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Sample records for probiotic blend 5203-l

  1. Ileal and cecal microbial populations in broilers given specific essential oil blends and probiotics in two consecutive grow-outs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digestive microbial populations (MP) are key components for sustained healthy broiler production. Specific essential oil (EO) blends and probiotics used as feed additives have shown to promote healthy digestive microbials, resulting in improved poultry production. Two consecutive experiments were ...

  2. [Probiotics].

    PubMed

    Capurso, Lucio

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the currently available literature, which includes well-designed clinical trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, certain effects can be ascribed to probiotics as a general class. It is accepted that sufficient evidence has accumulated to support the concept of benefits of certain probiotics; it is reasonable to expect that evidence gained from a defined class of live microbes might be appropriate for certain, but not all, health outcomes. Moreover there is a need for clear communication to consumers and health-care providers of the activity of differentiate probiotic products. PMID:27362718

  3. Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Kligler, Benjamin; Cohrssen, Andreas

    2008-11-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms with potential health benefits. They may be used to prevent and treat antibiotic-associated diarrhea and acute infectious diarrhea. They may also be effective in relieving symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, and in treating atopic dermatitis in children. Species commonly used include Lactobacillus sp., Bifidobacterium sp., Streptococcus thermophilus, and Saccharomyces boulardii. Typical dosages vary based on the product, but common dosages range from 5 to 10 billion colony-forming units per day for children, and from 10 to 20 billion colony-forming units per day for adults. Significant adverse effects are rare, and there are no known interactions with medications. PMID:19007054

  4. Use of pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the effects of probiotics and essential oil blends on digestive microflora in broilers under mixed Eimeria infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A protective digestive microflora helps prevent and reduce broiler infection and colonization by enteropathogens. In the current experiment, broilers fed corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with probiotics and essential oil blends (EO) were infected with mixed Eimeria spp. to determine effects bro...

  5. Use of pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the effects of probiotics and essential oil blends on digestive microflora in broilers under mixed Eimeria infection.

    PubMed

    Hume, Michael E; Barbosa, Nei A; Dowd, Scot E; Sakomura, Nilva K; Nalian, Armen G; Martynova-Van Kley, Alexandra; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O

    2011-11-01

    A protective digestive microflora helps prevent and reduce broiler infection and colonization by enteropathogens. In the current experiment, broilers fed diets supplemented with probiotics and essential oil (EO) blends were infected with a standard mixed Eimeria spp. to determine effects of performance enhancers on ileal and cecal microbial communities (MCs). Eight treatment groups included four controls (uninfected-unmedicated [UU], unmedicated-infected, the antibiotic BMD plus the ionophore Coban as positive control, and the ionophore as negative control), and four treatments (probiotics BC-30 and Calsporin; and EO, Crina Poultry Plus, and Crina PoultryAF). Day-old broilers were raised to 14 days in floor pens on used litter and then were moved to Petersime batteries and inoculated at 15 days with mixed Eimeria spp. Ileal and cecal samples were collected at 14 days and 7 days postinfection. Digesta DNA was subjected to pyrosequencing for sequencing of individual cecal bacteria and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for determination of changes in ileal and cecal MC according to percentage similarity coefficient (%SC). Pyrosequencing is very sensitive detecting shifts in individual bacterial sequences, whereas DGGE is able to detect gross shifts in entire MC. These combined techniques offer versatility toward identifying feed additive and mild Eimeria infection modulation of broiler MC. Pyrosequencing detected 147 bacterial species sequences. Additionally, pyrosequencing revealed the presence of relatively low levels of the potential human enteropathogens Campylobacter sp. and four Shigella spp. as well as the potential poultry pathogen Clostridiun perfringens. Pre- and postinfection changes in ileal (56%SC) and cecal (78.5%SC) DGGE profiles resulted from the coccidia infection and with increased broiler age. Probiotics and EO changed MC from those seen in UU ilea and ceca. Results potentially reflect the performance enhancement above expectations in

  6. Molecular identification and characterization of ileal and cecal fungus communities in broilers given probiotics, specific essential oil blends, and under mixed Eimeria infection.

    PubMed

    Hume, Michael E; Hernandez, Charles A; Barbosa, Nei A; Sakomura, Nilva K; Dowd, Scott E; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O

    2012-09-01

    Broiler digestive tract fungal communities have gained far less scrutiny than that given corresponding bacterial communities. Attention given poultry-associated fungi have focused primarily on feed-associated toxin-producers, yeast, and yeast products. The current project focused on the use of pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to identify and monitor broiler digestive fungal communities. Eight different treatments were included. Four controls were an Uninfected-Unmedicated Control, an Unmedicated-Infected Control, the antibiotic bacitracin methylene disalicylate plus the ionophore monensin as Positive Control, and the ionophore monensin alone as a Negative Control. Four treatments were two probiotics (BC-30 and Calsporin) and two specific essential oil blends (Crina Poultry Plus and Crina Poultry AF). All chickens except the Unmedicated-Uninfected Control were given, at 15 days of age, a standard oral Eimeria inoculum of sporulated oocysts. Ileal and cecal digesta were collected at pre-Eimeria infection at 14 days of age and at 7 days post-Eimeria infection at 22 days of age. Extracted cecal DNA was analyzed by pyrosequencing to examine the impact of diet supplements and Eimeria infection on individual constituents in the fungal community, while DGGE was used to compare more qualitative changes in ileal and cecal communities. Pyrosequencing identified three phyla, seven classes, eight orders, 13 families, 17 genera, and 23 fungal species. Ileal and cecal DGGE patterns showed fungal communities were clustered mainly into pre- and post-infection patterns. Post-infection Unmedicated-Uninfected patterns were clustered with pre-infection groups demonstrating a strong effect of Eimeria infection on digestive fungal populations. These combined techniques offered added versatility towards unraveling the effects of enteropathogen infection and performance enhancing feed additives on broiler digestive microflora. PMID:22779701

  7. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  8. Clinical Uses of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Saif Ul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Probiotics are live nonpathogenic microorganisms. Many of these microorganisms are part of the normal human gut flora, where they live in a symbiotic relationship. Probiotics have been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI medical conditions. However, the data supporting their use are often conflicting, especially for non-GI-associated illnesses. The strongest evidence supporting the use of probiotics is related to the treatment of acute diarrhea and pouchitis. Atopic eczema in children and genitourinary infections are the only non-GI-related medical conditions where probiotics may have some beneficial effects. Product selection and dosing are not the same in all conditions, and the beneficial effects of each probiotic strain cannot be generalized. The purpose of this article is to provide most recent information about probiotics and its uses. In contrast with previously published reviews on probiotics, we also discuss the composition of various products (Table 1), indications for their use (Table 2), product selection, and dosing of probiotics. Probiotics are safe and appear to exert some beneficial effects in GI-related illnesses. The use of probiotics in non-GI illnesses is not sufficiently supported by current data. PMID:26844491

  9. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  10. Probiotics in transition.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Fergus; Dinan, Timothy G; Ross, Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-11-01

    Despite the hyperbole often linked with a popular research field, the scientific rationale for probiotics is sound. The probiotic concept is not new but is undergoing transition as knowledge of the gut microbiota in health and disease becomes translated to the clinic. Operationally, a probiotic represents a mimic of and/or supplement to the normal gut microbiota. Much confusion has arisen among consumers because of media misportrayals of probiotics as all being the same. However, with clarification of the molecular basis of host-microbe interactions, the selection criteria for probiotics and the delineation of their distinct mechanisms of action are improving. Most probiotics are from the genus Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium; this is likely to change and diversify. Similarly, the development of new therapeutic strategies, such as the development of phagebiotics, psychobiotics, and genetically modified pharmabiotics, is poised to become a therapeutic reality. PMID:23010563

  11. Taxonomy of Probiotic Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felis, Giovanna E.; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    When referring to probiotics, one refers to probiotic strains, i.e., the microbial individuals, sub-cultures of billion of almost identical cells ideally derived from the same mother cell. Therefore, beneficial effects attributed to probiotics are ascribed in fact to specific strains. However, these strains have to be, by law, clearly identified at the species level (Pineiro and Stanton, 2007). In fact, probiotics have to be safe for consumption, and the evaluation of QPS - qualified presumption of safety - status by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (Opinion, 2007) is discussed for species, not for single strains.

  12. Health benefits of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Goldin, B R

    1998-10-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for the claims of health benefits derived from the use of probiotics. A brief history of probiotics and the types of probiotics currently used and the criteria for the selection of probiotics is discussed. The ability of probiotics to enhance the nutritional content and bioavailability of nutrients and the scientific evidence for the usefulness of probiotics in alleviating the symptoms of lactose intolerance and in enhancing growth development is examined. The remainder of the review focuses on studies of a specific probiotic, Lactobacillus GG which has been extensively investigated for its health benefits in humans and animals. These studies severe as a model for the potential benefits of probiotics. The ability of Lactobacillus GG to treat or prevent diarrhoeal disease, to serve as an adjuvant for vaccines, to prevent rotavirus-induced diarrhoea, to prevent milk-based allergic reactions, alcohol-induced liver disease and colon cancer are presented. The review concludes with a discussion of the data supporting the safety of probiotics. PMID:9924285

  13. [Probiotics and their future].

    PubMed

    Pardio Sedas, V T; Waliszewski Kubiak, K N; Robledo López, G R

    1996-03-01

    This review examines recent scientific information about probiotics, their microbiological composition, general characteristics, function and methods of action as well as factor which determine their activity. The principal producers of probiotics and their future in human and animal nutrition are also discussed. PMID:9161452

  14. Probiotics in allergy management.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoof, Jon A

    2008-11-01

    The gut contains a diverse bacterial flora that is acquired at birth and has a number of physiological functions. Administration of prebiotics or probiotics may favourably alter this gut microflora. Prebiotics are poorly digested oligosaccharides that promote the growth of desirable bacteria and may have other beneficial gastrointestinal and systemic effects. Probiotics are "helpful" human bacteria that provide a variety of health benefits when administered exogenously. Probiotics produce beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of traveller's diarrhoea, viral diarrhoea, and diarrhoea in day care centres. Moreover, probiotics have been shown to reduce relapses associated with Clostridium difficile, and Lactobacilli are effective in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Probiotics may also be efficacious in the treatment of gastroenteritis. Clinical studies of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease have proved disappointing, but beneficial effects in adults with irritable bowel syndrome have been reported with Bifidobacterium infantis 35624. Lactobacilli GG reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms and gut permeability in patients with atopic dermatitis, and administration of probiotics reduces the frequency and severity of atopic eczema when administered to pregnant women and then to newborn infants. In conclusion, probiotics are effective in the treatment and/or prevention of a number of conditions, including diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome and atopic dermatitis, and the product used should be selected based on the particular indication. PMID:18931598

  15. The safety of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Snydman, David R

    2008-02-01

    Probiotics are generally defined as microorganisms that, when consumed, generally confer a health benefit on humans. There is considerable interest in probiotics for a variety of medical conditions, and millions of people around the world consume probiotics daily for perceived health benefits. Lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and lactococci have generally been regarded as safe. There are 3 theoretical concerns regarding the safety of probiotics: (1) the occurrence of disease, such as bacteremia or endocarditis; (2) toxic or metabolic effects on the gastrointestinal tract; and (3) the transfer of antibiotic resistance in the gastrointestinal flora. In this review, the evidence for safety of the use of or the study of probiotics is examined. Although there are rare cases of bacteremia or fungemia related to the use of probiotics, epidemiologic evidence suggests no population increase in risk on the basis of usage data. There have been many controlled clinical trials on the use of probiotics that demonstrate safe use. The use of probiotics in clinical trials should be accompanied by the use of a data-safety monitoring board and by knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the organism used. PMID:18181712

  16. Probiotics and microbiota composition.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence, corroborated by a new systematic review by Kristensen et al. (Genome Med 8:52, 2016), suggests that probiotics do not significantly impact the fecal microbiota composition of healthy subjects. Nevertheless, physiological benefits have been associated with probiotic consumption by healthy people. Some studies have suggested that probiotics may impact the function of colonizing microbes, although this needs to be further studied. An alternative hypothesis is that probiotics may promote homeostasis of the gut microbiota, rather than change its composition. This hypothesis warrants investigation as a possible mechanism for how probiotics may benefit healthy people.Please see related article: http://genomemedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13073-016-0300-5 . PMID:27250499

  17. Probiotics and oral health.

    PubMed

    Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour. PMID:22632388

  18. Probiotics in neonatology.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Leah; Jacobs, Susan E; Garland, Suzanne M

    2012-09-01

    Probiotics are micro-organisms that confer health benefits on the host. Postulated mechanisms include: increasing resistance of the mucosal barrier to migration of bacteria and their toxins by strengthening intestinal cell junctions, modification of host response to microbial products, augmentation of immunoglobulin A mucosal responses, enhancement of enteral nutrition to inhibit the growth of pathogens; production of antimicrobial proteins; and competitive exclusion of potential pathogens. Published meta-analyses and systematic reviews report the effects of probiotics on important clinical outcomes in neonates. This paper will review the evidence for probiotic supplementation in neonatology, with a focus on preterm infants. PMID:22862675

  19. Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imbriale, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Teachers always have been and always will be the essential element in the classroom. They can create magic inside four walls, but they have never been able to create learning environments outside the classroom like they can today, thanks to blended learning. Blended learning allows students and teachers to break free of the isolation of the…

  20. Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Catlin; Umphrey, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Catlin Tucker, author of "Blended Learning in Grades 4-12," is an English language arts teacher at Windsor High School in Sonoma County, CA. In this conversation with "Principal Leadership," she defines blended learning as a formal education program in which a student is engaged in active learning in part online where they…

  1. Probiotics-host communication

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Carissa M

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota includes a diverse group of functional microorganisms, including candidate probiotics or viable microorganisms that benefit the host. Beneficial effects of probiotics include enhancing intestinal epithelial cell function, protecting against physiologic stress, modulating cytokine secretion profiles, influencing T-lymphocyte populations, and enhancing antibody secretion. Probiotics have demonstrated significant potential as therapeutic options for a variety of diseases, but the mechanisms responsible for these effects remain to be fully elucidated. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that probiotics communicate with the host by modulating key signaling pathways, such as NFκB and MAPK, to either enhance or suppress activation and influence downstream pathways. Beneficial microbes can profoundly alter the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, and understanding these mechanisms may result in new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:20672012

  2. Probiotics: In Depth

    MedlinePlus

    ... the 30 days before the survey. What the Science Says About the Effectiveness of Probiotics Researchers have ... FDA before it can be sold. What the Science Says About the Safety and Side Effects of ...

  3. Basics of Probiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... in our bodies. In fact, microorganisms in the human body outnumber human cells by 10 to 1. Many ... probiotic microorganisms and have different effects in the human body. The effects also may vary from person to ...

  4. Probiotics: "living drugs".

    PubMed

    Elmer, G W

    2001-06-15

    The uses, mechanisms of action, and safety of probiotics are discussed. Probiotics are live microorganisms or microbial mixtures administered to improve the patient's microbial balance, particularly the environment of the gastrointestinal tract and the vagina. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and the bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus, strain GG, have shown efficacy in clinical trials for the prevention of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea. Other probiotics that have demonstrated at least some promise as prophylaxis for this type of diarrhea are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Enterococcus faecium. The use of S. boulardii as an adjunctive treatment to therapy with metronidazole or vancomycin has been found in controlled studies to decrease further recurrences of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Other gastrointestinal disorders for which probiotics have been studied include traveler's diarrhea, acute infantile diarrhea, and acute diarrhea in adults. Several Lactobacillus species given in yogurt or in tablet or suppository form have shown clinical efficacy as a treatment for vaginal infections. Lactobacillus strains have also been examined as a treatment for urinary-tract infections. Putative mechanisms of action of probiotics include production of pathogen-inhibitory substances, inhibition of pathogen attachment, inhibition of the action of microbial toxins, stimulation of immunoglobulin A, and trophic effects on intestinal mucosa. The available probiotics are considered nonpathogenic, but even benign microorganisms can be infective when a patient is severely debilitated or immunosuppressed. Probiotics have demonstrated an ability to prevent and treat some infections. Effective use of probiotics could decrease patients' exposure to antimicrobials. Additional controlled studies are needed to clearly define the safety and efficacy of these agents. PMID:11449853

  5. Probiotics and periodontal health.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G

    2011-11-14

    Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. The etiology is clearly bacterial and a number of putative bacterial pathogens have been associated with the disease, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythus and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Comparatively, little attention has been paid to the identification of health-associated and potentially beneficial bacterial species that may reside in the gingival sulcus. Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by using natural beneficial bacteria, commonly found in healthy mouths, to provide a natural defense against those bacteria which are thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. This article endeavors to introduce the concepts of probiotics in periodontics. PMID:22514571

  6. Probiotics and periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. The etiology is clearly bacterial and a number of putative bacterial pathogens have been associated with the disease, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythus and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Comparatively, little attention has been paid to the identification of health-associated and potentially beneficial bacterial species that may reside in the gingival sulcus. Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by using natural beneficial bacteria, commonly found in healthy mouths, to provide a natural defense against those bacteria which are thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. This article endeavors to introduce the concepts of probiotics in periodontics. PMID:22514571

  7. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections.

    PubMed

    Lehtoranta, L; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R

    2014-08-01

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common diseases in humans. A large range of etiologic agents challenge the development of efficient therapies. Research suggests that probiotics are able to decrease the risk or duration of respiratory infection symptoms. However, the antiviral mechanisms of probiotics are unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics on respiratory virus infections and to provide insights on the possible antiviral mechanisms of probiotics. A PubMed and Scopus database search was performed up to January 2014 using appropriate search terms on probiotic and respiratory virus infections in cell models, in animal models, and in humans, and reviewed for their relevance. Altogether, thirty-three clinical trials were reviewed. The studies varied highly in study design, outcome measures, probiotics, dose, and matrices used. Twenty-eight trials reported that probiotics had beneficial effects in the outcome of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and five showed no clear benefit. Only eight studies reported investigating viral etiology from the respiratory tract, and one of these reported a significant decrease in viral load. Based on experimental studies, probiotics may exert antiviral effects directly in probiotic-virus interaction or via stimulation of the immune system. Although probiotics seem to be beneficial in respiratory illnesses, the role of probiotics on specific viruses has not been investigated sufficiently. Due to the lack of confirmatory studies and varied data available, more randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials in different age populations investigating probiotic dose response, comparing probiotic strains/genera, and elucidating the antiviral effect mechanisms are necessary. PMID:24638909

  8. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed. PMID:23320906

  9. Probiotics from an industrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Forssten, Sofia D; Sindelar, Connie W; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2011-12-01

    Probiotic products have gained popularity with consumers that expect that the products they consume are healthy and help them maintain health. Hence, the need and preferences of the consumers are translated into a product format concept. Probiotics have been used for a long time as natural components in supplements and functional foods, mainly in fermented dairy products. Most of the strains used as probiotics belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. By definition, a strain has to have documented health benefits, in order to be called a probiotic. Although each bacterial strain is unique, there are some points that are essential when selecting a probiotic regarding the genetic stability, survival, and technical properties of a strain. Proper components, food matrices and production processes need to be selected since the matrices may affect the viability of the strain in the product and the intestine. Survival in the product is considered a requirement for the beneficial effects of probiotics. PMID:21549209

  10. Probiotics in Pediatric Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Miloh, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    The gut-liver axis involves complex interaction between the intestinal microbiome and the liver parenchyma. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are used in a variety of diseases. With currently only 2 randomized-controlled studies (one with Lactobacillus GG and the other with VSL #3), data are scarce to support the clinical effect of probiotic use in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. There is evidence that probiotics decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and thereby reduce the prevalence of total parenteral nutrition-induced chronic liver disease. Probiotics are used with a few reported positive outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis and familial hypercholesterolemia and may be promising in other liver conditions. Probiotics are generally safe and well tolerated in children, premature infants, and in patients after liver transplantation. Large, prospective, randomized clinical trials are needed to evaluate the benefit of probiotics in children with liver diseases. PMID:26447962

  11. Risk and Safety of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Doron, Shira; Snydman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have been used safely for years. Safety outcomes are inconsistently reported in published clinical trials. In 2011, a report released by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality concluded that, although the existing probiotic clinical trials reveal no evidence of increased risk, “the current literature is not well equipped to answer questions on the safety of probiotics in intervention studies with confidence.” Critics point out that the preponderance of evidence, including the long history of safe probiotic use as well as data from clinical trials, and animal and in vitro studies all support the assumption that probiotics are generally safe for most populations. Theoretical risks have been described in case reports, clinical trial results and experimental models, include systemic infections, deleterious metabolic activities, excessive immune stimulation in susceptible individuals, gene transfer and gastrointestinal side effects. More research is needed to properly describe the incidence and severity of adverse events related to probiotics. PMID:25922398

  12. [Pre- and probiotic cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Simmering, R; Breves, R

    2009-10-01

    The human skin provides a habitat for a variety of microorganisms, the skin microflora. There is a complex network of interactions between the microbes and cells of the epidermis. Modern analytical methods in molecular biology have revealed new insights into this complex diversity of partially unculturable microbial organisms. Most of the resident microbes on healthy skin can be regarded as being harmless or even beneficial to skin. In the case of diseases with some imbalance in microorganisms, such as impure skin/mild acne or dry skin/mild atopic dermatitis, pre- and probiotic concepts represent an effective alternative to strictly antibacterial products. Prebiotic actives rebalance the skin microflora while probiotic approaches predominantly consist of applying an inactivated microbial biomass of beneficial bacteria. Several examples of successful in vivo studies illustrate this new principle for gentle cosmetics derived from the food sector. PMID:19711025

  13. Probiotics in children.

    PubMed

    Kligler, Benjamin; Hanaway, Patrick; Cohrssen, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    The gastrointestinal flora plays a complex and important role in the development of healthy immunologic and digestive function in children. Probiotics are safe in healthy children and effective in reducing the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the duration of acute infectious diarrhea. Probiotics may also be effective in preventing community-acquired diarrheal infections, in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants, and in the prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis. The exact strain or combination of strains most effective for common clinical indications has yet to be determined, but the exact strain used seems less important than whether an adequate dose is used (typically 5 to 10 billion CFUs per day or higher). Clinicians should familiarize themselves with the products available because there is a wide range in their quality. PMID:18061785

  14. Latest Developments in Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Frédéric; Falony, Gwen; Vuyst, Luc De

    Probiotic foods are a group of health-promoting, so-called functional foods, with large commercial interest and growing market shares (Arvanitoyannis & van Houwelingen-Koukaliaroglou, 2005). In general, their health benefits are based on the presence of selected strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that, when taken up in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. They are administered mostly through the consumption of fermented milks or yoghurts (Mercenier, Pavan, & Pot, 2003). In addition to their common use in the dairy industry, probiotic LAB strains may be used in other food products too, including fermented meats (Hammes & Hertel, 1998; Incze, 1998; Kröckel, 2006; Työppönen, Petäjä,& Mattila- Sandholm, 2003).

  15. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  16. Probiotics for urogenital health.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, urinary tract infection, and yeast vaginitis afflict an estimated 1 billion women each year. Once investigation has ruled out complicated underlying causes, the only therapeutic option is antimicrobial agents. In many cases, this is effective at clearing infection. However, recurrences, side effects, and secondary infections are frequent. Coinciding with infection is a disruption of the normal commensal microflora in the vagina, primarily a loss of lactobacilli. The exogenous application of lactobacilli to the host as probiotic agents appears to offer hope as an alternative management regimen to antimicrobial treatment and prophylaxis. Although commercial probiotics specifically selected and proven to be effective for urogenital infections are not yet available, there is growing in vitro and human data to suggest that certain strains could confer health benefits on a large number of women. Given that depleted vaginal lactobacilli and recurrent infection is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases and preterm labor, multiple antibiotic resistance, and significant reduction in quality of life, the need for probiotic therapeutics has never been greater. PMID:12134717

  17. Probiotics in transition: novel strategies.

    PubMed

    Gosálbez, Luis; Ramón, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Regulations regarding health claims made for probiotics demand their proven effectiveness and limit the array of microbial species regarded as safe for live consumption. Novel strategies such as moving to postbiotics and genetically modified probiotics may be necessary to increase the effectiveness of microbial products. PMID:25702610

  18. Gut Microbiota, Probiotics, and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    SUVOROV, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The review is devoted to the problems of microbiota and the ways of it correction employing beneficial life bacteria- probiotics. It covers the issues related to the functioning of human microbiota and its importance for the health, individual variability of microbial content, functioning of the probiotics in the human organism and the history of probiotic studies with particular focus on the microbiological investigations in the USSR. The article discusses the safety issues related to probiotics and the problems with probiotic therapy, trying to explain the reasons for the side effects caused by probiotics. The necessity of personified selection of the probiotic strain or individual microbial therapy autoprobiotics is also discussed. PMID:24936366

  19. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS. PMID:24106397

  20. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics.

    PubMed

    de Vrese, Michael; Schrezenmeir, J

    2008-01-01

    According to the German definition, probiotics are defined viable microorganisms, sufficient amounts of which reach the intestine in an active state and thus exert positive health effects. Numerous probiotic microorganisms (e.g. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, bifidobacteria and certain strains of L. casei or the L. acidophilus-group) are used in probiotic food, particularly fermented milk products, or have been investigated--as well as Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, certain enterococci (Enterococcus faecium SF68) and the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii--with regard to their medicinal use. Among the numerous purported health benefits attributed to probiotic bacteria, the (transient) modulation of the intestinal microflora of the host and the capacity to interact with the immune system directly or mediated by the autochthonous microflora, are basic mechanisms. They are supported by an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo experiments using conventional and molecular biologic methods. In addition to these, a limited number of randomized, well-controlled human intervention trials have been reported. Well-established probiotic effects are: 1. Prevention and/or reduction of duration and complaints of rotavirus-induced or antibiotic-associated diarrhea as well as alleviation of complaints due to lactose intolerance. 2. Reduction of the concentration of cancer-promoting enzymes and/or putrefactive (bacterial) metabolites in the gut. 3. Prevention and alleviation of unspecific and irregular complaints of the gastrointestinal tracts in healthy people. 4. Beneficial effects on microbial aberrancies, inflammation and other complaints in connection with: inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, Helicobacter pylori infection or bacterial overgrowth. 5. Normalization of passing stool and stool consistency in subjects suffering from obstipation or an irritable colon. 6. Prevention or alleviation of allergies and atopic diseases in infants. 7

  1. Probiotics as Therapy in Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael D.; Ha, Christina Y.; Ciorba, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Goals The objective of this study was to determine how gastroenterologists perceive and use probiotic-based therapies in practice. Background In the United States, there has been a recent increase in research investigating the therapeutic capacities of probiotics in human disease and an accompanying increase in product availability and marketing. How medical care providers have interpreted the available literature and incorporated it into their practice has not been earlier assessed. Study A 16-question survey (see Survey, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JCG/A14) was distributed to practicing gastroenterologists and physicians with a specific interest in GI disorders within a large metropolitan area. Results All physicians responded that they believed probiotics to be safe for most patients and 98% responded that probiotics have a role in treating gastrointestinal illnesses or symptoms. Currently 93% of physicians have patients taking probiotics most often for irritable bowel syndrome. Commonly used probiotics included yogurt-based products, Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (Align), and VSL#3. Most surveyed physicians recommended probiotics for irritable bowel syndrome, antibiotic, and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea because they believed that the literature supports their usage for these conditions. However, physician practice patterns did not consistently correlate with published, expert-panel-generated recommendations for evidence-based probiotic use. Conclusions This study suggests most gastrointestinal disease specialists recognize a role for and have used probiotics as part of their therapeutic armamentarium; however, the effective implementation of this practice will benefit from additional supporting studies and the eventual development of clinical practice guidelines supported by the major gastroenterology societies. PMID:20216432

  2. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Castro, J. M.; Tornadijo, M. E.; Fresno, J. M.; Sandoval, H.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The physicochemical and technological parameters influencing the quality of these products have also to be measured so as to obtain a process optimization. PMID:25802862

  3. Probiotics and pharmabiotics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    That commensal bacteria play an important role in human health is beyond doubt, and it is now widely accepted that humans function as super organisms, whose collective metabolic potential exceeds the sum of our individual eukaryotic and prokaryotic components. However, while it is has been established that the prokaryotic component of the human superorganism is amenable to manipulation by chemotherapeutic, dietary or microbial interventions, the significance of such alterations in terms of human health or well being is less well established. Prebiotics (non- digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or activity of bacteria in the digestive system) and probiotics (live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host) are often bracketed among ‘alternative’ approaches to influencing human health, such as homeopathy, naturopathy, acupuncture and hypnotherapy. Others believe that prebiotics and probiotics have proven their effectiveness in properly conducted, clinically controlled human trials and therefore can be considered as evidence-based alternatives or adjuncts to conventional medicines. My journey from a position of total skepticism to ‘reluctant convert’ is the basis of this article, which should not be considered in any sense as a review of the literature but simply a personal account of this transition. While I am not bent on converting other doubters, I will recount some of the thought processes and evidence that has helped to form my current opinion. PMID:21326932

  4. Probiotics as potential antioxidants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vijendra; Shah, Chandni; Mokashe, Narendra; Chavan, Rupesh; Yadav, Hariom; Prajapati, Jashbhai

    2015-04-15

    Probiotics are known for their health beneficial effects and are established as dietary adjuncts. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects. In this view, there is interest to find the potential probiotic strains that can exhibit antioxidant properties along with health benefits. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that probiotics exhibit antioxidant potential. In this view, consumption of probiotics alone or foods supplemented with probiotics may reduce oxidative damage, free radical scavenging rate, and modification in activity of crucial antioxidative enzymes in human cells. Incorporation of probiotics in foods can provide a good strategy to supply dietary antioxidants, but more studies are needed to standardize methods and evaluate antioxidant properties of probiotics before they can be recommended for antioxidant potential. In this paper, the literature related to known antioxidant potential of probiotics and proposing future perspectives to conduct such studies has been reviewed. PMID:25808285

  5. A Gastroenterologist’s Guide to Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Matthew A

    2012-01-01

    The enteric microbiota contributes to gastrointestinal health and its disruption has been associated with many disease states. Some patients consume probiotic products in attempts to manipulate the intestinal microbiota for health benefit. It is important for gastroenterologists to improve their understanding of the mechanisms of probiotics and the evidence that support their use in practice. Clinical trials have assessed the therapeutic effects of probiotics for several disorders, including antibiotic-or Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and the inflammatory bowel diseases. Although probiotic research is a rapidly evolving field, there are sufficient data to justify a trial of probiotics for treatment or prevention of some of these conditions. However, the capacity of probiotics to modify disease symptoms is likely to be modest and varies among probiotic strains—not all probiotics are right for all diseases. The current review provides condition-specific rationale for using probiotics as therapy and literature-based recommendations. PMID:22504002

  6. Probiotics in critically ill children

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Sunit C.; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  7. Probiotics in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Sunit C; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  8. Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dan W; Greer, Frank R

    2010-12-01

    This clinical report reviews the currently known health benefits of probiotic and prebiotic products, including those added to commercially available infant formula and other food products for use in children. Probiotics are supplements or foods that contain viable microorganisms that cause alterations of the microflora of the host. Use of probiotics has been shown to be modestly effective in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in (1) treating acute viral gastroenteritis in healthy children; and (2) preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in healthy children. There is some evidence that probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants (birth weight between 1000 and 1500 g), but more studies are needed. The results of RCTs in which probiotics were used to treat childhood Helicobacter pylori gastritis, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic ulcerative colitis, and infantile colic, as well as in preventing childhood atopy, although encouraging, are preliminary and require further confirmation. Probiotics have not been proven to be beneficial in treating or preventing human cancers or in treating children with Crohn disease. There are also safety concerns with the use of probiotics in infants and children who are immunocompromised, chronically debilitated, or seriously ill with indwelling medical devices. Prebiotics are supplements or foods that contain a nondigestible food ingredient that selectively stimulates the favorable growth and/or activity of indigenous probiotic bacteria. Human milk contains substantial quantities of prebiotics. There is a paucity of RCTs examining prebiotics in children, although there may be some long-term benefit of prebiotics for the prevention of atopic eczema and common infections in healthy infants. Confirmatory well-designed clinical research studies are necessary. PMID:21115585

  9. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Cruz, Patricia; Ibáñez, Ana L.; Monroy Hermosillo, Oscar A.; Ramírez Saad, Hugo C.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field. PMID:23762761

  10. Probiotics and inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bai, A‐P; Ouyang, Q

    2006-01-01

    Enteric microflora profiles vary considerably between active inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and healthy conditions. Intestinal microflora may partake in the pathogenesis of IBD by one or some ways: specific pathogenic infection induces abnormal intestinal mucosal inflammation; aberrant microflora components trigger the onset of IBD; abnormal host immune response loses normal immune tolerance to luminal components; luminal antigens permeate through the defective mucosal barrier into mucosal lamina propria and induce abnormal inflammatory response. Preliminary studies suggest that administration of probiotics may be benefit for experimental colitis and clinical trials for IBD. Researches have been studying the function of probiotics. Introduction of probiotics can balance the aberrant enteric microflora in IBD patients, and reinforce the various lines of intestinal defence by inhibiting microbial pathogens growth, increasing intestinal epithelial tight junction and permeability, modulating immune response of intestinal epithelia and mucosal immune cells, secreting antimicrobial products, decomposing luminal pathogenic antigens. PMID:16754706

  11. Review: The market of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2015-11-01

    The advertising of probiotics in diary products on the market has claimed several health-improving properties, including prevention and treatment of obesity, cardiovascular diseases and cancer prophylaxis, osteoporosis and arthritis treatment, diabetes management and control of hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, it is reasonable to emphasize the perspective of a new self-care and integrative medicine season, where food industry is turned to research-oriented management with putative clinical goals to be achieved. We searched Pubmed/Medline using the terms "probiotics" and "market". Selected papers until 2013 were chosen on the basis of their content (clinical evidence-based quality). We performed an accurate investigation on the so-called "probiotic market", leading to better understanding the role of nutraceutical products in the human clinical nutrition physiology. As nutraceutical products are sold all over the world, information, provided by this review may be useful to evaluate their potential impact on human health. PMID:26639512

  12. Tolerance of probiotics and prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Marteau, Philippe; Seksik, Philippe

    2004-07-01

    The clinical efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics has been proved in several clinical settings. The authors review their proved or potential side effects. Probiotics as living microorganisms may theoretically be responsible for 4 types of side effects in susceptible individuals: infections, deleterious metabolic activities, excessive immune stimulation, and gene transfer. Very few cases of infection have been observed. These occurred mainly in very sick patients who received probiotic drugs because of severe medical conditions. Prebiotics exert an osmotic effect in the intestinal lumen and are fermented in the colon. They may induce gaseousness and bloating. Abdominal pain and diarrhea only occur with large doses. An increase in gastroesophageal reflux has recently been associated with large daily doses. Tolerance depends on the dose and individual sensitivity factors (probably the presence of irritable bowel syndrome or gastroesophageal reflux), and may be an adaptation to chronic consumption. PMID:15220662

  13. Effective Blended Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Blended learning is becoming more prevalent in higher education courses. Reasons for blending range from accommodating more students to improving the quality of courses offered. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss student attitudes towards blended courses versus face-to-face versus completely online courses, and (2) to consider…

  14. Probiotics and immunosenescence: cheese as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fandi; Ruvio, Suvi; Granlund, Linda; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2010-06-01

    Oral intake of specific probiotics has been reported to enhance the immunity of the elderly. Earlier studies have used milk or yoghurt as a probiotic carrier. We chose a commercial probiotic cheese to evaluate its potential as a probiotic food. Thirty-one healthy elderly volunteers (21 female, 10 male) aged from 72 to 103 (median 86) consumed a commercial probiotic cheese containing approximately 10(9) CFU day(-1) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. The 4-week probiotic intervention was preceded by a 2-week consumption of probiotic-free cheese (run-in) and followed by a 4-week wash-out period with the same control cheese. The cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative numbers of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in the total PBMCs, and phagocytic activity were assessed. Consumption of the probiotic cheese significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells. A significant increase in phagocytosis was observed for both the control and the probiotic cheese. Cheese was found to be an effective carrier for the study of probiotics, and daily consumption of the probiotic enhanced parameters of innate immunity in elderly volunteers. It remains to be determined whether this enhancement correlates with a beneficial effect on the health of the elderly population. PMID:20236323

  15. Antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gueimonde, Miguel; Sánchez, Borja; G. de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara; Margolles, Abelardo

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The main probiotic bacteria are strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although other representatives, such as Bacillus or Escherichia coli strains, have also been used. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are two common inhabitants of the human intestinal microbiota. Also, some species are used in food fermentation processes as starters, or as adjunct cultures in the food industry. With some exceptions, antibiotic resistance in these beneficial microbes does not constitute a safety concern in itself, when mutations or intrinsic resistance mechanisms are responsible for the resistance phenotype. In fact, some probiotic strains with intrinsic antibiotic resistance could be useful for restoring the gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment. However, specific antibiotic resistance determinants carried on mobile genetic elements, such as tetracycline resistance genes, are often detected in the typical probiotic genera, and constitute a reservoir of resistance for potential food or gut pathogens, thus representing a serious safety issue. PMID:23882264

  16. African fermented foods and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Mathara, Julius Maina; Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Reid, Gregor; Galvez, Antonio; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2014-11-01

    Africa has an age old history of production of traditional fermented foods and is perhaps the continent with the richest variety of lactic acid fermented foods. These foods have a large impact on the nutrition, health and socio-economy of the people of the continent, often plagued by war, drought, famine and disease. Sub-Saharan Africa is the world's region with the highest percentage of chronically malnourished people and high child mortality. Further developing of traditional fermented foods with added probiotic health features would be an important contribution towards reaching the UN Millennium Development Goals of eradication of poverty and hunger, reduction in child mortality rates and improvement of maternal health. Specific probiotic strains with documented health benefits are sparsely available in Africa and not affordable to the majority of the population. Furthermore, they are not used in food fermentations. If such probiotic products could be developed especially for household food preparation, such as cereal or milk foods, it could make a profound impact on the health and well-being of adults and children. Suitable strains need to be chosen and efforts are needed to produce strains to make products which will be available for clinical studies. This can gauge the impact of probiotics on consumers' nutrition and health, and increase the number of people who can benefit. PMID:25203619

  17. Safety of probiotics: translocation and infection.

    PubMed

    Liong, Min-Tze

    2008-04-01

    The long history of safety has contributed to the acceptance of probiotics as a safe food adjunct. Consequently, many probiotic products and their applications have been granted GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status. However, this classification has been frequently generalized for all probiotic strains regardless of their application. Cases of probiotics from the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Enterococcus, and Bifidobacterium have been isolated from infection sites, leading to the postulation that these probiotics can translocate. Probiotic translocation is difficult to induce in healthy humans, and even if it does occur, detrimental effects are rare. Despite this, various reports have documented health-damaging effects of probiotic translocation in immunocompromised patients. Due to probiotics' high degree of safety and their morphological confusion with other pathogenic bacteria, they are often overlooked as contaminants and are least suspected as pathogens. However, the antibiotic resistance of some strains has increased the complexity of their eradication. Probiotic translocation and infection deserve further investigation and should become a facet of safety assessment so the negative effects of probiotics do not outweigh the benefits. PMID:18366533

  18. The use of probiotics in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Hai, N V

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to present comprehensive notes for the use of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics have been proven to be positive promoters of aquatic animal growth, survival and health. In aquaculture, intestines, gills, the skin mucus of aquatic animals, and habitats or even culture collections and commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics, which have been identified as bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and nonbacteria (bacteriophages, microalgae and yeasts). While a bacterium is a pathogen to one aquatic animal, it can bring benefits to another fish species; a screening process plays a significant role in making a probiotic species specific. The administration of probiotics varies from oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is commonly used in aquaculture. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains, or even in combination with prebiotic, immunostimulants such as synbiotics and synbiotism, and in live or dead forms. Encapsulating probiotics with live feed is a suitable approach to convey probiotics to aquatic animals. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. Several modes of actions of probiotics are presented, while some others are not fully understood. Suggestions for further studies on the effects of probiotics in aquaculture are proposed. PMID:26119489

  19. Feeding Probiotic Bacteria To Swine Enhances Immunity To Ascaris Suum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotic bacterial species are included in the diet to promote health. Probiotics purportedly protect the intestine against pathogenic microorganisms and can reduce inflammation; however, quantitative measurement of probiotic growth and related effects on intestinal function are often lacking. Asca...

  20. Fermented products with probiotic qualities.

    PubMed

    Kalantzopoulos, G

    1997-01-01

    For several centuries, fermented products derived from plant or animal materials have been an acceptable and essential part of the diet in most parts of the world. Health benefits have also often been associated with them. Probiotics can be defined as fermented food containing specific live microorganisms or a live microbial food or feed supplement, which beneficially effects the human or the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Nearly all probiotics currently on the market contain Lactobacilli, Streptococci, Enterococci or Bifidobacteria. In contrast to Japan, where freeze-dried microorganisms are consumed by a substantial part of the human population, in Europe, probiotic action towards humans are only claimed for certain fermented dairy products (e.g. yoghurts). Those species that have been extensively studied so far, with several experimental trials on man, are the two yoghurt bacteria Streptocaccus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. casei and Bifidobacteria. L. acidophilus has also received important scientific interest, however, only a few human studies have been carried out. From the technological point of view a good probiotic should be stable and viable for long periods under storage, should be able to survive the low pH levels of the stomach, be able to colonise the epithelium of the gastro-intestinal tract of the host, should not be pathogenic and, last but not least, must be capable of exerting a growth promoting effect or a resistance to infectious diseases. The beneficial effects of probiotics are mainly contributed to a direct antagonistic effect against specific groups of microorganisms (Enteropathogenes), by an effect on the metabolism in the gut or by a stimulation of systemic or mucosal immunity. We will present major proven health benefits of milks fermented with those bacterial species and discuss, where possible, the impact of the specific selection and utilisation of particular strains. PMID:16887587

  1. Selective enumeration of probiotic microorganisms in cheese.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Reza; Mortazavian, Amir M; Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh

    2012-02-01

    Cheese is a dairy product which has a good potential for delivery of probiotic microorganisms into the human intestine. To be considered to offer probiotic health benefits, probiotics must remain viable in food products above a threshold level (e.g., 10(6) cfu g(-1)) until the time of consumption. In order to ensure that a minimal number of probiotic bacteria is present in the cheese, reliable methods for enumeration are required. The choice of culture medium for selective enumeration of probiotic strains in combination with starters depends on the product matrix, the target group and the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial background flora in the product. Enumeration protocol should be designed as a function of the target microorganism(s) to be quantified in the cheese. An overview of some series of culture media for selective enumeration of commercial probiotic cultures is presented in this review. PMID:22029912

  2. Probiotics: Properties, Examples, and Specific Applications

    PubMed Central

    Behnsen, Judith; Deriu, Elisa; Sassone-Corsi, Martina; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are beneficial components of the microbiota that have been used for centuries because of the health benefits they confer to the host. Only recently, however, has the contribution of probiotics to modulation of immunological, respiratory, and gastrointestinal functions started to be fully appreciated and scientifically evaluated. Probiotics such as Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and lactic acid bacteria are currently used to, or have been evaluated for use to, prevent or treat a range of intestinal maladies including inflammatory bowel disease, constipation, and colon cancer. Engineering these natural probiotics to produce immunomodulatory molecules may help to further increase the benefit to the host. In this article, we will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of probiotics as well as advances in the rational design of probiotics. PMID:23457295

  3. Probiotics: properties, examples, and specific applications.

    PubMed

    Behnsen, Judith; Deriu, Elisa; Sassone-Corsi, Martina; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2013-03-01

    Probiotics are beneficial components of the microbiota that have been used for centuries because of the health benefits they confer to the host. Only recently, however, has the contribution of probiotics to modulation of immunological, respiratory, and gastrointestinal functions started to be fully appreciated and scientifically evaluated. Probiotics such as Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and lactic acid bacteria are currently used to, or have been evaluated for use to, prevent or treat a range of intestinal maladies including inflammatory bowel disease, constipation, and colon cancer. Engineering these natural probiotics to produce immunomodulatory molecules may help to further increase the benefit to the host. In this article, we will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of probiotics as well as advances in the rational design of probiotics. PMID:23457295

  4. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics- a review.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kavita R; Naik, Suresh R; Vakil, Babu V

    2015-12-01

    The health benefits imparted by probiotics and prebiotics as well as synbiotics have been the subject of extensive research in the past few decades. These food supplements termed as functional foods have been demonstrated to alter, modify and reinstate the pre-existing intestinal flora. They also facilitate smooth functions of the intestinal environment. Most commonly used probiotic strains are: Bifidobacterium, Lactobacilli, S. boulardii, B. coagulans. Prebiotics like FOS, GOS, XOS, Inulin; fructans are the most commonly used fibers which when used together with probiotics are termed synbiotics and are able to improve the viability of the probiotics. Present review focuses on composition and roles of Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics in human health. Furthermore, additional health benefits like immune-modulation, cancer prevention, inflammatory bowel disease etc. are also discussed. Graphical abstractPictorial summary of health benefits imparted by probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. PMID:26604335

  5. An analysis of online messages about probiotics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Internet websites are a resource for patients seeking information about probiotics. We examined a sample of 71 websites presenting probiotic information. We found that descriptions of benefits far outnumbered descriptions of risks and commercial websites presented significantly fewer risks than noncommercial websites. The bias towards the presentation of therapeutic benefits in online content suggests that patients are likely interested in using probiotics and may have unrealistic expectations for therapeutic benefit. Gastroenterologists may find it useful to initiate conversations about probiotics within the context of a comprehensive health management plan and should seek to establish realistic therapeutic expectations with their patients. PMID:23311418

  6. A review of avian probiotics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeanne Marie

    2014-06-01

    Probiotics have been used in poultry for decades and have become common in the pet bird industry. Desirable characteristics of probiotic organisms are that they are nonpathogenic, have the ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells, have the ability to colonize and reproduce in the host, have the ability to be host-specific, survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and exposure to stomach acid and bile, produce metabolites that inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria, modulate gastrointestinal immune responses, and survive processing and storage. Purported benefits in birds are disease prevention and promotion of growth. Recommendations for use in avian species are for periodic use to replenish normal flora, use after antibiotic therapy to reestablish normal flora, and use during periods of stress to counter effects of immunosuppression. PMID:25115036

  7. Probiotics, gut microbiota and health.

    PubMed

    Butel, M-J

    2014-01-01

    The human gut is a huge complex ecosystem where microbiota, nutrients, and host cells interact extensively, a process crucial for the gut homeostasis and host development with a real partnership. The various bacterial communities that make up the gut microbiota have many functions including metabolic, barrier effect, and trophic functions. Hence, any dysbiosis could have negative consequences in terms of health and many diseases have been associated to impairment of the gut microbiota. These close relationships between gut microbiota, health, and disease, have led to great interest in using probiotics (i.e. live micro-organisms), or prebiotics (i.e. non-digestible substrates) to positively modulate the gut microbiota to prevent or treat some diseases. This review focuses on probiotics, their mechanisms of action, safety, and major health benefits. Health benefits remain to be proven in some indications, and further studies on the best strain(s), dose, and algorithm of administration to be used are needed. Nevertheless, probiotic administration seems to have a great potential in terms of health that justifies more research. PMID:24290962

  8. Gut microbiota, probiotics and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a condition of multifactorial origin, involving several molecular mechanisms related to the intestinal microbiota for its development. In type 2 diabetes, receptor activation and recognition by microorganisms from the intestinal lumen may trigger inflammatory responses, inducing the phosphorylation of serine residues in insulin receptor substrate-1, reducing insulin sensitivity. In type 1 diabetes, the lowered expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium favours a greater immune response that may result in destruction of pancreatic β cells by CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and increased expression of interleukin-17, related to autoimmunity. Research in animal models and humans has hypothesized whether the administration of probiotics may improve the prognosis of diabetes through modulation of gut microbiota. We have shown in this review that a large body of evidence suggests probiotics reduce the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, as well as increase the expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium, reducing intestinal permeability. Such effects increase insulin sensitivity and reduce autoimmune response. However, further investigations are required to clarify whether the administration of probiotics can be efficiently used for the prevention and management of diabetes. PMID:24939063

  9. Immunomodulatory effect of probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bodera, Pawel; Chcialowski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics are usually defined as live microbial food ingredients beneficial to health which comprise of normal commensally bacteria as a part of the healthy human gut micro flora. The gut microflora is an important component of the gut defense barrier and have been shown to induce and maintain oral tolerance in experimental animal models. Functional foods, including probiotic bacteria, are an attractive medium for maintaining the steady nutritional state of the host with defective gut barrier functions. The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) embraces a crucial component of the total immunological capacity of the host in recognizing and selectively handling alien antigens for the initiation of immune responses. Normalization of increased intestinal permeability and altered gut micro ecology can ensure improvement of the function of the gut barrier. Probiotics do modify the composition of the gut microflora and, as a consequence, they have been shown to influence both intestinal and body functions. This review also discussed some patent related to the field. PMID:19149747

  10. Tuning the Blend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    "Tuning the blend" is a phrase that educators hear a lot these days. It refers to finding the correct balance of online activities and face-to-face instruction in hybrid--or blended--courses. Finding a mix that meets the needs of both faculty and students requires experimentation, experience, and constant tweaking. And, as with coffee, the same…

  11. A Blended Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gecer, Aynur; Dag, Funda

    2012-01-01

    Blended (hybrid) learning is one of the approaches that is utilized to help students for meaningful learning via information and communication technologies in educational settings. In this study, Computer II Course which is taught in faculties of education was planned and implemented in the form of a blended learning environment. The data were…

  12. A Better Blend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In May 2009, the US Department of Education released a meta-analysis of effectiveness studies of online, face-to-face, and blended learning models. The analysis found that online learning produced better student outcomes than face-to-face classes, and that blended learning offered an even "larger advantage" over face-to-face. The hybrid approach…

  13. Blended Teaching & Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pape, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Blended learning is using online tools to communicate, collaborate and publish, to extend the school day or year and to develop the 21st-century skills students need. With blended learning, teachers can use online tools and resources as part of their daily classroom instruction. Using many of the online tools and resources students already are…

  14. Safety assessment of probiotics for human use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The safety of probiotics is tied to their intended use, which includes consideration of the potential vulnerability of the consumer or patient, dose and duration of consumption, and both the manner and frequency of administration. Unique to probiotics is that they are living organisms when administ...

  15. Safety assessment of probiotics for human use

    PubMed Central

    Akkermans, Louis MA; Haller, Dirk; Hammerman, Cathy; Heimbach, James; Hörmannsperger, Gabriele; Huys, Geert; Levy, Dan D; Lutgendorff, Femke; Mack, David; Phothirath, Phoukham; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Vaughan, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The safety of probiotics is tied to their intended use, which includes consideration of potential vulnerability of the consumer or patient, dose and duration of consumption, and both the manner and frequency of administration. Unique to probiotics is that they are alive when administered, and unlike other food or drug ingredients, possess the potential for infectivity or in situ toxin production. Since numerous types of microbes are used as probiotics, safety is also intricately tied to the nature of the specific microbe being used. The presence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes, which comprises a theoretical risk of transfer to a less innocuous member of the gut microbial community, must also be considered. Genetic stability of the probiotic over time, deleterious metabolic activities, and the potential for pathogenicity or toxicogenicity must be assessed depending on the characteristics of the genus and species of the microbe being used. Immunological effects must be considered, especially in certain vulnerable populations, including infants with undeveloped immune function. A few reports about negative probiotic effects have surfaced, the significance of which would be better understood with more complete understanding of the mechanisms of probiotic interaction with the host and colonizing microbes. Use of readily available and low cost genomic sequencing technologies to assure the absence of genes of concern is advisable for candidate probiotic strains. The field of probiotic safety is characterized by the scarcity of studies specifically designed to assess safety contrasted with the long history of safe use of many of these microbes in foods. PMID:21327023

  16. Probiotic approach to prevent antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Arthur C; Forssten, Sofia; Hibberd, Ashley A; Lyra, Anna; Stahl, Buffy

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, mainly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although also strain of other species are commercialized, that have a beneficial effect on the host. From the perspective of antibiotic use, probiotics have been observed to reduce the risk of certain infectious disease such as certain types of diarrhea and respiratory tract infection. This may be accompanied with a reduced need of antibiotics for secondary infections. Antibiotics tend to be effective against most common diseases, but increasingly resistance is being observed among pathogens. Probiotics are specifically selected to not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and not carry transferable antibiotic resistance. Concomitant use of probiotics with antibiotics has been observed to reduce the incidence, duration and/or severity of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This contributes to better adherence to the antibiotic prescription and thereby reduces the evolution of resistance. To what extent probiotics directly reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance is still much under investigation; but maintaining a balanced microbiota during antibiotic use may certainly provide opportunities for reducing the spread of resistances. Key messages Probiotics may reduce the risk for certain infectious diseases and thereby reduce the need for antibiotics. Probiotics may reduce the risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhea Probiotics do not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and may even reduce it. PMID:27092975

  17. Probiotics: a comprehensive approach toward health foods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Mridula

    2014-01-01

    Food products containing probiotics and prebiotics are an important development in Health foods, which enhance health promoting microbial flora in the intestine. Probiotic refers to viable microorganism that promotes or support a beneficial balance of the autochthonous microbial population of the gastrointestinal tract. A number of genera of bacteria (and yeast) are used as probiotics, including Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, and Enterococcus, but the main species believed to have probiotic characteristics are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp., and L. casei. Probiotics can reduce diarrheal incidence, lactose intolerance, lower serum cholesterol, stimulate the immune system, control infections, act as antibiotics, suppress tumors, and protect against colon or bladder cancer by maintaining a healthy intestinal microflora balance. Lactic acid bacteria produce biopreservatives such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and bacteriocins that are used to retard both spoilage and the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Food, particularly dairy products are considered as an ideal vehicle for delivering probiotic bacteria to the human gastrointestinal tract. Cereals being rich source of prebiotics such as β-glucan and arabinoxylan, galacto-, and fructooligosaccharides are considered for development of probiotic foods. Good manufacturing practices must be applied in the manufacture of probiotic foods with quality assurance, and shelf-life conditions established. PMID:24237003

  18. Environmental factors influencing the efficacy of probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marco, Maria L; Tachon, Sybille

    2013-04-01

    Probiotic bacteria are not typical ingredients but rather living cells that can rapidly respond and adapt to changing conditions in their environment. Numerous factors from culture preparation and preservation, conditions in consumer product matrices, and genetic, dietary, cultural, and health differences between consumers can affect probiotic cell activity and probably influence the specific host-microbe interactions required for probiotic effects in the digestive tract. Understanding the impact of these factors on probiotic efficacy will aid in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of probiotic function, improve the design of probiotic-containing consumer products, and guide the establishment of standardized procedures for clinical studies intended to evaluate probiotic effects. PMID:23102489

  19. Dairy propionibacteria as probiotics: recent evidences.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Clelia

    2016-10-01

    Nowdays there is evidence that dairy propionibacteria display probiotic properties, which as yet have been underestimated. The aim of this paper is to review the recent highlights of data representing the probiotic potential of dairy propionibacteria, studied both by general selection criteria (useful for all probiotic potentials), and by more specific and innovative approach. Dairy propionibacteria show a robust nature, that makes them able to overcome technological hurdles, allowing their future use in various fermented probiotic foods. In addition to the general selection criteria for probiotics in areas such as food safety, technological and digestive stress tolerance, many potential health benefits have been recently described for dairy propionibacteria, including, production of several active molecules and adhesion capability, that can mean a steady action in modulation of microbiota and of metabolic activity in the gut; their impact on intestinal inflammation, modulation of the immune system, potential modulation of risk factors for cancer development modulation of intestinal absorption. PMID:27565782

  20. The role of Probiotics in allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Michail, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Allergic disorders are very common in the pediatric age group. While the exact etiology is unclear, evidence is mounting to incriminate environmental factors and an aberrant gut microbiota with a shift of the Th1/Th2 balance towards a Th2 response. Probiotics have been shown to modulate the immune system back to a Th1 response. Several in vitro studies suggest a role for probiotics in treating allergic disorders. Human trials demonstrate a limited benefit for the use of probiotics in atopic dermatitis in a preventive as well as a therapeutic capacity. Data supporting their use in allergic rhinitis are less robust. Currently, there is no role for probiotic therapy in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Future studies will be critical in determining the exact role of probiotics in allergic disorders. PMID:19946408

  1. Enhancing probiotic stability in industrial processes

    PubMed Central

    Gueimonde, Miguel; Sánchez, Borja

    2012-01-01

    Background Manufacture of probiotic products involves industrial processes that reduce the viability of the strains. This lost of viability constitutes an economic burden for manufacturers, compromising the efficacy of the product and preventing the inclusion of probiotics in many product categories. Different strategies have been used to improve probiotic stability during industrial processes. These include technological approaches, such as the modification of production parameters or the reformulation of products, as well as microbiological approaches focused on the strain intrinsic resistance. Among the later, both selection of natural strains with the desired properties and stress-adaptation of strains have been widely used. Conclusion During recent years, the knowledge acquired on the molecular basis of stress-tolerance of probiotics has increased our understanding on their responses to industrial stresses. This knowledge on stress-response may nowadays be used for the selection of the best strains and industrial conditions in terms of probiotic stability in the final product. PMID:23990824

  2. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention. PMID:27048903

  3. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections. PMID:26826375

  4. Profiles and technological requirements of urogenital probiotics.

    PubMed

    Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina

    2015-09-15

    Probiotics, defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, are considered a valid and novel alternative for the prevention and treatment of female urogenital tract infections. Lactobacilli, the predominant microorganisms of the healthy human vaginal microbiome, can be included as active pharmaceutical ingredients in probiotics products. Several requirements must be considered or criteria fulfilled during the development of a probiotic product or formula for the female urogenital tract. This review deals with the main selection criteria for urogenital probiotic microorganisms: host specificity, potential beneficial properties, functional specifications, technological characteristics and clinical trials used to test their effect on certain physiological and pathological conditions. Further studies are required to complement the current knowledge and support the clinical applications of probiotics in the urogenital tract. This therapy will allow the restoration of the ecological equilibrium of the urogenital tract microbiome as well as the recovery of the sexual and reproductive health of women. PMID:25858665

  5. Probiotics and mastitis: evidence-based marketing?

    PubMed

    Amir, Lisa H; Griffin, Laura; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Scientists have isolated various strains of Lactobacilli from human milk (such as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius), and the presence of these organisms is thought to be protective against breast infections, or mastitis. Trials of probiotics for treating mastitis in dairy cows have had mixed results: some successful and others unsuccessful. To date, only one trial of probiotics to treat mastitis in women and one trial to prevent mastitis have been published. Although trials of probiotics to prevent mastitis in breastfeeding women are still in progress, health professionals in Australia are receiving marketing of these products. High quality randomised controlled trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of probiotics for the prevention and/or treatment of mastitis. PMID:27446229

  6. Probiotic bacteria induce a 'glow of health'.

    PubMed

    Levkovich, Tatiana; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Smillie, Christopher; Varian, Bernard J; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Lakritz, Jessica R; Alm, Eric J; Erdman, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Radiant skin and hair are universally recognized as indications of good health. However, this 'glow of health' display remains poorly understood. We found that feeding of probiotic bacteria to aged mice induced integumentary changes mimicking peak health and reproductive fitness characteristic of much younger animals. Eating probiotic yogurt triggered epithelial follicular anagen-phase shift with sebocytogenesis resulting in thick lustrous fur due to a bacteria-triggered interleukin-10-dependent mechanism. Aged male animals eating probiotics exhibited increased subcuticular folliculogenesis, when compared with matched controls, yielding luxuriant fur only in probiotic-fed subjects. Female animals displayed probiotic-induced hyperacidity coinciding with shinier hair, a feature that also aligns with fertility in human females. Together these data provide insights into mammalian evolution and novel strategies for integumentary health. PMID:23342023

  7. Probiotics in the Arabian Gulf Region

    PubMed Central

    Senok, Abiola C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Available reports on adherence to recommended guidelines for labeling of probiotic products are based on assessment of these products in developed countries. In the Arabian Gulf region, there is a paucity of data on the characterization of probiotic products and an absence of local guidelines for their labeling. This study, carried out in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), represents the first evaluation of probiotic products available in the Arabian Peninsula. Methods Probiotic products were purchased over the counter from a variety of sources, including pharmacies, healthfood stores, and supermarkets across the UAE. All identified products were listed and information regarding type of product preparation and labeling information were recorded. Results A total of 37 probiotic products, 15 dairy-based and 22 non-dairy-based were identified. The dairy products comprised of 12 yogurts, two fermented milk products and one powdered baby formula. The majority of non-dairy products were in capsule form (n = 16). While all the non-dairy products gave information about the strain of probiotic microorganism and number present at time of manufacture, this information was provided for only one dairy-based product. Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were the most common probiotic organisms identified. However, one probiotic product listed Enterococcus faecalis (750 million viable bacteria per capsule) as a component. With the exception of one non-dairy-based product, all health-related claims were structure/function statements, according to the US Food and Drug Administration nomenclature. Conclusion These findings indicate that a wide variety of probiotic products are available in the Arabian Gulf. Development of guidelines for labeling of these probiotic products and use of structure/function statements and health claims should be addressed. PMID:19266044

  8. Probiotics for mother and child.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor; Devillard, Estelle

    2004-07-01

    For the survival of humankind, nothing can be as important as the health of a mother and a child. As the world's population grows to more than 6 billion, it might seem ridiculous to suggest that any real threat exists to the human species. Diseases have long ravaged populations, as have wars, poverty, and malnutrition. Life today is no different with new and emerging diseases such as SARS and Mad Cow Disease leaving a trail of concern around the planet. All that being said, the AIDS crisis is threatening humans like no other. In countries such as Botswana, close to half the population of pregnant women is infected. Of great concern, the disease is now prevalent among women and teenage girls, threatening not only their lives but those of their offspring. Efforts to control this spread are quite abysmal, albeit well intentioned. Likewise, the death of a child every 15 seconds from diarrheal disease is not being addressed with the same vigor as SARS, even though the risk of dying from the latter for most people is similar to being struck by lightning. In the end, it is the economy and politics that dictate health spending. Image and perception are everything. While deaths mount among women and children from AIDS and other infections, the potential to intervene with a low-risk natural concept of probiotics seemed all too distant. As evidence mounts of the attributes of certain probiotic strains to treat diarrhea and reduce the risk of urogenital and other diseases, the developing world has failed to embrace it, support its evaluation and implementation, and take it to where it is needed the most. In this review, the case for and against probiotics for urogenital and intestinal infections is presented based on current literature. The story is far from complete, but the potential for improving the health of the mother and child is significant. United Nations and World Health Organization guidelines have now been developed to vanquish the unproved marketing hype products

  9. Probiotics in obstetrics and gynaecology.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Despite the great advances in modern medicine, our understanding of the most basic function of our complete genetic makeup is extremely poor. Our complete genetic make up is complemented by 100 trillion cells living within or on our body and is called the microbiome. Manipulation of the microbiome is in the embryological stages of investigation but promises great hope in targeting both pregnancy specific and general medical / gynaecological conditions. This review presents an undertanding of the microbiome manipulation with probiotics in women's health in 2015. PMID:26052924

  10. Immune system stimulation by probiotic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-01-01

    Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. This review is presented to provide detailed informations about how probiotics stimulate our immune system. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, Bifidobacterium lactis DR10, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii are the most investigated probiotic cultures for their immunomodulation properties. Probiotics can enhance nonspecific cellular immune response characterized by activation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in strain-specific and dose-dependent manner. Mixture and type (gram-positive and gram-negative) of probiotic organisms may induce different cytokine responses. Supplementation of probiotic organisms in infancy could help prevent immune-mediated diseases in childhood, whereas their intervention in pregnancy could affect fetal immune parameters, such as cord blood interferon (IFN)-γ levels, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels, and breast milk immunoglobulin (Ig)A. Probiotics that can be delivered via fermented milk or yogurt could improve the gut mucosal immune system by increasing the number of IgA(+) cells and cytokine-producing cells in the effector site of the intestine. PMID:24499072

  11. Production and Biomedical Applications of Probiotic Biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Fariq, Anila; Saeed, Ayesha

    2016-04-01

    Biosurfactants have been widely used for environmental and industrial applications. However, their use in medical field is still limited. Probiotic biosurfactants possess an immense antimicrobial, anti-adhesive, antitumor, and antibiofilm potential. Moreover, they have an additional advantage over conventional microbial surfactants because probiotics are an integral part of normal human microflora and their biosurfactants are innocuous to human. So, they can be effectively exploited for medicinal use. Present review is aimed to discourse the production and biomedical applications of probiotic biosurfactants. PMID:26742771

  12. Probiotics in dentistry: A boon or sham

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rahul; Mathur, Shivani

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are dietary supplements, which have been advocated for the prevention and the treatment of a wide range of diseases. These products consist of beneficial micro-organisms, which stimulate health promoting flora thus, suppressing the pathologic colonization and disease spread. Since, probiotics are now widely used in both medical (such as cancer risk reduction, gastrointestinal tract health, and urinary tract health) and dental specialties (reduction in caries development, in achieving periodontal health, reducing oral malodor, etc.), a thorough understanding of their risks and benefits are essential. This review focuses on the recent trends in use of probiotics in dentistry as well as the potential risks associated with them. PMID:24019796

  13. [Autochthonous microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics].

    PubMed

    Suárez, Juan Evaristo

    2015-01-01

    The autochthonous microbiota is the community of microorganisms that colonizes the skin and mucosal surfaces. The symbiosis is, generally, mutualistic but it can become parasitic due to immune response alterations. The skin microbiota includes bacteria (95%), lipophilic fungi and mites. In the digestive apparatus, each cavity presents its own microbiota, which reaches its target organ during the perinatal period, originating complex and stable communities (homeostasis). The vaginal microbiota varies with the endocrine activity, significantly increasing during the fertile and pregnancy periods, when lactobacilli are the most abundant organisms. Four are the main benefits of the autochthonous microbiota: i) delivery of essential nutrients, such as vitamins and some amino acids; ii) utilization of undigestible diet components, the colonic microbiota degrades complex glycans and fulfils almost 20% of the calories present in a normal diet; iii) development of the immune system: the continuous contact with the immune system maintains it alert and in good shape to repel pathogens efficaciously and iv) microbial antagonism, hinders colonization of our mucosal surfaces by alochthonous, potentially pathogenic, organisms. This works through three mechanisms: colonization interference, production of antimicrobials and co-aggregation with the potential pathogens. The microbiota can, sporadically, produce damages: opportunistic endogenous infections and generation of carcinogenic compounds. Probiotics are "live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the consumer". Prebiotics are undigestible glycans that enhance the growth or activity of the intestinal microbiota, thus generating a health benefit. Synbiotics are mixes of probiotics and prebiotics that exert a synergistic health effect. PMID:25659048

  14. Developing oral probiotics from Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Wescombe, Philip A; Hale, John D F; Heng, Nicholas C K; Tagg, John R

    2012-12-01

    Considerable human illness can be linked to the development of oral microbiota disequilibria. The predominant oral cavity commensal, Streptococcus salivarius has emerged as an important source of safe and efficacious probiotics, capable of fostering more balanced, health-associated oral microbiota. Strain K12, the prototype S. salivarius probiotic, originally introduced to counter Streptococcus pyogenes infections, now has an expanded repertoire of health-promoting applications. K12 and several more recently proposed S. salivarius probiotics are now being applied to control diverse bacterial consortia infections including otitis media, halitosis and dental caries. Other potential applications include upregulation of immunological defenses against respiratory viral infections and treatment of oral candidosis. An overview of the key steps required for probiotic development is also presented. PMID:23231486

  15. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations. PMID:26903962

  16. Probiotics and blood pressure: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Upadrasta, Aditya; Madempudi, Ratna Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota play a significant role in host metabolic processes, and recent metagenomic surveys have revealed that they are involved in host immune modulation and influence host development and physiology (organ development). Initially, probiotics are identified as potential therapeutics to treat gastrointestinal disorders and to revitalize the disturbed gut ecosystem. Currently, studies are exploring the potential for expanded uses of probiotics for improving the health conditions in metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Further investigations are required to evaluate targeted and effective use of the wide variety of probiotic strains in various metabolic disorders to improve the overall health status of the host. This review addresses the causes of hypertension and the hypotensive effect of probiotics, with a focus on their mechanistic action. PMID:26955291

  17. Protection of probiotic bacteria in synbiotic matrices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotics, like Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, when encapsulated with prebiotic fibers such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), inulin (I) and pectic-oligosaccharides (POS), formed a synbiotic matrix system that protected the bacteria ...

  18. Prophylactic use of probiotics ameliorates infantile colic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colic is a common but distressing condition in young infants. We were asked to comment on a recently published study which found that a certain type of probiotic ("good bacteria") could be used to treat colic....

  19. Probiotic bacteria and intestinal epithelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Ohland, Christina L; Macnaughton, Wallace K

    2010-06-01

    The intestinal tract is a diverse microenvironment where more than 500 species of bacteria thrive. A single layer of epithelium is all that separates these commensal microorganisms and pathogens from the underlying immune cells, and thus epithelial barrier function is a key component in the arsenal of defense mechanisms required to prevent infection and inflammation. The epithelial barrier consists of a dense mucous layer containing secretory IgA and antimicrobial peptides as well as dynamic junctional complexes that regulate permeability between cells. Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer benefit to the host and that have been suggested to ameliorate or prevent diseases including antibiotic-associated diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics likely function through enhancement of barrier function, immunomodulation, and competitive adherence to the mucus and epithelium. This review summarizes the evidence about effects of the many available probiotics with an emphasis on intestinal barrier function and the mechanisms affected by probiotics. PMID:20299599

  20. Probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Derikx, Lauranne A A P; Dieleman, Levinus A; Hoentjen, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota is one of the key players in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. Manipulation of this microflora with probiotics and prebiotics is an attractive strategy in the management of ulcerative colitis. Several intervention studies for both the induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis patients have been performed. Most of these studies evaluated VSL#3 or E. Coli Nissle 1917 and in general there is evidence for efficacy of these agents for induction and maintenance of remission. However, studies are frequently underpowered, lack a control group, and are very heterogeneous investigating different probiotic strains in different study populations. The absence of well-powered robust randomized placebo-controlled trials impedes the widespread use of probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis. However, given the promising results that are currently available, probiotics and prebiotics may find their way to the treatment algorithm for ulcerative colitis in the near future. PMID:27048897

  1. Probiotics in the Management of Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Chibbar, Richa; Dieleman, Levinus A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid progress has been made to understand the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases and to identify new treatments. Interaction of the gut microbiota on the host inflammatory response has suggested that alternative therapies, such as probiotics, might have a complementary role in treating and preventing disease flares. Multiple probiotics and their formulations have been studied for both the induction and maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis (UC); however, mainly Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and VSL#3 have been shown to provide significant benefits for the prevention and treatment of mild to moderate UC. Although these data are promising, there is still a paucity of robust, randomized-controlled trials to suggest that probiotics be utilized as part of a standard treatment regimen. With continued research and a movement toward carefully selected, individualized management based on an individual's specific microbiota composition and function, probiotics may become an integral part of tailored therapy for UC. PMID:26447965

  2. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations. PMID:26903962

  3. Probiotics in periodontal health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Bhattacharya, Hirak; Kandwal, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Macfarlane Burnett stated in 1962 that “By the late twentieth century, we can anticipate the virtual elimination of infectious diseases as a significant factor in social life”. Probiotics have become of interest to researchers in recent times. Time has come to shift the paradigm of treatment from specific bacteria elimination to altering bacterial ecology by probiotics. The development of resistance to a range of antibiotics by some important pathogens has raised the possibility of a return to the pre-antibiotic dark ages. Here, probiotics provide an effective alternative way, which is economical and natural to combat periodontal disease. Thus, a mere change in diet by including probiotic foods may halt, retard, or even significantly delay the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, promoting a healthy lifestyle to fight periodontal infections. PMID:21772717

  4. Probiotics in animal nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Durand, H

    2010-03-01

    The use of probiotics for farm animals has increased considerably over the last 15 years. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which can confer a health benefit for the host when administered in appropriate and regular quantities. Once ingested, the probiotic microorganisms can modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal microbiota, whose role is fundamental to gut homeostasis. It has been demonstrated that numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, can strongly affect the structure and activities of the gut microbial communities, leading to impaired health and performance in livestock animals. In this review, the most important benefits of yeast and bacterial probiotics upon the gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem in ruminants and monogastric animals (equines, pigs, poultry, fish) reported in the recent scientific literature are described, as well as their implications in terms of animal nutrition and health. Additional knowledge on the possible mechanisms of action is also provided. PMID:21840795

  5. Probiotics and oral health: an update.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, K; Kuttappa, M A; Prasana, K R

    2014-02-01

    Probiotics are micro-organisms, principally bacteria, which, when ingested, confer health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Probiotics have been extensively studied for their health promoting effects. The main feld of research has been focussed on the gastro-intestinal tract. However, in the past few years probiotics have also been investigated from an oral health perspective and their use has shown promising results with respect to control of chronic conditions, such as dental caries, periodontitis, halitosis and candidial infections. Despite the immense potential of probiotics, hardly any randomised, controlled trials have been conducted on their action and application and studies on their effects on oral health are still in early stages. Hence, more research is needed before any evidence-based conclusions can be drawn. This paper considers some recent literature and insights on which further investigations could be based. PMID:24741843

  6. Should yoghurt cultures be considered probiotic?

    PubMed

    Guarner, Francisco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Corthier, Gérard; Salminen, Seppo; Koletzko, Berthold; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2005-06-01

    Probiotics are live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Consumption of yoghurt has been shown to induce measurable health benefits linked to the presence of live bacteria. A number of human studies have clearly demonstrated that yoghurt containing viable bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus) improves lactose digestion and eliminates symptoms of lactose intolerance. Thus, these cultures clearly fulfil the current concept of probiotics. PMID:16022746

  7. Perceptions of Medical Sciences Students Towards Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Payahoo, Laleh; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Mahdavi, Reza; Asghari Jafar Abadi, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Background: Regarding the importance of probiotics in prevention of different diseases, the knowledge of people particularly health-related professionals about the beneficial effects and availability of probiotic products is important. Considering the limited studies, the present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of medical sciences students as future provider of health information about probiotics in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 296 medical sciences students from different faculty majors with mean age of 22 ± 4 years. The students completed two self-administered questionnaires; the one was about the demographic characteristics and the other one with nine closed questions as for knowledge as well as probiotics and their health effects and 2 questions related to availability of probiotic products. Scoring of 9 knowledge questions was divided to three sections 0-3, 4-6, 7-9 and classified as poor, acceptable and good, respectively. The Chi-square test was used to examine the differences in knowledge of the students across different gender, major and degree groups. Results: Six percent of students had poor, 43% acceptable, and 51% good knowledge. Total mean±(SD) of knowledge was 6.25 ±1.6 . Answers of students about the availability of probiotic products were 36.9% low, 48.1% moderate, and 15% high. Comparison of knowledge result between different major and degree groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Although students had approximately acceptable level of knowledge about probiotics and their health effects, their awareness about common available form of probiotic products was low. The use of efficient co-educational materials such as teaching new findings for students may be beneficial. PMID:24688923

  8. [Effects of probiotics on pathogenic mycobacteria].

    PubMed

    Lazovskaia, A L; Borob'eva, Z G; Slinina, K N; Kul'chitsaia, M A

    2007-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to study the antagonistic effect of probitics on pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis, by employing the cultural filtrates obtained after joint incubation of a probiotic and an antagonistic strain in the liquid nutrient medium. It has been shown that two probiotics actively elaborate bactericidal agents that suppress the growth of pathogenic mycobacteria and reduce the number of colony-forming units in the solid egg culture medium by 2-17 times. PMID:17718071

  9. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    PubMed Central

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Nedovic, Viktor; Goyal, Arun; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed. PMID:24288597

  10. Probiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Alfredo; Guandalini, Stefano; Lo Vecchio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used for prevention and treatment of diarrhea more in children than in adults. Given the broad spectrum of diarrhea, this review focuses on the main etiologies: acute gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). For each, we reviewed randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and guidelines. For acute gastroenteritis we found 12 guidelines: 5 recommended probiotics and 7 did not. However, the guidelines containing positive recommendations provided proof of evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Saccharomyces boulardii had the most compelling evidence of efficacy as they reduced the duration of the disease by 1 day. For AAD 4 meta-analyses were found, reporting variable efficacy of probiotics in preventing diarrhea, based on the setting, patient's age, and antibiotics. The most effective strains were LGG and S. boulardii. For NEC, we found 3 randomized controlled trials, 5 meta-analyses, and 4 position papers. Probiotics reduced the risk of NEC enterocolitis and mortality in preterm babies. Guidelines did not support a routine use of probiotics and asked for further data for such sensitive implications. In conclusion, there is strong and solid proof of efficacy of probiotics as active treatment of gastroenteritis in addition to rehydration. There is solid evidence that probiotics have some efficacy in prevention of AAD, but the number needed to treat is an issue. For both etiologies LGG and S. boulardii have the strongest evidence. In NEC the indications are more debated, yet on the basis of available data and their implications, probiotics should be carefully considered. PMID:26447963

  11. Probiotics, dendritic cells and bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Feyisetan, Oladapo; Tracey, Christopher; Hellawell, Giles O

    2012-06-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The suppressor effect of probiotics on superficial bladder cancer is an observed phenomenon but the specific mechanism is poorly understood. The evidence strongly suggests natural killer (NK) cells are the anti-tumour effector cells involved and NK cell activity correlates with the observed anti-tumour effect in mice. It is also known that dendritic cells (DC) cells are responsible for the recruitment and mobilization of NK cells so therefore it may be inferred that DC cells are most likely to be the interphase point at which probiotics act. In support of this, purification of NK cells was associated with a decrease in NK cells activity. The current use of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin in the management of superficial bladder cancer is based on the effect of a localised immune response. In the same way, understanding the mechanism of action of probiotics and the role of DC may potentially offer another avenue via which the immune system may be manipulated to resist bladder cancer. Probiotic foods have been available in the UK since 1996 with the arrival of the fermented milk drink (Yakult) from Japan. The presence of live bacterial ingredients (usually lactobacilli species) may confer health benefits when present in sufficient numbers. The role of probiotics in colo-rectal cancer may be related in part to the suppression of harmful colonic bacteria but other immune mechanisms are involved. Anti-cancer effects outside the colon were suggested by a Japanese report of altered rates of bladder tumour recurrence after ingestion of a particular probiotic. Dendritic cells play a central role to the general regulation of the immune response that may be modified by probiotics. The addition of probiotics to the diet may confer benefit by altering rates of bladder tumour recurrence and also alter the response to immune mechanisms involved with the application of intravesical treatments (bacille Calmette

  12. Probiotics in the Management of Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Adcock, Ian M.; Folkerts, Gert; Barnes, Peter J.; Paul Vos, Arjan; Garssen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The physiology and pathology of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are closely related. This similarity between the two organs may underlie why dysfunction in one organ may induce illness in the other. For example, smoking is a major risk factor for COPD and IBD and increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease. Probiotics have been defined as “live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host.” In model systems probiotics regulate innate and inflammatory immune responses. Commonly used probiotics include lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces, and these are often used as dietary supplements to provide a health benefit in gastrointestinal diseases including infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer. In this respect, probiotics probably act as immunomodulatory agents and activators of host defence pathways which suggest that they could influence disease severity and incidence at sites distal to the gut. There is increasing evidence that orally delivered probiotics are able to regulate immune responses in the respiratory system. This review provides an overview of the possible role of probiotics and their mechanisms of action in the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases. PMID:23737654

  13. Bacteriocin Production: a Probiotic Trait?

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Alleson; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriocins are an abundant and diverse group of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria and archaea. Traditionally, bacteriocin production has been considered an important trait in the selection of probiotic strains, but until recently, few studies have definitively demonstrated the impact of bacteriocin production on the ability of a strain to compete within complex microbial communities and/or positively influence the health of the host. Although research in this area is still in its infancy, there is intriguing evidence to suggest that bacteriocins may function in a number of ways within the gastrointestinal tract. Bacteriocins may facilitate the introduction of a producer into an established niche, directly inhibit the invasion of competing strains or pathogens, or modulate the composition of the microbiota and influence the host immune system. Here we review the role of bacteriocin production in complex microbial communities and their potential to enhance human health. PMID:22038602

  14. The Basics of Probiotics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... four million U.S. adults had used probiotics or prebiotics in the past 30 days. Other than vitamins and minerals, probiotics or prebiotics were the third most commonly used dietary supplement. ...

  15. What are the indications for using probiotics in children?

    PubMed

    Szajewska, Hania

    2016-04-01

    The health benefits of probiotics have been the subject of extensive research. Still, some questions are being repeatedly asked: should one use or not use probiotics? If yes, how and when should probiotics be used? The purpose of this review is to summarise current evidence on specific probiotics' efficacy and safety to help healthcare professionals make evidence-based decisions on the indications for using specific probiotic strains or combinations in children. To identify relevant data, searches of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library databases were performed in July 2015 to locate randomised controlled trials or their meta-analyses published in the last five years. The MEDLINE database also was searched for evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, developed by scientific societies. Considering that probiotics have strain-specific effects, the main focus was on data on individual probiotic strains, not on probiotics in general. PMID:26347386

  16. Probiotic Feeding Experiments with Juvenile Channel Catfish and Nile Tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotic microbial feed supplements are gaining wide acceptance in livestock production, and may be applicable to aquaculture production systems. We have conducted a series of experiments using commercial probiotics added to diets of juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), and...

  17. Modulating immune responses with probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, T; Chin, J

    2000-02-01

    For many years, probiotic bacteria have been known to confer health benefits to the consumer. One possible mechanism for this may be the ability of probiotic bacteria to modulate immune responses. Oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) has been found to enhance innate immunity by stimulating the activity of splenic NK cells. Oral feeding with killed LcS was able to stimulate the production of Th1 cytokines, resulting in repressed production of IgE antibodies against Ovalbumin in experimental mice. The ability to switch mucosal immune responses towards Th1 with probiotic bacteria provides a strategy for treatment of allergic disorders. Growth of Meth A tumour cells in the lungs was also inhibited by intrapleural injection of LcS. Oral administration of other probiotic bacteria, such as Streptococcus thermophilus (St), Lactobacillus fermentum (Lf) and yeast (Y), elicited different immune responses. Mice that were prefed yeast or Lf followed by feeding with ovalbumin (OVA) responded better to vaccination with OVA than mice not given either probiotic or OVA or mice that had been prefed only OVA. However, antibody responses were significantly suppressed in response to vaccination with OVA in mice that had been prefed yeast followed by yeast and OVA as well as mice prefed Lf followed by Lf and OVA. Prefeeding St followed by OVA feeding enhanced cellular immune responses against ovalbumin. In contrast, mice prefed St followed by St + OVA were hyporesponsive against OVA. While antigen feeding alone appears to prime for an immune response, cofeeding antigen with probiotic bacteria can suppress both antibody and cellular immune responses and may provide an efficacious protocol to attenuate autoimmune diseases, such as experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, by jointly dosing with myelin basic protein and probiotic bacteria. PMID:10651931

  18. Blending the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCampbell, Bill

    2001-01-01

    Blended e-learning approaches combine the power of the Internet with existing class events or assignments. Inexpensive tools include electronic mail, keyboarding instruction, online research, streamed video or audio clips, message boards, chat rooms, scanned class reading assignments, and online assessments. IT buzzwords are decoded. (MLH)

  19. Potential probiotic effects of lactic acid bacteria on ruminant performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotics are microbial feed supplements that benefit animals by improving the microbial community of the digestive tract. In humans, probiotics are species that can survive the stomach and influence the intestinal microflora. The mode of action of human probiotics is not as yet proven. However, th...

  20. Assessment of the Knowledge and Beliefs regarding Probiotic Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanczak, Melanie; Heuberger, Roschelle

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although there is mounting evidence of the benefits of probiotics, many consumers are unaware of the definition of probiotics and are unable to state which foods contain these live microorganisms. Purpose: This study attempted to determine if participants were able to state the definition of probiotics, whether they utilize these…

  1. Apparatus for blending small particles

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, R.A.; Reese, C.R.; Sease, J.D.

    1975-08-26

    An apparatus is described for blending small particles and uniformly loading the blended particles in a receptacle. Measured volumes of various particles are simultaneously fed into a funnel to accomplish radial blending and then directed onto the apex of a conical splitter which collects the blended particles in a multiplicity of equal subvolumes. Thereafter the apparatus sequentially discharges the subvolumes for loading in a receptacle. A system for blending nuclear fuel particles and loading them into fuel rod molds is described in a preferred embodiment. (auth)

  2. Probiotics and Atopic Dermatitis: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Irfan A.; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Lim, Jeongheui; Paek, Woon K.; Park, Yong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, recurrent, chronic inflammatory skin disease that is a cause of considerable economic and social burden. Its prevalence varies substantially among different countries with an incidence rate proclaimed to reach up to 20% of children in developed countries and continues to escalate in developing nations. This increased rate of incidence has changed the focus of research on AD toward epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. The effects of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of AD remain elusive. However, evidence from different research groups show that probiotics could have positive effect on AD treatment, if any, that depend on multiple factors, such as specific probiotic strains, time of administration (onset time), duration of exposure, and dosage. However, till date we still lack strong evidence to advocate the use of probiotics in the treatment of AD, and questions remain to be answered considering its clinical use in future. Based on updated information, the processes that facilitate the development of AD and the topic of the administration of probiotics are addressed in this review. PMID:27148196

  3. Probiotics and Atopic Dermatitis: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Rather, Irfan A; Bajpai, Vivek K; Kumar, Sanjay; Lim, Jeongheui; Paek, Woon K; Park, Yong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, recurrent, chronic inflammatory skin disease that is a cause of considerable economic and social burden. Its prevalence varies substantially among different countries with an incidence rate proclaimed to reach up to 20% of children in developed countries and continues to escalate in developing nations. This increased rate of incidence has changed the focus of research on AD toward epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. The effects of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of AD remain elusive. However, evidence from different research groups show that probiotics could have positive effect on AD treatment, if any, that depend on multiple factors, such as specific probiotic strains, time of administration (onset time), duration of exposure, and dosage. However, till date we still lack strong evidence to advocate the use of probiotics in the treatment of AD, and questions remain to be answered considering its clinical use in future. Based on updated information, the processes that facilitate the development of AD and the topic of the administration of probiotics are addressed in this review. PMID:27148196

  4. Defining microbiota for developing new probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The human body harbors complex communities of microbes that play a prominent role in human health. Detailed characterization of the microbiota in the target population forms the basis of probiotic use. Probiotics are defined as live bacterial preparations with clinically documented health effects in humans, and independent of their genus and species, probiotic strains are unique and their beneficial properties on human health have to be assessed in a case-by-case manner. Understanding the mechanisms by which probiotics influence microbiota would facilitate the use of probiotics for both dietary management and reduction in risk of specific diseases. The development of high throughput sequencing methods has allowed metagenomic approaches to study the human microbiome. These efforts are starting to generate an inventory of bacterial taxons and functional features bound to particular health or disease status that allow inferring aspects of the microbiome's function. In the future, this information will allow the rational design of dietary interventions aimed to improve consumer's health via modulation of the microbiota. PMID:23990820

  5. Probiotics: definition, sources, selection, and uses.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2008-02-01

    Interest in probiotics is at an all-time high in the United States, driven in part by new products emerging in the market, by US researchers eager to evaluate efficacy claims rigorously, and by consumers interested in potential therapeutic and preventive health benefits. The US marketplace is a mixed bag of products, some well-defined and properly evaluated in controlled clinical studies and others with unsubstantiated claims of efficacy. Validation of probiotic contents in commercial products is needed to ensure consumer confidence. The term "probiotic" should be used only for products that meet the scientific criteria for this term-namely, products that contain an adequate dose of live microbes that have been documented in target-host studies to confer a health benefit. Probiotics must be identified to the level of strain, must be characterized for the specific health target, and must be formulated into products using strains and doses shown to be efficacious. Several characteristics commonly presumed to be essential to probiotics, such as human origin and the ability to improve the balance of the intestinal microbiota, are discussed. PMID:18181724

  6. Probiotic edible films as a new strategy for developing functional bakery products: The case of pan bread☆

    PubMed Central

    Soukoulis, Christos; Yonekura, Lina; Gan, Heng-Hui; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, a novel approach for the development of probiotic baked cereal products is presented. Probiotic pan bread constructed by the application of film forming solutions based either on individual hydrogels e.g. 1% w/w sodium alginate (ALG) or binary blends of 0.5% w/w sodium alginate and 2% whey protein concentrate (ALG/WPC) containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, followed by an air drying step at 60 °C for 10 min or 180 °C for min were produced. No visual differences between the bread crust surface of control and probiotic bread were observed. Microstructural analysis of bread crust revealed the formation of thicker films in the case of ALG/WPC. The presence of WPC improved significantly the viability of L. rhamnosus GG throughout air drying and room temperature storage. During storage there was a significant reduction in L. rhamnosus GG viability during the first 24 h, viable count losses were low during the subsequent 2–3 days of storage and growth was observed upon the last days of storage (day 4–7). The use of film forming solutions based exclusive on sodium alginate improved the viability of L. rhamnosus GG under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, and there was no impact of the bread crust matrix on inactivation rates. The presence of the probiotic edible films did not modify cause major shifts in the mechanistic pathway of bread staling – as shown by physicochemical, thermal, texture and headspace analysis. Based on our calculations, an individual 30–40 g bread slice can deliver approx. 7.57–8.98 and 6.55–6.91 log cfu/portion before and after in-vitro digestion, meeting the WHO recommended required viable cell counts for probiotic bacteria to be delivered to the human host. PMID:25089068

  7. Probiotic edible films as a new strategy for developing functional bakery products: The case of pan bread.

    PubMed

    Soukoulis, Christos; Yonekura, Lina; Gan, Heng-Hui; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian

    2014-08-01

    In the present paper, a novel approach for the development of probiotic baked cereal products is presented. Probiotic pan bread constructed by the application of film forming solutions based either on individual hydrogels e.g. 1% w/w sodium alginate (ALG) or binary blends of 0.5% w/w sodium alginate and 2% whey protein concentrate (ALG/WPC) containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, followed by an air drying step at 60 °C for 10 min or 180 °C for min were produced. No visual differences between the bread crust surface of control and probiotic bread were observed. Microstructural analysis of bread crust revealed the formation of thicker films in the case of ALG/WPC. The presence of WPC improved significantly the viability of L. rhamnosus GG throughout air drying and room temperature storage. During storage there was a significant reduction in L. rhamnosus GG viability during the first 24 h, viable count losses were low during the subsequent 2-3 days of storage and growth was observed upon the last days of storage (day 4-7). The use of film forming solutions based exclusive on sodium alginate improved the viability of L. rhamnosus GG under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, and there was no impact of the bread crust matrix on inactivation rates. The presence of the probiotic edible films did not modify cause major shifts in the mechanistic pathway of bread staling - as shown by physicochemical, thermal, texture and headspace analysis. Based on our calculations, an individual 30-40 g bread slice can deliver approx. 7.57-8.98 and 6.55-6.91 log cfu/portion before and after in-vitro digestion, meeting the WHO recommended required viable cell counts for probiotic bacteria to be delivered to the human host. PMID:25089068

  8. Probiotics and Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Finding the Missing Pieces of the Probiotic Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Luedtke, Sherry A.; Yang, Jacob T.; Wild, Heather E.

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the leading causes of death in the neonatal intensive care unit. Morbidity and mortality rates significantly increase with decreases in gestational age and birth weight. Strong evidence suggests probiotic prophylaxis may significantly decrease the incidence of NEC and should therefore be incorporated into the standard of care for preterm infants. However, debate still remains because of limitations of completed studies. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the controversies regarding probiotic use in preterm infants and to shed light on the practical considerations for implementation of probiotic supplementation. PMID:23412969

  9. Probiotics for human lactational mastitis.

    PubMed

    Fernández, L; Arroyo, R; Espinosa, I; Marín, M; Jiménez, E; Rodríguez, J M

    2014-06-01

    The use of culture-dependent and -independent techniques to study the human milk microbiota and microbiome has revealed a complex ecosystem with a much greater diversity than previously anticipated. The potential role of the milk microbiome appears to have implications not only for short- and long-term infant health but also for mammary health. In fact, mammary disbiosis, which may be triggered by a variety of host, microbial and medical factors, often leads to acute, subacute or subclinical mastitis, a condition that represents the first medical cause for undesired weaning. Multiresistance to antibiotics, together with formation of biofilms and mechanisms for evasion of the host immune response, is a common feature among the bacterial agents involved. This explains why this condition uses to be elusive to antibiotic therapy and why the development of new strategies for mastitis management based on probiotics is particularly appealing. In fact, selected lactobacilli strains isolated from breast milk have already shown a high efficacy for treatment. PMID:24463206

  10. Probiotics - the versatile functional food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Syngai, Gareth Gordon; Gopi, Ragupathi; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Dey, Sudip; Lakshmanan, G M Alagu; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2016-02-01

    Probiotics are live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts as functional food ingredients confer a health benefit on the host. Their versatility is in terms of their usage which ranges from the humans to the ruminants, pigs and poultry, and also in aquaculture practices. In this review, the microorganisms frequently used as probiotics in human and animal welfare has been described, and also highlighted are the necessary criteria required to be fulfilled for their use in humans on the one hand and on the other as microbial feed additives in animal husbandry. Further elaborated in this article are the sources from where probiotics can be derived, the possible mechanisms by which they act, and their future potential role as antioxidants is also discussed. PMID:27162372

  11. Antimicrobial potential of probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Avonts, L; De Vuyst, L

    2001-01-01

    Antibacterial activity is an important characteristic of probiotics. A possible way to achieve this antibacterial activity is through the production of bacteriocins. This study shows that the commercial probiotic strains Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 and Lactobacillus casei YIT 9029 produce bacteriocins. The nature of the antimicrobial compound could be derived from its behaviour: a narrow inhibitory spectrum (only active against closely related strains), loss of activity when treated with proteinases, and rather small molecular masses (around 6000 Da or less). Further, three bacteriocins produced by Lb. johnsonii LA1, Lb. casei YIT 9029 and Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471 showed inhibitory activity against the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. However, a fourth bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 was not able to inhibit H. pylori. This indicates that some bacteriocins produced by specific probiotic strains can fulfil a role in the inhibition of this common pathogen. PMID:15954651

  12. Human milk: mother nature's prototypical probiotic food?

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "probiotic" is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: "a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host." As such, answering the fundamental question posed here-"Is human milk a probiotic?"-requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother's and/or the recipient infant's health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known. PMID:25593150

  13. Psychobiotics: An emerging probiotic in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Kali, Arunava

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal microbial flora plays critical role in maintenance of health. Probiotic organisms have been recognized as an essential therapeutic component in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis. Current research suggests their health benefits extends beyond intestinal disorders. The neuroactive molecules produced by the gut microbiota has been found to modulate neural signals which affect neurological and psychiatric parameters like sleep, appetite, mood and cognition. Use of these novel probiotics opens up the possibility of restructuring of intestinal microbiota for effective management of various psychiatric disorders. PMID:27621125

  14. Prebiotics and Probiotics and Oral Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurman, J. H.

    The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect to the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics. The second part of the chapter then concentrates on research data on prebiotics and probiotics in the oral health perspective, ending up with conclusions and visions for future research.

  15. Probiotic use in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Sunit C; Baranwal, A

    2008-06-01

    Probiotics are "live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host" (FAO/WHO joint group). Their potential role in bio-ecological modification of pathological internal milieu of the critically ill is under evaluation. Probiotics are available as single microbial strain (e.g., Bacillus clausii, Lactobacillus) or as a mix of multiple strains of Lactobacillus (acidophilus, sporogenes, lactis, reuteri RC-14, GG, and L. plantarum 299v), Bifidobacterium (bifidum, longum, infantis), Streptococcus (thermophillus, lactis, fecalis), Saccharomyces boulardii etc. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria are gram-positive, anaerobic, lactic acid bacteria. These are normal inhabitant of human gut and colonize the colon better than others. Critical illness and its treatment create hostile environment in the gut and alters the micro flora favoring growth of pathogens. Therapy with probiotics is an effort to reduce or eliminate potential pathogens and toxins, to release nutrients, antioxidants, growth factors and coagulation factors, to stimulate gut motility and to modulate innate and adaptive immune defense mechanisms via the normalization of altered gut flora. Scientific evidence shows that use of probiotics is effective in prevention and therapy of antibiotic associated diarrhea. However, available probiotics strains in currently used doses do not provide much needed early benefits, and need long-term administration to have clinically beneficial effects (viz, a reduction in rate of infection, severe sepsis, ICU stay, ventilation days and mortality) in critically ill surgical and trauma patients. Possibly, available strains do not adhere to intestinal mucosa early, or may require higher dose than what is used. Gap exists in our knowledge regarding mechanisms of action of different probiotics, most effective strains--single or multiple, cost effectiveness, risk-benefit potential, optimum dose, frequency and duration of treatment etc. More

  16. Synthesizing optimal waste blends

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, V.; Diwekar, W.M.; Hoza, M.

    1996-10-01

    Vitrification of tank wastes to form glass is a technique that will be used for the disposal of high-level waste at Hanford. Process and storage economics show that minimizing the total number of glass logs produced is the key to keeping cost as low as possible. The amount of glass produced can be reduced by blending of the wastes. The optimal way to combine the tanks to minimize the vole of glass can be determined from a discrete blend calculation. However, this problem results in a combinatorial explosion as the number of tanks increases. Moreover, the property constraints make this problem highly nonconvex where many algorithms get trapped in local minima. In this paper the authors examine the use of different combinatorial optimization approaches to solve this problem. A two-stage approach using a combination of simulated annealing and nonlinear programming (NLP) is developed. The results of different methods such as the heuristics approach based on human knowledge and judgment, the mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) approach with GAMS, and branch and bound with lower bound derived from the structure of the given blending problem are compared with this coupled simulated annealing and NLP approach.

  17. Probiotics in Clostridium difficile infection: reviewing the need for a multistrain probiotic.

    PubMed

    Hell, M; Bernhofer, C; Stalzer, P; Kern, J M; Claassen, E

    2013-03-01

    In the past two years an enormous amount of molecular, genetic, metabolomic and mechanistic data on the host-bacterium interaction, a healthy gut microbiota and a possible role for probiotics in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been accumulated. Also, new hypervirulent strains of C. difficile have emerged. Yet, clinical trials in CDI have been less promising than in antibiotic associated diarrhoea in general, with more meta-analysis than primary papers on CDI-clinical-trials. The fact that C. difficile is a spore former, producing at least three different toxins has not yet been incorporated in the rational design of probiotics for (recurrent) CDI. Here we postulate that the plethora of effects of C. difficile and the vast amount of data on the role of commensal gut residents and probiotics point towards a multistrain mixture of probiotics to reduce CDI, but also to limit (nosocomial) transmission and/or endogenous reinfection. On the basis of a retrospective chart review of a series of ten CDI patients where recurrence was expected, all patients on adjunctive probiotic therapy with multistrain cocktail (Ecologic®AAD/OMNiBiOTiC® 10) showed complete clinical resolution. This result, and recent success in faecal transplants in CDI treatment, are supportive for the rational design of multistrain probiotics for CDI. PMID:23434948

  18. Stimulation of Mucosal Immunity with Probiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immune system of neonatal chicks is functionally immature during the first week of life. Researchers have previously demonstrated that the avian humoral response can be increased through the use of probiotics. Although the humoral response provides the chick with an effective mechanism to comb...

  19. Probiotics: definition, scope and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor

    2016-02-01

    For a subject area of science, medicine and commerce to be so recently defined and investigated, few can compare to probiotics for the controversy they have incited. Barely a paper is published without the use of a different definition, or challenging the most used one, or proposing a different nuance of it. The situation has become even more surreal with the European Food and Safety Authority banning the word probiotic for use on labels. The reiteration of the FAO/WHO definition by the world's leading group of probiotic experts, should provide relative consistency in the near future, but what are the causes of these aberrations? This review will discuss the rationale for the definition, and the scope of the subject area and why alternatives emerge. While mechanisms of action are not widely proven, in vitro and some in vivo experiments support several. Ultimately, the goal of any field or product is to be understood by lay people and experts alike. Probiotics have come a long way in 100 years since Metchnikoff and 10 years since their globalization, but their evolution is far from over. PMID:27048893

  20. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

  1. The history of probiotics: the untold story.

    PubMed

    Ozen, M; Dinleyici, E C

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic, a word derived from Latin, means 'for life'. A long time before the awareness of probiotic microorganisms, fermented products, such as beer, bread, wine, kefir, kumis and cheese had been very frequently used for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. It is widely believed that fermented products were probably found, or better to say, discovered spontaneously. The legend tells that yoghurt is most likely resulted from a fermentation process within the animal skin bags used for transportation of water and milk in regions with low humidity and high temperatures (Middle Asia and Middle East). The history of probiotics goes paralel with the evolution of human race and, thanks to the sophisticated techniques at the moment, can be traced back to the ancient times, nearly 10,000 years ago. The aims of this review are to highlight the important events for probiotic history, to correct the widely available anonymous misinformation in the literature and to remind to the readers important characters in its history. PMID:25576593

  2. Lactobacillus salivarius: bacteriocin and probiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, S; Manai, M; Kergourlay, G; Prévost, H; Connil, N; Chobert, J-M; Dousset, X

    2013-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) antimicrobial peptides typically exhibit antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens, as well as spoilage bacteria. Therefore, they have attracted the greatest attention as tools for food biopreservation. In some countries LAB are already extensively used as probiotics in food processing and preservation. LAB derived bacteriocins have been utilized as oral, topical antibiotics or disinfectants. Lactobacillus salivarius is a promising probiotic candidate commonly isolated from human, porcine, and avian gastrointestinal tracts (GIT), many of which are producers of unmodified bacteriocins of sub-classes IIa, IIb and IId. It is a well-characterized bacteriocin producer and probiotic organism. Bacteriocins may facilitate the introduction of a producer into an established niche, directly inhibit the invasion of competing strains or pathogens, or modulate the composition of the microbiota and influence the host immune system. This review gives an up-to-date overview of all L. salivarius strains, isolated from different origins, known as bacteriocin producing and/or potential probiotic. PMID:24010610

  3. Potential uses of probiotics in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor; Jass, Jana; Sebulsky, M Tom; McCormick, John K

    2003-10-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. There is now mounting evidence that selected probiotic strains can provide health benefits to their human hosts. Numerous clinical trials show that certain strains can improve the outcome of intestinal infections by reducing the duration of diarrhea. Further investigations have shown benefits in reducing the recurrence of urogenital infections in women, while promising studies in cancer and allergies require research into the mechanisms of activity for particular strains and better-designed trials. At present, only a small percentage of physicians either know of probiotics or understand their potential applicability to patient care. Thus, probiotics are not yet part of the clinical arsenal for prevention and treatment of disease or maintenance of health. The establishment of accepted standards and guidelines, proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization, represents a key step in ensuring that reliable products with suitable, informative health claims become available. Based upon the evidence to date, future advances with single- and multiple-strain therapies are on the horizon for the management of a number of debilitating and even fatal conditions. PMID:14557292

  4. Potential Uses of Probiotics in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Gregor; Jass, Jana; Sebulsky, M. Tom; McCormick, John K.

    2003-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. There is now mounting evidence that selected probiotic strains can provide health benefits to their human hosts. Numerous clinical trials show that certain strains can improve the outcome of intestinal infections by reducing the duration of diarrhea. Further investigations have shown benefits in reducing the recurrence of urogenital infections in women, while promising studies in cancer and allergies require research into the mechanisms of activity for particular strains and better-designed trials. At present, only a small percentage of physicians either know of probiotics or understand their potential applicability to patient care. Thus, probiotics are not yet part of the clinical arsenal for prevention and treatment of disease or maintenance of health. The establishment of accepted standards and guidelines, proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization, represents a key step in ensuring that reliable products with suitable, informative health claims become available. Based upon the evidence to date, future advances with single- and multiple-strain therapies are on the horizon for the management of a number of debilitating and even fatal conditions. PMID:14557292

  5. Probiotics and allergies: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Madonini, Enzo R

    2014-11-01

    During the last years, along with the growing knowledge about the role and importance of the intestinal flora, interest remarkably increased in probiotic bacteria supplementation. It has indeed been demonstrated that the intestinal microbiota is very important in the regulation of several functions of the organism, even those far from the gastro-enteric system. Among them, great interest was stimulated by the proven capability of the intestinal microbiota to regulate the immune system, in particular to rebalance the TH1/Th2 ratio. Consequence thereof is the assumption that the administration of probiotic bacteria may induce clinical benefits in allergic pathologies. Many clinical studies have been carried out that considered the possibility of preventing allergic sensitizations, and preventing and treating atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. Many studies demonstrated that the administration of probiotics is able to prevent the onset of allergic sensitizations and improve the symptoms of atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis; however, studies were published, too, that achieved negative outcomes. The overall evaluation of results is, however, difficult, as the strains used and the study design are markedly heterogeneous. Future investigations with a better standardization will be able to better explain the role of the intestinal flora in atopy, and the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:25398162

  6. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  7. Can Probiotics Cure Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

    PubMed

    Korada, Siva Kumar; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Bishayee, Anupam; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Aruna Lakshmi, K; Arunasree, M K; Dananajaya, B L; Mishra, Vijendra

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, especially microbial dysbiosis play role in several GI ailments such as irritable bowel syndrome, colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Role of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is multifactorial as it involves loss of maintaining intestinal epithelial barrier integrity, increased release of pro-inflammatory molecules, and microbial dysbiosis in gut microflora. Some specific pathogens also play a key role in the IBD development. The origin and causation are still in unfathomable condition and the exact root cause is unknown. Recently probiotic studies have been gaining importance because of their positive responses in their IBD experimental results. According to joint Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organisation working group, probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer health benefit on the host. These live beneficial microorganisms are considered helpful in improving gut colonization and perseverance thereby improves prophylactic effect. In the direction of IBD research, a number of studies are needed to standardize its methodology and its applicability on human usage. The particular review presents an overview of gut microflora and its impact on host health, types of IBD and existing therapies to treat this disorder, mechanism of several probiotic actions, role of probiotics in IBD prevention with their supporting evidences. PMID:26648465

  8. Probiotics, prebiotics and antioxidants as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Grajek, Włodzimierz; Olejnik, Anna; Sip, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The term "functional foods" comprises some bacterial strains and products of plant and animal origin containing physiologically active compounds beneficial for human health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Among the best known functional compounds probiotics, prebiotics and natural antioxidants should be given as examples. These substances can be obtained by biotechnological methods and by extraction from plant or animal tissues. PMID:16086074

  9. Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Gut Microbiota and Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Beom Jae

    2011-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder characterized by abdominal symptoms including chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS is multifactorial, as abnormal gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed neural function of the brain-gut axis and an abnormal autonomic nervous system are all implicated in disease progression. Based on recent experimental and clinical studies, it has been suggested that additional etiological factors including low-grade inflammation, altered gut microbiota and alteration in the gut immune system play important roles in the pathogenesis of IBS. Therefore, therapeutic restoration of altered intestinal microbiota may be an ideal treatment for IBS. Probiotics are live organisms that are believed to cause no harm and result in health benefits for the host. Clinical efficacy of probiotics has been shown in the treatment or prevention of some gastrointestinal inflammation-associated disorders including traveler's diarrhea, antibiotics-associated diarrhea, pouchitis of the restorative ileal pouch and necrotizing enterocolitis. The molecular mechanisms, as cause of IBS pathogenesis, affected by altered gut microbiota and gut inflammation-immunity are reviewed. The effect of probiotics on the gut inflammation-immune systems and the results from clinical trials of probiotics for the treatment of IBS are also summarized. PMID:21860817

  10. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  11. Probiotics: a proactive approach to health. A symposium report.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Linda V; Suzuki, Kaori; Zhao, Jia

    2015-12-01

    This report summarises talks given at the 8th International Yakult Symposium, held on 23-24 April 2015 in Berlin. Two presentations explored different aspects of probiotic intervention: the small intestine as a probiotic target and inclusion of probiotics into integrative approaches to gastroenterology. Probiotic recommendations in gastroenterology guidelines and current data on probiotic efficacy in paediatric patients were reviewed. Updates were given on probiotic and gut microbiota research in obesity and obesity-related diseases, the gut-brain axis and development of psychobiotics, and the protective effects of equol-producing strains for prostate cancer. Recent studies were presented on probiotic benefit for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and people with HIV, as well as protection against the adverse effects of a short-term high-fat diet. Aspects of probiotic mechanisms of activity were discussed, including immunomodulatory mechanisms and metabolite effects, the anti-inflammatory properties of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, the relationship between periodontitis, microbial production of butyrate in the oral cavity and ageing, and the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter. Finally, an insight was given on a recent expert meeting, which re-examined the probiotic definition, advised on the appropriate use and scope of the term and outlined different probiotic categories and the prevalence of different mechanisms of activity. PMID:26548336

  12. Probiotics in Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Boltin, Doron

    2016-02-01

    The ideal treatment regimen for the eradication Helicobacter pylori infection has yet to be identified. Probiotics, particularly Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Saccharomyces, have been suggested as adjuncts to antibiotics for the treatment of H. pylori. There is in vitro evidence that probiotics dampen the Th1 response triggered by H. pylori, attenuate H. pylori associated hypochlorhydria and secrete bacteriocidal metabolites. Probiotics interact with the innate host immune system through adherence to the gastric epithelium and secretion of bacterial adhesins. In prospective human studies, probiotic monotherapy effectively decrease H. pylori density (expired (13)CO2) by 2.0%-64.0%. Probiotic monotherapy has also been shown to eradicate H. pylori in up to 32.5%, although subsequent recrudescence is likely. Eleven meta-analyses have evaluated the efficacy of probiotics as adjuvants to antibiotics for the eradication of H. pylori. The addition of a probiotic increased treatment efficacy, OR 1.12-2.07. This benefit is probably strain-specific and may only be significant with relatively ineffective antibiotic regimens. The pooled prevalence of adverse effects was 12.9%-31.5% among subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with 24.3%-45.9% among controls. Diarrhea in particular was significantly reduced in subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with controls (OR 0.16-0.47). A reduction in adverse events other than diarrhea is variable. Despite the apparent benefit on efficacy and side effects conferred by probiotics, the optimal probiotic species, dose and treatment duration has yet to be determined. Further studies are needed to identify the probiotic, antibiotic and patient factors which might predict benefit from probiotic supplementation. PMID:27048901

  13. Probiotics for Standard Triple Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Goran; Salkic, Nermin; Vukelic, Karina; JajacKnez, Alenka; Stimac, Davor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The primary objective in the study is determination of efficacy of probiotic preparation as a supportive therapy in eradication of Helicobacter pylori. The study was multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, and double-blind. The subjects first filled out a specially designed questionnaire to assess the severity of the 10 symptoms, which can be related to eradication therapy to be monitored during the trial. Each subject then received 28 capsules of probiotic preparation or matching placebo capsules, which they were supposed to take over the following 14 days, twice a day, at least 2 hours prior to or after the antibiotic therapy administration. A total of 804 patients were enrolled in the trial, of which 650 (80.85%) were included in the analysis. The results show a significantly larger share of cured subjects in the probiotic arm versus the placebo arm (87.38% vs 72.55%; P < 0.001). Additionally, presence and intensity of epigastric pain, bloating, flatulence, taste disturbance, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, rash, and diarrhea were monitored over the study period. At 15 days postinclusion, probiotic treatment was found superior to placebo in 7 of 10 mentioned symptoms. Average intensity for symptoms potentially related to antibiotic therapy was significantly higher in the placebo group, 0.76 vs 0.55 (P < 0.001). Adding probiotics to the standard triple therapy for H pylori eradication significantly contributes to treatment efficacy and distinctly decreases the adverse effects of therapy and the symptoms of the underlying disease. PMID:25929897

  14. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method that uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation is discussed. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  15. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  16. Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis with Probiotics: An Alternative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a skewed immune reaction to common antigens in the nasal mucosa; current therapy is not satisfactory and can cause a variety of complications. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic rhinitis is increasing every year. Published studies indicate that probiotics are beneficial in treating allergic rhinitis. This review aims to help in understanding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. We referred to the PubMed database as data source. This review focuses on the following aspects: The types of probiotics using in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, approaches of administration, its safety, mechanisms of action, treating results, and the perspectives to improve effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review reports the recent findings regarding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Probiotics are a useful therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, but its underlying mechanisms remain to be further investigated. PMID:24083221

  17. Treatment of allergic rhinitis with probiotics: an alternative approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-08-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a skewed immune reaction to common antigens in the nasal mucosa; current therapy is not satisfactory and can cause a variety of complications. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic rhinitis is increasing every year. Published studies indicate that probiotics are beneficial in treating allergic rhinitis. This review aims to help in understanding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. We referred to the PubMed database as data source. This review focuses on the following aspects: The types of probiotics using in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, approaches of administration, its safety, mechanisms of action, treating results, and the perspectives to improve effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review reports the recent findings regarding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Probiotics are a useful therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, but its underlying mechanisms remain to be further investigated. PMID:24083221

  18. Viscoelastic Properties of Polymer Blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, S. D.; Moacanin, J.; Soong, D.

    1982-01-01

    Viscosity, shear modulus and other viscoelastic properties of multicomponent polymer blends are predicted from behavior of individual components, using a mathematical model. Model is extension of two-component-blend model based on Rouse-Bueche-Zimm theory of polymer viscoelasticity. Extension assumes that probabilities of forming various possible intracomponent and intercomponent entanglements among polymer molecules are proportional to relative abundances of components.

  19. Blended Learning: A Dangerous Idea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskal, Patsy; Dziuban, Charles; Hartman, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The authors make the case that implementation of a successful blended learning program requires alignment of institutional, faculty, and student goals. Reliable and robust infrastructure must be in place to support students and faculty. Continuous evaluation can effectively track the impact of blended learning on students, faculty, and the…

  20. Classifying K-12 Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staker, Heather; Horn, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of online learning in the K-12 sector is occurring both remotely through virtual schools and on campuses through blended learning. In emerging fields, definitions are important because they create a shared language that enables people to talk about the new phenomena. The blended-learning taxonomy and definitions presented in this paper…

  1. Blended Learning Improves Science Education.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Brent R; Stockwell, Melissa S; Cennamo, Michael; Jiang, Elise

    2015-08-27

    Blended learning is an emerging paradigm for science education but has not been rigorously assessed. We performed a randomized controlled trial of blended learning. We found that in-class problem solving improved exam performance, and video assignments increased attendance and satisfaction. This validates a new model for science communication and education. PMID:26317458

  2. FLOW BEHAVIOR OF PROTEIN BLENDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blending proteins can increase textural strength or enhance taste or mouth feel, such as blending soy with whey to improve taste. In this study, we measured the viscosity of various combinations of six proteins (whey protein isolates, calcium caseinate, soy protein isolates, wheat gluten, egg album...

  3. The Basics of Blended Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Catlin R.

    2013-01-01

    Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…

  4. Probiotics for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Lulong; Li, Jinbao; Tao, Tianzhu; Bai, Yu; Ye, Xiaofei; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Kollef, Marin H; Crooks, Neil H; Deng, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common in intensive care units (ICUs). Some evidence indicates that probiotics may reduce the incidence of VAP. Several additional published studies have demonstrated that probiotics are safe and efficacious in preventing VAP in ICUs. We aimed to systematically summarise the results of all available data to generate the best evidence for the prevention of VAP. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of probiotics for preventing VAP. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1948 to September week 1, 2014) and EMBASE (2010 to September 2014). Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo or another control (excluding RCTs that use probiotics in both study groups) to prevent VAP. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and the quality of trials, and extracted data. Main results We included eight RCTs, with 1083 participants. All studies compared a form of probiotic (Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus; Lactobacillus plantarum; Synbiotic 2000FORTE; Ergyphilus; combination Bifidobacterium longum + Lactobacillus bulgaricus + Streptococcus thermophilus) versus a control group (placebo; glutamine; fermentable fibre; peptide; chlorhexidine). The analysis of all RCTs showed that the use of probiotics decreased the incidence of VAP (odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52 to 0.95, low quality evidence). However, the aggregated results were uncertain for ICU mortality (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.22 very low quality evidence), in-hospital mortality (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.14, very low quality evidence), incidence of diarrhoea (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.09, very low quality evidence), length of ICU stay (mean difference (MD) −1.60, 95% CI −6.53 to 3.33, very low quality evidence), duration of mechanical ventilation (MD −6.15, 95% CI −18.77 to 6.47, very low quality evidence) and antibiotic

  5. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria: technology and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Kailasapathy, Kaila

    2002-09-01

    In the recent past, there has been an explosion of probiotic health-based products. Many reports indicated that there is poor survival of probiotic bacteria in these products. Further, the survival of these bacteria in the human gastro-intestinal system is questionable. Providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier against adverse environmental conditions is therefore an approach currently receiving considerable interest. The technology of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells evolved from the immobilised cell culture technology used in the biotechnological industry. Several methods of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria have been reported and include spray drying, extrusion, emulsion and phase separation. None of these reported methods however, has resulted in the large numbers of shelf-stable, viable probiotic bacterial cells necessary for use in industry for development of new probiotic products. The most commonly reported micro-encapsulation procedure is based on the calcium-alginate gel capsule formation. Kappa-carrageenan, gellan gum, gelatin and starch are also used as excipients for the micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria. The currently available equipment for micro-encapsulation is not able to generate large quantities of uniform sized micro or nano capsules. There is a need to design and develop equipment that will be able to generate precise and uniform micro or nano capsules in large quantities for industrial applications. The reported food vehicles for delivery of encapsulated probiotic bacteria are yoghurt, cheese, ice cream and mayonnaise. Studies need to be done on the application of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria in other food systems. The number of probiotic supplements will increase in the future. More studies, however, need to be conducted on the efficacy of micro-encapsulation to deliver probiotic bacteria and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:12400637

  6. Microorganisms with Claimed Probiotic Properties: An Overview of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fijan, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Health benefits have mainly been demonstrated for specific probiotic strains of the following genera: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Escherichia coli. The human microbiota is getting a lot of attention today and research has already demonstrated that alteration of this microbiota may have far-reaching consequences. One of the possible routes for correcting dysbiosis is by consuming probiotics. The credibility of specific health claims of probiotics and their safety must be established through science-based clinical studies. This overview summarizes the most commonly used probiotic microorganisms and their demonstrated health claims. As probiotic properties have been shown to be strain specific, accurate identification of particular strains is also very important. On the other hand, it is also demonstrated that the use of various probiotics for immunocompromised patients or patients with a leaky gut has also yielded infections, sepsis, fungemia, bacteraemia. Although the vast majority of probiotics that are used today are generally regarded as safe and beneficial for healthy individuals, caution in selecting and monitoring of probiotics for patients is needed and complete consideration of risk-benefit ratio before prescribing is recommended. PMID:24859749

  7. Use of probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders: what to recommend?

    PubMed Central

    Verna, Elizabeth C.; Lucak, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Perturbation of bacterial microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may play an important role in the pathophysiology of some GI disorders. Probiotics have been used as a treatment modality for over a century. They may restore normal bacterial microflora and effect the functioning of the GI tract by a variety of mechanisms. Probiotics are not currently regulated and only few randomized controlled trials exist investigating their efficacy in different GI disorders. They are available in a variety of formulations and delivery systems making interpretation and comparison of studies even more difficult. The efficacy of probiotics, either as a single strain or a combination of probiotics, has been tested in antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile colitis, infectious diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, pouchitis, and irritable bowel syndrome, among other disorders. Results of the studies are reviewed in this article and recommendations for probiotic use in these disorders are made. Although probiotics appear to be generally safe in an outpatient setting, the situation may be different in immunocompromised, hospitalized patients who may be at a greater risk of developing probiotic sepsis. No studies exist addressing the issue of safety specifically. Many questions regarding use of probiotics in GI disorders remain to be answered in future studies, such as most optimal doses, duration of treatment, physiological and immunological effects, efficacy of specific probiotics in specific disease states, and safety in debilitated patients. PMID:21180611

  8. Probiotics as flourishing benefactors for the human body.

    PubMed

    Broekaert, Ilse J; Walker, W Allan

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of the beneficial effects of various strains of probiotics in preventing and treating certain diseases. Currently, changed lifestyles as well as the increased use of antibiotics are significant factors challenging the preservation of a healthy intestinal microflora. The concept of probiotics is to restore and uphold a microflora advantageous for the human body. Probiotics are found in a number of fermented dairy products, infant formula, and dietary supplements. In the presence of prebiotics, which are nondigestible food ingredients favorable for probiotic growth, their survival in the intestine is ameliorated. PMID:16552297

  9. Probiotics from research to market: the possibilities, risks and challenges.

    PubMed

    Foligné, Benoit; Daniel, Catherine; Pot, Bruno

    2013-06-01

    Probiotic foods can affect large parts of the population, while therapeutic applications have a less wide scope. While commercialization routes and regulatory requirements differ for both applications, both will need good scientific support. Today, probiotics are mainly used for gastrointestinal applications, their use can easily be extended to skin, oral and vaginal health. While most probiotics currently belong to food-grade species, the future may offer new functional microorganisms in food and pharma. This review discusses the crosstalk between probiotic producers, regulatory people, medical care and healthcare workers, and the scientific community. PMID:23866974

  10. Probiotics and the gut microbiota in intestinal health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Gareau, Mélanie G.; Sherman, Philip M.; Walker, W. Allan

    2016-01-01

    The use of probiotics is increasing in popularity for both the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases. While a growing number of well-conducted, prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical trials are emerging and investigations of underlying mechanisms of action are being undertaken, questions remain with respect to the specific immune and physiological effects of probiotics in health and disease. This Review considers recent advances in clinical trials of probiotics for intestinal disorders in both adult and pediatric populations. An overview of recent in vitro and in vivo research related to potential mechanisms of action of various probiotic formulations is also considered. PMID:20664519

  11. To Blend or Not to Blend: Online and Blended Learning Environments in Undergraduate Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collopy, Rachel M. B.; Arnold, Jackie Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Research comparing student experiences with online-only and blended delivery has often concentrated on graduate students and nontraditional programs. However, the effectiveness of online and blended delivery depends on audience and subject matter, suggesting that findings based on data from graduate and nontraditional programs may not hold true…

  12. Microbial characterization of probiotics--advisory report of the Working Group "8651 Probiotics" of the Belgian Superior Health Council (SHC).

    PubMed

    Huys, Geert; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Delvigne, Frank; De Vuyst, Luc; Heyndrickx, Marc; Pot, Bruno; Dubois, Jean-Jacques; Daube, Georges

    2013-08-01

    When ingested in sufficient numbers, probiotics are expected to confer one or more proven health benefits on the consumer. Theoretically, the effectiveness of a probiotic food product is the sum of its microbial quality and its functional potential. Whereas the latter may vary much with the body (target) site, delivery mode, human target population, and health benefit envisaged microbial assessment of the probiotic product quality is more straightforward. The range of stakeholders that need to be informed on probiotic quality assessments is extremely broad, including academics, food and biotherapeutic industries, healthcare professionals, competent authorities, consumers, and professional press. In view of the rapidly expanding knowledge on this subject, the Belgian Superior Health Council installed Working Group "8651 Probiotics" to review the state of knowledge regarding the methodologies that make it possible to characterize strains and products with purported probiotic activity. This advisory report covers three main steps in the microbial quality assessment process, i.e. (i) correct species identification and strain-specific typing of bacterial and yeast strains used in probiotic applications, (ii) safety assessment of probiotic strains used for human consumption, and (iii) quality of the final probiotic product in terms of its microbial composition, concentration, stability, authenticity, and labeling. PMID:23801655

  13. [Role of probiotics in obesity management].

    PubMed

    Prados-Bo, Andreu; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Nova, Esther; Marcos, Ascensión

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health issue as it is related to several chronic disorders, including type-2 diabetes, high blood pressure, dyslipemia, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, among others. Novel research shows that the gut microbiota is involved in obesity and metabolic disorders, revealing that obese animal and human subjects have alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota compared to their lean counterparts. Moreover, it has been observed in germ-free mice that transplantation of the microbiota of either obese or lean mice influences body weight, suggesting that the gut ecosystem is a relevant target for weight management. Certain strains of probiotics may regulate body weight by influencing the host's metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune functions. Taken together, our knowledge about the influence of gut microbiota on obesity is progressing. Therefore, modulation of its composition through probiotics may provide new opportunities to manage overweight and obesity. PMID:25659049

  14. Health-benefit claims for probiotic products.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, James T

    2008-02-01

    Manufacturers wish to communicate the benefits of probiotics in advertising and labeling with lawful and adequately substantiated claims. Regulatory and substantiation requirements differ for products intended to cure, treat, prevent, or mitigate a disease; to reduce a healthy individual's risk of developing a disease; or to affect the structure or function of the body. Food labeling is regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration, and advertising is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission; the standards and methods used by these agencies differ. Food manufacturers must design their claims regarding the benefits of probiotics with the regulatory environment in mind and must develop their research plans to provide evidence that satisfies the agencies' substantiation requirements. This article offers an overview of the applicable laws and regulations, what they mandate regarding legitimate claims, and the issues regarding the design of research to substantiate such claims. PMID:18181716

  15. Luminal Conversion and Immunoregulation by Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Bhanu Priya; Versalovic, James

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microbes are responsible for the synthesis of nutrients and metabolites that are likely important for the maintenance of mammalian health. Many nutrients and metabolites derived from the gut microbiota by luminal conversion have been implicated in the development, homeostasis and function of innate and adaptive immunity. These factors clearly suggest that intestinal microbiota may influence host immunity via microbial metabolite-dependent mechanisms. We describe how intestinal microbes including probiotics generate microbial metabolites that modulate mucosal and systemic immunity. PMID:26617521

  16. Probiotics for infantile colic: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infantile colic is a common paediatric condition which causes significant parental distress. Increased intestinal coliform colonization in addition to alteration in Lactobacillus abundance and distribution may play an important role in its pathogenesis. The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate the efficacy of probiotic supplementation in the reduction of crying time and successful treatment of infantile colic. Methods Literature searches were conducted of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only randomized controlled trials enrolling term, healthy infants with colic were included. A meta-analysis of included trials was performed utilizing the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Results Three trials that enrolled 220 breastfed infants met inclusion criteria, of which 209 infants were available for analysis. Two of the studies were assessed as good quality. Lactobacillus reuteri (strains-American Type Culture Collection Strain 55730 and DSM 17 938) was the only species utilized in the therapeutic intervention. Two of the trials were industry funded. Probiotic supplementation compared to simethicone or placebo significantly and progressively shortened crying times to 7 days reaching a plateau at three weeks post initiation of therapy [mean difference −56.03 minutes; 95% CI (−59.92, -52.15)]. Similarly, probiotics compared to placebo significantly increased the treatment success of infantile colic with a relative risk (RR) of 0.06; 95% CI (0.01, 0.25) and a number needed to treat of 2. Conclusions Although L. reuteri may be effective as a treatment strategy for crying in exclusively breastfed infants with colic, the evidence supporting probiotic use for the treatment of infant colic or crying in formula-fed infants remains unresolved. Results from larger rigorously designed studies will help draw more definitive conclusions. PMID:24238101

  17. Demonstration of safety of probiotics -- a review.

    PubMed

    Salminen, S; von Wright, A; Morelli, L; Marteau, P; Brassart, D; de Vos, W M; Fondén, R; Saxelin, M; Collins, K; Mogensen, G; Birkeland, S E; Mattila-Sandholm, T

    1998-10-20

    Probiotics are commonly defined as viable microorganisms (bacteria or yeasts) that exhibit a beneficial effect on the health of the host when they are ingested. They are used in foods, especially in fermented dairy products, but also in pharmaceutical preparations. The development of new probiotic strains aims at more active beneficial organisms. In the case of novel microorganisms and modified organisms the question of their safety and the risk to benefit ratio have to be assessed. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in foods have a long history of safe use. Members of the genera Lactococcus and Lactobacillus are most commonly given generally-recognised-as-safe (GRAS) status whilst members of the genera Streptococcus and Enterococcus and some other genera of LAB contain some opportunistic pathogens. Lactic acid bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. In many cases resistances are not, however, transmissible, and the species are also sensitive to many clinically used antibiotics even in the case of a lactic acid bacteria- associated opportunistic infection. Therefore no particular safety concern is associated with intrinsic type of resistance. Plasmid-associated antibiotic resistance, which occasionally occurs, is another matter because of the possibility of the resistance spreading to other, more harmful species and genera. The transmissible enterococcal resistance against glycopeptide antibiotics (vancomycin and teicoplanin) is particularly noteworthy, as vancomycin is one of the last effective antibiotics left in the treatment of certain multidrug-resistant pathogens. New species and more specific strains of probiotic bacteria are constantly identified. Prior to incorporating new strains into products their efficacy should be carefully assessed, and a case by case evaluation as to whether they share the safety status of traditional food-grade organisms should be made. The current documentation of adverse effects in the literature is reviewed. Future

  18. Probiotics as control agents in aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geovanny D, Gómez R.; Balcázar, José Luis; Ma, Shen

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

  19. Probiotics and refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    PubMed

    Nettis, E; Di Leo, E; Pastore, A; Distaso, M; Zaza, I; Vacca, M; Macchia, L; Vacca, A

    2016-09-01

    Background. In chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) first-line therapy with an antihistamine-based regimen may not achieve satisfactory control in patients. Thus, a continuing need exists for effective and safe treatments for refractory CSU. Aim. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of an intake of a combination of 2 probiotics (Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03) in patients with CSU who remain symptomatic despite concomitant H1-antihistamine therapy. Methods. This report analyzes the effects of therapy with two probiotic strains on the clinical progress of 52 unselected patients with difficulty to treat CSU underwent to medical examination in two Italian specialist urticaria Clinics between September 2013 and September 2014. A mixture of Lactobacillus LS01 and Bifidobacterium BR03 were administered in each patient twice daily for 8 weeks. To evaluate patients' improvement with probiotics, urticaria activity score over 7 days (UAS7) was used at baseline and at week 8 in addition to a 5-question urticaria quality of life questionnaire. Results. Fifty-two patients with CSU were included in this study (10 male and 42 female, age range 19-72 years). Mean disease duration was 1.5 years. Fourteen patients discontinued treatment, so evaluable population consisted of 38 patients. Nine of the 38 patients experienced mild clinical improvement during probiotic treatment (23.7%); one patient reported significant clinical improvement (2.6%) and one patient had complete remission of urticaria (2.6%). Twenty-seven patients did not have improvement in symptoms (71.1%). No side effects during the course of therapy were reported. Conclusions. A combination of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 administered twice daily for 8 weeks might reduce the symptoms scores and improve quality of life scores in a part of patients with CSU who remained symptomatic despite treatment with H1 antihistamine mostly in subjects with allergic

  20. Hydrogen-bonded polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guigley, Kevin Scott

    This thesis discusses three topics in the general area of hydrogen bonded polymer blends. The first pertains to the blending of flame retardant polyphosphazenes. Poly[bis(n-alkyoxy)phosphazenes] blends with poly(butyl methacrylate- co-4-vinyl phenol) (BMAVPh) were initially studied. These results were compared to BMAVPh blends of analogous poly (vinyl n-alkyl ethers) and the phase behavior was similar. Next, poly[bis(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene] blends with a structural polyurethane foam were prepared via reactive mixing. The combustion behavior of these foams was analyzed qualitatively, by a horizontal flame test, and quantitatively, by oxygen index (OI) measurements. Both of these tests indicated a modest increase in flame resistance at loadings of 20 wt% and above. In the second topic, equilibrium constants determined from low molecular weight mixtures were used to successfully predict the phase behavior of analogous polymer blends. Due consideration was given to intramolecular screening and functional group accessibility, factors that are a direct consequence of chain connectivity. In the third topic, polymer blends involving an alternating 1:1 copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and a hexafluoroisopropanol modified vinyl ether (HFIPVE) were studied. This copolymer is interesting for both experimental and theoretical studies of the phase behavior of polymer blends because (1) it is amorphous and has a relatively low glass transition temperature (12°C); (2) it has a relatively low solubility parameter (≈7 (cal.cm-3)-0.5); (3) it is soluble in moderately polar solvents, and (4) it contains the hexafluoroisopropanol group that is a strong hydrogen bond donor. Experimental infrared and thermal analysis studies of polymer blends with (co)polymers containing acetoxy, methacrylate and aliphatic ether groups were studied and compared to theoretical predictions of miscibility maps.

  1. Can Probiotics Improve Your Surgical Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Ward, Tina; Nichols, Misty; Nutter, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Despite ongoing advances in medical technology, postoperative infections and infectious complications continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgical trauma and prophylactic antibiotics disrupt the balance of the intestinal microbiota and barrier function of the gut, potentiating an enhanced inflammatory response and further immune system depression. With the increasing costs of health care and emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, alternative approaches must be explored. Many clinical studies have demonstrated that the use of probiotics, prebiotics, or a combination of both (synbiotics) as a part of innovative strategies can improve outcomes of elective abdominal and gastrointestinal surgical procedures. It has been demonstrated that probiotics play a role in gut barrier improvement and immunomodulation. However, it is evident that additional research is needed including larger, multicenter, randomized controlled trials to validate the safety and efficacy of their use in surgical patients. The purpose of this article is to discuss background of probiotic use in abdominal/gastrointestinal surgery, risk and benefits, clinical relevance for health care providers, and further implications for research. PMID:27254237

  2. Stress responses in probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Nezhad, Marzieh; Hussain, Malik Altaf; Britz, Margaret Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Survival in harsh environments is critical to both the industrial performance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their competitiveness in complex microbial ecologies. Among the LAB, members of the Lactobacillus casei group have industrial applications as acid-producing starter cultures for milk fermentations and as specialty cultures for the intensification and acceleration of flavor development in certain bacterial-ripened cheese varieties. They are amongst the most common organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and other animals, and have the potential to function as probiotics. Whether used in industrial or probiotic applications, environmental stresses will affect the physiological status and properties of cells, including altering their functionality and biochemistry. Understanding the mechanisms of how LAB cope with different environments is of great biotechnological importance, from both a fundamental and applied perspective: hence, interaction between these strains and their environment has gained increased interest in recent years. This paper presents an overview of the important features of stress responses in Lb. casei, and related proteomic or gene expression patterns that may improve their use as starter cultures and probiotics. PMID:24915363

  3. Probiotics as Complementary Treatment for Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Le Barz, Mélanie; Anhê, Fernando F.; Varin, Thibaut V.; Desjardins, Yves; Levy, Emile; Roy, Denis; Urdaci, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, growing evidence has established the gut microbiota as one of the most important determinants of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, obesogenic diet can drastically alter bacterial populations (i.e., dysbiosis) leading to activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms and metabolic endotoxemia, therefore promoting insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders. To counteract these deleterious effects, probiotic strains have been developed with the aim of reshaping the microbiome to improve gut health. In this review, we focus on benefits of widely used probiotics describing their potential mechanisms of action, especially their ability to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by restoring the disrupted intestinal mucosal barrier. We also discuss the perspective of using new bacterial strains such as butyrate-producing bacteria and the mucolytic Akkermansia muciniphila, as well as the use of prebiotics to enhance the functionality of probiotics. Finally, this review introduces the notion of genetically engineered bacterial strains specifically developed to deliver anti-inflammatory molecules to the gut. PMID:26301190

  4. Probiotics as Complementary Treatment for Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Le Barz, Mélanie; Anhê, Fernando F; Varin, Thibaut V; Desjardins, Yves; Levy, Emile; Roy, Denis; Urdaci, Maria C; Marette, André

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, growing evidence has established the gut microbiota as one of the most important determinants of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, obesogenic diet can drastically alter bacterial populations (i.e., dysbiosis) leading to activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms and metabolic endotoxemia, therefore promoting insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders. To counteract these deleterious effects, probiotic strains have been developed with the aim of reshaping the microbiome to improve gut health. In this review, we focus on benefits of widely used probiotics describing their potential mechanisms of action, especially their ability to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by restoring the disrupted intestinal mucosal barrier. We also discuss the perspective of using new bacterial strains such as butyrate-producing bacteria and the mucolytic Akkermansia muciniphila, as well as the use of prebiotics to enhance the functionality of probiotics. Finally, this review introduces the notion of genetically engineered bacterial strains specifically developed to deliver anti-inflammatory molecules to the gut. PMID:26301190

  5. Blended Families: Issues of Remarriage

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Gary L.

    1984-01-01

    Canada's divorce rate increased by 50% between 1968 and 1982. This has resulted in new family forms. One of these, the family which has been `blended' through remarriage of a parent, has some unique developmental hardships and differences from traditional nuclear families. Blended families are subject to a number of myths that may adversely affect their formation. In addition, members of these families need more time and patience to form a stable and functioning family group than do traditional families. Family physicians can aid the blended family with frank discussion, preparation and specific information. PMID:21279000

  6. Blends of zein and nylon-6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blends of zein and nylon-6(55k)were used to produce solution cast films and electrospun fibers. Zein was blended with nylon-6 in formic acid solution. When the amount of nylon-6 was 8% or less a compatible blend formed. The blend was determined to be compatible based on physical property measurement...

  7. Validating bifidobacterial species and subspecies identity in commercial probiotic products

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Zachery T; Shani, Guy; Masarweh, Chad; Popovic, Mina; Frese, Steve A.; Sela, David A; Underwood, Mark A.; Mills, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ingestion of probiotics to attempt to improve health is increasingly common, however quality control of some commercial products can be limited. Clinical practice is shifting toward the routine use of probiotics to aid in prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants, and probiotic administration to term infants is increasingly common to treat colic and/or prevent atopic disease. Since bifidobacteria dominate the feces of healthy breast-fed infants, they are often included in infant-targeted probiotics. Methods We evaluated sixteen probiotic products to determine how well their label claims describe the species of detectable bifidobacteria in the product. Recently-developed DNA-based methods were used as a primary means of identification, and were confirmed using culture-based techniques. Results We found that the contents of many bifidobacterial probiotic products differ from the ingredient list, sometimes at a subspecies level. Only one of the sixteen probiotics perfectly matched its bifidobacterial label claims in all samples tested, and both pill-to-pill and lot-to-lot variation were observed. Conclusion Given the known differences between various bifidobacterial species and subspecies in metabolic capacity and colonization abilities, the prevalence of misidentified bifidobacteria in these products is cause for concern for those involved in clinical trials and consumers of probiotic products. PMID:26571226

  8. Probiotics and Gastrointestinal Disease: Clinical Evidence and Basic Science

    PubMed Central

    Petrof, Elaine O.

    2010-01-01

    Our intestinal microbiota serve many roles vital to the normal daily function of the human gastrointestinal tract. Many probiotics are derived from our intestinal bacteria, and have been shown to provide clinical benefit in a variety of gastrointestinal conditions. Current evidence indicates that probiotic effects are strain-specific, they do not act through the same mechanisms, and nor are all probiotics indicated for the same health conditions. However, they do share several common features in that they exert anti-inflammatory effects, they employ different strategies to antagonize competing microorganisms, and they induce cytoprotective changes in the host either through enhancement of barrier function, or through the upregulation of cytoprotective host proteins. In this review we focus on a few selected probiotics – a bacterial mixture (VSL#3), a Gram-negative probiotic (E. coli Nissle 1917), two Gram-positive probiotic bacteria (LGG, L. reuteri), and a yeast probiotic (S. boulardii) – for which sound clinical and mechanistic data is available. Safety of probiotic formulations is also discussed. PMID:20890386

  9. Intestinal irony: how probiotic bacteria outcompete bad bugs.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Guenter

    2013-07-17

    In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Deriu et al. present a mechanistic explanation underlying the benefits of certain probiotic bacteria. Intestinal bacteria compete for the essential nutrient iron, leading to replacement of pathogenic Salmonella by the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle, which is better equipped with iron acquisition systems, and resolution of infectious colitis. PMID:23870306

  10. A Review of Probiotic Therapy in Preventive Dental Practice.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Mark L

    2011-06-01

    Probiotics have been widely publicized in the general press and the consumer media. Knowledge of the existence of "probiotics" is commonplace, and the effectiveness of probiotic therapy has been well reported in the medical literature. However, even though most published dental studies have reported positive results, the dental profession has not yet accepted the use of probiotic therapy as an adjunct for preventive dental care. This review article discusses published and current research into the applications of probiotics along with diagnostic testing of the oral biofilm. Probiotic therapy appears to be generally safe and effective in modifying with beneficial bacteria the oral biofilm and thereby reducing the effects of pathogenic oral bacteria. In this review, some examples of current oral probiotic research are discussed along with reference to the potential application of diagnostic testing of the oral biofilm for the presence of oral pathogens as a precursor to initiation of specific probiotic therapy. Dental professionals should be actively investigating this potentially very useful therapeutic measure for the benefit of their patients. PMID:26781571

  11. Origin Story: Blended Wing Body

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is partnering with the Boeing Company, among others, to develop and test the blended wing body aircraft. The BWB has the potential to significantly reduce fuel use and noise. In this video, Bo...

  12. Method to blend separator powders

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  13. Automate small refinery blending operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, D.E.; Mellott, M.T.

    1981-11-01

    More than ever, small refiners must become more efficient to remain competitive. Increased automation can contribute significantly to improving operations and reducing costs. Presented is a method of automating the blending operation which incorporates unique features and equipment. The system has proven successful in reducing costs and manpower, and improved product quality. The discussion is presented under headings - basic blending system; digital blender; knock engines and octave computer; programmable logic controller; flowmeters; lead additive systems.

  14. A review of the systematic review process and its applicability for use in evaluating evidence for health claims on probiotic foods in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Glanville, Julie; King, Sarah; Guarner, Francisco; Hill, Colin; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the strength of evidence for health benefits of probiotic foods, especially relating to health claim substantiation in the European Union. A systematic review is a protocol-driven, transparent and replicable approach, widely accepted in a number of scientific fields, and used by many policy-setting organizations to evaluate the strength of evidence to answer a focused research question. Many systematic reviews have been published on the broad category of probiotics for many different outcomes. Some of these reviews have been criticized for including poor quality studies, pooling heterogeneous study results, and not considering publication bias. Well-designed and -conducted systematic reviews should address such issues. Systematic reviews of probiotics have an additional challenge - rarely addressed in published reviews - in that there must be a scientifically sound basis for combining evidence on different strains, species or genera. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is increasingly adopting the systematic review methodology. It remains to be seen how health claims supported by systematic reviews are evaluated within the EFSA approval process. The EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies deems randomized trials to be the best approach to generating evidence about the effects of foods on health outcomes. They also acknowledge that systematic reviews (with or without meta-analyses) are the best approach to assess the totality of the evidence. It is reasonable to use these well-established methods to assess objectively the strength of evidence for a probiotic health claim. Use of the methods to combine results on more than a single strain or defined blend of strains will require a rationale that the different probiotics are substantively similar, either in identity or in their mode of action. PMID:25889449

  15. Bioengineered probiotics, a strategic approach to control enteric infections

    PubMed Central

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Enteric infections account for high morbidity and mortality and are considered to be the fifth leading cause of death at all ages worldwide. Seventy percent of all enteric infections are foodborne. Thus significant efforts have been directed toward the detection, control and prevention of foodborne diseases. Many antimicrobials including antibiotics have been used for their control and prevention. However, probiotics offer a potential alternative intervention strategy owing to their general health beneficial properties and inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens. Often, antimicrobial probiotic action is non-specific and non-discriminatory or may be ineffective. In such cases, bioengineered probiotics expressing foreign gene products to achieve specific function is highly desirable. In this review we summarize the strategic development of recombinant bioengineered probiotics to control enteric infections, and to examine how scientific advancements in the human microbiome and their immunomodulatory effects help develop such novel and safe bioengineered probiotics. PMID:23327986

  16. Probiotic Bacteria Induce a ‘Glow of Health’

    PubMed Central

    Smillie, Christopher; Varian, Bernard J.; Ibrahim, Yassin M.; Lakritz, Jessica R.; Alm, Eric J.; Erdman, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Radiant skin and hair are universally recognized as indications of good health. However, this ‘glow of health’ display remains poorly understood. We found that feeding of probiotic bacteria to aged mice induced integumentary changes mimicking peak health and reproductive fitness characteristic of much younger animals. Eating probiotic yogurt triggered epithelial follicular anagen-phase shift with sebocytogenesis resulting in thick lustrous fur due to a bacteria-triggered interleukin-10-dependent mechanism. Aged male animals eating probiotics exhibited increased subcuticular folliculogenesis, when compared with matched controls, yielding luxuriant fur only in probiotic-fed subjects. Female animals displayed probiotic-induced hyperacidity coinciding with shinier hair, a feature that also aligns with fertility in human females. Together these data provide insights into mammalian evolution and novel strategies for integumentary health. PMID:23342023

  17. Probiotics for the Control of Parasites: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Marie-Agnès; Florent, Isabelle; Kohl, Linda; Grellier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live organisms, which confer benefits to the host. Their efficiency was demonstrated for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections, and allergic symptoms, but their use is mostly limited to bacterial and viral diseases. During the last decade, probiotics as means for the control of parasite infections were reported covering mainly intestinal diseases but also some nongut infections, that are all of human and veterinary importance. In most cases, evidence for a beneficial effect was obtained by studies using animal models. In a few cases, cellular interactions between probiotics and pathogens or relevant host cells were also investigated using in vitro culture systems. However, molecular mechanisms mediating the beneficial effects are as yet poorly understood. These studies indicate that probiotics might indeed provide a strain-specific protection against parasites, probably through multiple mechanisms. But more unravelling studies are needed to justify probiotic utilisation in therapeutics. PMID:21966589

  18. Modern approaches in probiotics research to control foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K

    2012-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a serious public health concern. There are over 200 known microbial, chemical, and physical agents that are known to cause foodborne illness. Efforts are made for improved detection, control and prevention of foodborne pathogen in food, and pathogen associated diseases in the host. Several commonly used approaches to control foodborne pathogens include antibiotics, natural antimicrobials, bacteriophages, bacteriocins, ionizing radiations, and heat. In addition, probiotics offer a potential intervention strategy for the prevention and control of foodborne infections. This review focuses on the use of probiotics and bioengineered probiotics to control foodborne pathogens, their antimicrobial actions, and their delivery strategies. Although probiotics have been demonstrated to be effective in antagonizing foodborne pathogens, challenges exist in the characterization and elucidation of underlying molecular mechanisms of action and in the development of potential delivery strategies that could maintain the viability and functionality of the probiotic in the target organ. PMID:23034117

  19. Probiotics and clinical effects: is the number what counts?

    PubMed

    Bertazzoni, Elisa; Donelli, Gianfranco; Midtvedt, Tore; Nicoli, Jacques; Sanz, Yolanda

    2013-08-01

    Probiotics are defined as 'live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host', underlining the need of microbial viability and the requirement of a suitable dose to obtain a health benefit. The dose and the administration regimen are critical issues for probiotics either ingested as foods claiming health benefits or used as drugs in clinics. In fact, regulatory authorities demand to guarantee consumers that a probiotic is effective in the recommended conditions of use and responds to its specific claims. Thus, a proper identification of probiotic strain(s), a definition of the amount of microorganisms surviving by the end of the product shelf-life, and a demonstration of their beneficial effects by appropriate human trials are required. The current knowledge on the effective dose of different probiotic strains used for several disorders is here reviewed. PMID:23906073

  20. Production of functional probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic ice creams.

    PubMed

    Di Criscio, T; Fratianni, A; Mignogna, R; Cinquanta, L; Coppola, R; Sorrentino, E; Panfili, G

    2010-10-01

    In this work, 3 types of ice cream were produced: a probiotic ice cream produced by adding potentially probiotic microorganisms such as Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus; a prebiotic ice cream produced by adding inulin, a prebiotic substrate; and a synbiotic ice cream produced by adding probiotic microorganisms and inulin in combination. In addition to microbial counts, pH, acidity, and physical and functional properties of the ice creams were evaluated. The experimental ice creams preserved the probiotic bacteria and had counts of viable lactic acid bacteria after frozen storage that met the minimum required to achieve probiotic effects. Moreover, most of the ice creams showed good nutritional and sensory properties, with the best results obtained with Lb. casei and 2.5% inulin. PMID:20854989

  1. ICMR-DBT Guidelines for Evaluation of Probiotics in Food

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, N.K.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Sesikeran, B.; Nair, G.B; Ramakrishna, B.S.; Sachdev, H.P.S.; Batish, V.K.; Kanagasabapathy, A.S.; Muthuswamy, Vasantha; Kathuria, S.C; Katoch, V.M.; Satyanarayana, K.; Toteja, G.S; Rahi, Manju; Rao, Spriha; Bhan, M.K; Kapur, Rajesh; Hemalatha, R

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increased influx of probiotic products in the Indian market during the last decade. However, there has been no systematic approach for evaluation of probiotics in food to ensure their safety and efficacy. An initiative was, therefore, taken by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) along with the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) to formulate guidelines for regulation of probiotic products in the country. These guidelines define a set of parameters required for a product/strain to be termed as ‘probiotic’. These include identification of the strain, in vitro screening for probiotic characteristics, animal studies to establish safety and in vivo animal and human studies to establish efficacy. The guidelines also include requirements for labeling of the probiotic products with strain specification, viable numbers at the end of shelf life, storage conditions, etc., which would be helpful to the consumers to safeguard their own interest. PMID:21808130

  2. Learning to Match: User-Producer Integration and Blending in the Probiotic Gefilus Innovation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janasik, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The notions of user involvement and user orientation have become popular catchphrases in innovation research and practice. Central in this research are the ideas that knowledge about users leads to better design, and that the interests of users and producers need to be aligned. In another field of research, scholars have long recognised the…

  3. Advanced materials based on polymer blends/polymer blend nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikaleska, A. V.; Pavlovska, F. P.

    2012-09-01

    Processability, morphology, mechanical properties and rheological behavior of poly(vinylchloride) (PVC)/poly(ethylmethacrylate) (PEMA) blends and PVC/PEMA/montmorillonite (MMT) composites, prepared by melt processing in a brabender mixer, were studied. Samples were characterized using SEM, mechanical testing, DMTA and a parallel plate rheometer. Plastograms show that there is noticeable drop of fusion times and increase in melt viscosity torque of both, polymer blend and polymer blend nanocomposite, in comparison with those of neat PVC. SEM images show that homogenous dispersions are obtained. Tensile tests indicate that PVC/PEMA and PVC/PEMA/MMT samples have greater tensile strength and elastic modulus and lower elongation compared to PVC. When solid viscoelastic properties are considered (DMTA), slightly higher storage moduli are obtained whereas more prominent increase of storage modulus is observed when nanoclay particles are added in a PVC/PEMA matrix. From the calculated area of tandelta peak of all tested samples, nanocomposites exhibit the lowest damping behavior. Oscillatory measurements in a molten state were used for determining the frequency dependencies of storage G' and loss G" moduli. It was found that G" curves of neat PVC lie above those of G' suggesting that PVC behaves like viscoelastic liquid. Similar results, but with significantly higher values of G' and G" over the whole frequency range for PVC/PEMA blends were obtained. Steady shear measurements show that the presence of PEMA and nanoclay particles increases the shear stress and shear viscosity of neat PVC. In order to define the rheological equations of state the three material functions were determined. According to these functions all samples exhibit shear thinning behavior and the curves obey the power law equation. As rheological behaviour was found to be strongly dependent on blend's micro and macro structure and it is one of the main factors defining the end properties, attempt was

  4. Therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Huajun; Wang, Taisen; Tang, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice and the safety. Methods: Sixty-eight neonates with jaundice were divided into a control group and a treatment group (n=34) randomly, and treated by blue light phototherapy and that in combination with probiotics. The serum bilirubin levels were detected before and 1, 4, 7 days after treatment. The time when therapy showed effects and jaundice faded, clinical outcomes as well as adverse reactions were recorded. The categorical data were expressed as (±s) and compared by t test. The numerical data were expressed as (case, %) and compared by χ² test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Serum bilirubin levels of the two groups were similar before treatment (P>0.05). The levels significantly decreased 1, 4 and 7 days after treatment (P<0.05), but there was no significant inter-group difference on the post-treatment 1st day (P>0.05). The treatment group underwent more significant decreases on the 4th and 7th days than the control group did (P=0.002, 0.001). In the treatment group, the therapy exerted effects on (1.0±0.5) d and jaundice faded on (3.8±1.7) d, which were (2.6±0.6) d and (5.3±2.1) d respectively in the control group (P=0.001, 0.002). The effective rate of the treatment group significantly exceeded that of the control group (P=0.002). There were no obvious adverse reactions in either group. Conclusions: Probiotics lowered the serum bilirubin levels of neonates with jaundice rapidly, safely and significantly, and accelerated jaundice fading as well. This method is worthy of application in clinical practice. PMID:26649008

  5. The role of probiotics in prevention of oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, Magdalena; Bachanek, Teresa; Mazur, Elżbieta; Chałas, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic development of knowledge in the field of probiotics was commenced at the beginning of the 20th century. Since then, many ways of their possible usage in medicine have been established. In accordance with the WHO, probiotics are live microorganisms, which if applied in adequate amounts may benefit the host. Among probiotics, fungi and bacteria are distinguished, and mechanisms of action of these organisms in the oral cavity and gut are parallel. Application in dentistry, in prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases is still not well known. Most commonly, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium are applied. The aim of the study was to collect and systematize the latest information about probiotics and their role in pathomechanisms of dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, candidiasis, and malodour. Based on the analyzed literature, it can be concluded that mechanisms of cariogenic pathogen inhibition using probiotics are still not well understood. The new research trend is based on application of probiotics which can naturally displace cariogenic bacteria in the oral cavity and influence oral health in adults and children. The results of studies also confirmed the beneficial role of probiotics in reduction of the bacterial population in periodontitis and halitosis. Long-term observation and a properly designed study protocol will allow us to answer many questions concerning substitution of one strain of bacteria by another. PMID:27594560

  6. The Potential Role of Probiotics in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ai-Qun; Li, Lianqin

    2016-01-01

    The human gut microbiota has a significant effect on many aspects of human physiology such as metabolism, nutrient absorption, and immune function. Imbalance of the microbiota has been implicated in many disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, asthma, psychiatric illnesses, and cancers. As a kind of functional foods, probiotics have been shown to play a protective role against cancer development in animal models. Clinical application of probiotics indicated that some probiotic strains could diminish the incidence of postoperative inflammation in cancer patients. Chemotherapy or radiotherapy-related diarrhea was relieved in patients who were administered oral probiotics. The present review summarizes the up-to-date studies on probiotic effects and the underlying mechanisms related to cancer. At present, it is commonly accepted that most commercial probiotic products are generally safe and can improve the health of the host. By modulating intestinal microbiota and immune response, some strains of probiotics can be used as an adjuvant for cancer prevention or/and treatment. PMID:27144297

  7. Impact of prebiotics and probiotics on skin health.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghazzewi, F H; Tester, R F

    2014-06-01

    This review discusses the role of pre- and probiotics with respect to improving skin health by modulating the cutaneous microbiota. The skin ecosystem is a complex environment covered with a diverse microbiota community. These are classified as either transient or resident, where some are considered as beneficial, some essentially neutral and others pathogenic or at least have the capacity to be pathogenic. Colonisation varies between different parts of the body due to different environmental factors. Pre- and probiotic beneficial effects can be delivered topically or systemically (by ingestion). The pre- and probiotics have the capacity to optimise, maintain and restore the microbiota of the skin in different ways. Topical applications of probiotic bacteria have a direct effect at the site of application by enhancing the skin natural defence barriers. Probiotics as well as resident bacteria can produce antimicrobial peptides that benefit cutaneous immune responses and eliminate pathogens. In cosmetic formulations, prebiotics can be applied to the skin microbiota directly and increase selectively the activity and growth of beneficial 'normal' skin microbiota. Little is known about the efficacy of topically applied prebiotics. Nutritional products containing prebiotics and/or probiotics have a positive effect on skin by modulating the immune system and by providing therapeutic benefits for atopic diseases. This review underlines the potential use of pre- and probiotics for skin health. PMID:24583611

  8. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  9. Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Defense Responses by Probiotic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wan, L Y M; Chen, Z J; Shah, N P; El-Nezami, H

    2016-12-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, which when administered in food confer numerous health benefits. In previous studies about beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria to health, particularly in the fields of intestinal mucosa defense responses, specific probiotics, in a strain-dependent manner, show certain degree of potential to reinforce the integrity of intestinal epithelium and/or regulate some immune components. The mechanism of probiotic action is an area of interest. Among all possible routes of modulation by probiotics of intestinal epithelial cell-mediated defense responses, modulations of intestinal barrier function, innate, and adaptive mucosal immune responses, as well as signaling pathways are considered to play important role in the intestinal defense responses against pathogenic bacteria. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria to intestinal health together with the mechanisms affected by probiotic bacteria: barrier function, innate, and adaptive defense responses such as secretion of mucins, defensins, trefoil factors, immunoglobulin A (IgA), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokines, gut associated lymphoid tissues, and signaling pathways. PMID:25629818

  10. Timely approaches to identify probiotic species of the genus Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades the use of probiotics in food has increased largely due to the manufacturer’s interest in placing “healthy” food on the market based on the consumer’s ambitions to live healthy. Due to this trend, health benefits of products containing probiotic strains such as lactobacilli are promoted and probiotic strains have been established in many different products with their numbers increasing steadily. Probiotics are used as starter cultures in dairy products such as cheese or yoghurts and in addition they are also utilized in non-dairy products such as fermented vegetables, fermented meat and pharmaceuticals, thereby, covering a large variety of products. To assure quality management, several pheno-, physico- and genotyping methods have been established to unambiguously identify probiotic lactobacilli. These methods are often specific enough to identify the probiotic strains at genus and species levels. However, the probiotic ability is often strain dependent and it is impossible to distinguish strains by basic microbiological methods. Therefore, this review aims to critically summarize and evaluate conventional identification methods for the genus Lactobacillus, complemented by techniques that are currently being developed. PMID:24063519

  11. Functional foods as carriers for SYNBIO®, a probiotic bacteria combination.

    PubMed

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2012-07-16

    The popularity of functional foods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10⁹CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO®). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10⁷ and 10⁹CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Büscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date. PMID:22727086

  12. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  13. Probiotics as efficient immunopotentiators: translational role in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Shida, Kan; Nomoto, Koji

    2013-11-01

    Accumulating evidences indicate that some diseases are triggered by abnormalities of the gut microbiota. Among these, immune-related diseases can be the promising targets for probiotcs. Several studies have proved the efficacy of probiotics for preventing such diseases including cancers, infections, allergies, inflammatory bowel diseases and autoimmune diseases. Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) is one of the most popular probiotics, benefits of which in health maintenance and disease control have been supported by several science-based evidences. This review summarizes human clinical trials with this probiotic against cancer development and also discusses the possible immunomodulatory mechanisms by which LcS exerts anti-cancer activity. PMID:24434333

  14. The International Scientific Conference on Probiotics and Prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Karen

    2011-10-01

    The 5th International Scientific Conference on Probiotics and Prebiotics was held in the Doubletree Hotel in Kosice, Slovakia, and highlighted current advances in the research and use of probiotics and prebiotics in both animal and human health. The conference attracted academic and industry representatives from over 35 countries and facilitated networking between research scientists and industry. A poster session was on display throughout the entire meeting. Over the course of the 3-day symposium, 12 sessions addressed issues related to the use of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention and treatment of chronic and infectious diseases, their effects on host immune function and how they may modulate existing gut microbes. PMID:21910573

  15. Probiotic 'glow of health': it's more than skin deep.

    PubMed

    Erdman, S E; Poutahidis, T

    2014-06-01

    Radiant skin and hair are universal indicators of good health. It was recently shown that feeding of probiotic bacteria to aged mice rapidly induced youthful vitality characterised by thick lustrous skin and hair, and enhanced reproductive fitness, not seen in untreated controls. Probiotic-treated animals displayed integrated immune and hypothalamic-pituitary outputs that were isolated mechanistically to microbe-induced anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 and neuropeptide hormone oxytocin. In this way, probiotic microbes interface with mammalian physiological underpinnings to impart superb physical and reproductive fitness displayed as radiant and resilient skin and mucosae, unveiling novel strategies for integumentary health. PMID:24675231

  16. Pressure sensitive conductive rubber blends

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, H.H. ); Abdel-Bary, E.M. ); El-Mansy, M.K.; Khodair, H.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR) was blended with polychloroprene (CR) according to standard techniques. The blend was mixed with different concentrations of ZnO. The vulcanized sample was subjected to electrical conductivity ({sigma}) measurements while different values of static pressure were applied on the sample. It was found that samples containing 7.5 phr ZnO showed a reasonable pressure sensitive increase of {sigma}. Furthermore, the {sigma} vs pressure relationship of rubber blend mixed with different concentrations of Fast Extrusion Furnace black (FEF) was investigated. It was found that rubber vulcanizate containing 40 phr FEF resulted in a negative value of the pressure coefficient of conductivity {approx equal} {minus} 4.5 KPa{sup {minus}1}.

  17. β-Carotene Biosynthesis in Probiotic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer K; Harrison, M Travis; D'Andrea, Annalisa; Endsley, Aaron N; Yin, Fangfang; Kodukula, Krishna; Watson, Douglas S

    2013-06-01

    Susceptibility to deadly diarrheal diseases is partly due to widespread pediatric vitamin A deficiency. To increase vitamin A coverage in malnourished children, we propose to engineer a probiotic bacterium that will produce β-carotene in the intestine, which will be metabolized to vitamin A. Such a therapy has the potential to broadly stimulate mucosal immunity and simultaneously reduce the incidence and duration of diarrheal disease. To that end, a β-carotene-producing variant of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN-BETA) was generated. Notably, the strain produces β-carotene under anaerobic conditions, reflective of the gut environment. EcN-BETA also retains β-carotene production capability after lyophilization, suggesting that it may be amenable to dry formulation. Moreover, EcN-BETA activates murine dendritic cells in vitro, suggesting that the presence of β-carotene may not diminish the immunostimulatory capacity of EcN. Finally, we present a framework through which further improvements may enable approaches such as the one described in this report to yield innovative life-saving therapies for the developing world. PMID:26782732

  18. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics: Gut and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Usha; Ranganathan, Natarajan

    2012-01-01

    The human intestinal tract has been colonized by thousands of species of bacteria during the coevolution of man and microbes. Gut-borne microbes outnumber the total number of body tissue cells by a factor of ten. Recent metagenomic analysis of the human gut microbiota has revealed the presence of some 3.3 million genes, as compared to the mere 23 thousand genes present in the cells of the tissues in the entire human body. Evidence for various beneficial roles of the intestinal microbiota in human health and disease is expanding rapidly. Perturbation of the intestinal microbiota may lead to chronic diseases such as autoimmune diseases, colon cancers, gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, functional bowel diseases, and obesity. Restoration of the gut microbiota may be difficult to accomplish, but the use of probiotics has led to promising results in a large number of well-designed (clinical) studies. Microbiomics has spurred a dramatic increase in scientific, industrial, and public interest in probiotics and prebiotics as possible agents for gut microbiota management and control. Genomics and bioinformatics tools may allow us to establish mechanistic relationships among gut microbiota, health status, and the effects of drugs in the individual. This will hopefully provide perspectives for personalized gut microbiota management. PMID:23049548

  19. Urogenital infections in women: can probiotics help?

    PubMed Central

    Reid, G; Bruce, A

    2003-01-01

    Urogenital infections not caused by sexual transmission, namely yeast vaginitis, bacterial vaginosis, and urinary tract infection remain a major medical problem in terms of the number of women afflicted each year. Although antimicrobial therapy is generally effective at eradicating these infections, there is still a high incidence of recurrence. The patient's quality of life is affected and many women become frustrated by the cycle of repeated antimicrobial agents whose effectiveness is diminishing due to increasing development of microbial resistance. There is good clinical evidence to show that the intestinal and urogenital microbial flora have a central role in maintaining both the health and wellbeing of humans. Furthermore, the use of "good bacteria" to replace or augment bacterial populations is gradually achieving scientific acceptance. This application is termed probiotics: "live micro-organisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host". The role of the intestinal, vaginal, and urethral flora and probiotics in urogenital health will be the focus of this review. PMID:12954951

  20. Probiotic features of two oral Lactobacillus isolates

    PubMed Central

    Zavisic, Gordana; Petricevic, Sasa; Radulovic, Zeljka; Begovic, Jelena; Golic, Natasa; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Strahinic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we checked lactobacilli strains of human origin for their potential as probiotic. Samples were collected from oral mucosa of 16 healthy individuals, out of which twenty isolates were obtained and two of them were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (G1) and L. casei (G3). Both isolates exhibited antagonistic action towards pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, and Clostridium sporogenes, but not on the growth of Candida albicans. The bacteriocin activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6358-P was shown only by L. plantarum G1. Moreover, the isolates G1 and G3 showed good viability in the acid gastric environment and in the gut environment containing bovine bile salts. The viability of G1 and G3 isolates in the gastrointestinal tract, and the adhesion to the intestinal mucosa were also confirmed in vivo. The biochemical tests of blood samples revealed lower levels of serum triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as reduced activity of alkaline phosphatase in all lactobacilli-treated Wistar rats, compared to control ones. No toxicity for NMRI Ham mice was observed. According to our experimental results, these findings imply that L. plantarum G1 and L. casei G3 could be characterized as potential probiotics. PMID:24031847

  1. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2015-08-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important challenges in the field include survival of probiotics during microencapsulation, stability of microencapsulated probiotics in fermented milks, sensory quality of fermented milks with microencapsulated probiotics, and efficacy of microencapsulation to deliver probiotics and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. This study reviews the current knowledge, and the future prospects and challenges of microencapsulation of probiotics used in fermented milk products. In addition, the influence of microencapsulation on probiotics viability and survival is reviewed. PMID:26243890

  2. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

  3. Starch-Poly(Hydroxylalkanoate) Composites and Blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper summarizes research on starch-polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) blends and composites. Efforts to increase compatibility, characterize mechanical and biodegradation properties are described. A range of blend products have been prepared including molded plastics, films and foams. Finally, futu...

  4. 7 CFR 989.16 - Blend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.16 Blend. Blend means to mix or commingle raisins....

  5. Blended Learning as Transformational Institutional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDerLinden, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews institutional approaches to blended learning and the ways in which institutions support faculty in the intentional redesign of courses to produce optimal learning. The chapter positions blended learning as a strategic opportunity to engage in organizational learning.

  6. Intrinsically safe moisture blending system

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman Jr., Russell L.; Vanatta, Paul D.

    2012-09-11

    A system for providing an adjustable blend of fluids to an application process is disclosed. The system uses a source of a first fluid flowing through at least one tube that is permeable to a second fluid and that is disposed in a source of the second fluid to provide the adjustable blend. The temperature of the second fluid is not regulated, and at least one calibration curve is used to predict the volumetric mixture ratio of the second fluid with the first fluid from the permeable tube. The system typically includes a differential pressure valve and a backpressure control valve to set the flow rate through the system.

  7. Raman Microimaging of Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guanghua; Waldek Zerda, Tadeusz

    2001-10-01

    Raman microimaging was used to estimate the effect of the silica filler on phase separation in polymer blends composed of brominated poly(isobutylene-co-para-methylstyrene)(BIMS),natural rubber, synthetic rubber, and cis-1-4-polybutadiene(BR).the domain sizes,relative concentration of polymer components within domains ,and distribution of particulate silica filler and zinc stearate curative were characterized for blends of different compositions and history of aging treatments. The presence of increased concentrations of precipitated silica results in better polymer morphology since domain sizes are reduced.

  8. Partial Miscibility in Copolymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Elizabeth; Lipson, Jane

    2011-03-01

    Copolymers can be used to affect the miscibility of otherwise immiscible polymer blends by acting as compatibilizers. To better understand the energetics of these types of systems, we use a simple lattice model to study phase separation in binary copolymer/homopolymer blends. We focus on a copolymer that contains both A and B type monomers and a homopolymer that contains purely A type monomer. An example of a system that we are investigating is polyethylene mixed with either random or alternating poly(ethylene-co-propylene). The sequence effect on miscibility as the copolymer microstructure is varied from random to alternating is investigated as well. The support of GAANN is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Probiotics in human milk and probiotic supplementation in infant nutrition: a workshop report.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Henrike; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Salminen, Seppo; Szajewska, Hania

    2014-10-14

    Probiotics in human milk are a very recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. Current research is focusing on bacterial diversity and the influence of the maternal environment as well as the mode of delivery on human milk microbiota, the pathways of bacterial transfer to milk ducts, possible benefits of specific bacterial strains for the treatment of mastitis in mothers, and disease prevention in children. Recent advances in the assessment of early host-microbe interactions suggest that early colonisation may have an impact on later health. This review article summarises a scientific workshop on probiotics in human milk and their implications for infant health as well as future perspectives for infant feeding. PMID:25160058

  10. Blending at Small Colleges: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying-Hsiu; Tourtellott, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Implementing blended accelerated learning programs or courses requires a systematic approach, not just the addition of new technologies. Small colleges face challenges when they move toward blended learning because of already-constrained resources. In this article, we will survey issues faced by small colleges in moving to blended learning,…

  11. 27 CFR 24.198 - Blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blending. 24.198 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.198 Blending. Special natural wine may be blended with other special natural wine of the same class and kind, and with heavy...

  12. 27 CFR 24.198 - Blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blending. 24.198 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.198 Blending. Special natural wine may be blended with other special natural wine of the same class and kind, and with heavy...

  13. 40 CFR 80.82 - Butane blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.82 Butane blending. A refiner for any refinery that produces gasoline by blending butane with conventional gasoline or reformulated gasoline or RBOB may meet... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butane blending. 80.82 Section...

  14. 40 CFR 80.82 - Butane blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.82 Butane blending. A refiner for any refinery that produces gasoline by blending butane with conventional gasoline or reformulated gasoline or RBOB may meet... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butane blending. 80.82 Section...

  15. 27 CFR 24.198 - Blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blending. 24.198 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.198 Blending. Special natural wine may be blended with other special natural wine of the same class and kind, and with heavy...

  16. 40 CFR 80.82 - Butane blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.82 Butane blending. A refiner for any refinery that produces gasoline by blending butane with conventional gasoline or reformulated gasoline or RBOB may meet... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butane blending. 80.82 Section...

  17. 27 CFR 24.198 - Blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blending. 24.198 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.198 Blending. Special natural wine may be blended with other special natural wine of the same class and kind, and with heavy...

  18. Do probiotics have a therapeutic role in gastroenterology?

    PubMed Central

    Limdi, Jimmy K; O’Neill, Catherine; McLaughlin, John

    2006-01-01

    Several hundred species of bacteria inhabit the gut, and affect its cell biology, morphology and homeostasis. Many bacteria are however potential pathogens, especially if the integrity of the epithelial barrier is physically or functionally breached. Conversely, the interaction between host and commensal microbes can confer important health benefits. This has led to commercial and public interest in 'probiotics', live microbes principally taken as food supplements. Might probiotics also be used in disease therapy Experimental evidence that probiotics modulate gut physiology, particularly barrier integrity and immunological function, underpins exciting new gastroenterological research. We discuss below the scientific basis for probiotic effects and present a critical perspective for their use in relation to gastrointestinal disease. PMID:17006980

  19. Probiotics for allergic respiratory diseases--putting it into perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Ranjan Das, Rashmi

    2010-03-01

    Respiratory allergies include allergic rhinitis, sinusitis and asthma. Increasing attention on pathogenesis of allergic airway diseases has given rise to "atopic march" hypothesis i.e. clinical features of atopic eczema occur first and precede the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis. The "hygiene hypothesis" proposes that the increase in allergic diseases reflects a decrease in infections during childhood. Clinical trials also suggest that the exposure to microbes through the gastrointestinal tract powerfully shapes immune function. Probiotics are live organisms which exert a beneficial effect in the prevention as well as treatment of allergic diseases through modification of immune system of host via gut ecosystem. Intestinal microbiota differs in infants who later develop allergic diseases, and feeding probiotics to infants at risk has been shown to reduce their rate of developing eczema. This has prompted studies of feeding probiotics in prevention as well as treatment of respiratory allergy. We hereby discuss the status of probiotics in respiratory allergy. PMID:19725896

  20. Time to Talk: 5 Things to Know about Probiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... microorganisms, you might have a better understanding of probiotics. The body, especially the lower gastrointestinal tract (the gut), contains a complex and diverse community of bacteria. Although we tend ...

  1. Probiotics in inflammatory bowel diseases and associated conditions.

    PubMed

    Mack, David R

    2011-02-01

    A complex set of interactions between the human genes encoding innate protective functions and immune defenses and the environment of the intestinal mucosa with its microbiota is currently considered key to the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Probiotics offer a method to potentially alter the intestinal microbiome exogenously or may provide an option to deliver microbial metabolic products to alter the chronicity of intestinal mucosal inflammation characterizing IBD. At present, there is little evidence for the benefit of currently used probiotic microbes in Crohn's disease or associated conditions affecting extra-intestinal organs. However, clinical practice guidelines are now including a probiotic as an option for recurrent and relapsing antibiotic sensitive pouchitis and the use of probiotics in mild ulcerative colitis is provocative and suggests potential for benefit in select patients but concerns remain about proof from trials. PMID:22254095

  2. The dual role of bacteriocins as anti- and probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Gillor, O.; Etzion, A.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria employed in probiotic applications help to maintain or restore a host's natural microbial floral. The ability of probiotic bacteria to successfully outcompete undesired species is often due to, or enhanced by, the production of potent antimicrobial toxins. The most commonly encountered of these are bacteriocins, a large and functionally diverse family of antimicrobials found in all major lineages of Bacteria. Recent studies reveal that these proteinaceous toxins play a critical role in mediating competitive dynamics between bacterial strains and closely related species. The potential use of bacteriocin-producing strains as probiotic and bioprotective agents has recently received increased attention. This review will report on recent efforts involving the use of such strains, with a particular focus on emerging probiotic therapies for humans, livestock, and aquaculture. PMID:18853155

  3. Probiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Associated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mack, David R.

    2011-01-01

    A complex set of interactions between the human genes encoding innate protective functions and immune defenses and the environment of the intestinal mucosa with its microbiota is currently considered key to the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Probiotics offer a method to potentially alter the intestinal microbiome exogenously or may provide an option to deliver microbial metabolic products to alter the chronicity of intestinal mucosal inflammation characterizing IBD. At present, there is little evidence for the benefit of currently used probiotic microbes in Crohn’s disease or associated conditions affecting extra-intestinal organs. However, clinical practice guidelines are now including a probiotic as an option for recurrent and relapsing antibiotic sensitive pouchitis and the use of probiotics in mild ulcerative colitis is provocative and suggests potential for benefit in select patients but concerns remain about proof from trials. PMID:22254095

  4. Probiotic therapy - recruiting old friends to fight new foes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Against a backdrop of increasing antibiotic resistance, and the emergence of new and evolving pathogens, clinicians are increasingly forced to consider alternative therapies - probiotics are one such alternative. PMID:20579345

  5. Five probiotic drops a day to keep infantile colic away?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colic is a common but distressing condition in young infants. We were asked to comment on a recently published study which found that a certain type of probiotic ("good bacteria") could be used to treat colic....

  6. Probiotics and manipulation of rumen development and function.

    PubMed

    Kmet, V; Flint, H J; Wallace, R J

    1993-01-01

    There is good evidence that the bacterial and fungal probiotics are effective in the manipulation of rumen development and function. The effects of adherent Streptococcus bovis preparations were manifested by significant increase of adherent S. bovis bacteria and alpha amylase activity in the rumen wall of young ruminants. Fungal probiotics based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae are rapidly gaining acceptance as a means of improving productivity in adult ruminants. However, fungal probiotics may also have a complementary role to bacterial probiotics in young animals. Dietary yeast improved performance of calves and lambs in terms of feed intake and live weight gain and Aspergillus foetidus was effective in altering rumen fermentation in newly weaned lambs. PMID:8215880

  7. Building a Blended Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2011-01-01

    "Online learning" often serves as an umbrella term that includes the subcategory of blended learning, which might also be referred to as hybrid learning, and comprises some combination of online and face-to-face time. Spurred in part by a 2009 U.S. Department of Education study, "Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning," which…

  8. Blending Creativity, Science and Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Howard; Ng, Wan

    2008-01-01

    Blending the arts into students' learning of science concepts through role-play and drama is unusual pedagogy in schools. For seven Australian Year Five students seeking extended learning, advanced scientific concepts were learned during the creative process of script writing and production of a science play called "Hectic Electric". A mentor and…

  9. Neighborhood School Blends In Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Design considerations for the Haverhill Elementary School in Fort Wayne (Indiana) were that it blend in with the residential neighborhood and be extremely energy effective. By dividing the building into four pods with low hip roofs, and by the extensive use of insulation, both requirements were met. (Author/MLF)

  10. Flame retarded asphalt blend composition

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.B.

    1987-04-21

    This patent describes a flame retarded asphalt composition consisting essentially of a blend of: (a) thermoplastic elastomer modified bitumen; (b) 20-30 wt % inert filler; (c) 1-20 wt % of at least one halogenated flame retardant; and (d) 1-5 wt % of at least one inorganic phosphorus containing compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium phosphate compounds and red phosphorus.