumed, generally confer a health benefit on humans. There is considerable interest in probiotics for a variety of medical conditions, and millions of people around the world consume probiotics daily for perceived health benefits. Lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and lactococci have generally been regarded as safe. There are 3 theoretical concerns regarding the safety of probiotics: (1) the occurrence of disease, such as bacteremia or endocarditis; (2) toxic or metabolic effects on the gastrointestinal tract; and (3) the transfer of antibiotic resistance in the gastrointestinal flora. In this review, the evidence for safety of the use of or the study of probiotics is examined. Although there are rare cases of bacteremia or fungemia related to the use of probiotics, epidemiologic evidence suggests no population increase in risk on the basis of usage data. There have been many controlled clinical trials on the use of probiotics that demonstrate safe use. The use of probiotics in clinical trials should be accompanied by the use of a data-safety monitoring board and by knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the organism used. PMID:18181712

  16. Probiotics and microbiota composition.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence, corroborated by a new systematic review by Kristensen et al. (Genome Med 8:52, 2016), suggests that probiotics do not significantly impact the fecal microbiota composition of healthy subjects. Nevertheless, physiological benefits have been associated with probiotic consumption by healthy people. Some studies have suggested that probiotics may impact the function of colonizing microbes, although this needs to be further studied. An alternative hypothesis is that probiotics may promote homeostasis of the gut microbiota, rather than change its composition. This hypothesis warrants investigation as a possible mechanism for how probiotics may benefit healthy people.Please see related article: http://genomemedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13073-016-0300-5 . PMID:27250499

  17. Probiotics and oral health.

    PubMed

    Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour. PMID:22632388

  18. Probiotics in neonatology.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Leah; Jacobs, Susan E; Garland, Suzanne M

    2012-09-01

    Probiotics are micro-organisms that confer health benefits on the host. Postulated mechanisms include: increasing resistance of the mucosal barrier to migration of bacteria and their toxins by strengthening intestinal cell junctions, modification of host response to microbial products, augmentation of immunoglobulin A mucosal responses, enhancement of enteral nutrition to inhibit the growth of pathogens; production of antimicrobial proteins; and competitive exclusion of potential pathogens. Published meta-analyses and systematic reviews report the effects of probiotics on important clinical outcomes in neonates. This paper will review the evidence for probiotic supplementation in neonatology, with a focus on preterm infants. PMID:22862675

  19. Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imbriale, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Teachers always have been and always will be the essential element in the classroom. They can create magic inside four walls, but they have never been able to create learning environments outside the classroom like they can today, thanks to blended learning. Blended learning allows students and teachers to break free of the isolation of the…

  20. Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Catlin; Umphrey, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Catlin Tucker, author of "Blended Learning in Grades 4-12," is an English language arts teacher at Windsor High School in Sonoma County, CA. In this conversation with "Principal Leadership," she defines blended learning as a formal education program in which a student is engaged in active learning in part online where they…

  1. Probiotics: In Depth

    MedlinePlus

    ... the 30 days before the survey. What the Science Says About the Effectiveness of Probiotics Researchers have ... FDA before it can be sold. What the Science Says About the Safety and Side Effects of ...

  2. Basics of Probiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... in our bodies. In fact, microorganisms in the human body outnumber human cells by 10 to 1. Many ... probiotic microorganisms and have different effects in the human body. The effects also may vary from person to ...

  3. Probiotics-host communication

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Carissa M

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota includes a diverse group of functional microorganisms, including candidate probiotics or viable microorganisms that benefit the host. Beneficial effects of probiotics include enhancing intestinal epithelial cell function, protecting against physiologic stress, modulating cytokine secretion profiles, influencing T-lymphocyte populations, and enhancing antibody secretion. Probiotics have demonstrated significant potential as therapeutic options for a variety of diseases, but the mechanisms responsible for these effects remain to be fully elucidated. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that probiotics communicate with the host by modulating key signaling pathways, such as NFκB and MAPK, to either enhance or suppress activation and influence downstream pathways. Beneficial microbes can profoundly alter the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, and understanding these mechanisms may result in new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:20672012

  4. Probiotics: "living drugs".

    PubMed

    Elmer, G W

    2001-06-15

    The uses, mechanisms of action, and safety of probiotics are discussed. Probiotics are live microorganisms or microbial mixtures administered to improve the patient's microbial balance, particularly the environment of the gastrointestinal tract and the vagina. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and the bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus, strain GG, have shown efficacy in clinical trials for the prevention of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea. Other probiotics that have demonstrated at least some promise as prophylaxis for this type of diarrhea are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Enterococcus faecium. The use of S. boulardii as an adjunctive treatment to therapy with metronidazole or vancomycin has been found in controlled studies to decrease further recurrences of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Other gastrointestinal disorders for which probiotics have been studied include traveler's diarrhea, acute infantile diarrhea, and acute diarrhea in adults. Several Lactobacillus species given in yogurt or in tablet or suppository form have shown clinical efficacy as a treatment for vaginal infections. Lactobacillus strains have also been examined as a treatment for urinary-tract infections. Putative mechanisms of action of probiotics include production of pathogen-inhibitory substances, inhibition of pathogen attachment, inhibition of the action of microbial toxins, stimulation of immunoglobulin A, and trophic effects on intestinal mucosa. The available probiotics are considered nonpathogenic, but even benign microorganisms can be infective when a patient is severely debilitated or immunosuppressed. Probiotics have demonstrated an ability to prevent and treat some infections. Effective use of probiotics could decrease patients' exposure to antimicrobials. Additional controlled studies are needed to clearly define the safety and efficacy of these agents. PMID:11449853

  5. Probiotics and periodontal health.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G

    2011-11-14

    Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. The etiology is clearly bacterial and a number of putative bacterial pathogens have been associated with the disease, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythus and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Comparatively, little attention has been paid to the identification of health-associated and potentially beneficial bacterial species that may reside in the gingival sulcus. Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by using natural beneficial bacteria, commonly found in healthy mouths, to provide a natural defense against those bacteria which are thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. This article endeavors to introduce the concepts of probiotics in periodontics. PMID:22514571

  6. Probiotics and periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. The etiology is clearly bacterial and a number of putative bacterial pathogens have been associated with the disease, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythus and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Comparatively, little attention has been paid to the identification of health-associated and potentially beneficial bacterial species that may reside in the gingival sulcus. Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by using natural beneficial bacteria, commonly found in healthy mouths, to provide a natural defense against those bacteria which are thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. This article endeavors to introduce the concepts of probiotics in periodontics. PMID:22514571

  7. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections.

    PubMed

    Lehtoranta, L; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R

    2014-08-01

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common diseases in humans. A large range of etiologic agents challenge the development of efficient therapies. Research suggests that probiotics are able to decrease the risk or duration of respiratory infection symptoms. However, the antiviral mechanisms of probiotics are unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics on respiratory virus infections and to provide insights on the possible antiviral mechanisms of probiotics. A PubMed and Scopus database search was performed up to January 2014 using appropriate search terms on probiotic and respiratory virus infections in cell models, in animal models, and in humans, and reviewed for their relevance. Altogether, thirty-three clinical trials were reviewed. The studies varied highly in study design, outcome measures, probiotics, dose, and matrices used. Twenty-eight trials reported that probiotics had beneficial effects in the outcome of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and five showed no clear benefit. Only eight studies reported investigating viral etiology from the respiratory tract, and one of these reported a significant decrease in viral load. Based on experimental studies, probiotics may exert antiviral effects directly in probiotic-virus interaction or via stimulation of the immune system. Although probiotics seem to be beneficial in respiratory illnesses, the role of probiotics on specific viruses has not been investigated sufficiently. Due to the lack of confirmatory studies and varied data available, more randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials in different age populations investigating probiotic dose response, comparing probiotic strains/genera, and elucidating the antiviral effect mechanisms are necessary. PMID:24638909

  8. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed. PMID:23320906

  9. Risk and Safety of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Doron, Shira; Snydman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have been used safely for years. Safety outcomes are inconsistently reported in published clinical trials. In 2011, a report released by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality concluded that, although the existing probiotic clinical trials reveal no evidence of increased risk, “the current literature is not well equipped to answer questions on the safety of probiotics in intervention studies with confidence.” Critics point out that the preponderance of evidence, including the long history of safe probiotic use as well as data from clinical trials, and animal and in vitro studies all support the assumption that probiotics are generally safe for most populations. Theoretical risks have been described in case reports, clinical trial results and experimental models, include systemic infections, deleterious metabolic activities, excessive immune stimulation in susceptible individuals, gene transfer and gastrointestinal side effects. More research is needed to properly describe the incidence and severity of adverse events related to probiotics. PMID:25922398

  10. Probiotics in Pediatric Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Miloh, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    The gut-liver axis involves complex interaction between the intestinal microbiome and the liver parenchyma. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are used in a variety of diseases. With currently only 2 randomized-controlled studies (one with Lactobacillus GG and the other with VSL #3), data are scarce to support the clinical effect of probiotic use in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. There is evidence that probiotics decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and thereby reduce the prevalence of total parenteral nutrition-induced chronic liver disease. Probiotics are used with a few reported positive outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis and familial hypercholesterolemia and may be promising in other liver conditions. Probiotics are generally safe and well tolerated in children, premature infants, and in patients after liver transplantation. Large, prospective, randomized clinical trials are needed to evaluate the benefit of probiotics in children with liver diseases. PMID:26447962

  11. Probiotics from an industrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Forssten, Sofia D; Sindelar, Connie W; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2011-12-01

    Probiotic products have gained popularity with consumers that expect that the products they consume are healthy and help them maintain health. Hence, the need and preferences of the consumers are translated into a product format concept. Probiotics have been used for a long time as natural components in supplements and functional foods, mainly in fermented dairy products. Most of the strains used as probiotics belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. By definition, a strain has to have documented health benefits, in order to be called a probiotic. Although each bacterial strain is unique, there are some points that are essential when selecting a probiotic regarding the genetic stability, survival, and technical properties of a strain. Proper components, food matrices and production processes need to be selected since the matrices may affect the viability of the strain in the product and the intestine. Survival in the product is considered a requirement for the beneficial effects of probiotics. PMID:21549209

  12. [Pre- and probiotic cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Simmering, R; Breves, R

    2009-10-01

    The human skin provides a habitat for a variety of microorganisms, the skin microflora. There is a complex network of interactions between the microbes and cells of the epidermis. Modern analytical methods in molecular biology have revealed new insights into this complex diversity of partially unculturable microbial organisms. Most of the resident microbes on healthy skin can be regarded as being harmless or even beneficial to skin. In the case of diseases with some imbalance in microorganisms, such as impure skin/mild acne or dry skin/mild atopic dermatitis, pre- and probiotic concepts represent an effective alternative to strictly antibacterial products. Prebiotic actives rebalance the skin microflora while probiotic approaches predominantly consist of applying an inactivated microbial biomass of beneficial bacteria. Several examples of successful in vivo studies illustrate this new principle for gentle cosmetics derived from the food sector. PMID:19711025

  13. Probiotics in children.

    PubMed

    Kligler, Benjamin; Hanaway, Patrick; Cohrssen, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    The gastrointestinal flora plays a complex and important role in the development of healthy immunologic and digestive function in children. Probiotics are safe in healthy children and effective in reducing the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the duration of acute infectious diarrhea. Probiotics may also be effective in preventing community-acquired diarrheal infections, in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants, and in the prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis. The exact strain or combination of strains most effective for common clinical indications has yet to be determined, but the exact strain used seems less important than whether an adequate dose is used (typically 5 to 10 billion CFUs per day or higher). Clinicians should familiarize themselves with the products available because there is a wide range in their quality. PMID:18061785

  14. Latest Developments in Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Frédéric; Falony, Gwen; Vuyst, Luc De

    Probiotic foods are a group of health-promoting, so-called functional foods, with large commercial interest and growing market shares (Arvanitoyannis & van Houwelingen-Koukaliaroglou, 2005). In general, their health benefits are based on the presence of selected strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that, when taken up in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. They are administered mostly through the consumption of fermented milks or yoghurts (Mercenier, Pavan, & Pot, 2003). In addition to their common use in the dairy industry, probiotic LAB strains may be used in other food products too, including fermented meats (Hammes & Hertel, 1998; Incze, 1998; Kröckel, 2006; Työppönen, Petäjä,& Mattila- Sandholm, 2003).

  15. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  16. Probiotics for urogenital health.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, urinary tract infection, and yeast vaginitis afflict an estimated 1 billion women each year. Once investigation has ruled out complicated underlying causes, the only therapeutic option is antimicrobial agents. In many cases, this is effective at clearing infection. However, recurrences, side effects, and secondary infections are frequent. Coinciding with infection is a disruption of the normal commensal microflora in the vagina, primarily a loss of lactobacilli. The exogenous application of lactobacilli to the host as probiotic agents appears to offer hope as an alternative management regimen to antimicrobial treatment and prophylaxis. Although commercial probiotics specifically selected and proven to be effective for urogenital infections are not yet available, there is growing in vitro and human data to suggest that certain strains could confer health benefits on a large number of women. Given that depleted vaginal lactobacilli and recurrent infection is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases and preterm labor, multiple antibiotic resistance, and significant reduction in quality of life, the need for probiotic therapeutics has never been greater. PMID:12134717

  17. Probiotics in transition: novel strategies.

    PubMed

    Gosálbez, Luis; Ramón, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Regulations regarding health claims made for probiotics demand their proven effectiveness and limit the array of microbial species regarded as safe for live consumption. Novel strategies such as moving to postbiotics and genetically modified probiotics may be necessary to increase the effectiveness of microbial products. PMID:25702610

  18. Gut Microbiota, Probiotics, and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    SUVOROV, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The review is devoted to the problems of microbiota and the ways of it correction employing beneficial life bacteria- probiotics. It covers the issues related to the functioning of human microbiota and its importance for the health, individual variability of microbial content, functioning of the probiotics in the human organism and the history of probiotic studies with particular focus on the microbiological investigations in the USSR. The article discusses the safety issues related to probiotics and the problems with probiotic therapy, trying to explain the reasons for the side effects caused by probiotics. The necessity of personified selection of the probiotic strain or individual microbial therapy autoprobiotics is also discussed. PMID:24936366

  19. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS. PMID:24106397

  20. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics.

    PubMed

    de Vrese, Michael; Schrezenmeir, J

    2008-01-01

    According to the German definition, probiotics are defined viable microorganisms, sufficient amounts of which reach the intestine in an active state and thus exert positive health effects. Numerous probiotic microorganisms (e.g. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, bifidobacteria and certain strains of L. casei or the L. acidophilus-group) are used in probiotic food, particularly fermented milk products, or have been investigated--as well as Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, certain enterococci (Enterococcus faecium SF68) and the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii--with regard to their medicinal use. Among the numerous purported health benefits attributed to probiotic bacteria, the (transient) modulation of the intestinal microflora of the host and the capacity to interact with the immune system directly or mediated by the autochthonous microflora, are basic mechanisms. They are supported by an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo experiments using conventional and molecular biologic methods. In addition to these, a limited number of randomized, well-controlled human intervention trials have been reported. Well-established probiotic effects are: 1. Prevention and/or reduction of duration and complaints of rotavirus-induced or antibiotic-associated diarrhea as well as alleviation of complaints due to lactose intolerance. 2. Reduction of the concentration of cancer-promoting enzymes and/or putrefactive (bacterial) metabolites in the gut. 3. Prevention and alleviation of unspecific and irregular complaints of the gastrointestinal tracts in healthy people. 4. Beneficial effects on microbial aberrancies, inflammation and other complaints in connection with: inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, Helicobacter pylori infection or bacterial overgrowth. 5. Normalization of passing stool and stool consistency in subjects suffering from obstipation or an irritable colon. 6. Prevention or alleviation of allergies and atopic diseases in infants. 7

  1. Probiotics as Therapy in Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael D.; Ha, Christina Y.; Ciorba, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Goals The objective of this study was to determine how gastroenterologists perceive and use probiotic-based therapies in practice. Background In the United States, there has been a recent increase in research investigating the therapeutic capacities of probiotics in human disease and an accompanying increase in product availability and marketing. How medical care providers have interpreted the available literature and incorporated it into their practice has not been earlier assessed. Study A 16-question survey (see Survey, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JCG/A14) was distributed to practicing gastroenterologists and physicians with a specific interest in GI disorders within a large metropolitan area. Results All physicians responded that they believed probiotics to be safe for most patients and 98% responded that probiotics have a role in treating gastrointestinal illnesses or symptoms. Currently 93% of physicians have patients taking probiotics most often for irritable bowel syndrome. Commonly used probiotics included yogurt-based products, Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (Align), and VSL#3. Most surveyed physicians recommended probiotics for irritable bowel syndrome, antibiotic, and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea because they believed that the literature supports their usage for these conditions. However, physician practice patterns did not consistently correlate with published, expert-panel-generated recommendations for evidence-based probiotic use. Conclusions This study suggests most gastrointestinal disease specialists recognize a role for and have used probiotics as part of their therapeutic armamentarium; however, the effective implementation of this practice will benefit from additional supporting studies and the eventual development of clinical practice guidelines supported by the major gastroenterology societies. PMID:20216432

  2. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Castro, J. M.; Tornadijo, M. E.; Fresno, J. M.; Sandoval, H.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The physicochemical and technological parameters influencing the quality of these products have also to be measured so as to obtain a process optimization. PMID:25802862

  3. Probiotics and pharmabiotics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    That commensal bacteria play an important role in human health is beyond doubt, and it is now widely accepted that humans function as super organisms, whose collective metabolic potential exceeds the sum of our individual eukaryotic and prokaryotic components. However, while it is has been established that the prokaryotic component of the human superorganism is amenable to manipulation by chemotherapeutic, dietary or microbial interventions, the significance of such alterations in terms of human health or well being is less well established. Prebiotics (non- digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or activity of bacteria in the digestive system) and probiotics (live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host) are often bracketed among ‘alternative’ approaches to influencing human health, such as homeopathy, naturopathy, acupuncture and hypnotherapy. Others believe that prebiotics and probiotics have proven their effectiveness in properly conducted, clinically controlled human trials and therefore can be considered as evidence-based alternatives or adjuncts to conventional medicines. My journey from a position of total skepticism to ‘reluctant convert’ is the basis of this article, which should not be considered in any sense as a review of the literature but simply a personal account of this transition. While I am not bent on converting other doubters, I will recount some of the thought processes and evidence that has helped to form my current opinion. PMID:21326932

  4. Probiotics as potential antioxidants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vijendra; Shah, Chandni; Mokashe, Narendra; Chavan, Rupesh; Yadav, Hariom; Prajapati, Jashbhai

    2015-04-15

    Probiotics are known for their health beneficial effects and are established as dietary adjuncts. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects. In this view, there is interest to find the potential probiotic strains that can exhibit antioxidant properties along with health benefits. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that probiotics exhibit antioxidant potential. In this view, consumption of probiotics alone or foods supplemented with probiotics may reduce oxidative damage, free radical scavenging rate, and modification in activity of crucial antioxidative enzymes in human cells. Incorporation of probiotics in foods can provide a good strategy to supply dietary antioxidants, but more studies are needed to standardize methods and evaluate antioxidant properties of probiotics before they can be recommended for antioxidant potential. In this paper, the literature related to known antioxidant potential of probiotics and proposing future perspectives to conduct such studies has been reviewed. PMID:25808285

  5. A Gastroenterologist’s Guide to Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Matthew A

    2012-01-01

    The enteric microbiota contributes to gastrointestinal health and its disruption has been associated with many disease states. Some patients consume probiotic products in attempts to manipulate the intestinal microbiota for health benefit. It is important for gastroenterologists to improve their understanding of the mechanisms of probiotics and the evidence that support their use in practice. Clinical trials have assessed the therapeutic effects of probiotics for several disorders, including antibiotic-or Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and the inflammatory bowel diseases. Although probiotic research is a rapidly evolving field, there are sufficient data to justify a trial of probiotics for treatment or prevention of some of these conditions. However, the capacity of probiotics to modify disease symptoms is likely to be modest and varies among probiotic strains—not all probiotics are right for all diseases. The current review provides condition-specific rationale for using probiotics as therapy and literature-based recommendations. PMID:22504002

  6. Probiotics in critically ill children

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Sunit C.; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  7. Probiotics in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Sunit C; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  8. Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dan W; Greer, Frank R

    2010-12-01

    This clinical report reviews the currently known health benefits of probiotic and prebiotic products, including those added to commercially available infant formula and other food products for use in children. Probiotics are supplements or foods that contain viable microorganisms that cause alterations of the microflora of the host. Use of probiotics has been shown to be modestly effective in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in (1) treating acute viral gastroenteritis in healthy children; and (2) preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in healthy children. There is some evidence that probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants (birth weight between 1000 and 1500 g), but more studies are needed. The results of RCTs in which probiotics were used to treat childhood Helicobacter pylori gastritis, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic ulcerative colitis, and infantile colic, as well as in preventing childhood atopy, although encouraging, are preliminary and require further confirmation. Probiotics have not been proven to be beneficial in treating or preventing human cancers or in treating children with Crohn disease. There are also safety concerns with the use of probiotics in infants and children who are immunocompromised, chronically debilitated, or seriously ill with indwelling medical devices. Prebiotics are supplements or foods that contain a nondigestible food ingredient that selectively stimulates the favorable growth and/or activity of indigenous probiotic bacteria. Human milk contains substantial quantities of prebiotics. There is a paucity of RCTs examining prebiotics in children, although there may be some long-term benefit of prebiotics for the prevention of atopic eczema and common infections in healthy infants. Confirmatory well-designed clinical research studies are necessary. PMID:21115585

  9. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Cruz, Patricia; Ibáñez, Ana L.; Monroy Hermosillo, Oscar A.; Ramírez Saad, Hugo C.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field. PMID:23762761

  10. Review: The market of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2015-11-01

    The advertising of probiotics in diary products on the market has claimed several health-improving properties, including prevention and treatment of obesity, cardiovascular diseases and cancer prophylaxis, osteoporosis and arthritis treatment, diabetes management and control of hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, it is reasonable to emphasize the perspective of a new self-care and integrative medicine season, where food industry is turned to research-oriented management with putative clinical goals to be achieved. We searched Pubmed/Medline using the terms "probiotics" and "market". Selected papers until 2013 were chosen on the basis of their content (clinical evidence-based quality). We performed an accurate investigation on the so-called "probiotic market", leading to better understanding the role of nutraceutical products in the human clinical nutrition physiology. As nutraceutical products are sold all over the world, information, provided by this review may be useful to evaluate their potential impact on human health. PMID:26639512

  11. Probiotics and inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bai, A‐P; Ouyang, Q

    2006-01-01

    Enteric microflora profiles vary considerably between active inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and healthy conditions. Intestinal microflora may partake in the pathogenesis of IBD by one or some ways: specific pathogenic infection induces abnormal intestinal mucosal inflammation; aberrant microflora components trigger the onset of IBD; abnormal host immune response loses normal immune tolerance to luminal components; luminal antigens permeate through the defective mucosal barrier into mucosal lamina propria and induce abnormal inflammatory response. Preliminary studies suggest that administration of probiotics may be benefit for experimental colitis and clinical trials for IBD. Researches have been studying the function of probiotics. Introduction of probiotics can balance the aberrant enteric microflora in IBD patients, and reinforce the various lines of intestinal defence by inhibiting microbial pathogens growth, increasing intestinal epithelial tight junction and permeability, modulating immune response of intestinal epithelia and mucosal immune cells, secreting antimicrobial products, decomposing luminal pathogenic antigens. PMID:16754706

  12. Tolerance of probiotics and prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Marteau, Philippe; Seksik, Philippe

    2004-07-01

    The clinical efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics has been proved in several clinical settings. The authors review their proved or potential side effects. Probiotics as living microorganisms may theoretically be responsible for 4 types of side effects in susceptible individuals: infections, deleterious metabolic activities, excessive immune stimulation, and gene transfer. Very few cases of infection have been observed. These occurred mainly in very sick patients who received probiotic drugs because of severe medical conditions. Prebiotics exert an osmotic effect in the intestinal lumen and are fermented in the colon. They may induce gaseousness and bloating. Abdominal pain and diarrhea only occur with large doses. An increase in gastroesophageal reflux has recently been associated with large daily doses. Tolerance depends on the dose and individual sensitivity factors (probably the presence of irritable bowel syndrome or gastroesophageal reflux), and may be an adaptation to chronic consumption. PMID:15220662

  13. Effective Blended Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Blended learning is becoming more prevalent in higher education courses. Reasons for blending range from accommodating more students to improving the quality of courses offered. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss student attitudes towards blended courses versus face-to-face versus completely online courses, and (2) to consider…

  14. Probiotics and immunosenescence: cheese as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fandi; Ruvio, Suvi; Granlund, Linda; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2010-06-01

    Oral intake of specific probiotics has been reported to enhance the immunity of the elderly. Earlier studies have used milk or yoghurt as a probiotic carrier. We chose a commercial probiotic cheese to evaluate its potential as a probiotic food. Thirty-one healthy elderly volunteers (21 female, 10 male) aged from 72 to 103 (median 86) consumed a commercial probiotic cheese containing approximately 10(9) CFU day(-1) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. The 4-week probiotic intervention was preceded by a 2-week consumption of probiotic-free cheese (run-in) and followed by a 4-week wash-out period with the same control cheese. The cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative numbers of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in the total PBMCs, and phagocytic activity were assessed. Consumption of the probiotic cheese significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells. A significant increase in phagocytosis was observed for both the control and the probiotic cheese. Cheese was found to be an effective carrier for the study of probiotics, and daily consumption of the probiotic enhanced parameters of innate immunity in elderly volunteers. It remains to be determined whether this enhancement correlates with a beneficial effect on the health of the elderly population. PMID:20236323

  15. Antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gueimonde, Miguel; Sánchez, Borja; G. de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara; Margolles, Abelardo

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The main probiotic bacteria are strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although other representatives, such as Bacillus or Escherichia coli strains, have also been used. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are two common inhabitants of the human intestinal microbiota. Also, some species are used in food fermentation processes as starters, or as adjunct cultures in the food industry. With some exceptions, antibiotic resistance in these beneficial microbes does not constitute a safety concern in itself, when mutations or intrinsic resistance mechanisms are responsible for the resistance phenotype. In fact, some probiotic strains with intrinsic antibiotic resistance could be useful for restoring the gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment. However, specific antibiotic resistance determinants carried on mobile genetic elements, such as tetracycline resistance genes, are often detected in the typical probiotic genera, and constitute a reservoir of resistance for potential food or gut pathogens, thus representing a serious safety issue. PMID:23882264

  16. African fermented foods and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Mathara, Julius Maina; Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Reid, Gregor; Galvez, Antonio; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2014-11-01

    Africa has an age old history of production of traditional fermented foods and is perhaps the continent with the richest variety of lactic acid fermented foods. These foods have a large impact on the nutrition, health and socio-economy of the people of the continent, often plagued by war, drought, famine and disease. Sub-Saharan Africa is the world's region with the highest percentage of chronically malnourished people and high child mortality. Further developing of traditional fermented foods with added probiotic health features would be an important contribution towards reaching the UN Millennium Development Goals of eradication of poverty and hunger, reduction in child mortality rates and improvement of maternal health. Specific probiotic strains with documented health benefits are sparsely available in Africa and not affordable to the majority of the population. Furthermore, they are not used in food fermentations. If such probiotic products could be developed especially for household food preparation, such as cereal or milk foods, it could make a profound impact on the health and well-being of adults and children. Suitable strains need to be chosen and efforts are needed to produce strains to make products which will be available for clinical studies. This can gauge the impact of probiotics on consumers' nutrition and health, and increase the number of people who can benefit. PMID:25203619

  17. Safety of probiotics: translocation and infection.

    PubMed

    Liong, Min-Tze

    2008-04-01

    The long history of safety has contributed to the acceptance of probiotics as a safe food adjunct. Consequently, many probiotic products and their applications have been granted GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status. However, this classification has been frequently generalized for all probiotic strains regardless of their application. Cases of probiotics from the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Enterococcus, and Bifidobacterium have been isolated from infection sites, leading to the postulation that these probiotics can translocate. Probiotic translocation is difficult to induce in healthy humans, and even if it does occur, detrimental effects are rare. Despite this, various reports have documented health-damaging effects of probiotic translocation in immunocompromised patients. Due to probiotics' high degree of safety and their morphological confusion with other pathogenic bacteria, they are often overlooked as contaminants and are least suspected as pathogens. However, the antibiotic resistance of some strains has increased the complexity of their eradication. Probiotic translocation and infection deserve further investigation and should become a facet of safety assessment so the negative effects of probiotics do not outweigh the benefits. PMID:18366533

  18. The use of probiotics in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Hai, N V

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to present comprehensive notes for the use of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics have been proven to be positive promoters of aquatic animal growth, survival and health. In aquaculture, intestines, gills, the skin mucus of aquatic animals, and habitats or even culture collections and commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics, which have been identified as bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and nonbacteria (bacteriophages, microalgae and yeasts). While a bacterium is a pathogen to one aquatic animal, it can bring benefits to another fish species; a screening process plays a significant role in making a probiotic species specific. The administration of probiotics varies from oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is commonly used in aquaculture. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains, or even in combination with prebiotic, immunostimulants such as synbiotics and synbiotism, and in live or dead forms. Encapsulating probiotics with live feed is a suitable approach to convey probiotics to aquatic animals. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. Several modes of actions of probiotics are presented, while some others are not fully understood. Suggestions for further studies on the effects of probiotics in aquaculture are proposed. PMID:26119489

  19. Feeding Probiotic Bacteria To Swine Enhances Immunity To Ascaris Suum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotic bacterial species are included in the diet to promote health. Probiotics purportedly protect the intestine against pathogenic microorganisms and can reduce inflammation; however, quantitative measurement of probiotic growth and related effects on intestinal function are often lacking. Asca...

  20. Fermented products with probiotic qualities.

    PubMed

    Kalantzopoulos, G

    1997-01-01

    For several centuries, fermented products derived from plant or animal materials have been an acceptable and essential part of the diet in most parts of the world. Health benefits have also often been associated with them. Probiotics can be defined as fermented food containing specific live microorganisms or a live microbial food or feed supplement, which beneficially effects the human or the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Nearly all probiotics currently on the market contain Lactobacilli, Streptococci, Enterococci or Bifidobacteria. In contrast to Japan, where freeze-dried microorganisms are consumed by a substantial part of the human population, in Europe, probiotic action towards humans are only claimed for certain fermented dairy products (e.g. yoghurts). Those species that have been extensively studied so far, with several experimental trials on man, are the two yoghurt bacteria Streptocaccus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. casei and Bifidobacteria. L. acidophilus has also received important scientific interest, however, only a few human studies have been carried out. From the technological point of view a good probiotic should be stable and viable for long periods under storage, should be able to survive the low pH levels of the stomach, be able to colonise the epithelium of the gastro-intestinal tract of the host, should not be pathogenic and, last but not least, must be capable of exerting a growth promoting effect or a resistance to infectious diseases. The beneficial effects of probiotics are mainly contributed to a direct antagonistic effect against specific groups of microorganisms (Enteropathogenes), by an effect on the metabolism in the gut or by a stimulation of systemic or mucosal immunity. We will present major proven health benefits of milks fermented with those bacterial species and discuss, where possible, the impact of the specific selection and utilisation of particular strains. PMID:16887587

  1. Probiotics: properties, examples, and specific applications.

    PubMed

    Behnsen, Judith; Deriu, Elisa; Sassone-Corsi, Martina; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2013-03-01

    Probiotics are beneficial components of the microbiota that have been used for centuries because of the health benefits they confer to the host. Only recently, however, has the contribution of probiotics to modulation of immunological, respiratory, and gastrointestinal functions started to be fully appreciated and scientifically evaluated. Probiotics such as Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and lactic acid bacteria are currently used to, or have been evaluated for use to, prevent or treat a range of intestinal maladies including inflammatory bowel disease, constipation, and colon cancer. Engineering these natural probiotics to produce immunomodulatory molecules may help to further increase the benefit to the host. In this article, we will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of probiotics as well as advances in the rational design of probiotics. PMID:23457295

  2. Probiotics: Properties, Examples, and Specific Applications

    PubMed Central

    Behnsen, Judith; Deriu, Elisa; Sassone-Corsi, Martina; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are beneficial components of the microbiota that have been used for centuries because of the health benefits they confer to the host. Only recently, however, has the contribution of probiotics to modulation of immunological, respiratory, and gastrointestinal functions started to be fully appreciated and scientifically evaluated. Probiotics such as Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and lactic acid bacteria are currently used to, or have been evaluated for use to, prevent or treat a range of intestinal maladies including inflammatory bowel disease, constipation, and colon cancer. Engineering these natural probiotics to produce immunomodulatory molecules may help to further increase the benefit to the host. In this article, we will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of probiotics as well as advances in the rational design of probiotics. PMID:23457295

  3. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics- a review.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kavita R; Naik, Suresh R; Vakil, Babu V

    2015-12-01

    The health benefits imparted by probiotics and prebiotics as well as synbiotics have been the subject of extensive research in the past few decades. These food supplements termed as functional foods have been demonstrated to alter, modify and reinstate the pre-existing intestinal flora. They also facilitate smooth functions of the intestinal environment. Most commonly used probiotic strains are: Bifidobacterium, Lactobacilli, S. boulardii, B. coagulans. Prebiotics like FOS, GOS, XOS, Inulin; fructans are the most commonly used fibers which when used together with probiotics are termed synbiotics and are able to improve the viability of the probiotics. Present review focuses on composition and roles of Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics in human health. Furthermore, additional health benefits like immune-modulation, cancer prevention, inflammatory bowel disease etc. are also discussed. Graphical abstractPictorial summary of health benefits imparted by probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. PMID:26604335

  4. Selective enumeration of probiotic microorganisms in cheese.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Reza; Mortazavian, Amir M; Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh

    2012-02-01

    Cheese is a dairy product which has a good potential for delivery of probiotic microorganisms into the human intestine. To be considered to offer probiotic health benefits, probiotics must remain viable in food products above a threshold level (e.g., 10(6) cfu g(-1)) until the time of consumption. In order to ensure that a minimal number of probiotic bacteria is present in the cheese, reliable methods for enumeration are required. The choice of culture medium for selective enumeration of probiotic strains in combination with starters depends on the product matrix, the target group and the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial background flora in the product. Enumeration protocol should be designed as a function of the target microorganism(s) to be quantified in the cheese. An overview of some series of culture media for selective enumeration of commercial probiotic cultures is presented in this review. PMID:22029912

  5. An analysis of online messages about probiotics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Internet websites are a resource for patients seeking information about probiotics. We examined a sample of 71 websites presenting probiotic information. We found that descriptions of benefits far outnumbered descriptions of risks and commercial websites presented significantly fewer risks than noncommercial websites. The bias towards the presentation of therapeutic benefits in online content suggests that patients are likely interested in using probiotics and may have unrealistic expectations for therapeutic benefit. Gastroenterologists may find it useful to initiate conversations about probiotics within the context of a comprehensive health management plan and should seek to establish realistic therapeutic expectations with their patients. PMID:23311418

  6. A review of avian probiotics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeanne Marie

    2014-06-01

    Probiotics have been used in poultry for decades and have become common in the pet bird industry. Desirable characteristics of probiotic organisms are that they are nonpathogenic, have the ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells, have the ability to colonize and reproduce in the host, have the ability to be host-specific, survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and exposure to stomach acid and bile, produce metabolites that inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria, modulate gastrointestinal immune responses, and survive processing and storage. Purported benefits in birds are disease prevention and promotion of growth. Recommendations for use in avian species are for periodic use to replenish normal flora, use after antibiotic therapy to reestablish normal flora, and use during periods of stress to counter effects of immunosuppression. PMID:25115036

  7. Probiotics, gut microbiota and health.

    PubMed

    Butel, M-J

    2014-01-01

    The human gut is a huge complex ecosystem where microbiota, nutrients, and host cells interact extensively, a process crucial for the gut homeostasis and host development with a real partnership. The various bacterial communities that make up the gut microbiota have many functions including metabolic, barrier effect, and trophic functions. Hence, any dysbiosis could have negative consequences in terms of health and many diseases have been associated to impairment of the gut microbiota. These close relationships between gut microbiota, health, and disease, have led to great interest in using probiotics (i.e. live micro-organisms), or prebiotics (i.e. non-digestible substrates) to positively modulate the gut microbiota to prevent or treat some diseases. This review focuses on probiotics, their mechanisms of action, safety, and major health benefits. Health benefits remain to be proven in some indications, and further studies on the best strain(s), dose, and algorithm of administration to be used are needed. Nevertheless, probiotic administration seems to have a great potential in terms of health that justifies more research. PMID:24290962

  8. Gut microbiota, probiotics and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a condition of multifactorial origin, involving several molecular mechanisms related to the intestinal microbiota for its development. In type 2 diabetes, receptor activation and recognition by microorganisms from the intestinal lumen may trigger inflammatory responses, inducing the phosphorylation of serine residues in insulin receptor substrate-1, reducing insulin sensitivity. In type 1 diabetes, the lowered expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium favours a greater immune response that may result in destruction of pancreatic β cells by CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and increased expression of interleukin-17, related to autoimmunity. Research in animal models and humans has hypothesized whether the administration of probiotics may improve the prognosis of diabetes through modulation of gut microbiota. We have shown in this review that a large body of evidence suggests probiotics reduce the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, as well as increase the expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium, reducing intestinal permeability. Such effects increase insulin sensitivity and reduce autoimmune response. However, further investigations are required to clarify whether the administration of probiotics can be efficiently used for the prevention and management of diabetes. PMID:24939063

  9. Immunomodulatory effect of probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bodera, Pawel; Chcialowski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics are usually defined as live microbial food ingredients beneficial to health which comprise of normal commensally bacteria as a part of the healthy human gut micro flora. The gut microflora is an important component of the gut defense barrier and have been shown to induce and maintain oral tolerance in experimental animal models. Functional foods, including probiotic bacteria, are an attractive medium for maintaining the steady nutritional state of the host with defective gut barrier functions. The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) embraces a crucial component of the total immunological capacity of the host in recognizing and selectively handling alien antigens for the initiation of immune responses. Normalization of increased intestinal permeability and altered gut micro ecology can ensure improvement of the function of the gut barrier. Probiotics do modify the composition of the gut microflora and, as a consequence, they have been shown to influence both intestinal and body functions. This review also discussed some patent related to the field. PMID:19149747

  10. A Better Blend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In May 2009, the US Department of Education released a meta-analysis of effectiveness studies of online, face-to-face, and blended learning models. The analysis found that online learning produced better student outcomes than face-to-face classes, and that blended learning offered an even "larger advantage" over face-to-face. The hybrid approach…

  11. Tuning the Blend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    "Tuning the blend" is a phrase that educators hear a lot these days. It refers to finding the correct balance of online activities and face-to-face instruction in hybrid--or blended--courses. Finding a mix that meets the needs of both faculty and students requires experimentation, experience, and constant tweaking. And, as with coffee, the same…

  12. A Blended Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gecer, Aynur; Dag, Funda

    2012-01-01

    Blended (hybrid) learning is one of the approaches that is utilized to help students for meaningful learning via information and communication technologies in educational settings. In this study, Computer II Course which is taught in faculties of education was planned and implemented in the form of a blended learning environment. The data were…

  13. Blended Teaching & Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pape, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Blended learning is using online tools to communicate, collaborate and publish, to extend the school day or year and to develop the 21st-century skills students need. With blended learning, teachers can use online tools and resources as part of their daily classroom instruction. Using many of the online tools and resources students already are…

  14. Probiotic approach to prevent antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Arthur C; Forssten, Sofia; Hibberd, Ashley A; Lyra, Anna; Stahl, Buffy

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, mainly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although also strain of other species are commercialized, that have a beneficial effect on the host. From the perspective of antibiotic use, probiotics have been observed to reduce the risk of certain infectious disease such as certain types of diarrhea and respiratory tract infection. This may be accompanied with a reduced need of antibiotics for secondary infections. Antibiotics tend to be effective against most common diseases, but increasingly resistance is being observed among pathogens. Probiotics are specifically selected to not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and not carry transferable antibiotic resistance. Concomitant use of probiotics with antibiotics has been observed to reduce the incidence, duration and/or severity of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This contributes to better adherence to the antibiotic prescription and thereby reduces the evolution of resistance. To what extent probiotics directly reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance is still much under investigation; but maintaining a balanced microbiota during antibiotic use may certainly provide opportunities for reducing the spread of resistances. Key messages Probiotics may reduce the risk for certain infectious diseases and thereby reduce the need for antibiotics. Probiotics may reduce the risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhea Probiotics do not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and may even reduce it. PMID:27092975

  15. Probiotics: a comprehensive approach toward health foods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Mridula

    2014-01-01

    Food products containing probiotics and prebiotics are an important development in Health foods, which enhance health promoting microbial flora in the intestine. Probiotic refers to viable microorganism that promotes or support a beneficial balance of the autochthonous microbial population of the gastrointestinal tract. A number of genera of bacteria (and yeast) are used as probiotics, including Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, and Enterococcus, but the main species believed to have probiotic characteristics are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp., and L. casei. Probiotics can reduce diarrheal incidence, lactose intolerance, lower serum cholesterol, stimulate the immune system, control infections, act as antibiotics, suppress tumors, and protect against colon or bladder cancer by maintaining a healthy intestinal microflora balance. Lactic acid bacteria produce biopreservatives such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and bacteriocins that are used to retard both spoilage and the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Food, particularly dairy products are considered as an ideal vehicle for delivering probiotic bacteria to the human gastrointestinal tract. Cereals being rich source of prebiotics such as β-glucan and arabinoxylan, galacto-, and fructooligosaccharides are considered for development of probiotic foods. Good manufacturing practices must be applied in the manufacture of probiotic foods with quality assurance, and shelf-life conditions established. PMID:24237003

  16. Safety assessment of probiotics for human use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The safety of probiotics is tied to their intended use, which includes consideration of the potential vulnerability of the consumer or patient, dose and duration of consumption, and both the manner and frequency of administration. Unique to probiotics is that they are living organisms when administ...

  17. Safety assessment of probiotics for human use

    PubMed Central

    Akkermans, Louis MA; Haller, Dirk; Hammerman, Cathy; Heimbach, James; Hörmannsperger, Gabriele; Huys, Geert; Levy, Dan D; Lutgendorff, Femke; Mack, David; Phothirath, Phoukham; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Vaughan, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The safety of probiotics is tied to their intended use, which includes consideration of potential vulnerability of the consumer or patient, dose and duration of consumption, and both the manner and frequency of administration. Unique to probiotics is that they are alive when administered, and unlike other food or drug ingredients, possess the potential for infectivity or in situ toxin production. Since numerous types of microbes are used as probiotics, safety is also intricately tied to the nature of the specific microbe being used. The presence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes, which comprises a theoretical risk of transfer to a less innocuous member of the gut microbial community, must also be considered. Genetic stability of the probiotic over time, deleterious metabolic activities, and the potential for pathogenicity or toxicogenicity must be assessed depending on the characteristics of the genus and species of the microbe being used. Immunological effects must be considered, especially in certain vulnerable populations, including infants with undeveloped immune function. A few reports about negative probiotic effects have surfaced, the significance of which would be better understood with more complete understanding of the mechanisms of probiotic interaction with the host and colonizing microbes. Use of readily available and low cost genomic sequencing technologies to assure the absence of genes of concern is advisable for candidate probiotic strains. The field of probiotic safety is characterized by the scarcity of studies specifically designed to assess safety contrasted with the long history of safe use of many of these microbes in foods. PMID:21327023

  18. Environmental factors influencing the efficacy of probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marco, Maria L; Tachon, Sybille

    2013-04-01

    Probiotic bacteria are not typical ingredients but rather living cells that can rapidly respond and adapt to changing conditions in their environment. Numerous factors from culture preparation and preservation, conditions in consumer product matrices, and genetic, dietary, cultural, and health differences between consumers can affect probiotic cell activity and probably influence the specific host-microbe interactions required for probiotic effects in the digestive tract. Understanding the impact of these factors on probiotic efficacy will aid in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of probiotic function, improve the design of probiotic-containing consumer products, and guide the establishment of standardized procedures for clinical studies intended to evaluate probiotic effects. PMID:23102489

  19. The role of Probiotics in allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Michail, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Allergic disorders are very common in the pediatric age group. While the exact etiology is unclear, evidence is mounting to incriminate environmental factors and an aberrant gut microbiota with a shift of the Th1/Th2 balance towards a Th2 response. Probiotics have been shown to modulate the immune system back to a Th1 response. Several in vitro studies suggest a role for probiotics in treating allergic disorders. Human trials demonstrate a limited benefit for the use of probiotics in atopic dermatitis in a preventive as well as a therapeutic capacity. Data supporting their use in allergic rhinitis are less robust. Currently, there is no role for probiotic therapy in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Future studies will be critical in determining the exact role of probiotics in allergic disorders. PMID:19946408

  20. Enhancing probiotic stability in industrial processes

    PubMed Central

    Gueimonde, Miguel; Sánchez, Borja

    2012-01-01

    Background Manufacture of probiotic products involves industrial processes that reduce the viability of the strains. This lost of viability constitutes an economic burden for manufacturers, compromising the efficacy of the product and preventing the inclusion of probiotics in many product categories. Different strategies have been used to improve probiotic stability during industrial processes. These include technological approaches, such as the modification of production parameters or the reformulation of products, as well as microbiological approaches focused on the strain intrinsic resistance. Among the later, both selection of natural strains with the desired properties and stress-adaptation of strains have been widely used. Conclusion During recent years, the knowledge acquired on the molecular basis of stress-tolerance of probiotics has increased our understanding on their responses to industrial stresses. This knowledge on stress-response may nowadays be used for the selection of the best strains and industrial conditions in terms of probiotic stability in the final product. PMID:23990824

  1. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention. PMID:27048903

  2. Dairy propionibacteria as probiotics: recent evidences.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Clelia

    2016-10-01

    Nowdays there is evidence that dairy propionibacteria display probiotic properties, which as yet have been underestimated. The aim of this paper is to review the recent highlights of data representing the probiotic potential of dairy propionibacteria, studied both by general selection criteria (useful for all probiotic potentials), and by more specific and innovative approach. Dairy propionibacteria show a robust nature, that makes them able to overcome technological hurdles, allowing their future use in various fermented probiotic foods. In addition to the general selection criteria for probiotics in areas such as food safety, technological and digestive stress tolerance, many potential health benefits have been recently described for dairy propionibacteria, including, production of several active molecules and adhesion capability, that can mean a steady action in modulation of microbiota and of metabolic activity in the gut; their impact on intestinal inflammation, modulation of the immune system, potential modulation of risk factors for cancer development modulation of intestinal absorption. PMID:27565782

  3. Probiotics and mastitis: evidence-based marketing?

    PubMed

    Amir, Lisa H; Griffin, Laura; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Scientists have isolated various strains of Lactobacilli from human milk (such as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius), and the presence of these organisms is thought to be protective against breast infections, or mastitis. Trials of probiotics for treating mastitis in dairy cows have had mixed results: some successful and others unsuccessful. To date, only one trial of probiotics to treat mastitis in women and one trial to prevent mastitis have been published. Although trials of probiotics to prevent mastitis in breastfeeding women are still in progress, health professionals in Australia are receiving marketing of these products. High quality randomised controlled trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of probiotics for the prevention and/or treatment of mastitis. PMID:27446229

  4. Probiotic bacteria induce a 'glow of health'.

    PubMed

    Levkovich, Tatiana; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Smillie, Christopher; Varian, Bernard J; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Lakritz, Jessica R; Alm, Eric J; Erdman, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Radiant skin and hair are universally recognized as indications of good health. However, this 'glow of health' display remains poorly understood. We found that feeding of probiotic bacteria to aged mice induced integumentary changes mimicking peak health and reproductive fitness characteristic of much younger animals. Eating probiotic yogurt triggered epithelial follicular anagen-phase shift with sebocytogenesis resulting in thick lustrous fur due to a bacteria-triggered interleukin-10-dependent mechanism. Aged male animals eating probiotics exhibited increased subcuticular folliculogenesis, when compared with matched controls, yielding luxuriant fur only in probiotic-fed subjects. Female animals displayed probiotic-induced hyperacidity coinciding with shinier hair, a feature that also aligns with fertility in human females. Together these data provide insights into mammalian evolution and novel strategies for integumentary health. PMID:23342023

  5. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections. PMID:26826375

  6. Profiles and technological requirements of urogenital probiotics.

    PubMed

    Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina

    2015-09-15

    Probiotics, defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, are considered a valid and novel alternative for the prevention and treatment of female urogenital tract infections. Lactobacilli, the predominant microorganisms of the healthy human vaginal microbiome, can be included as active pharmaceutical ingredients in probiotics products. Several requirements must be considered or criteria fulfilled during the development of a probiotic product or formula for the female urogenital tract. This review deals with the main selection criteria for urogenital probiotic microorganisms: host specificity, potential beneficial properties, functional specifications, technological characteristics and clinical trials used to test their effect on certain physiological and pathological conditions. Further studies are required to complement the current knowledge and support the clinical applications of probiotics in the urogenital tract. This therapy will allow the restoration of the ecological equilibrium of the urogenital tract microbiome as well as the recovery of the sexual and reproductive health of women. PMID:25858665

  7. Probiotics in the Arabian Gulf Region

    PubMed Central

    Senok, Abiola C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Available reports on adherence to recommended guidelines for labeling of probiotic products are based on assessment of these products in developed countries. In the Arabian Gulf region, there is a paucity of data on the characterization of probiotic products and an absence of local guidelines for their labeling. This study, carried out in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), represents the first evaluation of probiotic products available in the Arabian Peninsula. Methods Probiotic products were purchased over the counter from a variety of sources, including pharmacies, healthfood stores, and supermarkets across the UAE. All identified products were listed and information regarding type of product preparation and labeling information were recorded. Results A total of 37 probiotic products, 15 dairy-based and 22 non-dairy-based were identified. The dairy products comprised of 12 yogurts, two fermented milk products and one powdered baby formula. The majority of non-dairy products were in capsule form (n = 16). While all the non-dairy products gave information about the strain of probiotic microorganism and number present at time of manufacture, this information was provided for only one dairy-based product. Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were the most common probiotic organisms identified. However, one probiotic product listed Enterococcus faecalis (750 million viable bacteria per capsule) as a component. With the exception of one non-dairy-based product, all health-related claims were structure/function statements, according to the US Food and Drug Administration nomenclature. Conclusion These findings indicate that a wide variety of probiotic products are available in the Arabian Gulf. Development of guidelines for labeling of these probiotic products and use of structure/function statements and health claims should be addressed. PMID:19266044

  8. Probiotics for mother and child.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor; Devillard, Estelle

    2004-07-01

    For the survival of humankind, nothing can be as important as the health of a mother and a child. As the world's population grows to more than 6 billion, it might seem ridiculous to suggest that any real threat exists to the human species. Diseases have long ravaged populations, as have wars, poverty, and malnutrition. Life today is no different with new and emerging diseases such as SARS and Mad Cow Disease leaving a trail of concern around the planet. All that being said, the AIDS crisis is threatening humans like no other. In countries such as Botswana, close to half the population of pregnant women is infected. Of great concern, the disease is now prevalent among women and teenage girls, threatening not only their lives but those of their offspring. Efforts to control this spread are quite abysmal, albeit well intentioned. Likewise, the death of a child every 15 seconds from diarrheal disease is not being addressed with the same vigor as SARS, even though the risk of dying from the latter for most people is similar to being struck by lightning. In the end, it is the economy and politics that dictate health spending. Image and perception are everything. While deaths mount among women and children from AIDS and other infections, the potential to intervene with a low-risk natural concept of probiotics seemed all too distant. As evidence mounts of the attributes of certain probiotic strains to treat diarrhea and reduce the risk of urogenital and other diseases, the developing world has failed to embrace it, support its evaluation and implementation, and take it to where it is needed the most. In this review, the case for and against probiotics for urogenital and intestinal infections is presented based on current literature. The story is far from complete, but the potential for improving the health of the mother and child is significant. United Nations and World Health Organization guidelines have now been developed to vanquish the unproved marketing hype products

  9. Probiotics in obstetrics and gynaecology.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Despite the great advances in modern medicine, our understanding of the most basic function of our complete genetic makeup is extremely poor. Our complete genetic make up is complemented by 100 trillion cells living within or on our body and is called the microbiome. Manipulation of the microbiome is in the embryological stages of investigation but promises great hope in targeting both pregnancy specific and general medical / gynaecological conditions. This review presents an undertanding of the microbiome manipulation with probiotics in women's health in 2015. PMID:26052924

  10. Immune system stimulation by probiotic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-01-01

    Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. This review is presented to provide detailed informations about how probiotics stimulate our immune system. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, Bifidobacterium lactis DR10, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii are the most investigated probiotic cultures for their immunomodulation properties. Probiotics can enhance nonspecific cellular immune response characterized by activation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in strain-specific and dose-dependent manner. Mixture and type (gram-positive and gram-negative) of probiotic organisms may induce different cytokine responses. Supplementation of probiotic organisms in infancy could help prevent immune-mediated diseases in childhood, whereas their intervention in pregnancy could affect fetal immune parameters, such as cord blood interferon (IFN)-γ levels, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels, and breast milk immunoglobulin (Ig)A. Probiotics that can be delivered via fermented milk or yogurt could improve the gut mucosal immune system by increasing the number of IgA(+) cells and cytokine-producing cells in the effector site of the intestine. PMID:24499072

  11. Production and Biomedical Applications of Probiotic Biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Fariq, Anila; Saeed, Ayesha

    2016-04-01

    Biosurfactants have been widely used for environmental and industrial applications. However, their use in medical field is still limited. Probiotic biosurfactants possess an immense antimicrobial, anti-adhesive, antitumor, and antibiofilm potential. Moreover, they have an additional advantage over conventional microbial surfactants because probiotics are an integral part of normal human microflora and their biosurfactants are innocuous to human. So, they can be effectively exploited for medicinal use. Present review is aimed to discourse the production and biomedical applications of probiotic biosurfactants. PMID:26742771

  12. Probiotics in dentistry: A boon or sham

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rahul; Mathur, Shivani

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are dietary supplements, which have been advocated for the prevention and the treatment of a wide range of diseases. These products consist of beneficial micro-organisms, which stimulate health promoting flora thus, suppressing the pathologic colonization and disease spread. Since, probiotics are now widely used in both medical (such as cancer risk reduction, gastrointestinal tract health, and urinary tract health) and dental specialties (reduction in caries development, in achieving periodontal health, reducing oral malodor, etc.), a thorough understanding of their risks and benefits are essential. This review focuses on the recent trends in use of probiotics in dentistry as well as the potential risks associated with them. PMID:24019796

  13. [Autochthonous microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics].

    PubMed

    Suárez, Juan Evaristo

    2015-01-01

    The autochthonous microbiota is the community of microorganisms that colonizes the skin and mucosal surfaces. The symbiosis is, generally, mutualistic but it can become parasitic due to immune response alterations. The skin microbiota includes bacteria (95%), lipophilic fungi and mites. In the digestive apparatus, each cavity presents its own microbiota, which reaches its target organ during the perinatal period, originating complex and stable communities (homeostasis). The vaginal microbiota varies with the endocrine activity, significantly increasing during the fertile and pregnancy periods, when lactobacilli are the most abundant organisms. Four are the main benefits of the autochthonous microbiota: i) delivery of essential nutrients, such as vitamins and some amino acids; ii) utilization of undigestible diet components, the colonic microbiota degrades complex glycans and fulfils almost 20% of the calories present in a normal diet; iii) development of the immune system: the continuous contact with the immune system maintains it alert and in good shape to repel pathogens efficaciously and iv) microbial antagonism, hinders colonization of our mucosal surfaces by alochthonous, potentially pathogenic, organisms. This works through three mechanisms: colonization interference, production of antimicrobials and co-aggregation with the potential pathogens. The microbiota can, sporadically, produce damages: opportunistic endogenous infections and generation of carcinogenic compounds. Probiotics are "live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the consumer". Prebiotics are undigestible glycans that enhance the growth or activity of the intestinal microbiota, thus generating a health benefit. Synbiotics are mixes of probiotics and prebiotics that exert a synergistic health effect. PMID:25659048

  14. Probiotic bacteria and intestinal epithelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Ohland, Christina L; Macnaughton, Wallace K

    2010-06-01

    The intestinal tract is a diverse microenvironment where more than 500 species of bacteria thrive. A single layer of epithelium is all that separates these commensal microorganisms and pathogens from the underlying immune cells, and thus epithelial barrier function is a key component in the arsenal of defense mechanisms required to prevent infection and inflammation. The epithelial barrier consists of a dense mucous layer containing secretory IgA and antimicrobial peptides as well as dynamic junctional complexes that regulate permeability between cells. Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer benefit to the host and that have been suggested to ameliorate or prevent diseases including antibiotic-associated diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics likely function through enhancement of barrier function, immunomodulation, and competitive adherence to the mucus and epithelium. This review summarizes the evidence about effects of the many available probiotics with an emphasis on intestinal barrier function and the mechanisms affected by probiotics. PMID:20299599

  15. Probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Derikx, Lauranne A A P; Dieleman, Levinus A; Hoentjen, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota is one of the key players in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. Manipulation of this microflora with probiotics and prebiotics is an attractive strategy in the management of ulcerative colitis. Several intervention studies for both the induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis patients have been performed. Most of these studies evaluated VSL#3 or E. Coli Nissle 1917 and in general there is evidence for efficacy of these agents for induction and maintenance of remission. However, studies are frequently underpowered, lack a control group, and are very heterogeneous investigating different probiotic strains in different study populations. The absence of well-powered robust randomized placebo-controlled trials impedes the widespread use of probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis. However, given the promising results that are currently available, probiotics and prebiotics may find their way to the treatment algorithm for ulcerative colitis in the near future. PMID:27048897

  16. Probiotics in the Management of Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Chibbar, Richa; Dieleman, Levinus A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid progress has been made to understand the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases and to identify new treatments. Interaction of the gut microbiota on the host inflammatory response has suggested that alternative therapies, such as probiotics, might have a complementary role in treating and preventing disease flares. Multiple probiotics and their formulations have been studied for both the induction and maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis (UC); however, mainly Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and VSL#3 have been shown to provide significant benefits for the prevention and treatment of mild to moderate UC. Although these data are promising, there is still a paucity of robust, randomized-controlled trials to suggest that probiotics be utilized as part of a standard treatment regimen. With continued research and a movement toward carefully selected, individualized management based on an individual's specific microbiota composition and function, probiotics may become an integral part of tailored therapy for UC. PMID:26447965

  17. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations. PMID:26903962

  18. Probiotics in periodontal health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Bhattacharya, Hirak; Kandwal, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Macfarlane Burnett stated in 1962 that “By the late twentieth century, we can anticipate the virtual elimination of infectious diseases as a significant factor in social life”. Probiotics have become of interest to researchers in recent times. Time has come to shift the paradigm of treatment from specific bacteria elimination to altering bacterial ecology by probiotics. The development of resistance to a range of antibiotics by some important pathogens has raised the possibility of a return to the pre-antibiotic dark ages. Here, probiotics provide an effective alternative way, which is economical and natural to combat periodontal disease. Thus, a mere change in diet by including probiotic foods may halt, retard, or even significantly delay the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, promoting a healthy lifestyle to fight periodontal infections. PMID:21772717

  19. Developing oral probiotics from Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Wescombe, Philip A; Hale, John D F; Heng, Nicholas C K; Tagg, John R

    2012-12-01

    Considerable human illness can be linked to the development of oral microbiota disequilibria. The predominant oral cavity commensal, Streptococcus salivarius has emerged as an important source of safe and efficacious probiotics, capable of fostering more balanced, health-associated oral microbiota. Strain K12, the prototype S. salivarius probiotic, originally introduced to counter Streptococcus pyogenes infections, now has an expanded repertoire of health-promoting applications. K12 and several more recently proposed S. salivarius probiotics are now being applied to control diverse bacterial consortia infections including otitis media, halitosis and dental caries. Other potential applications include upregulation of immunological defenses against respiratory viral infections and treatment of oral candidosis. An overview of the key steps required for probiotic development is also presented. PMID:23231486

  20. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations. PMID:26903962

  1. Probiotics and blood pressure: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Upadrasta, Aditya; Madempudi, Ratna Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota play a significant role in host metabolic processes, and recent metagenomic surveys have revealed that they are involved in host immune modulation and influence host development and physiology (organ development). Initially, probiotics are identified as potential therapeutics to treat gastrointestinal disorders and to revitalize the disturbed gut ecosystem. Currently, studies are exploring the potential for expanded uses of probiotics for improving the health conditions in metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Further investigations are required to evaluate targeted and effective use of the wide variety of probiotic strains in various metabolic disorders to improve the overall health status of the host. This review addresses the causes of hypertension and the hypotensive effect of probiotics, with a focus on their mechanistic action. PMID:26955291

  2. Protection of probiotic bacteria in synbiotic matrices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotics, like Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, when encapsulated with prebiotic fibers such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), inulin (I) and pectic-oligosaccharides (POS), formed a synbiotic matrix system that protected the bacteria ...

  3. Prophylactic use of probiotics ameliorates infantile colic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colic is a common but distressing condition in young infants. We were asked to comment on a recently published study which found that a certain type of probiotic ("good bacteria") could be used to treat colic....

  4. Probiotics in animal nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Durand, H

    2010-03-01

    The use of probiotics for farm animals has increased considerably over the last 15 years. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which can confer a health benefit for the host when administered in appropriate and regular quantities. Once ingested, the probiotic microorganisms can modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal microbiota, whose role is fundamental to gut homeostasis. It has been demonstrated that numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, can strongly affect the structure and activities of the gut microbial communities, leading to impaired health and performance in livestock animals. In this review, the most important benefits of yeast and bacterial probiotics upon the gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem in ruminants and monogastric animals (equines, pigs, poultry, fish) reported in the recent scientific literature are described, as well as their implications in terms of animal nutrition and health. Additional knowledge on the possible mechanisms of action is also provided. PMID:21840795

  5. Probiotics and oral health: an update.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, K; Kuttappa, M A; Prasana, K R

    2014-02-01

    Probiotics are micro-organisms, principally bacteria, which, when ingested, confer health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Probiotics have been extensively studied for their health promoting effects. The main feld of research has been focussed on the gastro-intestinal tract. However, in the past few years probiotics have also been investigated from an oral health perspective and their use has shown promising results with respect to control of chronic conditions, such as dental caries, periodontitis, halitosis and candidial infections. Despite the immense potential of probiotics, hardly any randomised, controlled trials have been conducted on their action and application and studies on their effects on oral health are still in early stages. Hence, more research is needed before any evidence-based conclusions can be drawn. This paper considers some recent literature and insights on which further investigations could be based. PMID:24741843

  6. Should yoghurt cultures be considered probiotic?

    PubMed

    Guarner, Francisco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Corthier, Gérard; Salminen, Seppo; Koletzko, Berthold; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2005-06-01

    Probiotics are live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Consumption of yoghurt has been shown to induce measurable health benefits linked to the presence of live bacteria. A number of human studies have clearly demonstrated that yoghurt containing viable bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus) improves lactose digestion and eliminates symptoms of lactose intolerance. Thus, these cultures clearly fulfil the current concept of probiotics. PMID:16022746

  7. Perceptions of Medical Sciences Students Towards Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Payahoo, Laleh; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Mahdavi, Reza; Asghari Jafar Abadi, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Background: Regarding the importance of probiotics in prevention of different diseases, the knowledge of people particularly health-related professionals about the beneficial effects and availability of probiotic products is important. Considering the limited studies, the present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of medical sciences students as future provider of health information about probiotics in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 296 medical sciences students from different faculty majors with mean age of 22 ± 4 years. The students completed two self-administered questionnaires; the one was about the demographic characteristics and the other one with nine closed questions as for knowledge as well as probiotics and their health effects and 2 questions related to availability of probiotic products. Scoring of 9 knowledge questions was divided to three sections 0-3, 4-6, 7-9 and classified as poor, acceptable and good, respectively. The Chi-square test was used to examine the differences in knowledge of the students across different gender, major and degree groups. Results: Six percent of students had poor, 43% acceptable, and 51% good knowledge. Total mean±(SD) of knowledge was 6.25 ±1.6 . Answers of students about the availability of probiotic products were 36.9% low, 48.1% moderate, and 15% high. Comparison of knowledge result between different major and degree groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Although students had approximately acceptable level of knowledge about probiotics and their health effects, their awareness about common available form of probiotic products was low. The use of efficient co-educational materials such as teaching new findings for students may be beneficial. PMID:24688923

  8. [Effects of probiotics on pathogenic mycobacteria].

    PubMed

    Lazovskaia, A L; Borob'eva, Z G; Slinina, K N; Kul'chitsaia, M A

    2007-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to study the antagonistic effect of probitics on pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis, by employing the cultural filtrates obtained after joint incubation of a probiotic and an antagonistic strain in the liquid nutrient medium. It has been shown that two probiotics actively elaborate bactericidal agents that suppress the growth of pathogenic mycobacteria and reduce the number of colony-forming units in the solid egg culture medium by 2-17 times. PMID:17718071

  9. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    PubMed Central

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Nedovic, Viktor; Goyal, Arun; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed. PMID:24288597

  10. Probiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Alfredo; Guandalini, Stefano; Lo Vecchio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used for prevention and treatment of diarrhea more in children than in adults. Given the broad spectrum of diarrhea, this review focuses on the main etiologies: acute gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). For each, we reviewed randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and guidelines. For acute gastroenteritis we found 12 guidelines: 5 recommended probiotics and 7 did not. However, the guidelines containing positive recommendations provided proof of evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Saccharomyces boulardii had the most compelling evidence of efficacy as they reduced the duration of the disease by 1 day. For AAD 4 meta-analyses were found, reporting variable efficacy of probiotics in preventing diarrhea, based on the setting, patient's age, and antibiotics. The most effective strains were LGG and S. boulardii. For NEC, we found 3 randomized controlled trials, 5 meta-analyses, and 4 position papers. Probiotics reduced the risk of NEC enterocolitis and mortality in preterm babies. Guidelines did not support a routine use of probiotics and asked for further data for such sensitive implications. In conclusion, there is strong and solid proof of efficacy of probiotics as active treatment of gastroenteritis in addition to rehydration. There is solid evidence that probiotics have some efficacy in prevention of AAD, but the number needed to treat is an issue. For both etiologies LGG and S. boulardii have the strongest evidence. In NEC the indications are more debated, yet on the basis of available data and their implications, probiotics should be carefully considered. PMID:26447963

  11. Probiotics, dendritic cells and bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Feyisetan, Oladapo; Tracey, Christopher; Hellawell, Giles O

    2012-06-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The suppressor effect of probiotics on superficial bladder cancer is an observed phenomenon but the specific mechanism is poorly understood. The evidence strongly suggests natural killer (NK) cells are the anti-tumour effector cells involved and NK cell activity correlates with the observed anti-tumour effect in mice. It is also known that dendritic cells (DC) cells are responsible for the recruitment and mobilization of NK cells so therefore it may be inferred that DC cells are most likely to be the interphase point at which probiotics act. In support of this, purification of NK cells was associated with a decrease in NK cells activity. The current use of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin in the management of superficial bladder cancer is based on the effect of a localised immune response. In the same way, understanding the mechanism of action of probiotics and the role of DC may potentially offer another avenue via which the immune system may be manipulated to resist bladder cancer. Probiotic foods have been available in the UK since 1996 with the arrival of the fermented milk drink (Yakult) from Japan. The presence of live bacterial ingredients (usually lactobacilli species) may confer health benefits when present in sufficient numbers. The role of probiotics in colo-rectal cancer may be related in part to the suppression of harmful colonic bacteria but other immune mechanisms are involved. Anti-cancer effects outside the colon were suggested by a Japanese report of altered rates of bladder tumour recurrence after ingestion of a particular probiotic. Dendritic cells play a central role to the general regulation of the immune response that may be modified by probiotics. The addition of probiotics to the diet may confer benefit by altering rates of bladder tumour recurrence and also alter the response to immune mechanisms involved with the application of intravesical treatments (bacille Calmette

  12. Probiotics in the Management of Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Adcock, Ian M.; Folkerts, Gert; Barnes, Peter J.; Paul Vos, Arjan; Garssen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The physiology and pathology of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are closely related. This similarity between the two organs may underlie why dysfunction in one organ may induce illness in the other. For example, smoking is a major risk factor for COPD and IBD and increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease. Probiotics have been defined as “live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host.” In model systems probiotics regulate innate and inflammatory immune responses. Commonly used probiotics include lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces, and these are often used as dietary supplements to provide a health benefit in gastrointestinal diseases including infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer. In this respect, probiotics probably act as immunomodulatory agents and activators of host defence pathways which suggest that they could influence disease severity and incidence at sites distal to the gut. There is increasing evidence that orally delivered probiotics are able to regulate immune responses in the respiratory system. This review provides an overview of the possible role of probiotics and their mechanisms of action in the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases. PMID:23737654

  13. Bacteriocin Production: a Probiotic Trait?

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Alleson; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriocins are an abundant and diverse group of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria and archaea. Traditionally, bacteriocin production has been considered an important trait in the selection of probiotic strains, but until recently, few studies have definitively demonstrated the impact of bacteriocin production on the ability of a strain to compete within complex microbial communities and/or positively influence the health of the host. Although research in this area is still in its infancy, there is intriguing evidence to suggest that bacteriocins may function in a number of ways within the gastrointestinal tract. Bacteriocins may facilitate the introduction of a producer into an established niche, directly inhibit the invasion of competing strains or pathogens, or modulate the composition of the microbiota and influence the host immune system. Here we review the role of bacteriocin production in complex microbial communities and their potential to enhance human health. PMID:22038602

  14. The Basics of Probiotics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... four million U.S. adults had used probiotics or prebiotics in the past 30 days. Other than vitamins and minerals, probiotics or prebiotics were the third most commonly used dietary supplement. ...

  15. Probiotic Feeding Experiments with Juvenile Channel Catfish and Nile Tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotic microbial feed supplements are gaining wide acceptance in livestock production, and may be applicable to aquaculture production systems. We have conducted a series of experiments using commercial probiotics added to diets of juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), and...

  16. What are the indications for using probiotics in children?

    PubMed

    Szajewska, Hania

    2016-04-01

    The health benefits of probiotics have been the subject of extensive research. Still, some questions are being repeatedly asked: should one use or not use probiotics? If yes, how and when should probiotics be used? The purpose of this review is to summarise current evidence on specific probiotics' efficacy and safety to help healthcare professionals make evidence-based decisions on the indications for using specific probiotic strains or combinations in children. To identify relevant data, searches of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library databases were performed in July 2015 to locate randomised controlled trials or their meta-analyses published in the last five years. The MEDLINE database also was searched for evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, developed by scientific societies. Considering that probiotics have strain-specific effects, the main focus was on data on individual probiotic strains, not on probiotics in general. PMID:26347386

  17. Modulating immune responses with probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, T; Chin, J

    2000-02-01

    For many years, probiotic bacteria have been known to confer health benefits to the consumer. One possible mechanism for this may be the ability of probiotic bacteria to modulate immune responses. Oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) has been found to enhance innate immunity by stimulating the activity of splenic NK cells. Oral feeding with killed LcS was able to stimulate the production of Th1 cytokines, resulting in repressed production of IgE antibodies against Ovalbumin in experimental mice. The ability to switch mucosal immune responses towards Th1 with probiotic bacteria provides a strategy for treatment of allergic disorders. Growth of Meth A tumour cells in the lungs was also inhibited by intrapleural injection of LcS. Oral administration of other probiotic bacteria, such as Streptococcus thermophilus (St), Lactobacillus fermentum (Lf) and yeast (Y), elicited different immune responses. Mice that were prefed yeast or Lf followed by feeding with ovalbumin (OVA) responded better to vaccination with OVA than mice not given either probiotic or OVA or mice that had been prefed only OVA. However, antibody responses were significantly suppressed in response to vaccination with OVA in mice that had been prefed yeast followed by yeast and OVA as well as mice prefed Lf followed by Lf and OVA. Prefeeding St followed by OVA feeding enhanced cellular immune responses against ovalbumin. In contrast, mice prefed St followed by St + OVA were hyporesponsive against OVA. While antigen feeding alone appears to prime for an immune response, cofeeding antigen with probiotic bacteria can suppress both antibody and cellular immune responses and may provide an efficacious protocol to attenuate autoimmune diseases, such as experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, by jointly dosing with myelin basic protein and probiotic bacteria. PMID:10651931

  18. Blending the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCampbell, Bill

    2001-01-01

    Blended e-learning approaches combine the power of the Internet with existing class events or assignments. Inexpensive tools include electronic mail, keyboarding instruction, online research, streamed video or audio clips, message boards, chat rooms, scanned class reading assignments, and online assessments. IT buzzwords are decoded. (MLH)

  19. Potential probiotic effects of lactic acid bacteria on ruminant performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotics are microbial feed supplements that benefit animals by improving the microbial community of the digestive tract. In humans, probiotics are species that can survive the stomach and influence the intestinal microflora. The mode of action of human probiotics is not as yet proven. However, th...

  20. Assessment of the Knowledge and Beliefs regarding Probiotic Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanczak, Melanie; Heuberger, Roschelle

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although there is mounting evidence of the benefits of probiotics, many consumers are unaware of the definition of probiotics and are unable to state which foods contain these live microorganisms. Purpose: This study attempted to determine if participants were able to state the definition of probiotics, whether they utilize these…

  1. Apparatus for blending small particles

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, R.A.; Reese, C.R.; Sease, J.D.

    1975-08-26

    An apparatus is described for blending small particles and uniformly loading the blended particles in a receptacle. Measured volumes of various particles are simultaneously fed into a funnel to accomplish radial blending and then directed onto the apex of a conical splitter which collects the blended particles in a multiplicity of equal subvolumes. Thereafter the apparatus sequentially discharges the subvolumes for loading in a receptacle. A system for blending nuclear fuel particles and loading them into fuel rod molds is described in a preferred embodiment. (auth)

  2. Probiotics and Atopic Dermatitis: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Irfan A.; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Lim, Jeongheui; Paek, Woon K.; Park, Yong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, recurrent, chronic inflammatory skin disease that is a cause of considerable economic and social burden. Its prevalence varies substantially among different countries with an incidence rate proclaimed to reach up to 20% of children in developed countries and continues to escalate in developing nations. This increased rate of incidence has changed the focus of research on AD toward epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. The effects of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of AD remain elusive. However, evidence from different research groups show that probiotics could have positive effect on AD treatment, if any, that depend on multiple factors, such as specific probiotic strains, time of administration (onset time), duration of exposure, and dosage. However, till date we still lack strong evidence to advocate the use of probiotics in the treatment of AD, and questions remain to be answered considering its clinical use in future. Based on updated information, the processes that facilitate the development of AD and the topic of the administration of probiotics are addressed in this review. PMID:27148196

  3. Probiotics and Atopic Dermatitis: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Rather, Irfan A; Bajpai, Vivek K; Kumar, Sanjay; Lim, Jeongheui; Paek, Woon K; Park, Yong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, recurrent, chronic inflammatory skin disease that is a cause of considerable economic and social burden. Its prevalence varies substantially among different countries with an incidence rate proclaimed to reach up to 20% of children in developed countries and continues to escalate in developing nations. This increased rate of incidence has changed the focus of research on AD toward epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. The effects of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of AD remain elusive. However, evidence from different research groups show that probiotics could have positive effect on AD treatment, if any, that depend on multiple factors, such as specific probiotic strains, time of administration (onset time), duration of exposure, and dosage. However, till date we still lack strong evidence to advocate the use of probiotics in the treatment of AD, and questions remain to be answered considering its clinical use in future. Based on updated information, the processes that facilitate the development of AD and the topic of the administration of probiotics are addressed in this review. PMID:27148196

  4. Defining microbiota for developing new probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The human body harbors complex communities of microbes that play a prominent role in human health. Detailed characterization of the microbiota in the target population forms the basis of probiotic use. Probiotics are defined as live bacterial preparations with clinically documented health effects in humans, and independent of their genus and species, probiotic strains are unique and their beneficial properties on human health have to be assessed in a case-by-case manner. Understanding the mechanisms by which probiotics influence microbiota would facilitate the use of probiotics for both dietary management and reduction in risk of specific diseases. The development of high throughput sequencing methods has allowed metagenomic approaches to study the human microbiome. These efforts are starting to generate an inventory of bacterial taxons and functional features bound to particular health or disease status that allow inferring aspects of the microbiome's function. In the future, this information will allow the rational design of dietary interventions aimed to improve consumer's health via modulation of the microbiota. PMID:23990820

  5. Probiotics: definition, sources, selection, and uses.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2008-02-01

    Interest in probiotics is at an all-time high in the United States, driven in part by new products emerging in the market, by US researchers eager to evaluate efficacy claims rigorously, and by consumers interested in potential therapeutic and preventive health benefits. The US marketplace is a mixed bag of products, some well-defined and properly evaluated in controlled clinical studies and others with unsubstantiated claims of efficacy. Validation of probiotic contents in commercial products is needed to ensure consumer confidence. The term "probiotic" should be used only for products that meet the scientific criteria for this term-namely, products that contain an adequate dose of live microbes that have been documented in target-host studies to confer a health benefit. Probiotics must be identified to the level of strain, must be characterized for the specific health target, and must be formulated into products using strains and doses shown to be efficacious. Several characteristics commonly presumed to be essential to probiotics, such as human origin and the ability to improve the balance of the intestinal microbiota, are discussed. PMID:18181724

  6. Probiotic edible films as a new strategy for developing functional bakery products: The case of pan bread.

    PubMed

    Soukoulis, Christos; Yonekura, Lina; Gan, Heng-Hui; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian

    2014-08-01

    In the present paper, a novel approach for the development of probiotic baked cereal products is presented. Probiotic pan bread constructed by the application of film forming solutions based either on individual hydrogels e.g. 1% w/w sodium alginate (ALG) or binary blends of 0.5% w/w sodium alginate and 2% whey protein concentrate (ALG/WPC) containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, followed by an air drying step at 60 °C for 10 min or 180 °C for min were produced. No visual differences between the bread crust surface of control and probiotic bread were observed. Microstructural analysis of bread crust revealed the formation of thicker films in the case of ALG/WPC. The presence of WPC improved significantly the viability of L. rhamnosus GG throughout air drying and room temperature storage. During storage there was a significant reduction in L. rhamnosus GG viability during the first 24 h, viable count losses were low during the subsequent 2-3 days of storage and growth was observed upon the last days of storage (day 4-7). The use of film forming solutions based exclusive on sodium alginate improved the viability of L. rhamnosus GG under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, and there was no impact of the bread crust matrix on inactivation rates. The presence of the probiotic edible films did not modify cause major shifts in the mechanistic pathway of bread staling - as shown by physicochemical, thermal, texture and headspace analysis. Based on our calculations, an individual 30-40 g bread slice can deliver approx. 7.57-8.98 and 6.55-6.91 log cfu/portion before and after in-vitro digestion, meeting the WHO recommended required viable cell counts for probiotic bacteria to be delivered to the human host. PMID:25089068

  7. Probiotic edible films as a new strategy for developing functional bakery products: The case of pan bread☆

    PubMed Central

    Soukoulis, Christos; Yonekura, Lina; Gan, Heng-Hui; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, a novel approach for the development of probiotic baked cereal products is presented. Probiotic pan bread constructed by the application of film forming solutions based either on individual hydrogels e.g. 1% w/w sodium alginate (ALG) or binary blends of 0.5% w/w sodium alginate and 2% whey protein concentrate (ALG/WPC) containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, followed by an air drying step at 60 °C for 10 min or 180 °C for min were produced. No visual differences between the bread crust surface of control and probiotic bread were observed. Microstructural analysis of bread crust revealed the formation of thicker films in the case of ALG/WPC. The presence of WPC improved significantly the viability of L. rhamnosus GG throughout air drying and room temperature storage. During storage there was a significant reduction in L. rhamnosus GG viability during the first 24 h, viable count losses were low during the subsequent 2–3 days of storage and growth was observed upon the last days of storage (day 4–7). The use of film forming solutions based exclusive on sodium alginate improved the viability of L. rhamnosus GG under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, and there was no impact of the bread crust matrix on inactivation rates. The presence of the probiotic edible films did not modify cause major shifts in the mechanistic pathway of bread staling – as shown by physicochemical, thermal, texture and headspace analysis. Based on our calculations, an individual 30–40 g bread slice can deliver approx. 7.57–8.98 and 6.55–6.91 log cfu/portion before and after in-vitro digestion, meeting the WHO recommended required viable cell counts for probiotic bacteria to be delivered to the human host. PMID:25089068

  8. Probiotics and Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Finding the Missing Pieces of the Probiotic Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Luedtke, Sherry A.; Yang, Jacob T.; Wild, Heather E.

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the leading causes of death in the neonatal intensive care unit. Morbidity and mortality rates significantly increase with decreases in gestational age and birth weight. Strong evidence suggests probiotic prophylaxis may significantly decrease the incidence of NEC and should therefore be incorporated into the standard of care for preterm infants. However, debate still remains because of limitations of completed studies. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the controversies regarding probiotic use in preterm infants and to shed light on the practical considerations for implementation of probiotic supplementation. PMID:23412969

  9. Probiotics for human lactational mastitis.

    PubMed

    Fernández, L; Arroyo, R; Espinosa, I; Marín, M; Jiménez, E; Rodríguez, J M

    2014-06-01

    The use of culture-dependent and -independent techniques to study the human milk microbiota and microbiome has revealed a complex ecosystem with a much greater diversity than previously anticipated. The potential role of the milk microbiome appears to have implications not only for short- and long-term infant health but also for mammary health. In fact, mammary disbiosis, which may be triggered by a variety of host, microbial and medical factors, often leads to acute, subacute or subclinical mastitis, a condition that represents the first medical cause for undesired weaning. Multiresistance to antibiotics, together with formation of biofilms and mechanisms for evasion of the host immune response, is a common feature among the bacterial agents involved. This explains why this condition uses to be elusive to antibiotic therapy and why the development of new strategies for mastitis management based on probiotics is particularly appealing. In fact, selected lactobacilli strains isolated from breast milk have already shown a high efficacy for treatment. PMID:24463206

  10. Antimicrobial potential of probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Avonts, L; De Vuyst, L

    2001-01-01

    Antibacterial activity is an important characteristic of probiotics. A possible way to achieve this antibacterial activity is through the production of bacteriocins. This study shows that the commercial probiotic strains Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 and Lactobacillus casei YIT 9029 produce bacteriocins. The nature of the antimicrobial compound could be derived from its behaviour: a narrow inhibitory spectrum (only active against closely related strains), loss of activity when treated with proteinases, and rather small molecular masses (around 6000 Da or less). Further, three bacteriocins produced by Lb. johnsonii LA1, Lb. casei YIT 9029 and Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471 showed inhibitory activity against the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. However, a fourth bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 was not able to inhibit H. pylori. This indicates that some bacteriocins produced by specific probiotic strains can fulfil a role in the inhibition of this common pathogen. PMID:15954651

  11. Probiotics - the versatile functional food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Syngai, Gareth Gordon; Gopi, Ragupathi; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Dey, Sudip; Lakshmanan, G M Alagu; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2016-02-01

    Probiotics are live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts as functional food ingredients confer a health benefit on the host. Their versatility is in terms of their usage which ranges from the humans to the ruminants, pigs and poultry, and also in aquaculture practices. In this review, the microorganisms frequently used as probiotics in human and animal welfare has been described, and also highlighted are the necessary criteria required to be fulfilled for their use in humans on the one hand and on the other as microbial feed additives in animal husbandry. Further elaborated in this article are the sources from where probiotics can be derived, the possible mechanisms by which they act, and their future potential role as antioxidants is also discussed. PMID:27162372

  12. Human milk: mother nature's prototypical probiotic food?

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "probiotic" is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: "a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host." As such, answering the fundamental question posed here-"Is human milk a probiotic?"-requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother's and/or the recipient infant's health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known. PMID:25593150

  13. Psychobiotics: An emerging probiotic in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Kali, Arunava

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal microbial flora plays critical role in maintenance of health. Probiotic organisms have been recognized as an essential therapeutic component in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis. Current research suggests their health benefits extends beyond intestinal disorders. The neuroactive molecules produced by the gut microbiota has been found to modulate neural signals which affect neurological and psychiatric parameters like sleep, appetite, mood and cognition. Use of these novel probiotics opens up the possibility of restructuring of intestinal microbiota for effective management of various psychiatric disorders. PMID:27621125

  14. Prebiotics and Probiotics and Oral Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurman, J. H.

    The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect to the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics. The second part of the chapter then concentrates on research data on prebiotics and probiotics in the oral health perspective, ending up with conclusions and visions for future research.

  15. Probiotic use in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Sunit C; Baranwal, A

    2008-06-01

    Probiotics are "live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host" (FAO/WHO joint group). Their potential role in bio-ecological modification of pathological internal milieu of the critically ill is under evaluation. Probiotics are available as single microbial strain (e.g., Bacillus clausii, Lactobacillus) or as a mix of multiple strains of Lactobacillus (acidophilus, sporogenes, lactis, reuteri RC-14, GG, and L. plantarum 299v), Bifidobacterium (bifidum, longum, infantis), Streptococcus (thermophillus, lactis, fecalis), Saccharomyces boulardii etc. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria are gram-positive, anaerobic, lactic acid bacteria. These are normal inhabitant of human gut and colonize the colon better than others. Critical illness and its treatment create hostile environment in the gut and alters the micro flora favoring growth of pathogens. Therapy with probiotics is an effort to reduce or eliminate potential pathogens and toxins, to release nutrients, antioxidants, growth factors and coagulation factors, to stimulate gut motility and to modulate innate and adaptive immune defense mechanisms via the normalization of altered gut flora. Scientific evidence shows that use of probiotics is effective in prevention and therapy of antibiotic associated diarrhea. However, available probiotics strains in currently used doses do not provide much needed early benefits, and need long-term administration to have clinically beneficial effects (viz, a reduction in rate of infection, severe sepsis, ICU stay, ventilation days and mortality) in critically ill surgical and trauma patients. Possibly, available strains do not adhere to intestinal mucosa early, or may require higher dose than what is used. Gap exists in our knowledge regarding mechanisms of action of different probiotics, most effective strains--single or multiple, cost effectiveness, risk-benefit potential, optimum dose, frequency and duration of treatment etc. More

  16. Synthesizing optimal waste blends

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, V.; Diwekar, W.M.; Hoza, M.

    1996-10-01

    Vitrification of tank wastes to form glass is a technique that will be used for the disposal of high-level waste at Hanford. Process and storage economics show that minimizing the total number of glass logs produced is the key to keeping cost as low as possible. The amount of glass produced can be reduced by blending of the wastes. The optimal way to combine the tanks to minimize the vole of glass can be determined from a discrete blend calculation. However, this problem results in a combinatorial explosion as the number of tanks increases. Moreover, the property constraints make this problem highly nonconvex where many algorithms get trapped in local minima. In this paper the authors examine the use of different combinatorial optimization approaches to solve this problem. A two-stage approach using a combination of simulated annealing and nonlinear programming (NLP) is developed. The results of different methods such as the heuristics approach based on human knowledge and judgment, the mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) approach with GAMS, and branch and bound with lower bound derived from the structure of the given blending problem are compared with this coupled simulated annealing and NLP approach.

  17. Probiotics in Clostridium difficile infection: reviewing the need for a multistrain probiotic.

    PubMed

    Hell, M; Bernhofer, C; Stalzer, P; Kern, J M; Claassen, E

    2013-03-01

    In the past two years an enormous amount of molecular, genetic, metabolomic and mechanistic data on the host-bacterium interaction, a healthy gut microbiota and a possible role for probiotics in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been accumulated. Also, new hypervirulent strains of C. difficile have emerged. Yet, clinical trials in CDI have been less promising than in antibiotic associated diarrhoea in general, with more meta-analysis than primary papers on CDI-clinical-trials. The fact that C. difficile is a spore former, producing at least three different toxins has not yet been incorporated in the rational design of probiotics for (recurrent) CDI. Here we postulate that the plethora of effects of C. difficile and the vast amount of data on the role of commensal gut residents and probiotics point towards a multistrain mixture of probiotics to reduce CDI, but also to limit (nosocomial) transmission and/or endogenous reinfection. On the basis of a retrospective chart review of a series of ten CDI patients where recurrence was expected, all patients on adjunctive probiotic therapy with multistrain cocktail (Ecologic®AAD/OMNiBiOTiC® 10) showed complete clinical resolution. This result, and recent success in faecal transplants in CDI treatment, are supportive for the rational design of multistrain probiotics for CDI. PMID:23434948

  18. Potential uses of probiotics in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor; Jass, Jana; Sebulsky, M Tom; McCormick, John K

    2003-10-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. There is now mounting evidence that selected probiotic strains can provide health benefits to their human hosts. Numerous clinical trials show that certain strains can improve the outcome of intestinal infections by reducing the duration of diarrhea. Further investigations have shown benefits in reducing the recurrence of urogenital infections in women, while promising studies in cancer and allergies require research into the mechanisms of activity for particular strains and better-designed trials. At present, only a small percentage of physicians either know of probiotics or understand their potential applicability to patient care. Thus, probiotics are not yet part of the clinical arsenal for prevention and treatment of disease or maintenance of health. The establishment of accepted standards and guidelines, proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization, represents a key step in ensuring that reliable products with suitable, informative health claims become available. Based upon the evidence to date, future advances with single- and multiple-strain therapies are on the horizon for the management of a number of debilitating and even fatal conditions. PMID:14557292

  19. Potential Uses of Probiotics in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Gregor; Jass, Jana; Sebulsky, M. Tom; McCormick, John K.

    2003-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. There is now mounting evidence that selected probiotic strains can provide health benefits to their human hosts. Numerous clinical trials show that certain strains can improve the outcome of intestinal infections by reducing the duration of diarrhea. Further investigations have shown benefits in reducing the recurrence of urogenital infections in women, while promising studies in cancer and allergies require research into the mechanisms of activity for particular strains and better-designed trials. At present, only a small percentage of physicians either know of probiotics or understand their potential applicability to patient care. Thus, probiotics are not yet part of the clinical arsenal for prevention and treatment of disease or maintenance of health. The establishment of accepted standards and guidelines, proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization, represents a key step in ensuring that reliable products with suitable, informative health claims become available. Based upon the evidence to date, future advances with single- and multiple-strain therapies are on the horizon for the management of a number of debilitating and even fatal conditions. PMID:14557292

  20. Probiotics and allergies: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Madonini, Enzo R

    2014-11-01

    During the last years, along with the growing knowledge about the role and importance of the intestinal flora, interest remarkably increased in probiotic bacteria supplementation. It has indeed been demonstrated that the intestinal microbiota is very important in the regulation of several functions of the organism, even those far from the gastro-enteric system. Among them, great interest was stimulated by the proven capability of the intestinal microbiota to regulate the immune system, in particular to rebalance the TH1/Th2 ratio. Consequence thereof is the assumption that the administration of probiotic bacteria may induce clinical benefits in allergic pathologies. Many clinical studies have been carried out that considered the possibility of preventing allergic sensitizations, and preventing and treating atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. Many studies demonstrated that the administration of probiotics is able to prevent the onset of allergic sensitizations and improve the symptoms of atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis; however, studies were published, too, that achieved negative outcomes. The overall evaluation of results is, however, difficult, as the strains used and the study design are markedly heterogeneous. Future investigations with a better standardization will be able to better explain the role of the intestinal flora in atopy, and the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:25398162

  1. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  2. Can Probiotics Cure Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

    PubMed

    Korada, Siva Kumar; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Bishayee, Anupam; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Aruna Lakshmi, K; Arunasree, M K; Dananajaya, B L; Mishra, Vijendra

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, especially microbial dysbiosis play role in several GI ailments such as irritable bowel syndrome, colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Role of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is multifactorial as it involves loss of maintaining intestinal epithelial barrier integrity, increased release of pro-inflammatory molecules, and microbial dysbiosis in gut microflora. Some specific pathogens also play a key role in the IBD development. The origin and causation are still in unfathomable condition and the exact root cause is unknown. Recently probiotic studies have been gaining importance because of their positive responses in their IBD experimental results. According to joint Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organisation working group, probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer health benefit on the host. These live beneficial microorganisms are considered helpful in improving gut colonization and perseverance thereby improves prophylactic effect. In the direction of IBD research, a number of studies are needed to standardize its methodology and its applicability on human usage. The particular review presents an overview of gut microflora and its impact on host health, types of IBD and existing therapies to treat this disorder, mechanism of several probiotic actions, role of probiotics in IBD prevention with their supporting evidences. PMID:26648465

  3. Probiotics, prebiotics and antioxidants as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Grajek, Włodzimierz; Olejnik, Anna; Sip, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The term "functional foods" comprises some bacterial strains and products of plant and animal origin containing physiologically active compounds beneficial for human health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Among the best known functional compounds probiotics, prebiotics and natural antioxidants should be given as examples. These substances can be obtained by biotechnological methods and by extraction from plant or animal tissues. PMID:16086074

  4. Stimulation of Mucosal Immunity with Probiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immune system of neonatal chicks is functionally immature during the first week of life. Researchers have previously demonstrated that the avian humoral response can be increased through the use of probiotics. Although the humoral response provides the chick with an effective mechanism to comb...

  5. Probiotics: definition, scope and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor

    2016-02-01

    For a subject area of science, medicine and commerce to be so recently defined and investigated, few can compare to probiotics for the controversy they have incited. Barely a paper is published without the use of a different definition, or challenging the most used one, or proposing a different nuance of it. The situation has become even more surreal with the European Food and Safety Authority banning the word probiotic for use on labels. The reiteration of the FAO/WHO definition by the world's leading group of probiotic experts, should provide relative consistency in the near future, but what are the causes of these aberrations? This review will discuss the rationale for the definition, and the scope of the subject area and why alternatives emerge. While mechanisms of action are not widely proven, in vitro and some in vivo experiments support several. Ultimately, the goal of any field or product is to be understood by lay people and experts alike. Probiotics have come a long way in 100 years since Metchnikoff and 10 years since their globalization, but their evolution is far from over. PMID:27048893

  6. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

  7. The history of probiotics: the untold story.

    PubMed

    Ozen, M; Dinleyici, E C

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic, a word derived from Latin, means 'for life'. A long time before the awareness of probiotic microorganisms, fermented products, such as beer, bread, wine, kefir, kumis and cheese had been very frequently used for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. It is widely believed that fermented products were probably found, or better to say, discovered spontaneously. The legend tells that yoghurt is most likely resulted from a fermentation process within the animal skin bags used for transportation of water and milk in regions with low humidity and high temperatures (Middle Asia and Middle East). The history of probiotics goes paralel with the evolution of human race and, thanks to the sophisticated techniques at the moment, can be traced back to the ancient times, nearly 10,000 years ago. The aims of this review are to highlight the important events for probiotic history, to correct the widely available anonymous misinformation in the literature and to remind to the readers important characters in its history. PMID:25576593

  8. Lactobacillus salivarius: bacteriocin and probiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, S; Manai, M; Kergourlay, G; Prévost, H; Connil, N; Chobert, J-M; Dousset, X

    2013-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) antimicrobial peptides typically exhibit antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens, as well as spoilage bacteria. Therefore, they have attracted the greatest attention as tools for food biopreservation. In some countries LAB are already extensively used as probiotics in food processing and preservation. LAB derived bacteriocins have been utilized as oral, topical antibiotics or disinfectants. Lactobacillus salivarius is a promising probiotic candidate commonly isolated from human, porcine, and avian gastrointestinal tracts (GIT), many of which are producers of unmodified bacteriocins of sub-classes IIa, IIb and IId. It is a well-characterized bacteriocin producer and probiotic organism. Bacteriocins may facilitate the introduction of a producer into an established niche, directly inhibit the invasion of competing strains or pathogens, or modulate the composition of the microbiota and influence the host immune system. This review gives an up-to-date overview of all L. salivarius strains, isolated from different origins, known as bacteriocin producing and/or potential probiotic. PMID:24010610

  9. Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Gut Microbiota and Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Beom Jae

    2011-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder characterized by abdominal symptoms including chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS is multifactorial, as abnormal gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed neural function of the brain-gut axis and an abnormal autonomic nervous system are all implicated in disease progression. Based on recent experimental and clinical studies, it has been suggested that additional etiological factors including low-grade inflammation, altered gut microbiota and alteration in the gut immune system play important roles in the pathogenesis of IBS. Therefore, therapeutic restoration of altered intestinal microbiota may be an ideal treatment for IBS. Probiotics are live organisms that are believed to cause no harm and result in health benefits for the host. Clinical efficacy of probiotics has been shown in the treatment or prevention of some gastrointestinal inflammation-associated disorders including traveler's diarrhea, antibiotics-associated diarrhea, pouchitis of the restorative ileal pouch and necrotizing enterocolitis. The molecular mechanisms, as cause of IBS pathogenesis, affected by altered gut microbiota and gut inflammation-immunity are reviewed. The effect of probiotics on the gut inflammation-immune systems and the results from clinical trials of probiotics for the treatment of IBS are also summarized. PMID:21860817

  10. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  11. Probiotics: a proactive approach to health. A symposium report.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Linda V; Suzuki, Kaori; Zhao, Jia

    2015-12-01

    This report summarises talks given at the 8th International Yakult Symposium, held on 23-24 April 2015 in Berlin. Two presentations explored different aspects of probiotic intervention: the small intestine as a probiotic target and inclusion of probiotics into integrative approaches to gastroenterology. Probiotic recommendations in gastroenterology guidelines and current data on probiotic efficacy in paediatric patients were reviewed. Updates were given on probiotic and gut microbiota research in obesity and obesity-related diseases, the gut-brain axis and development of psychobiotics, and the protective effects of equol-producing strains for prostate cancer. Recent studies were presented on probiotic benefit for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and people with HIV, as well as protection against the adverse effects of a short-term high-fat diet. Aspects of probiotic mechanisms of activity were discussed, including immunomodulatory mechanisms and metabolite effects, the anti-inflammatory properties of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, the relationship between periodontitis, microbial production of butyrate in the oral cavity and ageing, and the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter. Finally, an insight was given on a recent expert meeting, which re-examined the probiotic definition, advised on the appropriate use and scope of the term and outlined different probiotic categories and the prevalence of different mechanisms of activity. PMID:26548336

  12. Probiotics in Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Boltin, Doron

    2016-02-01

    The ideal treatment regimen for the eradication Helicobacter pylori infection has yet to be identified. Probiotics, particularly Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Saccharomyces, have been suggested as adjuncts to antibiotics for the treatment of H. pylori. There is in vitro evidence that probiotics dampen the Th1 response triggered by H. pylori, attenuate H. pylori associated hypochlorhydria and secrete bacteriocidal metabolites. Probiotics interact with the innate host immune system through adherence to the gastric epithelium and secretion of bacterial adhesins. In prospective human studies, probiotic monotherapy effectively decrease H. pylori density (expired (13)CO2) by 2.0%-64.0%. Probiotic monotherapy has also been shown to eradicate H. pylori in up to 32.5%, although subsequent recrudescence is likely. Eleven meta-analyses have evaluated the efficacy of probiotics as adjuvants to antibiotics for the eradication of H. pylori. The addition of a probiotic increased treatment efficacy, OR 1.12-2.07. This benefit is probably strain-specific and may only be significant with relatively ineffective antibiotic regimens. The pooled prevalence of adverse effects was 12.9%-31.5% among subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with 24.3%-45.9% among controls. Diarrhea in particular was significantly reduced in subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with controls (OR 0.16-0.47). A reduction in adverse events other than diarrhea is variable. Despite the apparent benefit on efficacy and side effects conferred by probiotics, the optimal probiotic species, dose and treatment duration has yet to be determined. Further studies are needed to identify the probiotic, antibiotic and patient factors which might predict benefit from probiotic supplementation. PMID:27048901

  13. Probiotics for Standard Triple Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Goran; Salkic, Nermin; Vukelic, Karina; JajacKnez, Alenka; Stimac, Davor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The primary objective in the study is determination of efficacy of probiotic preparation as a supportive therapy in eradication of Helicobacter pylori. The study was multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, and double-blind. The subjects first filled out a specially designed questionnaire to assess the severity of the 10 symptoms, which can be related to eradication therapy to be monitored during the trial. Each subject then received 28 capsules of probiotic preparation or matching placebo capsules, which they were supposed to take over the following 14 days, twice a day, at least 2 hours prior to or after the antibiotic therapy administration. A total of 804 patients were enrolled in the trial, of which 650 (80.85%) were included in the analysis. The results show a significantly larger share of cured subjects in the probiotic arm versus the placebo arm (87.38% vs 72.55%; P < 0.001). Additionally, presence and intensity of epigastric pain, bloating, flatulence, taste disturbance, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, rash, and diarrhea were monitored over the study period. At 15 days postinclusion, probiotic treatment was found superior to placebo in 7 of 10 mentioned symptoms. Average intensity for symptoms potentially related to antibiotic therapy was significantly higher in the placebo group, 0.76 vs 0.55 (P < 0.001). Adding probiotics to the standard triple therapy for H pylori eradication significantly contributes to treatment efficacy and distinctly decreases the adverse effects of therapy and the symptoms of the underlying disease. PMID:25929897

  14. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method that uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation is discussed. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  15. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  16. Blended Learning Improves Science Education.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Brent R; Stockwell, Melissa S; Cennamo, Michael; Jiang, Elise

    2015-08-27

    Blended learning is an emerging paradigm for science education but has not been rigorously assessed. We performed a randomized controlled trial of blended learning. We found that in-class problem solving improved exam performance, and video assignments increased attendance and satisfaction. This validates a new model for science communication and education. PMID:26317458

  17. Viscoelastic Properties of Polymer Blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, S. D.; Moacanin, J.; Soong, D.

    1982-01-01

    Viscosity, shear modulus and other viscoelastic properties of multicomponent polymer blends are predicted from behavior of individual components, using a mathematical model. Model is extension of two-component-blend model based on Rouse-Bueche-Zimm theory of polymer viscoelasticity. Extension assumes that probabilities of forming various possible intracomponent and intercomponent entanglements among polymer molecules are proportional to relative abundances of components.

  18. Blended Learning: A Dangerous Idea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskal, Patsy; Dziuban, Charles; Hartman, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The authors make the case that implementation of a successful blended learning program requires alignment of institutional, faculty, and student goals. Reliable and robust infrastructure must be in place to support students and faculty. Continuous evaluation can effectively track the impact of blended learning on students, faculty, and the…

  19. Classifying K-12 Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staker, Heather; Horn, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of online learning in the K-12 sector is occurring both remotely through virtual schools and on campuses through blended learning. In emerging fields, definitions are important because they create a shared language that enables people to talk about the new phenomena. The blended-learning taxonomy and definitions presented in this paper…

  20. FLOW BEHAVIOR OF PROTEIN BLENDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blending proteins can increase textural strength or enhance taste or mouth feel, such as blending soy with whey to improve taste. In this study, we measured the viscosity of various combinations of six proteins (whey protein isolates, calcium caseinate, soy protein isolates, wheat gluten, egg album...

  1. The Basics of Blended Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Catlin R.

    2013-01-01

    Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…

  2. Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis with Probiotics: An Alternative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a skewed immune reaction to common antigens in the nasal mucosa; current therapy is not satisfactory and can cause a variety of complications. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic rhinitis is increasing every year. Published studies indicate that probiotics are beneficial in treating allergic rhinitis. This review aims to help in understanding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. We referred to the PubMed database as data source. This review focuses on the following aspects: The types of probiotics using in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, approaches of administration, its safety, mechanisms of action, treating results, and the perspectives to improve effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review reports the recent findings regarding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Probiotics are a useful therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, but its underlying mechanisms remain to be further investigated. PMID:24083221

  3. Treatment of allergic rhinitis with probiotics: an alternative approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-08-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a skewed immune reaction to common antigens in the nasal mucosa; current therapy is not satisfactory and can cause a variety of complications. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic rhinitis is increasing every year. Published studies indicate that probiotics are beneficial in treating allergic rhinitis. This review aims to help in understanding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. We referred to the PubMed database as data source. This review focuses on the following aspects: The types of probiotics using in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, approaches of administration, its safety, mechanisms of action, treating results, and the perspectives to improve effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review reports the recent findings regarding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Probiotics are a useful therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, but its underlying mechanisms remain to be further investigated. PMID:24083221

  4. Probiotics for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Lulong; Li, Jinbao; Tao, Tianzhu; Bai, Yu; Ye, Xiaofei; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Kollef, Marin H; Crooks, Neil H; Deng, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common in intensive care units (ICUs). Some evidence indicates that probiotics may reduce the incidence of VAP. Several additional published studies have demonstrated that probiotics are safe and efficacious in preventing VAP in ICUs. We aimed to systematically summarise the results of all available data to generate the best evidence for the prevention of VAP. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of probiotics for preventing VAP. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1948 to September week 1, 2014) and EMBASE (2010 to September 2014). Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo or another control (excluding RCTs that use probiotics in both study groups) to prevent VAP. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and the quality of trials, and extracted data. Main results We included eight RCTs, with 1083 participants. All studies compared a form of probiotic (Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus; Lactobacillus plantarum; Synbiotic 2000FORTE; Ergyphilus; combination Bifidobacterium longum + Lactobacillus bulgaricus + Streptococcus thermophilus) versus a control group (placebo; glutamine; fermentable fibre; peptide; chlorhexidine). The analysis of all RCTs showed that the use of probiotics decreased the incidence of VAP (odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52 to 0.95, low quality evidence). However, the aggregated results were uncertain for ICU mortality (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.22 very low quality evidence), in-hospital mortality (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.14, very low quality evidence), incidence of diarrhoea (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.09, very low quality evidence), length of ICU stay (mean difference (MD) −1.60, 95% CI −6.53 to 3.33, very low quality evidence), duration of mechanical ventilation (MD −6.15, 95% CI −18.77 to 6.47, very low quality evidence) and antibiotic

  5. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria: technology and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Kailasapathy, Kaila

    2002-09-01

    In the recent past, there has been an explosion of probiotic health-based products. Many reports indicated that there is poor survival of probiotic bacteria in these products. Further, the survival of these bacteria in the human gastro-intestinal system is questionable. Providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier against adverse environmental conditions is therefore an approach currently receiving considerable interest. The technology of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells evolved from the immobilised cell culture technology used in the biotechnological industry. Several methods of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria have been reported and include spray drying, extrusion, emulsion and phase separation. None of these reported methods however, has resulted in the large numbers of shelf-stable, viable probiotic bacterial cells necessary for use in industry for development of new probiotic products. The most commonly reported micro-encapsulation procedure is based on the calcium-alginate gel capsule formation. Kappa-carrageenan, gellan gum, gelatin and starch are also used as excipients for the micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria. The currently available equipment for micro-encapsulation is not able to generate large quantities of uniform sized micro or nano capsules. There is a need to design and develop equipment that will be able to generate precise and uniform micro or nano capsules in large quantities for industrial applications. The reported food vehicles for delivery of encapsulated probiotic bacteria are yoghurt, cheese, ice cream and mayonnaise. Studies need to be done on the application of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria in other food systems. The number of probiotic supplements will increase in the future. More studies, however, need to be conducted on the efficacy of micro-encapsulation to deliver probiotic bacteria and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:12400637

  6. Probiotics as flourishing benefactors for the human body.

    PubMed

    Broekaert, Ilse J; Walker, W Allan

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of the beneficial effects of various strains of probiotics in preventing and treating certain diseases. Currently, changed lifestyles as well as the increased use of antibiotics are significant factors challenging the preservation of a healthy intestinal microflora. The concept of probiotics is to restore and uphold a microflora advantageous for the human body. Probiotics are found in a number of fermented dairy products, infant formula, and dietary supplements. In the presence of prebiotics, which are nondigestible food ingredients favorable for probiotic growth, their survival in the intestine is ameliorated. PMID:16552297

  7. Probiotics from research to market: the possibilities, risks and challenges.

    PubMed

    Foligné, Benoit; Daniel, Catherine; Pot, Bruno

    2013-06-01

    Probiotic foods can affect large parts of the population, while therapeutic applications have a less wide scope. While commercialization routes and regulatory requirements differ for both applications, both will need good scientific support. Today, probiotics are mainly used for gastrointestinal applications, their use can easily be extended to skin, oral and vaginal health. While most probiotics currently belong to food-grade species, the future may offer new functional microorganisms in food and pharma. This review discusses the crosstalk between probiotic producers, regulatory people, medical care and healthcare workers, and the scientific community. PMID:23866974

  8. Microorganisms with Claimed Probiotic Properties: An Overview of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fijan, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Health benefits have mainly been demonstrated for specific probiotic strains of the following genera: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Escherichia coli. The human microbiota is getting a lot of attention today and research has already demonstrated that alteration of this microbiota may have far-reaching consequences. One of the possible routes for correcting dysbiosis is by consuming probiotics. The credibility of specific health claims of probiotics and their safety must be established through science-based clinical studies. This overview summarizes the most commonly used probiotic microorganisms and their demonstrated health claims. As probiotic properties have been shown to be strain specific, accurate identification of particular strains is also very important. On the other hand, it is also demonstrated that the use of various probiotics for immunocompromised patients or patients with a leaky gut has also yielded infections, sepsis, fungemia, bacteraemia. Although the vast majority of probiotics that are used today are generally regarded as safe and beneficial for healthy individuals, caution in selecting and monitoring of probiotics for patients is needed and complete consideration of risk-benefit ratio before prescribing is recommended. PMID:24859749

  9. Use of probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders: what to recommend?

    PubMed Central

    Verna, Elizabeth C.; Lucak, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Perturbation of bacterial microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may play an important role in the pathophysiology of some GI disorders. Probiotics have been used as a treatment modality for over a century. They may restore normal bacterial microflora and effect the functioning of the GI tract by a variety of mechanisms. Probiotics are not currently regulated and only few randomized controlled trials exist investigating their efficacy in different GI disorders. They are available in a variety of formulations and delivery systems making interpretation and comparison of studies even more difficult. The efficacy of probiotics, either as a single strain or a combination of probiotics, has been tested in antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile colitis, infectious diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, pouchitis, and irritable bowel syndrome, among other disorders. Results of the studies are reviewed in this article and recommendations for probiotic use in these disorders are made. Although probiotics appear to be generally safe in an outpatient setting, the situation may be different in immunocompromised, hospitalized patients who may be at a greater risk of developing probiotic sepsis. No studies exist addressing the issue of safety specifically. Many questions regarding use of probiotics in GI disorders remain to be answered in future studies, such as most optimal doses, duration of treatment, physiological and immunological effects, efficacy of specific probiotics in specific disease states, and safety in debilitated patients. PMID:21180611

  10. Probiotics and the gut microbiota in intestinal health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Gareau, Mélanie G.; Sherman, Philip M.; Walker, W. Allan

    2016-01-01

    The use of probiotics is increasing in popularity for both the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases. While a growing number of well-conducted, prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical trials are emerging and investigations of underlying mechanisms of action are being undertaken, questions remain with respect to the specific immune and physiological effects of probiotics in health and disease. This Review considers recent advances in clinical trials of probiotics for intestinal disorders in both adult and pediatric populations. An overview of recent in vitro and in vivo research related to potential mechanisms of action of various probiotic formulations is also considered. PMID:20664519

  11. To Blend or Not to Blend: Online and Blended Learning Environments in Undergraduate Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collopy, Rachel M. B.; Arnold, Jackie Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Research comparing student experiences with online-only and blended delivery has often concentrated on graduate students and nontraditional programs. However, the effectiveness of online and blended delivery depends on audience and subject matter, suggesting that findings based on data from graduate and nontraditional programs may not hold true…

  12. Microbial characterization of probiotics--advisory report of the Working Group "8651 Probiotics" of the Belgian Superior Health Council (SHC).

    PubMed

    Huys, Geert; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Delvigne, Frank; De Vuyst, Luc; Heyndrickx, Marc; Pot, Bruno; Dubois, Jean-Jacques; Daube, Georges

    2013-08-01

    When ingested in sufficient numbers, probiotics are expected to confer one or more proven health benefits on the consumer. Theoretically, the effectiveness of a probiotic food product is the sum of its microbial quality and its functional potential. Whereas the latter may vary much with the body (target) site, delivery mode, human target population, and health benefit envisaged microbial assessment of the probiotic product quality is more straightforward. The range of stakeholders that need to be informed on probiotic quality assessments is extremely broad, including academics, food and biotherapeutic industries, healthcare professionals, competent authorities, consumers, and professional press. In view of the rapidly expanding knowledge on this subject, the Belgian Superior Health Council installed Working Group "8651 Probiotics" to review the state of knowledge regarding the methodologies that make it possible to characterize strains and products with purported probiotic activity. This advisory report covers three main steps in the microbial quality assessment process, i.e. (i) correct species identification and strain-specific typing of bacterial and yeast strains used in probiotic applications, (ii) safety assessment of probiotic strains used for human consumption, and (iii) quality of the final probiotic product in terms of its microbial composition, concentration, stability, authenticity, and labeling. PMID:23801655

  13. [Role of probiotics in obesity management].

    PubMed

    Prados-Bo, Andreu; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Nova, Esther; Marcos, Ascensión

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health issue as it is related to several chronic disorders, including type-2 diabetes, high blood pressure, dyslipemia, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, among others. Novel research shows that the gut microbiota is involved in obesity and metabolic disorders, revealing that obese animal and human subjects have alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota compared to their lean counterparts. Moreover, it has been observed in germ-free mice that transplantation of the microbiota of either obese or lean mice influences body weight, suggesting that the gut ecosystem is a relevant target for weight management. Certain strains of probiotics may regulate body weight by influencing the host's metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune functions. Taken together, our knowledge about the influence of gut microbiota on obesity is progressing. Therefore, modulation of its composition through probiotics may provide new opportunities to manage overweight and obesity. PMID:25659049

  14. Health-benefit claims for probiotic products.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, James T

    2008-02-01

    Manufacturers wish to communicate the benefits of probiotics in advertising and labeling with lawful and adequately substantiated claims. Regulatory and substantiation requirements differ for products intended to cure, treat, prevent, or mitigate a disease; to reduce a healthy individual's risk of developing a disease; or to affect the structure or function of the body. Food labeling is regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration, and advertising is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission; the standards and methods used by these agencies differ. Food manufacturers must design their claims regarding the benefits of probiotics with the regulatory environment in mind and must develop their research plans to provide evidence that satisfies the agencies' substantiation requirements. This article offers an overview of the applicable laws and regulations, what they mandate regarding legitimate claims, and the issues regarding the design of research to substantiate such claims. PMID:18181716

  15. Hydrogen-bonded polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guigley, Kevin Scott

    This thesis discusses three topics in the general area of hydrogen bonded polymer blends. The first pertains to the blending of flame retardant polyphosphazenes. Poly[bis(n-alkyoxy)phosphazenes] blends with poly(butyl methacrylate- co-4-vinyl phenol) (BMAVPh) were initially studied. These results were compared to BMAVPh blends of analogous poly (vinyl n-alkyl ethers) and the phase behavior was similar. Next, poly[bis(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene] blends with a structural polyurethane foam were prepared via reactive mixing. The combustion behavior of these foams was analyzed qualitatively, by a horizontal flame test, and quantitatively, by oxygen index (OI) measurements. Both of these tests indicated a modest increase in flame resistance at loadings of 20 wt% and above. In the second topic, equilibrium constants determined from low molecular weight mixtures were used to successfully predict the phase behavior of analogous polymer blends. Due consideration was given to intramolecular screening and functional group accessibility, factors that are a direct consequence of chain connectivity. In the third topic, polymer blends involving an alternating 1:1 copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and a hexafluoroisopropanol modified vinyl ether (HFIPVE) were studied. This copolymer is interesting for both experimental and theoretical studies of the phase behavior of polymer blends because (1) it is amorphous and has a relatively low glass transition temperature (12°C); (2) it has a relatively low solubility parameter (≈7 (cal.cm-3)-0.5); (3) it is soluble in moderately polar solvents, and (4) it contains the hexafluoroisopropanol group that is a strong hydrogen bond donor. Experimental infrared and thermal analysis studies of polymer blends with (co)polymers containing acetoxy, methacrylate and aliphatic ether groups were studied and compared to theoretical predictions of miscibility maps.

  16. Luminal Conversion and Immunoregulation by Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Bhanu Priya; Versalovic, James

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microbes are responsible for the synthesis of nutrients and metabolites that are likely important for the maintenance of mammalian health. Many nutrients and metabolites derived from the gut microbiota by luminal conversion have been implicated in the development, homeostasis and function of innate and adaptive immunity. These factors clearly suggest that intestinal microbiota may influence host immunity via microbial metabolite-dependent mechanisms. We describe how intestinal microbes including probiotics generate microbial metabolites that modulate mucosal and systemic immunity. PMID:26617521

  17. Probiotics for infantile colic: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infantile colic is a common paediatric condition which causes significant parental distress. Increased intestinal coliform colonization in addition to alteration in Lactobacillus abundance and distribution may play an important role in its pathogenesis. The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate the efficacy of probiotic supplementation in the reduction of crying time and successful treatment of infantile colic. Methods Literature searches were conducted of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only randomized controlled trials enrolling term, healthy infants with colic were included. A meta-analysis of included trials was performed utilizing the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Results Three trials that enrolled 220 breastfed infants met inclusion criteria, of which 209 infants were available for analysis. Two of the studies were assessed as good quality. Lactobacillus reuteri (strains-American Type Culture Collection Strain 55730 and DSM 17 938) was the only species utilized in the therapeutic intervention. Two of the trials were industry funded. Probiotic supplementation compared to simethicone or placebo significantly and progressively shortened crying times to 7 days reaching a plateau at three weeks post initiation of therapy [mean difference −56.03 minutes; 95% CI (−59.92, -52.15)]. Similarly, probiotics compared to placebo significantly increased the treatment success of infantile colic with a relative risk (RR) of 0.06; 95% CI (0.01, 0.25) and a number needed to treat of 2. Conclusions Although L. reuteri may be effective as a treatment strategy for crying in exclusively breastfed infants with colic, the evidence supporting probiotic use for the treatment of infant colic or crying in formula-fed infants remains unresolved. Results from larger rigorously designed studies will help draw more definitive conclusions. PMID:24238101

  18. Demonstration of safety of probiotics -- a review.

    PubMed

    Salminen, S; von Wright, A; Morelli, L; Marteau, P; Brassart, D; de Vos, W M; Fondén, R; Saxelin, M; Collins, K; Mogensen, G; Birkeland, S E; Mattila-Sandholm, T

    1998-10-20

    Probiotics are commonly defined as viable microorganisms (bacteria or yeasts) that exhibit a beneficial effect on the health of the host when they are ingested. They are used in foods, especially in fermented dairy products, but also in pharmaceutical preparations. The development of new probiotic strains aims at more active beneficial organisms. In the case of novel microorganisms and modified organisms the question of their safety and the risk to benefit ratio have to be assessed. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in foods have a long history of safe use. Members of the genera Lactococcus and Lactobacillus are most commonly given generally-recognised-as-safe (GRAS) status whilst members of the genera Streptococcus and Enterococcus and some other genera of LAB contain some opportunistic pathogens. Lactic acid bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. In many cases resistances are not, however, transmissible, and the species are also sensitive to many clinically used antibiotics even in the case of a lactic acid bacteria- associated opportunistic infection. Therefore no particular safety concern is associated with intrinsic type of resistance. Plasmid-associated antibiotic resistance, which occasionally occurs, is another matter because of the possibility of the resistance spreading to other, more harmful species and genera. The transmissible enterococcal resistance against glycopeptide antibiotics (vancomycin and teicoplanin) is particularly noteworthy, as vancomycin is one of the last effective antibiotics left in the treatment of certain multidrug-resistant pathogens. New species and more specific strains of probiotic bacteria are constantly identified. Prior to incorporating new strains into products their efficacy should be carefully assessed, and a case by case evaluation as to whether they share the safety status of traditional food-grade organisms should be made. The current documentation of adverse effects in the literature is reviewed. Future

  19. Probiotics as control agents in aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geovanny D, Gómez R.; Balcázar, José Luis; Ma, Shen

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

  20. Probiotics and refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    PubMed

    Nettis, E; Di Leo, E; Pastore, A; Distaso, M; Zaza, I; Vacca, M; Macchia, L; Vacca, A

    2016-09-01

    Background. In chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) first-line therapy with an antihistamine-based regimen may not achieve satisfactory control in patients. Thus, a continuing need exists for effective and safe treatments for refractory CSU. Aim. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of an intake of a combination of 2 probiotics (Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03) in patients with CSU who remain symptomatic despite concomitant H1-antihistamine therapy. Methods. This report analyzes the effects of therapy with two probiotic strains on the clinical progress of 52 unselected patients with difficulty to treat CSU underwent to medical examination in two Italian specialist urticaria Clinics between September 2013 and September 2014. A mixture of Lactobacillus LS01 and Bifidobacterium BR03 were administered in each patient twice daily for 8 weeks. To evaluate patients' improvement with probiotics, urticaria activity score over 7 days (UAS7) was used at baseline and at week 8 in addition to a 5-question urticaria quality of life questionnaire. Results. Fifty-two patients with CSU were included in this study (10 male and 42 female, age range 19-72 years). Mean disease duration was 1.5 years. Fourteen patients discontinued treatment, so evaluable population consisted of 38 patients. Nine of the 38 patients experienced mild clinical improvement during probiotic treatment (23.7%); one patient reported significant clinical improvement (2.6%) and one patient had complete remission of urticaria (2.6%). Twenty-seven patients did not have improvement in symptoms (71.1%). No side effects during the course of therapy were reported. Conclusions. A combination of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 administered twice daily for 8 weeks might reduce the symptoms scores and improve quality of life scores in a part of patients with CSU who remained symptomatic despite treatment with H1 antihistamine mostly in subjects with allergic

  1. Blended Families: Issues of Remarriage

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Gary L.

    1984-01-01

    Canada's divorce rate increased by 50% between 1968 and 1982. This has resulted in new family forms. One of these, the family which has been `blended' through remarriage of a parent, has some unique developmental hardships and differences from traditional nuclear families. Blended families are subject to a number of myths that may adversely affect their formation. In addition, members of these families need more time and patience to form a stable and functioning family group than do traditional families. Family physicians can aid the blended family with frank discussion, preparation and specific information. PMID:21279000

  2. Probiotics as Complementary Treatment for Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Le Barz, Mélanie; Anhê, Fernando F; Varin, Thibaut V; Desjardins, Yves; Levy, Emile; Roy, Denis; Urdaci, Maria C; Marette, André

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, growing evidence has established the gut microbiota as one of the most important determinants of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, obesogenic diet can drastically alter bacterial populations (i.e., dysbiosis) leading to activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms and metabolic endotoxemia, therefore promoting insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders. To counteract these deleterious effects, probiotic strains have been developed with the aim of reshaping the microbiome to improve gut health. In this review, we focus on benefits of widely used probiotics describing their potential mechanisms of action, especially their ability to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by restoring the disrupted intestinal mucosal barrier. We also discuss the perspective of using new bacterial strains such as butyrate-producing bacteria and the mucolytic Akkermansia muciniphila, as well as the use of prebiotics to enhance the functionality of probiotics. Finally, this review introduces the notion of genetically engineered bacterial strains specifically developed to deliver anti-inflammatory molecules to the gut. PMID:26301190

  3. Can Probiotics Improve Your Surgical Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Ward, Tina; Nichols, Misty; Nutter, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Despite ongoing advances in medical technology, postoperative infections and infectious complications continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgical trauma and prophylactic antibiotics disrupt the balance of the intestinal microbiota and barrier function of the gut, potentiating an enhanced inflammatory response and further immune system depression. With the increasing costs of health care and emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, alternative approaches must be explored. Many clinical studies have demonstrated that the use of probiotics, prebiotics, or a combination of both (synbiotics) as a part of innovative strategies can improve outcomes of elective abdominal and gastrointestinal surgical procedures. It has been demonstrated that probiotics play a role in gut barrier improvement and immunomodulation. However, it is evident that additional research is needed including larger, multicenter, randomized controlled trials to validate the safety and efficacy of their use in surgical patients. The purpose of this article is to discuss background of probiotic use in abdominal/gastrointestinal surgery, risk and benefits, clinical relevance for health care providers, and further implications for research. PMID:27254237

  4. Stress responses in probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Nezhad, Marzieh; Hussain, Malik Altaf; Britz, Margaret Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Survival in harsh environments is critical to both the industrial performance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their competitiveness in complex microbial ecologies. Among the LAB, members of the Lactobacillus casei group have industrial applications as acid-producing starter cultures for milk fermentations and as specialty cultures for the intensification and acceleration of flavor development in certain bacterial-ripened cheese varieties. They are amongst the most common organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and other animals, and have the potential to function as probiotics. Whether used in industrial or probiotic applications, environmental stresses will affect the physiological status and properties of cells, including altering their functionality and biochemistry. Understanding the mechanisms of how LAB cope with different environments is of great biotechnological importance, from both a fundamental and applied perspective: hence, interaction between these strains and their environment has gained increased interest in recent years. This paper presents an overview of the important features of stress responses in Lb. casei, and related proteomic or gene expression patterns that may improve their use as starter cultures and probiotics. PMID:24915363

  5. Probiotics as Complementary Treatment for Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Le Barz, Mélanie; Anhê, Fernando F.; Varin, Thibaut V.; Desjardins, Yves; Levy, Emile; Roy, Denis; Urdaci, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, growing evidence has established the gut microbiota as one of the most important determinants of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, obesogenic diet can drastically alter bacterial populations (i.e., dysbiosis) leading to activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms and metabolic endotoxemia, therefore promoting insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders. To counteract these deleterious effects, probiotic strains have been developed with the aim of reshaping the microbiome to improve gut health. In this review, we focus on benefits of widely used probiotics describing their potential mechanisms of action, especially their ability to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by restoring the disrupted intestinal mucosal barrier. We also discuss the perspective of using new bacterial strains such as butyrate-producing bacteria and the mucolytic Akkermansia muciniphila, as well as the use of prebiotics to enhance the functionality of probiotics. Finally, this review introduces the notion of genetically engineered bacterial strains specifically developed to deliver anti-inflammatory molecules to the gut. PMID:26301190

  6. Blends of zein and nylon-6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blends of zein and nylon-6(55k)were used to produce solution cast films and electrospun fibers. Zein was blended with nylon-6 in formic acid solution. When the amount of nylon-6 was 8% or less a compatible blend formed. The blend was determined to be compatible based on physical property measurement...

  7. Origin Story: Blended Wing Body

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is partnering with the Boeing Company, among others, to develop and test the blended wing body aircraft. The BWB has the potential to significantly reduce fuel use and noise. In this video, Bo...

  8. Validating bifidobacterial species and subspecies identity in commercial probiotic products

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Zachery T; Shani, Guy; Masarweh, Chad; Popovic, Mina; Frese, Steve A.; Sela, David A; Underwood, Mark A.; Mills, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ingestion of probiotics to attempt to improve health is increasingly common, however quality control of some commercial products can be limited. Clinical practice is shifting toward the routine use of probiotics to aid in prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants, and probiotic administration to term infants is increasingly common to treat colic and/or prevent atopic disease. Since bifidobacteria dominate the feces of healthy breast-fed infants, they are often included in infant-targeted probiotics. Methods We evaluated sixteen probiotic products to determine how well their label claims describe the species of detectable bifidobacteria in the product. Recently-developed DNA-based methods were used as a primary means of identification, and were confirmed using culture-based techniques. Results We found that the contents of many bifidobacterial probiotic products differ from the ingredient list, sometimes at a subspecies level. Only one of the sixteen probiotics perfectly matched its bifidobacterial label claims in all samples tested, and both pill-to-pill and lot-to-lot variation were observed. Conclusion Given the known differences between various bifidobacterial species and subspecies in metabolic capacity and colonization abilities, the prevalence of misidentified bifidobacteria in these products is cause for concern for those involved in clinical trials and consumers of probiotic products. PMID:26571226

  9. Probiotics and Gastrointestinal Disease: Clinical Evidence and Basic Science

    PubMed Central

    Petrof, Elaine O.

    2010-01-01

    Our intestinal microbiota serve many roles vital to the normal daily function of the human gastrointestinal tract. Many probiotics are derived from our intestinal bacteria, and have been shown to provide clinical benefit in a variety of gastrointestinal conditions. Current evidence indicates that probiotic effects are strain-specific, they do not act through the same mechanisms, and nor are all probiotics indicated for the same health conditions. However, they do share several common features in that they exert anti-inflammatory effects, they employ different strategies to antagonize competing microorganisms, and they induce cytoprotective changes in the host either through enhancement of barrier function, or through the upregulation of cytoprotective host proteins. In this review we focus on a few selected probiotics – a bacterial mixture (VSL#3), a Gram-negative probiotic (E. coli Nissle 1917), two Gram-positive probiotic bacteria (LGG, L. reuteri), and a yeast probiotic (S. boulardii) – for which sound clinical and mechanistic data is available. Safety of probiotic formulations is also discussed. PMID:20890386

  10. Intestinal irony: how probiotic bacteria outcompete bad bugs.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Guenter

    2013-07-17

    In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Deriu et al. present a mechanistic explanation underlying the benefits of certain probiotic bacteria. Intestinal bacteria compete for the essential nutrient iron, leading to replacement of pathogenic Salmonella by the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle, which is better equipped with iron acquisition systems, and resolution of infectious colitis. PMID:23870306

  11. A Review of Probiotic Therapy in Preventive Dental Practice.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Mark L

    2011-06-01

    Probiotics have been widely publicized in the general press and the consumer media. Knowledge of the existence of "probiotics" is commonplace, and the effectiveness of probiotic therapy has been well reported in the medical literature. However, even though most published dental studies have reported positive results, the dental profession has not yet accepted the use of probiotic therapy as an adjunct for preventive dental care. This review article discusses published and current research into the applications of probiotics along with diagnostic testing of the oral biofilm. Probiotic therapy appears to be generally safe and effective in modifying with beneficial bacteria the oral biofilm and thereby reducing the effects of pathogenic oral bacteria. In this review, some examples of current oral probiotic research are discussed along with reference to the potential application of diagnostic testing of the oral biofilm for the presence of oral pathogens as a precursor to initiation of specific probiotic therapy. Dental professionals should be actively investigating this potentially very useful therapeutic measure for the benefit of their patients. PMID:26781571

  12. Method to blend separator powders

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  13. Automate small refinery blending operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, D.E.; Mellott, M.T.

    1981-11-01

    More than ever, small refiners must become more efficient to remain competitive. Increased automation can contribute significantly to improving operations and reducing costs. Presented is a method of automating the blending operation which incorporates unique features and equipment. The system has proven successful in reducing costs and manpower, and improved product quality. The discussion is presented under headings - basic blending system; digital blender; knock engines and octave computer; programmable logic controller; flowmeters; lead additive systems.

  14. A review of the systematic review process and its applicability for use in evaluating evidence for health claims on probiotic foods in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Glanville, Julie; King, Sarah; Guarner, Francisco; Hill, Colin; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the strength of evidence for health benefits of probiotic foods, especially relating to health claim substantiation in the European Union. A systematic review is a protocol-driven, transparent and replicable approach, widely accepted in a number of scientific fields, and used by many policy-setting organizations to evaluate the strength of evidence to answer a focused research question. Many systematic reviews have been published on the broad category of probiotics for many different outcomes. Some of these reviews have been criticized for including poor quality studies, pooling heterogeneous study results, and not considering publication bias. Well-designed and -conducted systematic reviews should address such issues. Systematic reviews of probiotics have an additional challenge - rarely addressed in published reviews - in that there must be a scientifically sound basis for combining evidence on different strains, species or genera. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is increasingly adopting the systematic review methodology. It remains to be seen how health claims supported by systematic reviews are evaluated within the EFSA approval process. The EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies deems randomized trials to be the best approach to generating evidence about the effects of foods on health outcomes. They also acknowledge that systematic reviews (with or without meta-analyses) are the best approach to assess the totality of the evidence. It is reasonable to use these well-established methods to assess objectively the strength of evidence for a probiotic health claim. Use of the methods to combine results on more than a single strain or defined blend of strains will require a rationale that the different probiotics are substantively similar, either in identity or in their mode of action. PMID:25889449

  15. Probiotics for the Control of Parasites: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Marie-Agnès; Florent, Isabelle; Kohl, Linda; Grellier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live organisms, which confer benefits to the host. Their efficiency was demonstrated for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections, and allergic symptoms, but their use is mostly limited to bacterial and viral diseases. During the last decade, probiotics as means for the control of parasite infections were reported covering mainly intestinal diseases but also some nongut infections, that are all of human and veterinary importance. In most cases, evidence for a beneficial effect was obtained by studies using animal models. In a few cases, cellular interactions between probiotics and pathogens or relevant host cells were also investigated using in vitro culture systems. However, molecular mechanisms mediating the beneficial effects are as yet poorly understood. These studies indicate that probiotics might indeed provide a strain-specific protection against parasites, probably through multiple mechanisms. But more unravelling studies are needed to justify probiotic utilisation in therapeutics. PMID:21966589

  16. Bioengineered probiotics, a strategic approach to control enteric infections

    PubMed Central

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Enteric infections account for high morbidity and mortality and are considered to be the fifth leading cause of death at all ages worldwide. Seventy percent of all enteric infections are foodborne. Thus significant efforts have been directed toward the detection, control and prevention of foodborne diseases. Many antimicrobials including antibiotics have been used for their control and prevention. However, probiotics offer a potential alternative intervention strategy owing to their general health beneficial properties and inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens. Often, antimicrobial probiotic action is non-specific and non-discriminatory or may be ineffective. In such cases, bioengineered probiotics expressing foreign gene products to achieve specific function is highly desirable. In this review we summarize the strategic development of recombinant bioengineered probiotics to control enteric infections, and to examine how scientific advancements in the human microbiome and their immunomodulatory effects help develop such novel and safe bioengineered probiotics. PMID:23327986

  17. Probiotic Bacteria Induce a ‘Glow of Health’

    PubMed Central

    Smillie, Christopher; Varian, Bernard J.; Ibrahim, Yassin M.; Lakritz, Jessica R.; Alm, Eric J.; Erdman, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Radiant skin and hair are universally recognized as indications of good health. However, this ‘glow of health’ display remains poorly understood. We found that feeding of probiotic bacteria to aged mice induced integumentary changes mimicking peak health and reproductive fitness characteristic of much younger animals. Eating probiotic yogurt triggered epithelial follicular anagen-phase shift with sebocytogenesis resulting in thick lustrous fur due to a bacteria-triggered interleukin-10-dependent mechanism. Aged male animals eating probiotics exhibited increased subcuticular folliculogenesis, when compared with matched controls, yielding luxuriant fur only in probiotic-fed subjects. Female animals displayed probiotic-induced hyperacidity coinciding with shinier hair, a feature that also aligns with fertility in human females. Together these data provide insights into mammalian evolution and novel strategies for integumentary health. PMID:23342023

  18. Production of functional probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic ice creams.

    PubMed

    Di Criscio, T; Fratianni, A; Mignogna, R; Cinquanta, L; Coppola, R; Sorrentino, E; Panfili, G

    2010-10-01

    In this work, 3 types of ice cream were produced: a probiotic ice cream produced by adding potentially probiotic microorganisms such as Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus; a prebiotic ice cream produced by adding inulin, a prebiotic substrate; and a synbiotic ice cream produced by adding probiotic microorganisms and inulin in combination. In addition to microbial counts, pH, acidity, and physical and functional properties of the ice creams were evaluated. The experimental ice creams preserved the probiotic bacteria and had counts of viable lactic acid bacteria after frozen storage that met the minimum required to achieve probiotic effects. Moreover, most of the ice creams showed good nutritional and sensory properties, with the best results obtained with Lb. casei and 2.5% inulin. PMID:20854989

  19. ICMR-DBT Guidelines for Evaluation of Probiotics in Food

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, N.K.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Sesikeran, B.; Nair, G.B; Ramakrishna, B.S.; Sachdev, H.P.S.; Batish, V.K.; Kanagasabapathy, A.S.; Muthuswamy, Vasantha; Kathuria, S.C; Katoch, V.M.; Satyanarayana, K.; Toteja, G.S; Rahi, Manju; Rao, Spriha; Bhan, M.K; Kapur, Rajesh; Hemalatha, R

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increased influx of probiotic products in the Indian market during the last decade. However, there has been no systematic approach for evaluation of probiotics in food to ensure their safety and efficacy. An initiative was, therefore, taken by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) along with the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) to formulate guidelines for regulation of probiotic products in the country. These guidelines define a set of parameters required for a product/strain to be termed as ‘probiotic’. These include identification of the strain, in vitro screening for probiotic characteristics, animal studies to establish safety and in vivo animal and human studies to establish efficacy. The guidelines also include requirements for labeling of the probiotic products with strain specification, viable numbers at the end of shelf life, storage conditions, etc., which would be helpful to the consumers to safeguard their own interest. PMID:21808130

  20. Modern approaches in probiotics research to control foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K

    2012-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a serious public health concern. There are over 200 known microbial, chemical, and physical agents that are known to cause foodborne illness. Efforts are made for improved detection, control and prevention of foodborne pathogen in food, and pathogen associated diseases in the host. Several commonly used approaches to control foodborne pathogens include antibiotics, natural antimicrobials, bacteriophages, bacteriocins, ionizing radiations, and heat. In addition, probiotics offer a potential intervention strategy for the prevention and control of foodborne infections. This review focuses on the use of probiotics and bioengineered probiotics to control foodborne pathogens, their antimicrobial actions, and their delivery strategies. Although probiotics have been demonstrated to be effective in antagonizing foodborne pathogens, challenges exist in the characterization and elucidation of underlying molecular mechanisms of action and in the development of potential delivery strategies that could maintain the viability and functionality of the probiotic in the target organ. PMID:23034117

  1. Probiotics and clinical effects: is the number what counts?

    PubMed

    Bertazzoni, Elisa; Donelli, Gianfranco; Midtvedt, Tore; Nicoli, Jacques; Sanz, Yolanda

    2013-08-01

    Probiotics are defined as 'live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host', underlining the need of microbial viability and the requirement of a suitable dose to obtain a health benefit. The dose and the administration regimen are critical issues for probiotics either ingested as foods claiming health benefits or used as drugs in clinics. In fact, regulatory authorities demand to guarantee consumers that a probiotic is effective in the recommended conditions of use and responds to its specific claims. Thus, a proper identification of probiotic strain(s), a definition of the amount of microorganisms surviving by the end of the product shelf-life, and a demonstration of their beneficial effects by appropriate human trials are required. The current knowledge on the effective dose of different probiotic strains used for several disorders is here reviewed. PMID:23906073

  2. Learning to Match: User-Producer Integration and Blending in the Probiotic Gefilus Innovation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janasik, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The notions of user involvement and user orientation have become popular catchphrases in innovation research and practice. Central in this research are the ideas that knowledge about users leads to better design, and that the interests of users and producers need to be aligned. In another field of research, scholars have long recognised the…

  3. Advanced materials based on polymer blends/polymer blend nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikaleska, A. V.; Pavlovska, F. P.

    2012-09-01

    Processability, morphology, mechanical properties and rheological behavior of poly(vinylchloride) (PVC)/poly(ethylmethacrylate) (PEMA) blends and PVC/PEMA/montmorillonite (MMT) composites, prepared by melt processing in a brabender mixer, were studied. Samples were characterized using SEM, mechanical testing, DMTA and a parallel plate rheometer. Plastograms show that there is noticeable drop of fusion times and increase in melt viscosity torque of both, polymer blend and polymer blend nanocomposite, in comparison with those of neat PVC. SEM images show that homogenous dispersions are obtained. Tensile tests indicate that PVC/PEMA and PVC/PEMA/MMT samples have greater tensile strength and elastic modulus and lower elongation compared to PVC. When solid viscoelastic properties are considered (DMTA), slightly higher storage moduli are obtained whereas more prominent increase of storage modulus is observed when nanoclay particles are added in a PVC/PEMA matrix. From the calculated area of tandelta peak of all tested samples, nanocomposites exhibit the lowest damping behavior. Oscillatory measurements in a molten state were used for determining the frequency dependencies of storage G' and loss G" moduli. It was found that G" curves of neat PVC lie above those of G' suggesting that PVC behaves like viscoelastic liquid. Similar results, but with significantly higher values of G' and G" over the whole frequency range for PVC/PEMA blends were obtained. Steady shear measurements show that the presence of PEMA and nanoclay particles increases the shear stress and shear viscosity of neat PVC. In order to define the rheological equations of state the three material functions were determined. According to these functions all samples exhibit shear thinning behavior and the curves obey the power law equation. As rheological behaviour was found to be strongly dependent on blend's micro and macro structure and it is one of the main factors defining the end properties, attempt was

  4. Therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Huajun; Wang, Taisen; Tang, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice and the safety. Methods: Sixty-eight neonates with jaundice were divided into a control group and a treatment group (n=34) randomly, and treated by blue light phototherapy and that in combination with probiotics. The serum bilirubin levels were detected before and 1, 4, 7 days after treatment. The time when therapy showed effects and jaundice faded, clinical outcomes as well as adverse reactions were recorded. The categorical data were expressed as (±s) and compared by t test. The numerical data were expressed as (case, %) and compared by χ² test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Serum bilirubin levels of the two groups were similar before treatment (P>0.05). The levels significantly decreased 1, 4 and 7 days after treatment (P<0.05), but there was no significant inter-group difference on the post-treatment 1st day (P>0.05). The treatment group underwent more significant decreases on the 4th and 7th days than the control group did (P=0.002, 0.001). In the treatment group, the therapy exerted effects on (1.0±0.5) d and jaundice faded on (3.8±1.7) d, which were (2.6±0.6) d and (5.3±2.1) d respectively in the control group (P=0.001, 0.002). The effective rate of the treatment group significantly exceeded that of the control group (P=0.002). There were no obvious adverse reactions in either group. Conclusions: Probiotics lowered the serum bilirubin levels of neonates with jaundice rapidly, safely and significantly, and accelerated jaundice fading as well. This method is worthy of application in clinical practice. PMID:26649008

  5. Timely approaches to identify probiotic species of the genus Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades the use of probiotics in food has increased largely due to the manufacturer’s interest in placing “healthy” food on the market based on the consumer’s ambitions to live healthy. Due to this trend, health benefits of products containing probiotic strains such as lactobacilli are promoted and probiotic strains have been established in many different products with their numbers increasing steadily. Probiotics are used as starter cultures in dairy products such as cheese or yoghurts and in addition they are also utilized in non-dairy products such as fermented vegetables, fermented meat and pharmaceuticals, thereby, covering a large variety of products. To assure quality management, several pheno-, physico- and genotyping methods have been established to unambiguously identify probiotic lactobacilli. These methods are often specific enough to identify the probiotic strains at genus and species levels. However, the probiotic ability is often strain dependent and it is impossible to distinguish strains by basic microbiological methods. Therefore, this review aims to critically summarize and evaluate conventional identification methods for the genus Lactobacillus, complemented by techniques that are currently being developed. PMID:24063519

  6. The Potential Role of Probiotics in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ai-Qun; Li, Lianqin

    2016-01-01

    The human gut microbiota has a significant effect on many aspects of human physiology such as metabolism, nutrient absorption, and immune function. Imbalance of the microbiota has been implicated in many disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, asthma, psychiatric illnesses, and cancers. As a kind of functional foods, probiotics have been shown to play a protective role against cancer development in animal models. Clinical application of probiotics indicated that some probiotic strains could diminish the incidence of postoperative inflammation in cancer patients. Chemotherapy or radiotherapy-related diarrhea was relieved in patients who were administered oral probiotics. The present review summarizes the up-to-date studies on probiotic effects and the underlying mechanisms related to cancer. At present, it is commonly accepted that most commercial probiotic products are generally safe and can improve the health of the host. By modulating intestinal microbiota and immune response, some strains of probiotics can be used as an adjuvant for cancer prevention or/and treatment. PMID:27144297

  7. Impact of prebiotics and probiotics on skin health.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghazzewi, F H; Tester, R F

    2014-06-01

    This review discusses the role of pre- and probiotics with respect to improving skin health by modulating the cutaneous microbiota. The skin ecosystem is a complex environment covered with a diverse microbiota community. These are classified as either transient or resident, where some are considered as beneficial, some essentially neutral and others pathogenic or at least have the capacity to be pathogenic. Colonisation varies between different parts of the body due to different environmental factors. Pre- and probiotic beneficial effects can be delivered topically or systemically (by ingestion). The pre- and probiotics have the capacity to optimise, maintain and restore the microbiota of the skin in different ways. Topical applications of probiotic bacteria have a direct effect at the site of application by enhancing the skin natural defence barriers. Probiotics as well as resident bacteria can produce antimicrobial peptides that benefit cutaneous immune responses and eliminate pathogens. In cosmetic formulations, prebiotics can be applied to the skin microbiota directly and increase selectively the activity and growth of beneficial 'normal' skin microbiota. Little is known about the efficacy of topically applied prebiotics. Nutritional products containing prebiotics and/or probiotics have a positive effect on skin by modulating the immune system and by providing therapeutic benefits for atopic diseases. This review underlines the potential use of pre- and probiotics for skin health. PMID:24583611

  8. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  9. Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Defense Responses by Probiotic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wan, L Y M; Chen, Z J; Shah, N P; El-Nezami, H

    2016-12-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, which when administered in food confer numerous health benefits. In previous studies about beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria to health, particularly in the fields of intestinal mucosa defense responses, specific probiotics, in a strain-dependent manner, show certain degree of potential to reinforce the integrity of intestinal epithelium and/or regulate some immune components. The mechanism of probiotic action is an area of interest. Among all possible routes of modulation by probiotics of intestinal epithelial cell-mediated defense responses, modulations of intestinal barrier function, innate, and adaptive mucosal immune responses, as well as signaling pathways are considered to play important role in the intestinal defense responses against pathogenic bacteria. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria to intestinal health together with the mechanisms affected by probiotic bacteria: barrier function, innate, and adaptive defense responses such as secretion of mucins, defensins, trefoil factors, immunoglobulin A (IgA), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokines, gut associated lymphoid tissues, and signaling pathways. PMID:25629818

  10. The role of probiotics in prevention of oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, Magdalena; Bachanek, Teresa; Mazur, Elżbieta; Chałas, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic development of knowledge in the field of probiotics was commenced at the beginning of the 20th century. Since then, many ways of their possible usage in medicine have been established. In accordance with the WHO, probiotics are live microorganisms, which if applied in adequate amounts may benefit the host. Among probiotics, fungi and bacteria are distinguished, and mechanisms of action of these organisms in the oral cavity and gut are parallel. Application in dentistry, in prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases is still not well known. Most commonly, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium are applied. The aim of the study was to collect and systematize the latest information about probiotics and their role in pathomechanisms of dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, candidiasis, and malodour. Based on the analyzed literature, it can be concluded that mechanisms of cariogenic pathogen inhibition using probiotics are still not well understood. The new research trend is based on application of probiotics which can naturally displace cariogenic bacteria in the oral cavity and influence oral health in adults and children. The results of studies also confirmed the beneficial role of probiotics in reduction of the bacterial population in periodontitis and halitosis. Long-term observation and a properly designed study protocol will allow us to answer many questions concerning substitution of one strain of bacteria by another. PMID:27594560

  11. Functional foods as carriers for SYNBIO®, a probiotic bacteria combination.

    PubMed

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2012-07-16

    The popularity of functional foods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10⁹CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO®). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10⁷ and 10⁹CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Büscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date. PMID:22727086

  12. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  13. Pressure sensitive conductive rubber blends

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, H.H. ); Abdel-Bary, E.M. ); El-Mansy, M.K.; Khodair, H.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR) was blended with polychloroprene (CR) according to standard techniques. The blend was mixed with different concentrations of ZnO. The vulcanized sample was subjected to electrical conductivity ({sigma}) measurements while different values of static pressure were applied on the sample. It was found that samples containing 7.5 phr ZnO showed a reasonable pressure sensitive increase of {sigma}. Furthermore, the {sigma} vs pressure relationship of rubber blend mixed with different concentrations of Fast Extrusion Furnace black (FEF) was investigated. It was found that rubber vulcanizate containing 40 phr FEF resulted in a negative value of the pressure coefficient of conductivity {approx equal} {minus} 4.5 KPa{sup {minus}1}.

  14. Probiotics as efficient immunopotentiators: translational role in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Shida, Kan; Nomoto, Koji

    2013-11-01

    Accumulating evidences indicate that some diseases are triggered by abnormalities of the gut microbiota. Among these, immune-related diseases can be the promising targets for probiotcs. Several studies have proved the efficacy of probiotics for preventing such diseases including cancers, infections, allergies, inflammatory bowel diseases and autoimmune diseases. Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) is one of the most popular probiotics, benefits of which in health maintenance and disease control have been supported by several science-based evidences. This review summarizes human clinical trials with this probiotic against cancer development and also discusses the possible immunomodulatory mechanisms by which LcS exerts anti-cancer activity. PMID:24434333

  15. Probiotic 'glow of health': it's more than skin deep.

    PubMed

    Erdman, S E; Poutahidis, T

    2014-06-01

    Radiant skin and hair are universal indicators of good health. It was recently shown that feeding of probiotic bacteria to aged mice rapidly induced youthful vitality characterised by thick lustrous skin and hair, and enhanced reproductive fitness, not seen in untreated controls. Probiotic-treated animals displayed integrated immune and hypothalamic-pituitary outputs that were isolated mechanistically to microbe-induced anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 and neuropeptide hormone oxytocin. In this way, probiotic microbes interface with mammalian physiological underpinnings to impart superb physical and reproductive fitness displayed as radiant and resilient skin and mucosae, unveiling novel strategies for integumentary health. PMID:24675231

  16. The International Scientific Conference on Probiotics and Prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Karen

    2011-10-01

    The 5th International Scientific Conference on Probiotics and Prebiotics was held in the Doubletree Hotel in Kosice, Slovakia, and highlighted current advances in the research and use of probiotics and prebiotics in both animal and human health. The conference attracted academic and industry representatives from over 35 countries and facilitated networking between research scientists and industry. A poster session was on display throughout the entire meeting. Over the course of the 3-day symposium, 12 sessions addressed issues related to the use of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention and treatment of chronic and infectious diseases, their effects on host immune function and how they may modulate existing gut microbes. PMID:21910573

  17. β-Carotene Biosynthesis in Probiotic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer K; Harrison, M Travis; D'Andrea, Annalisa; Endsley, Aaron N; Yin, Fangfang; Kodukula, Krishna; Watson, Douglas S

    2013-06-01

    Susceptibility to deadly diarrheal diseases is partly due to widespread pediatric vitamin A deficiency. To increase vitamin A coverage in malnourished children, we propose to engineer a probiotic bacterium that will produce β-carotene in the intestine, which will be metabolized to vitamin A. Such a therapy has the potential to broadly stimulate mucosal immunity and simultaneously reduce the incidence and duration of diarrheal disease. To that end, a β-carotene-producing variant of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN-BETA) was generated. Notably, the strain produces β-carotene under anaerobic conditions, reflective of the gut environment. EcN-BETA also retains β-carotene production capability after lyophilization, suggesting that it may be amenable to dry formulation. Moreover, EcN-BETA activates murine dendritic cells in vitro, suggesting that the presence of β-carotene may not diminish the immunostimulatory capacity of EcN. Finally, we present a framework through which further improvements may enable approaches such as the one described in this report to yield innovative life-saving therapies for the developing world. PMID:26782732

  18. Probiotic features of two oral Lactobacillus isolates

    PubMed Central

    Zavisic, Gordana; Petricevic, Sasa; Radulovic, Zeljka; Begovic, Jelena; Golic, Natasa; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Strahinic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we checked lactobacilli strains of human origin for their potential as probiotic. Samples were collected from oral mucosa of 16 healthy individuals, out of which twenty isolates were obtained and two of them were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (G1) and L. casei (G3). Both isolates exhibited antagonistic action towards pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, and Clostridium sporogenes, but not on the growth of Candida albicans. The bacteriocin activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6358-P was shown only by L. plantarum G1. Moreover, the isolates G1 and G3 showed good viability in the acid gastric environment and in the gut environment containing bovine bile salts. The viability of G1 and G3 isolates in the gastrointestinal tract, and the adhesion to the intestinal mucosa were also confirmed in vivo. The biochemical tests of blood samples revealed lower levels of serum triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as reduced activity of alkaline phosphatase in all lactobacilli-treated Wistar rats, compared to control ones. No toxicity for NMRI Ham mice was observed. According to our experimental results, these findings imply that L. plantarum G1 and L. casei G3 could be characterized as potential probiotics. PMID:24031847

  19. Urogenital infections in women: can probiotics help?

    PubMed Central

    Reid, G; Bruce, A

    2003-01-01

    Urogenital infections not caused by sexual transmission, namely yeast vaginitis, bacterial vaginosis, and urinary tract infection remain a major medical problem in terms of the number of women afflicted each year. Although antimicrobial therapy is generally effective at eradicating these infections, there is still a high incidence of recurrence. The patient's quality of life is affected and many women become frustrated by the cycle of repeated antimicrobial agents whose effectiveness is diminishing due to increasing development of microbial resistance. There is good clinical evidence to show that the intestinal and urogenital microbial flora have a central role in maintaining both the health and wellbeing of humans. Furthermore, the use of "good bacteria" to replace or augment bacterial populations is gradually achieving scientific acceptance. This application is termed probiotics: "live micro-organisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host". The role of the intestinal, vaginal, and urethral flora and probiotics in urogenital health will be the focus of this review. PMID:12954951

  20. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics: Gut and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Usha; Ranganathan, Natarajan

    2012-01-01

    The human intestinal tract has been colonized by thousands of species of bacteria during the coevolution of man and microbes. Gut-borne microbes outnumber the total number of body tissue cells by a factor of ten. Recent metagenomic analysis of the human gut microbiota has revealed the presence of some 3.3 million genes, as compared to the mere 23 thousand genes present in the cells of the tissues in the entire human body. Evidence for various beneficial roles of the intestinal microbiota in human health and disease is expanding rapidly. Perturbation of the intestinal microbiota may lead to chronic diseases such as autoimmune diseases, colon cancers, gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, functional bowel diseases, and obesity. Restoration of the gut microbiota may be difficult to accomplish, but the use of probiotics has led to promising results in a large number of well-designed (clinical) studies. Microbiomics has spurred a dramatic increase in scientific, industrial, and public interest in probiotics and prebiotics as possible agents for gut microbiota management and control. Genomics and bioinformatics tools may allow us to establish mechanistic relationships among gut microbiota, health status, and the effects of drugs in the individual. This will hopefully provide perspectives for personalized gut microbiota management. PMID:23049548

  1. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2015-08-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important challenges in the field include survival of probiotics during microencapsulation, stability of microencapsulated probiotics in fermented milks, sensory quality of fermented milks with microencapsulated probiotics, and efficacy of microencapsulation to deliver probiotics and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. This study reviews the current knowledge, and the future prospects and challenges of microencapsulation of probiotics used in fermented milk products. In addition, the influence of microencapsulation on probiotics viability and survival is reviewed. PMID:26243890

  2. Starch-Poly(Hydroxylalkanoate) Composites and Blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper summarizes research on starch-polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) blends and composites. Efforts to increase compatibility, characterize mechanical and biodegradation properties are described. A range of blend products have been prepared including molded plastics, films and foams. Finally, futu...

  3. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

  4. 7 CFR 989.16 - Blend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.16 Blend. Blend means to mix or commingle raisins....

  5. Blended Learning as Transformational Institutional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDerLinden, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews institutional approaches to blended learning and the ways in which institutions support faculty in the intentional redesign of courses to produce optimal learning. The chapter positions blended learning as a strategic opportunity to engage in organizational learning.

  6. Raman Microimaging of Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guanghua; Waldek Zerda, Tadeusz

    2001-10-01

    Raman microimaging was used to estimate the effect of the silica filler on phase separation in polymer blends composed of brominated poly(isobutylene-co-para-methylstyrene)(BIMS),natural rubber, synthetic rubber, and cis-1-4-polybutadiene(BR).the domain sizes,relative concentration of polymer components within domains ,and distribution of particulate silica filler and zinc stearate curative were characterized for blends of different compositions and history of aging treatments. The presence of increased concentrations of precipitated silica results in better polymer morphology since domain sizes are reduced.

  7. Partial Miscibility in Copolymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Elizabeth; Lipson, Jane

    2011-03-01

    Copolymers can be used to affect the miscibility of otherwise immiscible polymer blends by acting as compatibilizers. To better understand the energetics of these types of systems, we use a simple lattice model to study phase separation in binary copolymer/homopolymer blends. We focus on a copolymer that contains both A and B type monomers and a homopolymer that contains purely A type monomer. An example of a system that we are investigating is polyethylene mixed with either random or alternating poly(ethylene-co-propylene). The sequence effect on miscibility as the copolymer microstructure is varied from random to alternating is investigated as well. The support of GAANN is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Intrinsically safe moisture blending system

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman Jr., Russell L.; Vanatta, Paul D.

    2012-09-11

    A system for providing an adjustable blend of fluids to an application process is disclosed. The system uses a source of a first fluid flowing through at least one tube that is permeable to a second fluid and that is disposed in a source of the second fluid to provide the adjustable blend. The temperature of the second fluid is not regulated, and at least one calibration curve is used to predict the volumetric mixture ratio of the second fluid with the first fluid from the permeable tube. The system typically includes a differential pressure valve and a backpressure control valve to set the flow rate through the system.

  9. Probiotics in human milk and probiotic supplementation in infant nutrition: a workshop report.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Henrike; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Salminen, Seppo; Szajewska, Hania

    2014-10-14

    Probiotics in human milk are a very recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. Current research is focusing on bacterial diversity and the influence of the maternal environment as well as the mode of delivery on human milk microbiota, the pathways of bacterial transfer to milk ducts, possible benefits of specific bacterial strains for the treatment of mastitis in mothers, and disease prevention in children. Recent advances in the assessment of early host-microbe interactions suggest that early colonisation may have an impact on later health. This review article summarises a scientific workshop on probiotics in human milk and their implications for infant health as well as future perspectives for infant feeding. PMID:25160058

  10. 27 CFR 24.198 - Blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blending. 24.198 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.198 Blending. Special natural wine may be blended with other special natural wine of the same class and kind, and with heavy...

  11. 27 CFR 24.198 - Blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blending. 24.198 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.198 Blending. Special natural wine may be blended with other special natural wine of the same class and kind, and with heavy...

  12. 40 CFR 80.82 - Butane blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.82 Butane blending. A refiner for any refinery that produces gasoline by blending butane with conventional gasoline or reformulated gasoline or RBOB may meet... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butane blending. 80.82 Section...

  13. 40 CFR 80.82 - Butane blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.82 Butane blending. A refiner for any refinery that produces gasoline by blending butane with conventional gasoline or reformulated gasoline or RBOB may meet... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butane blending. 80.82 Section...

  14. 27 CFR 24.198 - Blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blending. 24.198 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.198 Blending. Special natural wine may be blended with other special natural wine of the same class and kind, and with heavy...

  15. 40 CFR 80.82 - Butane blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.82 Butane blending. A refiner for any refinery that produces gasoline by blending butane with conventional gasoline or reformulated gasoline or RBOB may meet... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butane blending. 80.82 Section...

  16. 27 CFR 24.198 - Blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blending. 24.198 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.198 Blending. Special natural wine may be blended with other special natural wine of the same class and kind, and with heavy...

  17. Blending at Small Colleges: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying-Hsiu; Tourtellott, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Implementing blended accelerated learning programs or courses requires a systematic approach, not just the addition of new technologies. Small colleges face challenges when they move toward blended learning because of already-constrained resources. In this article, we will survey issues faced by small colleges in moving to blended learning,…

  18. Do probiotics have a therapeutic role in gastroenterology?

    PubMed Central

    Limdi, Jimmy K; O’Neill, Catherine; McLaughlin, John

    2006-01-01

    Several hundred species of bacteria inhabit the gut, and affect its cell biology, morphology and homeostasis. Many bacteria are however potential pathogens, especially if the integrity of the epithelial barrier is physically or functionally breached. Conversely, the interaction between host and commensal microbes can confer important health benefits. This has led to commercial and public interest in 'probiotics', live microbes principally taken as food supplements. Might probiotics also be used in disease therapy Experimental evidence that probiotics modulate gut physiology, particularly barrier integrity and immunological function, underpins exciting new gastroenterological research. We discuss below the scientific basis for probiotic effects and present a critical perspective for their use in relation to gastrointestinal disease. PMID:17006980

  19. Probiotics for allergic respiratory diseases--putting it into perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Ranjan Das, Rashmi

    2010-03-01

    Respiratory allergies include allergic rhinitis, sinusitis and asthma. Increasing attention on pathogenesis of allergic airway diseases has given rise to "atopic march" hypothesis i.e. clinical features of atopic eczema occur first and precede the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis. The "hygiene hypothesis" proposes that the increase in allergic diseases reflects a decrease in infections during childhood. Clinical trials also suggest that the exposure to microbes through the gastrointestinal tract powerfully shapes immune function. Probiotics are live organisms which exert a beneficial effect in the prevention as well as treatment of allergic diseases through modification of immune system of host via gut ecosystem. Intestinal microbiota differs in infants who later develop allergic diseases, and feeding probiotics to infants at risk has been shown to reduce their rate of developing eczema. This has prompted studies of feeding probiotics in prevention as well as treatment of respiratory allergy. We hereby discuss the status of probiotics in respiratory allergy. PMID:19725896

  20. Time to Talk: 5 Things to Know about Probiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... microorganisms, you might have a better understanding of probiotics. The body, especially the lower gastrointestinal tract (the gut), contains a complex and diverse community of bacteria. Although we tend ...

  1. Probiotics in inflammatory bowel diseases and associated conditions.

    PubMed

    Mack, David R

    2011-02-01

    A complex set of interactions between the human genes encoding innate protective functions and immune defenses and the environment of the intestinal mucosa with its microbiota is currently considered key to the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Probiotics offer a method to potentially alter the intestinal microbiome exogenously or may provide an option to deliver microbial metabolic products to alter the chronicity of intestinal mucosal inflammation characterizing IBD. At present, there is little evidence for the benefit of currently used probiotic microbes in Crohn's disease or associated conditions affecting extra-intestinal organs. However, clinical practice guidelines are now including a probiotic as an option for recurrent and relapsing antibiotic sensitive pouchitis and the use of probiotics in mild ulcerative colitis is provocative and suggests potential for benefit in select patients but concerns remain about proof from trials. PMID:22254095

  2. The dual role of bacteriocins as anti- and probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Gillor, O.; Etzion, A.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria employed in probiotic applications help to maintain or restore a host's natural microbial floral. The ability of probiotic bacteria to successfully outcompete undesired species is often due to, or enhanced by, the production of potent antimicrobial toxins. The most commonly encountered of these are bacteriocins, a large and functionally diverse family of antimicrobials found in all major lineages of Bacteria. Recent studies reveal that these proteinaceous toxins play a critical role in mediating competitive dynamics between bacterial strains and closely related species. The potential use of bacteriocin-producing strains as probiotic and bioprotective agents has recently received increased attention. This review will report on recent efforts involving the use of such strains, with a particular focus on emerging probiotic therapies for humans, livestock, and aquaculture. PMID:18853155

  3. Probiotics and manipulation of rumen development and function.

    PubMed

    Kmet, V; Flint, H J; Wallace, R J

    1993-01-01

    There is good evidence that the bacterial and fungal probiotics are effective in the manipulation of rumen development and function. The effects of adherent Streptococcus bovis preparations were manifested by significant increase of adherent S. bovis bacteria and alpha amylase activity in the rumen wall of young ruminants. Fungal probiotics based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae are rapidly gaining acceptance as a means of improving productivity in adult ruminants. However, fungal probiotics may also have a complementary role to bacterial probiotics in young animals. Dietary yeast improved performance of calves and lambs in terms of feed intake and live weight gain and Aspergillus foetidus was effective in altering rumen fermentation in newly weaned lambs. PMID:8215880

  4. Probiotic therapy - recruiting old friends to fight new foes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Against a backdrop of increasing antibiotic resistance, and the emergence of new and evolving pathogens, clinicians are increasingly forced to consider alternative therapies - probiotics are one such alternative. PMID:20579345

  5. Probiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Associated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mack, David R.

    2011-01-01

    A complex set of interactions between the human genes encoding innate protective functions and immune defenses and the environment of the intestinal mucosa with its microbiota is currently considered key to the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Probiotics offer a method to potentially alter the intestinal microbiome exogenously or may provide an option to deliver microbial metabolic products to alter the chronicity of intestinal mucosal inflammation characterizing IBD. At present, there is little evidence for the benefit of currently used probiotic microbes in Crohn’s disease or associated conditions affecting extra-intestinal organs. However, clinical practice guidelines are now including a probiotic as an option for recurrent and relapsing antibiotic sensitive pouchitis and the use of probiotics in mild ulcerative colitis is provocative and suggests potential for benefit in select patients but concerns remain about proof from trials. PMID:22254095

  6. Five probiotic drops a day to keep infantile colic away?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colic is a common but distressing condition in young infants. We were asked to comment on a recently published study which found that a certain type of probiotic ("good bacteria") could be used to treat colic....

  7. Blending Creativity, Science and Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Howard; Ng, Wan

    2008-01-01

    Blending the arts into students' learning of science concepts through role-play and drama is unusual pedagogy in schools. For seven Australian Year Five students seeking extended learning, advanced scientific concepts were learned during the creative process of script writing and production of a science play called "Hectic Electric". A mentor and…

  8. Neighborhood School Blends In Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Design considerations for the Haverhill Elementary School in Fort Wayne (Indiana) were that it blend in with the residential neighborhood and be extremely energy effective. By dividing the building into four pods with low hip roofs, and by the extensive use of insulation, both requirements were met. (Author/MLF)

  9. Building a Blended Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2011-01-01

    "Online learning" often serves as an umbrella term that includes the subcategory of blended learning, which might also be referred to as hybrid learning, and comprises some combination of online and face-to-face time. Spurred in part by a 2009 U.S. Department of Education study, "Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning," which…

  10. Flame retarded asphalt blend composition

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.B.

    1987-04-21

    This patent describes a flame retarded asphalt composition consisting essentially of a blend of: (a) thermoplastic elastomer modified bitumen; (b) 20-30 wt % inert filler; (c) 1-20 wt % of at least one halogenated flame retardant; and (d) 1-5 wt % of at least one inorganic phosphorus containing compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium phosphate compounds and red phosphorus.

  11. Influence of a probiotic mixture on antibiotic induced microbiota disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Forssten, Sofia; Evans, Malkanthi; Wilson, Dale; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of probiotic consumption on the faecal microbiota during and after antibiotic exposure. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study with a two species probiotic combination [Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) ATCC 700396 and Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) ATCC SD5220] on healthy adults during and after antibiotic treatment (amoxicillin 875 and 125 mg clavulanate). The dominant faecal microbiota was studied by real time-polymerase chain reaction to determine if this probiotic preparation could facilitate restoring the microbiota to its pre-antibiotic state and influence the prevalence of beta-lactam resistance. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded by questionnaire and Bristol stool scale. RESULTS: Subjects on the probiotic combination had significantly higher faecal counts of L. acidophilus ATCC 700396 and B. lactis at day 8 (end of antibiotic treatment period) vs those on placebo. Furthermore, subjects on the probiotic combination had significantly higher faecal counts of L. acidophilus ATCC 700396 and B. lactis at Day 15 (end of probiotic treatment) vs those on placebo. Lactobacillus counts remained stable in the probiotic group over the course of the study, while Clostridium XIV group was higher at the end of the study and closer to baseline levels; this in contrast to the placebo group. Beta-lactam resistance in creased after antibiotic exposure and was not different between both treatment groups. Gastrointestinal symptoms were generally mild and did not differ between the treatment groups, which correlates with the generally small changes in the microbiota. CONCLUSION: Consumption of the probiotic combination mainly leads to an increase in the faecal levels of the species included in the preparation. PMID:25206295

  12. [Lyophilized Saccharomyces boulardii: example of a probiotic medicine].

    PubMed

    Buts, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a natural yeast without genetic modification isolated from the bark of the litchi tree in Indochina. In its lyophilized form is an example of the called probiotic medicine. The probiotic denomination is in relation to that itself assets in the gastrointestinal tract in interrelation to that biologic environment. And is labelled as medicine because the lyophilized form has a clinical and pharmaceutical expedient included in the regulation of medicinal products in almost 100 countries. PMID:16021204

  13. Antibiotics, probiotics and prebiotics in IBD.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Charles N

    2014-01-01

    The dysbiosis theory of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) posits that there is an alteration in the gut microbiome as an important underpinning of disease etiology. It stands to reason then, that administering agents that could impact on the balance of microbes on the gut could be impactful on the course of IBD. Herein is a review of the controlled trials undertaken to assess the use of antibiotics that would kill or suppress potentially injurious microbes, probiotics that would overpopulate the gut with potentially beneficial microbes or prebiotics that provide a metabolic substrate that enhances the growth of potentially beneficial microbes. With regard to antibiotics, the best data are for the use of nitroimadoles postoperatively in Crohn's disease (CD) to prevent disease recurrence. Otherwise, the data are limited with the regard to any lasting benefit of antibiotics sustaining remission in either CD or ulcerative colitis (UC). A recent meta-analysis concluded that antibiotics are superior to placebo at inducing remission in CD or UC, although the meta-analysis grouped a variety of antibiotics with different spectra of activity. Despite the absence of robust clinical trial data, antibiotics are widely used to treat perineal fistulizing CD and acute and chronic pouchitis. Probiotics have not been shown to have a beneficial role in CD. However, Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 has comparable effects to low doses of mesalamine in maintaining remission in UC. VSL#3, a combination of 8 microbes, has been shown to have an effect in inducing remission in UC and preventing pouchitis. Prebiotics have yet to be shown to have an effect in any form of IBD, but to date controlled trials have been small. The use of antibiotics should be balanced against the risks they pose. Even probiotics may pose some risk and should not be assumed to be innocuous especially when ingested by persons with a compromised epithelial barrier. Prebiotics may not be harmful but may cause

  14. Probiotics and gastrointestinal disease: successes, problems and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide each year. Treatment of chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal conditions such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease is difficult due to the ambiguity surrounding their precise aetiology. Infectious gastrointestinal diseases, such as various types of diarrheal disease are also becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to the increasing dissemination of antibiotic resistance among microorganisms and the emergence of the so-called 'superbugs'. Taking into consideration these problems, the need for novel therapeutics is essential. Although described for over a century probiotics have only been extensively researched in recent years. Their use in the treatment and prevention of disease, particularly gastrointestinal disease, has yielded many successful results, some of which we outline in this review. Although promising, many probiotics are hindered by inherent physiological and technological weaknesses and often the most clinically promising strains are unusable. Consequently we discuss various strategies whereby probiotics may be engineered to create designer probiotics. Such innovative approaches include; a receptor mimicry strategy to create probiotics that target specific pathogens and toxins, a patho-biotechnology approach using pathogen-derived genes to create more robust probiotic stains with increased host and processing-associated stress tolerance profiles and meta-biotechnology, whereby, functional metagenomics may be used to identify novel genes from diverse and vastly unexplored environments, such as the human gut, for use in biotechnology and medicine. PMID:19930635

  15. The Comparison of Food and Supplement as Probiotic Delivery Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Homayoni Rad, Aziz; Vaghef Mehrabany, Elnaz; Alipoor, Beitullah; Vaghef Mehrabany, Leila

    2016-04-25

    Probiotics are live bacteria which have frequently been reported to be beneficial in preventing a wide range of diseases as well as playing a major role in treating the existing ailments. Thus far, a variety of probiotic products have been developed which can be categorized into two groups: probiotic foods and supplements. Both foods and supplements have been able to confer the health benefits claimed for them. However, it is not known which one can be clinically more efficient, and to the best of our knowledge, until now no research has been conducted to investigate this issue. The present review aims to discuss this matter, based on the evidence available in the literature. To do so, articles indexed in PubMed and ScienceDirect between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. The articles included the clinical trials in which either foods or supplements were used to administer the probiotics to either patients suffering from different diseases or healthy subjects. Although both foods and supplements seem to have been efficient carriers for the beneficial bacteria, to generally promote public health in communities, probiotic foods appear to be preferred to probiotic supplements. PMID:25117939

  16. Probiotic modulation of dendritic cell function is influenced by ageing.

    PubMed

    You, Jialu; Dong, Honglin; Mann, Elizabeth R; Knight, Stella C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2014-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for the generation of T-cell responses. DC function may be modulated by probiotics, which confer health benefits in immunocompromised individuals, such as the elderly. This study investigated the effects of four probiotics, Bifidobacterium longum bv. infantis CCUG 52486, B. longum SP 07/3, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L.GG) and L. casei Shirota (LcS), on DC function in an allogeneic mixed leucocyte reaction (MLR) model, using DCs and T-cells from young and older donors in different combinations. All four probiotics enhanced expression of CD40, CD80 and CCR7 on both young and older DCs, but enhanced cytokine production (TGF-β, TNF-α) by old DCs only. LcS induced IL-12 and IFNγ production by DC to a greater degree than other strains, while B. longum bv. infantis CCUG 52486 favoured IL-10 production. Stimulation of young T cells in an allogeneic MLR with DC was enhanced by probiotic pretreatment of old DCs, which demonstrated greater activation (CD25) than untreated controls. However, pretreatment of young or old DCs with LPS or probiotics failed to enhance the proliferation of T-cells derived from older donors. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ageing increases the responsiveness of DCs to probiotics, but this is not sufficient to overcome the impact of immunosenescence in the MLR. PMID:24094416

  17. The magic of magic bugs in oral cavity: Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Anusha, Rangare Lakshman; Umar, Dilshad; Basheer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an update about the current status of probiotics in the field of dentistry. Oral infections are the most common forms of infections. It is necessary to understand the role of the ecology and microbiology of the oral cavity in better understanding of the pathogenesis of various oral diseases. The concept of bacteriotherapy has been an emerging field in dentistry. The use of health-beneficial micro-organisms to heal diseases or support immune function was first introduced in the beginning of the 20th century. Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeasts and it has been found to be beneficial to the host health. In medicine, probiotics are used mainly in support therapy for gastro-intestinal diseases. In recent years, probiotics have been used as a treatment to promote oral health. This approach has shown promising results in the oral cavity with respect to control of chronic diseases such as dental caries, periodontitis, and recurring problems such as halitosis and candidal infections. Despite the immense potential of probiotics, data are still deficient on the probiotic action in the oral cavity, which further mandates randomized trials before any concrete clinical recommendations can be arrived. PMID:25878972

  18. Metabiotics: novel idea or natural development of probiotic conception

    PubMed Central

    Shenderov, Boris A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, probiotics on the base of live microorganisms are considered to be both beneficial and safe. Unfortunately, their effects may have short-term success or are absent or uncertain. Some symbiotic (probiotic) microorganisms with known beneficial health affects may cause opportunistic infections, increase incidence of allergic sensitization and autoimmune disorders, produce microecological imbalance, modify gene expression, transfer antibiotic resistant and virulence genes, cause disorders in epigenome and genome integrity, induce chromosomal DNA damage, and activate signaling pathways associated with cancer and other chronic diseases. The commercially available probiotics should be considered as a first generation means of correcting microecological disorders. Further, their development will include the selection of natural metabiotics and/or working out the synthetic (or semi-synthetic) metabiotics that will be analogies or improved copies of natural bioactives, produced by symbiotic (probiotic) microorganisms. Metabiotics are the structural components of probiotic microorganisms and/or their metabolites and/or signaling molecules with a determined (known) chemical structure that can optimize host-specific physiological functions, regulator, metabolic and/or behavior reactions connected with the activity of host indigenous microbiota. Metabiotics have some advantages because of their exact chemical structure, well dosed, very safe and long shelf-life. Thus, now metabiotics should not consider myth; they are the result of the natural evolution of probiotic conception. PMID:23990841

  19. Immunological Effects of Probiotics and their Significance to Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Harsharn S.; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender K.; Gill, Preet

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit upon the host (FAO/WHO, 2001). Lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are commonly used as probiotics. Other less commonly used probiotics include the yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae and some non-pathogenic Escherichia coli and Bacillus species. Studies over the past 20 years have demonstrated that probiotic intake is able to confer a range of health benefits including modulation of the immune system, protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections, lowering of blood cholesterol levels, attenuation of overt immuno-inflammatory disorders (such as inflammatory bowel disease, allergies) and anti-cancer effects. However, the strongest clinical evidence for probiotics relates to their effectiveness in improving gut health and modulating (via stimulation or regulation) the host immune system. This chapter provides an overview of the current status of our knowledge regarding the immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory effects of probiotics on the immune system and their significance to human health.

  20. The magic of magic bugs in oral cavity: Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Anusha, Rangare Lakshman; Umar, Dilshad; Basheer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an update about the current status of probiotics in the field of dentistry. Oral infections are the most common forms of infections. It is necessary to understand the role of the ecology and microbiology of the oral cavity in better understanding of the pathogenesis of various oral diseases. The concept of bacteriotherapy has been an emerging field in dentistry. The use of health-beneficial micro-organisms to heal diseases or support immune function was first introduced in the beginning of the 20(th) century. Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeasts and it has been found to be beneficial to the host health. In medicine, probiotics are used mainly in support therapy for gastro-intestinal diseases. In recent years, probiotics have been used as a treatment to promote oral health. This approach has shown promising results in the oral cavity with respect to control of chronic diseases such as dental caries, periodontitis, and recurring problems such as halitosis and candidal infections. Despite the immense potential of probiotics, data are still deficient on the probiotic action in the oral cavity, which further mandates randomized trials before any concrete clinical recommendations can be arrived. PMID:25878972

  1. Probiotics supplementation for athletes - clinical and physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; West, Nicholas P; Cox, Amanda J; Cripps, Allan W

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation has traditionally focused on gut health. However, in recent years, the clinical applications of probiotics have broadened to allergic, metabolic, inflammatory, gastrointestinal and respiratory conditions. Gastrointestinal health is important for regulating adaptation to exercise and physical activity. Symptoms such as nausea, bloating, cramping, pain, diarrhoea and bleeding occur in some athletes, particularly during prolonged exhaustive events. Several studies conducted since 2006 examining probiotic supplementation in athletes or highly active individuals indicate modest clinical benefits in terms of reduced frequency, severity and/or duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness. The likely mechanisms of action for probiotics include direct interaction with the gut microbiota, interaction with the mucosal immune system and immune signalling to a variety of organs and systems. Practical issues to consider include medical and dietary screening of athletes, sourcing of recommended probiotics and formulations, dose-response requirements for different probiotic strains, storage, handling and transport of supplements and timing of supplementation in relation to travel and competition. PMID:25339255

  2. Probiotics and prebiotics: immunological and clinical effects in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mimi L K

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in immune development and may play a role in the development of allergic disorders. Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota may therefore offer an approach to the prevention or treatment of allergic diseases. Probiotics and prebiotics, used alone or together (synbiotics), can influence the intestinal microbiota and modulate immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Clinical studies suggest a potential role for selected probiotics (alone or in combination with prebiotics) in the prevention of atopic eczema. A prenatal component of treatment appears important for beneficial effects. Effects are dependent upon the specific bacteria and characteristics of the study population. One study reported beneficial effects for prebiotics in the prevention of eczema in high-risk infants, however, further studies are required to confirm this. The use of probiotics in the treatment of allergic disease is less promising. A Cochrane meta-analysis concluded that probiotics are not effective for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Probiotic effects in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis are conflicting. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics offer potential treatments for the prevention of atopic eczema; however, there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend their use in clinical practice. Studies to clarify the optimal dose, bacterial species/strains, whether there is added benefit with synbiotics, the optimal timing for intervention, and the patient populations who would benefit most from such therapies are warranted. PMID:19710525

  3. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. PMID:26325197

  4. Probiotics in the treatment of chronic rhinoconjunctivitis and chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Matthias F; Heath, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (CRS) are relevant health conditions affecting significant percentages of the western population. They are frequently coexisting and aggravating diseases. Both are chronic, noninfectious, and inflammatory conditions sharing to a certain extent important pathophysiologic similarities. Beneficial effects of probiotics are long known to mankind. Research is beginning to unravel the true nature of the human microbiome and its interaction with the immune system. The growing prevalence of atopic diseases in the developed world led to the proposition of the "hygiene hypothesis." Dysbiosis is linked to atopic diseases; probiotic supplementation is able to alter the microbiome and certain probiotic strains have immunomodulatory effects in favour of a suppression of Th-2 and stimulation of a Th1 profile. This review focuses on randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigating clinical parameters in the treatment of chronic rhinitis and CRS. An emerging number of publications demonstrate beneficial effects using probiotics in clinical double-blind placebo-controlled (dbpc) trials in allergic rhinitis (AR). Using probiotics as complementary treatment options in AR seems to be a promising concept although the evidence is of a preliminary nature to date and more convincing trials are needed. There are no current data to support the use of probiotics in non-AR or CRS. PMID:24872820

  5. Role of probiotics in health and disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varun Pratap; Sharma, Jagannath; Babu, Shankar; Rizwanulla; Singla, Anshul

    2013-02-01

    For some decades now, bacteria known as probiotics have been added to various foods because of their beneficial effects for human health. The mechanism of action of probiotics is related to their ability to compete with pathogenic microorganisms for adhesion sites, to antagonize these pathogens or to modulate the host's immune response. The potential application of probiotics includes prevention and treatment of various health conditions and diseases such as gastrointestinal infections, inflammatory bowel disease, lactose intolerance, allergies, urogenital infections, cystic fibrosis, various cancers, reduction of antibiotic side effects, in oral health such as prevention of dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral malodour and many other effects which are under investigation. The results of many of these clinical investigations suggests that probiotics may be useful in preventing and treating various health conditions and diseases. However, many of these clinical studies require validation so as to apply these results to clinical realm. The role of clinical trials is instrumental in such investigations and in near future the results of such trials will decide the usefulness of probiotics in health and disease. This article strives to summarize the currently available data on the potential benefits of probiotics in health and disease. PMID:23894906

  6. Probiotic Properties of Lyophilized Cell Free Extract of Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Saadatzadeh, Afrooz; Fazeli, Mohamma Reza; Jamalifar, Hossein; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years there have been considerable interests in the use of probiotic live cells for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. This strategy can be concomitant with some limitations such as survival of live cell during the GI-transit and their effective delivery to target tissues upon ingestion. Several attempts have been made to overcome these limitations such as their microencapsulation, spray-drying and lyophilization. Objectives In this study extract of cultured probiotics without cells was evaluated for its antimicrobial effects, antioxidant activity, and its stability. Materials and Methods In this work the potential of lyophilized-cell-free-probiotic-extract (LPE) as a suitable alternative strategy for the preparation of probiotic-products was investigated. The main aim of this study was to find out the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of LPE and also its stability. LPE was obtained by centrifugation and subsequent lyophilization of the collected supernatant from culture media of Lactobacillus casei. An enzymatic reagent-kit was used for detection of its content of lactic acid. Antibacterial test was performed using agar cup-plat-method, the DPPH scavenging -assay was used to determine its antioxidant activity and during a storage course, LPE was under a long-term stability study. Results Results showed that, LPE had more antipathogenic effects, antioxidant activity, and stability during storage-time when compared to fresh probiotic-extract. Conclusions Employing the LPE as a new approach, gives novel concept of probiotic-products in food and medical marketing. PMID:24624202

  7. Genes and Molecules of Lactobacilli Supporting Probiotic Action

    PubMed Central

    Lebeer, Sarah; Vanderleyden, Jos; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Lactobacilli have been crucial for the production of fermented products for centuries. They are also members of the mutualistic microbiota present in the human gastrointestinal and urogenital tract. Recently, increasing attention has been given to their probiotic, health-promoting capacities. Many human intervention studies demonstrating health effects have been published. However, as not all studies resulted in positive outcomes, scientific interest arose regarding the precise mechanisms of action of probiotics. Many reported mechanistic studies have addressed mainly the host responses, with less attention being focused on the specificities of the bacterial partners, notwithstanding the completion of Lactobacillus genome sequencing projects, and increasing possibilities of genomics-based and dedicated mutant analyses. In this emerging and highly interdisciplinary field, microbiologists are facing the challenge of molecular characterization of probiotic traits. This review addresses the advances in the understanding of the probiotic-host interaction with a focus on the molecular microbiology of lactobacilli. Insight into the molecules and genes involved should contribute to a more judicious application of probiotic lactobacilli and to improved screening of novel potential probiotics. PMID:19052326

  8. Bacillus clausii probiotic strains: antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Urdaci, Maria C; Bressollier, Philippe; Pinchuk, Irina

    2004-07-01

    The clinical benefits observed with probiotic use are mainly attributed to the antimicrobial substances produced by probiotic strains and to their immunomodulatory effects. Currently, the best-documented probiotic bacteria used in human therapy are lactic acid bacteria. In contrast, studies aiming to characterize the mechanisms responsible for the probiotic beneficial effects of Bacillus are rare. The current work seeks to contribute to such characterization by evaluating the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of probiotic B. clausii strains. B. clausii strains release antimicrobial substances in the medium. Moreover, the release of these antimicrobial substances was observed during stationary growth phase and coincided with sporulation. These substances were active against Gram-positive bacteria, in particular against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, and Clostridium difficile. The antimicrobial activity was resistant to subtilisin, proteinase K, and chymotrypsin treatment, whereas it was sensitive to pronase treatment. The evaluation of the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic B. clausii strains was performed in vitro on Swiss and C57 Bl/6j murine cells. The authors demonstrate that these strains, in their vegetative forms, are able to induce NOS II synthetase activity, IFN-gamma production, and CD4 T-cell proliferation. PMID:15220667

  9. Vitamin D receptor pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaoping; Yoon, Sonia; Zhang, Yong-Guo; Lu, Rong; Xia, Yinglin; Wan, Jiandi; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C; Chen, Di; Sun, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Low expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and dysfunction of vitamin D/VDR signaling are reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); therefore, restoration of VDR function to control inflammation in IBD is desirable. Probiotics have been used in the treatment of IBD. However, the role of probiotics in the modulation of VDR signaling to effectively reduce inflammation is unknown. We identified a novel role of probiotics in activating VDR activity, thus inhibiting inflammation, using cell models and VDR knockout mice. We found that the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) increased VDR protein expression in both mouse and human intestinal epithelial cells. Using the VDR luciferase reporter vector, we detected increased transcriptional activity of VDR after probiotic treatment. Probiotics increased the expression of the VDR target genes, such as antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, the role of probiotics in regulating VDR signaling was tested in vivo using a Salmonella-colitis model in VDR knockout mice. Probiotic treatment conferred physiological and histologic protection from Salmonella-induced colitis in VDR(+/+) mice, whereas probiotics had no effects in the VDR(-/-) mice. Probiotic treatment also enhanced numbers of Paneth cells, which secrete AMPs for host defense. These data indicate that the VDR pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis. Understanding how probiotics enhance VDR signaling and inhibit inflammation will allow probiotics to be used effectively, resulting in innovative approaches to the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation. PMID:26159695

  10. Mulberry anthocyanin biotransformation by intestinal probiotics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Rong; Liu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Yi; Zhang, You-Sheng; Zhang, Ye-Hui

    2016-12-15

    This study was designed to evaluate mulberry anthocyanins bioconversion traits for intestinal probiotics. Five intestinal beneficial bacteria were incubated with mulberry anthocyanins under anaerobic conditions at 37°C, and bacterial β-glucosidase activity and anthocyanin level were determined. Results demonstrated that all strains could convert mulberry anthocyanins to some extent. With high β-glucosidase production capacity, Streptococcus thermophiles GIM 1.321 and Lactobacillus plantarum GIM 1.35 degraded mulberry anthocyanins by 46.17% and 43.62%, respectively. Mulberry anthocyanins were mainly biotransformed to chlorogenic acid, crypto-chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid during the anaerobic process. Non-enzymatic deglycosylation of anthocyanins also occurred and approximately 19.42% of the anthocyanins were degraded within 48h by this method. PMID:27451240

  11. A potent probiotic strain from cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Shobharani, P; Agrawal, Renu

    2011-07-01

    A lactic acid bacteria Leuconostoc paramesenteroides was isolated and characterized from cheddar cheese and was adapted to grow at low pH (2.0) and high bile salt concentration (2%) by sequential sub-culturing so that it can survive the extreme environmental condition of gut. Cell hydrophobicity assay shows the maximum adherence of the culture to toluene (46.11%). Adhesion ability was confirmed by in vitro assay using rat intestinal epithelial layer. The culture has an antimicrobial activity against food borne pathogens and is vancomycin sensitive. The culture shows a β-galactosidase activity of 3.42 μM/mg protein, which indicates the ability of the culture to hydrolyze lactose for easy absorption. All these properties determine the ability of the culture to be used as a probiotic. PMID:22753999

  12. Probiotics in digestive diseases: focus on Lactobacillus GG.

    PubMed

    Pace, F; Pace, M; Quartarone, G

    2015-12-01

    Probiotics are becoming increasingly important in basic and clinical research, but they are also a subject of considerable economic interest due to their expanding popularity. They are live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. From this very well-known definition, it is clear that, unlike drugs, probiotics might be useful in healthy subjects to reduce the risk of developing certain diseases or to optimise some physiological functions. They also may offer some advantages in already ill persons in relieving symptoms and signs, e.g. people with acute diarrhea. According to current definitions, probiotics should survive both gastric acid and bile to reach the small intestine and colon, where they exert their effects. Many of these are available in a lyophilized (freeze-dried) pill form, though some are available in yogurt or as packets (sachets), which can be mixed into non-carbonated drinks. The present review focuses on three main issues: 1) understanding why, at present, probiotics are so interesting for doctors and consumers; 2) reviewing the available data on probiotic use in digestive diseases, in particular irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), (prevention of) infectious diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and colorectal cancer (CRC); 3) highlighting the individual profile of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in the above contexts, providing an assessment as well as recommendations on its use in gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) disorders. Research studies conducted in animals and humans with the main probiotics strains for GIT diseases, and published from the early 1990s to 2014 have been considered. PubMed, Medline and Ovid were the main sources adopted for data retrieving. The increasing attention on probiotics is a direct consequence of the improvement in the techniques for studying microbiota. Until recently, its composition has been analysed by culture-based methods

  13. Electromechanically active polymer blends for actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ji; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Leary, Sean P.

    2000-06-01

    Actuator mechanisms that are lightweight, durable, and efficient are needed to support telerobotic requirements, for future NASA missions. In this work, we present a series of electromechanically active polymer blends that can potentially be used as actuators for a variety of applications. This polymer blend combines an electrostrictive graft-elastomer with a ferroelectric poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) polymer. Mechanical and piezoelectric properties of the blends as a function of temperature, frequency and relative composition of the two constituents in the blends have been studied. Electric field induced strain response of the blend films has also been studied as a function of the relative composition. A bending actuator device was developed incorporating the use of the polymer blend materials. The results and the possible effects of the combination of piezoelectricity and electrostriction in a material system are presented and discussed. This type of analysis may enable the design of blend compositions with optimal strain, mechanical, and dielectric properties for specific actuator applications.

  14. The gastrointestinal tract microbiome, probiotics, and mood.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Bambling, Matthew; Alford, Hollie

    2014-12-01

    Mental health is closely linked to physical health. Depression (e.g., major depression) is highly prevalent worldwide and a major cause of disability. In a subgroup with treatment-resistant depression, standard pharmacotherapy interventions provide small if any incremental improvement in patient outcomes and may also require the application of an alternate approach. Therefore, in addition to the standard pharmacotherapies prescribed, patients will also be advised on the benefits of psychological counseling, electroconvulsive therapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation or increasing physical activity and reducing harmful substance consumption. Numerous nutraceuticals have a beneficial role in treatment-resistant depression and include, herbal medicines of which Hypericum perforatum is the best studied, omega-3 fatty acid preparations, S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe), various mineral formulations (e.g., magnesium) and folate (singly or in combination with B group vitamins) are prescribed to a lesser extent. Furthermore, a largely neglected area of research activity has been the role of live probiotic cultures that contribute to repairing dysbiosis (a leaky gut barrier abnormality) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In this commentary, we build a hypothesis that in addition suggests that GIT metabolites that are elaborated by the microbiome cohort may provide novel and significant avenues for efficacious therapeutic interventions for mood disorders. We posit that the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract is implicit as an important participant for the amelioration of adverse mood conditions via the diverse metabolic activities provided by live beneficial bacteria (probiotics) as an active adjuvant treatment. This activity is in part triggered by a controlled release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hence further questions the antioxidant/oxidative stress postulate. PMID:25266952

  15. Use of probiotics for management of acute gastroenteritis: a position paper by the ESPGHAN Working Group for Probiotics and Prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Szajewska, Hania; Guarino, Alfredo; Hojsak, Iva; Indrio, Flavia; Kolacek, Sanja; Shamir, Raanan; Vandenplas, Yvan; Weizman, Zvi

    2014-04-01

    The use of probiotics has been suggested in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in addition to early rehydration and avoidance of dietary restrictions. This document provides recommendations for the use of probiotics for the treatment of AGE in previously healthy infants and children based on a systematic review of previously completed systematic reviews and of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published subsequently to these reviews. The recommendations were formulated only if at least 2 RCTs that used a given probiotic (with strain specification) were available. The GRADE system developed by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations Working Group, was used to grade the strength of evidence and grades of recommendations used in these guidelines. It offers 4 categories of the quality of the evidence (high, moderate, low, and very low) and 2 categories of the strength of recommendation (strong or weak). The use of the following probiotics (in alphabetical order) may be considered in the management of children with AGE in addition to rehydration therapy: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (low quality of evidence, strong recommendation) and Saccharomyces boulardii (low quality of evidence, strong recommendation). Less compelling evidence is available for Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (very low quality of evidence, weak recommendation) and heat-inactivated Lactobacillus acidophilus LB (very low quality of evidence, weak recommendation). The latter, although traditionally discussed with other probiotics, does not fit with the definition of probiotics. Other strains or combinations of strains have been tested, but evidence of their efficacy is weak or preliminary. PMID:24614141

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Strain BL23▿

    PubMed Central

    Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

  17. Live feed enrichment with probiotics: current methods and future perspectives on increasing finfish larviculture success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotics - active or inactive microorganisms incorporated to animal feeds - are considered a potential alternative to other treatments intended to enhance immune response, growth, or feed efficiency in animal rearing systems. While probiotics are extensively used in livestock practices, their use ...

  18. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain BL23.

    PubMed

    Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2010-05-01

    The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

  19. Superstrings in Sheared Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migler, Kalman

    2000-03-01

    We report the discovery of a droplet-string-ribbon transition in concentrated polymer blends which occurs when the droplet size of the dispersed component becomes comparable to the gap between the boundary plates. Above a critical shear rate (or gap width), dispersed droplets continuously coalescence and breakup; the upper limit on their size is set by the Taylor length. Below this critical shear rate, droplets coalesce into strings and then ribbons in a four stage kinetic process. The mass ratio of string / droplet can be as large as 10^4. The transition is sharp, occurring over a shear interval of 2droplet-string transition is a manifestation of the weakening of the Rayleigh-Tomatika instability which occurs when the system becomes quasi two-dimensional. Possible applications of this technology are ultra-thin materials of high one-dimensional strength, polymer blend wires, and novel polymeric scaffolds.

  20. Drivers of liking for yogurt drinks with prebiotics and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Allgeyer, L C; Miller, M J; Lee, S-Y

    2010-05-01

    Several studies have addressed the sensory properties of yogurt. However, as the market for yogurt continues to expand and new varieties of yogurt with novel ingredients emerge, additional sensory tests are needed to ensure the quality of the products. Three selected prebiotics, soluble corn fiber, polydextrose, and chicory inulin, were each added at an excellent source of fiber (5 g fiber/serving) or a good fiber source (2.5 g fiber/serving) levels into a yogurt drink base. Three additional yogurt drinks contained 5 g of each of the separate prebiotics along with a mixture of probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5). A control sample with no prebiotics or probiotics was also included in the experimental design. Yogurt drinks were evaluated by 110 consumers for overall acceptance, acceptance of aroma, appearance, taste, and texture, and purchase intent. Demographic information pertaining to consumer knowledge of prebiotics and probiotics was collected. Consumer data were correlated with previously obtained descriptive analysis data to identify drivers of liking. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), Fisher's least significant difference (LSD), cluster analysis, internal preference mapping, and external preference mapping. Total variance explained by the internal and external preference maps were 32.2% and 64.6%, respectively, which showed higher levels of the prebiotics with probiotics drove consumer liking compared to lower levels without probiotics. In terms of ingredients added, chicory inulin and polydextrose were preferred over soluble corn fiber. Yogurt drinks with these prebiotics included and probiotics were characterized by a medium level of sweetness and high viscosity. Development of new prebiotic and probiotic containing drinkable yogurts should strive for a medium level of sweetness and high viscosity for maximum consumer acceptance. PMID:20546424

  1. Probiotics modulated gut microbiota suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Sung, Cecilia Ying Ju; Lee, Nikki; Ni, Yueqiong; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Panagiotou, Gianni; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-03-01

    The beneficial roles of probiotics in lowering the gastrointestinal inflammation and preventing colorectal cancer have been frequently demonstrated, but their immunomodulatory effects and mechanism in suppressing the growth of extraintestinal tumors remain unexplored. Here, we adopted a mouse model and metagenome sequencing to investigate the efficacy of probiotic feeding in controlling s.c. hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying mechanism suppressing the tumor progression. Our result demonstrated that Prohep, a novel probiotic mixture, slows down the tumor growth significantly and reduces the tumor size and weight by 40% compared with the control. From a mechanistic point of view the down-regulated IL-17 cytokine and its major producer Th17 cells, whose levels decreased drastically, played critical roles in tumor reduction upon probiotics feeding. Cell staining illustrated that the reduced Th17 cells in the tumor of the probiotic-treated group is mainly caused by the reduced frequency of migratory Th17 cells from the intestine and peripheral blood. In addition, shotgun-metagenome sequencing revealed the crosstalk between gut microbial metabolites and the HCC development. Probiotics shifted the gut microbial community toward certain beneficial bacteria, including Prevotella and Oscillibacter, that are known producers of antiinflammatory metabolites, which subsequently reduced the Th17 polarization and promoted the differentiation of antiinflammatory Treg/Tr1 cells in the gut. Overall, our study offers novel insights into the mechanism by which probiotic treatment modulates the microbiota and influences the regulation of the T-cell differentiation in the gut, which in turn alters the level of the proinflammatory cytokines in the extraintestinal tumor microenvironment. PMID:26884164

  2. Probiotic as a Novel Treatment Strategy Against Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Khani, Soghra; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2013-01-01

    Context A symbiotic relationship between the liver and intestinal tract enables the healthy status of both organs. Microflora resident in intestinal lumen plays a significant role in hepatocytes function. Alterations to the type and amount of microorganisms that live in the intestinal tract can result in serious and harmful liver dysfunctions such as cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and hepatic encephalopathy. An increased number of pathogens, especially enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, and streptococci species causes the elevation of intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation. The presence of high levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial substances in the blood result in a portal hypertension and ensuing hepatocytes damage. Several methods including the usage of antibiotics, prebiotics, and probiotics can be used to prevent the overgrowth of pathogens. Compared to prebiotic and antibiotic therapy, probiotics strains are a safer and less expensive therapy. Probiotics are "live microorganisms (according to the FAO/WHO) which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”. Evidence Acquisitions Data from numerous preclinical and clinical trials allows for control of the flora bacteria quantity, decreases in compounds derived from bacteria, and lowers proinflammatory production such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ via down-regulation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κ B). Results On the other hand, probiotic can reduce the urease activity of bacterial microflora. Furthermore, probiotic decreases fecal pH value and reduces ammonia adsorption. In addition, the serum level of liver enzymes and other substances synthesized by the liver are modulated subsequent to probiotic consumption. Conclusions According to our knowledge, Probiotic therapy as a safe, inexpensive and a noninvasive strategy can reduce pathophysiological symptoms and improve different types of liver diseases without side

  3. Probiotics for inflammatory bowel disease: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Sans, Miquel

    2009-01-01

    The notion that the intestinal microbiota plays a key role for the development of intestinal inflammation, initially based on a series of clinical observations both in human inflammatory bowel disease and experimental colitis, has been reinforced by a growing body of evidence demonstrating that the abnormal recognition of bacterial and other microbiota antigens by the innate immune system is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. In keeping with our present knowledge of inflammatory bowel disease pathophysiology, the search for therapeutic approaches aimed at modifying the composition of the intestinal microbiota to obtain new, more targeted treatments for inflammatory bowel disease that are basically free of side effects has been a subject of intense research activity. Probiotics are defined as live organisms capable of conferring health benefits beyond their nutritional properties. Numerous micro-organisms have been evaluated to induce or maintain remission, or both, in ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and pouchitis. Overall, probiotics have successfully demonstrated some efficacy in some inflammatory bowel disease scenarios. However, a critical review of the available scientific literature shows that: (1) in spite of great expectations, reflected by a high number of review and editorial articles in top journals, the number of published, well-designed clinical trials using probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease is small, often with few patients; (2) the range of microbial agents makes it particularly difficult to draw global conclusions; (3) the quality of the evidence on the efficacy of probiotics in pouchitis is clearly better than that in ulcerative colitis, while there is virtually no evidence of probiotic efficacy in Crohn's disease. The appropriate selection of probiotic agents combined with convincing clinical trials will determine whether probiotics can jump from promise to reality in inflammatory bowel disease

  4. Fuel blending with PRB coal

    SciTech Connect

    McCartney, R.H.; Williams, R.L. Jr.

    2009-03-15

    Many methods exist to accomplish coal blending at a new or existing power plant. These range from a basic use of the secondary (emergency) stockout/reclaim system to totally automated coal handling facilities with segregated areas for two or more coals. Suitable choices for different sized coal plant are discussed, along with the major components of the coal handling facility affected by Powder River Basin coal. 2 figs.

  5. Influence of bovine lactoferrin on selected probiotic bacteria and intestinal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong; Maddox, Ian S; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Shu, Quan

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of bovine lactoferrin (BLf) on the growth of different groups of bacteria in vitro. BLf showed a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of selected pathogens but not probiotics. BLf, in combination with probiotics, has the potential to influence the composition of the gut microflora via inhibition of intestinal pathogens with no significant effect on probiotic bacteria. PMID:20217186

  6. Examining the evidence for the use of probiotics in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Hickson, Mary

    This article reviews the use of probiotics in clinical practice, including explanations of what they are and how they work. Evidence for the health benefits of consuming probiotic bacteria and yeast are examined in several clinical conditions. The problems associated with making recommendations for the use of probiotics in clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:23634499

  7. Probiotics reinforce mucosal degradation of antigens in rats: implications for therapeutic use of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Pessi, T; Sütas, Y; Marttinen, A; Isolauri, E

    1998-12-01

    The effects of probiotics, administered with different diets, i.e., unhydrolyzed or hydrolyzed dietary antigens, on macromolecular degradation in the gut mucosa were studied. Rat pups were divided into five feeding groups at the age of 14 d. In addition to maternal milk, the milk group was gavaged daily with cows' milk and the hydrolysate group with extensively hydrolyzed whey formula, while controls received sterile saline. In addition to these diets, the milk-GG group and the hydrolysate-GG group were given probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus GG ATCC 53103 (10(10) colony-forming units per day). At 21 d, the absorption of macromolecules, horseradish peroxidase and beta-lactoglobulin across patch-free jejunal segments was studied in Ussing chambers. The degree of macromolecular degradation was studied by means of HPLC gel filtration. The absorption rate of intact horseradish peroxidase differed among the feeding groups (P = 0.038). This was due to the high median (interquartile range) absorption of intact horseradish peroxidase (ng x h-1 x cm-2) in the milk group [255 (14-1332)] and supplementation with L. GG in the milk-GG group [35 (8-233)] restoring the status to the control level [22 (0-116)]. A parallel effect was seen in the hydrolysate group [100 (9-236)] vs. the hydrolysate-GG group [1 (0- 13)]. A gel filtration study confirmed that larger molecules were absorbed across the mucosa in the milk group compared to the other groups. The absorption of degraded horseradish peroxidase differed between the feeding groups (P = 0. 005). L. GG had a distinct effect when administered with unhydrolyzed, native protein vs. hydrolyzed protein: it increased absorption of degraded horseradish peroxidase in the milk-GG group [7310 (4763-8228)] vs. the milk group [3726 (2423-5915)], while reducing it in the hydrolysate-GG group [2051 (1463-2815)] vs. the hydrolysate group [4573 (3759-9620)]. Our results showed that probiotics not only restore aberrant macromolecular transport

  8. Ethanol-diesel fuel blends -- a review.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Alan C; Zhang, Qin; Lyne, Peter W L

    2005-02-01

    Ethanol is an attractive alternative fuel because it is a renewable bio-based resource and it is oxygenated, thereby providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compression-ignition engines. In this review the properties and specifications of ethanol blended with diesel fuel are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the factors critical to the potential commercial use of these blends. These factors include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions is also considered. The formulation of additives to correct certain key properties and maintain blend stability is suggested as a critical factor in ensuring fuel compatibility with engines. However, maintaining vehicle safety with these blends may entail fuel tank modifications. Further work is required in specifying acceptable fuel characteristics, confirming the long-term effects on engine durability, and ensuring safety in handling and storing ethanol-diesel blends. PMID:15474927

  9. Probiotics in early life: a preventative and treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Ashkan; Villa, Christopher R; Comelli, Elena M

    2016-04-20

    Microbial colonization of the infant gut plays a key role in immunological and metabolic pathways impacting human health. Since the maturation of the gut microbiota coincides with early life development, failure to develop a health compatible microbiota composition may result in pathology and disease in later life. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Maternal transfer of microorganisms is possible during pregnancy and lactation, and the mother's diet and microbiota can influence that of her offspring. Furthermore, pre-term birth, Caesarean section birth, formula feeding, antibiotic use, and malnutrition have been linked to dysbiosis, which in turn is associated with several pathologies such as necrotizing enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, antibiotic associated diarrhea, colic, and allergies. Thus, early life should represent a preferred stage of life for probiotic interventions. In this context, they could be regarded as a means to 'program' the individual for health maintenance, in order to prevent pathologies associated with dysbiosis. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the benefits of probiotic administration, pre-clinical studies have been conducted and found an array of positive results such as improved microbial composition, intestinal maturation, decreased pathogenic load and infections, and improved immune response. Moreover, specific probiotic strains administered during the perinatal period have shown promise in attenuating severity of necrotizing enterocolitis. The mechanisms elucidated suggest that probiotic interventions in early life can be envisaged for disease prevention in both healthy offspring and offspring at risk of chronic disease. PMID:26979945

  10. Aquaculture and stress management: a review of probiotic intervention.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S; Chakraborty, T; Kumar, V; DeBoeck, G; Mohanta, K N

    2013-06-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand for animal protein, aquaculture continuously requires new techniques to increase the production yield. However, with every step towards intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in stress level on the animal as well as on the environment. Feeding practices in aqua farming usually plays an important role, and the addition of various additives to a balanced feed formula to achieve better growth is a common practice among the fish and shrimp culturists. Probiotics, also known as 'bio-friendly agents', such as LAB (Lactobacillus), yeasts and Bacillus sp., can be introduced into the culture environment to control and compete with pathogenic bacteria as well as to promote the growth of the cultured organisms. In addition, probiotics are non-pathogenic and non-toxic micro-organisms, having no undesirable side effects when administered to aquatic organisms. Probiotics are also known to play an important role in developing innate immunity among the fishes, and hence help them to fight against any pathogenic bacterias as well as against environmental stressors. The present review is a brief but informative compilation of the different essential and desirable traits of probiotics, their mode of action and their useful effects on fishes. The review also highlights the role of probiotics in helping the fishes to combat against the different physical, chemical and biological stress. PMID:22512693

  11. Colonization of congenitally immunodeficient mice with probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, R D; Warner, T; Roberts, L; Farmer, J; Balish, E

    1997-01-01

    We assessed the capacity of four probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus casei GG, and Bifidobacterium animalis) to colonize, infect, stimulate immune responses in, and affect the growth and survival of congenitally immunodeficient gnotobiotic beige-athymic (bg/bg-nu/nu) and beige-euthymic (bg/bg-nu/+) mice. The bacteria colonized and persisted, in pure culture, in the alimentary tracts of both mouse strains for the entire study period (12 weeks). Although all adult and neonatal beige-euthymic mice survived probiotic colonization, some infant mortality occurred in beige-athymic pups born to mothers colonized with pure cultures of L. reuteri or L. casei GG. The probiotic bacteria manifested different capacities to adhere to epithelial surfaces, disseminate to internal organs, affect the body weight of adult mice and the growth of neonatal mice, and stimulate immune responses. Although the probiotic species were innocuous for adults, these results suggest that caution and further studies to assess the safety of probiotic bacteria for immunodeficient hosts, especially neonates, are required. PMID:9234796

  12. Fatty acid profile of pig meat after probiotic administration.

    PubMed

    Ross, Gloria Romina; Van Nieuwenhove, Carina Paola; González, Silvia Nelina

    2012-06-13

    The aim of this work was to study the fatty acid profile of pig meat after probiotic administration. Thirty postweaned pigs (25 day old) were distributed into 2 groups: control (n = 15) and probiotic (n = 15). Each experimental group was fed ad libitum on a commercial diet for 35 days. Lactobacillus amylovorus and Enterococcus faecium mixed culture (10(8) CFU/ml)was daily orally delivered to the probiotic group. At the end of the assay, six pigs randomly selected from each group were slaughtered and muscle samples (Longissimus dorsi) were taken for fatty acid analysis. Tissues from the probiotic group animals exhibited an increase in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids; furthermore, linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (18:3), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. These results suggest probiotic administration could be useful to modify and improve the fatty acid profile of pig meat. PMID:22506842

  13. Probiotics: Healthy bugs and nourishing elements of diet.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vijayendra; Berwal, Vikas; Solanki, Neeraj; Malik, Narender Singh

    2015-01-01

    The use of probiotics is based on the concept that adding the right live microbes to the complex human system can result in physiological benefits. The benefit of fermented milk in human diet has been acknowledged since Vedic times; however, the scientific interest in this field was evoked by Ellie Metchinkoff who recommended that people should consume fermented milk containing lactobacilli to prolong their lives, as accelerated aging is due to autointoxication caused by the toxins produced by the gut microflora. They have been used to improve gastrointestinal health and their attractiveness has evinced interest to study their role in the promotion of oral health also. Studies have been widely carried out to establish the role of intestinal lactobacilli as probiotic to treat various gastrointestinal disorders, but only limited studies are available on the oral use of probiotics. The probiotic products usually contain lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, and their demand in the market is growing day by day. This paper provides an overview of various studies in the literature that emphasize on the role of probiotics to combat oral diseases and encourages more research in this field. PMID:25992331

  14. Oral Bacteria as Potential Probiotics for the Pharyngeal Mucosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Taverniti, Valentina; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; Stuknyte, Milda; Karp, Matti; Mora, Diego

    2010-01-01

    The research described here was aimed at the selection of oral bacteria that displayed properties compatible with their potential use as probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa. We included in the study 56 bacteria newly isolated from the pharynges of healthy donors, which were identified at the intraspecies level and characterized in vitro for their probiotic potential. The experiments led us to select two potential probiotic bacterial strains (Streptococcus salivarius RS1 and ST3) and to compare them with the prototype oral probiotic S. salivarius strain K12. All three strains efficiently bound to FaDu human epithelial pharyngeal cells and thereby antagonized Streptococcus pyogenes adhesion and growth. All were sensitive to a variety of antibiotics routinely used for the control of upper respiratory tract infections. Immunological in vitro testing on a FaDu layer revealed different responses to RS1, ST3, and K12. RS1 and ST3 modulated NF-κB activation and biased proinflammatory cytokines at baseline and after interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induction. In conclusion, we suggest that the selected commensal streptococci represent potential pharyngeal probiotic candidates. They could display a good degree of adaptation to the host and possess potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:20418429

  15. Optimization of compositional and structural properties in probiotic sausage production.

    PubMed

    Bağdatli, Aytunga; Kundakci, Akif

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effects of different fat levels and different particle sizes on compositional and structural characteristics of probiotic fermented sausage were investigated. In order to obtain probiotic character, Lactobacillus casei CRL431 was added. The physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analysis were done. The effect of fat level x mincer hole diameter interaction on hardness values were statistically significant (p < 0.005). At the end of the fermentation-ripening period, L.casei CRL-431 count has reached to sufficient microbial count (10(6) cfu/g of probiotic bacteria) to demonstrate the character of probiotic food. A significant positive correlation was found between L.casei CRL431 count and surface appearance, texture and overall acceptability scores (r = 0.60, 0.52, 0.53). The values of TBARS number of probiotic sucuk samples increased during fermentation-ripening. A significant correlation between taste-aroma scores and fat level was detected (r = -0.61,p = 0.0008). Consiquently, the best sensorial quality was determined in L3 samples and the worst sensorial quality was determined in H8 samples. PMID:27570293

  16. Probiotics: Healthy bugs and nourishing elements of diet

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Vijayendra; Berwal, Vikas; Solanki, Neeraj; Malik, Narender Singh

    2015-01-01

    The use of probiotics is based on the concept that adding the right live microbes to the complex human system can result in physiological benefits. The benefit of fermented milk in human diet has been acknowledged since Vedic times; however, the scientific interest in this field was evoked by Ellie Metchinkoff who recommended that people should consume fermented milk containing lactobacilli to prolong their lives, as accelerated aging is due to autointoxication caused by the toxins produced by the gut microflora. They have been used to improve gastrointestinal health and their attractiveness has evinced interest to study their role in the promotion of oral health also. Studies have been widely carried out to establish the role of intestinal lactobacilli as probiotic to treat various gastrointestinal disorders, but only limited studies are available on the oral use of probiotics. The probiotic products usually contain lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, and their demand in the market is growing day by day. This paper provides an overview of various studies in the literature that emphasize on the role of probiotics to combat oral diseases and encourages more research in this field. PMID:25992331

  17. New insights into the bioactivity of peptides from probiotics.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Pati, Bikas R; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Franco, Octavio L

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are unique bacteria that offer several therapeutic benefits to human beings when administered in optimum amounts. Probiotics are able to produce antimicrobial substances, which stimulate the body's immune responses. Here, we review in detail the anti-infective peptides derived from probiotics and their potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities, including a major role in cross-talk between probiotics and gut microbiota under adverse conditions. Insights from the engineered cell surface of probiotics may provide novel anti-infective therapy by heterologous expression of receptor peptides of bacterial toxins. It may be possible to use antigenic peptides from viral pathogens as live vaccines. Another possibility is to generate antiviral peptides that bind directly to virus particles, while some peptides exert anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Some extracellular polymeric substances might serve as anti-infective peptides. These avenues of treatment have remained largely unexplored to date, despite their potential in generating powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-infective products. PMID:27100351

  18. Effect of probiotics on the expression of Barrett's oesophagus biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari namin, Behrooz; Daryani, Nasser Ebrahimi; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Yazdi, Mohammad Kazem Sharifi; Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan

    2015-04-01

    Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is a complicated condition at the gastroesophageal junction in which normal squamous epithelium is changed to columnar and leads to oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OA). In the past decades, the prevalence of Barrett's disease and mortality rate of adenocarcinoma has significantly increased throughout the word. Data has shown that molecular pathogenesis of disease has not been clearly identified. However, a wide-range and successful administration of probiotics in cancer and gastrointestinal diseases has lead to the investigation into the possible inhibitory role of probiotics in oesophageal cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effect of probiotics on the expression of biomarkers in an in vitro model. Two different Barrett's oesophageal cell lines were selected to co-culture with B. longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus to measure expression of IL-18, TNFα, p53 (tumour suppressor gene), cyclooxygenase 2 and CDX1 (caudal type homeobox 1) genes. In addition, two different aspects of probiotic administration, therapeutic and prophylactic test were also examined. Results showed that micro-organisms could inhibit expression of biomarkers and therapeutic culture conditions were more effective than prophylactic tests. The results obtained suggest that it is possible to incorporate the administration of probiotics in BO and OA prevention. PMID:25666837

  19. Protective effect of Laminaria japonica with probiotics on murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seok-Jae; Bu, Youngmin; Bae, Jinhyun; Bang, Yu-mi; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Hyejung; Beom-Joon, Lee; Hyun, Yoo Hye; Park, Jae-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ) is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE) at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN- γ , IL-1 β , IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40), IL-12 (P70), IL-17, and TNF- α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1 β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1 β , IL-6, and IL-12 (P40) but not IFN- γ , IL-10, and IL-12 (P70). In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics. PMID:24948848

  20. Potential role of probiotics in the management of gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    KHODER, GHALIA; AL-MENHALI, ASMA A.; AL-YASSIR, FARAH; KARAM, SHERIF M.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is one of the most common chronic gastrointestinal diseases characterized by a significant defect in the mucosal barrier. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and the frequent long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are major factors involved in gastric ulcer development. Acid inhibitors and antibiotics are commonly used to treat gastric ulcer. However, in the last few decades, the accumulating evidence for resistance to antibiotics and the side effects of antibiotics and acid inhibitors have drawn attention to the possible use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcer. Probiotics are live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host. Currently, the available experimental and clinical studies indicate that probiotics are promising for future applications in the management of gastric ulcers. This review aims to provide an overview of the general health benefits of probiotics on various systemic and gastrointestinal disorders with a special focus on gastric ulcer and the involved cellular and molecular mechanisms: i) Protection of gastric mucosal barrier; ii) upregulation of prostaglandins, mucus, growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines; iii) increased cell proliferation to apoptosis ratio; and iv) induction of angiogenesis. Finally, some of the available data on the possible use of probiotics in H. pylori eradication are discussed. PMID:27347010

  1. Prospects of using marine actinobacteria as probiotics in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Das, Surajit; Ward, Louise R; Burke, Chris

    2008-12-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents have been banned for disease management in aquaculture systems due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance gene and enduring residual effects in the environments. Instead, microbial interventions in sustainable aquaculture have been proposed, and among them, the most popular and practical approach is the use of probiotics. A range of microorganisms have been used so far as probiotics, which include Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, bacteriophages, and unicellular algae. The results are satisfactory and promising; however, to combat the latest infectious diseases, the search for a new strain for probiotics is essential. Marine actinobacteria were designated as the chemical factory a long time ago, and quite a large number of chemical substances have been isolated to date. The potent actinobacterial genera are Streptomyces; Micromonospora; and a novel, recently described genus, Salinispora. Despite the existence of all the significant features of a good probiont, actinobacteria have been hardly used as probiotics in aquaculture. However, this group of bacteria promises to supply the most potential probiotic strains in the future. PMID:18841358

  2. Cross-colonization of infants with probiotic organisms in a neonatal unit.

    PubMed

    Hickey, L; Garland, S M; Jacobs, S E; O'Donnell, C P F; Tabrizi, S N

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess probiotic cross-colonization between infants in a neonatal unit where probiotics were being administered to preterm infants during a clinical trial. We tested stool samples from all infants present in the unit at two time points; the first was during the trial and the second was after trial completion. Samples from 43 infants were tested during the trial; all five infants receiving probiotics and three of 38 not receiving probiotics were colonized. Only one of 44 infants tested after the trial was colonized. The rate of cross-colonization was lower than in previous probiotic studies. PMID:25447201

  3. Is the role of probiotics friendly in the treatment of periodontal diseases !!

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, D; Mehta, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics utilize naturally occurring bacteria to confer a health benefit when administered in adequate amounts. A few conventional foods containing probiotics are yogurt, fermented and unfermented milk, soy beverages etc. Most often, they come from two groups of bacteria, Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium. Probiotics have been extensively studied for their health promoting effects. Scientific understanding of probiotics and their potential for preventing and treating periodontal conditions is at its infancy, but moving ahead. Extensive research to create a probiotic product intended to maintain dental and periodontal health is needed. PMID:20376238

  4. Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Skin Health.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Chang Y; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2016-10-25

    Human skin is the first defense barrier against the external environment, especially microbial pathogens and physical stimulation. Many studies on skin health with Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been published for many years, including prevention of skin disease and improvement of skin conditions. LAB, a major group of gram-positive bacteria, are known to be beneficial to human health by acting as probiotics. Recent studies have shown that LAB and their extracts have beneficial effects on maintenance and improvement of skin health. Oral administration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii inhibits the development of atopic disease. In addition, LAB and LAB extracts are known to have beneficial effects on intestinal diseases, with Lactobacillus plantarum having been shown to attenuate IL-10 deficient colitis. In addition to intestinal health, L. plantarum also has beneficial effects on skin. pLTA, which is lipoteichoic acid isolated from L. plantarum, has anti-photoaging effects on human skin cells by regulating the expression matrix meralloprotionase-1 (MMP-1) expression. While several studies have proposed a relationship between diseases of the skin and small intestines, there are currently no published reviews of the effects of LAB for skin health through regulation of intestinal conditions and the immune system. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the effects of LAB on skin health and its potential applications in beauty foods. PMID:26287529

  5. Metabolic Engineering of Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Kong, In Iok; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Jayakody, Lahiru N; Kim, Heejin; Xia, Peng-Fei; Kwak, Suryang; Sung, Bong Hyun; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Walukiewicz, Hanna E; Rao, Christopher V; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-04-01

    Saccharomyces boulardiiis a probiotic yeast that has been used for promoting gut health as well as preventing diarrheal diseases. This yeast not only exhibits beneficial phenotypes for gut health but also can stay longer in the gut than Saccharomyces cerevisiae Therefore, S. boulardiiis an attractive host for metabolic engineering to produce biomolecules of interest in the gut. However, the lack of auxotrophic strains with defined genetic backgrounds has hampered the use of this strain for metabolic engineering. Here, we report the development of well-defined auxotrophic mutants (leu2,ura3,his3, and trp1) through clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9-based genome editing. The resulting auxotrophic mutants can be used as a host for introducing various genetic perturbations, such as overexpression or deletion of a target gene, using existing genetic tools forS. cerevisiae We demonstrated the overexpression of a heterologous gene (lacZ), the correct localization of a target protein (red fluorescent protein) into mitochondria by using a protein localization signal, and the introduction of a heterologous metabolic pathway (xylose-assimilating pathway) in the genome ofS. boulardii We further demonstrated that human lysozyme, which is beneficial for human gut health, could be secreted by S. boulardii Our results suggest that more sophisticated genetic perturbations to improveS. boulardii can be performed without using a drug resistance marker, which is a prerequisite for in vivo applications using engineeredS. boulardii. PMID:26850302

  6. Vaginal microbiota and the use of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Cribby, Sarah; Taylor, Michelle; Reid, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    The human vagina is inhabited by a range of microbes from a pool of over 50 species. Lactobacilli are the most common, particularly in healthy women. The microbiota can change composition rapidly, for reasons that are not fully clear. This can lead to infection or to a state in which organisms with pathogenic potential coexist with other commensals. The most common urogenital infection in premenopausal women is bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition characterized by a depletion of lactobacilli population and the presence of Gram-negative anaerobes, or in some cases Gram-positive cocci, and aerobic pathogens. Treatment of BV traditionally involves the antibiotics metronidazole or clindamycin, however, the recurrence rate remains high, and this treatment is not designed to restore the lactobacilli. In vitro studies have shown that Lactobacillus strains can disrupt BV and yeast biofilms and inhibit the growth of urogenital pathogens. The use of probiotics to populate the vagina and prevent or treat infection has been considered for some time, but only quite recently have data emerged to show efficacy, including supplementation of antimicrobial treatment to improve cure rates and prevent recurrences. PMID:19343185

  7. Vaginal Microbiota and the Use of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Cribby, Sarah; Taylor, Michelle; Reid, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    The human vagina is inhabited by a range of microbes from a pool of over 50 species. Lactobacilli are the most common, particularly in healthy women. The microbiota can change composition rapidly, for reasons that are not fully clear. This can lead to infection or to a state in which organisms with pathogenic potential coexist with other commensals. The most common urogenital infection in premenopausal women is bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition characterized by a depletion of lactobacilli population and the presence of Gram-negative anaerobes, or in some cases Gram-positive cocci, and aerobic pathogens. Treatment of BV traditionally involves the antibiotics metronidazole or clindamycin, however, the recurrence rate remains high, and this treatment is not designed to restore the lactobacilli. In vitro studies have shown that Lactobacillus strains can disrupt BV and yeast biofilms and inhibit the growth of urogenital pathogens. The use of probiotics to populate the vagina and prevent or treat infection has been considered for some time, but only quite recently have data emerged to show efficacy, including supplementation of antimicrobial treatment to improve cure rates and prevent recurrences. PMID:19343185

  8. Chromium(VI) bioremediation by probiotics.

    PubMed

    Younan, Soraia; Sakita, Gabriel Z; Albuquerque, Talita R; Keller, Rogéria; Bremer-Neto, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    Chromium is a common mineral in the earth's crust and can be released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Intake of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) through drinking water and food causes toxic effects, leading to serious diseases, and is a commonly reported environmental problem. Microorganisms can mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by heavy metals in addition to having effective resistance mechanisms to prevent cell damage and bind to these metals, sequestering them from the cell surface and removing them from the body. Species of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Bifidobacterium present in the human mouth and gut and in fermented foods have the ability to bind and detoxify some of these substances. This review address the primary topics related to Cr(VI) poisoning in animals and humans and the use of probiotics as a way to mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by Cr(VI). Further advances in the genetic knowledge of such microorganisms may lead to discoveries which will clarify the most active microorganisms that act as bioprotectants in bodies exposed to Cr(VI) and are an affordable option for people and animals intoxicated by the oral route. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26997541

  9. Use of probiotics and prebiotics in infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, Randi J; Jensen, Elizabeth T; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    Gut colonization by beneficial bacteria in early life is necessary for establishing the gut mucosal barrier, maturation of the immune system and preventing infections with enteric pathogens. Mode of delivery, prematurity, breastfeeding, and use of antibiotics are some of many factors that have been described to influence early life colonization. Dysbiosis, the absence of normal colonization, is associated with many disease conditions. Pre- and probiotics are commonly used as supplementation in infant formula, such as prebiotic oligosaccharides for stimulation of Bifidobacterium growth aiming to mimic the high levels of these commensal bacteria in the gut of breastfed infants. Studies suggest that probiotic supplementation may be beneficial in prevention and management of disease (e.g., reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants and treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children). Although these studies show promising beneficial effects, the long-term risks or health benefits of pre- and probiotic supplementation are not clear. PMID:27048895

  10. Probiotics and Alcoholic Liver Disease: Treatment and Potential Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengyuan; Duan, Kangmin; Wang, Cuiling; McClain, Craig; Feng, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive research, alcohol remains one of the most common causes of liver disease in the United States. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders, including steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis. Although many agents and approaches have been tested in patients with ALD and in animals with experimental ALD in the past, there is still no FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved therapy for any stage of ALD. With the increasing recognition of the importance of gut microbiota in the onset and development of a variety of diseases, the potential use of probiotics in ALD is receiving increasing investigative and clinical attention. In this review, we summarize recent studies on probiotic intervention in the prevention and treatment of ALD in experimental animal models and patients. Potential mechanisms underlying the probiotic function are also discussed. PMID:26839540

  11. Incorporation of Propionibacteria in Fermented Milks as a Probiotic.

    PubMed

    Moslemi, M; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, R; Hosseini, S M; Homayouni-Rad, A; Mortazavian, Amir M

    2016-06-10

    Propionibacteria are mainly found in dairy products and fermented milks but are found in other foods as well. Dairy propionibacteria have recently shown to exert potential probiotic activities such as production of propionic acid, vitamins, bacteriocins, essential enzymes, and other vital metabolites. Furthermore, stimulating the immune system and lowering the blood cholesterol level are some of their favorable effects. They have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities, inhibiting the growth of gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria, as well as some yeasts and molds. At industrial scale, they are used in cheese making, especially Swiss (hard) cheeses, as dominant starter cultures. There is a rising trend to use propionibacteria in fermented milks as probiotic. The current paper reviews the characteristics of propionibacteria related to their use in fermented milks either as starter culture or probiotic, methods for the enumeration of propionibacteria, and their functional (in vivo) efficiency. PMID:25675261

  12. Non-dairy Based Probiotics: A Healthy Treat for Intestine.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Sharma, Satish K; Gupta, Ram K

    2016-08-17

    Dairy-based fermented products and yoghurts have been utilized as potential probiotic products since ancient times. However, recent upsurge in interest of consumers towards dairy alternatives has opened up new vistas for non-dairy probiotic research and development. Various matrices and substrates such as cereals, fruit juices, or mixture thereof are being utilized for delivering these beneficial microorganisms. Each matrix offers some advantages over the other. Vast knowledge available on a number of conventional fermented foods can also be utilized for future research in this area. The present review provides an insight on the recent research/developments in the field of non-dairy probiotic foods with particular reference to the foods consumed conventionally, in addition to their commercial availability and a way forward. PMID:25747894

  13. Do you have a probiotic in your future?

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Bello, Maria G.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of using microbes to maintain health, and to prevent or treat disease is a topic as old as microbiology. However, one factor impeding the introduction of effective probiotics has been our very limited understanding of the composition of the human microbiome, as well as the biological requirements for these organisms. With advances in understanding the microbiome and its metagenome in humans and other mammals, we now can build a more robust scientific basis to develop probiotic strategies. Increasing knowledge of intramicrobial competition and cooperation, as well as host-microbe cross-signaling, will facilitate design of new probiotics and the modeling of their deployment, leading to eventual clinical trials. PMID:18762263

  14. Probiotic bacteria and biosurfactants for nosocomial infection control: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Falagas, M E; Makris, G C

    2009-04-01

    The adaptation of strict hygienic practices by healthcare personnel as well as the implementation of appropriate cleaning and disinfection measures form the basis of infection control policies. However, nosocomial infections constitute a considerable problem even in hospitals with meticulous infection control programmes. This should prompt biomedical researchers to evaluate the efficacy and safety of novel infection control measures. There is preliminary evidence that probiotic type micro-organisms may antagonise the growth of nosocomial pathogens on inanimate surfaces. We therefore propose the hypothesis that environmental probiotic organisms may represent a safe and effective intervention for infection control purposes. We suggest that probiotics or their products (biosurfactants), could be applied to patient care equipment, such as tubes or catheters, with the aim of decreasing colonisation of sites by nosocomial pathogens. This could potentially impede a central step in the pathogenesis of nosocomial infections. PMID:19201053

  15. Health benefits of probiotics and prebiotics in women.

    PubMed

    de Vrese, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Among the numerous positive effects of probiotic microorganisms and prebiotic carbohydrates observed in clinical studies--the majority of which, however, does not fulfil the criteria of pharmaceutical verification--some are of specific relevance to female health. The present review addresses--besides some notes concerning the potential microbiota-hormone interactions--the first line with preventive and/or therapeutic applications of probiotic bacteria in order to maintain a balanced intestinal and urogenital flora, as well as in the case of irritable bowel syndrome, constipation (idiopathic slow-transit) and urogenital tract infections. Further aspects are the promotion of bone health and osteoporosis prevention brought about by inulin, oligofructose and galactooligosaccharides. Some further conditions, namely anorexia nervosa, the premenstrual syndrome as well as prevention or alleviation of climacteric and menopausal disorders, for which the use of probiotics is rather hypothetical or is largely studied by alternative medicine practising physicians, are addressed briefly. PMID:19237621

  16. Novel probiotics and prebiotics: road to the market.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Verhagen, Hans; Rowland, Ian; Heimbach, Jim; Bañares, Silvia; Young, Tony; Nomoto, Koji; Lalonde, Mélanie

    2015-04-01

    Novel probiotics and prebiotics designed to manipulate the gut microbiota for improving health outcomes are in demand as the importance of the gut microbiota in human health is revealed. The regulations governing introduction of novel probiotics and prebiotics vary by geographical region. Novel foods and foods with health claims fall under specific regulations in several countries. The paper reviews the main requirements of the regulations in the EU, USA, Canada and Japan. We propose a number of areas that need to be addressed in any safety assessment of novel probiotics and prebiotics. These include publication of the genomic sequence, antibiotic resistance profiling, selection of appropriate in vivo model, toxicological studies (including toxin production) and definition of target population. PMID:25499742

  17. The perspective on cholesterol-lowering mechanisms of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Ishimwe, Nestor; Daliri, Eric B; Lee, Byong H; Fang, Fang; Du, Guocheng

    2015-01-01

    The use of probiotics as food components combats not only cardiovascular diseases but also many gastrointestinal tract disorders. Their health benefits along with their increased global market have interested scientists for better formulation and appropriate administration to the consumers. However, the lack of clear elucidation of their cholesterol-lowering mechanisms has complicated their proper dosage and administration to the beneficiaries. In this review, proposed mechanisms of cholesterol reduction such as deconjugation of bile via bile salt hydrolase activity, binding of cholesterol to probiotic cellular surface and incorporation into their cell membrane, production of SCFAs from oligosaccharides, coprecipitation of cholesterol with deconjugated bile, and cholesterol conversion to coprostanol have been discussed. Also, hypocholesterolemic effects on human- and animal-trial results, commonly used probiotics and synbiotics with effect on serum cholesterol regulation, types of bile salt hydrolase genes, and substrate specificities have been discussed. PMID:25403164

  18. Bioactives from probiotics for dermal health: functions and benefits.

    PubMed

    Lew, L-C; Liong, M-T

    2013-05-01

    Probiotics have been extensively reviewed for decades, emphasizing on improving general gut health. Recently, more studies showed that probiotics may exert other health-promoting effects beyond gut well-being, attributed to the rise of the gut-brain axis correlations. Some of these new benefits include skin health such as improving atopic eczema, atopic dermatitis, healing of burn and scars, skin-rejuvenating properties and improving skin innate immunity. Increasing evidence has also showed that bacterial compounds such as cell wall fragments, their metabolites and dead bacteria can elicit certain immune responses on the skin and improve skin barrier functions. This review aimed to underline the mechanisms or the exact compounds underlying the benefits of bacterial extract on the skin based on evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies. This review could be of help in screening of probiotic strains with potential dermal enhancing properties for topical applications. PMID:23311666

  19. Microbiota and probiotics in canine and feline welfare.

    PubMed

    Grześkowiak, Łukasz; Endo, Akihito; Beasley, Shea; Salminen, Seppo

    2015-08-01

    Dogs and cats have been cohabiting with us for thousands of years. They are the major human companions. Today, dogs and cats live in urban areas. Cats and most dogs are on high carbohydrate diets and face similar life-style challenges as the human beings. The health and well-being of companion animals, just as their owners, depends on the gut microbes. Providing a proper care and nutritionally balanced diet to companion animals is recognised as a part of our responsibility to maintain the health and well being of our pet. However, as microbiota differences may facilitate exposure to pathogens and harmful environmental influences, it is prudent to search for novel tools to protect dogs and cats and at the same time the human owners from pathogens. Specific probiotic strains and/or their defined combinations may be useful in the canine and feline nutrition, therapy, and care. Probiotic supplementations have been successful in the prevention and treatment of acute gastroenteritis, treatment of IBD, and prevention of allergy in companion animals. New challenges for probiotic applications include maintenance of obesity and overweight, urogenital tract infections, Helicobacter gastritis and parasitic infections. The probiotics of human origin appear to be among the new promising tools for the maintenance of pets' health. However, the host-derived microorganisms might be the most appropriate probiotic source. Therefore, more controlled trials are needed to characterise new and safe probiotic preparations with an impact on general health and well being as well as health maintenance in dogs and cats. PMID:25863311

  20. Identification and Characterisation of an Iron-Responsive Candidate Probiotic

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jennifer R.; Probert, Christopher S. J.; Cogan, Tristan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential cofactor in almost all biological systems. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB), frequently employed as probiotics, are unusual in having little or no requirement for iron. Iron in the human body is sequestered by transferrins and lactoferrin, limiting bacterial growth. An increase in the availability of iron in the intestine by bleeding, surgery, or under stress leads to an increase in the growth and virulence of many pathogens. Under these high iron conditions, LAB are rapidly out-competed; for the levels of probiotic bacteria to be maintained under high iron conditions they must be able to respond by increasing growth rate to compete with the normal flora. Despite this, iron-responsive genera are poorly characterised as probiotics. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we show that a panel of probiotics are not able to respond to increased iron availability, and identify an isolate of Streptococcus thermophilus that can increase growth rate in response to increased iron availability. The isolate of S. thermophilus selected was able to reduce epithelial cell death as well as NF-κB signalling and IL-8 production triggered by pathogens. It was capable of crossing an epithelial cell barrier in conjunction with E. coli and downregulating Th1 and Th17 responses in primary human intestinal leukocytes. Conclusions/Significance We propose that an inability to compete with potential pathogens under conditions of high iron availability such as stress and trauma may contribute to the lack of efficacy of many LAB-based probiotics in treating disease. Therefore, we offer an alternative paradigm which considers that probiotics should be able to be competitive during periods of intestinal bleeding, trauma or stress. PMID:22039501

  1. Probiotics for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a review.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Betsi, Gregoria I; Athanasiou, Stavros

    2006-08-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common infection affecting the quality of life of many women. Probiotics have been investigated as possible agents for the prevention of recurrences of VVC. We reviewed the available literature. In some studies the development of VVC was associated with either a low number of lactobacilli in the vagina or with the presence of H2O2-non-producing vaginal lactobacilli, although there are a few studies not supporting these statements. In addition, in vitro studies have shown that lactobacilli can inhibit the growth of Candida albicans and/or its adherence on the vaginal epithelium. The results of some clinical trials support the effectiveness of lactobacilli, especially Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14, administered either orally or intravaginally in colonizing the vagina and/or preventing the colonization and infection of the vagina by C. albicans, while the results of a small number of clinical trials do not corroborate these findings. Nevertheless, most of the relevant clinical trials had methodological problems such as small sample size, no control group (placebo) and included women without confirmed recurrent VVC, and thus they are not reliable for drawing definitive conclusions. Thus, the available evidence for the use of probiotics for prevention of recurrent VVC is limited. However, the empirical use of probiotics may be considered in women with frequent recurrence of VVC (more than three episodes per year), especially for those who have adverse effects from or contraindications for the use of antifungal agents, since adverse effects of probiotics are very rare. In any case women should be clearly informed about the unproven usefulness of probiotics for this purpose. In conclusion, despite the promising results of some studies, further research is needed to prove the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing the recurrences of VVC and to allow their wide use for this

  2. Role of probiotics in reducing the risk of gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Isolauri, E; Rautava, S; Collado, M C; Salminen, S

    2015-08-01

    Overweight and obesity currently constitute a major threat to human well-being. Almost half of the female population are currently overweight. Pregnant overweight women are at risk of gestational diabetes affecting the health of the mother and the child, in both the short and long term. Notwithstanding the extensive scientific interest centred on the problem, research efforts have thus far been unable to devise preventive strategies. Recent scientific advances point to a gut microbiota dysbiosis, with ensuing low-grade inflammation as a contributing element, in obesity and its comorbidities. Such findings would suggest a role for specific probiotics in the search for preventive and therapeutic adjunct applications in gestational diabetes. The aim of the present paper was to critically review recent demonstrations of the role of intestinal microbes in immune and metabolic regulation, which could be exploited in nutritional management of pregnant women by probiotic bacteria. By modulating specific target functions, probiotic dietary intervention may exert clinical effects beyond the nutritional impact of food. As this approach in pregnancy is new, an overview of the role of gut microbiota in shaping host metabolism, together with the definition of probiotics are presented, and finally, specific targets and potential mechanisms for probiotics in pregnancy are discussed. Pregnancy appears to be the most critical stage for interventions aiming to reduce the risk of non-communicable disease in future generations, beyond the immediate dangers attributable to the health of the mother, labour and the neonate. Specific probiotic interventions during pregnancy provide an opportunity, therefore, to promote the health not only of the mother but also of the child. PMID:25885278

  3. Role of Endogenous Microbiota, Probiotics and Their Biological Products in Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, Gordon S.; Wang, Hanru

    2013-01-01

    Although gut diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, mucositis and the alimentary cancers share similar pathogenetic features, further investigation is required into new treatment modalities. An imbalance in the gut microbiota, breached gut integrity, bacterial invasion, increased cell apoptosis to proliferation ratio, inflammation and impaired immunity may all contribute to their pathogenesis. Probiotics are defined as live bacteria, which when administered in sufficient amounts, exert beneficial effects to the gastrointestinal tract. More recently, probiotic-derived factors including proteins and other molecules released from living probiotics, have also been shown to exert beneficial properties. In this review we address the potential for probiotics, with an emphasis on probiotic-derived factors, to reduce the severity of digestive diseases and further discuss the known mechanisms by which probiotics and probiotic-derived factors exert their physiological effects. PMID:23306189

  4. Custom blending of lamp phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemm, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral output of fluorescent lamps can be precisely adjusted by using computer-assisted analysis for custom blending lamp phosphors. With technique, spectrum of main bank of lamps is measured and stored in computer memory along with emission characteristics of commonly available phosphors. Computer then calculates ratio of green and blue intensities for each phosphor according to manufacturer's specifications and plots them as coordinates on graph. Same ratios are calculated for measured spectrum. Once proper mix is determined, it is applied as coating to fluorescent tubing.

  5. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    SciTech Connect

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-10-04

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material.

  6. The Role of Probiotics in the Poultry Industry

    PubMed Central

    Lutful Kabir, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    The increase of productivity in the poultry industry has been accompanied by various impacts, including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of management practices in rearing cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in poultry, as well as demonstrating the potential role of probiotics in the growth performance and immune response of poultry, safety and wholesomeness of dressed poultry meat evidencing consumer’s protection, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date. PMID:20111681

  7. Designer probiotics: Development and applications in gastrointestinal health

    PubMed Central

    Sleator, Roy D

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing commercial and clinical relevance of probiotics, improving their stress tolerance profile and ability to overcome the physiochemical defences of the host is an important biological goal. Herein, I review the current state of the art in the design of engineered probiotic cultures, with a specific focus on their utility as therapeutics for the developing world; from the treatment of chronic and acute enteric infections, and their associated diarrhoeal complexes, to targeting HIV and application as novel mucosal vaccine delivery vehicles. PMID:26301121

  8. Enterococci as probiotics and their implications in food safety.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Gálvez, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Enterococci belong to the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and they are of importance in foods due to their involvement in food spoilage and fermentations, as well as their utilisation as probiotics in humans and slaughter animals. However, they are also important nosocomial pathogens that cause bacteraemia, endocarditis and other infections. Some strains are resistant to many antibiotics and possess virulence factors such as adhesins, invasins, pili and haemolysin. The role of enterococci in disease has raised questions on their safety for use in foods or as probiotics. Studies on the incidence of virulence traits among enterococcal strains isolated from food showed that some can harbour virulence traits, but it is also thought that virulence is not the result of the presence of specific virulence determinants alone, but is rather a more intricate process. Specific genetic lineages of hospital-adapted strains have emerged, such as E. faecium clonal complex (CC) 17 and E. faecalis CC2, CC9, CC28 and CC40, which are high risk enterococcal clonal complexes. These are characterised by the presence of antibiotic resistance determinants and/or virulence factors, often located on pathogenicity islands or plasmids. Mobile genetic elements thus are considered to play a major role in the establishment of problematic lineages. Although enterococci occur in high numbers in certain types of fermented cheeses and sausages, they are not deliberately added as starter cultures. Some E. faecium and E. faecalis strains are used as probiotics and are ingested in high numbers, generally in the form of pharmaceutical preparations. Such probiotics are administered to treat diarrhoea, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea or irritable bowel syndrome, to lower cholesterol levels or to improve host immunity. In animals, enterococcal probiotics are mainly used to treat or prevent diarrhoea, for immune stimulation or to improve growth. From a food microbiological point of view, the safety of the

  9. Probiotics for Preventing Late-Onset Sepsis in Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Hu, Hua-Jian; Liu, Chuan-Yang; Shakya, Shristi; Li, Zhong-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The effect of probiotics on late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm neonates remains controversial. The authors systematically reviewed the literature to investigate whether enteral probiotic supplementation reduced the risk of LOS in preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the effect of probiotics in preterm neonates. The primary outcome was culture-proven bacterial and/or fungal sepsis. The Mantel–Haenszel method with random-effects model was used to calculate pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Twenty-seven trials were included in our review, and 25 trials involving 6104 preterm neonates were statistically analyzed. Pooled analysis indicated that enteral probiotic supplementation significantly reduced the risk of any sepsis (25 RCTs; RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.73–0.94; I2 = 26%), bacterial sepsis (11 RCTs; RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71–0.95; I2 = 0%), and fungal sepsis (6 RCTs; RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.41–0.78; I2 = 0%). This beneficial effect remains in very low birth weight infants (<1500 g) (19 RCTs; RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75–0.97; I2 = 18%), but not in extremely low birth weight infants (<1000 g) (3 RCTs; RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.45–1.19; I2 = 53%). All the included trials reported no systemic infection caused by the supplemental probiotic organisms. Current evidence indicates that probiotic supplementation is safe, and effective in reducing the risk of LOS in preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units. Further studies are needed to address the optimal probiotic organism, dosing, timing, and duration. High-quality and adequately powered RCTs regarding the efficacy and safety of the use of probiotics in extremely low birth weight infants are still warranted. PMID:26937897

  10. Recommendations for Probiotic Use--2015 Update: Proceedings and Consensus Opinion.

    PubMed

    Floch, Martin H; Walker, W Allan; Sanders, Mary Ellen; Nieuwdorp, Max; Kim, Adam S; Brenner, David A; Qamar, Amir A; Miloh, Tamir A; Guarino, Alfredo; Guslandi, Mario; Dieleman, Levinus A; Ringel, Yehuda; Quigley, Eamonn M M; Brandt, Lawrence J

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the consensus opinion of the participants in the 4th Triennial Yale/Harvard Workshop on Probiotic Recommendations. The recommendations update those of the first 3 meetings that were published in 2006, 2008, and 2011. Recommendations for the use of probiotics in necrotizing enterocolitis, childhood diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and Clostridium difficile diarrhea are reviewed. In addition, we have added recommendations for liver disease for the first time. As in previous publications, the recommendations are given as A, B, or C ratings. PMID:26447969

  11. Viability, Acid and Bile Tolerance of Spray Dried Probiotic Bacteria and Some Commercial Probiotic Supplement Products Kept at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-06-01

    Production of probiotic food supplements that are shelf-stable at room temperature has been developed for consumer's convenience, but information on the stability in acid and bile environment is still scarce. Viability and acid and bile tolerance of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplements were evaluated. Bifidobacterium and L. acidophilus were encapsulated with casein-based emulsion using spray drying. Water activity (aw ) of the microspheres containing Bifidobacterium or L. acidophilus (SD GM product) was adjusted to 0.07 followed by storage at 25 °C for 10 wk. Encapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplement products (AL, GH, RE, and BM) were tested. Since commercial probiotic products contained mixed bacteria, selective media MRS-LP (containing L-cysteine and Na-propionate) and MRS-clindamycin agar were used to grow Bifidobacterium spp. or L. acidophilus, respectively, and to inhibit the growth of other strains. The results showed that aw had a strong negative correlation with the viability of dehydrated probiotics of the 6 products. Viable counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and L. acidophilus of SD GM, AL, and GH were between 8.3 and 9.2 log CFU/g, whereas that of BM and RE were between 6.7 and 7.3 log CFU/g. Bifidobacterium in SD GM, in AL, and in GH products and L. acidophilus in SD GM, in AL, and in BM products demonstrated high tolerance to acid. Most of dehydrated probiotic bacteria were able to survive in bile environment except L. acidophilus in RE product. Exposure to gastric juice influenced bacterial survivability in subsequent bile environment. PMID:27145163

  12. Perspectives on Blended Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, N.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the benefits and challenges of blended learning in higher education from the perspective of students, faculty, and administration that have had direct experience with this form of course delivery. Students indicate that a blended learning model provides them with greater time flexibility and improved learning outcomes but…

  13. Preparing Teachers for Emerging Blended Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kevin M.; Stallings, Dallas T.

    2014-01-01

    Blended learning environments that merge learning strategies, resources, and modes have been implemented in higher education settings for nearly two decades, and research has identified many positive effects. More recently, K-12 traditional and charter schools have begun to experiment with blended learning, but to date, research on the effects of…

  14. Enhancing Students' Language Skills through Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banditvilai, Choosri

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of using blended learning to enhance students' language skills and learner autonomy in an Asian university environment. Blended learning represents an educational environment for much of the world where computers and the Internet are readily available. It combines self-study with valuable face-to-face interaction…

  15. Dynamic Heterogeneity in Interacting Miscible Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaikwad, Ashish; Lodge, Timothy

    2008-03-01

    Dynamic heterogeneity leading to time-temperature superposition (tTS) failure has been widely reported in non-interacting/weakly interacting miscible polymer blends. However, coupling of the component dynamic response in blends, even with a huge dynamic asymmetry in the pure components, is possible with H-bonding interactions. This study is focused on finding the minimum level of interaction necessary for thermo-rheological simplicity in blends. Blends of styrene-co-vinylphenol (PSVPh) and poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) were chosen. Incorporation of styrene provides an effective way to modulate H-bonding interactions in the system. Linear viscoelastic data indicate that tTS fails for PS/PVME blends, whereas data obtained for different PVPh/PVME blends showed that tTS was obeyed a over wide temperature range. For PSVPh/PVME blends with low PSVPh content, tTS was successful. This suggests that the presence of alternating styrene and vinyl phenol units was insufficient for dynamic response decoupling. Further studies are in progress, with varying vinyl phenol content in PSVPh, to explore the influence of H-bonding on dynamic heterogeneity and blend dynamics.

  16. Compatible Blends of Zein and Polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blends of zein and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were compared based on their tensile properties, thermal properties and morphology. Zein was blended with polyvinylpyrrolidone of varying molecular weights (10,000, 55,000 and 1,300,000 MW) and films were cast from ethanol solutions. Films cast using t...

  17. Meeting Diverse Learner Needs with Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a 40-week Computer, Research Skills, and Projects (CRSP) blended learning course designed and implemented at Dubai Men's College. The learning employed a design using socio-constructivist principles in the blended approach to cater to the learning preferences of students. (Contains 2 figures and 1 footnote.)

  18. How Are Universities Involved in Blended Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Eunjoo; Park, Suhong

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to examine faculty involvement in blended instruction and their attitudes towards the instructional method. The study also explored how universities support faculty in their current practices on blended instruction and the challenges in supporting faculty. The target population of this study was Institute of Higher…

  19. Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof

    DOEpatents

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Siclovan, Oltea Puica; Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar; Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao; Porob, Digamber G.; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Heward, William Jordan; Radkov, Emil Vergilov; Briel, Linda Jane Valyou

    2010-12-28

    Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

  20. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  1. 40 CFR 80.85 - Pentane blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pentane blending. 80.85 Section 80.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.85 Pentane blending. A refiner for any...

  2. From biocontrol to cancer, probiotics and beyond.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Colum

    2013-01-01

    This invited commentary covers the period 1997-2012 and has seen changes in terminology that progressed from "basic" and "applied" to "translational" research. In the context of Bioengineered, these changes map readily onto the processes of identifying microbial characteristics appropriate for specific applications, isolation of suitable cultures, strain or genome manipulation and exploitation of these or their metabolomes across a range of settings.   To a great degree, this commentary and my career reflect an engagement with molecular microbiology and the trialling of bacteria and derived constructs in applications ranging from intensive-scale crop protection to amelioration of gastrointestinal disease. This engagement began with laboratory and field evaluations of biocontrol, specifically use of pseudomonads effective against nematode and fungal plant pathogens, characterization of mechanisms mediating beneficial effects of probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and assessment of functional foods in multinational clinical trials relating to inflammatory bowel disease. Subsequent work focused on (1) intellectual property (IP)-based medical devices for localized delivery of systemically toxic and gene cancer therapies; (2) growth of the science base supporting expansion of a multinational business including company acquisitions; (3) complementing existing inter-institutional research capabilities through development of a national industry-led collaboration; and, most recently, (4) strategic research programs at Ireland's newest medical school. My activities as outlined above parallel two distinct aspects of translational research: (1) involvement in knowledge-driven (commercial and research) organizations that brought together necessary resources and infrastructure and (2) availability of scale research funding from European Framework and Irish national programs. PMID:23247300

  3. Probiotics: a new way to fight bacterial pulmonary infections?

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Y; Le Blay, G; Boisramé-Gastrin, S; Le Gall, F; Héry-Arnaud, G; Gouriou, S; Vallet, S; Le Berre, R

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics, of which Fleming has identified the first representative, penicillin, in 1928, allowed dramatical improvement of the treatment of patients presenting with infectious diseases. However, once an antibiotic is used, resistance may develop more or less rapidly in some bacteria. It is thus necessary to develop therapeutic alternatives, such as the use of probiotics, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "micro-organisms which, administered live and in adequate amounts, confer a benefit to the health of the host". The scope of these micro-organisms is broad, concerning many areas including that of infectious diseases, especially respiratory infections. We describe the rational use of probiotics in respiratory tract infections and detail the results of various clinical studies describing the use of probiotics in the management of respiratory infections such as nosocomial or community acquired pneumonia, or on specific grounds such as cystic fibrosis. The results are sometimes contradictory, but the therapeutic potential of probiotics seems promising. Implementing research to understand their mechanisms of action is critical to conduct therapeutic tests based on a specific rational for the strains to be used, the dose, as well as the chosen mode and rhythm of administration. PMID:23820129

  4. THE HUMAN MICROBIOME AND PROBIOTICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PEDIATRICS

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Michael H.; Versalovic, James

    2010-01-01

    The “human super-organism” refers to the human body and the massive numbers of microbes which dwell within us and on the skin surface. Despite the large numbers of microbes co-existing within the human body, humans including infants and children achieve a physiologic state of equilibrium known as health in the context of this microbial world. These key concepts suggest that many individual members of the human microbiome, including bacterial and fungal species, confer different benefits on the human host. Probiotics, or beneficial microbes, may modulate immune responses, provide key nutrients, or suppress the proliferation and virulence of infectious agents. The human microbiome is in fact dynamic and often in flux, which may be indicative of the continuous interplay among commensal microbes, pathogens, and the human host. In this article we review the state-of-the-art regarding probiotics applications to prevent or treat diseases of the pediatric gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems. Additionally, probiotics may regulate local and systemic immunity, thereby reducing allergic disease severity and susceptibilities of infants and children to allergies and atopic diseases. In summary, beneficial microbes offer promising alternatives for new strategies in therapeutic microbiology with implications for different subspecialties within pediatrics. Instead of simply trying to counteract microbes with vaccines and antibiotics, a new field of medical microbiology is emerging that strives to translate human microbiome research into new probiotics strategies for promotion of health and prevention of disease in children. PMID:18992706

  5. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Oral Candida in Frail Elderly.

    PubMed

    Kraft-Bodi, E; Jørgensen, M R; Keller, M K; Kragelund, C; Twetman, S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli on the prevalence and counts of oral Candida in frail elderly patients living in nursing homes. The study had a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled design with 2 parallel arms. The study group consisted of 215 older adults (range, 60 to 102 y) who were enrolled after informed consent. After baseline examination and randomization, the subjects were given 1 lozenge containing 2 strains of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) or placebo twice daily (morning and evening). The intervention period was 12 wk, and saliva and plaque samples were collected at baseline and follow-up. The primary end point was prevalence of high Candida counts assessed from chairside tests. Secondary end points were levels of dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The groups were balanced at baseline. The attrition rate to follow-up was 19%. There was a statistically significant reduction in the prevalence of high Candida counts in the probiotic group but not in the placebo group, and the difference was statistically significant in both saliva and plaque (P < 0.05). No significant differences between the groups were noted concerning the levels of supragingival plaque or bleeding on probing. Thus, daily use of probiotic lozenges may reduce the prevalence of high oral Candida counts in frail elderly nursing homes residents (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02391532). PMID:26202995

  6. Use of probiotics in the fight against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and the evidence of its relationship with gastric diseases, antibiotic-based therapies were developed, which efficacy was however limited by antibiotic resistance and lack of patient compliance. A vaccine would overcome these drawbacks, but currently there is not any H. pylori vaccine licensed. In the frame of the studies aimed at finding alternative therapies or at increasing the efficacy of the current ones and/or reducing their side effects, the investigation on the use of probiotics plays an interesting role. In vitro and preclinical studies have shown the feasibility of this approach. Several clinical trials indicated that administration of probiotics can reduce the side effects of H. pylori eradication treatment, increasing tolerability, and often increases the overall efficacy. The results of these trials vary, likely reflecting the variety of probiotics assessed and that of the eradication treatment, as well as the differences in the geographic area that imply different H. pylori strains distribution, host susceptibility, and therapy efficacy. In conclusion, the use of probiotics appears promising as an adjuvant for the current H. pylori eradication treatment, though it still requires optimization. PMID:25400981

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Plant Probiotic Bacillus Strains.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Park, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of four Bacillus strains that exhibit plant probiotic activities. Three of them are the type strains of Bacillus endophyticus, "Bacillus gaemokensis," and Bacillus trypoxylicola, and the other, Bacillus sp. strain KCTC 13219, should be reclassified into a species belonging to the genus Lysinibacillus. PMID:27174273

  8. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Orel, Rok; Kamhi Trop, Tina

    2014-09-01

    It has been presumed that aberrant immune response to intestinal microorganisms in genetically predisposed individuals may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel disease, and there is a good deal of evidence supporting this hypothesis. Commensal enteric bacteria probably play a central role in pathogenesis, providing continuous antigenic stimulation that causes chronic intestinal injury. A strong biologic rationale supports the use of probiotics and prebiotics for inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Many probiotic strains exhibit anti-inflammatory properties through their effects on different immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion depression, and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines. There is very strong evidence supporting the use of multispecies probiotic VSL#3 for the prevention or recurrence of postoperative pouchitis in patients. For treatment of active ulcerative colitis, as well as for maintenance therapy, the clinical evidence of efficacy is strongest for VSL#3 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Moreover, some prebiotics, such as germinated barley foodstuff, Psyllium or oligofructose-enriched inulin, might provide some benefit in patients with active ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis in remission. The results of clinical trials in the treatment of active Crohn's disease or the maintenance of its remission with probiotics and prebiotics are disappointing and do not support their use in this disease. The only exception is weak evidence of advantageous use of Saccharomyces boulardii concomitantly with medical therapy in maintenance treatment. PMID:25206258

  9. Probiotic Bacteria as Biological Control Agents in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Verschuere, Laurent; Rombaut, Geert; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy

    2000-01-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and live food, with an evaluation of the results obtained so far. A new definition of probiotics, also applicable to aquatic environments, is proposed, and a detailed description is given of their possible modes of action, i.e., production of compounds that are inhibitory toward pathogens, competition with harmful microorganisms for nutrients and energy, competition with deleterious species for adhesion sites, enhancement of the immune response of the animal, improvement of water quality, and interaction with phytoplankton. A rationale is proposed for the multistep and multidisciplinary process required for the development of effective and safe probiotics for commercial application in aquaculture. Finally, directions for further research are discussed. PMID:11104813

  10. Delivery of Probiotics in the Space Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers during spaceflight, counteracting the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight. Specifically, the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus has been shown to promote health benefits including antagonism towards and inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens, mucosal stimulation of immune cells, and a reduction in the occurrence and duration of cold and flu-like symptoms. The optimum delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. This work proposes to determine whether L. acidophilus is more viable, and therefore more likely to confer immune benefit, when delivered in a capsule form or when delivered in nonfat dry milk powder with a resuscitation opportunity upon rehydration, following 0, 4, and 8 months of storage at -80degC, 4degC, and 22degC, and both prior to and after challenge with simulated gastric and intestinal juices. We hypothesize that the low moisture neutral dairy matrix provided by the nonfat dry milk, and the rehydration step prior to consumption, will extend probiotic viability and stress tolerance compared to a capsule during potential storage conditions in spaceflight and in simulated digestion conditions.

  11. Delivery of Probiotics in the Space Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers during spaceflight, counteracting the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight [1]. Specifically, the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus has been shown to promote health benefits including antagonism towards and inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens, mucosal stimulation of immune cells, and a reduction in the occurrence and duration of cold and flu-like symptoms [2-5]. The optimum delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. This work proposes to determine whether L. acidophilus is more viable, and therefore more likely to confer immune benefit, when delivered in a capsule form or when delivered in nonfat dry milk powder with a resuscitation opportunity upon rehydration, following 0, 4, and 8 months of storage at -80degC, 4degC, and 22degC, and both prior to and after challenge with simulated gastric and intestinal juices. We hypothesize that the low moisture neutral dairy matrix provided by the nonfat dry milk, and the rehydration step prior to consumption, will extend probiotic viability and stress tolerance compared to a capsule during potential storage conditions in spaceflight and in simulated digestion conditions.

  12. Technological optimization of manufacture of probiotic whey cheese matrices.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Ana R; Brandão, Teresa; Gomes, Ana M; Pintado, Manuela E; Malcata, F Xavier

    2011-03-01

    In attempts to optimize their manufacture, whey cheese matrices obtained via thermal processing of whey (leading to protein precipitation) and inoculated with probiotic cultures were tested. A central composite, face-centered design was followed, so a total of 16 experiments were run using fractional addition of bovine milk to feedstock whey, homogenization time, and storage time of whey cheese as processing parameters. Probiotic whey cheese matrices were inoculated with Lactobacillus casei LAFTIL26 at 10% (v/v), whereas control whey cheese matrices were added with skim milk previously acidified with lactic acid to the same level. All whey cheeses were stored at 7 °C up to 14 d. Chemical and sensory analyses were carried out for all samples, as well as rheological characterization by oscillatory viscometry and textural profiling. As expected, differences were found between control and probiotic matrices: fractional addition of milk and storage time were the factors accounting for the most important effects. Estimation of the best operating parameters was via response surface analysis: milk addition at a rate of 10% to 15% (v/v), and homogenization for 5 min led to the best probiotic whey cheeses in terms of texture and organoleptic properties, whereas the best time for consumption was found to be by 9 d of storage following manufacture. PMID:21535760

  13. Recent trends and applications of encapsulating materials for probiotic stability.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Qurat Ul Ain; Masud, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    The importance of probiotics and their live delivery in the gastrointestinal tract has gained much importance in the recent past. Many reports have indicated that there is poor viability of probiotic bacteria in dairy based products, both fermented and non-fermented, and also in the human gastro-intestinal system is questionable. In this case, microencapsulation is the most significant emerging and efficient technology that is being used for the preservation of probiotics against adverse environmental conditions. Apart from different techniques of microencapsulation, various types of encapsulating materials are also used for the process, namely, alginate, chitosan, carrageenan, gums (locust bean, gellan gum, xanthan gum, etc.), gelatin, whey protein, starch, and compression coating. Each one of the encapsulating materials has its own unique characteristics of capsule formation and provision of shape, appearance, and strength to microbeads. The type of encapsulating material also influences the viability of probiotics during storage, processing, and in the gastrointestinal tract. The effectiveness of any material depends not upon its capsule forming capability, strength, and enhancing viability but also on its cheapness, availability, and biocompatibility. So, added convenience and reduced packaging costs may also be used to offset the cost of encapsulating one or more ingredients. Encapsulated forms of ingredients provide a longer shelf life for the product. PMID:23215997

  14. Novel method to identify probiotic isolates against enteric foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide, primarily caused by consumption of contaminated poultry products. One potential strategy to reduce Campylobacter colonization in poultry is by the use of oral probiotics, but this produces variable results, possibly due to destructio...

  15. Effect of Probiotics/Prebiotics on Cattle Health and Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Uyeno, Yutaka; Shigemori, Suguru; Shimosato, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics/prebiotics have the ability to modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, and are, thus, considered beneficial to the host animal and have been used as functional foods. Numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, have been shown to markedly affect the structure and activities of gut microbial communities in livestock animals. Previous studies reported the potential of probiotics and prebiotics in animal nutrition; however, their efficacies often vary and are inconsistent, possibly, in part, because the dynamics of the GI community have not been taken into consideration. Under stressed conditions, direct-fed microbials may be used to reduce the risk or severity of scours caused by disruption of the normal intestinal environment. The observable benefits of prebiotics may also be minimal in generally healthy calves, in which the microbial community is relatively stable. However, probiotic yeast strains have been administered with the aim of improving rumen fermentation efficiency by modulating microbial fermentation pathways. This review mainly focused on the benefits of probiotics/prebiotics on the GI microbial ecosystem in ruminants, which is deeply involved in nutrition and health for the animal. PMID:26004794

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Plant Probiotic Bacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of four Bacillus strains that exhibit plant probiotic activities. Three of them are the type strains of Bacillus endophyticus, “Bacillus gaemokensis,” and Bacillus trypoxylicola, and the other, Bacillus sp. strain KCTC 13219, should be reclassified into a species belonging to the genus Lysinibacillus. PMID:27174273

  17. Interaction of probiotics and pathogens--benefits to human health?

    PubMed

    Salminen, Seppo; Nybom, Sonja; Meriluoto, Jussi; Collado, Maria Carmen; Vesterlund, Satu; El-Nezami, Hani

    2010-04-01

    The probiotic terminology has matured over the years and currently a unified definition has been formed. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria have been reported to remove heavy metals, cyanotoxins and mycotoxins from aqueous solutions. The binding processes appear to be species and strain specific. The most efficient microbial species and strains in the removal of these compounds vary between components tested. However, it is of interest to note that most strains characterized until now do not bind positive components or nutrients in the diet. This has significant implications to future detoxification biotechnology development. In a similar manner, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria interact directly with viruses and pathogens in food and water as well as toxin producing microbes and some toxins. This review updates information and aims to characterize these interactions in association. The target is to understand probiotic health effects and to relate the mechanisms and actions to future potential of specific probiotic bacteria on decontamination of foods and water, and diets. The same aim is targeted in characterizing the role of probiotics in inactivating pathogens and viruses of health importance to facilitate the establishment of novel means of disease risk reduction related health benefits. PMID:20413293

  18. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Orel, Rok; Kamhi Trop, Tina

    2014-01-01

    It has been presumed that aberrant immune response to intestinal microorganisms in genetically predisposed individuals may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel disease, and there is a good deal of evidence supporting this hypothesis. Commensal enteric bacteria probably play a central role in pathogenesis, providing continuous antigenic stimulation that causes chronic intestinal injury. A strong biologic rationale supports the use of probiotics and prebiotics for inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Many probiotic strains exhibit anti-inflammatory properties through their effects on different immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion depression, and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines. There is very strong evidence supporting the use of multispecies probiotic VSL#3 for the prevention or recurrence of postoperative pouchitis in patients. For treatment of active ulcerative colitis, as well as for maintenance therapy, the clinical evidence of efficacy is strongest for VSL#3 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Moreover, some prebiotics, such as germinated barley foodstuff, Psyllium or oligofructose-enriched inulin, might provide some benefit in patients with active ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis in remission. The results of clinical trials in the treatment of active Crohn’s disease or the maintenance of its remission with probiotics and prebiotics are disappointing and do not support their use in this disease. The only exception is weak evidence of advantageous use of Saccharomyces boulardii concomitantly with medical therapy in maintenance treatment. PMID:25206258

  19. Current status of practical applications: Probiotics in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gastrointestinal microbial population of dairy cattle is dense and diverse, and can be utilized to reduce pathogenic bacterial populations as well as improve animal productivity and environmental impacts. Because of the nature of the dairy industry, probiotic products have been widely used to e...

  20. Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, L; Rombaut, G; Sorgeloos, P; Verstraete, W

    2000-12-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and live food, with an evaluation of the results obtained so far. A new definition of probiotics, also applicable to aquatic environments, is proposed, and a detailed description is given of their possible modes of action, i.e., production of compounds that are inhibitory toward pathogens, competition with harmful microorganisms for nutrients and energy, competition with deleterious species for adhesion sites, enhancement of the immune response of the animal, improvement of water quality, and interaction with phytoplankton. A rationale is proposed for the multistep and multidisciplinary process required for the development of effective and safe probiotics for commercial application in aquaculture. Finally, directions for further research are discussed. PMID:11104813

  1. Mechanisms of probiotic action: Implications for therapeutic applications in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Vanderpool, Charles; Yan, Fang; Polk, D Brent

    2008-11-01

    Probiotics are defined as nonpathogenic living microorganisms, including some commensal bacterial flora, which have beneficial effects on host health and disease prevention and/or treatment. Clinical trials have shown beneficial effects of probiotics on several human diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), which are among the most-studied diseases testing probiotics as a potential therapy. However, a significant question regarding clinical use of probiotics is the mechanism underlying the wide range of actions. Studies discussed in this review suggest 3 distinct cellular and molecular mechanisms for probiotic regulation in IBD therapy: 1) Probiotics block pathogenic bacterial effects by producing bactericidal substances and competing with pathogens and toxins for adherence to the intestinal epithelium; 2) Probiotics regulate immune responses by enhancing the innate immunity and modulating pathogen-induced inflammation via toll-like receptor-regulated signaling pathways; and 3) Probiotics regulate intestinal epithelial homeostasis by promoting intestinal epithelial cell survival, enhancing barrier function, and stimulating protective responses. Probiotics modulate host cell signaling pathways, including Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and nuclear factor-kappaB to mediate these intestinal epithelial functions. It is hoped that developing a mechanistic understanding of probiotic action will provide the rationale to support the development of new hypothesis-driven studies to define the clinical efficacy in preventive, adjunctive, or alternative treatments for IBD. PMID:18623173

  2. Non-dairy probiotic beverages: the next step into human health.

    PubMed

    Gawkowski, D; Chikindas, M L

    2013-06-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. The two main genera of microorganisms indicated as sources of probiotic bacteria are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Historically used to produce fermented dairy products, certain strains of both genera are increasingly utilised to formulate other functional foods. As the consumers' understanding of the role of probiotics in health grows, so does the popularity of food containing them. The result of this phenomenon is an increase in the number of probiotic foods available for public consumption, including a rapidly-emerging variety of probiotic-containing non-dairy beverages, which provide a convenient way to improve and maintain health. However, the composition of non-dairy probiotic beverages can pose specific challenges to the survival of the health conferring microorganisms. To overcome these challenges, strain selection and protection techniques play an integral part in formulating a stable product. This review discusses non-dairy probiotic beverages, characteristics of an optimal beverage, and commonly used probiotic strains, including spore-forming bacteria. It also examines the most recent developments in probiotic encapsulation technology with focus on nano-fibre formation as a means of protecting viable cells. Utilising bacteria's natural armour or creating barrier mechanisms via encapsulation technology will fuel development of stable non-dairy probiotic beverages. PMID:23271064

  3. [Analysis of prophylactic and therapeutic effect of probiotic preparations from position of new scientific technologies].

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, V M; Rybalchenko, O V

    2015-01-01

    In this review new scientific technologies (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcrip- tomics) were used to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic action of probiotics, which are a major component ofthe normal human microflora (microbiota). Modern terms, definitions, classification of probiotic preparations are provided in the paper, the list of the probiotics registered in the Russian Federation is also submitted. The review analyzes the majority of mechanisms of probiotics action on a human body. The problem of safe application of probiotics is considered along with the detailed characteristic of the most effective production probiotic strains. New scientific technology to assess the effects of probiotic bacteria on the various functions of the macroorganism are also examined. In the review the special attention is paid to discussion of effectiveness of the probiotics impact in chronic infectious and metabolic disease processes (atherosclerosis, lipid distress syndrome, type 2 diabetes, obesity, etc.), which are the most active during dysbacteriosis and the destruction of normal microflora. From data of this article clearly that new scientific technologies will allow us to establish the functions of proteins that regulate metabolic and signaling pathways and affect the expression of genes required for the adaptation of probiotic strains in contact with the human body. In this review it is shown that the successful solution of this problem is closely connected with application of new scientific technologies for studying the composition and functions of the human microbiota, methods of active influence on her, and also with development of more sophisticated and effective probiotic preparations. PMID:26016351

  4. Pategrás cheese as a suitable carrier for six probiotic cultures.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, Carina; Hynes, Erica; Meinardi, Carlos; Suárez, Viviana; Quiberoni, Andrea; Zalazar, Carlos

    2010-08-01

    The viability of five single-strain and one three-strain probiotic cultures was assessed during Pategrás cheese ripening. Probiotics were inoculated into cheese-milk after a pre-incubation step - intended to improve their survival - or directly as a lyophilised culture; control cheeses without probiotics were also obtained. pH of probiotic and control cheeses was similar, except in probiotic cheeses containing the strain Lb. acidophilus B or the mixed culture. In these cases, the probiotic cheeses were more acid than their respective control cheeses. All the probiotics tested maintained counts above 107 cfu/g during the shelf-life settled for the product. Strains of the Lb. casei group: Lb. paracasei, Lb. casei and Lb. rhamnosus reached and kept the highest cell concentration during cheese ripening, followed by Lb. acidophilus and bifidobacteria. The direct addition of the probiotic cultures was more efficient than their inoculation after a pre-incubation step, for all the probiotics assayed. We have provided evidence that support the use of Pategrás cheese as a performing food-based vehicle for probiotic bacteria. PMID:20181295

  5. Can prebiotics and probiotics improve therapeutic outcomes for undernourished individuals?

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Paul O; Bindels, Laure B; Saulnier, Delphine M; Reid, Gregor; Nova, Esther; Holmgren, Kerstin; O'Toole, Paul W; Bunn, James; Delzenne, Nathalie; Scott, Karen P

    2014-01-01

    It has become clear in recent years that the human intestinal microbiota plays an important role in maintaining health and thus is an attractive target for clinical interventions. Scientists and clinicians have become increasingly interested in assessing the ability of probiotics and prebiotics to enhance the nutritional status of malnourished children, pregnant women, the elderly, and individuals with non-communicable disease-associated malnutrition. A workshop was held by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP), drawing on the knowledge of experts from industry, medicine, and academia, with the objective to assess the status of our understanding of the link between the microbiome and under-nutrition, specifically in relation to probiotic and prebiotic treatments for under-nourished individuals. These discussions led to four recommendations:   (1) The categories of malnourished individuals need to be differentiated To improve treatment outcomes, subjects should first be categorized based on the cause of malnutrition, additional health-concerns, differences in the gut microbiota, and sociological considerations. (2) Define a baseline “healthy” gut microbiota for each category Altered nutrient requirement (for example, in pregnancy and old age) and individual variation may change what constitutes a healthy gut microbiota for the individual. (3) Perform studies using model systems to test the effectiveness of potential probiotics and prebiotics against these specific categories These should illustrate how certain microbiota profiles can be altered, as members of different categories may respond differently to the same treatment. (4) Perform robust well-designed human studies with probiotics and/or prebiotics, with appropriate, defined primary outcomes and sample size These are critical to show efficacy and understand responder and non-responder outcomes. It is hoped that these recommendations will lead to new approaches

  6. Thermal characterization of polymer blends prepared by reactive blending of PC and PET

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorini, M.; Marchese, P.; Pilati, F.

    1996-12-31

    Several Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-Bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC/PET) blends were prepared by reactive blending poly(ethylene terephthalate) and Bisphenol A polycarbonate in a batch mixer in the presence of ester exchange catalysts with different catalytic activity, such as Titanium, Terbium, Cerium, Samarium, Europium and Calcium/Antimony compounds. The catalytic activity and mixing time have been correlated with the extent of ester-carbonate exchange reactions and hence the influence of the PET/PC block copolymers formed during the blending on miscibility has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The results of the thermal characterization showed that blends with a single glass transition temperature can be prepared at different mixing time determined by the ester-carbonate exchange reaction activity of the different catalysts employed. In addition, the Tg`s values for the miscible blends were lower than those predicted by the widely used Flory-Fox equation, except from the blends prepared with the Titanium catalyst. Crystallization of PET in PC/PET blends was also investigated. Thermal analysis is a powerful technique that can be applied to the determination of miscibility in polymer blends. In this communication, the results of a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study on blends prepared by reactive blending PC and PET are reported.

  7. Probiotics in fish and shellfish culture: immunomodulatory and ecophysiological responses.

    PubMed

    C De, Bidhan; Meena, D K; Behera, B K; Das, Pronob; Das Mohapatra, P K; Sharma, A P

    2014-06-01

    Aquaculture is emerging as one of the most viable and promising enterprises for keeping pace with the surging need for animal protein, providing nutritional and food security to humans, particularly those residing in regions where livestock is relatively scarce. With every step toward intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in the stress level in the animal as well as the environment. Hence, disease outbreak is being increasingly recognized as one of the most important constraints to aquaculture production in many countries, including India. Conventionally, the disease control in aquaculture has relied on the use of chemical compounds and antibiotics. The development of non-antibiotic and environmentally friendly agents is one of the key factors for health management in aquaculture. Consequently, with the emerging need for environmentally friendly aquaculture, the use of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in fish nutrition is now widely accepted. In recent years, probiotics have taken center stage and are being used as an unconventional approach that has numerous beneficial effects in fish and shellfish culture: improved activity of gastrointestinal microbiota and enhanced immune status, disease resistance, survival, feed utilization and growth performance. As natural products, probiotics have much potential to increase the efficiency and sustainability of aquaculture production. Therefore, comprehensive research to fully characterize the intestinal microbiota of prominent fish species, mechanisms of action of probiotics and their effects on the intestinal ecosystem, immunity, fish health and performance is reasonable. This review highlights the classifications and applications of probiotics in aquaculture. The review also summarizes the advancement and research highlights of the probiotic status and mode of action, which are of great significance from an ecofriendly, sustainable, intensive aquaculture point of view. PMID:24419543

  8. Human Milk: Mother Nature’s Prototypical Probiotic Food?1234

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of “probiotic” is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: “a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host.” As such, answering the fundamental question posed here—“Is human milk a probiotic?”—requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother’s and/or the recipient infant’s health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known. PMID:25593150

  9. Probiotics Protect Mice from Ovariectomy-Induced Cortical Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Ohlsson, Claes; Engdahl, Cecilia; Fåk, Frida; Andersson, Annica; Windahl, Sara H.; Farman, Helen H.; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Islander, Ulrika; Sjögren, Klara

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx) results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L) strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para) or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix) given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh) treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice. PMID:24637895

  10. Reduction of ochratoxin A in chicken feed using probiotic.

    PubMed

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins present in fodders may evoke health problems of animals and people. The data published by FAO in 2001 show that 25% of raw materials are contaminated with mycotoxins, while their type and concentration are to a great extent dependable on the climatic zone. Biological detoxification of mycotoxins by the use of microorganisms is one of the well-known strategies for the management of mycotoxins in foods and feeds. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of spontaneous fermentation and that with the use of probiotic bacteria and yeast on ochratoxin A (OTA) concentration and the microbiota pattern during fermentation. The probiotic preparation is a natural product containing bacteria resistant to gastric juice and bile: Lactobacillus paracasei LOCK 0920, Lactobacillus brevis LOCK 0944, Lactobacillus plantarum LOCK 0945, as well as live yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae LOCK 0140 of high fermenting capacity. After 6-hour fermentation with the probiotic, in feed with a low concentration of ochratoxin A (1 mg/kg) the amount of ochratoxin A decreased by 73%. In the case of high a concentration (5 mg/kg) the decrease in ochratoxin A was lower at about 55%. This tendency was sustained during the following hours of incubation (12th and 24th hours). The application of probiotic bacteria and yeasts resulted in the reduction of aerobic spore forming bacteria. It can be concluded that the probiotic preparation containing bacteria of Lactobacillus strains and yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in the study was conducive to detoxification of ochratoxin A added to a feed. PMID:25528900

  11. Polymer blends for directed self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namie, Yuuji; Anno, Yusuke; Naruoka, Takehiko; Minegishi, Shinya; Nagai, Tomoki; Hishiro, Yoshi; Yamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2013-03-01

    The advantage of blend DSA (Directed Self Assembly) is milder anneal condition than PS-b-PMMA BCP DSA materials and availability of conventional instruments. In this paper, blend type DSA was applied for hole patterning. Target patterns were contact hole and oval hole. Polymer phase separation behavior has been studied from the point of χN. In the case of polymer blend, χN needs to be more than 2 to give phase separation. At first the effect of polymer size was studied. When the polymer weight was low, the shrunk hole was not clean because of low χN. Furthermore, the correlation of shrink amount and χN was studied. Higher χN polymer blend system gave higher shrink amount. High χN polymer systems give clear interface, then the intermixing area would be reduced, then the attached polymer blend part became larger. The polymer blend ratio effect was also investigated. The blend ratio was varied for polymer A/ polymer B=70/30-50/50. The shrink amount of oval hole was reduced with increasing the ratio of polymer B. However, the shrink amount ratio of CDY/CDX was almost constant (~3).

  12. Two glass transitions in miscible polymer blends?

    SciTech Connect

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F.; Douglas, Jack F.

    2014-06-28

    In contrast to mixtures of two small molecule fluids, miscible binary polymer blends often exhibit two structural relaxation times and two glass transition temperatures. Qualitative explanations postulate phenomenological models of local concentration enhancements due to chain connectivity in ideal, fully miscible systems. We develop a quantitative theory that explains qualitative trends in the dynamics of real miscible polymer blends which are never ideal mixtures. The theory is a synthesis of the lattice cluster theory of blend thermodynamics, the generalized entropy theory for glass-formation in polymer materials, and the Kirkwood-Buff theory for concentration fluctuations in binary mixtures.

  13. BioBlend.objects: metacomputing with Galaxy

    PubMed Central

    Leo, Simone; Pireddu, Luca; Cuccuru, Gianmauro; Lianas, Luca; Soranzo, Nicola; Afgan, Enis; Zanetti, Gianluigi

    2014-01-01

    Summary: BioBlend.objects is a new component of the BioBlend package, adding an object-oriented interface for the Galaxy REST-based application programming interface. It improves support for metacomputing on Galaxy entities by providing higher-level functionality and allowing users to more easily create programs to explore, query and create Galaxy datasets and workflows. Availability and implementation: BioBlend.objects is available online at https://github.com/afgane/bioblend. The new object-oriented API is implemented by the galaxy/objects subpackage. Contact: simone.leo@crs4.it PMID:24928211

  14. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  15. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spanish type blending... type blending sherry. Blending wine made with partially caramelized grape concentrate may be produced..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the...

  16. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spanish type blending... type blending sherry. Blending wine made with partially caramelized grape concentrate may be produced..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the...

  17. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  18. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  19. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spanish type blending... type blending sherry. Blending wine made with partially caramelized grape concentrate may be produced..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the...

  20. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  1. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spanish type blending... type blending sherry. Blending wine made with partially caramelized grape concentrate may be produced..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the...

  2. Segmentation and Representation of Consonant Blends in Kindergarten Children's Spellings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the growth of children's segmentation and representation of consonant blends in the kindergarten year and to evaluate the extent to which linguistic features influence segmentation and representation of consonant blends. Specifically, the roles of word position (initial blends, final blends),…

  3. Impact of Age, Gender, and Addition of Probiotics on Treatment Success for Helicobacter pylori in Children

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Noam; Shaoul, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age, gender, and the use of probiotics with standard treatment regimen on Helicobacter pylori eradication. Based on endoscopic findings and clinical presentation, selected patients were treated with standard triple therapy (omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin). Those who failed were offered a repeat treatment with omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. After the publications of the possible advantages of probiotic treatment on H pylori eradication, the probiotic agent “Probiotica Forte” was routinely added to the treatment. Eradication was noted for 94/130 patients (72%) and for 128/197 patients (65%) with or without probiotic agent, respectively (P = .23). For second-line treatment eradication was noted in 33/46 (72%) and in 9/20 (45%) with or without probiotic agent, respectively (P = .053). The addition of probiotics may improve eradication success especially in addition to second-line treatment. PMID:27335981

  4. Perspectives on the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from African traditional fermented foods and beverages

    PubMed Central

    Mokoena, Mduduzi Paul; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2016-01-01

    Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popular probiotics are derived from fermented milk products. However, with the growing number of consumers with lactose intolerance that are affected by dietary cholesterol from milk products, there is a growing global interest in probiotics from other food sources. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of recent developments on the applications of probiotic LAB globally, and to specifically highlight the suitability of African fermented foods and beverages as a viable source of novel probiotics. PMID:26960543

  5. Emerging molecular insights into the interaction between probiotics and the host intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bron, Peter A; van Baarlen, Peter; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria can modulate immune responses in the host gastrointestinal tract to promote health. The genomics era has provided novel opportunities for the discovery and characterization of bacterial probiotic effector molecules that elicit specific responses in the intestinal system. Furthermore, nutrigenomic analyses of the response to probiotics have unravelled the signalling and immune response pathways which are modulated by probiotic bacteria. Together, these genomic approaches and nutrigenomic analyses have identified several bacterial factors that are involved in modulation of the immune system and the mucosal barrier, and have revealed that a molecular 'bandwidth of human health' could represent a key determinant in an individual's physiological responsiveness to probiotics. These approaches may lead to improved stratification of consumers and to subpopulation-level probiotic supplementation to maintain or improve health, or to reduce the risk of disease. PMID:22101918

  6. Research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture: A review.

    PubMed

    Hai, Ngo Van

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to present research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture. In omnivorous species of tilapia aquaculture, intestines and gonads, rearing water and sediments or even commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics. Administration of probiotics varies from direct oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is most commonly used. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. As probiotics have been proven to be either immune enhancers and/or growth promoters in aquatic animals, several modes of actions of probiotics in enhancement of immune responses, and an improvement of growth and survival rates of tilapia are presented, while the effects of others are not yet understood to the same degree as for other fish species. Some points extracted from the research findings are emphasised for further investigation and development. PMID:26003738

  7. Probiotics and Prebiotics for Prevention of Food Allergy: Indications and Recommendations by Societies and Institutions.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Sibylle

    2016-07-01

    Probiotics are defined as "live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host". Unfortunately, misuse of the term probiotic is very common. According to the regulation of the European food safety authority (EFSA) health claims on pre- and probiotics are not judged as favorable. Scientific societies should give guidance to the consumers and health care professionals on the use of probiotics and prebiotics for prevention and disease management. There is currently no positive recommendation from international scientific medical societies to use prebiotics or probiotics for treatment of food allergy or other allergic manifestations and for prevention of food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. Discrepant recommendations exist for probiotics for prevention of eczema in high risk infants. PMID:27380601

  8. Perspectives on the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from African traditional fermented foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Mokoena, Mduduzi Paul; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2016-01-01

    Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popular probiotics are derived from fermented milk products. However, with the growing number of consumers with lactose intolerance that are affected by dietary cholesterol from milk products, there is a growing global interest in probiotics from other food sources. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of recent developments on the applications of probiotic LAB globally, and to specifically highlight the suitability of African fermented foods and beverages as a viable source of novel probiotics. PMID:26960543

  9. From yaks to yogurt: the history, development, and current use of probiotics.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Lynne V

    2015-05-15

    The development of probiotics, which are living bacteria or yeasts used to confer a health benefit on the host, has paralleled our research in food preservation, microbiologic identification techniques, and our understanding of how the complex interactions in microbiota impact the host's health and recovery from disease. This review briefly describes the history of probiotics, where probiotic strains were originally isolated, and the types of probiotic products currently available on the global market. In addition, the uses or indications for these probiotics are described, along with the types of clinical investigations that have been done. Continuing challenges persist for the proper probiotic strain identification, regulatory pathways, and how healthcare providers can choose a specific strain to recommend to their patients. PMID:25922406

  10. Impact of plant derivatives on the growth of foodborne pathogens and the functionality of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Rabin; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2012-07-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of various plant components. However, there is relatively little information on the impact of such components on the enhancement of probiotics and production of antimicrobial compounds from these probiotics. Hence, this paper focuses on the influence of plant-derived components against pathogens, enhancement of cell viability and functionality of probiotics, and potential applications of such components in food safety and human health. PMID:22622837

  11. Efficacy and safety of probiotics as adjuvant agents for Helicobacter pylori infection: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    LV, ZHIFA; WANG, BEN; ZHOU, XIAOJIANG; WANG, FUCAI; XIE, YONG; ZHENG, HUILIE; LV, NONGHUA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether probiotics could help to improve the eradication rates and reduce the side effects associated with anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment, and to investigate the optimal time and duration of probiotic administration during the treatment, thus providing clinical practice guidelines for eradication success worldwide. By searching Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Science Citation Index, all the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics as adjuvant agents of anti-H. pylori standard triple-therapy regimens with placebo or no treatment were selected. Statistical analysis was performed with the Comprehensive Meta Analysis Software. Subgroup, meta-regression and sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Twenty-one RCTs involving a total of 3,814 participants met the inclusion criteria. The pooled eradication rates of the probiotic group were 80.3% (1,709/2,128) by intention-to-treat (ITT) and 83.8% (1,709/2,039) by pro-protocol analyses; the pooled relative risk (RR) by ITT for probiotic supplementation versus treatment without probiotics was 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06–1.19]. A reduced risk of overall H. pylori therapy-related adverse effects was also found with probiotic supplementation (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40–0.91). The subgroup analyses showed that probiotic supplementation prior and subsequent to the treatment regimen both improved eradication rates for H. pylori infection. Furthermore, probiotic treatment lasting >2 weeks and including Lactobacillus or multiple probiotic strains significantly enhanced the efficacy. In conclusion, supplementation with probiotics for H. pylori eradication may be effective in increasing eradication rates and decreasing therapy-related side effects. Probiotic administration prior or subsequent to therapy and for a duration of >2 weeks may increase the eradication efficacy. PMID:25667617

  12. Effect of blend ratio of PP/kapok blend nonwoven fabrics on oil sorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Do-Hyung; Shin, Min-Seung; Jung, Young-Jin; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kim, Han-Do

    2013-01-01

    More research and development on novel oil sorbent materials is needed to protect the environmental pollution. New nonwoven fabrics (pads) of polypropylene (PP)/kapok blends (blend ratio: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 10/90) were prepared by needle punching process at a fixed (optimized) condition (punch density: 50 punches/cm2 and depth: 4mm). This study focused on the effect of blend ratio of PP/kapok nonwoven fabrics on oil sorption capacities to find the best blend ratio having the highest synergy effect. The PP/kapok blend (50/50) sample has the lowest bulk density and showed the best oil absorption capacity. The oil sorption capacity of PP/kapok blend (50/50) nonwoven fabric for kerosene/soybean oil [21.09/27.01 (g oil/g sorbent)] was 1.5-2 times higher than those of commercial PP pad oil sorbents. The highest synergy effect of PP/kapok blend (50/50) was ascribed to the lowest bulk density of PP/kapok blend (50/50), which might be due to the highest morphologically incompatibility between PP fibre and kapok. These results suggest that the PP/kapok blend (50/50) having the highest synergy effect has a high potential as a new high-performance oil sorbent material. PMID:24617076

  13. Predict octane number for gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Zahed, A.H.; Mullah, S.A.; Bashir, M.D. )

    1993-05-01

    A model with five independent variables is used to predict the octane number of gasoline blends with more accuracy than any previous model. Often, it is useful to know the resulting octane number before the gasoline is blended. Clearly, such a model is useful because good predictive models have been few and far between. With high-powered and faster personal computers, regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regression analysis technique to predict the octane rating of 16 blends of motor gasoline. Predicted results for the 16 blends of gasolines were compared with experimental results obtained on CFR engines. Predicted results from the proposed empirical model were in agreement with the experimental data with an average deviational error of 0.54%.

  14. 40 CFR 80.82 - Butane blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.82 Butane blending. A refiner for any refinery that... the provisions of § 80.101(g)(3). For purposes of this paragraph (h)(1), the property values in §...

  15. 40 CFR 80.82 - Butane blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.82 Butane blending. A refiner for any refinery that...). For purposes of this paragraph (i)(1), the property values in § 80.82(c) or (d), as appropriate,...

  16. 27 CFR 24.198 - Blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the production of special natural wine of the same type, e.g., producing a sweet vermouth by blending sweet vermouths produced under two or more approved formulas, the submission and approval of...

  17. Enzymatic degradation of polycaprolactone-gelatin blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-04-01

    Blends of polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polymer and gelatin, natural polymer offer a optimal combination of strength, water wettability and cytocompatibility for use as a resorbable biomaterial. The enzymatic degradation of PCL, gelatin and PCL-gelatin blended films was studied in the presence of lipase (Novozym 435, immobilized) and lysozyme. Novozym 435 degraded the PCL films whereas lysozyme degraded the gelatin. Though Novozym 435 and lysozyme individually could degrade PCL-gelatin blended films, the combination of these enzymes showed the highest degradation of these blended films. Moreover, the enzymatic degradation was much faster when fresh enzymes were added at regular intervals. The changes in physico-chemical properties of polymer films due to degradation were studied by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. These results have important implications for designing resorbable biomedical implants.

  18. Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 – an antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic

    PubMed Central

    Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Mihkel

    2009-01-01

    The paper lays out the short scientific history and characteristics of the new probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain ME-3 DSM-14241, elaborated according to the regulations of WHO/FAO (2002). L. fermentum ME-3 is a unique strain of Lactobacillus species, having at the same time the antimicrobial and physiologically effective antioxidative properties and expressing health-promoting characteristics if consumed. Tartu University has patented this strain in Estonia (priority June 2001, patent in 2006), Russia (patent in 2006) and the USA (patent in 2007). The paper describes the process of the identification and molecular typing of this probiotic strain of human origin, its deposition in an international culture collection, and its safety assessment by laboratory tests and testing on experimental animals and volunteers. It has been established that L. fermentum strain ME-3 has double functional properties: antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogens and high total antioxidative activity (TAA) and total antioxidative status (TAS) of intact cells and lysates, and it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover. The functional efficacy of the antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic has been proven by the eradication of salmonellas and the reduction of liver and spleen granulomas in Salmonella Typhimurium-infected mice treated with the combination of ofloxacin and L. fermentum strain ME-3. Using capsules or foodstuffs enriched with L. fermentum ME-3, different clinical study designs (including double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies) and different subjects (healthy volunteers, allergic patients and those recovering from a stroke), it has been shown that this probiotic increased the antioxidative activity of sera and improved the composition of the low-density lipid particles (LDL) and post-prandial lipids as well as oxidative stress status, thus demonstrating a remarkable anti-atherogenic effect. The

  19. Encapsulation of Probiotics for use in Food Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manojlović, Verica; Nedović, Viktor A.; Kailasapathy, Kasipathy; Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan

    The history of the role of probiotics for human health is one century old and several definitions have been derived hitherto. One of them, launched by Huis in't Veld and Havenaar (1991) defines probiotics as being “mono or mixed cultures of live microorganisms which, when applied to a man or an animal (e.g., as dried cells or as a fermented product), beneficially affect the host by improving the properties of the indigenous microflora”. Probiotics are living microorganisms which survive gastric, bile, and pancreatic secretions, attach to epithelial cells and colonize the human intestine (Del Piano et al. 2006). It is estimated that an adult human intestine contains more than 400 different bacterial species (Finegold et al. 1977) and approximately 1014 bacterial cells (which is approximately ten times the total number of eukaryotic cells in the human body). The bacterial cells can be classified into three categories, namely, beneficial, neutral or harmful, with respect to human health. Among the beneficial bacteria are Bifidobacterium and Lactobacilli. The proportion of bifidobacteria represents the third most common genus in the gastrointestinal tract, while Bacteroides predominates at 86% of the total flora in the adult gut, followed by Eubacterium. Infant-type bifidobacteria B. bifidum are replaced with adult-type bifidobacteria, B. longum and B. adolescentis. With weaning and aging, the intestinal flora profile changes. Bifidobacteria decrease, while certain kinds of harmful bacteria increase. Changes in the intestinal flora are affected not only by aging but also by extrinsic factors, for example, stress, diet, drugs, bacterial contamination and constipation. Therefore, daily consumption of probiotic products is recommended for good health and longevity. There are numerous claimed beneficial effects and therapeutic applications of probiotic bacteria in humans, such as maintenance of normal intestinal microflora, improvement of constipation, treatment of

  20. Cholesterol-Lowering Probiotics as Potential Biotherapeutics for Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Nagpal, Ravinder; Kumar, Rajesh; Hemalatha, R.; Verma, Vinod; Kumar, Ashok; Chakraborty, Chaitali; Singh, Birbal; Marotta, Francesco; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major causes of deaths in adults in the western world. Elevated levels of certain blood lipids have been reported to be the principal cause of cardiovascular disease and other disabilities in developed countries. Several animal and clinical trials have shown a positive association between cholesterol levels and the risks of coronary heart disease. Current dietary strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease advocate adherence to low-fat/low-saturated-fat diets. Although there is no doubt that, in experimental conditions, low-fat diets offer an effective means of reducing blood cholesterol concentrations on a population basis, these appear to be less effective, largely due to poor compliance, attributed to low palatability and acceptability of these diets to the consumers. Due to the low consumer compliance, attempts have been made to identify other dietary components that can reduce blood cholesterol levels. Supplementation of diet with fermented dairy products or lactic acid bacteria containing dairy products has shown the potential to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Various approaches have been used to alleviate this issue, including the use of probiotics, especially Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.. Probiotics, the living microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host when administered in adequate amounts, have received much attention on their proclaimed health benefits which include improvement in lactose intolerance, increase in natural resistance to infectious disease in gastrointestinal tract, suppression of cancer, antidiabetic, reduction in serum cholesterol level, and improved digestion. In addition, there are numerous reports on cholesterol removal ability of probiotics and their hypocholesterolemic effects. Several possible mechanisms for cholesterol removal by probiotics are assimilation of cholesterol by growing cells, binding of cholesterol to cellular surface, incorporation of

  1. Tolerability of a probiotic in subjects with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation.

    PubMed

    Warrack, S; Panjikar, P; Duster, M; Safdar, N

    2014-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of major public health importance. Colonisation precedes infection; thus reducing MRSA carriage may be of benefit for reducing infection. Probiotics represent a novel approach to reducing MRSA carriage. We undertook a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial of the tolerability and acceptability of probiotics for reducing nasal and intestinal carriage of MRSA. In addition, subjects were screened for vancomycin-resistant enterocococci (VRE). Subjects with a history of MRSA were recruited from a large, academic medical center and randomised to take either a placebo or probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001). Subjects returned to the clinic after four weeks for further testing to determine adherence to the probiotic regimen and colonisation of MRSA. 48 subjects were enrolled and randomised. Nearly 25% were transplant recipients and 30% had diabetes. The probiotic was well tolerated in the study population though minor side effects, such as nausea and bloating, were observed. A majority of the subjects randomised to HN001 had good adherence to the regimen. At the four week time point among subjects randomised to the probiotic, MRSA was detected in 67 and 50% of subjects colonised in the nares and the gastrointestinal tract, respectively. Three subjects who initially tested positive for VRE were negative after four weeks of probiotic exposure. Probiotics were well tolerated in our study population of largely immunocompromised subjects with multiple comorbidities. Adherence to the intervention was good. Probiotics should be studied further for their potential to reduce colonisation by multidrug resistant bacteria. PMID:25213147

  2. [LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE COMPLEX PROBIOTIC PREPARATION "BIFILACT-BILS" IN CAPSULATED FORM].

    PubMed

    Neschislyaev, V A; Stolbova, M G; Mokin, P A; Orlova, E V; Ershov, A E

    2016-01-01

    The composition and technology of complex probiotic in hard gelatin capsules was developed in Perm Branch "Biomed" of "Microgen" State Company. The preparation contains three production strains: Lactobacillus plantarum 8P-A3, L. acidophilus K3W24 and Bifidobacterium bifidum 1. Laboratory and experimental (preclinical) study of the probiotic included investigation of the antagonistic activity, "acute" and "chronic" toxicity, the effect of the preparation on histology and hematology of laboratory animals. The result of these studies suggested of the probiotic had high inhibitory activity against pathogenic microflora when compared with probiotic monopreparations and had no toxic effects on laboratory animals. PMID:27301138

  3. Protection and Restitution of Gut Barrier by Probiotics: Nutritional and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rao, R. K.; Samak, G.

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are beneficial bacteria present in various dietary components and many of these colonize in the human and animal intestine. In the gut probiotics help the host by assisting in maintenance of normal mucosal homeostasis. Probiotics not only help maintain normal function of the gut mucosa, but also protect mucosa from injurious factors such as toxins, allergens and pathogens. The beneficial effect of probiotics is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including cytoprotection, cell proliferation, cell migration, resistance to apoptosis, synthesis of proteins and gene expression. One of the important cytoprotective effects of probiotics in the intestinal mucosa is to strengthen the epithelial tight junctions and preservation of mucosal barrier function. Probiotics not only enhance barrier function by inducing synthesis and assembly of tight junction proteins, but also preventing disruption of tight junctions by injurious factors. Bioactive factors released by probiotics trigger activation of various cell signaling pathways that lead to strengthening of tight junctions and the barrier function. This article reviews and summarizes the current understanding of various probiotics that are involved in the protection of gut barrier function, highlights the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the protective effect and addresses the clinical implications of probiotic supplementation. PMID:24353483

  4. Probiotic Supplement Use among Young Children in Taiwan: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Chien, Yi-Wen; Chang, Pei-Jen; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to provide details on probiotic supplement use among young children in Taiwan. Participants and Methods This study is based on the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study database. We used questionnaires to collect information on probiotic supplement use among young children from birth to 18 months of age, while also considering their demographic characteristics and other covariates. Low-birth-weight infants, preterm infants, those with birth defects, and those with caregivers who returned incomplete questionnaires were excluded. The final valid sample comprised 16,991 cases. Results Approximately half the children received probiotic supplements before the age of 18 months. Only 6.3% of the children received probiotic supplements during the two periods of birth to 6 months and 7 to 18 months. Firstborn children, native mothers, mothers with higher educational levels, higher family income, and parents who lead healthy lifestyles were positively related to probiotic supplement use among children. Young children who were breastfed, with eczema, or with gastrointestinal tract problems were significantly positively associated with probiotic supplement use. Conclusion The findings show that probiotic supplement usage among young children is associated with a more socially advantaged circumstance and certain child health factors, such as eczema, diarrhea, and constipation. Parents might use probiotic supplements for prevention or treatment of child diseases. The findings of this research could serve as a baseline for future studies, and provide insight into probiotic supplement use behavior for health professionals caring for infants and young children. PMID:22984450

  5. Trends in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products - a review.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Kumar, Bathal; Vijayendra, Sistla Venkata Naga; Reddy, Obulam Vijaya Sarathi

    2015-10-01

    Health awareness has grown to a greater extent among consumers and they are looking for healthy probiotic counterparts. Keeping in this view, the present review focuses recent developments in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products. All over the world, dairy probiotics are being commercialized in many different forms. However, the allergy and lactose intolerance are the major set-backs to dairy probiotics. Whereas, flavor and refreshing nature are the major advantages of non-dairy drinks, especially fruit juices. Phenotypic and genotypic similarities between dairy and non-dairy probiotics along with the matrix dependency of cell viability and cell functionality are reviewed. The heterogeneous food matrices of non-dairy food carriers are the major constraints for the survival of the probiotics, while the probiotic strains from non-dairy sources are satisfactory. Technological and functional properties, besides the viability of the probiotics used in fermented products of non-dairy origin are extremely important to get a competitive advantage in the world market. The functional attributes of dairy and non-dairy probiotic products are further enhanced by adding prebiotics such as galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide and inulin. PMID:26396359

  6. Preventative and Therapeutic Probiotic Use in Allergic Skin Conditions: Experimental and Clinical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Öner; Göksu Erol, Azize Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are ingested live microbes that can modify intestinal microbial populations in a way that benefits the host. The interest in probiotic preventative/therapeutic potential in allergic diseases stemmed from the fact that probiotics have been shown to improve intestinal dysbiosis and permeability and to reduce inflammatory cytokines in human and murine experimental models. Enhanced presence of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota is found to correlate with protection against allergy. Therefore, many studies have been recently designed to examine the efficacy of probiotics, but the literature on the allergic skin disorders is still very scarce. Here, our objective is to summarize and evaluate the available knowledge from randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials of probiotic use in allergic skin conditions. Clinical improvement especially in IgE-sensitized eczema and experimental models such as atopic dermatitis-like lesions (trinitrochlorobenzene and picryl chloride sensitizations) and allergic contact dermatitis (dinitrofluorobenzene sensitization) has been reported. Although there is a very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics into foods, probiotics do not have a proven role in the prevention or the therapy of allergic skin disorders. Thus, being aware of possible measures, such as probiotics use, to prevent/heal atopic diseases is essential for the practicing allergy specialist. PMID:24078929

  7. Blending Gyro Signals To Improve Control Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. F. L.

    1986-01-01

    Interference by structural vibrations reduced by adding signals from spatially separated gyros. Technique involves blending signals from rate gyroscopes located at different parts of structure to obtain composite signal that more nearly represents rotation of entire structure. Aircraft vibrations perpendicular to pitch axis contribute to rotations sensed by pitch-rate gyros. Proper blending of signals from gyros suppress contribution of dominant vibrational mode. Most likely applications of concept are flight-control systems for aircraft.

  8. The Ellipticity Distribution of Ambiguously Blended Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, William A.; Schneider, Michael D.; Tyson, J. Anthony; Jee, M. James

    2016-01-01

    Using overlapping fields with space-based Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based Subaru Telescope imaging we identify a population of blended galaxies that are blended to such a large degree that they are detected as single objects in the ground-based monochromatic imaging, which we label “ambiguous blends.” For deep imaging data, such as the depth targeted with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), the ambiguous blend population is both large (∼14%) and has a distribution of ellipticities that is different from that of unblended objects in a way that will likely be important for weak lensing measurements. Most notably, for a limiting magnitude of i ∼ 27 we find that ambiguous blending results in a ∼14% increase in shear noise (or an ∼12% decrease in the effective projected number density of lensed galaxies; neff) due to (1) larger intrinsic ellipticity dispersion, and (2) a scaling with the galaxy number density Ngal that is shallower than 1/\\sqrt{{N}{gal}}. For the LSST Gold Sample (i < 25.3) there is a ∼7% increase in shear noise (or ∼7% decrease in neff). More importantly than these increases in the shear noise, we find that the ellipticity distribution of ambiguous blends has an rms that is 13% larger than that of non-blended galaxies. Given the need of future weak lensing surveys to constrain the ellipticity distribution of galaxies to better than a percent in order to mitigate cosmic shear multiplicative biases, if it is unaccounted for, the different ellipticity distribution of ambiguous blends could be a dominant systematic.

  9. Film formation from latex blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jiansheng

    2000-10-01

    Film formation from hard/soft (i.e., high Tg/low Tg) latex blends consisting of hard polystyrene (PS) and soft poly(n-butyl methacrylate-co-n-butyl acrylate) [P(BMA/BA)] latex particles were studied with an emphasis on the influence of the carboxyl groups present on the latex particles. A theoretical model was developed to calculate the optimal surfactant and monomer feed rates for a semicontinuous polymerization process to synthesize monodisperse carboxylated latex particles and independently control the particle size and degree of carboxylation. An important finding obtained from the drying studies is that the drying rate from the edge zone is much faster than the rate obtained from the latex pool. It was also found that the presence of carboxyl groups on the latex particles retarded the drying rate. Utilizing PS particles with a low density of carboxyl groups present on the particle surfaces (e.g., 10% surface coverage) resulted in an even distribution of these particles in the soft copolymer matrix, and thus, good film gloss was achieved. However, the use of hard particles with a high density of carboxyl groups present (e.g., 65% coverage) resulted in a less even distribution of PS particles and poor gloss. A cluster model and a hydrogen bonding mechanism were proposed to explain these phenomena. The presence of the carboxyl groups on the PS particles significantly enhanced the Young's modulus and the yield strength, but did not influence the ultimate mechanical properties. A quantitative model was proposed to predict the Young's modus of the latex blend films as a function of the carboxyl group coverage on the hard particles. There was a good fit between model and the experimental data. The stability of the precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) particles in the P(BMA/BA) latexes was determined by the charge on pigment surface which, in turn, was influenced by the presence of sodium polyacrylate stabilizer. It was found that the wetting ability of the soft

  10. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Tehrani, Hajar-Alsadat; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Mokarian, Fariborz; Mahdavi, Hoda; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. Results: White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey) during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 106 cells/μL, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 103 cells/μL and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 103 cells/μL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of probiotics or

  11. Considerations for blending data from various sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, Brian P.

    1980-01-01

    A project is being proposed at the EROS Data Center to blend the information from sensors aboard various satellites. The problems of, and considerations for, blending data from several satellite-borne sensors are discussed. System descriptions of the sensors aboard the HCMM, TIROS-N, GOES-D, Landsat 3, Landsat D, Seasat, SPOT, Stereosat, and NOSS satellites, and the quantity, quality, image dimensions, and availability of these data are summaries to define attributes of a multi-sensor satellite data base. Unique configurations of equipment, storage, media, and specialized hardware to meet the data system requirement are described as well as archival media and improved sensors that will be on-line within the next 5 years. Definitions and rigor required for blending various sensor data are given. Problems of merging data from the same sensor (intrasensor comparison) and from different sensors (intersensor comparison), the characteristics and advantages of cross-calibration of data, and integration of data into a product matrix field are addressed. Data processing considerations as affected by formation, resolution, and problems of merging large data sets, and organization of data bases for blending data are presented. Examples utilizing GOES and Landsat data are presented to demonstrate techniques of data blending, and recommendations for future implementation of a set of standard scenes and their characteristics necessary for optimal data blending are discussed.

  12. Pairwise polymer blends for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Marks, Joyann A; Wegiel, Lindsay A; Taylor, Lynne S; Edgar, Kevin J

    2014-09-01

    Blends of polymers with complementary properties hold promise for addressing the diverse, demanding polymer performance requirements in amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs), but we lack comprehensive property understanding for blends of important ASD polymers. Herein, we prepare pairwise blends of commercially available polymers polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), the cationic acrylate copolymer Eudragit 100 (E100), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and the new derivative cellulose acetate adipate propionate (CAAdP). This study identifies miscible binary blends that may find use, for example, in ASDs for solubility and bioavailability enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs. Differential scanning calorimetry, FTIR spectroscopy, and film clarity were used to determine blend miscibility. Several polymer combinations including HPMCAS/PVP, HPMC/CMCAB, and PVP/HPMC appear to be miscible in all proportions. In contrast, blends of E100/PVP and E100/HPMC showed a miscibility gap. Combinations of water-soluble and hydrophobic polymers like these may permit effective balancing of ASD performance criteria such as release rate and polymer-drug interaction to prevent nucleation and crystal growth of poorly soluble drugs. Miscible polymer combinations described herein will enable further study of their drug delivery capabilities, and provide a potentially valuable set of ASD formulation tools. PMID:24823790

  13. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

    2013-04-01

    The Wisconsin State Energy Office's (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  14. Polymer dynamics in binary blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Loring, Roger F.

    1992-09-01

    We develop a theory of the dynamics of flexible linear polymers in a melt composed of macromolecules of two molecular weights and of the same chemical species. A polymer is represented by a freely jointed chain that moves by two dynamical processes. The first is a local jump motion that may be blocked by obstacles, and the second is a slithering mode that mimics reptation. The dynamics of the obstacles are determined self-consistently by an ansatz that associates their relaxation with the dynamics of the slowest mode of conformational relaxation of a chain. The calculations of the autocorrelation function of the end-to-end vector and of the mean squared displacement of the center of mass are related exactly to the solution of a random walk problem with dynamical disorder. We calculate the necessary random walk propagator by applying the dynamical effective medium approximation. Calculations of the dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of both components on blend composition and on molecular weights are presented. The theory is shown to provide a unified description of diffusion in the unentangled and entangled regimes.

  15. Changes in vaginal microbiota following antimicrobial and probiotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Macklaim, Jean M.; Clemente, Jose C.; Knight, Rob; Gloor, Gregory B.; Reid, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Background The composition of the vaginal microbiota is known to be important for health. When infections occur, antimicrobial therapy is often poorly efficacious. Objective and design We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize changes in the bacterial microbiota following oral antimicrobial and probiotic interventions. Results While the bacterial vaginal profiles of women with vulvovaginal candidiasis were dominated by lactobacilli as in healthy women, and unchanged by therapy, Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella, Atopobium, Sneathia, and Megasphaera dominated the vagina of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and treatment with tinidazole plus Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14+L. rhamnosus GR-1 resulted in an increased relative abundance of indigenous L. iners or L. crispatus. Conclusions The ability to restore homeostasis provides a rationale for conjoint use of probiotics with antibiotic treatment of BV. PMID:26282697

  16. The domestication of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Matthew J.; Jolley, Keith A.; Bray, James E.; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that has had widespread historical use in the dairy industry and more recently as a probiotic. Although L. acidophilus has been designated as safe for human consumption, increasing commercial regulation and clinical demands for probiotic validation has resulted in a need to understand its genetic diversity. By drawing on large, well-characterised collections of lactic acid bacteria, we examined L. acidophilus isolates spanning 92 years and including multiple strains in current commercial use. Analysis of the whole genome sequence data set (34 isolate genomes) demonstrated L. acidophilus was a low diversity, monophyletic species with commercial isolates essentially identical at the sequence level. Our results indicate that commercial use has domesticated L. acidophilus with genetically stable, invariant strains being consumed globally by the human population. PMID:25425319

  17. [Mechanisms of the Effects of Probiotics on Symbiotic Digestion].

    PubMed

    Usakova, N A; Nekrasov, R V; Pravdin, I V; Sverchkova, N V; Kolomiyets, E I; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    The published data and our own data on the mechanisms of the influence of microbial probiotics, prebiotics, and their combinations on the processes of symbiotic digestion have been considered and generalized. It is shown that the effects on an organism are associated with the enhanced metabolic activity of intestinal bacteria: stimulation of bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates and formation of short-chained fatty acids, an increase in the blotting capacity of the intestines due to elongation of villi and deepening of crypts, and a decrease in secretion of toxic proteolytic products (ammonia, phenols, thiols, indoles, etc.). It has been shown that a combination of probiotics and prebiotic enhances the biological efficiency of a complex preparation, which contributes to activation of carbohydrate, protein, and mineral metabolism. PMID:26638234

  18. Modulation of humoral immune response through probiotic intake.

    PubMed

    Fang, H; Elina, T; Heikki, A; Seppo, S

    2000-09-01

    Thirty healthy volunteers were randomised into three different treatment groups and consumed Lactobacillus GG, Lactococcus lactis or placebo (ethyl cellulose) for 7 days. On days 1, 3 and 5, an attenuated Salmonella typhi Ty21a oral vaccine was given to all subjects to mimic an enteropathogenic infection. All subjects responded well to the vaccine, but no significant differences were observed in numbers of IgA-, IgG- and IgM-secreting cells among the different groups. There was a trend towards a greater increase in specific IgA among the subjects receiving the vaccine in combination with Lactobacillus GG. Those receiving L. lactis with their vaccine evinced significantly higher CR3 receptor expression on neutrophils than those receiving either the placebo or Lactobacillus GG. These results indicate that probiotics may influence differently the immune response to oral S. typhi vaccine and that the immunomodulatory effect of probiotics is strain-dependent. PMID:10967260

  19. Microbiota modulation: can probiotics prevent/treat disease in pediatrics?

    PubMed

    Szajewska, Hania

    2013-01-01

    A number of metagenomic analyses providing knowledge of the human microbiome have yielded data on the differences between healthy and diseased individuals. Microbiota manipulation, such as through the administration of probiotics, may potentially contribute to improved health outcomes. The objective of this review was to summarize the most recent data on the use of probiotics to treat or prevent diseases in pediatrics. MEDLINE and The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched in September 2012 for randomized controlled trials or their meta-analyses published in the last 3 years. To provide examples of current research interests, the focus of the search was on well-studied, common pediatric conditions as well as on some chronic diseases for which the benefits of gut microbiota manipulation are only in the early stages. PMID:24107500

  20. In vitro screening of probiotic characteristics of some italian products.

    PubMed

    De Vecchi, E; Nicola, L; Zanini, S; Drago, L

    2008-06-01

    Six commercial probiotic products produced and marketed Italy (containing Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus casei DG, Lactobacillus reuteri, Bacillus clausii spores, Bifidobacterium longum and Saccharomyces boulardii) were assayed for their stability during storage, acid, base and bile tolerance and adherence to human intestinal cells. Results indicate that storage, even at conditions established by manufacturers, affects the microbial content of products based on B. longum and partially of that containing L. casei GG . Differences in acid and bile tolerance were found for the products, S. boulardii being better able to survive acid and bile than bacteria. Vegetative cells of B. clausii and B. longum were more susceptible than lactobacilli to low pH values, while fewer differences were found for bile tolerance. Lactobacilli and only partially B. longum, were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells, while S. boulardii and B. clausii showed reduced adherence to human intestinal cells. In conclusion, the products did not completely fulfill all probiotic attributes. PMID:18606590

  1. Probiotics, prebiotics and the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Briskey, David; Alford, Hollie; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2014-06-01

    The microbiome located in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) comprises the largest community (diverse and dense) of bacteria, and in conjunction with a conducive internal milieu, promotes the development of regulated pro- and anti-inflammatory signals within the GIT that promotes immunological and metabolic tolerance. In addition, host-microbial interactions govern GIT inflammation and provide cues for upholding metabolic regulation in both the host and microbes. Failure to regulate inflammatory responses can increase the risk of developing inflammatory conditions in the GIT. Here, we review clinical studies regarding the efficacy of probiotics/prebiotics and the role they may have in restoring host metabolic homeostasis by rescuing the inflammatory response. The clinical studies reviewed included functional constipation, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, Clostridium difficile diarrhoea, infectious diarrhoea/gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases and necrotizing enterocolitis. We have demonstrated that there was an overall reduction in risk when probiotics were administered over placebo in the majority of GIT inflammatory conditions. The effect size of a cumulative reduction in relative risk for the GIT conditions/diseases investigated was 0.65 (0.61-0.70) (z = 13.3); p < 0.0001 that is an average reduction in risk of 35 % in favour of probiotics. We also progress a hypothesis that the GIT comprises numerous micro-axes (e.g. mucus secretion, Th1/Th2 balance) that are in operational homeostasis; hence probiotics and prebiotics may have a significant pharmacobiotic regulatory role in maintaining host GIT homeostasis in disease states partially through reactive oxygen species signalling. PMID:24633989

  2. The Role of Probiotics and Prebiotics in Inducing Gut Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Angélica T.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Martins, Flaviano S.

    2013-01-01

    The gut immune system is influenced by many factors, including dietary components and commensal bacteria. Nutrients that affect gut immunity and strategies that restore a healthy gut microbial community by affecting the microbial composition are being developed as new therapeutic approaches to treat several inflammatory diseases. Although probiotics (live microorganisms) and prebiotics (food components) have shown promise as treatments for several diseases in both clinical and animal studies, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the direct and indirect effects on the gut immune response will facilitate better and possibly more efficient therapy for diseases. In this review, we will first describe the concept of prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics and cover the most recently well-established scientific findings regarding the direct and indirect mechanisms by which these dietary approaches can influence gut immunity. Emphasis will be placed on the relationship of diet, the microbiota, and the gut immune system. Second, we will highlight recent results from our group, which suggest a new dietary manipulation that includes the use of nutrient products (organic selenium and Lithothamnium muelleri) and probiotics (Saccharomyces boulardii UFMG 905 and Bifidobacterium sp.) that can stimulate and manipulate the gut immune response, inducing intestinal homeostasis. Furthermore, the purpose of this review is to discuss and translate all of this knowledge into therapeutic strategies and into treatment for extra-intestinal compartment pathologies. We will conclude by discussing perspectives and molecular advances regarding the use of prebiotics or probiotics as new therapeutic strategies that manipulate the microbial composition and the gut immune responses of the host. PMID:24376446

  3. The Role of Probiotics on the Microbiota: Effect on Obesity.

    PubMed

    Nova, Esther; Pérez de Heredia, Fátima; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Marcos, Ascensión

    2016-06-01

    The microbiota and the human host maintain a symbiotic association. Nowadays, metagenomic analyses are providing valuable knowledge on the diversity and functionality of the gut microbiota. However, with regard to the definition of a "healthy microbiota" and the characterization of the dysbiosis linked to obesity, there is still not a clear answer. Despite this fact, attempts have been made to counteract obesity through probiotic supplementation. A literature search of experimental studies relevant to the topic was performed in PubMed database with the keywords "probiotic" and "obesity" and restricted to those with "Lactobacillus" or "Bifidobacterium" in the title. So far, evidence of an antiobesity effect of different lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has been mainly obtained from animal models of dietary-induced obesity. Using these experimental models, a substantial number of studies have reported reductions in weight gain and, in particular, fat tissue mass at different locations following administration of bacteria, as compared with controls. Antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects-including regulation of expression of lipogenic and lipolytic genes in the liver, reduction in liver steatosis, improvement of blood lipid profile and glucose tolerance, decreased endotoxemia, and regulation of inflammatory pathways-are also reported in many of them. The number of human studies focused on probiotic administration for obesity management is still very scarce, and it is too soon to judge their potential efficacy, especially when considering the fact that the actions of probiotics are always strain specific and the individual response varies according to intrinsic factors, the overall composition of diet, and their interactions. PMID:26869611

  4. Probiotics promote endocytic allergen degradation in gut epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chun-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Shelly; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antigens transported across A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers conserved antigenicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Probiotic proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases; the mechanism is to be further understood. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in the endocytic protein degradation in the cells. This study aims to elucidate the role of A20 in the maintenance of gut epithelial barrier function. Methods: Gut epithelial cell line, HT-29 cell, was cultured into monolayers to evaluate the barrier function in transwells. RNA interference was employed to knock down the A20 gene in HT-29 cells to test the role of A20 in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Probiotic derived proteins were extracted from the culture supernatants using to enhance the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. Results: The results showed that the knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function in HT-29 monolayers, mainly increased the intracellular permeability. The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Allergens collected from the transwell basal chambers of A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers still conserved functional antigenicity. Treating with probiotic derived proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells and promote the barrier function. Conclusion: A20 plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function as shown by HT-29 monolayer. Probiotic derived protein increases the expression of A20 and promote the HT-29 monolayer barrier function.

  5. The role of probiotics and prebiotics in inducing gut immunity.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Angélica T; Teixeira, Mauro M; Martins, Flaviano S

    2013-01-01

    The gut immune system is influenced by many factors, including dietary components and commensal bacteria. Nutrients that affect gut immunity and strategies that restore a healthy gut microbial community by affecting the microbial composition are being developed as new therapeutic approaches to treat several inflammatory diseases. Although probiotics (live microorganisms) and prebiotics (food components) have shown promise as treatments for several diseases in both clinical and animal studies, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the direct and indirect effects on the gut immune response will facilitate better and possibly more efficient therapy for diseases. In this review, we will first describe the concept of prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics and cover the most recently well-established scientific findings regarding the direct and indirect mechanisms by which these dietary approaches can influence gut immunity. Emphasis will be placed on the relationship of diet, the microbiota, and the gut immune system. Second, we will highlight recent results from our group, which suggest a new dietary manipulation that includes the use of nutrient products (organic selenium and Lithothamnium muelleri) and probiotics (Saccharomyces boulardii UFMG 905 and Bifidobacterium sp.) that can stimulate and manipulate the gut immune response, inducing intestinal homeostasis. Furthermore, the purpose of this review is to discuss and translate all of this knowledge into therapeutic strategies and into treatment for extra-intestinal compartment pathologies. We will conclude by discussing perspectives and molecular advances regarding the use of prebiotics or probiotics as new therapeutic strategies that manipulate the microbial composition and the gut immune responses of the host. PMID:24376446

  6. The Optimum Blend: Affordances and Challenges of Blended Learning for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedik, Nuray; Kiraz, Ercan; Ozden, M. Yasar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elicit students' perceptions regarding the most facilitative and most challenging features (affordances and barriers) in a blended course design. Following the phenomenological approach of qualitative inquiry, data were collected from ten undergraduate students who had experiences in a blended learning environment.…

  7. Blended Learning: How Teachers Balance the Blend of Online and Classroom Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffrey, Lynn M.; Milne, John; Suddaby, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Despite teacher resistance to the use of technology in education, blended learning has increased rapidly, driven by evidence of its advantages over either online or classroom teaching alone. However, blended learning courses still fail to maximize the benefits this format offers. Much research has been conducted on various aspects of this problem,…

  8. Characterization of Bacillus Probiotics Available for Human Use

    PubMed Central

    Duc, Le H.; Hong, Huynh A.; Barbosa, Teresa M.; Henriques, Adriano O.; Cutting, Simon M.

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus pumilus) carried in five commercial probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores were characterized for potential attributes (colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity) that could account for their claimed probiotic properties. Three B. cereus strains were shown to persist in the mouse gastrointestinal tract for up to 18 days postadministration, demonstrating that these organisms have some ability to colonize. Spores of one B. cereus strain were extremely sensitive to simulated gastric conditions and simulated intestinal fluids. Spores of all strains were immunogenic when they were given orally to mice, but the B. pumilus strain was found to generate particularly high anti-spore immunoglobulin G titers. Spores of B. pumilus and of a laboratory strain of B. subtilis were found to induce the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in a cultured macrophage cell line, and in vivo, spores of B. pumilus and B. subtilis induced the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha and the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon. The B. pumilus strain and one B. cereus strain (B. cereus var. vietnami) were found to produce a bacteriocin-like activity against other Bacillus species. The results that provided evidence of colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity support the hypothesis that the organisms have a potential probiotic effect. However, the three B. cereus strains were also found to produce the Hbl and Nhe enterotoxins, which makes them unsafe for human use. PMID:15066809

  9. Cholesterol assimilation by Lactobacillus probiotic bacteria: an in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Jones, Mitchell L; Shah, Divya; Jain, Poonam; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

    2014-01-01

    Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18±0.55 mg/10(10) cfu) in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70±63.33 mg/10(10) cfu) of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic. PMID:25295259

  10. Potential role of probiotics on colorectal cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer represents the most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. Owing to differences in dietary habits and lifestyle, this neoplasm is more common in industrialized countries than in developing ones. Evidence from a wide range of sources supports the assumption that the link between diet and colorectal cancer may be due to an imbalance of the intestinal microflora. Discussion Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a healthy benefit on the host, and they have been investigated for their protective anti-tumor effects. In vivo and molecular studies have displayed encouraging findings that support a role of probiotics in colorectal cancer prevention. Summary Several mechanisms could explain the preventive action of probiotics against colorectal cancer onset. They include: alteration of the intestinal microflora; inactivation of cancerogenic compounds; competition with putrefactive and pathogenic microbiota; improvement of the host’s immune response; anti-proliferative effects via regulation of apoptosis and cell differentiation; fermentation of undigested food; inhibition of tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. PMID:23173670

  11. Functional characterization and microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria from koozh.

    PubMed

    Ilango, Shankar; Pandey, Ruby; Antony, Usha

    2016-02-01

    Koozh is a traditional fermented millet beverage unique to south India. Analysis of six market samples of koozh for their microbial profile resulted in 69 isolates of presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB). They were grouped as Leuconostoc sp., Enterococcus sp., Streptococcus sp. and Lactobacillus sp. based on morphological characteristics and biochemical tests. Eight among them showed probiotic features: resistance to acid (2.5 pH for 6 h), resistance to 0.3 % ox bile, moderate hydrophobicity (40 %), antibacterial activity against 10 pathogens, susceptibility to 50 % of antibiotics tested. Sequencing of 16srDNA showed them to be five strains of Enterococcus hirae and one each of Enterococcus facecalis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Lactobacillus plantarum. The probiotic isolates were encapsulated in skim milk powder by two different drying techniques: freeze drying and spray drying. The encapsulated probiotic isolates survived both in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid with high cell viability (98-99 %). Storage for 16 weeks at room temperature (27 °C), resulted in 2 log reduction, but better survival with only 1 log reduction was observed at 4 °C and was best at -20 °C. Survival of isolates was similar in both spray and freeze dried products. PMID:27162377

  12. Probiotic Therapy as a Novel Approach for Allergic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Zheng Quan; Anzela, Anzela; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Licciardi, Paul V.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic disease has increased dramatically in Western countries over the past few decades. The hygiene hypothesis, whereby reduced exposure to microbial stimuli in early life programs the immune system toward a Th2-type allergic response, is suggested to be a major mechanism to explain this phenomenon in developed populations. Such microbial exposures are recognized to be critical regulators of intestinal microbiota development. Furthermore, intestinal microbiota has an important role in signaling to the developing mucosal immune system. Intestinal dysbiosis has been shown to precede the onset of clinical allergy, possibly through altered immune regulation. Existing treatments for allergic diseases such as eczema, asthma, and food allergy are limited and so the focus has been to identify alternative treatment or preventive strategies. Over the past 10 years, a number of clinical studies have investigated the potential of probiotic bacteria to ameliorate the pathological features of allergic disease. This novel approach has stemmed from numerous data reporting the pleiotropic effects of probiotics that include immunomodulation, restoration of intestinal dysbiosis as well as maintaining epithelial barrier integrity. In this mini-review, the emerging role of probiotics in the prevention and/or treatment of allergic disease are discussed with a focus on the evidence from animal and human studies. PMID:23049509

  13. Probiotics and its functionally valuable products-a review.

    PubMed

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Satish Kumar, R; Yuvaraj, N; Paari, K A; Pattukumar, V; Arul, Venkatesan

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades probiotic bacteria have been increasingly proposed as health promoting bacteria in variety of food system, because of its safety, functional, and technological characteristics. Commonly, Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Saccharomyces boulardii, and some other microorganisms have been considered as probiotic strains. Possibly these bacterial strains exerted several beneficial effects into gastrointestinal tract of host while administered with variety of food system. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) usually produce antimicrobial substances like bacteriocin which have broad spectrum of antagonist effect against closely related Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens. LAB strains often produce polymeric substances such as exopolysaccharides (EPS) which increase the colonization of probiotic bacteria by cell-cell interactions in gastrointestinal tract. LAB also produces biosurfactant which showed that the wide range of antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogen as well as its antiadhesive properties reduces the adhesion of pathogens into gastric wall membrane. Furthermore, LAB strains have also been reported for production of antioxidants which are ability to scavenge the free radicals such as superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. For this sense, this review article is mainly focused on the ecology, biosynthesis, genetics, target sites, and applications of bacteriocins and EPS from LAB strains. Moreover, this review discusses about the production and functions of nutritive essential element folate and iron chelating agent such as siderophores from LAB. PMID:23627505

  14. Local Probiotic Therapy for Vaginal Candida albicans Infections.

    PubMed

    Kovachev, Stefan Miladinov; Vatcheva-Dobrevska, Rossitza Stefanova

    2015-03-01

    The high rate of vaginal Candida albicans recurrence is attributed to azole resistance rates as high as 15%. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and microbiological efficacy of standard azole therapy for treatment of vaginal C. albicans infection alone and in combination with local probiotic as well as the effects on vaginal microbiota. This study included 436 women with vaginal candidiasis randomly assigned to two treatment groups. The first group, with 207 patients (12 dropouts), was administered 150 mg fluconazole and a single vaginal globule of fenticonazole (600 mg) on the same day. The second group of 209 patients (8 dropouts) followed the same treatment schedule; however, ten applications of a vaginal probiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were also administered beginning the fifth day after azole treatment. Microbiological analysis of the therapy efficacy in the first treatment group showed C. albicans resistance in over 30% of patients. Clinical complaints persisted after treatment administration in 79.7% (n = 165) of women in this group. Clinical complaints in the second group decreased to 31.1% (n = 65) and microbiological efficacy also improved among investigated parameters, from 93.7% (n = 193) to 95.2% (n = 198). The local application of probiotics after administration of combined azoles for treatment of vaginal C. albicans infections increases therapy efficacy and could prevent relapse. PMID:25362524

  15. [Use of probiotics and prebiotics in primary care].

    PubMed

    Álvarez Calatayud, Guillermo; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are used in a great number of both paediatric and adult diseases, mainly in gastrointestinal disorders, like diarrhoea. Nevertheless, their beneficial effect on immune alterations, such as atopic dermatitis and, more recently, in women related diseases such as vulvovaginitis and mastitis have also been observed. However, the use of probiotics is not completely implemented into the routine clinical practice for primary care physicians. There is still a great controversy with scarce scientific evidence, due to the diversity in the designs thereof which justifies the variability in the efficacy results. This outcome leads to difficulties in developing definitive treatment guidelines although there are exceptions, for example, WGO. The aim of this workshop, held at the VI Congress of the Spanish Society of Probiotics and Prebiotics is the training of primary care physicians, both paediatricians and general practitioners in the clinical applications of these nutritional preparations in different diseases: acute diarrhoea; antibiotic associated diarrhoea, necrotizing enterocolitis, employment in infant milk formulas, infant colic, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as vulvovaginitis and mastitis. PMID:25659055

  16. Probiotics, prebiotics, and the host microbiome: the science of translation

    PubMed Central

    Petschow, Bryon; Doré, Joël; Hibberd, Patricia; Dinan, Timothy; Reid, Gregor; Blaser, Martin; Cani, Patrice D; Degnan, Fred H; Foster, Jane; Gibson, Glenn; Hutton, John; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Ley, Ruth; Nieuwdorp, Max; Pot, Bruno; Relman, David; Serazin, Andrew; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the community structure and function of the human microbiome have implications for the potential role of probiotics and prebiotics in promoting human health. A group of experts recently met to review the latest advances in microbiota/microbiome research and discuss the implications for development of probiotics and prebiotics, primarily as they relate to effects mediated via the intestine. The goals of the meeting were to share recent advances in research on the microbiota, microbiome, probiotics, and prebiotics, and to discuss these findings in the contexts of regulatory barriers, evolving healthcare environments, and potential effects on a variety of health topics, including the development of obesity and diabetes; the long-term consequences of exposure to antibiotics early in life to the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota; lactose intolerance; and the relationship between the GI microbiota and the central nervous system, with implications for depression, cognition, satiety, and mental health for people living in developed and developing countries. This report provides an overview of these discussions. PMID:24266656

  17. Probiotics, prebiotics, and the host microbiome: the science of translation.

    PubMed

    Petschow, Bryon; Doré, Joël; Hibberd, Patricia; Dinan, Timothy; Reid, Gregor; Blaser, Martin; Cani, Patrice D; Degnan, Fred H; Foster, Jane; Gibson, Glenn; Hutton, John; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Ley, Ruth; Nieuwdorp, Max; Pot, Bruno; Relman, David; Serazin, Andrew; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the community structure and function of the human microbiome have implications for the potential role of probiotics and prebiotics in promoting human health. A group of experts recently met to review the latest advances in microbiota/microbiome research and discuss the implications for development of probiotics and prebiotics, primarily as they relate to effects mediated via the intestine. The goals of the meeting were to share recent advances in research on the microbiota, microbiome, probiotics, and prebiotics, and to discuss these findings in the contexts of regulatory barriers, evolving healthcare environments, and potential effects on a variety of health topics, including the development of obesity and diabetes; the long-term consequences of exposure to antibiotics early in life to the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota; lactose intolerance; and the relationship between the GI microbiota and the central nervous system, with implications for depression, cognition, satiety, and mental health for people living in developed and developing countries. This report provides an overview of these discussions. PMID:24266656

  18. [Probiotics in broilers' rearing: A strategy for intensive production models].

    PubMed

    Blajman, Jesica E; Zbrun, María V; Astesana, Diego M; Berisvil, Ayelén P; Romero Scharpen, Analía; Fusari, Marcia L; Soto, Lorena P; Signorini, Marcelo L; Rosmini, Marcelo R; Frizzo, Laureano S

    2015-01-01

    The broiler industry has become an important economic activity in Argentina. Global production of broiler meat has been growing in Argentina faster than for any other meats, possibly due to declining poultry prices and increasing incomes. Modern rearing systems can produce broilers ready to slaughter in 50 days, with the required 2.7kg of weight and a feed conversion of about 1.6kg feed/kg of meat. Nevertheless, broilers raised under these intensive conditions are exposed to various stressors every day. For many years, feed supplementation with antibiotics was widely used to stabilize the gut flora, improve general parameters and prevent avian diseases. However, the utility of antibiotics has been questioned because of the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in meat. Therefore, there is a renewed interest in finding viable alternatives to antibiotics. One potential method is the supplementation of broiler diets with probiotics. This review provides an updated summary of the use of probiotics to improve sanitary conditions and enhance performance in broilers, demonstrating the role of probiotics as a reliable option to replace antimicrobial growth promoters. PMID:26614253

  19. Diet alters probiotic Lactobacillus persistence and function in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Tachon, Sybille; Lee, Bokyung; Marco, Maria L

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of host diet on the intestinal persistence and gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in healthy and health-compromised, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated mice. Mice fed either a low-fat chow diet (CD) or high fat and sucrose Western diet (WD) received 10(9) L. plantarum WCFS1 cells for five consecutive days. Lactobacillus plantarum persistence was 10- to 100-fold greater in the intestines of WD-fed compared with CD-fed mice. TNBS, an intestinal irritant that induces the development of inflammatory bowel disease-like symptoms, resulted in up to a 10(4) -fold increase in L. plantarum survival in the digestive tract relative to healthy animals. Expression levels of 12 metabolic and gut-inducible L. plantarum genes were differentially affected by diet and TNBS administration. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA transcripts from the indigenous intestinal microbiota showed that WD resulted in significant reductions in proportions of metabolically active indigenous Lactobacillus species and increases in the Desulfovibrionaceae family. Feeding L. plantarum WCFS1 resulted in lower levels of colitis and higher concentrations of colonic IL-10 and IL-12 in WD and not CD-fed mice. Interactions between probiotics, nutritional components and the intestinal bacteria should be considered when examining for probiotic-mediated effects and elucidating mechanisms of probiotic function in the mammalian gut. PMID:24118739

  20. Proteolytic activity of probiotic strain Lactobacillus helveticus M92.

    PubMed

    Beganović, Jasna; Kos, Blaženka; Leboš Pavunc, Andreja; Uroić, Ksenija; Džidara, Petra; Šušković, Jagoda

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of previously defined probiotic strain Lactobacillus helveticus M92 as functional starter culture for fermented dairy products. Therefore, proteolytic activity of L. helveticus M92 was investigated and compared with those of different representatives of probiotic and starter culture strains. Cluster analysis of AFLP fingerprints showed a difference of L. helveticus M92 compared to five other L. helveticus strains, but the percentage of similarity confirmed the identification on species level. Casein hydrolysis by L. helveticus M92 was monitored by agar-well diffusion test, SDS-PAGE and Anson's method. L. helveticus M92 exhibited the highest proteolytic activity among tested probiotic and starter cultures strains with the fastest acidification rate and the highest pH decrease after overnight incubation in skim milk. The presence of prtH2 gene was confirmed by PCR amplification with specific primers, while PCR product was not obtained after amplification with primers specific to prtH. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE LC-MS/MS analysis of insoluble proteome of L. helveticus M92 enabled identification of several proteins involved in proteolytic system of L. helveticus such as protease PrtM as well as proteins involved in Opp peptide transport system and the intracellular peptidases PepE, PepN, and PepQ. PMID:23454496

  1. Lactobacillus with probiotic potential from homemade cheese in Azerbijan

    PubMed Central

    Mojarad Khanghah, Saeed; Ganbarov, Khudaverdi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Lactobacillus is believed to be beneficial in human health, thus the search for isolation and identification of friendly human bacteria from traditional fermented foods is important in medicine. One of the dairy products, traditional cheese as a highly-consumed dairy product could be a valuable source of these friendly edible germs. Methods: In this research, home-made cheese from Lankaran, Jalil Abad and Salian regions in Azerbaijan was characterized for the presence of Lactobacilli with probiotic potential. The bacterial suspension was enriched and screened for acid and bile resistances. Then, the isolates were subjected to antibiotic resistance and antibacterial effects against convenient pathogenic bacteria. The isolates were identified by 16s rDNA sequencing. Results: The results clearly revealed two probiotics with higher homology to Lactobacillus planetarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. Conclusion: No antibiotic resistance was detected in any of the potentially probiotic lactobacilli isolates in these regions, where people continue to follow a life-style that is largely traditional, with traditional medications. PMID:24790899

  2. The role of antibiotics and probiotics in pouchitis.

    PubMed

    Gionchetti, Paolo; Calafiore, Andrea; Riso, Donatella; Liguori, Giuseppina; Calabrese, Carlo; Vitali, Giulia; Laureti, Silvio; Poggioli, Gilberto; Campieri, Massimo; Rizzello, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Pouchitis is a non-specific inflammation of the ileal reservoir and the most common complication of proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in patients with ulcerative colitis. Its frequency is related to the duration of the follow up, occurring in up to 50% of patients 10 years after IPAA in large series from major referral centers. Treatment of pouchitis is largely empirical and only small placebo-controlled trials have been conducted. The rationale for using probiotics and antibiotics in pouchitis is based on convincing evidence that implicates intestinal bacteria in the pathogenesis of this disease. Probiotics are living organisms, which, upon ingestion in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. VSL#3, a highly concentrated cocktail of probiotics has been shown to be effective in the prevention of pouchitis onset and relapses. Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment of pouchitis, and metronidazole and ciprofloxacin are the most common initial approaches, often with a rapid response. The use of antibiotics in pouchitis is largely justified although proper controlled trials have not been conducted. PMID:24714229

  3. Characterization of Bacillus probiotics available for human use.

    PubMed

    Duc, Le H; Hong, Huynh A; Barbosa, Teresa M; Henriques, Adriano O; Cutting, Simon M

    2004-04-01

    Bacillus species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus pumilus) carried in five commercial probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores were characterized for potential attributes (colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity) that could account for their claimed probiotic properties. Three B. cereus strains were shown to persist in the mouse gastrointestinal tract for up to 18 days postadministration, demonstrating that these organisms have some ability to colonize. Spores of one B. cereus strain were extremely sensitive to simulated gastric conditions and simulated intestinal fluids. Spores of all strains were immunogenic when they were given orally to mice, but the B. pumilus strain was found to generate particularly high anti-spore immunoglobulin G titers. Spores of B. pumilus and of a laboratory strain of B. subtilis were found to induce the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in a cultured macrophage cell line, and in vivo, spores of B. pumilus and B. subtilis induced the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha and the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon. The B. pumilus strain and one B. cereus strain (B. cereus var. vietnami) were found to produce a bacteriocin-like activity against other Bacillus species. The results that provided evidence of colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity support the hypothesis that the organisms have a potential probiotic effect. However, the three B. cereus strains were also found to produce the Hbl and Nhe enterotoxins, which makes them unsafe for human use. PMID:15066809

  4. Discovering probiotic microorganisms: in vitro, in vivo, genetic and omics approaches

    PubMed Central

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Foligné, Benoit; Alexandraki, Voula; Kazou, Maria; Pot, Bruno; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades the food industry has been revolutionized toward the production of functional foods due to an increasing awareness of the consumers on the positive role of food in wellbeing and health. By definition probiotic foods must contain live microorganisms in adequate amounts so as to be beneficial for the consumer’s health. There are numerous probiotic foods marketed today and many probiotic strains are commercially available. However, the question that arises is how to determine the real probiotic potential of microorganisms. This is becoming increasingly important, as even a superficial search of the relevant literature reveals that the number of proclaimed probiotics is growing fast. While the vast majority of probiotic microorganisms are food-related or commensal bacteria that are often regarded as safe, probiotics from other sources are increasingly being reported raising possible regulatory and safety issues. Potential probiotics are selected after in vitro or in vivo assays by evaluating simple traits such as resistance to the acidic conditions of the stomach or bile resistance, or by assessing their impact on complicated host functions such as immune development, metabolic function or gut–brain interaction. While final human clinical trials are considered mandatory for communicating health benefits, rather few strains with positive studies have been able to convince legal authorities with these health claims. Consequently, concern has been raised about the validity of the workflows currently used to characterize probiotics. In this review we will present an overview of the most common assays employed in screening for probiotics, highlighting the potential strengths and limitations of these approaches. Furthermore, we will focus on how the advent of omics technologies has reshaped our understanding of the biology of probiotics, allowing the exploration of novel routes for screening and studying such microorganisms. PMID:25741323

  5. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mikiko; Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol. Objective To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies. Methods Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control). Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed. Results Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics) produced changes in total cholesterol (TC) (mean difference –0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.27 to –0.07 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (mean difference –0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.30 to –0.13 mmol/L). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (>4-week) probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤4-week) intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains. Conclusions In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk

  6. Contemporary meta-analysis of short-term probiotic consumption on gastrointestinal transit

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Zimmermann, Angela K; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the efficacy of probiotic supplementation on intestinal transit time (ITT) in adults and to identify factors that influence these outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of probiotic supplementation that measured ITT in adults. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. A random effects meta-analysis was performed with standardized mean difference (SMD) of ITT between probiotic and control groups as the primary outcome. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses examined the impact of moderator variables on SMD of ITT. RESULTS: A total of 15 clinical trials with 17 treatment effects representing 675 subjects were included in this analysis. Probiotic supplementation was moderately efficacious in decreasing ITT compared to control, with an SMD of 0.38 (95%CI: 0.23-0.53, P < 0.001). Subgroup analyses demonstrated statistically greater reductions in ITT with probiotics in subjects with vs without constipation (SMD: 0.57 vs 0.22, P < 0.01) and in studies with high vs low study quality (SMD: 0.45 vs 0.00, P = 0.01). Constipation (R2 = 38%, P < 0.01), higher study quality (R2 = 31%, P = 0.01), older age (R2 = 27%, P = 0.02), higher percentage of female subjects (R2 = 26%, P = 0.02), and fewer probiotic strains (R2 = 20%, P < 0.05) were predictive of decreased ITT with probiotics in meta-regression. Medium to large treatment effects were identified with B. lactis HN019 (SMD: 0.67, P < 0.001) and B. lactis DN-173 010 (SMD: 0.54, P < 0.01) while other probiotic strains yielded negligible reductions in ITT relative to control. CONCLUSION: Probiotic supplementation is moderately efficacious for reducing ITT in adults. Probiotics were most efficacious in constipated subjects, when evaluated in high-quality studies, and with certain probiotic strains. PMID:27275105

  7. Production of Gouda cheese and Camembert with probiotic cultures: the suitability of some commercial probiotic cultures to be implemented in cheese.

    PubMed

    Van de Casteele, S; Ruyssen, T; Vanheuverzwijn, T; Van Assche, P

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of 10 probiotic cultures (L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium sp., L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei) was examined during the production and ripening of Gouda cheese and Camembert. The overall objective of this research project was to obtain a product (cheese) containing at least 10(7) probiotic cfu/g. In general 10(6) cfu of a probiotic culture must be implemented per ml cheese milk, together with the cheesestarter, to reach this objective. L. paracasei sp. have the ability to grow more than 2 log units during cheese ripening. A lower inoculation value can be considered for these cultures. PMID:24757803

  8. Development of a viability standard curve for microencapsulated probiotic bacteria using confocal microscopy and image analysis software.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah; Kailasapathy, Kasipathy; Phillips, Michael; Jones, Mark R

    2015-07-01

    Microencapsulation is proposed to protect probiotic strains from food processing procedures and to maintain probiotic viability. Little research has described the in situ viability of microencapsulated probiotics. This study successfully developed a real-time viability standard curve for microencapsulated bacteria using confocal microscopy, fluorescent dyes and image analysis software. PMID:25887694

  9. Blended Learning: The Student Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Shantakumari, N; Sajith, P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blended learning (BL) is defined as “a way of meeting the challenges of tailoring learning and development to the needs of individuals by integrating the innovative and technological advances offered by online learning with the interaction and participation offered in the best of traditional learning.” The Gulf Medical University (GMU), Ajman, UAE, offers a number of courses which incorporate BL with contact classes and online component on an E-learning platform. Insufficient learning satisfaction has been stated as an obstacle to its implementation and efficacy. Aim: To determine the students’ perceptions toward BL which in turn will determine their satisfaction and the efficacy of the courses offered. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the GMU, Ajman between January and December 2013. Perceptions of BL process, content, and ease of use were collected from 75 students enrolled in the certificate courses offered by the university using a questionnaire. Student perceptions were assessed using Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis test on the basis of gender, age, and course enrollment. Results: The median scores of all the questions in the three domains were above three suggesting positive perceptions on BL. The distribution of perceptions was similar between gender and age. However, significant differences were observed in the course enrollment (P = 0.02). Conclusion Students hold a positive perception of the BL courses being offered in this university. The difference in perceptions among students of different courses suggest that the BL format offered needs modification according to course content to improve its perception. PMID:26500788

  10. Blended Training for Combat Medics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowlkes, Jennifer; Dickinson, Sandra; Lazarus, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Bleeding from extremity wounds is the number one cause of preventable death on the battlefield and current research stresses the importance of training in preparing every Soldier to use tourniquets. HapMed is designed to provide tourniquet application training to combat medics and Soldiers using a blended training solution encompassing information, demonstration, practice, and feedback. The system combines an instrumented manikin arm, PDA, and computer. The manikin arm provides several training options including stand-alone, hands-on skills training in which soldiers can experience the actual torque required to staunch bleeding from an extremity wound and be timed on tourniquet application. This is more realistic than using a block of wood to act as a limb, which is often how training is conducted today. Combining the manikin arm with the PDA allows instructors to provide scenario based training. In a classroom or field setting, an instructor can specify wound variables such as location, casualty size, and whether the wound is a tough bleed. The PDA also allows more detailed feedback to be provided. Finally, combining the manikin arm with game-based technologies, the third component, provides opportunities to build knowledge and to practice battlefield decision making. Not only do soldiers learn how to apply a tourniquet, but when to apply a tourniquet in combat. The purpose of the paper is to describe the learning science underlying the design of HapMed, illustrate the training system and ways it is being expanded to encompass other critical life-saving tasks, and report on feedback received from instructors and trainees at military training and simulation centers.

  11. Characterization of Indigenous Lactobacillus Strains for Probiotic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mojgani, Naheed; Hussaini, Fatimah; Vaseji, Narges

    2015-01-01

    Background: Probiotics are defined as adequate amount of live microorganisms able to confer health benefits on the host. Currently, most commercially available probiotic products in the market belong to genera Lactobacillus. Traditional dairy products are usually rich source of Lactobacillus strains with significant health benefits. In order to evaluate the probiotic potential of these bacteria, it is essential to assess their health benefits, efficacy, and safety. Objectives: The probiotic efficacy of two Lactobacillus strains namely Lactobacillus pentosus LP05 and L. brevis LB32 was evaluated. They were previously isolated from ewes’ milk in a rural area in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The selected isolates were tested for certain phenotypic characters and identified to genus and species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species specific primers. Further analysis included acid and bile resistance, antagonistic activity, cholesterol removing ability, survival in simulated gastric and upper intestine contents, aggregation and coaggregation properties. Finally, the adhering ability of the selected Lactobacillus strains to epithelial cells was tested using Caco-2 cell lines. Results: The selected isolates tolerated bile salt concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 3%, however their coefficient of inhibition were varied. Both isolates hydrolyzed bile and grew at pH values of 3, 4, and 5, while isolate LP05 was not able to hydrolyze arginine. Based on 16s rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific primers, the isolates were identified as L. brevis LB32 and L. pentosus LP05. In contrast to simulated gastric conditions, the growth rate of the isolates in alkaline conditions of upper intestine increased significantly with the passage of time reaching its maximum in 24 hours. These 2 isolates inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Furthermore, L

  12. Probiotic use in preventing postoperative infection in liver transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jim; Wu, Jinshan; Chalson, Helen; Merigan, Lynn; Mitchell, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background Although liver transplantation has been widely practised, post-operative bacterial infection is still a frequent complication which contributed to an increased risk of fatality. There were studies on preoperative use of probiotics for liver transplant patients and acquired reduction in postoperative sepsis and wound infection, but the relevant clinical experience with pre- and probiotics is still limited. Objectives This study is to assess fibre and probiotic use aimed at preventing bacterial sepsis and wound complications in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Study methods There were a total of sixty-seven adult patients scheduled for liver transplantation were included in a public teaching hospital. From January to December 2011, 34 continuous patients following liver transplantation were put on fibre + probiotics. In retrospectively, from January to December 2010, 33 continuous patients were collected as a control group and they were only received fibre post operation. The incidence of bacterial infections was compared in patients receiving either fibre and lactobacillus or fibre only. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 15. The t test, fisher’s and chi- square test was used to compare discrete variables. Results In summary, in the analysis of 67 liver transplant recipients, 8.8% group A patients developed infections compared to 30.3% group B patients. The difference between groups A and B was statistically significant in both cases. In addition, the duration of antibiotic therapy was significantly shorter in the lactobacillus-group. Wound infection was the most frequent infections and enterococci the most frequently isolated bacteria. Fibre and lactobacilli were well tolerated in most cases. The operating time, amount of intra- and post-operatively transfused units of blood, fresh frozen plasma and albumin did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions Combined fibre and probiotics could lower the incidence of

  13. Blend Concepts for Fuel Cell Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerres, Jochen

    Differently cross-linked blend membranes were prepared from commercial arylene main-chain polymers from the classes of poly(ether-ketones) and poly(ethersulfones) modified with sulfonate groups, sulfinate cross-linking groups and basic N-groups. The following membrane types have been prepared: (a) van-der Waals/dipole-dipole blends by mixing a polysulfonate with unmodified PSU. This membrane type showed a heterogeneous morphology, leading to extreme swelling and even dissolution of the sulfonated component at elevated temperatures. (b) Hydrogen bridge blends by mixing a polysulfonate with a polyamide or polyetherimide. This membrane type showed a partially heterogeneous morphology, also leading to extreme swelling/dissolution of the sulfonated blend component at elevated temperatures. (c) Acid-base blends by mixing a polysulfonate with a polymeric N-base (self-developed/commercial). With this membrane type, we could reach a wide variability of properties by variation of different parameters. Membranes showing excellent stability and good fuel cell performance up to 100°C (PEFC) and 130°C (DMFC) were obtained. (d) Covalently cross-linked (blend) membranes by either mixing of a polysulfonate with a polysulfinate or by preparation of a polysulfinatesulfonate, followed by reaction of the sulfinate groups in solution with a dihalogeno compound under S-alkylation. Membranes were prepared that showed effective suppression of swelling without H+-conductivity loss. The membranes showed good PEFC (up to 100°C) and DMFC (up to 130°C) performance. (e) Covalent-ionically cross-linked blend membranes by mixing polysulfonates with polysulfinates and polybases or by mixing a polysulfonate with a polymer carrying both sulfinate and basic N-groups. The covalent-ionically cross-linked membranes were tested in DMFC up to 110°C and showed a good performance. (f) Differently cross-linked organic-inorganic blend composite membranes via different procedures. The best results were

  14. Effect of Organoclays on Immiscible Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Mai; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2011-03-01

    The effect of adding organoclays on the phase behavior, rheological properties and bulk mechanical properties of immiscible polymer blends of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is investigated. Traditional organoclays, prepared using alkyl ammonium chains, display a preference to segregate to the PS phase for high PS volume fraction blends where the PS forms the continuous matrix. On the other hand, for blends with low PS volume fractions, the organoclay segregates to the interface between the PS and PMMA domains and leads to a decrease in the domain size that does not change much with organoclay concentration variations from 0.1 to 2 wt %. Linear dynamic rheological data of these samples show significant increase in the low-frequency modulus of the blends with added organoclay. A thermodynamic model for estimating the interfacial modulus is proposed and the results agree well with the interfacial modulus calculated by Palierne's emulsion model. The toughness of the blends increases at low concentrations of added organoclays with the optimal improvements observed for less than 0.5 wt % added organoclay.

  15. Biocompatible electrospun polymer blends for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Munj, Hrishikesh Ramesh; Nelson, M Tyler; Karandikar, Prathamesh Sadanand; Lannutti, John Joseph; Tomasko, David Lane

    2014-10-01

    Blends of natural and synthetic polymers have received considerable attention as biomaterials due to the potential to optimize both mechanical and bioactive properties. Electrospinning of biocompatible polymers is an efficient method producing biomimetic topographies suited to various applications. In the ultimate application, electrospun scaffolds must also incorporate drug/protein delivery for effective cell growth and tissue repair. This study explored the suitability of a ternary Polymethylmethacrylate-Polycaprolactone-gelatin blend in the preparation of electrospun scaffolds for biomedical applications. Tuning the blend composition allows control over scaffold mechanical properties and degradation rate. Significant improvements were observed in the mechanical properties of the blend compared with the individual components. In order to study drug delivery potential, triblends were impregnated with the model compound Rhodamine-B using sub/supercritical CO₂ infusion under benign conditions. Results show significantly distinct release profiles of the impregnated dye from the triblends. Specific factors such as porosity, degradation rate, stress relaxation, dye-polymer interactions, play key roles in impregnation and release. Each polymer component of the triblends shows distinct behavior during impregnation and release process. This affects the aforementioned factors and the release profiles of the dye. Careful control over blend composition and infusion conditions creates the flexibility needed to produce biocompatible electrospun scaffolds for a variety of biomedical applications. PMID:24604876

  16. Bottlebrush Polymer Additives for Binary Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mah, Hui Zhen; Afzali, Pantea; Phan, Hanh; Qi, Luqing; Pesek, Stacy; Verduzco, Rafael; Stein, Gila

    Bottlebrush polymers are highly branched polymers that have been used in applications such as self-assembling photonics, drug delivery and stimuli-responsive surface coatings. However, they have not been widely studied as compatibilizers for polymer blends. In this study, bottlebrush polymers with poly(styrene-r-methyl methacrylate) side chains were used as additives for thin film blends of polystyrene (PS) and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The blends were heated above the glass transition temperature to drive phase separation, and the resulting morphology was characterized with atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy. Outcomes were compared with PS/PMMA blends that contain conventional compatibilizers such as linear random copolymers of poly(styrene-r-methyl methacrylate) and diblock PS-PMMA copolymers. The bottlebrush additive accumulates at the PS/PMMA interface and drives the formation of vesicle-like droplets that assemble into longer chains. The continuity of the chains depends on the blend composition, where a network structure is achieved close to the critical composition. This unusual microstructure was not observed with the other additives, and may be a consequence of preferential wetting of the bottlebrush by the PS phase.

  17. Impact of two probiotic Lactobacillus strains feeding on fecal lactobacilli and weight gains in chicken.

    PubMed

    Lan, Pham Thi Ngoc; Binh, Le Thanh; Benno, Yoshimi

    2003-02-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus agilis JCM 1048 and L. salivarius subsp. salicinius JCM 1230 isolated from chicken intestine, exhibited probiotic characteristics that can be applied for chicken production. After 7 days of probiotic feeding (FD7), the count of intestinal lactobacilli in the probiotic group (group P, n=10) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in the control group (group C, n=9). After 40 days of probiotic feeding (FD40), the lactobacilli and enterococci counts were stable but the Enterobacteriaceae number was significantly reduced (p<0.05). A total of 163 isolated lactobacilli were identified as the L. acidophilus/gallinarum group (49.7%), L. agilis (30.7%), L. salivarius (9.2%), L. reuteri (9.2%), and Lactobacillus spp. (1.2%). The probiotic lactobacilli positively affected the Lactobacillus biota in chickens at FD7, with a significant increase in the number (p<0.05) of L. agilis and group P. The viable counts of each Lactobacillus species at FD40, however, showed no differences between two groups. An increasing incidence of L. agilis was also noted with probiotic feeding. The probiotic effect of two strains resulted in significantly increased weight gains (10.7%) of group P in comparison with group C at FD40 (p<0.01). PMID:12682864

  18. Probiotics and antibiotics change microbial diversity and decrease gut growth in neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both probiotics and antibiotics are used as a therapy against infection and gut inflammatory disorders. The impact of these interventions on the gut microbiota, intestinal function and protein metabolism in preterm infants is unknown. We investigated the effect of antibiotics and probiotics on inte...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei BD-II ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei BD-II, a patented probiotic strain (U.S. patent 7,270,994 B2), was isolated from homemade koumiss in China and has been implemented in the industrial production as starter cultures. Here we report the complete genome sequence of BD-II, which shows high similarity with the well-studied probiotic BL23. PMID:21478345

  20. Genome Sequence of a Potential Probiotic Strain, Lactobacillus fermentum HFB3, Isolated from a Human Gut.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Madhu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of 2.04 Mb is reported for Lactobacillus fermentum HFB3, which is a lactic acid bacterium with probiotic properties. The gene-coding clusters also predicted the presence of genes responsible for probiotic characteristics. PMID:26543124

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the Spore-Forming Probiotic Strain Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2.

    PubMed

    Upadrasta, Aditya; Pitta, Swetha; Madempudi, Ratna Sudha

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Bacillus coagulansUnique IS-2 is a potential spore-forming probiotic that is commercially available on the market. The draft genome sequence presented here provides deep insight into the beneficial features of this strain for its safe use as a probiotic for various human and animal health applications. PMID:27103709

  2. Survival of four commercial probiotic mixtures in full fat and reduced fat peanut butter.

    PubMed

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2014-12-01

    A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Lactococcus were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Resulting products were stored at 4, 25 or 37 °C for 12 months. Populations of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus/Lactococcus were determined periodically. The average viable cell counts of N and S were significantly lower than those of B and U (p < 0.05). In all probiotic products stored at different temperatures, Bifidobacterium had the greatest survivability, followed by Lactobacillus and Streptococcus/Lactococcus. The probiotics used in the study had different surviving patterns, and their survival was influenced by storage conditions. Fat content of peanut butter had no significant impacts on probiotic viability. Results suggest that peanut butter can be a vehicle to deliver probiotics for preventing diarrhea among malnourished children. PMID:25084642

  3. Genome sequence of the bacteriocin-producing oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius strain M18.

    PubMed

    Heng, Nicholas C K; Haji-Ishak, Nurul S; Kalyan, Alaina; Wong, Andrew Y C; Lovric, Marija; Bridson, Joanna M; Artamonova, Julia; Stanton, Jo-Ann L; Wescombe, Philip A; Burton, Jeremy P; Cullinan, Mary P; Tagg, John R

    2011-11-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a Gram-positive bacterial commensal and pioneer colonizer of the human oral cavity. Many strains produce ribosomally synthesized proteinaceous antibiotics (bacteriocins), and some strains have been developed for use as oral probiotics. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the bacteriocin-producing oral probiotic S. salivarius strain M18. PMID:22038965

  4. Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Oral Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius Strain M18

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Nicholas C. K.; Haji-Ishak, Nurul S.; Kalyan, Alaina; Wong, Andrew Y. C.; Lovrić, Marija; Bridson, Joanna M.; Artamonova, Julia; Stanton, Jo-Ann L.; Wescombe, Philip A.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Cullinan, Mary P.; Tagg, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a Gram-positive bacterial commensal and pioneer colonizer of the human oral cavity. Many strains produce ribosomally synthesized proteinaceous antibiotics (bacteriocins), and some strains have been developed for use as oral probiotics. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the bacteriocin-producing oral probiotic S. salivarius strain M18. PMID:22038965

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Spore-Forming Probiotic Strain Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2

    PubMed Central

    Upadrasta, Aditya; Pitta, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 is a potential spore-forming probiotic that is commercially available on the market. The draft genome sequence presented here provides deep insight into the beneficial features of this strain for its safe use as a probiotic for various human and animal health applications. PMID:27103709

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Strain ATCC MYA-796

    PubMed Central

    Marques, E. T. A.; Franco, G. R.

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii is the only yeast approved as a probiotic for human consumption. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the strain ATCC MYA-796, derived from the French Ultra Levure probiotic drug. The genome has a size of 11.6 Mb with 5,305 putative open reading frames predicted. PMID:25523784

  7. A reassessment of the PROPATRIA study and its implications for probiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Bongaerts, Ger P A; Severijnen, René S V M

    2016-01-01

    The PROPATRIA (Probiotics in Pancreatitis Trial) study was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that aimed to reduce infectious complications in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis by the enteral use of a multispecies probiotic preparation. An unprecedented 24 of 152 patients (16%) in the group receiving probiotics died versus 9 of 144 (6%) in the placebo group. This high mortality rate in the probiotic-treated group contrasts strongly with observations from a previous smaller study and from our observations regarding the effects of abundant intestinal lactobacilli in patients with short small bowel (SSB) syndrome. We argue here that a lethal combination of mainly proteolytic pancreas enzymes and probiotic therapy resulted in the high mortality rate of the PROPATRIA trial and that elevated levels of lactic acid produced by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates were a key contributing factor. We suggest that probiotic therapy may not be counter-indicated for the prevention of secondary infections associated with acute pancreatitis, provided that future clinical studies (i) start probiotic therapy immediately after first onset of disease symptoms, (ii) limit the supply of fermentable carbohydrates, (iii) prevent bacterial (over)growth of patient's own intestinal flora and (iv) massively increase the dose of probiotic bacteria. PMID:26744983

  8. Live feed enrichment with probiotics: current methods and future perspectives on increasing finfish larviculture success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotics are considered an alternative to other treatments enhancing immune response, growth, or feed efficiency in animal rearing systems. While probiotics are extensively used in livestock practices, their use in aquaculture has not been as prevalent due to many factors, including a knowledge ga...

  9. Oral Administration of Fermented Probiotics Improves the Condition of Feces in Adult Horses

    PubMed Central

    ISHIZAKA, Saori; MATSUDA, Akira; AMAGAI, Yosuke; OIDA, Kumiko; JANG, Hyosun; UEDA, Yuko; TAKAI, Masaki; TANAKA, Akane; MATSUDA, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of probiotics on horses are still controversial. The present study was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the ability of probiotics to improve intestinal conditions in adult horses. Fermented probiotics were administered to 10 healthy adult geldings for 28 days. The clinical condition of the horses was monitored daily, and the blood and feces were biochemically analyzed every 14 days. In the probiotic-treated group, the concentration of carboxylic acids in the feces was increased at days 14 and 28. In contrast to the fecal pH in the control group, which increased at days 14 and 28, the fecal pH in the probiotic-treated group did not increase. Additionally, the relative amounts of enteropathogenic bacterial DNA were diminished in the probiotic-treated group. These results suggest that probiotic bacteria proliferated in the equine intestine. No instances of abnormal clinical conditions or abnormal values in blood tests were observed throughout the study. Oral administration of fermented probiotics may have the ability to improve the intestinal environment biochemically and microbiologically without the risk of adverse effects. PMID:25558179

  10. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BD-II.

    PubMed

    Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

    2011-06-01

    Lactobacillus casei BD-II, a patented probiotic strain (U.S. patent 7,270,994 B2), was isolated from homemade koumiss in China and has been implemented in the industrial production as starter cultures. Here we report the complete genome sequence of BD-II, which shows high similarity with the well-studied probiotic BL23. PMID:21478345

  11. The probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 enhances early gastrointestinal maturation in young turkey poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns over the use of antibiotics as growth promoters has led to interest in finding alternative growth promoters such as natural compounds and probiotics. Supplementing feed with probiotics has shown to enhance the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development of chickens and turkeys. The human pro...

  12. Harnessing microbiome and probiotic research in sub-Saharan Africa: recommendations from an African workshop

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To augment capacity-building for microbiome and probiotic research in Africa, a workshop was held in Nairobi, Kenya, at which researchers discussed human, animal, insect, and agricultural microbiome and probiotics/prebiotics topics. Five recommendations were made to promote future basic and translational research that benefits Africans. PMID:24739094

  13. Potential benefits of probiotics--main findings of an in-depth review.

    PubMed

    Weichselbaum, Elisabeth

    2010-03-01

    Media reports on probiotics have been conflicting which has led to increased confusion among the general population and also among health professionals. To disentangle myths and reality, the British Nutrition Foundation has carried out a review on probiotics and health. There is good evidence that probiotics are effective in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and, although only few studies have been carried out so far, probiotic microorganisms also seem to have the potential to prevent the potentially fatal Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. A limited number of studies that are available on the effectiveness of probiotics on constipation have shown conflicting results, but promising results have been found for certain strains. Irritable bowel syndrome symptoms have been found to be reduced by consuming probiotic strains, although a high placebo effect has been observed in some of the studies. The field of probiotics is relatively new and more studies will be needed to allow firm conclusions on the effectiveness of probiotic microorganisms for certain health issues. PMID:20220625

  14. Coal blending in the `90s and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, M.A.; Edeal, D.; Snow, J.S.

    1995-10-01

    More and more utilities are leaning toward coal blending as a means of maintaining capacity while lowering emissions or reducing fuel cost. This trend has highlighted new concerns: blend facilities, blending techniques and blend confirmation. A recent project used several blending techniques, from off-site to on-site blending. Barge terminals, which blended coals using volumetric flows and mass flows, served as off-site facilities. The blended coal was transported by barge to another river terminal from which it was hauled by truck to the plant. The blended coal from each barge terminal was then blended on a mass basis with a third coal directly into coal bunkers. This paper describes the facilities and techniques, problems, and solutions in more detail. Several factors, such as sulfur, calcium and heating value, were used to confirm blend accuracy. The usability of these factors and the reasons for their level of success are described. This paper also presents the conclusions reached concerning the methods of blending and confirming the blend.

  15. [Effects of mono-, poly- and composite probiotics on the ulceration caused by restraint stress].

    PubMed

    Virchenko, O V; Falalyeyeva, T M; Beregova, T V; Spivak, M Y; Lazarenko, L M; Demchenko, O M

    2015-01-01

    It was studied the effect of probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium animalis VKL, Bifidobacterium animalis VKB and Lactobacillus casei IMVB-7280, and their mixtures on erosive and ulcerative lesions of the gastric mucosa (GM) of rats. GM was induced by water-immersion restraint stress. It was found that investigated probiotics did not have gastroprotective properties under a single and seven-day prophylactic administration. However, multiprobiotics (polyprobiotic Bifidobacterium animalis VKL and Bifidobacterium animalis VKB and composite probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis VKL, Bifidobacterium animalis VKB and Lactobacillus casei IMVB-7280) reduced the erosive and ulcerative lesions and the intensity of bleeding in rat GM when given within 14 days. It was shown that one of the mechanisms of antiulcer preventive effect of the multistrain probiotics is the restoration of pro/antioxidant balance in the GM under the stress action. The obtained results show the effectiveness of poly- and composite probiotics in the gastric ulcer prevention. PMID:26040033

  16. Development of Microencapsulation Delivery System for Long-Term Preservation of Probiotics as Biotherapeutics Agent

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Himanshu K.; Pawar, Dipak D.; Shah, Dushyant A.; Prajapati, Vipul D.; Jani, Girish K.; Mulla, Akil M.; Thakar, Prachi M.

    2013-01-01

    The administration of probiotic bacteria for health benefit has rapidly expanded in recent years, with a global market worth $32.6 billion predicted by 2014. The oral administration of most of the probiotics results in the lack of ability to survive in a high proportion of the harsh conditions of acidity and bile concentration commonly encountered in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier against adverse environmental conditions is therefore an approach currently receiving considerable interest. Probiotic encapsulation technology has the potential to protect microorganisms and to deliver them into the gut. However, there are still many challenges to overcome with respect to the microencapsulation process and the conditions prevailing in the gut. This review focuses mainly on the methodological approach of probiotic encapsulation including biomaterials selection and choice of appropriate technology in detailed manner. PMID:24027760

  17. Utilization of sugarcane industrial residues as animal food and probiotic medium.

    PubMed

    Apás, Ana Lidia; Arena, Mario Eduardo; Draksler, Diana; González, Silvia Nelina

    2008-10-01

    Sugar production from sugarcane generates residual products, currently, many of which are waste products. At the same time, introduction of probiotic bacteria to food animals needs an economical production medium. Fermentation of sugarcane blunting, an industrial residue, inoculated with ruminant probiotic bacteria was investigated. Fermentation was carried out using native flora (NF) alone, NF plus a goat probiotic lactic acid bacterium (LAB), and NF plus goat probiotic co-inoculated with two LAB isolated from sugarcane. Survival of microorganisms and metabolite produce were monitored. In the inoculated samples, pH was lower, dry matter was >30%, and Enterobacteriaceae and fungus decreased when compared to natural fermentation. The LAB inoculated grew and multiplied during fermentation. All beneficial changes were more quickly in the co-inoculated samples. The results presented indicate that sugarcane blunting can be used as a medium for introduction of ruminant probiotic bacteria. Fermentation of blunting can prolong shelf life and increase microbiological safety. PMID:19000612

  18. Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  19. Role of commensal and probiotic bacteria in human health: a focus on inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The human gut is one of the most complex ecosystems, composed of 1013-1014 microorganisms which play an important role in human health. In addition, some food products contain live bacteria which transit through our gastrointestinal tract and could exert beneficial effects on our health (known as probiotic effect). Among the numerous proposed health benefits attributed to commensal and probiotic bacteria, their capacity to interact with the host immune system is now well demonstrated. Currently, the use of recombinant lactic acid bacteria to deliver compounds of health interest is gaining importance as an extension of the probiotic concept. This review summarizes some of the recent findings and perspectives in the study of the crosstalk of both commensal and probiotic bacteria with the human host as well as the latest studies in recombinant commensal and probiotic bacteria. Our aim is to highlight the potential roles of recombinant bacteria in this ecosystem. PMID:23876056

  20. Role of commensal and probiotic bacteria in human health: a focus on inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Martín, Rebeca; Miquel, Sylvie; Ulmer, Jonathan; Kechaou, Noura; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G

    2013-01-01

    The human gut is one of the most complex ecosystems, composed of 1013-1014 microorganisms which play an important role in human health. In addition, some food products contain live bacteria which transit through our gastrointestinal tract and could exert beneficial effects on our health (known as probiotic effect). Among the numerous proposed health benefits attributed to commensal and probiotic bacteria, their capacity to interact with the host immune system is now well demonstrated. Currently, the use of recombinant lactic acid bacteria to deliver compounds of health interest is gaining importance as an extension of the probiotic concept. This review summarizes some of the recent findings and perspectives in the study of the crosstalk of both commensal and probiotic bacteria with the human host as well as the latest studies in recombinant commensal and probiotic bacteria. Our aim is to highlight the potential roles of recombinant bacteria in this ecosystem. PMID:23876056

  1. Probiotics: a practical review of their role in specific clinical scenarios.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Barry; Holsten, Steven; Bengmark, Stig; Martindale, Robert

    2005-04-01

    The use of probiotics (live viable microbial organisms) in the treatment of specific diseases has evolved into an extremely valuable option yet to be optimally used in clinical medicine. Probiotics have been shown to have immunomodulating properties and enhance the mucosal barrier. This review will briefly discuss the use of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, liver transplantation, and various uses in diarrhea. When using probiotics, one must be cautious of the sometime overzealous claims that are commonly made when dealing with medical foods. As we begin to appreciate the degree of complexity that our indigenous microbial population has on health, it is only then that we can begin to understand the importance in disease. In the arena of probiotics, numerous fundamental questions remain unanswered. PMID:16207661

  2. Flexible cytokine production by macrophages and T cells in response to probiotic bacteria: a possible mechanism by which probiotics exert multifunctional immune regulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Shida, Kan; Nanno, Masanobu; Nagata, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics have been reported to be efficacious against cancers, infections, allergies, inflammatory bowel diseases and autoimmune diseases, and it is important to explain how such multifunctional activities are realized. Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) is one of these multifunctional probiotics, and its ability to augment the host immune system has been extensively examined. We have shown that the cell wall structure of this probiotic strain is responsible for potently inducing IL-12 production. In addition, we have recently found that LcS differentially controls the inflammatory cytokine responses of macrophages and T cells in either Peyer's patches or the spleen. Other studies revealed that LcS-induced IL-12 production by macrophages is modified when other bacteria or their cell components are simultaneously present. These findings can provide a theoretical basis for understanding the multifunctional activities of specific probiotics. PMID:21637028

  3. Interfacial Slip in Polymer Blends with Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Joseph; Jaber, Eihab; Gersappe, Dilip

    2010-03-01

    The interfacial region in polymer blends has been identified as a low viscosity region in which considerable slip can occur when the blend is subjected to shear forces. Here we use Molecular Dynamics simulations to establish the role that added nanoparticle fillers play in modifying the interfacial rheology. By choosing conditions under which the fillers are localized, either in the two phases or at the interface, we can look at the interplay between the strengthening capability of nanoparticles and the change in the interfacial slip behavior. We examine particle size, attraction between the particle and the polymer component, and the amount of filler in the material. Our studies are performed both above and below the point at which the filler particles form a transient network in the blend.

  4. Interfacial Slip in Polymer Blends with Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Joseph; Jaber, Eihab; Gersappe, Dilip

    2009-03-01

    The interfacial region in polymer blends has been identified as a low viscosity region in which considerable slip can occur when the blend is subjected to shear forces. Here we use Molecular Dynamics simulations to establish the role that added nanoparticle fillers play in modifying the interfacial rheology. By choosing conditions under which the fillers are localized, either in the two phases or at the interface, we can look at the interplay between the strengthening capability of nanoparticles and the change in the interfacial slip behavior. We examine particle size, attraction between the particle and the polymer component, and the amount of filler in the material. Our studies are performed both above and below the point at which the filler particles form a transient network in the blend.

  5. Interfacial slip in polymer blends with nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Joseph; Jaber, Eihab; Gersappe, Dilip

    2008-03-01

    The interfacial region in polymer blends has been identified as a low viscosity region in which considerable slip can occur when the blend is subjected to shear forces. Here, we use Molecular Dynamics simulations to establish the role that added nanofiller particles play in modifying the interfacial rheology. By choosing conditions under which the fillers are localized either in the two phases, or at the interface we can look at the interplay between the strengthening capability of nanoparticles, and the change in the interfacial slip behavior. We examine particle size, attraction between the particle and the polymer component and the amount of filler in the material. Our studies are performed both above and below the point at which the filler particles form a transient network in the blend.

  6. Designing appropriate blended courses: a students' perspective.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2010-10-01

    The computing education in Taiwan's vocational schools usually focuses on how to help students enhance their professional skills and pass certified examinations. In addition, due to national education policy and universities' regulations, pure online courses are not permitted in Taiwan. In order to design appropriate blended learning (BL) courses, the author explored the effects of web-mediated self-regulated learning (SRL) with variations in online class frequency on enhancing students' computing skills and their perspective of the blended courses. A total of 172 students, divided into four groups, participated in the experiment. The results showed that students in the SRL and BL group with five online classes had the highest scores for using a database management system (DBMS), and the highest pass rate on certified examinations. Students in this group also expressed their positive perspective on the arrangement of their blended course with the intervention of web-mediated SRL. PMID:20950181

  7. Controlled morphology of biodegradable polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddhiranon, Sasiwimon; Kyu, Thein

    2009-03-01

    Phase diagrams of biodegradable polymer blends containing poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PDLLA) having two different molecular weights were established by means of cloud point measurement and differential scanning calorimetry. Subsequently, the theoretical phase diagram was calculated self-consistently based on the combination of Flory-Huggins free energy for liquid-liquid phase separation and phase field free energy for crystal solidification. The phase diagrams thus obtained were LCST type or hour-glass type, which depended on molecular weight of PDLLA utilized. Guided by the phase diagram, the emerged morphology was determined as a function of blend concentration and temperature. It appears that the morphology control is feasible that ultimately affects the end-use property of PCL/PDLLA blends. A wide variety of morphology of biodegradable polymer may be developed with the porous structure and pore size to control scaffold porosity and the rate of drug delivery.

  8. Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Bonnie; Hitchcock, Adam; Brash, John; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew

    2010-06-09

    Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). The composition of the two polymers in these systems was determined by quantitative chemical analysis of near-edge X-ray absorption signals recorded with X-PEEM. The surface morphology depends on the ratio of the two components, the total polymer concentration, and the temperature of vacuum annealing. For most of the blends examined, PS is the continuous phase with PLA existing in discrete domains or segregated to the air?polymer interface. Phase segregation was improved with further annealing. A phase inversion occurred when films of a 40:60 PS:PLA blend (0.7 wt percent loading) were annealed above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA.

  9. Wetting induced instabilities in miscible polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Nigel; Thomas, Katherine; Steiner, Ullrich; Poetes, Rosa; Morariu, Mihai

    2011-03-01

    The behaviour of miscible blends of polystyrene (PS)/poly(vinyl methyl ether)(PVME) of varying compositions has been investigated at temperatures where PS and PVME are miscible. The PVME is seen to enrich the polymer-air surface, forming a layer with a width that is comparable to the correlation length. Further heating close to the demixing temperature results in the formation of a capillary instabilities at the polymer surface exhibiting a spinodal-like pattern with a characteristic wavelength that depends on the blend composition. Formation of these instabilities is seen for all blend compositions. We propose that these wetting induced instabilities result from coupled height and composition fluctuations in the PVME enriched surface layer, driving the build-up of long wavelength fluctuations.

  10. Polymer blends as high explosive binders

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.; Caley, L.E.

    1984-10-05

    One approach to high-density, high-modulus binders for explosives is to blend low-density, high-modulus polymers with high-density, low-modulus polymers. Improved properties, which miscible pairs theoretically should have, are discussed. Two attempts to achieve miscibility between a high-density fluoropolymer (Kel-F 800) and high-modulus thermoplastics (Lucite 130 and Phenoxy PKHJ) were unsuccessful. These blends are immiscible and their physical properties are additive or not significantly enhanced. Anelastic properties of the blends indicate phase separation by the presence of two glass transitions, one associated with each phase. Unfortunately, neither of these pairs has merit as an improved plastic-bonded explosive binder. However, a compatible (miscible) pair would be an improved binder if the appropriate polymer pair could be found.

  11. Designed blending for near infrared calibration.

    PubMed

    Scheibelhofer, Otto; Grabner, Bianca; Bondi, Robert W; Igne, Benoît; Sacher, Stephan; Khinast, Johannes G

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopic methods are increasingly used for monitoring pharmaceutical manufacturing unit operations that involve powder handling and processing. With that regard, chemometric models are required to interpret the obtained spectra. There are many ways to prepare artificial powder blend samples used in a chemometric model for predicting the chemical content. Basically, an infinite number of possible concentration levels exist in terms of the individual components. In our study, design of experiments for ternary mixtures was used to establish a suitable number of blend compositions that represents the entire mixture region of interest for a three component blend. Various experimental designs and their effect on the predictive power of a chemometric model for near infrared spectra were investigated. It was determined that a particular choice of experimental design could change the predictive power of a model, even with the same number of calibration experiments. PMID:25980978

  12. Regulatory categories of probiotics across the globe: a review representing existing and recommended categorization.

    PubMed

    Arora, M; Baldi, A

    2015-02-01

    Probiotics are friendly live microorganisms (in most cases, bacteria) that are similar to beneficial micro-organisms found in the human gut, whenever consumed, have potential to confer benefit to the health of consumers by maintaining, or improving their intestinal microbial flora and are available to consumers mainly in the form of dietary supplements and foods. All-time high interest in the field of probiotics is due to emerging probiotic industry. Probiotics are available in foods and dietary supplements, even as pharmaceutical formulations (capsules, tablets and powders) and in some other forms as well, but their claims of health benefits may challenge the traditional border between food and medicine. A number of probiotic products have been already introduced into the international market as food supplements, dietary supplements, natural health products, functional foods and many more other categories; as a result, the position of regulatory system for probiotics within existing categories become vague and quite unclear. Common terminology for probiotic products has become a necessity to achieve adequate regulatory control for discussion of probiotic-related issues among government, producers and consumers. The lack of a consistent terminology across the globe leads to legal uncertainty and confusion instead of being a direct obstacle for development of a mature market. This article will explain differences in regulatory categorizations across the globe; discuss the terms like food and drugs with a close relationship to probiotics, the problems associated with unsatisfactorily approached categorization as well as suggestive consolidations for the new categorization which will demarcate probiotics into categories explaining their nutritive claims, health claims or both. PMID:25657150

  13. Probiotics modify tight-junction proteins in an animal model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Briskey, David; Heritage, Mandy; Jaskowski, Lesley-Anne; Peake, Jonathan; Gobe, Glenda; Subramaniam, V. Nathan; Crawford, Darrell; Campbell, Catherine; Vitetta, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have investigated the effects of a multispecies probiotic preparation containing a combination of probiotic bacterial genera that included Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli and a Streptococcus in a mouse model of high-fat diet or obesity-induced liver steatosis. Methods: Three groups of C57B1/6J mice were fed either a standard chow or a high-fat diet for 20 weeks, while a third group was fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks and then concomitantly administered probiotics for a further 10 weeks. Serum, liver and large bowel samples were collected for analysis. Results: The expression of the tight-junction proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 was reduced (p < 0.05) in high-fat diet-fed mice compared to chow-fed mice. Probiotic supplementation helped to maintain tight ZO-1 and ZO-2 expression compared with the high-fat diet group (p < 0.05), but did not restore ZO-1 or ZO-2 expression compared with chow-fed mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet ± probiotics had significant steatosis development compared with chow-fed mice (p < 0.05); steatosis was less severe in the probiotics group compared with the high-fat diet group. Hepatic triglyceride concentration was higher in mice fed a high-fat diet ± probiotics compared with the chow group (p < 0.05), and was lower in the probiotics group compared with the high-fat diet group (p < 0.05). Compared with chow-fed mice, serum glucose, cholesterol concentration and the activity of alanine transaminase were higher (p < 0.05), whereas serum triglyceride concentration was lower (p < 0.05) in mice fed a high-fat diet ± probiotics. Conclusions: Supplementation with a multispecies probiotic formulation helped to maintain tight-junction proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2, and reduced hepatic triglyceride concentration compared with a high-fat diet alone. PMID:27366215

  14. Evidence-based guidelines for use of probiotics in preterm neonates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Current evidence indicates that probiotic supplementation significantly reduces all-cause mortality and definite necrotising enterocolitis without significant adverse effects in preterm neonates. As the debate about the pros and cons of routine probiotic supplementation continues, many institutions are satisfied with the current evidence and wish to use probiotics routinely. Because of the lack of detail on many practical aspects of probiotic supplementation, clinician-friendly guidelines are urgently needed to optimise use of probiotics in preterm neonates. Aim To develop evidence-based guidelines for probiotic supplementation in preterm neonates. Methods To develop core guidelines on use of probiotics, including strain selection, dose and duration of supplementation, we primarily used the data from our recent updated systematic review of randomised controlled trials. For equally important issues including strain identification, monitoring for adverse effects, product format, storage and transport, and regulatory hurdles, a comprehensive literature search, covering the period 1966-2010 without restriction on the study design, was conducted, using the databases PubMed and EMBASE, and the proceedings of scientific conferences; these data were used in our updated systematic review. Results In this review, we present guidelines, including level of evidence, for the practical aspects (for example, strain selection, dose, duration, clinical and laboratory surveillance) of probiotic supplementation, and for dealing with non-clinical but important issues (for example, regulatory requirements, product format). Evidence was inadequate in some areas, and these should be a target for further research. Conclusion We hope that these evidence-based guidelines will help to optimise the use of probiotics in preterm neonates. Continued research is essential to provide answers to the current gaps in knowledge about probiotics. PMID:21806843

  15. Effects of Probiotics on Quality of Life in Children with Cystic Fibrosis; A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Seyed-Ali; Mehdizadeh-Hakkak, Atieh; Kianifar, Hamid-Reza; Hebrani, Paria; Ahanchian, Hamid; Abbasnejad, Elaheh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) usually have abnormal intestinal microbiota and dysregulated immune mediators due to massive exposure to antibiotics. Probiotics as immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory substances are considered to improve both clinical and biochemical intestinal and pulmonary function in CF patients. We decided to investigate the effects of probiotics on quality of life and pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis. Methods In a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 37 CF patients (2-12 years old) were randomly divided into two groups. 20 patients of probiotic group took probiotics (2×109CFU/d) for one month while 17 patients of control group took placebo capsules. Quality of life was determined using PedsQL™4.0 questionnaire at the beginning, then three and six months after completing the treatment period. Rate of pulmonary exacerbation in probiotic group patients was also evaluated during three months after intervention and compared to the same three months of the previous year. Results were analyzed using SPSS (11.5). P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Findings Significant improvement was observed in the mean total score of parent reported quality of life among probiotic group patients in comparison with placebo group at 3rd month (P=0.01), but this was not significant at 6th month of probiotic treatment. Rate of pulmonary exacerbation was significantly reduced among probiotic group (P<0.01). Conclusion Probiotics are considered as useful nutritional supplements on reducing number of pulmonary exacerbations and improving quality of life in patients with cystic fibrosis. Effects of probiotics seem to be temporary and probably continuous ingestion might have more stable improving effects on quality of life. PMID:24910746

  16. Importance of Molecular Methods to Determine Whether a Probiotic is the Source of Lactobacillus Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Aroutcheva, Alla; Auclair, Julie; Frappier, Martin; Millette, Mathieu; Lolans, Karen; de Montigny, Danielle; Carrière, Serge; Sokalski, Stephen; Trick, William E; Weinstein, Robert A

    2016-03-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the use of probiotic products for the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Bio-K+(®) is a commercial probiotic product comprising three strains of lactobacilli--Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®), Lact. casei LBC80R(®) and Lact. rhamnosus CLR2(®)--that have been applied to prevent CDI. Generally considered as safe, lactobacilli have potential to cause bacteremia, endocarditis and other infections. The source of Lactobacillus bacteremia can be normal human flora or lactobacilli-containing probiotic. The aim of this study was to assess whether probiotic lactobacilli caused bacteremia and to show the value of molecular identification and typing techniques to determine probiotic and patient strain relatedness. We report an episode of Lactobacillus bacteremia in a 69-year-old man admitted to a hospital with severe congestive heart failure. During his hospitalization, he required long-term antibiotic therapy. Additionally, the patient received Bio-K+(®) probiotic as part of a quality improvement project to prevent CDI. Subsequently, Lactobacillus bacteremia occurred. Two independent blinded laboratory evaluations, using pulse field gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA fingerprint analysis (rep-PCR), were performed to determine whether the recovered Lact. acidophilus originated from the probiotic product. Ultimately, the patient strain was identified as Lact. casei and both laboratories found no genetic relation between the patient's strain and any of the probiotic lactobacilli. This clinical case of lactobacillus bacteremia in the setting of probiotic exposure demonstrates the value of using discriminatory molecular methods to clearly determine whether there were a link between the patient's isolate and the probiotic strains. PMID:26915093

  17. Comparative Study of Probiotic Ice Cream and Probiotic Drink on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Levels in 6-12 Years Age Group Children

    PubMed Central

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Reddy, K M Parveen; Kumar, N H Praveen; Nara, Asha; Ashwin, Devasya; Buddiga, Vinutna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most common health problems in the world. Probiotics are one the various preventive methods to reduce dental caries. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of probiotic ice cream and drink on salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in children of 6-12 years age group. Materials and Methods: A three phase study was carried out in children (n = 50) of 6-12 years age with zero decayed missing filled teeth (dmft)/DMFT. They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva samples were collected before the consumptions of probiotic ice cream and probiotic drink. Colony count obtained was recorded as baseline data. For both groups probiotic ice cream and drink was given randomly for 7 days and a washout period of 90 days were given and then the saliva samples were collected and colony counting was done. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s paired t-test and multiple comparisons by Tukey’s honest significant difference test which showed, there is a significant reduction in salivary S. mutans level in both groups after 7 days period. However, after washout period only probiotic ice cream showed reduction whereas drink did not. Also, there was no significant difference between probiotic ice cream and drink. Conclusion: Probiotic organisms definitely have a role in reducing the salivary S. mutans level and ice cream would be a better choice than drink. However, the prolonged use of the agents and their effects on caries is still to be determined. PMID:26435616

  18. COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from pe...

  20. Formulation, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro study of chitosan/HPMC blends-based herbal blended patches.

    PubMed

    Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Madaka, Fameera; Chusut, Tun; Saingam, Worawan; Pichayakorn, Wiwat; Boonme, Prapaporn

    2015-02-01

    The current work prepared chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) blends and studied the possibility of chitosan/HPMC blended patches for Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. The blended patches without/with crude Z. cassumunar oil were prepared by homogeneously mixing the 3.5% w/v of chitosan solution and 20% w/v of HPMC solution, and glycerine was used as plasticizer. Then, they were poured into Petri dish and produced the blended patches in hot air oven at 70 ± 2°C. The blended patches were tested and evaluated by the physicochemical properties: moisture uptake, swelling ratio, erosion, porosity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, and photographed the surface and cross-section morphology under SEM technique. Herbal blended patches were studied by the in vitro release and skin permeation of active compound D. The blended patches could absorb the moisture and became hydrated patches that occurred during the swelling of blended patches. They were eroded and increased by the number of porous channels to pass through out for active compound D. In addition, the blended patches indicated the compatibility of the blended ingredients and homogeneous smooth and compact. The blended patches made from chitosan/HPMC blends provide a controlled release and skin permeation behavior of compound D. Thus, the blended patches could be suitably used for herbal medicine application. PMID:25233803