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Sample records for probiotics alters bacterial

  1. Early administration of probiotics alters bacterial colonization and limits diet-induced gut dysfunction and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Siggers, Richard H; Siggers, Jayda; Boye, Mette; Thymann, Thomas; Mølbak, Lars; Leser, Thomas; Jensen, Bent B; Sangild, Per T

    2008-08-01

    Following preterm birth, bacterial colonization and enteral formula feeding predispose neonates to gut dysfunction and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious gastrointestinal inflammatory disease. We hypothesized that administration of probiotics would beneficially influence early bacterial colonization, thereby reducing the susceptibility to formula-induced gut atrophy, dysfunction, and NEC. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were provided total parenteral nutrition (1.5 d) followed by enteral feeding (2 d) with porcine colostrum (COLOS; n = 5), formula (FORM; n = 9), or formula with probiotics (FORM-P; Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus: L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. pentosus, L. plantarum; n = 13). Clinical NEC scores were reduced (P < 0.05) in FORM-P (2.0 +/- 0.2) and COLOS groups (1.7 +/- 0.5) compared with FORM pigs (3.4 +/- 0.6). Lower NEC scores were associated with elevated intestinal weight, mucosa proportion, villus height, RNA integrity, and brush border aminopeptidase A and N activities, and lower gastric organic acid concentration in the FORM-P and COLOS groups (P < 0.05). Diversity of the mucosa-associated bacteria in the distal small intestine was similar among formula-fed pigs, yet the abundance of specific bacterial groups differed between FORM-P and FORM pigs. FORM-P pigs had lower colonization density of a potential pathogen, Clostridium perfringens, and had commensal Lactobacillus bacteria more closely associated with enterocytes along the villus-crypt axis relative to FORM pigs. These results suggest that probiotic administration immediately after birth promotes the colonization of a beneficial commensal microbiota capable of limiting the formula-induced mucosal atrophy, dysfunction, and pathogen load in preterm neonates, thereby reducing the incidence and severity of NEC. PMID:18641188

  2. Probiotics, prebiotics and competitive exclusion for prophylaxis against bacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Callaway, T R; Edrington, T S; Anderson, R C; Harvey, R B; Genovese, K J; Kennedy, C N; Venn, D W; Nisbet, D J

    2008-12-01

    The microbial population of the intestinal tract is a complex natural resource that can be utilized in an effort to reduce the impact of pathogenic bacteria that affect animal production and efficiency, as well as the safety of food products. Strategies have been devised to reduce the populations of food-borne pathogenic bacteria in animals at the on-farm stage. Many of these techniques rely on harnessing the natural competitive nature of bacteria to eliminate pathogens that negatively impact animal production or food safety. Thus feed products that are classified as probiotics, prebiotics and competitive exclusion cultures have been utilized as pathogen reduction strategies in food animals with varying degrees of success. The efficacy of these products is often due to specific microbial ecological factors that alter the competitive pressures experienced by the microbial population of the gut. A few products have been shown to be effective under field conditions and many have shown indications of effectiveness under experimental conditions and as a result probiotic products are widely used in all animal species and nearly all production systems. This review explores the ecology behind the efficacy of these products against pathogens found in food animals, including those that enter the food chain and impact human consumers. PMID:19102792

  3. Probiotics Shown To Change Bacterial Community Structure in the Avian Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Netherwood, Trudy; Gilbert, H. J.; Parker, D. S.; O’Donnell, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Culturing and molecular techniques were used to monitor changes in the bacterial flora of the avian gastrointestinal (GI) tract following introduction of genetically modified (GM) and unmodified probiotics. Community hybridization of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA demonstrated that the bacterial flora of the GI tract changed significantly in response to the probiotic treatments. The changes were not detected by culturing. Although both GM and non-GM strains of Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 11508 changed the bacterial flora of the chicken GI tract, they did so differently. Probing the community DNA with an Enterococcus faecalis-specific probe showed that the relative amount of E. faecalis in the total eubacterial population increased in the presence of the non-GM strain and decreased in the presence of the GM probiotic compared with the results obtained with an untreated control group. PMID:10543832

  4. [Probiotics].

    PubMed

    Capurso, Lucio

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the currently available literature, which includes well-designed clinical trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, certain effects can be ascribed to probiotics as a general class. It is accepted that sufficient evidence has accumulated to support the concept of benefits of certain probiotics; it is reasonable to expect that evidence gained from a defined class of live microbes might be appropriate for certain, but not all, health outcomes. Moreover there is a need for clear communication to consumers and health-care providers of the activity of differentiate probiotic products. PMID:27362718

  5. Probiotics: a new way to fight bacterial pulmonary infections?

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Y; Le Blay, G; Boisramé-Gastrin, S; Le Gall, F; Héry-Arnaud, G; Gouriou, S; Vallet, S; Le Berre, R

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics, of which Fleming has identified the first representative, penicillin, in 1928, allowed dramatical improvement of the treatment of patients presenting with infectious diseases. However, once an antibiotic is used, resistance may develop more or less rapidly in some bacteria. It is thus necessary to develop therapeutic alternatives, such as the use of probiotics, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "micro-organisms which, administered live and in adequate amounts, confer a benefit to the health of the host". The scope of these micro-organisms is broad, concerning many areas including that of infectious diseases, especially respiratory infections. We describe the rational use of probiotics in respiratory tract infections and detail the results of various clinical studies describing the use of probiotics in the management of respiratory infections such as nosocomial or community acquired pneumonia, or on specific grounds such as cystic fibrosis. The results are sometimes contradictory, but the therapeutic potential of probiotics seems promising. Implementing research to understand their mechanisms of action is critical to conduct therapeutic tests based on a specific rational for the strains to be used, the dose, as well as the chosen mode and rhythm of administration. PMID:23820129

  6. Combining prebiotics with probiotic bacteria can enhance bacterial growth and secretion of bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Pranckutė, Raminta; Kaunietis, Arnoldas; Kuisienė, Nomeda; Čitavičius, Donaldas J

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing interest in supporting human health by using prebiotics, such as oligosaccharides, and beneficial bacteria, also called probiotics. Combining these two components we can develop synbiotics. In order to create successful combination of synbiotic it is very important to evaluate the influence of prebiotic oligosaccharides to probiotic bacteria and their behavior, such as growth and secretion of health related biomolecules, including bacteriocins. In this study seven type strains of probiotic bacteria (five Lactobacillus sp. and two Lactococcus sp.) and two Lactobacillus sp. strains, isolated from probiotic yoghurt, were cultivated with various commercially available and extracted oligosaccharides (OS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of these OS on type and isolated bacterial strains growth and antibacterial activity. Obtained results suggest that combination of certain OS with probiotic strains may considerably improve their growth and/or antibacterial activity. We also determined the antibacterial activity spectrum of investigated strains with combination of OS against common food borne pathogens. Results of this work show that prebiotic OS can be useful for modulating probiotic bacteria growth, antibacterial activity and even specificity of this activity. PMID:27181578

  7. Probiotics and diseases of altered IgE regulation: A short review.

    PubMed

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Bluth, Martin H

    2016-01-01

    The use of probiotics has gained considerable popularity in the marketplace in the US and has been steadily increasing due to consumer interest in potential treatment of various diseases, which may be due to modulation of immune responses. The aim of this review is to present information from representative studies regarding some of the possible applications and clinical effects of probiotic use in diseases of altered immunoglobulin (IgE) regulation (allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD) and food sensitization). Reports in humans are sparse or controversial; there is currently little reliable scientific data that supports the theory that there exists a cause-effect relationship between taking probiotics and alleviation of allergic disease. Unfortunately, these findings are too variable to allow substantial conclusions as to the efficacy and effectiveness of probiotic use in these disease states. PMID:25975426

  8. Diet alters probiotic Lactobacillus persistence and function in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Tachon, Sybille; Lee, Bokyung; Marco, Maria L

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of host diet on the intestinal persistence and gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in healthy and health-compromised, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated mice. Mice fed either a low-fat chow diet (CD) or high fat and sucrose Western diet (WD) received 10(9) L. plantarum WCFS1 cells for five consecutive days. Lactobacillus plantarum persistence was 10- to 100-fold greater in the intestines of WD-fed compared with CD-fed mice. TNBS, an intestinal irritant that induces the development of inflammatory bowel disease-like symptoms, resulted in up to a 10(4) -fold increase in L. plantarum survival in the digestive tract relative to healthy animals. Expression levels of 12 metabolic and gut-inducible L. plantarum genes were differentially affected by diet and TNBS administration. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA transcripts from the indigenous intestinal microbiota showed that WD resulted in significant reductions in proportions of metabolically active indigenous Lactobacillus species and increases in the Desulfovibrionaceae family. Feeding L. plantarum WCFS1 resulted in lower levels of colitis and higher concentrations of colonic IL-10 and IL-12 in WD and not CD-fed mice. Interactions between probiotics, nutritional components and the intestinal bacteria should be considered when examining for probiotic-mediated effects and elucidating mechanisms of probiotic function in the mammalian gut. PMID:24118739

  9. Phylogenetic identification of bacterial MazF toxin protein motifs among probiotic strains and foodborne pathogens and potential implications of engineered probiotic intervention in food

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are commonly found in bacteria and Archaea, and it is the most common mechanism involved in bacterial programmed cell death or apoptosis. Recently, MazF, the toxin component of the toxin-antitoxin module, has been categorized as an endoribonuclease, or it may have a function similar to that of a RNA interference enzyme. Results In this paper, with comparative data and phylogenetic analyses, we are able to identify several potential MazF-conserved motifs in limited subsets of foodborne pathogens and probiotic strains and further provide a molecular basis for the development of engineered/synthetic probiotic strains for the mitigation of foodborne illnesses. Our findings also show that some probiotic strains, as fit as many bacterial foodborne pathogens, can be genetically categorized into three major groups based on phylogenetic analysis of MazF. In each group, potential functional motifs are conserved in phylogenetically distant species, including foodborne pathogens and probiotic strains. Conclusion These data provide important knowledge for the identification and computational prediction of functional motifs related to programmed cell death. Potential implications of these findings include the use of engineered probiotic interventions in food or use of a natural probiotic cocktail with specificity for controlling targeted foodborne pathogens. PMID:23186337

  10. Improving survival of probiotic bacteria using bacterial poly-γ-glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Bhat, A R; Irorere, V U; Bartlett, T; Hill, D; Kedia, G; Charalampopoulos, D; Nualkaekul, S; Radecka, I

    2015-03-01

    A major hurdle in producing a useful probiotic food product is bacterial survival during storage and ingestion. The aim of this study was to test the effect of γ-PGA immobilisation on the survival of probiotic bacteria when stored in acidic fruit juice. Fruit juices provide an alternative means of probiotic delivery, especially to lactose intolerant individuals. In addition, the survival of γ-PGA-immobilised cells in simulated gastric juice was also assessed. Bifidobacteria strains (Bifidobacteria longum, Bifidobacteria breve), immobilised on 2.5% γ-PGA, survived significantly better (P<0.05) in orange and pomegranate juice for 39 and 11 days respectively, compared to free cells. However, cells survived significantly better (P<0.05) when stored in orange juice compared to pomegranate juice. Moreover, both strains, when protected with 2.5% γ-PGA, survived in simulated gastric juice (pH2.0) with a marginal reduction (<0.47 log CFU/ml) or no significant reduction in viable cells after 4h, whereas free cells died within 2h. In conclusion, this research indicates that γ-PGA can be used to protect Bifidobacteria cells in fruit juice, and could also help improve the survival of cells as they pass through the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Following our previous report on the use of γ-PGA as a cryoprotectant for probiotic bacteria, this research further suggests that γ-PGA could be used to improve probiotic survival during the various stages of preparation, storage and ingestion of probiotic cells. PMID:25506798

  11. Probiotics in allergy management.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoof, Jon A

    2008-11-01

    The gut contains a diverse bacterial flora that is acquired at birth and has a number of physiological functions. Administration of prebiotics or probiotics may favourably alter this gut microflora. Prebiotics are poorly digested oligosaccharides that promote the growth of desirable bacteria and may have other beneficial gastrointestinal and systemic effects. Probiotics are "helpful" human bacteria that provide a variety of health benefits when administered exogenously. Probiotics produce beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of traveller's diarrhoea, viral diarrhoea, and diarrhoea in day care centres. Moreover, probiotics have been shown to reduce relapses associated with Clostridium difficile, and Lactobacilli are effective in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Probiotics may also be efficacious in the treatment of gastroenteritis. Clinical studies of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease have proved disappointing, but beneficial effects in adults with irritable bowel syndrome have been reported with Bifidobacterium infantis 35624. Lactobacilli GG reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms and gut permeability in patients with atopic dermatitis, and administration of probiotics reduces the frequency and severity of atopic eczema when administered to pregnant women and then to newborn infants. In conclusion, probiotics are effective in the treatment and/or prevention of a number of conditions, including diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome and atopic dermatitis, and the product used should be selected based on the particular indication. PMID:18931598

  12. Proteomics as a Quality Control Tool of Pharmaceutical Probiotic Bacterial Lysate Products.

    PubMed

    Klein, Günter; Schanstra, Joost P; Hoffmann, Janosch; Mischak, Harald; Siwy, Justyna; Zimmermann, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria have a wide range of applications in veterinary and human therapeutics. Inactivated probiotics are complex samples and quality control (QC) should measure as many molecular features as possible. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE/MS) has been used as a multidimensional and high throughput method for the identification and validation of biomarkers of disease in complex biological samples such as biofluids. In this study we evaluate the suitability of CE/MS to measure the consistency of different lots of the probiotic formulation Pro-Symbioflor which is a bacterial lysate of heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Over 5000 peptides were detected by CE/MS in 5 different lots of the bacterial lysate and in a sample of culture medium. 71 to 75% of the total peptide content was identical in all lots. This percentage increased to 87-89% when allowing the absence of a peptide in one of the 5 samples. These results, based on over 2000 peptides, suggest high similarity of the 5 different lots. Sequence analysis identified peptides of both E. coli and E. faecalis and peptides originating from the culture medium, thus confirming the presence of the strains in the formulation. Ontology analysis suggested that the majority of the peptides identified for E. coli originated from the cell membrane or the fimbrium, while peptides identified for E. faecalis were enriched for peptides originating from the cytoplasm. The bacterial lysate peptides as a whole are recognised as highly conserved molecular patterns by the innate immune system as microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP). Sequence analysis also identified the presence of soybean, yeast and casein protein fragments that are part of the formulation of the culture medium. In conclusion CE/MS seems an appropriate QC tool to analyze complex biological products such as inactivated probiotic formulations and allows determining the similarity between lots. PMID

  13. Proteomics as a Quality Control Tool of Pharmaceutical Probiotic Bacterial Lysate Products

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Günter; Schanstra, Joost P.; Hoffmann, Janosch; Mischak, Harald; Siwy, Justyna; Zimmermann, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria have a wide range of applications in veterinary and human therapeutics. Inactivated probiotics are complex samples and quality control (QC) should measure as many molecular features as possible. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE/MS) has been used as a multidimensional and high throughput method for the identification and validation of biomarkers of disease in complex biological samples such as biofluids. In this study we evaluate the suitability of CE/MS to measure the consistency of different lots of the probiotic formulation Pro-Symbioflor which is a bacterial lysate of heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Over 5000 peptides were detected by CE/MS in 5 different lots of the bacterial lysate and in a sample of culture medium. 71 to 75% of the total peptide content was identical in all lots. This percentage increased to 87–89% when allowing the absence of a peptide in one of the 5 samples. These results, based on over 2000 peptides, suggest high similarity of the 5 different lots. Sequence analysis identified peptides of both E. coli and E. faecalis and peptides originating from the culture medium, thus confirming the presence of the strains in the formulation. Ontology analysis suggested that the majority of the peptides identified for E. coli originated from the cell membrane or the fimbrium, while peptides identified for E. faecalis were enriched for peptides originating from the cytoplasm. The bacterial lysate peptides as a whole are recognised as highly conserved molecular patterns by the innate immune system as microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP). Sequence analysis also identified the presence of soybean, yeast and casein protein fragments that are part of the formulation of the culture medium. In conclusion CE/MS seems an appropriate QC tool to analyze complex biological products such as inactivated probiotic formulations and allows determining the similarity between lots. PMID

  14. Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Kligler, Benjamin; Cohrssen, Andreas

    2008-11-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms with potential health benefits. They may be used to prevent and treat antibiotic-associated diarrhea and acute infectious diarrhea. They may also be effective in relieving symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, and in treating atopic dermatitis in children. Species commonly used include Lactobacillus sp., Bifidobacterium sp., Streptococcus thermophilus, and Saccharomyces boulardii. Typical dosages vary based on the product, but common dosages range from 5 to 10 billion colony-forming units per day for children, and from 10 to 20 billion colony-forming units per day for adults. Significant adverse effects are rare, and there are no known interactions with medications. PMID:19007054

  15. Effect of probiotic bacterial strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yoshibumi; Kamiya, Shigeru; Hanawa, Tomoko; Fukuda, Minoru; Kawakami, Hayato; Takahashi, Hidemi; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    The effects of nine probiotic strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus on the growth, adhesion activity, and biofilm formation of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) were examined. The culture supernatant of the E. faecium strain, with or without pH adjustment to a neutral pH, had a strong bactericidal effect on EAggEC, including induction of membrane damage and cell lysis. Supernatants of the L. casei ss. casei and L. casei ss. rhamnosus strains also had a bactericidal effect on EAggEC, but this activity was abolished by pH adjustment to a neutral pH. No inhibitory effect of the culture supernatants of Bifidobacterium or E. faecalis strains was detected. Adhesion of EAggEC to intestinal epithelial cells was not inhibited by the bacterial strains tested. Two strains of L. casei enhanced EAggEC biofilm formation, which was characterized by increased bacterial proliferation. These results suggest that the three different bacterial species; Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus, have different effects on EAggEC, and that further analysis is required for the practical use of these bacteria as probiotics against EAggEC infection. PMID:20054601

  16. Correlation between Protection against Sepsis by Probiotic Therapy and Stimulation of a Novel Bacterial Phylotype▿†

    PubMed Central

    Gerritsen, Jacoline; Timmerman, Harro M.; Fuentes, Susana; van Minnen, L. Paul; Panneman, Henk; Konstantinov, Sergey R.; Rombouts, Frans M.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Smidt, Hauke; Rijkers, Ger T.

    2011-01-01

    Prophylactic probiotic therapy has shown beneficial effects in an experimental rat model for acute pancreatitis on the health status of the animals. Mechanisms by which probiotic therapy interferes with severity of acute pancreatitis and associated sepsis, however, are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to identify the probiotic-induced changes in the gut microbiota and to correlate these changes to disease outcome. Duodenum and ileum samples were obtained from healthy and diseased rats subjected to pancreatitis for 7 days and prophylactically treated with either a multispecies probiotic mixture or a placebo. Intestinal microbiota was characterized by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. These analyses showed that during acute pancreatitis the host-specific ileal microbiota was replaced by an “acute pancreatitis-associated microbiota.” This replacement was not reversed by administration of the probiotic mixture. An increase, however, was observed in the relative abundance of a novel bacterial phylotype most closely related to Clostridium lituseburense and referred to as commensal rat ileum bacterium (CRIB). Specific primers targeting the CRIB 16S rRNA gene sequence were developed to detect this phylotype by quantitative PCR. An ileal abundance of CRIB 16S rRNA genes of more than 7.5% of the total bacterial 16S rRNA gene pool was correlated with reduced duodenal bacterial overgrowth, reduced bacterial translocation to remote organs, improved pancreas pathology, and reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma. Our current findings and future studies involving this uncharacterized bacterial phylotype will contribute to unraveling one of the potential mechanisms of probiotic therapy. PMID:21926217

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain BPL5 (CECT 8800), a Probiotic for Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Chenoll, Empar; Codoñer, Francisco M; Martinez-Blanch, Juan F; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador; Menabrito, Marco

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Lactobacillus rhamnosusBPL5 (CECT 8800), is a probiotic strain suitable for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Here, we report its complete genome sequence deciphered by PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. Analysis of the sequence may provide insight into its functional activity. PMID:27103719

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain BPL5 (CECT 8800), a Probiotic for Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Codoñer, Francisco M.; Martinez-Blanch, Juan F.; Ramón, Daniel; Menabrito, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus BPL5 (CECT 8800), is a probiotic strain suitable for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Here, we report its complete genome sequence deciphered by PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. Analysis of the sequence may provide insight into its functional activity. PMID:27103719

  19. Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by bacterial probiotic supplementation during induced lactic and subacute acidosis in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ruminal disbiosis induced by feeding is the cause of ruminal acidosis, a digestive disorder prevalent in high-producing ruminants. Because probiotic microorganisms can modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota, propionibacteria- and lactobacilli-based probiotics were tested for their effectiveness in preventing different forms of acidosis. Results Lactic acidosis, butyric and propionic subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) were induced by feed chalenges in three groups of four wethers intraruminally dosed with wheat, corn or beet pulp. In each group, wethers were either not supplemented (C) or supplemented with Propionibacterium P63 alone (P) or combined with L. plantarum (Lp + P) or L. rhamnosus (Lr + P). Compared with C, all the probiotics stimulated lactobacilli proliferation, which reached up to 25% of total bacteria during wheat-induced lactic acidosis. This induced a large increase in lactate concentration, which decreased ruminal pH. During the corn-induced butyric SARA, Lp + P decreased Prevotella spp. proportion with a concomitant decrease in microbial amylase activity and total volatile fatty acids concentration, and an increase in xylanase activity and pH. Relative to the beet pulp-induced propionic SARA, P and Lr + P improved ruminal pH without affecting the microbial or fermentation characteristics. Regardless of acidosis type, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that probiotic supplementations modified the bacterial community structure. Conclusion This work showed that the effectiveness of the bacterial probiotics tested depended on the acidosis type. Although these probiotics were ineffective in lactic acidosis because of a deeply disturbed rumen microbiota, some of the probiotics tested may be useful to minimize the occurrence of butyric and propionic SARA in sheep. However, their modes of action need to be further investigated. PMID:22812531

  20. Effect of dietary probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic supplementation on performance, immune responses, intestinal morphology and bacterial populations in broilers.

    PubMed

    Salehimanesh, A; Mohammadi, M; Roostaei-Ali Mehr, M

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of probiotic (Primalac), prebiotic (TechnoMos) and synbiotic (Primalac + TechnoMos) supplementation on performance, immune responses, intestinal morphology and bacterial populations of ileum in broilers. A total of 240 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups which included 60 birds. Control group did not receive any treatment. The chicks in the second, third and fourth groups were fed probiotic (0.9 g/kg), prebiotic (0.9 g/kg) and probiotic (0.9 g/kg) plus probiotic (0.9 g/kg; synbiotic), respectively, at entire period. Daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were evaluated. The birds were immunized by sheep red blood cell (SRBC) on days 12 and 29 of age and serum antibody titres were measured on days 28, 35 and 42. Newcastle vaccines administered on days 9, 18 and 27 to chicks and blood samples were collected on day 42. Intestinal morphometric assessment and enumeration of intestinal bacterial populations were performed on day 42. The results indicated that consumption of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic had no significant effect on daily feed intake, daily body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass traits, intestinal morphology and bacterial populations of ileum (p > 0.05). Consumption of prebiotic increased total and IgM anti-SRBC titres on days 28 and 42 and antibody titre against Newcastle virus disease on day 42 (p < 0.05). Synbiotic increased only total anti-SRBC on day 28 (p < 0.05). It is concluded that consumption of prebiotic increased humoral immunity in broilers. Therefore, supplementation of diet with prebiotic for improvement of humoral immune responses is superior to synbiotic supplementation. PMID:26847817

  1. Epigenetic Alterations Induced by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Coretti, Lorena; Pero, Raffaela; Lembo, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the principal bacterial products known to elicit inflammation. Cells of myeloid lineage such as monocytes and macrophages, but also epithelial cells give rise to an inflammatory response upon LPS stimulation. This phenomenon implies reprogramming of cell specific gene expression that can occur through different mechanisms including epigenetic modifications. Given their intrinsic nature, epigenetic modifications may be involved both in the acute response to LPS and in the establishment of a preconditioned genomic state (epigenomic memory) that may potentially influence the host response to further contacts with microorganisms. Information has accumulated during the last years aimed at elucidating the epigenetic mechanisms which underlie the cellular LPS response. These findings, summarized in this chapter, will hopefully be a good basis for a definition of the complete cascade of LPS-induced epigenetic events and their biological significance in different cell types. PMID:26659265

  2. Anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity of probiotic bacteria against oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ben Taheur, Fadia; Kouidhi, Bochra; Fdhila, Kais; Elabed, Hamouda; Ben Slama, Rihab; Mahdouani, Kacem; Bakhrouf, Amina; Chaieb, Kamel

    2016-08-01

    In this study, three lactic acid bacteria (LAB), isolated from barley, traditional dried meat and fermented olive were characterized and tested for their anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activities against oral bacteria. Our results revealed that the tested LAB were γ-hemolytic and were susceptible to four antibiotics. All the strains were resistant to low pH, bile salt, pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, FB2 displayed a high aut-oaggregative phenotype (99.54%) while FF2 exhibited the best co-aggregation rate. Concerning the microbial adhesion to solvent, FB2 was the most hydrophobic strain (data obtained with chloroform and n-hexadecane). In addition Pediococcus pentosaceus FB2 and Lactobacillus brevis FF2 displayed a significant inhibitory effect against Streptococcus salivarius B468 (MIC = 10%). Moreover the selected strains were able to inhibit biofilm formation of Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 (MBIC50 = 28.16%) and S. salivarius B468 (MBIC50 = 42.28%). The selected LAB could be considered as candidate probiotics for further application in functional food and mainly in the prevention of oral diseases. PMID:27317856

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Two Probiotic Bacterial Strains on Metabolism and Innate Immunity in the RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Biswaranjan; Guha, Dipanjan; Ray, Pratikshya; Das, Debashmita; Aich, Palok

    2016-06-01

    Probiotic and potential probiotic bacterial strains are routinely prescribed and used as supplementary therapy for a variety infectious diseases, including enteric disorders among a wide range of individuals. While there are an increasing number of studies defining the possible mechanisms of probiotic activity, a great deal remains unknown regarding the diverse modes of action attributed to these therapeutic agents. More precise information is required to support the appropriate application of probiotics. To address this objective, we selected two probiotics strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus MTCC-10307 (LA) and Bacillus clausii MTCC-8326 (BC) that are frequently prescribed for the treatment of intestinal disorders and investigated their effects on the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Our results reveal that LA and BC are potent activators of both metabolic activity and innate immune responses in these cells. We also observed that LA and BC possessed similar activity in preventing infection simulated in vitro in murine macrophages by Salmonella typhimurium serovar enterica. PMID:27038159

  4. Probiotic supplement consumption alters cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a preliminary study using healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, N J; Garaiova, I; Williams, E A; Michael, D R; Plummer, S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of daily probiotic supplementation upon the immune profile of healthy participants by the assessment of ex vivo cytokine production. Twenty healthy adult volunteers received a multi-strain probiotic supplement consisting of two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus (CUL60 and CUL21), Bifidobacterium lactis (CUL34) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (CUL20) and fructooligosaccharide for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and cultured ex vivo in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide and cytokine production was assessed. Postintervention, a significant decrease in the production of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β was apparent when PBMCs were incubated in the presence of lipopolysaccharide, whilst a significant increase in IL-10 and transforning growth factor-β production was seen when the cells were incubated without an additional stimulus. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of a multi-strain probiotic supplement to alter the immune response as demonstrated by changes in ex vivo cytokine production. Such results demonstrate the potential benefit of probiotic supplementation for healthy individuals and warrants further investigation. PMID:24311314

  5. Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum alters gut luminal metabolism through modification of the gut microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Sugahara, Hirosuke; Odamaki, Toshitaka; Fukuda, Shinji; Kato, Tamotsu; Xiao, Jin-zhong; Abe, Fumiaki; Kikuchi, Jun; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are well known as health-promoting agents that modulate intestinal microbiota. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Using gnotobiotic mice harboring 15 strains of predominant human gut-derived microbiota (HGM), we investigated the effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 (BB536-HGM) supplementation on the gut luminal metabolism. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics showed significantly increased fecal levels of pimelate, a precursor of biotin, and butyrate in the BB536-HGM group. In addition, the bioassay revealed significantly elevated fecal levels of biotin in the BB536-HGM group. Metatranscriptomic analysis of fecal microbiota followed by an in vitro bioassay indicated that the elevated biotin level was due to an alteration in metabolism related to biotin synthesis by Bacteroides caccae in this mouse model. Furthermore, the proportion of Eubacterium rectale, a butyrate producer, was significantly higher in the BB536-HGM group than in the group without B. longum BB536 supplementation. Our findings help to elucidate the molecular basis underlying the effect of B. longum BB536 on the gut luminal metabolism through its interactions with the microbial community. PMID:26315217

  6. Effects of a Bacteria-Based Probiotic on Ruminal pH, Volatile Fatty Acids and Bacterial Flora of Holstein Calves

    PubMed Central

    QADIS, Abdul Qadir; GOYA, Satoru; IKUTA, Kentaro; YATSU, Minoru; KIMURA, Atsushi; NAKANISHI, Shusuke; SATO, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Twelve ruminally cannulated Holstein calves (age, 12 ± 3 weeks) were used to identify the effect of a probiotic comprised of Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium butyricum on ruminal components. The calves were adapted to a diet containing a 50% high-concentrate (standard diet) for 1 week, and then, the probiotic was given once daily for 5 days (day 1–5) at 1.5 or 3.0 g/100 kg body weight to groups of four calves each. Four additional calves fed the standard diet without probiotic served as the corresponding control. Ruminal pH was measured continuously throughout the 15-day experimental period. Ruminal fluid was collected via a fistula at a defined time predose and on days 7 and 14 to assess volatile fatty acid (VFA), lactic acid and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations, as well as the bacterial community. The probiotic at either dose improved the reduced 24-hr mean ruminal pH in calves. The circadian patterns of the 1 hr mean ruminal pH were identical between the probiotic doses. In both probiotic groups, ruminal lactic acid concentrations remained significantly lower than that of the control. Probiotic did not affect ruminal VFA concentrations. L. plantarum and C. butyricum were not detected in the rumen of calves given the high-dose probiotic, whereas Enterococcus spp. remained unchanged. These results suggest that calves given a probiotic had stable ruminal pH levels (6.6–6.8), presumably due to the effects of the probiotic on stabilizing rumen-predominant bacteria, which consume greater lactate in the rumen. PMID:24614603

  7. Intracloacal inoculation, an effective screening method for determining the efficacy of probiotic bacterial isolates against Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Arsi, K; Donoghue, A M; Woo-Ming, A; Blore, P J; Donoghue, D J

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is common in poultry, and human infections are often associated with consumption of contaminated poultry products. One strategy to reduce Campylobacter colonization in poultry is the use of oral probiotics, but this produces variable results, possibly because the probiotics are destroyed in the stomach's acidic environment. Protection (e.g., encapsulation) of isolates may overcome this problem, but there is no assurance that these isolates will have efficacy in the lower gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, screening candidate isolates by directly placing them in the lower intestinal tract via cloacal inoculation may eliminate the time and expense of encapsulating ineffective isolates. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect bacterial isolates with anti-Campylobacter activity in vitro and evaluate their efficacy in vivo upon either oral or intracloacal administration. Bacterial isolates were collected from healthy birds and were evaluated for efficacy against C. jejuni in vitro. Isolates having generally regarded as safe status and demonstrating in vitro anti-Campylobacter properties were evaluated after oral or intracloacal inoculation into chicks on day 1 (n = 10 birds per isolate per route of administration). On day 7, birds were dosed by oral gavage with a four-strain mixture of wild-type Campylobacter containing at least 1 × 10(7) CFU/ml organisms. On day 14, birds were euthanized and the ceca were collected aseptically for Campylobacter enumeration. When dosed orally, only one isolate had a 1-log reduction in cecal Campylobacter counts, whereas when administered intracloacally, six of these isolates produced a 1- to 3-log reduction in cecal Campylobacter counts in 14-day-old chickens. These results support the strategy of evaluating the efficacy of potential probiotic isolates via cloacal inoculation prior to undergoing the effort of encapsulating isolates for oral administration. PMID

  8. Probiotics in periodontal health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Bhattacharya, Hirak; Kandwal, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Macfarlane Burnett stated in 1962 that “By the late twentieth century, we can anticipate the virtual elimination of infectious diseases as a significant factor in social life”. Probiotics have become of interest to researchers in recent times. Time has come to shift the paradigm of treatment from specific bacteria elimination to altering bacterial ecology by probiotics. The development of resistance to a range of antibiotics by some important pathogens has raised the possibility of a return to the pre-antibiotic dark ages. Here, probiotics provide an effective alternative way, which is economical and natural to combat periodontal disease. Thus, a mere change in diet by including probiotic foods may halt, retard, or even significantly delay the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, promoting a healthy lifestyle to fight periodontal infections. PMID:21772717

  9. Plasma phytoestrogens are not altered by probiotic consumption in postmenopausal women with and without a history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Greany, Kristin A; Thomas, William; Wangen, Kerry E; Adlercreutz, Herman; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2004-08-01

    Soy phytoestrogens were suggested to reduce the risk of a number of diseases including breast cancer. Given that these compounds are metabolized by bacteria, alteration of intestinal bacteria and enzymes may affect phytoestrogen metabolism. We hypothesized that probiotics, when consumed with soy protein, would increase plasma isoflavones, as well as equol producer frequency, in postmenopausal women. We further hypothesized that these effects would differ between women who have had breast cancer and women who have not. To test these hypotheses, 20 breast cancer survivors and 20 controls completed four 6-wk treatments in a randomized, crossover design: supplementation with soy protein (S) (26.6 +/- 4.5 g protein, 44.4 +/- 7.5 mg isoflavones/d); soy + probiotics (S+P) (10(9) colony-forming units Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS+1 and Bifidobacterium longum, 15-30 mg fructooligosaccharide/d); milk protein (M) (26.6 +/- 4.5 g protein/d); and milk + probiotics (M+P). Plasma phytoestrogen concentrations did not differ between controls and survivors, although genistein tended to be lower in survivors at baseline (P = 0.15), and during soy (P = 0.16) and milk protein (P = 0.16) consumption. As expected, soy consumption increased plasma phytoestrogen concentrations (P < 0.0001). Plasma phytoestrogen concentrations and the number of equol producers did not differ between the S and S+P diets. At the same time, plasma equol concentrations as well as urinary equol excretion in 2 subjects were more than 7-fold different between the 2 diets. These results indicate that this particular probiotic supplement does not generally affect plasma isoflavones, although the large differences between plasma and urinary equol in some subjects suggest that equol producer status may be modifiable in some individuals. PMID:15284389

  10. A single natural nucleotide mutation alters bacterial pathogen host tropism.

    PubMed

    Viana, David; Comos, María; McAdam, Paul R; Ward, Melissa J; Selva, Laura; Guinane, Caitriona M; González-Muñoz, Beatriz M; Tristan, Anne; Foster, Simon J; Fitzgerald, J Ross; Penadés, José R

    2015-04-01

    The capacity of microbial pathogens to alter their host tropism leading to epidemics in distinct host species populations is a global public and veterinary health concern. To investigate the molecular basis of a bacterial host-switching event in a tractable host species, we traced the evolutionary trajectory of the common rabbit clone of Staphylococcus aureus. We report that it evolved through a likely human-to-rabbit host jump over 40 years ago and that only a single naturally occurring nucleotide mutation was required and sufficient to convert a human-specific S. aureus strain into one that could infect rabbits. Related mutations were identified at the same locus in other rabbit strains of distinct clonal origin, consistent with convergent evolution. This first report of a single mutation that was sufficient to alter the host tropism of a microorganism during its evolution highlights the capacity of some pathogens to readily expand into new host species populations. PMID:25685890

  11. Chronic bacterial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: effectiveness of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3

    PubMed Central

    Vicari, Enzo; Vignera, La Sandro; Castiglione, Roberto; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Lucia O; Calogero, Aldo E

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3 versus no treatment on the progression of chronic prostatitis toward chronic microbial prostate-vesiculitis (PV) or prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE). A total of 106 selected infertile male patients with bacteriologically cured chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were randomly prescribed rifaximin (200 mg, 2 tablets bid, for 7 days monthly for 12 months) and probiotic containing multiple strains VSL#3 (450 × 109 CFU per day) or no treatment. Ninety-five of them (89.6%) complied with the therapeutic plan and were included in this study. Group A = “6Tx/6-”: treatment for the initial 6 and no treatment for the following 6 months (n = 26); Group B = “12Tx”: 12 months of treatment (n = 22); Group C = “6-/6Tx”: no treatment for the initial 6 months and treatment in the last 6 months (n = 23); Group D = “12-”: no treatment (n = 24). The patients of Groups A = “6Tx/6-” and B = “12Tx” had the highest frequency of chronic prostatitis (88.5% and 86.4%, respectively). In contrast, group “12-”: patients had the lowest frequency of prostatitis (33.4%). The progression of prostatitis into PV in groups “6Tx/6-” (15.5%) and “6-/6Tx” (13.6%) was lower than that found in the patients of group “12-” (45.8%). Finally, no patient of groups “6Tx/6-” and “6-/6Tx” had PVE, whereas it was diagnosed in 20.8% of group “12-” patients. Long-term treatment with rifaximin and the probiotic VSL#3 is effective in lowering the progression of prostatitis into more complicated forms of male accessory gland infections in infertile patients with bacteriologically cured CBP plus IBS. PMID:24969056

  12. Chronic bacterial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: effectiveness of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Enzo; La Vignera, Sandro; Castiglione, Roberto; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Lucia O; Calogero, Aldo E

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3 versus no treatment on the progression of chronic prostatitis toward chronic microbial prostate-vesiculitis (PV) or prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE). A total of 106 selected infertile male patients with bacteriologically cured chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were randomly prescribed rifaximin (200 mg, 2 tablets bid, for 7 days monthly for 12 months) and probiotic containing multiple strains VSL#3 (450 × 10(9) FU per day) or no treatment. Ninety-five of them (89.6%) complied with the therapeutic plan and were included in this study. Group A = "6Tx/6-": treatment for the initial 6 and no treatment for the following 6 months (n = 26); Group B = "12Tx": 12 months of treatment (n = 22); Group C = "6-/6Tx": no treatment for the initial 6 months and treatment in the last 6 months (n = 23); Group D = "12-": no treatment (n = 24). The patients of Groups A = "6Tx/6-" and B = "12Tx" had the highest frequency of chronic prostatitis (88.5% and 86.4%, respectively). In contrast, group "12-": patients had the lowest frequency of prostatitis (33.4%). The progression of prostatitis into PV in groups "6Tx/6-" (15.5%) and "6-/6Tx" (13.6%) was lower than that found in the patients of group "12-" (45.8%). Finally, no patient of groups "6Tx/6-" and "6-/6Tx" had PVE, whereas it was diagnosed in 20.8% of group "12-" patients. Long-term treatment with rifaximin and the probiotic VSL#3 is effective in lowering the progression of prostatitis into more complicated forms of male accessory gland infections in infertile patients with bacteriologically cured CBP plus IBS. PMID:24969056

  13. Probiotics, dendritic cells and bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Feyisetan, Oladapo; Tracey, Christopher; Hellawell, Giles O

    2012-06-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The suppressor effect of probiotics on superficial bladder cancer is an observed phenomenon but the specific mechanism is poorly understood. The evidence strongly suggests natural killer (NK) cells are the anti-tumour effector cells involved and NK cell activity correlates with the observed anti-tumour effect in mice. It is also known that dendritic cells (DC) cells are responsible for the recruitment and mobilization of NK cells so therefore it may be inferred that DC cells are most likely to be the interphase point at which probiotics act. In support of this, purification of NK cells was associated with a decrease in NK cells activity. The current use of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin in the management of superficial bladder cancer is based on the effect of a localised immune response. In the same way, understanding the mechanism of action of probiotics and the role of DC may potentially offer another avenue via which the immune system may be manipulated to resist bladder cancer. Probiotic foods have been available in the UK since 1996 with the arrival of the fermented milk drink (Yakult) from Japan. The presence of live bacterial ingredients (usually lactobacilli species) may confer health benefits when present in sufficient numbers. The role of probiotics in colo-rectal cancer may be related in part to the suppression of harmful colonic bacteria but other immune mechanisms are involved. Anti-cancer effects outside the colon were suggested by a Japanese report of altered rates of bladder tumour recurrence after ingestion of a particular probiotic. Dendritic cells play a central role to the general regulation of the immune response that may be modified by probiotics. The addition of probiotics to the diet may confer benefit by altering rates of bladder tumour recurrence and also alter the response to immune mechanisms involved with the application of intravesical treatments (bacille Calmette

  14. Probiotics and manipulation of rumen development and function.

    PubMed

    Kmet, V; Flint, H J; Wallace, R J

    1993-01-01

    There is good evidence that the bacterial and fungal probiotics are effective in the manipulation of rumen development and function. The effects of adherent Streptococcus bovis preparations were manifested by significant increase of adherent S. bovis bacteria and alpha amylase activity in the rumen wall of young ruminants. Fungal probiotics based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae are rapidly gaining acceptance as a means of improving productivity in adult ruminants. However, fungal probiotics may also have a complementary role to bacterial probiotics in young animals. Dietary yeast improved performance of calves and lambs in terms of feed intake and live weight gain and Aspergillus foetidus was effective in altering rumen fermentation in newly weaned lambs. PMID:8215880

  15. Fermented milk supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics can effectively alter the intestinal microbiota and immunity of host animals.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Zhu, H; Lu, C; Kang, Z; Luo, Y; Feng, L; Lu, X

    2012-09-01

    Fermented milk supplemented with 2 probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide, was orally administered to 100 healthy adults at 480 g/d for 2 wk in a randomized controlled trial. The fecal bacterial compositions of these subjects were examined by culture before and after the intervention. The same fermented milk was also orally fed to BALB/c mice, and immune as well as fecal bacteria analyses were conducted using the same culturing methods. After the intervention, increases in fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were observed among the subjects compared with the subjects in the control group. In contrast, after the intervention, fecal enterobacilli were significantly decreased in the test group compared with the control group. The same effects on the composition of the intestinal microbiota were observed in mice. Furthermore, the tested mice were found to have significantly increased delayed-type hypersensitivity, plaque-forming cells, and half-hemolysis values after the intervention with the fermented milk. In summary, the synbiotic fermented milk containing probiotics and a prebiotic may contribute to improve intestinal health and may have a positive effect on the humoral and cell-mediated immunity of host animals. PMID:22916885

  16. Produced water exposure alters bacterial response to biocides.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Amit; Lipus, Daniel; Bibby, Kyle

    2014-11-01

    Microbial activity during the holding and reuse of wastewater from hydraulic fracturing operations, termed produced water, may lead to issues with corrosion, sulfide release, and fouling. Biocides are applied to control biological activity, often with limited efficacy, which is typically attributed to chemical interactions with the produced water. However, it is unknown whether there is a biologically driven mechanism to biocide tolerance in produced water. Here, we demonstrate that produced water exposure results in an enhanced tolerance against the typically used biocide glutaraldehyde and increased susceptibility to the oxidative biocide hypochlorite in a native and a model bacteria and that this altered resistance is due to the salinity of the produced water. In addition, we elucidate the genetic response of the model organism Pseudomonas fluorescens to produced water exposure to provide a mechanistic interpretation of the altered biocide resistance. The RNA-seq data demonstrated the induction of genes involved in osmotic stress, energy production and conversion, membrane integrity, and protein transport following produced water exposure, which facilitates bacterial survival and alters biocide tolerance. Efforts to fundamentally understand biocide resistance mechanisms, which enable the optimization of biocide application, hold significant implications for greening of the fracturing process through encouraging produced water recycling. Specifically, these results suggest the necessity of optimizing biocide application at the level of individual shale plays, rather than historical experience, based upon produced water characteristics and salinity. PMID:25279933

  17. Feeding Probiotic Bacteria To Swine Enhances Immunity To Ascaris Suum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotic bacterial species are included in the diet to promote health. Probiotics purportedly protect the intestine against pathogenic microorganisms and can reduce inflammation; however, quantitative measurement of probiotic growth and related effects on intestinal function are often lacking. Asca...

  18. Substantial Alterations of the Cutaneous Bacterial Biota in Psoriatic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhan; Tseng, Chi-hong; Strober, Bruce E.; Pei, Zhiheng; Blaser, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    For psoriasis, an idiopathic inflammatory disorder of the skin, the microbial biota has not been defined using cultivation-independent methods. We used broad-range 16S rDNA PCR for archaea and bacteria to examine the microbiota of normal and psoriatic skin. From 6 patients, 19 cutaneous samples (13 from diseased skin and 6 from normal skin) were obtained. Extracted DNA was subjected to the broad range PCR, and 1,925 cloned products were compared with 2,038 products previously reported from healthy persons. Using 98% sequence identity as a species boundary, 1,841 (95.6%) clones were similar to known bacterial 16S rDNA, representing 6 phyla, 86 genera, or 189 species-level operational taxonomic unit (SLOTU); 84 (4.4%) clones with <98% identity probably represented novel species. The most abundant and diverse phylum populating the psoriatic lesions was Firmicutes (46.2%), significantly (P<0.001) overrepresented, compared to the samples from uninvolved skin of the patients (39.0%) and healthy persons (24.4%). In contrast, Actinobacteria, the most prevalent and diverse phylum in normal skin samples from both healthy persons (47.6%) and the patients (47.8%), was significantly (P<0.01) underrepresented in the psoriatic lesion samples (37.3%). Representation of Propionibacterium species were lower in the psoriatic lesions (2.9±5.5%) than from normal persons (21.1±18.2%; P<0.001), whereas normal skin from the psoriatic patients showed intermediate levels (12.3±21.6%). We conclude that psoriasis is associated with substantial alteration in the composition and representation of the cutaneous bacterial biota. PMID:18648509

  19. The effects of a probiotic yeast on the bacterial diversity and population structure in the rumen of cattle.

    PubMed

    Pinloche, Eric; McEwan, Neil; Marden, Jean-Philippe; Bayourthe, Corinne; Auclair, Eric; Newbold, C Jamie

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ability of live yeast to improve milk yield and weight gain in cattle is because the yeast stimulates bacterial activity within the rumen. However it remains unclear if this is a general stimulation of all species or a specific stimulation of certain species. Here we characterised the change in the bacterial population within the rumen of cattle fed supplemental live yeast. Three cannulated lactating cows received a daily ration (24 kg/d) of corn silage (61% of DM), concentrates (30% of DM), dehydrated alfalfa (9% of DM) and a minerals and vitamins mix (1% of DM). The effect of yeast (BIOSAF SC 47, Lesaffre Feed Additives, France; 0.5 or 5 g/d) was compared to a control (no additive) in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. The variation in the rumen bacterial community between treatments was assessed using Serial Analysis of V1 Ribosomal Sequence Tag (SARST-V1) and 454 pyrosequencing based on analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Compared to the control diet supplementation of probiotic yeast maintained a healthy fermentation in the rumen of lactating cattle (higher VFA concentration [high yeast dose only], higher rumen pH, and lower Eh and lactate). These improvements were accompanied with a shift in the main fibrolytic group (Fibrobacter and Ruminococcus) and lactate utilising bacteria (Megasphaera and Selenomonas). In addition we have shown that the analysis of short V1 region of 16s rRNA gene (50-60 bp) could give as much phylogenetic information as a longer read (454 pyrosequencing of 250 bp). This study also highlights the difficulty of drawing conclusions on composition and diversity of complex microbiota because of the variation caused by the use of different methods (sequencing technology and/or analysis). PMID:23844101

  20. Impacts of pH-mediated EPS structure on probiotic bacterial pili-whey proteins interactions.

    PubMed

    Burgain, Jennifer; Scher, Joel; Lebeer, Sarah; Vanderleyden, Jos; Corgneau, Magda; Guerin, Justine; Caillet, Céline; Duval, Jérôme F L; Francius, Gregory; Gaiani, Claire

    2015-10-01

    Probiotic bacteria are routinely incorporated into dairy foods because of the health benefits they can provide when consumed. In this work, the marked pH-dependence of the pili/EPS organization at the outer surface of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is characterized in detail by Single Cell Force Microscopy and cell electrophoretic mobility measurements analyzed according to formalisms for nanomechanical contact and soft particle electrokinetics, respectively. At pH 6.8, LGG pili are easily accessible by AFM tips functionalized with whey proteins for specific binding, while at pH 4.8 the collapsed EPS surface layer significantly immobilized the LGG pili. This resulted in their reduced accessibility to the specific whey-coated AFM tip, and to stronger whey protein-pili rupture forces. Thus, pili interactions with whey proteins are screened to an extent that depends on the pH-mediated embedment of the pili within the EPS layer. PMID:26209966

  1. Characterization of certain bacterial strains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo-Mera, A; Caro, I; Rodríguez-Aparicio, L B; Rúa, J; Ferrero, M A; García-Armesto, M R

    2011-08-01

    The present work was aimed at characterizing 12 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to obtain improved potential starter or probiotic cultures that could be used for making dairy products from ewe's milk and cow's milk. Eight strains with antimicrobial properties, isolated from ewe's milk and from cheese made from ewe's and/or cow's milk, were studied. They were identified as Enterococcus faecalis (five strains), Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (one strain of each species). Additionally, four strains were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection: Lactobacillus casei 393 (isolated from cheese), L. lactis subsp. lactis 11454 (origin nonspecified and a producer of nisin), and two strains isolated from human feces (L. paracasei subsp. paracasei 27092 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 53103, antibacterial agent producer). All E. faecalis strains showed at least one virulence factor (either hemolysin or gelatinase), which emphasizes the importance of these studies in this species. Both L. lactis strains and most Lactobacillus spp. were good acidifiers in ewe's milk and cow's milk at 30°C. High β-galactosidase activity, as well as aminopeptidase activities that favor the development of desirable flavors in cheese, were detected in all Lactobacillus spp. strains. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 showed α-fucosidase activity (thought to help colonization of the intestine) and lack of α-glucosidase activity (a trait considered positive for diabetic and obese humans). This last enzymatic activity was also lacking in L. lactis ATCC 11454. L. mesenteroides was the only strain D(2)-lactic acid producer. The selection of any particular strain for probiotic or dairy cultures should be performed according to the technological and/or functional abilities needed. PMID:21819671

  2. A randomised controlled trial of probiotics for the prevention of spontaneous preterm delivery associated with bacterial vaginosis: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis increases the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery at less than 34 weeks of gestation. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the early administration of selected lactobacilli strains (probiotics) to pregnant women with asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis/intermediate-degree infections to prevent spontaneous premature delivery and associated neonatal morbidity. Methods/Design Asymptomatic pregnant women at less than 20 weeks of gestation, with no indication of elective preterm delivery, with a vaginal pH ≥ 4.5 and Nugent score > 3 were randomly assigned to the placebo or intervention group (oral administration of selected lactobacilli up to the 24th to 26th week of gestation). The randomisation was stratified for the history of premature delivery (HPD) and blocked. The allocation was concealed, and the participating health professionals and patients were blinded. The primary outcome was preterm delivery (<34 to <32 weeks), and the secondary outcomes were associated neonatal complications. Results In total, 4,204 pregnant women were screened; 320 and 324 individuals were respectively randomly assigned to the placebo and intervention groups, and 62% finished the trial. None of the randomised patients were lost to follow-up. For the non-HPD stratum, the intent-to-treat relative risks of spontaneous premature birth at < 34 and < 37 weeks' gestation were 0.33 (0.03, 3.16) and 0.49 (0.17, 1.44), respectively, and they were non-significant (ns) with p = 0.31 and 0.14. The corresponding actual treatment figures were zero and 0.32 (0.09, 1.19), which were ns with p = 0.12 and 0.06. The intent-to-treat relative risk of spontaneous premature birth at < 37 weeks of gestation for the trial as a whole, including HPD and non-HPD participants, was 0.69 (0.26, 1.78), p = 0.30 (ns). The neonatal complications under evaluation occurred in only one infant (< 34 weeks; placebo group) who presented with respiratory distress

  3. Alteration of macrophage membrane lipids following processing of bacterial peptidoglycan

    SciTech Connect

    Polanski, M.; Gray, G.R.

    1986-03-01

    As part of the continuing investigation into the role played by macrophages in antigen presentation and bacterial adjuvant activation, the authors have examined the metabolites produced by macrophages after encounter with peptidoglycan. Peptidoglycan was chosen because it contains N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (muramyl dipeptide), a known adjuvant whose primary target cell is the macrophage. In previous work, the authors established that a series of muramyl dipeptide-like glycopeptides was released into the medium following phagocytosis of peptidoglycan by a macrophage cell line. Here the authors report on the finding that, additionally, a membrane lipid has been covalently altered by the addition of a peptidoglycan fragment. Bacillus subtilis cell walls which had been radiolabeled in their muramic acid, glucosamine and alanine residues, were incubated with the murine macrophage cell line RAW264. Using standard lipid extraction procedures, a lipid was isolated and found to contain equal molar ratios of alanine, glutamic acid and diaminopimelic acid. Since lipidated peptidoglycan peptides have been shown to be immunoactivators, the isolated lipid derivative may serve as a signal for interactions with other lymphocytes.

  4. Human-derived probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri demonstrate antimicrobial activities targeting diverse enteric bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Spinler, Jennifer K; Taweechotipatr, Malai; Rognerud, Cheryl L; Ou, Ching N; Tumwasorn, Somying; Versalovic, James

    2008-06-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a commensal-derived anaerobic probiotic that resides in the human gastrointestinal tract. L. reuteri converts glycerol into a potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound, reuterin, which inhibits the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we compared four human-derived L. reuteri isolates (ATCC 55730, ATCC PTA 6475, ATCC PTA 4659 and ATCC PTA 5289) in their ability to produce reuterin and to inhibit the growth of different enteric pathogens in vitro. Reuterin was produced by each of the four L. reuteri strains and assessed for biological activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of reuterin derived from each strain was determined for the following enteric pathogens: enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Salmonella enterica, Shigella sonnei and Vibrio cholerae. We also analyzed the relative abilities of L. reuteri to inhibit enteric pathogens in a pathogen overlay assay. The magnitude of reuterin production did not directly correlate with the relative ability of L. reuteri to suppress the proliferation of enteric pathogens. Additional antimicrobial factors may be produced by L. reuteri, and multiple factors may act synergistically with reuterin to inhibit enteric pathogens. PMID:18396068

  5. Intracloacal inoculation, an effective screening method for determining the efficacy of probiotic bacterial isolates against Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is common in poultry, and human infections are often associated with consumption of contaminated poultry products. One strategy to reduce Campylobacter colonization in poultry is by using oral probiotics. Unfortunately, oral probiot...

  6. Characterization and in-vivo evaluation of potential probiotics of the bacterial flora within the water column of a healthy shrimp larviculture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ming; Liang, Huafang; He, Yaoyao; Wen, Chongqing

    2016-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the normal bacterial flora associated with shrimp larviculture systems contributes to probiotic screening and disease control. The bacterial community of the water column over a commercial Litopenaeus vannamei larval rearing run was characterized with both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 27 phylotypes at the species level were isolated and identified based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the V3-V5 region of 16S rRNA genes showed a dynamic bacterial community with major changes occurred from stages zoea to mysis during the rearing run. The sequences retrieved were affiliated to four phyla, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, with the family Rhodobacteraceae being the most frequently recovered one. Subsequently, 13 representative strains conferred higher larval survival than the control when evaluated in the in-vivo experiments; in particular, three candidates, assigned to Phaeobacter sp., Arthrobacter sp., and Microbacterium sp., significantly improved larval survival ( P < 0.05). Therefore, the healthy shrimp larviculture system harbored a diverse and favorable bacterial flora, which contribute to larval development and are of great importance in exploiting novel probiotics.

  7. Characterization and in-vivo evaluation of potential probiotics of the bacterial flora within the water column of a healthy shrimp larviculture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ming; Liang, Huafang; He, Yaoyao; Wen, Chongqing

    2015-11-01

    A thorough understanding of the normal bacterial flora associated with shrimp larviculture systems contributes to probiotic screening and disease control. The bacterial community of the water column over a commercial Litopenaeus vannamei larval rearing run was characterized with both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 27 phylotypes at the species level were isolated and identified based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the V3-V5 region of 16S rRNA genes showed a dynamic bacterial community with major changes occurred from stages zoea to mysis during the rearing run. The sequences retrieved were affiliated to four phyla, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, with the family Rhodobacteraceae being the most frequently recovered one. Subsequently, 13 representative strains conferred higher larval survival than the control when evaluated in the in-vivo experiments; in particular, three candidates, assigned to Phaeobacter sp., Arthrobacter sp., and Microbacterium sp., significantly improved larval survival (P <0.05). Therefore, the healthy shrimp larviculture system harbored a diverse and favorable bacterial flora, which contribute to larval development and are of great importance in exploiting novel probiotics.

  8. Predominant genera of fecal microbiota in children with atopic dermatitis are not altered by intake of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn K; Gøbel, Rikke; Michaelsen, Kim F; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren J; Hansen, Lars H; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2011-03-01

    The effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 on the composition of the Lactobacillus group, Bifidobacterium and the total bacterial population in feces from young children with atopic dermatitis was investigated. The study included 50 children randomized to intake of one of the probiotic strain or placebo. Microbial composition was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR and, in a subset of subjects, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The core population of the Lactobacillus group was identified as Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus oris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, while the bifidobacterial community included Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium catenulatum. The fecal numbers of L. acidophilus and B. lactis increased significantly after intervention, indicating survival of the ingested bacteria. The levels of Bifidobacterium correlated positively (P=0.03), while the levels of the Lactobacillus group negatively (P=0.01) with improvement of atopic eczema evaluated by the Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis index. This correlation was observed across the whole study cohort and not attributed to the probiotic intake. The main conclusion of the study is that administration of L. acidophilus NCFM and B. lactis Bi-07 does not affect the composition and diversity of the main bacterial populations in feces. PMID:21204871

  9. Probiotics and periodontal health.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G

    2011-11-14

    Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. The etiology is clearly bacterial and a number of putative bacterial pathogens have been associated with the disease, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythus and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Comparatively, little attention has been paid to the identification of health-associated and potentially beneficial bacterial species that may reside in the gingival sulcus. Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by using natural beneficial bacteria, commonly found in healthy mouths, to provide a natural defense against those bacteria which are thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. This article endeavors to introduce the concepts of probiotics in periodontics. PMID:22514571

  10. Probiotics and periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. The etiology is clearly bacterial and a number of putative bacterial pathogens have been associated with the disease, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythus and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Comparatively, little attention has been paid to the identification of health-associated and potentially beneficial bacterial species that may reside in the gingival sulcus. Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by using natural beneficial bacteria, commonly found in healthy mouths, to provide a natural defense against those bacteria which are thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. This article endeavors to introduce the concepts of probiotics in periodontics. PMID:22514571

  11. Recent Advances and Understanding of Using Probiotic-Based Interventions to Restore Homeostasis of the Microbiome for the Prevention/Therapy of Bacterial Diseases.

    PubMed

    Suchodolski, Jan S; Jergens, Albert E

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the microbiome in health and disease has galvanized interest in using manipulations of the gastrointestinal ecosystem to prevent and/or combat gut bacterial infections and to restore mucosal homeostasis in patients with generalized microbial imbalances (i.e., dysbiosis), including the human inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Probiotics, prebiotics, or their combination use (i.e., synbiotics) are one mechanism for modifying the microbiota and exerting direct and indirect effects on the host immune responses and metabolomics profiles. These beneficial effects are transferred through various pathways, including the production of antimicrobial peptides, promoting the growth of beneficial microbes and enhancing immunomodulatory functions via various metabolites. While probiotic therapy has been used empirically for decades with mixed success, the recent advances in molecular and mass spectrophotometric techniques for the characterization of the complexity and diversity of the intestinal microbiome has aided in better understanding of host-microbe interactions. It is important to better understand the functional properties of the microbiome, because it is now clear that the microbiota secretes many metabolites that have a direct impact on host immune responses. This information will improve selection of the most appropriate probiotic strains that selectively target intestinal disease processes. PMID:27227298

  12. Probiotic as a Novel Treatment Strategy Against Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Khani, Soghra; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2013-01-01

    Context A symbiotic relationship between the liver and intestinal tract enables the healthy status of both organs. Microflora resident in intestinal lumen plays a significant role in hepatocytes function. Alterations to the type and amount of microorganisms that live in the intestinal tract can result in serious and harmful liver dysfunctions such as cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and hepatic encephalopathy. An increased number of pathogens, especially enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, and streptococci species causes the elevation of intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation. The presence of high levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial substances in the blood result in a portal hypertension and ensuing hepatocytes damage. Several methods including the usage of antibiotics, prebiotics, and probiotics can be used to prevent the overgrowth of pathogens. Compared to prebiotic and antibiotic therapy, probiotics strains are a safer and less expensive therapy. Probiotics are "live microorganisms (according to the FAO/WHO) which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”. Evidence Acquisitions Data from numerous preclinical and clinical trials allows for control of the flora bacteria quantity, decreases in compounds derived from bacteria, and lowers proinflammatory production such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ via down-regulation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κ B). Results On the other hand, probiotic can reduce the urease activity of bacterial microflora. Furthermore, probiotic decreases fecal pH value and reduces ammonia adsorption. In addition, the serum level of liver enzymes and other substances synthesized by the liver are modulated subsequent to probiotic consumption. Conclusions According to our knowledge, Probiotic therapy as a safe, inexpensive and a noninvasive strategy can reduce pathophysiological symptoms and improve different types of liver diseases without side

  13. Experimental sulfate amendment alters peatland bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Strickman, R J S; Fulthorpe, R R; Coleman Wasik, J K; Engstrom, D R; Mitchell, C P J

    2016-10-01

    As part of a long-term, peatland-scale sulfate addition experiment, the impact of varying sulfate deposition on bacterial community responses was assessed using 16S tag encoded pyrosequencing. In three separate areas of the peatland, sulfate manipulations included an eight year quadrupling of atmospheric sulfate deposition (experimental), a 3-year recovery to background deposition following 5years of elevated deposition (recovery), and a control area. Peat concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg), a bioaccumulative neurotoxin, were measured, the production of which is attributable to a growing list of microorganisms, including many sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. The total bacterial and Deltaproteobacterial community structures in the experimental treatment differed significantly from those in the control and recovery treatments that were either indistinguishable or very similar to one another. Notably, the relatively rapid return (within three years) of bacterial community structure in the recovery treatment to a state similar to the control, demonstrates significant resilience of the peatland bacterial community to changes in atmospheric sulfate deposition. Changes in MeHg accumulation between sulfate treatments correlated with changes in the Deltaproteobacterial community, suggesting that sulfate may affect MeHg production through changes in the community structure of this group. PMID:27267720

  14. Phylogenetic identification of bacterial MazF toxin protein motifs among probiotic strains and foodborne pathogens and potential implications of engineered probiotic intervention in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common mechanism involved in bacterial programmed cell death or apoptosis is through toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules, which exist in many bacterial species. An experimental procedure or method that provides novel insights into the molecular basis for the development of engineered/synthetic pr...

  15. Probiotics as Complementary Treatment for Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Le Barz, Mélanie; Anhê, Fernando F.; Varin, Thibaut V.; Desjardins, Yves; Levy, Emile; Roy, Denis; Urdaci, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, growing evidence has established the gut microbiota as one of the most important determinants of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, obesogenic diet can drastically alter bacterial populations (i.e., dysbiosis) leading to activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms and metabolic endotoxemia, therefore promoting insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders. To counteract these deleterious effects, probiotic strains have been developed with the aim of reshaping the microbiome to improve gut health. In this review, we focus on benefits of widely used probiotics describing their potential mechanisms of action, especially their ability to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by restoring the disrupted intestinal mucosal barrier. We also discuss the perspective of using new bacterial strains such as butyrate-producing bacteria and the mucolytic Akkermansia muciniphila, as well as the use of prebiotics to enhance the functionality of probiotics. Finally, this review introduces the notion of genetically engineered bacterial strains specifically developed to deliver anti-inflammatory molecules to the gut. PMID:26301190

  16. Probiotics as Complementary Treatment for Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Le Barz, Mélanie; Anhê, Fernando F; Varin, Thibaut V; Desjardins, Yves; Levy, Emile; Roy, Denis; Urdaci, Maria C; Marette, André

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, growing evidence has established the gut microbiota as one of the most important determinants of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, obesogenic diet can drastically alter bacterial populations (i.e., dysbiosis) leading to activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms and metabolic endotoxemia, therefore promoting insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders. To counteract these deleterious effects, probiotic strains have been developed with the aim of reshaping the microbiome to improve gut health. In this review, we focus on benefits of widely used probiotics describing their potential mechanisms of action, especially their ability to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by restoring the disrupted intestinal mucosal barrier. We also discuss the perspective of using new bacterial strains such as butyrate-producing bacteria and the mucolytic Akkermansia muciniphila, as well as the use of prebiotics to enhance the functionality of probiotics. Finally, this review introduces the notion of genetically engineered bacterial strains specifically developed to deliver anti-inflammatory molecules to the gut. PMID:26301190

  17. An in vitro study on bacterial growth interactions and intestinal epithelial cell adhesion characteristics of probiotic combinations.

    PubMed

    Moussavi, Mahta; Adams, Michelle Catherine

    2010-05-01

    The aims of this study were to examine long-term growth interactions of five probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei 01, Lactobacillus plantarum HA8, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12) either alone or in combination with Propionibacterium jensenii 702 in a co-culture system and to determine their adhesion ability to human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. Growth patterns of probiotic Lactobacillus strains were not considerably affected by the presence of P. jensenii 702, whereas lactobacilli exerted a strong antagonistic action against P. jensenii 702. In the co-culture of Bif. lactis Bb12 and P. jensenii 702, a significant synergistic influence on growth of both bacteria was observed (P < 0.05). The results of adhesion assay showed that when probiotic strains were tested in combination, there was evidence of an associated effect on percentage adherence. However, in most cases these differences were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). Adhesion percentage of Lb. casei 01 and Lb. rhamnosus GG both decreased significantly in the presence of P. jensenii 702 compared to their adhesion levels when alone (P < 0.05). These results show that the survival and percentage adhesion of some probiotic strains may be influenced by the presence of other strains and this should be considered when formulating in the probiotic products. PMID:19949794

  18. Antibiotic-induced dysbiosis alters host-bacterial interactions and leads to colonic sensory and motor changes in mice.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, M; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Martínez, V

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of the commensal microbiota (dysbiosis) seem to be a pathogenic component of functional gastrointestinal disorders, mainly irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and might participate in the secretomotor and sensory alterations observed in these patients.We determined if a state antibiotics-induced intestinal dysbiosis is able to modify colonic pain-related and motor responses and characterized the neuro-immune mechanisms implicated in mice. A 2-week antibiotics treatment induced a colonic dysbiosis (increments in Bacteroides spp, Clostridium coccoides and Lactobacillus spp and reduction in Bifidobacterium spp). Bacterial adherence was not affected. Dysbiosis was associated with increased levels of secretory-IgA, up-regulation of the antimicrobial lectin RegIIIγ, and toll-like receptors (TLR) 4 and 7 and down-regulation of the antimicrobial-peptide Resistin-Like Molecule-β and TLR5. Dysbiotic mice showed less goblet cells, without changes in the thickness of the mucus layer. Neither macroscopical nor microscopical signs of inflammation were observed. In dysbiotic mice, expression of the cannabinoid receptor 2 was up-regulated, while the cannabinoid 1 and the mu-opioid receptors were down-regulated. In antibiotic-treated mice, visceral pain-related responses elicited by intraperitoneal acetic acid or intracolonic capsaicin were significantly attenuated. Colonic contractility was enhanced during dysbiosis. Intestinal dysbiosis induce changes in the innate intestinal immune system and modulate the expression of pain-related sensory systems, an effect associated with a reduction in visceral pain-related responses. Commensal microbiota modulates gut neuro-immune sensory systems, leading to functional changes, at least as it relates to viscerosensitivity. Similar mechanisms might explain the beneficial effects of antibiotics or certain probiotics in the treatment of IBS. PMID:25531553

  19. Altered Virome and Bacterial Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Cynthia L; Gootenberg, David B; Zhao, Guoyan; Handley, Scott A; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Lim, Efrem S; Lankowski, Alex; Baldridge, Megan T; Wilen, Craig B; Flagg, Meaghan; Norman, Jason M; Keller, Brian C; Luévano, Jesús Mario; Wang, David; Boum, Yap; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hunt, Peter W; Bangsberg, David R; Siedner, Mark J; Kwon, Douglas S; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased intestinal translocation of microbial products and enteropathy as well as alterations in gut bacterial communities. However, whether the enteric virome contributes to this infection and resulting immunodeficiency remains unknown. We characterized the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome in a cohort of Ugandan patients, including HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected subjects and those either treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or untreated. Low peripheral CD4 T cell counts were associated with an expansion of enteric adenovirus sequences and this increase was independent of ART treatment. Additionally, the enteric bacterial microbiome of patients with lower CD4 T counts exhibited reduced phylogenetic diversity and richness with specific bacteria showing differential abundance, including increases in Enterobacteriaceae, which have been associated with inflammation. Thus, immunodeficiency in progressive HIV infection is associated with alterations in the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome, which may contribute to AIDS-associated enteropathy and disease progression. PMID:26962942

  20. Probiotics from an industrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Forssten, Sofia D; Sindelar, Connie W; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2011-12-01

    Probiotic products have gained popularity with consumers that expect that the products they consume are healthy and help them maintain health. Hence, the need and preferences of the consumers are translated into a product format concept. Probiotics have been used for a long time as natural components in supplements and functional foods, mainly in fermented dairy products. Most of the strains used as probiotics belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. By definition, a strain has to have documented health benefits, in order to be called a probiotic. Although each bacterial strain is unique, there are some points that are essential when selecting a probiotic regarding the genetic stability, survival, and technical properties of a strain. Proper components, food matrices and production processes need to be selected since the matrices may affect the viability of the strain in the product and the intestine. Survival in the product is considered a requirement for the beneficial effects of probiotics. PMID:21549209

  1. Protection against 1,2-di-methylhydrazine-induced systemic oxidative stress and altered brain neurotransmitter status by probiotic Escherichia coli CFR 16 secreting pyrroloquinoline quinone.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sumeet; Singh, Ashish; Chaudhari, Nirja; Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P; Kumar, G Naresh

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutant 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is attributed to systemic oxidative stress and is known to cause neurotropic effect by altering brain neurotransmitter status. Probiotics are opted as natural therapeutic against oxidative stress and also have the ability to modulate gut-brain axis. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is water-soluble, heat-stable antioxidant molecule. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant efficacy of PQQ-producing probiotic E. coli CFR 16 on DMH-induced systemic oxidative damage and altered neurotransmitter status in rat brain. Adult virgin Charles Forster rats (200-250 g) were given DMH dose (25 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) for 8 weeks. Blood lipid peroxidation levels exhibited a marked increase while antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase were found to be reduced in DMH-treated rats. Likewise, brain serotonin and norepinephrine levels displayed a significant decrease, whereas epinephrine levels demonstrated a marked increase in brain of these rats. PQQ-producing E. coli CFR 16 supplementation reduced systemic oxidative stress and also restored brain neurotransmitter status. However, E. coli CFR 16 did not show any effect on these parameters. In contrast, E. coli CFR 16:: vgb-gfp and E. coli CFR 16:: vgb-gfp vector exhibited some degree of protection again oxidative stress but they were not able to modulate neurotransmitter levels. In conclusion, continuous and sustained release of PQQ by probiotic E. coli in rat intestine ameliorates systemic oxidative stress and restored brain neurotransmitter levels. PMID:25586077

  2. Selection and characterization of Cheonggukjang (fast fermented soybean paste)-originated bacterial strains with a high level of S-adenosyl-L-methionine production and probiotics efficacy.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhyun; Kim, Min-Jeong; Hong, Jiyoung; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Yi, Sung-Hun; Lee, Myung-Ki

    2014-11-01

    This study was executed to develop probiotics producing S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), a methyl group donor in the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate methylation reaction in animal cells. SAMe is an essential substance in the synthesis, activation, and metabolism of hormones, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, phospholipids, and cell membranes of animals. SAMe is also known as a nutritional supplement for improving human brain function. In this study, SAMe-producing strains were identified in six kinds of Cheonggukjang, and strains with excellent SAMe production were identified, with one strain in the Enterococcus genus and six strains in the Bacillus genus. Strains with a large amount of SAMe production included lactic acid bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, and Enterococcus sanguinicola, as well as various strains in the Bacillus genus. The SAMe-overproducing strains showed antibacterial activity against some harmful microbes, in addition to weak acid resistance and strong bile resistance, indicating characteristics of probiotics. Cheonggukjang-originated beneficial bacterial strains overproducing SAMe may be commercially useful for manufacturing SAMe-rich foods. PMID:25268945

  3. Selection and Characterization of Cheonggukjang (Fast Fermented Soybean Paste)-Originated Bacterial Strains with a High Level of S-adenosyl-L-methionine Production and Probiotics Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunhyun; Kim, Min-Jeong; Hong, Jiyoung; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Yi, Sung-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study was executed to develop probiotics producing S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), a methyl group donor in the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate methylation reaction in animal cells. SAMe is an essential substance in the synthesis, activation, and metabolism of hormones, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, phospholipids, and cell membranes of animals. SAMe is also known as a nutritional supplement for improving human brain function. In this study, SAMe-producing strains were identified in six kinds of Cheonggukjang, and strains with excellent SAMe production were identified, with one strain in the Enterococcus genus and six strains in the Bacillus genus. Strains with a large amount of SAMe production included lactic acid bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, and Enterococcus sanguinicola, as well as various strains in the Bacillus genus. The SAMe-overproducing strains showed antibacterial activity against some harmful microbes, in addition to weak acid resistance and strong bile resistance, indicating characteristics of probiotics. Cheonggukjang-originated beneficial bacterial strains overproducing SAMe may be commercially useful for manufacturing SAMe-rich foods. PMID:25268945

  4. Bioturbating shrimp alter the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in coastal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Laverock, Bonnie; Smith, Cindy J; Tait, Karen; Osborn, A Mark; Widdicombe, Steve; Gilbert, Jack A

    2010-12-01

    bacterial diversity in surface sediments and resulting in distinct bacterial communities even at depth within the burrow. In an area of high macrofaunal abundance, this could lead to alterations in the microbial transformations of important nutrients at the sediment-water interface. PMID:20596074

  5. An update on the use and investigation of probiotics in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Guarner, Francisco; Guerrant, Richard; Holt, Peter R; Quigley, Eamonn MM; Sartor, R Balfour; Sherman, Philip M; Mayer, Emeran A

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are derived from traditional fermented foods, from beneficial commensals or from the environment. They act through diverse mechanisms affecting the composition or function of the commensal microbiota and by altering host epithelial and immunological responses. Certain probiotic interventions have shown promise in selected clinical conditions where aberrant microbiota have been reported, such as atopic dermatitis, necrotising enterocolitis, pouchitis and possibly irritable bowel syndrome. However, no studies have been conducted that can causally link clinical improvements to probiotic-induced microbiota changes. Whether a disease-prone microbiota pattern can be remodelled to a more robust, resilient and disease-free state by probiotic administration remains a key unanswered question. Progress in this area will be facilitated by: optimising strain, dose and product formulations, including protective commensal species; matching these formulations with selectively responsive subpopulations; and identifying ways to manipulate diet to modify bacterial profiles and metabolism. PMID:23474420

  6. Probiotics-host communication

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Carissa M

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota includes a diverse group of functional microorganisms, including candidate probiotics or viable microorganisms that benefit the host. Beneficial effects of probiotics include enhancing intestinal epithelial cell function, protecting against physiologic stress, modulating cytokine secretion profiles, influencing T-lymphocyte populations, and enhancing antibody secretion. Probiotics have demonstrated significant potential as therapeutic options for a variety of diseases, but the mechanisms responsible for these effects remain to be fully elucidated. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that probiotics communicate with the host by modulating key signaling pathways, such as NFκB and MAPK, to either enhance or suppress activation and influence downstream pathways. Beneficial microbes can profoundly alter the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, and understanding these mechanisms may result in new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:20672012

  7. Alterations of digestive enzyme activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, fed dietary probiotics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Cheng; Ma, Mingyang; Ji, Hong; Ren, Tongjun; Mims, Steven D

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation of probiotics on digestive enzymes activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) were studied. A total of 400 fish were reared in two cages and fed with a basal diet (control group, CG) or diet supplemented with commercial probiotics (treatment group, TG) for 80 days. Enzymes activities analysis indicated that protease and α-amylase activities increased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in TG. Light microscopy observation demonstrated the decrease of wall thickness and muscularis thickness in foregut (P < 0.01), the increase of those in hindgut (P < 0.05), the increase of folds height in foregut (P < 0.01) and midgut in TG (P < 0.05). DGGE results of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA confirmed that the richness and diversity of intestinal microbial species increased in TG. The similarity between the commercial bacteria product and intestinal microbiota of TG were higher than the microbiota from CG. The quantities of bacterium, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, present an increasing trend from foregut to hindgut both in two groups. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study to reveal the effect of dietary probiotics on intestinal digestive enzymes activities, morphology and microbiota in paddlefish. PMID:25403154

  8. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS. PMID:24106397

  9. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8) of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN ‘93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON); 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB); 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO); or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO). Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites), and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid). Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046), with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035). Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220), again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185). Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001), with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159) or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670). Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric

  10. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Cynthia; He, Zhengcheng; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine T; Sweeney, Marva I

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8) of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON); 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB); 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO); or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO). Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites), and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid). Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046), with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035). Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220), again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185). Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001), with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159) or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670). Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric acid

  11. Role of F1C Fimbriae, Flagella, and Secreted Bacterial Components in the Inhibitory Effect of Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 on Atypical Enteropathogenic E. coli Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kleta, Sylvia; Nordhoff, Marcel; Tedin, Karsten; Wieler, Lothar H.; Kolenda, Rafal; Oswald, Sibylle; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A.; Bleiß, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is recognized as an important intestinal pathogen that frequently causes acute and persistent diarrhea in humans and animals. The use of probiotic bacteria to prevent diarrhea is gaining increasing interest. The probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is known to be effective in the treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders. While both in vitro and in vivo studies have described strong inhibitory effects of EcN on enteropathogenic bacteria, including pathogenic E. coli, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of EcN on infections of porcine intestinal epithelial cells with atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) with respect to single infection steps, including adhesion, microcolony formation, and the attaching and effacing phenotype. We show that EcN drastically reduced the infection efficiencies of aEPEC by inhibiting bacterial adhesion and growth of microcolonies, but not the attaching and effacing of adherent bacteria. The inhibitory effect correlated with EcN adhesion capacities and was predominantly mediated by F1C fimbriae, but also by H1 flagella, which served as bridges between EcN cells. Furthermore, EcN seemed to interfere with the initial adhesion of aEPEC to host cells by secretion of inhibitory components. These components do not appear to be specific to EcN, but we propose that the strong adhesion capacities enable EcN to secrete sufficient local concentrations of the inhibitory factors. The results of this study are consistent with a mode of action whereby EcN inhibits secretion of virulence-associated proteins of EPEC, but not their expression. PMID:24549324

  12. Role of F1C fimbriae, flagella, and secreted bacterial components in the inhibitory effect of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 on atypical enteropathogenic E. coli infection.

    PubMed

    Kleta, Sylvia; Nordhoff, Marcel; Tedin, Karsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Kolenda, Rafal; Oswald, Sibylle; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Bleiss, Wilfried; Schierack, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is recognized as an important intestinal pathogen that frequently causes acute and persistent diarrhea in humans and animals. The use of probiotic bacteria to prevent diarrhea is gaining increasing interest. The probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is known to be effective in the treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders. While both in vitro and in vivo studies have described strong inhibitory effects of EcN on enteropathogenic bacteria, including pathogenic E. coli, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of EcN on infections of porcine intestinal epithelial cells with atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) with respect to single infection steps, including adhesion, microcolony formation, and the attaching and effacing phenotype. We show that EcN drastically reduced the infection efficiencies of aEPEC by inhibiting bacterial adhesion and growth of microcolonies, but not the attaching and effacing of adherent bacteria. The inhibitory effect correlated with EcN adhesion capacities and was predominantly mediated by F1C fimbriae, but also by H1 flagella, which served as bridges between EcN cells. Furthermore, EcN seemed to interfere with the initial adhesion of aEPEC to host cells by secretion of inhibitory components. These components do not appear to be specific to EcN, but we propose that the strong adhesion capacities enable EcN to secrete sufficient local concentrations of the inhibitory factors. The results of this study are consistent with a mode of action whereby EcN inhibits secretion of virulence-associated proteins of EPEC, but not their expression. PMID:24549324

  13. Safety assessment of potential probiotic lactic acid bacterial strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lb. acidophilus HN017, and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J S; Shu, Q; Rutherfurd, K J; Prasad, J; Birtles, M J; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S

    2000-05-25

    The general safety of immune-enhancing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20), Lb. acidophilus HN017, and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR10) was investigated in a feeding trial. Groups of BALB/c mice were orally administered test LAB strains or the commercial reference strain Lb. acidophilus LA-1 at 2.5 x 10(9), 5 x 10(10) or 2.5 x 10(12) colony forming units (CFU)/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Throughout this time, their feed intake, water intake, and live body weight were monitored. At the end of the 4 week observation period, samples of blood, liver, spleen, kidney, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gut tissues (ileum, caecum, and colon) were collected to determine: haematological parameters (red blood cell and platelet counts, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration); differential leukocyte counts; blood biochemistry (plasma total protein, albumin, cholesterol, and glucose); mucosal histology (epithelial cell height, mucosal thickness, and villus height); and bacterial translocation to extra-gut tissues (blood, liver, spleen, kidney and mesenteric lymph nodes). DNA finger printing techniques were used to identify any viable bacterial strains recovered from these tissues. The results demonstrated that 4 weeks consumption of these LAB strains had no adverse effects on animals' general health status, haematology, blood biochemistry, gut mucosal histology parameters, or the incidence of bacterial translocation. A few viable LAB cells were recovered from the tissues of animals in both control and test groups, but DNA fingerprinting did not identify any of these as the inoculated strains. The results obtained in this study suggest that the potentially probiotic LAB strains HN001, HN017, and HN019 are non-toxic for mice and are therefore likely to be safe for human use. PMID:10857928

  14. Stress responses in probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Nezhad, Marzieh; Hussain, Malik Altaf; Britz, Margaret Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Survival in harsh environments is critical to both the industrial performance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their competitiveness in complex microbial ecologies. Among the LAB, members of the Lactobacillus casei group have industrial applications as acid-producing starter cultures for milk fermentations and as specialty cultures for the intensification and acceleration of flavor development in certain bacterial-ripened cheese varieties. They are amongst the most common organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and other animals, and have the potential to function as probiotics. Whether used in industrial or probiotic applications, environmental stresses will affect the physiological status and properties of cells, including altering their functionality and biochemistry. Understanding the mechanisms of how LAB cope with different environments is of great biotechnological importance, from both a fundamental and applied perspective: hence, interaction between these strains and their environment has gained increased interest in recent years. This paper presents an overview of the important features of stress responses in Lb. casei, and related proteomic or gene expression patterns that may improve their use as starter cultures and probiotics. PMID:24915363

  15. Altered Functionality of Anti-Bacterial Antibodies in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, Anne; Long, Ronald E.; Comunale, Mary Ann; Hafner, Julie; Rodemich-Betesh, Lucy; Wang, Mengjun; Marrero, Jorge; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Background Using comparative glycoproteomics, we have previously identified a glycoprotein that is altered in both amount and glycosylation as a function of liver cirrhosis. The altered glycoprotein is an agalactosylated (G0) immunoglobulin G molecule (IgG) that recognizes the heterophilic alpha-gal epitope. Since the alpha gal epitope is found on gut enterobacteria, it has been hypothesized that anti-gal antibodies are generated as a result of increased bacterial exposure in patients with liver disease. Methods The N-linked glycosylation of anti-gal IgG molecules from patients with fibrosis and cirrhosis was determined and the effector function of anti-bacterial antibodies from over 100 patients examined. In addition, markers of microbial exposure were determined. Results Surprisingly, the subset of agalactosylated anti-gal antibodies described here, was impaired in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis and inhibited the complement-mediated destruction of common gut bacteria. In an analysis of serum from more than 100 patients with liver disease, we have shown that those with increased levels of this modified anti-gal antibody had increased levels of markers of bacterial exposure. Conclusions Anti-gal antibodies in patients with liver cirrhosis were reduced in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis of target cells. As bacterial infection is a major complication in patients with cirrhosis and bacterial products such as LPS are thought to play a major role in the development and progression of liver fibrosis, this finding has many clinical implications in the etiology, prognosis and treatment of liver disease. PMID:23750224

  16. Prophylactic administration of a combined prebiotic and probiotic, or therapeutic administration of enrofloxacin, to reduce the incidence of bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Al-Rubaye, A; Kwon, Y M; Blankenship, J; Lester, H; Mitchell, K N; Pevzner, I Y; Lohrmann, T; Schleifer, J

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria entering the bloodstream via translocation from the gastrointestinal tract spread hematogenously and can trigger bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) by infecting osteochondrotic microfractures in the epiphyseal-physeal cartilage of the proximal femora and tibiae. In experiment 1, broilers were fed control feed or the same feed containing BacPack 2X, which includes the prebiotic IMW50 (a mannan oligosaccharide beta-glucan yeast cell wall product) plus the probiotic Calsporin (Bacillus subtilis C-3102). Broilers reared on wire flooring consistently developed higher incidences of BCO than hatchmates reared on wood shavings litter (≥24 vs. ≤4%, respectively; P=0.001). Adding BacPack 2X to the feed on d 1 through 56 delayed the age of onset and reduced the cumulative incidence of BCO on wire flooring when compared with broilers fed the control feed (24.0 vs. 40.7%, respectively; P=0.003). In experiment 2, broilers reared on wire flooring received tap water on d 1 through 62 (control group) or therapeutic levels of the potent fluoroquinolone antimicrobial enrofloxacin in the water on d 35 through 54 (enrofloxacin group). During enrofloxacin administration, half as many birds developed BCO in the enrofloxacin group when compared with the control group (8.1 vs. 19.5%, respectively, on d 35 through 54; P=0.001), whereas both groups had similar BCO incidences subsequent to withdrawing enrofloxacin on d 55 through 62 (14.8 vs. 18.2% for the enrofloxacin vs. control groups; P=0.386). Cumulative lameness incidences for d 1 through 62 were higher for the control group than for the enrofloxacin group (39.0 vs. 25.8%, respectively; P=0.003). These results demonstrate that wire flooring imposes a rigorous challenge that leads to high incidences of BCO that can be difficult to suppress, even with therapeutic doses of enrofloxacin. Prophylactically adding BacPack 2X to the feed reduced the incidence of BCO lameness by a proportion similar to that achieved

  17. Alteration textures in terrestrial volcanic glass and the associated bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S; Olsson-Francis, K; Herrera, A; Meunier, A

    2009-01-01

    Alteration textures were examined in subglacial (hyaloclastite) deposits at Valafell, Southern Iceland. Pitted and 'elongate' alteration features are observed in the glass similar to granular and tubular features reported previously in deep-ocean basaltic glasses, but elongate features generally did not have a length to width ratio greater than five. Elongate features were found in only 7% of surfaces. Crystalline basalt clasts, which are incorporated into the hyaloclastite, did not display elongate structures. Pitted alteration features were poorly defined in crystalline basalt, comprising only 4% of the surface compared to 47% in the case of basaltic glass. Examination of silica-rich glass (obsidian) and rhyolite similarly showed poorly defined pitted textures that comprised less than 15% of the surface and no elongate features were observed. These data highlight the differences in alteration textures between terrestrial basaltic glass and previously studied deep-ocean and subsurface basaltic glass, and the important role of mineralogy in controlling the type and abundance of alteration features. The hyaloclastite contains a diverse and abundant bacterial population, as determined by 16S rDNA analysis, which could be involved in weathering the glass. Despite the presence of phototrophs, we show that they were not involved in the production of most alteration textures in the basaltic glass materials we examined. PMID:19200146

  18. Altered gastrointestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome and its modification by diet: probiotics, prebiotics and the low FODMAP diet.

    PubMed

    Staudacher, Heidi M; Whelan, Kevin

    2016-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterised by abdominal pain or discomfort with disordered defecation. This review describes the role of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS and how dietary strategies to manage symptoms impact on the microbial community. Evidence suggests a dysbiosis of the luminal and mucosal colonic microbiota in IBS, frequently characterised by a reduction in species of Bifidobacteria which has been associated with worse symptom profile. Probiotic supplementation trials suggest intentional modulation of the GI microbiota may be effective in treating IBS. A smaller number of prebiotic supplementation studies have also demonstrated effectiveness in IBS whilst increasing Bifidobacteria. In contrast, a novel method of managing IBS symptoms is the restriction of short-chain fermentable carbohydrates (low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet). Studies consistently demonstrate clinical effectiveness of the low FODMAP diet in patients with IBS. However, one unintentional consequence of this dietary intervention is its impact on the microbiota. This leads to an interesting paradox; namely, increasing luminal Bifidobacteria through probiotic supplementation is associated with a reduction in IBS symptoms while in direct conflict to this, the low FODMAP diet has clinical efficacy but markedly reduces luminal Bifidobacteria concentration. Given the multifactorial aetiology of IBS, the heterogeneity of symptoms and the complex and diverse nature of the microbiome, it is probable that both interventions are effective in patient subgroups. However combination treatment has never been explored and as such, presents an exciting opportunity for optimising clinical management, whilst preventing potentially deleterious effects on the GI microbiota. PMID:26908093

  19. Gyramides Prevent Bacterial Growth by Inhibiting DNA Gyrase and Altering Chromosome Topology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics targeting DNA gyrase have been a clinical success story for the past half-century, and the emergence of bacterial resistance has fueled the search for new gyrase inhibitors. In this paper we demonstrate that a new class of gyrase inhibitors, the gyramides, are bacteriostatic agents that competitively inhibit the ATPase activity of Escherichia coli gyrase and produce supercoiled DNA in vivo. E. coli cells treated with gyramide A have abnormally localized, condensed chromosomes that blocks DNA replication and interrupts chromosome segregation. The resulting alterations in DNA topology inhibit cell division through a mechanism that involves the SOS pathway. Importantly, gyramide A is a specific inhibitor of gyrase and does not inhibit the closely related E. coli enzyme topoisomerase IV. E. coli mutants with reduced susceptibility to gyramide A do not display cross-resistance to ciprofloxacin and novobiocin. The results demonstrate that the gyramides prevent bacterial growth by a mechanism in which the topological state of chromosomes is altered and halts DNA replication and segregation. The specificity and activity of the gyramides for inhibiting gyrase makes these compounds important chemical tools for studying the mechanism of gyrase and the connection between DNA topology and bacterial cell division. PMID:24712739

  20. Deoxygenation alters bacterial diversity and community composition in the ocean’s largest oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beman, J. Michael; Carolan, Molly T.

    2013-10-01

    Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) have a central role in biogeochemical cycles and are expanding as a consequence of climate change, yet how deoxygenation will affect the microbial communities that control these cycles is unclear. Here we sample across dissolved oxygen gradients in the oceans’ largest OMZ and show that bacterial richness displays a unimodal pattern with decreasing dissolved oxygen, reaching maximum values on the edge of the OMZ and decreasing within it. Rare groups on the OMZ margin are abundant at lower dissolved oxygen concentrations, including sulphur-cycling Chromatiales, for which 16S rRNA was amplified from extracted RNA. Microbial species distribution models accurately replicate community patterns based on multivariate environmental data, demonstrate likely changes in distributions and diversity in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean, and highlight the sensitivity of key bacterial groups to deoxygenation. Through these mechanisms, OMZ expansion may alter microbial composition, competition, diversity and function, all of which have implications for biogeochemical cycling in OMZs.

  1. Influence of Trace Elements Mixture on Bacterial Diversity and Fermentation Characteristics of Liquid Diet Fermented with Probiotics under Air-Tight Condition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaolan; Wang, Chengwei; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I− are often supplemented to the diet of suckling and early weaning piglets, but little information is available regarding the effects of different Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I− mixtures on bacteria growth, diversity and fermentation characteristics of fermented liquid diet for piglets. Pyrosequencing was performed to investigate the effect of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I− mixtures on the diversity, growth and fermentation characteristics of bacteria in the liquid diet fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis under air-tight condition. Results showed that the mixtures of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I− at different concentrations promoted Bacillus growth, increased bacterial diversity and lactic acid production and lowered pH to about 5. The importance of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I− is different for Bacillus growth with the order Zn2+> Fe2+>Cu2+> I− in a 21-d fermentation and Cu2+>I−>Fe2+>Zn2+ in a 42-d fermentation. Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I− is recommended at a level of 150, 60, 150 and 0.6 mg/kg respectively for the production of fermented liquid diet with Bacillus subtilis. The findings improve our understanding of the influence of trace elements on liquid diet fermentation with probiotics and support the proper use of trace elements in the production of fermented liquid diet for piglets. PMID:25486254

  2. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Cruz, Patricia; Ibáñez, Ana L.; Monroy Hermosillo, Oscar A.; Ramírez Saad, Hugo C.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field. PMID:23762761

  3. Probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® modifies subpopulations of fecal lactobacilli and Clostridium difficile in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lahtinen, Sampo J; Forssten, Sofia; Aakko, Juhani; Granlund, Linda; Rautonen, Nina; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2012-02-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in the intestinal microbiota and with immunosenescence. Probiotics have the potential to modify a selected part of the intestinal microbiota as well as improve immune functions and may, therefore, be particularly beneficial to elderly consumers. In this randomized, controlled cross-over clinical trial, we assessed the effects of a probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on the intestinal microbiota and fecal immune markers of 31 elderly volunteers and compared these effects with the administration of the same cheese without probiotics. The probiotic cheese was found to increase the number of L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus NCFM in the feces, suggesting the survival of the strains during the gastrointestinal transit. Importantly, probiotic cheese administration was associated with a trend towards lower counts of Clostridium difficile in the elderly, as compared with the run-in period with the plain cheese. The effect was statistically significant in the subpopulation of the elderly who harbored C. difficile at the start of the study. The probiotic cheese was not found to significantly alter the levels of the major microbial groups, suggesting that the microbial changes conferred by the probiotic cheese were limited to specific bacterial groups. Despite that the administration of the probiotic cheese to the study population has earlier been shown to significantly improve the innate immunity of the elders, we did not observe measurable changes in the fecal immune IgA concentrations. No increase in fecal calprotectin and β-defensin concentrations suggests that the probiotic treatment did not affect intestinal inflammatory markers. In conclusion, the administration of probiotic cheese containing L. rhamnosus HN001 and L. acidophilus NCFM, was associated with specific changes in the intestinal microbiota, mainly affecting specific subpopulations of intestinal lactobacilli and C

  4. Altered host cell-bacteria interaction due to nanoparticle interaction with a bacterial biofilm.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Tara D; Lindler, Heidi; McNealy, Tamara L

    2013-02-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) use in everyday applications creates the potential for NPs to enter the environment where, in aquatic systems, they are likely to settle on substrates and interact with microbial communities. Legionella pneumophila biofilms are found as part of microbial communities in both natural and man-made environments, especially in man-made cooling systems. The bacterium is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. Legionella requires a host cell for replication in the environment, and amoebae commonly serve as this host cell. Our previous work demonstrated significant changes in Legionella biofilm morphology after exposure to 0.7 μg/L gold NPs (AuNPs). Here, we investigate how these morphology changes alter host-bacteria interactions using Acanthamoeba polyphaga as a model. Host-bacteria-NP interactions are affected by NP characteristics. Biofilms exposed to 4- and 18-nm, citrate-capped, spherical AuNPs significantly altered the grazing ability of A. polyphaga, which was not observed in biofilms exposed to 24-nm polystyrene beads. Uptake and replication of NP-exposed planktonic L. pneumophila within A. polyphaga were not altered regardless of NP size or core chemistry. Nanomaterial effects on the interaction of benthic organisms and bacteria may be directly or, as shown here, indirectly dependent on bacterial morphology. NP contamination therefore may alter interactions in a normal ecosystem function. PMID:23052925

  5. Altered tRNA characteristics and 3' maturation in bacterial symbionts with reduced genomes.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Allison K; Moran, Nancy A

    2012-09-01

    Translational efficiency is controlled by tRNAs and other genome-encoded mechanisms. In organelles, translational processes are dramatically altered because of genome shrinkage and horizontal acquisition of gene products. The influence of genome reduction on translation in endosymbionts is largely unknown. Here, we investigate whether divergent lineages of Buchnera aphidicola, the reduced-genome bacterial endosymbiont of aphids, possess altered translational features compared with their free-living relative, Escherichia coli. Our RNAseq data support the hypothesis that translation is less optimal in Buchnera than in E. coli. We observed a specific, convergent, pattern of tRNA loss in Buchnera and other endosymbionts that have undergone genome shrinkage. Furthermore, many modified nucleoside pathways that are important for E. coli translation are lost in Buchnera. Additionally, Buchnera's A + T compositional bias has resulted in reduced tRNA thermostability, and may have altered aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase recognition sites. Buchnera tRNA genes are shorter than those of E. coli, as the majority no longer has a genome-encoded 3' CCA; however, all the expressed, shortened tRNAs undergo 3' CCA maturation. Moreover, expression of tRNA isoacceptors was not correlated with the usage of corresponding codons. Overall, our data suggest that endosymbiont genome evolution alters tRNA characteristics that are known to influence translational efficiency in their free-living relative. PMID:22689638

  6. Selective enumeration of probiotic microorganisms in cheese.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Reza; Mortazavian, Amir M; Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh

    2012-02-01

    Cheese is a dairy product which has a good potential for delivery of probiotic microorganisms into the human intestine. To be considered to offer probiotic health benefits, probiotics must remain viable in food products above a threshold level (e.g., 10(6) cfu g(-1)) until the time of consumption. In order to ensure that a minimal number of probiotic bacteria is present in the cheese, reliable methods for enumeration are required. The choice of culture medium for selective enumeration of probiotic strains in combination with starters depends on the product matrix, the target group and the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial background flora in the product. Enumeration protocol should be designed as a function of the target microorganism(s) to be quantified in the cheese. An overview of some series of culture media for selective enumeration of commercial probiotic cultures is presented in this review. PMID:22029912

  7. A Bactericidal Guanidinomethyl Biaryl That Alters the Dynamics of Bacterial FtsZ Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Malvika; Parhi, Ajit K.; Zhang, Yongzheng; LaVoie, Edmond J.; Tuske, Steve; Arnold, Eddy; Kerrigan, John E.; Pilch, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of multidrug resistance among clinically significant bacterial pathogens underscores a critical need for the development of new classes of antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action. Here we describe the synthesis and evaluation of a guanidinomethyl biaryl compound {1-((4′-(tert-butyl)-[1,1′-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl)guanidine} that targets the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ. In vitro studies with various bacterial FtsZ proteins reveal that the compound alters the dynamics of FtsZ self-polymerization via a stimulatory mechanism, while minimally impacting the polymerization of tubulin, the closest mammalian homologue of FtsZ. The FtsZ binding site of the compound is identified through a combination of computational and mutational approaches. The compound exhibits a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity, including activity against the multidrug-resistant pathogens methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), while also exhibiting a minimal potential to induce resistance. Taken together, our results highlight the compound as a promising new FtsZ-targeting bactericidal agent. PMID:23050700

  8. Bioaugmentation of Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B affects hydrogen production through altering indigenous bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Shi, Xiaoshuang; He, Shuai; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Dang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-07-01

    Bioaugmentation can facilitate hydrogen production from complex organic substrates, but it still is unknown how indigenous microbial communities respond to the added bacteria. Here, using a Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B (named as LX-B) bioaugmentation experiments, the distribution of metabolites and the responses of indigenous bacterial communities were investigated via batch cultivation (BC) and repeated batch cultivation (RBC). In BC the LX-B/sludge ratio of 0.12 achieved substantial high hydrogen yield, which was over twice that of control. In RBC one-time bioaugmentation and repeated batch bioaugmentation of LX-B resulted in the hydrogen yield that was average 1.2-fold and 0.8-fold higher than that in control, respectively. This improved hydrogen production performance mainly benefited from a shift in composition of the indigenous bacterial community caused by LX-B bioaugmentation. The findings represented an important step in understanding the relationship between bioaugmentation, a shift in bacterial communities, and altered bioreactor performance. PMID:27023388

  9. Bacterial Chitinolytic Communities Respond to Chitin and pH Alteration in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kielak, Anna M.; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Semenov, Alexander V.; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2013-01-01

    Chitin amendment is a promising soil management strategy that may enhance the suppressiveness of soil toward plant pathogens. However, we understand very little of the effects of added chitin, including the putative successions that take place in the degradative process. We performed an experiment in moderately acid soil in which the level of chitin, next to the pH, was altered. Examination of chitinase activities revealed fast responses to the added crude chitin, with peaks of enzymatic activity occurring on day 7. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analyses of 16S rRNA and chiA genes showed structural changes of the phylogenetically and functionally based bacterial communities following chitin addition and pH alteration. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated (i) that the diversity of chiA gene types in soil is enormous and (i) that different chiA gene types are selected by the addition of chitin at different prevailing soil pH values. Interestingly, a major role of Gram-negative bacteria versus a minor one of Actinobacteria in the immediate response to the added chitin (based on 16S rRNA gene abundance and chiA gene types) was indicated. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the response of the soil bacterial communities to chitin and are of use for both the understanding of soil suppressiveness and the possible mining of soil for novel enzymes. PMID:23104407

  10. Bacterial chitinolytic communities respond to chitin and pH alteration in soil.

    PubMed

    Kielak, Anna M; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Semenov, Alexander V; Sørensen, Søren J; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Chitin amendment is a promising soil management strategy that may enhance the suppressiveness of soil toward plant pathogens. However, we understand very little of the effects of added chitin, including the putative successions that take place in the degradative process. We performed an experiment in moderately acid soil in which the level of chitin, next to the pH, was altered. Examination of chitinase activities revealed fast responses to the added crude chitin, with peaks of enzymatic activity occurring on day 7. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analyses of 16S rRNA and chiA genes showed structural changes of the phylogenetically and functionally based bacterial communities following chitin addition and pH alteration. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated (i) that the diversity of chiA gene types in soil is enormous and (i) that different chiA gene types are selected by the addition of chitin at different prevailing soil pH values. Interestingly, a major role of Gram-negative bacteria versus a minor one of Actinobacteria in the immediate response to the added chitin (based on 16S rRNA gene abundance and chiA gene types) was indicated. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the response of the soil bacterial communities to chitin and are of use for both the understanding of soil suppressiveness and the possible mining of soil for novel enzymes. PMID:23104407

  11. Inactivation of bacterial pathogens in yoba mutandabota, a dairy product fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba.

    PubMed

    Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Nout, Martinus J R; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2016-01-18

    Mutandabota is a dairy product consumed as a major source of proteins and micronutrients in Southern Africa. In this study the microbial safety of traditional and a variant of mutandabota fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba (yoba mutandabota) was investigated by challenging the products with five important food pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Bacillus cereus. Pasteurized full-fat cow's milk was used for producing traditional and yoba mutandabota, and was inoculated with a cocktail of strains of the pathogens at an inoculum level of 5.5 log cfu/mL. Survival of the pathogens was monitored over a potential consumption time of 24h for traditional mutandabota, and over 24h of fermentation followed by 24h of potential consumption time for yoba mutandabota. In traditional mutandabota (pH3.4 ± 0.1) no viable cells of B. cereus and C. jejuni were detected 3h after inoculation, while L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. significantly declined (P<0.05), but could still be detected (<3.5 log inactivation) at the end of the potential consumption time. This indicated that consumption of traditional mutandabota exposes consumers to the risk of food-borne microbial infections. In yoba mutandabota, L. rhamnosus yoba grew from 5.5 ± 0.1 log cfu/mL to 9.1 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL in the presence of pathogens. The pH of yoba mutandabota dropped from 4.2 ± 0.1 to 3.3 ± 0.1 after 24h of fermentation, mainly due to organic acids produced during fermentation. Only Salmonella spp. was able to grow in yoba mutandabota during the first 9h of fermentation, but then decreased in viable plate count. None of the tested pathogens were detected (>3.5 log inactivation) after 3h into potential consumption time of yoba mutandabota. Inactivation of pathogens in mutandabota is of public health significance because food-borne pathogens endanger public health upon consumption of contaminated food

  12. Lactic acid bacteria colonization and clinical outcome after probiotic supplementation in conventionally treated bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Ehrström, Sophia; Daroczy, Katalin; Rylander, Eva; Samuelsson, Carolina; Johannesson, Ulrika; Anzén, Bo; Påhlson, Carl

    2010-09-01

    This randomized double-blind placebo controlled study assessed the vaginal colonization of lactic acid bacteria and clinical outcome. Vaginal capsules containing L gasseri LN40, Lactobacillus fermentum LN99, L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LN113 and P. acidilactici LN23, or placebos were administered for five days to 95 women after conventional treatment of bacterial vaginosis and/or vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal examinations and vaginal samplings were performed before and after administration, after the first and second menstruation, and after six months. Presence of LN strains was assessed using RAPD analysis. LN strains were present 2-3 days after administration in 89% of the women receiving LN strains (placebo: 0%, p < 0.0001). After one menstruation 53% were colonized by at least one LN strain. Nine percent were still colonized six months after administration. Ninety-three percent of the women receiving LN strains were cured 2-3 days after administration (placebo: 83%), and 78% after one menstruation (placebo: 71%) (ns). The intervention group experienced less malodorous discharge 2-3 days after administration (p = 0.03) and after the second menstruation (p = 0.04), compared with placebo. In summary, five days of vaginal administration of LN strains after conventional treatment of bacterial vaginosis and/or vulvovaginal candidiasis lead to vaginal colonization, somewhat fewer recurrences and less malodorous discharge. PMID:20472091

  13. Blueberry Husks and Probiotics Attenuate Colorectal Inflammation and Oncogenesis, and Liver Injuries in Rats Exposed to Cycling DSS-Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, Åsa; Bränning, Camilla; Molin, Göran; Adawi, Diya; Hagslätt, Marie-Louise; Jeppsson, Bengt; Nyman, Margareta; Ahrné, Siv

    2012-01-01

    Long-term colonic inflammation promotes carcinogenesis and histological abnormalities of the liver, and colorectal tumours frequently arise in a background of dysplasia, a precursor of adenomas. Altered colonic microbiota with an increased proportion of bacteria with pro-inflammatory characteristics, have been implicated in neoplastic progression. The composition of the microbiota can be modified by dietary components such as probiotics, polyphenols and dietary fibres. In the present study, the influence of probiotics in combination with blueberry husks on colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent liver damage was evaluated. Colorectal tumours were induced in rats by cyclic treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Blueberry husks and a mixture of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 15159, Lactobacillus gasseri, DSM 16737 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313) supplemented a basic diet fortified with oats. The condition of the rats was monitored using a disease activity index (DAI). A qualitative and quantitative histological judgement was performed on segments of distal colon and rectum and the caudate lobe of the liver. The formation of short-chain fatty acids, bacterial translocation, the inflammatory reaction and viable count of lactobacilli and Enterobaceriaceae were addressed. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics significantly decreased DAI, and significantly reduced the number of colonic ulcers and dysplastic lesions. With a decreased proportion of blueberry husk in the diet, the probiotic supplement was needed to achieve a significant decrease in numbers of dysplastic lesions. Probiotics decreased faecal viable count of Enterobacteriaceae and increased that of lactobacilli. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics lowered the proportion of butyric acid in distal colon, and decreased the haptoglobin levels. Probiotics mitigated hepatic injuries by decreasing parenchymal infiltration and the incidence of stasis and translocation

  14. Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Enhanced Growth and Survival of Penaeus monodon and Altered Bacterial Community Structures in Its Rearing Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml−1 and CFU · g−1 in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  15. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics- a review.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kavita R; Naik, Suresh R; Vakil, Babu V

    2015-12-01

    The health benefits imparted by probiotics and prebiotics as well as synbiotics have been the subject of extensive research in the past few decades. These food supplements termed as functional foods have been demonstrated to alter, modify and reinstate the pre-existing intestinal flora. They also facilitate smooth functions of the intestinal environment. Most commonly used probiotic strains are: Bifidobacterium, Lactobacilli, S. boulardii, B. coagulans. Prebiotics like FOS, GOS, XOS, Inulin; fructans are the most commonly used fibers which when used together with probiotics are termed synbiotics and are able to improve the viability of the probiotics. Present review focuses on composition and roles of Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics in human health. Furthermore, additional health benefits like immune-modulation, cancer prevention, inflammatory bowel disease etc. are also discussed. Graphical abstractPictorial summary of health benefits imparted by probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. PMID:26604335

  16. Mathematical modeling of bacterial track-altering motors: Track cleaving through burnt-bridge ratchets.

    PubMed

    Shtylla, Blerta; Keener, James P

    2015-04-01

    The generation of directed movement of cellular components frequently requires the rectification of Brownian motion. Molecular motor enzymes that use ATP to walk on filamentous tracks are typically involved in cell transport, however, a track-altering motor can arise when an enzyme interacts with and alters its track. In Caulobacter crescentus and other bacteria, an active DNA partitioning (Par) apparatus is employed to segregate replicated chromosome regions to specific locations in dividing cells. The Par apparatus is composed of two proteins: ParA, an ATPase that can form polymeric structures on the nucleoid, and ParB, a protein that can bind and destabilize ParA structures. It has been proposed that the ParB-mediated alteration of ParA structures could be responsible for generating the directed movement of DNA during bacterial division. How precisely these actions are coordinated and translated into directed movement is not clear. In this paper we consider the C. crescentus segregation apparatus as an example of a track altering motor that operates using a so-called burnt-bridge mechanism. We develop and analyze mathematical models that examine how diffusion and ATP-hydrolysis-mediated monomer removal (or cleaving) can be combined to generate directed movement. Using a mean first passage approach, we analytically calculate the effective ParA track-cleaving velocities, effective diffusion coefficient, and other higher moments for the movement a ParB protein cluster that breaks monomers away at random locations on a single ParA track. Our model results indicate that cleaving velocities and effective diffusion constants are sensitive to ParB-induced ATP hydrolysis rates. Our analytical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulation results. PMID:25974531

  17. Mathematical modeling of bacterial track-altering motors: Track cleaving through burnt-bridge ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtylla, Blerta; Keener, James P.

    2015-04-01

    The generation of directed movement of cellular components frequently requires the rectification of Brownian motion. Molecular motor enzymes that use ATP to walk on filamentous tracks are typically involved in cell transport, however, a track-altering motor can arise when an enzyme interacts with and alters its track. In Caulobacter crescentus and other bacteria, an active DNA partitioning (Par) apparatus is employed to segregate replicated chromosome regions to specific locations in dividing cells. The Par apparatus is composed of two proteins: ParA, an ATPase that can form polymeric structures on the nucleoid, and ParB, a protein that can bind and destabilize ParA structures. It has been proposed that the ParB-mediated alteration of ParA structures could be responsible for generating the directed movement of DNA during bacterial division. How precisely these actions are coordinated and translated into directed movement is not clear. In this paper we consider the C. crescentus segregation apparatus as an example of a track altering motor that operates using a so-called burnt-bridge mechanism. We develop and analyze mathematical models that examine how diffusion and ATP-hydrolysis-mediated monomer removal (or cleaving) can be combined to generate directed movement. Using a mean first passage approach, we analytically calculate the effective ParA track-cleaving velocities, effective diffusion coefficient, and other higher moments for the movement a ParB protein cluster that breaks monomers away at random locations on a single ParA track. Our model results indicate that cleaving velocities and effective diffusion constants are sensitive to ParB-induced ATP hydrolysis rates. Our analytical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulation results.

  18. Alteration of a Salt Marsh Bacterial Community by Fertilization with Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Hamlett, Nancy V.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of long-term fertilization with sewage sludge on the aerobic, chemoheterotrophic portion of a salt marsh bacterial community were examined. The study site in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Cape Cod, Mass., consisted of experimental plots that were treated with different amounts of commercial sewage sludge fertilizer or with urea and phosphate. The number of CFUs, percentage of mercury- and cadmium-resistant bacteria, and percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were all increased in the sludge-fertilized plots. Preliminary taxonomic characterization showed that sludge fertilization markedly altered the taxonomic distribution and reduced diversity within both the total heterotrophic and the mercury-resistant communities. In control plots, the total heterotrophic community was fairly evenly distributed among taxa and the mercury-resistant community was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. In sludge-fertilized plots, both the total and mercury-resistant communities were dominated by a single Cytophaga sp. PMID:16347183

  19. Chromosomal position shift of a regulatory gene alters the bacterial phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gerganova, Veneta; Berger, Michael; Zaldastanishvili, Elisabed; Sobetzko, Patrick; Lafon, Corinne; Mourez, Michael; Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi

    2015-09-30

    Recent studies strongly suggest that in bacterial cells the order of genes along the chromosomal origin-to-terminus axis is determinative for regulation of the growth phase-dependent gene expression. The prediction from this observation is that positional displacement of pleiotropic genes will affect the genetic regulation and hence, the cellular phenotype. To test this prediction we inserted the origin-proximal dusB-fis operon encoding the global regulator FIS in the vicinity of replication terminus on both arms of the Escherichia coli chromosome. We found that the lower fis gene dosage in the strains with terminus-proximal dusB-fis operons was compensated by increased fis expression such that the intracellular concentration of FIS was homeostatically adjusted. Nevertheless, despite unchanged FIS levels the positional displacement of dusB-fis impaired the competitive growth fitness of cells and altered the state of the overarching network regulating DNA topology, as well as the cellular response to environmental stress, hazardous substances and antibiotics. Our finding that the chromosomal repositioning of a regulatory gene can determine the cellular phenotype unveils an important yet unexplored facet of the genetic control mechanisms and paves the way for novel approaches to manipulate bacterial physiology. PMID:26170236

  20. Soil bacterial community composition altered by increased nutrient availability in Arctic tundra soils

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Akihiro; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Simpson, Rodney T.; Moore, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The pool of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the Arctic is disproportionally large compared to those in other biomes. This large quantity of SOC accumulated over millennia due to slow rates of decomposition relative to net primary productivity. Decomposition is constrained by low temperatures and nutrient concentrations, which limit soil microbial activity. We investigated how nutrients limit bacterial and fungal biomass and community composition in organic and mineral soils within moist acidic tussock tundra ecosystems. We sampled two experimental arrays of moist acidic tussock tundra that included fertilized and non-fertilized control plots. One array included plots that had been fertilized annually since 1989 and the other since 2006. Fertilization significantly altered overall bacterial community composition and reduced evenness, to a greater degree in organic than mineral soils, and in the 1989 compared to the 2006 site. The relative abundance of copiotrophic α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria was higher in fertilized than control soils, and oligotrophic Acidobacteria were less abundant in fertilized than control soils at the 1989 site. Fungal community composition was less sensitive to increased nutrient availability, and fungal responses to fertilization were not consistent between soil horizons and sites. We detected two ectomycorrhizal genera, Russula and Cortinarius spp., associated with shrubs. Their relative abundance was not affected by fertilization despite increased dominance of their host plants in the fertilized plots. Our results indicate that fertilization, which has been commonly used to simulate warming in Arctic tundra, has limited applicability for investigating fungal dynamics under warming. PMID:25324836

  1. Probiotics in critically ill children

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Sunit C.; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  2. Probiotics in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Sunit C; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  3. [Changes of bacterial flora from hindguts of piglets after oral administration of lactobacillus amylovorus S1 as a probiotic strain].

    PubMed

    Su, Yong; Yao, Wen; Zhu, Wei-yun

    2006-12-01

    Changes of bacterial flora from hindguts of piglets from 7 to 35 days of age (two weeks after weaning) were studied after oral administration of L. amylovorus S1, using molecular techniques based on 16S rDNA gene. Six litters of neonatal piglets were divided randomly into control group and treatment group. At 7, 9, 11 days of age, piglets in treatment group received 1, 2 and 3mL preparation of S1 (5 x 10(9) CFU/mL) through oral administration, respectively. On D 7, 14, 21, 24 and 35, one piglet from each litter was slaughtered and samples of hindguts were collected for analysis. The results showed that high G + C mol% bacteria in hindguts of piglets disappeared after weaning and restored gradually two weeks later. Sequencing analysis indicated that most of these high G + C mol% bacteria blonged to Lactobacillus spp. . Statistical analysis showed that treatment with S1 had no marked effect on diversity index of predominant bacteria from hindguts in piglets. By comparing the bands in DGGE profiles between two groups, a specific band in treatment group was found in profiles from piglets at 14 days of age, sequence matched with that showed 95 % similarity to Clostridium disporicum. At 35 days of age, another specific band appeared in control group, which was identified to be Streptococcus suis (99% ). PMID:17302162

  4. A single natural nucleotide mutation alters bacterial pathogen host-tropism

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Melissa J.; Selva, Laura; Guinane, Caitriona M.; González-Muñoz, Beatriz M.; Tristan, Anne; Foster, Simon J; Fitzgerald, J. Ross; Penadés, José R.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of microbial pathogens to alter their host-tropism leading to epidemics in distinct host-species populations is a global public and veterinary health concern. In order to investigate the molecular basis of a bacterial host-switching event in a tractable host-species, we traced the evolutionary trajectory of the common rabbit clone of Staphylococcus aureus. We report that it evolved through a likely human-to-rabbit host jump over 40 years ago, and that only a single natural nucleotide mutation was required and sufficient to convert a human-specific S. aureus strain into one which could infect rabbits. Related mutations were identified at the same locus in other rabbit strains of distinct clonal origin, consistent with convergent evolution. This first report of a single mutation that was sufficient to alter the host-tropism of a micro-organism during its evolution highlights the capacity of some pathogens to readily expand into novel host-species populations. PMID:25685890

  5. Caenorhabditis elegans Bacterial Pathogen Resistant bus-4 Mutants Produce Altered Mucins

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Lisa M.; Mizanur, Rahman M.; Jankowska, Ewa; Hodgkin, Jonathan; O′Rourke, Delia; Stroud, Dave; Ghosh, Salil; Cipollo, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Caenorabditis elegans bus-4 glycosyltransferase mutants are resistant to infection by Microbacterium nematophilum, Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and have altered susceptibility to two Leucobacter species Verde1 and Verde2. Our objective in this study was to define the glycosylation changes leading to this phenotype to better understand how these changes lead to pathogen resistance. We performed MALDI-TOF MS, tandem MS and GC/MS experiments to reveal fine structural detail for the bus-4 N- and O-glycan pools. We observed dramatic changes in O-glycans and moderate ones in N-glycan pools compared to the parent strain. Ce core-I glycans, the nematode's mucin glycan equivalent, were doubled in abundance, halved in charge and bore shifts in terminal substitutions. The fucosyl O-glycans, Ce core-II and neutral fucosyl forms, were also increased in abundance as were fucosyl N-glycans. Quantitative expression analysis revealed that two mucins, let-653 and osm-8, were upregulated nearly 40 fold and also revealed was a dramatic increase in GDP-Man 4,6 dehydratease expression. We performed detailed lectin binding studies that showed changes in glycoconjugates in the surface coat, cuticle surface and intestine. The combined changes in cell surface glycoconjugate distribution, increased abundance and altered properties of mucin provide an environment where likely the above pathogens are not exposed to normal glycoconjugate dependent cues leading to barriers to these bacterial infections. PMID:25296196

  6. Probiotics to counteract biofilm-associated infections: promising and conflicting data.

    PubMed

    Vuotto, Claudia; Longo, Francesca; Donelli, Gianfranco

    2014-12-01

    Altered bowel flora is currently thought to play a role in a variety of disease conditions, and the use of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. as probiotics has been demonstrated to be health-promoting, even if the success of their administration depends on the applied bacterial strain(s) and the targeted disease. In the last few decades, specific probiotics have been shown to be effective in the treatment or the prevention of acute viral gastroenteritis, pediatric post-antibiotic-associated diarrhea, some pediatric allergic disorders, necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants, inflammatory bowel diseases and postsurgical pouchitis. The potential application of probiotics is continuously widening, with new evidence accumulating to support their effect on the prevention and treatment of other disease conditions, including several oral diseases, such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral malodor, as well as genitourinary and wound infections. Considering the increasingly widespread ability of pathogens to generate persistent biofilm-related infections, an even more attractive proposal is to administer probiotics to prevent or counteract biofilm development. The response of biofilm-based oral, intestinal, vaginal and wound infections to probiotics treatment will be reviewed here in light of the most recent results obtained in this field. PMID:25257882

  7. Contribution of Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin to bacterial virulence and to intraperitoneal alterations in peritonitis.

    PubMed

    May, A K; Gleason, T G; Sawyer, R G; Pruett, T L

    2000-01-01

    Alpha-hemolysin (Hly) is a common exotoxin produced by Escherichia coli that enhances virulence in a number of clinical infections. The addition of hemolysin production to laboratory bacterial strains is known to increase the lethality of E. coli peritonitis. However, the mechanisms involved have not been determined and the contribution of hemolysin to the alterations in the host intraperitoneal environment and the leukocyte response is not known. Utilizing a rat peritonitis model, we show that wild-type hemolytic E. coli strains have a significant competitive advantage over nonhemolytic strains within the peritoneum. To examine the specific contribution of Hly to E. coli-induced virulence and alterations within the peritoneum, a mixed peritonitis model of E. coli, Bacteroides fragilis, and sterile fecal adjuvant was used. Three transformed E. coli strains were utilized: one strongly secretes active hemolysin (WAF 270), a second secretes active hemolysin but a reduced amount (WAF 260), and the third does not produce hemolysin (WAF 108). After an equal inoculum of each of the three strains, WAF 270 produced a markedly increased lethality and an increased recovery of both E. coli and B. fragilis from the host relative to the other strains. Changes in the intraperitoneal pH, degree of erythrocyte lysis, and recruitment and viability of leukocytes within the peritoneum following the induction of peritonitis differed significantly between the strongly hemolytic and nonhemolytic strains. Induction of peritonitis with WAF 270 caused a pronounced decrease in intraperitoneal pH, lysis of most of the intraperitoneal erythrocytes, and a marked decrease in recoverable viable leukocytes compared to WAF 108. Thus, hemolysin production by E. coli within the peritoneum may alter not only the host's ability to control the hemolytic strain itself but also other organisms. PMID:10603385

  8. Phylogenetic and Functional Alterations in Bacterial Community Compositions in Broiler Ceca as a Result of Mannan Oligosaccharide Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    de Leeuw, Marcel; Penaud-Frézet, Stéphanie; Dimova, Diliana; Murphy, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on identifying reproducible effects of dietary supplementation with a mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on the broiler cecal bacterial community structure and function in a commercial production setting. Two separate trials, each with a control and a supplemented group, were carried out in the same commercial location and run concurrently. Approximately 10,000 birds from the same commercial hatchery were mirror imaged into each of four commercial broiler sheds and fed either a control or supplemented diet. Cecal contents were obtained on days 7, 21, and 35 posthatch from 12 randomly caught broilers from each group. Bacterial pyrosequencing was performed on all samples, with approximately 250,000 sequences obtained per treatment per time point. The predominant phyla identified at all three time points in both trials were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes, representing >99% of all sequences. MOS supplementation altered the bacterial community composition from 7 days supplementation through 35 days supplementation. Bacteroidetes appeared to be replacing Firmicutes as a result of supplementation, with the most noticeable effects after 35 days. The effects of supplementation were reproducible across both trials. PICRUSt was used to identify differences between the functional potentials of the bacterial communities as a result of MOS supplementation. Using level 3 KEGG ortholog function predictions, differences between control and supplemented groups were observed, with very strong segregation noted on day 35 posthatch in both trials. This indicated that alterations of bacterial communities as a result of MOS are likely to alter the functional capability of the cecum. PMID:25769823

  9. Phylogenetic and functional alterations in bacterial community compositions in broiler ceca as a result of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, A; de Leeuw, Marcel; Penaud-Frézet, Stéphanie; Dimova, Diliana; Murphy, R A

    2015-05-15

    This study focused on identifying reproducible effects of dietary supplementation with a mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on the broiler cecal bacterial community structure and function in a commercial production setting. Two separate trials, each with a control and a supplemented group, were carried out in the same commercial location and run concurrently. Approximately 10,000 birds from the same commercial hatchery were mirror imaged into each of four commercial broiler sheds and fed either a control or supplemented diet. Cecal contents were obtained on days 7, 21, and 35 posthatch from 12 randomly caught broilers from each group. Bacterial pyrosequencing was performed on all samples, with approximately 250,000 sequences obtained per treatment per time point. The predominant phyla identified at all three time points in both trials were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes, representing >99% of all sequences. MOS supplementation altered the bacterial community composition from 7 days supplementation through 35 days supplementation. Bacteroidetes appeared to be replacing Firmicutes as a result of supplementation, with the most noticeable effects after 35 days. The effects of supplementation were reproducible across both trials. PICRUSt was used to identify differences between the functional potentials of the bacterial communities as a result of MOS supplementation. Using level 3 KEGG ortholog function predictions, differences between control and supplemented groups were observed, with very strong segregation noted on day 35 posthatch in both trials. This indicated that alterations of bacterial communities as a result of MOS are likely to alter the functional capability of the cecum. PMID:25769823

  10. Probiotics for urogenital health.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, urinary tract infection, and yeast vaginitis afflict an estimated 1 billion women each year. Once investigation has ruled out complicated underlying causes, the only therapeutic option is antimicrobial agents. In many cases, this is effective at clearing infection. However, recurrences, side effects, and secondary infections are frequent. Coinciding with infection is a disruption of the normal commensal microflora in the vagina, primarily a loss of lactobacilli. The exogenous application of lactobacilli to the host as probiotic agents appears to offer hope as an alternative management regimen to antimicrobial treatment and prophylaxis. Although commercial probiotics specifically selected and proven to be effective for urogenital infections are not yet available, there is growing in vitro and human data to suggest that certain strains could confer health benefits on a large number of women. Given that depleted vaginal lactobacilli and recurrent infection is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases and preterm labor, multiple antibiotic resistance, and significant reduction in quality of life, the need for probiotic therapeutics has never been greater. PMID:12134717

  11. Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dan W; Greer, Frank R

    2010-12-01

    This clinical report reviews the currently known health benefits of probiotic and prebiotic products, including those added to commercially available infant formula and other food products for use in children. Probiotics are supplements or foods that contain viable microorganisms that cause alterations of the microflora of the host. Use of probiotics has been shown to be modestly effective in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in (1) treating acute viral gastroenteritis in healthy children; and (2) preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in healthy children. There is some evidence that probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants (birth weight between 1000 and 1500 g), but more studies are needed. The results of RCTs in which probiotics were used to treat childhood Helicobacter pylori gastritis, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic ulcerative colitis, and infantile colic, as well as in preventing childhood atopy, although encouraging, are preliminary and require further confirmation. Probiotics have not been proven to be beneficial in treating or preventing human cancers or in treating children with Crohn disease. There are also safety concerns with the use of probiotics in infants and children who are immunocompromised, chronically debilitated, or seriously ill with indwelling medical devices. Prebiotics are supplements or foods that contain a nondigestible food ingredient that selectively stimulates the favorable growth and/or activity of indigenous probiotic bacteria. Human milk contains substantial quantities of prebiotics. There is a paucity of RCTs examining prebiotics in children, although there may be some long-term benefit of prebiotics for the prevention of atopic eczema and common infections in healthy infants. Confirmatory well-designed clinical research studies are necessary. PMID:21115585

  12. Soil Fungal:Bacterial Ratios Are Linked to Altered Carbon Cycling.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ashish A; Chowdhury, Somak; Schlager, Veronika; Oliver, Anna; Puissant, Jeremy; Vazquez, Perla G M; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Griffiths, Robert I; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Despite several lines of observational evidence, there is a lack of consensus on whether higher fungal:bacterial (F:B) ratios directly cause higher soil carbon (C) storage. We employed RNA sequencing, protein profiling and isotope tracer techniques to evaluate whether differing F:B ratios are associated with differences in C storage. A mesocosm (13)C labeled foliar litter decomposition experiment was performed in two soils that were similar in their physico-chemical properties but differed in microbial community structure, specifically their F:B ratio (determined by PLFA analyses, RNA sequencing and protein profiling; all three corroborating each other). Following litter addition, we observed a consistent increase in abundance of fungal phyla; and greater increases in the fungal dominated soil; implicating the role of fungi in litter decomposition. Litter derived (13)C in respired CO2 was consistently lower, and residual (13)C in bulk SOM was higher in high F:B soil demonstrating greater C storage potential in the F:B dominated soil. We conclude that in this soil system, the increased abundance of fungi in both soils and the altered C cycling patterns in the F:B dominated soils highlight the significant role of fungi in litter decomposition and indicate that F:B ratios are linked to higher C storage potential. PMID:27555839

  13. Soil Fungal:Bacterial Ratios Are Linked to Altered Carbon Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ashish A.; Chowdhury, Somak; Schlager, Veronika; Oliver, Anna; Puissant, Jeremy; Vazquez, Perla G. M.; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Griffiths, Robert I.; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Despite several lines of observational evidence, there is a lack of consensus on whether higher fungal:bacterial (F:B) ratios directly cause higher soil carbon (C) storage. We employed RNA sequencing, protein profiling and isotope tracer techniques to evaluate whether differing F:B ratios are associated with differences in C storage. A mesocosm 13C labeled foliar litter decomposition experiment was performed in two soils that were similar in their physico-chemical properties but differed in microbial community structure, specifically their F:B ratio (determined by PLFA analyses, RNA sequencing and protein profiling; all three corroborating each other). Following litter addition, we observed a consistent increase in abundance of fungal phyla; and greater increases in the fungal dominated soil; implicating the role of fungi in litter decomposition. Litter derived 13C in respired CO2 was consistently lower, and residual 13C in bulk SOM was higher in high F:B soil demonstrating greater C storage potential in the F:B dominated soil. We conclude that in this soil system, the increased abundance of fungi in both soils and the altered C cycling patterns in the F:B dominated soils highlight the significant role of fungi in litter decomposition and indicate that F:B ratios are linked to higher C storage potential. PMID:27555839

  14. Soybean level and probiotics in first feeding fry diets alter the ability of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus myskiss to utilize high levels of soybean meal during grow-out.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion rates of soybean meal in salmonid diets are currently kept low to minimize detrimental effects on growth, enteritis and immune responses. Probiotics have been used to treat both infectious and noninfectious enteritis in humans and other terrestrial animals and may represent a feasible met...

  15. Soybean level and probiotics in first feeding fry diets alter the ability of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to utilize high levels of soybean meal during grow-out.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion rates of soybean meal in salmonid diets are currently kept low to minimize detrimental effects on growth, enteritis and immune responses. Probiotics have been used to treat both infectious and noninfectious enteritis in humans and other terrestrial animals and may represent a feasible met...

  16. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Alter Soil Bacterial Community and Enhance Polychlorinated Biphenyls Dissipation

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C.; Xu, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in alternation of soil microbial community and Aroclor 1242 dissipation. A two-compartment rhizobox system with double nylon meshes in the central was employed to exclude the influence of Cucurbita pepo L. root exudates on hyphal compartment soil. To assess the quantitative effect of AMF hyphae on soil microbial community, we separated the hyphal compartment soil into four horizontal layers from the central mesh to outer wall (e.g., L1–L4). Soil total PCBs dissipation rates ranged from 35.67% of L4 layer to 57.39% of L1 layer in AMF inoculated treatment, which were significant higher than the 17.31% of the control (P < 0.05). The dissipation rates of tri-, tetrachlorinated biphenyls as well as the total PCBs were significantly correlated with soil hyphal length (P < 0.01). Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that the Rhodococcus-like bphC gene was 2–3 orders of magnitude more than that of Pseudomonas-like bphC gene, and was found responded positively to AMF. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA sequenced by the Illumina Miseq sequencing platform indicated that AMF hyphae altered bacterial community compositions. The phylum Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were dominated in the soil, while Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales were dominated at the order level. Taxa from the Comamonadaceae responded positively to AMF and trichlorinated biphenyl dissipation, while taxa from the Oxalobacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae responded negatively to AMF and PCB congener dissipation. Our results suggested that the AMF hyphal exudates as well as the hyphae per se did have quantitative effects on shaping soil microbial community, and could modify the PCBs dissipation processes consequently. PMID:27379068

  17. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Alter Soil Bacterial Community and Enhance Polychlorinated Biphenyls Dissipation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in alternation of soil microbial community and Aroclor 1242 dissipation. A two-compartment rhizobox system with double nylon meshes in the central was employed to exclude the influence of Cucurbita pepo L. root exudates on hyphal compartment soil. To assess the quantitative effect of AMF hyphae on soil microbial community, we separated the hyphal compartment soil into four horizontal layers from the central mesh to outer wall (e.g., L1-L4). Soil total PCBs dissipation rates ranged from 35.67% of L4 layer to 57.39% of L1 layer in AMF inoculated treatment, which were significant higher than the 17.31% of the control (P < 0.05). The dissipation rates of tri-, tetrachlorinated biphenyls as well as the total PCBs were significantly correlated with soil hyphal length (P < 0.01). Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that the Rhodococcus-like bphC gene was 2-3 orders of magnitude more than that of Pseudomonas-like bphC gene, and was found responded positively to AMF. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA sequenced by the Illumina Miseq sequencing platform indicated that AMF hyphae altered bacterial community compositions. The phylum Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were dominated in the soil, while Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales were dominated at the order level. Taxa from the Comamonadaceae responded positively to AMF and trichlorinated biphenyl dissipation, while taxa from the Oxalobacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae responded negatively to AMF and PCB congener dissipation. Our results suggested that the AMF hyphal exudates as well as the hyphae per se did have quantitative effects on shaping soil microbial community, and could modify the PCBs dissipation processes consequently. PMID:27379068

  18. Long-term nitrogen amendment alters the diversity and assemblage of soil bacterial communities in tallgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Coolon, Joseph D; Jones, Kenneth L; Todd, Timothy C; Blair, John M; Herman, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes are altering the environmental conditions and the biota of ecosystems worldwide. In many temperate grasslands, such as North American tallgrass prairie, these changes include alteration in historically important disturbance regimes (e.g., frequency of fires) and enhanced availability of potentially limiting nutrients, particularly nitrogen. Such anthropogenically-driven changes in the environment are known to elicit substantial changes in plant and consumer communities aboveground, but much less is known about their effects on soil microbial communities. Due to the high diversity of soil microbes and methodological challenges associated with assessing microbial community composition, relatively few studies have addressed specific taxonomic changes underlying microbial community-level responses to different fire regimes or nutrient amendments in tallgrass prairie. We used deep sequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene to explore the effects of contrasting fire regimes and nutrient enrichment on soil bacterial communities in a long-term (20 yrs) experiment in native tallgrass prairie in the eastern Central Plains. We focused on responses to nutrient amendments coupled with two extreme fire regimes (annual prescribed spring burning and complete fire exclusion). The dominant bacterial phyla identified were Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria and made up 80% of all taxa quantified. Chronic nitrogen enrichment significantly impacted bacterial community diversity and community structure varied according to nitrogen treatment, but not phosphorus enrichment or fire regime. We also found significant responses of individual bacterial groups including Nitrospira and Gammaproteobacteria to long-term nitrogen enrichment. Our results show that soil nitrogen enrichment can significantly alter bacterial community diversity, structure, and individual taxa abundance, which have important

  19. Long-Term Nitrogen Amendment Alters the Diversity and Assemblage of Soil Bacterial Communities in Tallgrass Prairie

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Timothy C.; Blair, John M.; Herman, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes are altering the environmental conditions and the biota of ecosystems worldwide. In many temperate grasslands, such as North American tallgrass prairie, these changes include alteration in historically important disturbance regimes (e.g., frequency of fires) and enhanced availability of potentially limiting nutrients, particularly nitrogen. Such anthropogenically-driven changes in the environment are known to elicit substantial changes in plant and consumer communities aboveground, but much less is known about their effects on soil microbial communities. Due to the high diversity of soil microbes and methodological challenges associated with assessing microbial community composition, relatively few studies have addressed specific taxonomic changes underlying microbial community-level responses to different fire regimes or nutrient amendments in tallgrass prairie. We used deep sequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene to explore the effects of contrasting fire regimes and nutrient enrichment on soil bacterial communities in a long-term (20 yrs) experiment in native tallgrass prairie in the eastern Central Plains. We focused on responses to nutrient amendments coupled with two extreme fire regimes (annual prescribed spring burning and complete fire exclusion). The dominant bacterial phyla identified were Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria and made up 80% of all taxa quantified. Chronic nitrogen enrichment significantly impacted bacterial community diversity and community structure varied according to nitrogen treatment, but not phosphorus enrichment or fire regime. We also found significant responses of individual bacterial groups including Nitrospira and Gammaproteobacteria to long-term nitrogen enrichment. Our results show that soil nitrogen enrichment can significantly alter bacterial community diversity, structure, and individual taxa abundance, which have important

  20. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2015-08-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important challenges in the field include survival of probiotics during microencapsulation, stability of microencapsulated probiotics in fermented milks, sensory quality of fermented milks with microencapsulated probiotics, and efficacy of microencapsulation to deliver probiotics and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. This study reviews the current knowledge, and the future prospects and challenges of microencapsulation of probiotics used in fermented milk products. In addition, the influence of microencapsulation on probiotics viability and survival is reviewed. PMID:26243890

  1. Early intestinal development and mucin transcription in the young poult with probiotic and mannan oligosaccharide prebiotic supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hutsko, S L; Meizlisch, K; Wick, M; Lilburn, M S

    2016-05-01

    Alternative and adjunctive approaches to decreasing the use of dietary antibiotics are becoming popular areas of study. Supplemental probiotics (commensal microbes) and prebiotics (indigestible complex carbohydrates) are 2 dietary approaches to facilitating the intestinal colonization of beneficial bacteria to compete with potential pathogens, thus creating a healthy mucosal environment. The intestinal mucosa is composed of mucin glycoproteins, which play a key role in preventing the attachment of pathogenic bacteria. At hatch, the neonatal turkey intestine is relatively aseptic and vulnderable to bacterial colonization by both commensal and pathogenic microbes. In the current study, we determined the transcription of MUC2, the primary mucin protein produced by goblet cells within the small intestine, and we also measured intestinal morphology immediately post-hatch through d 11. Poults were fed a conventional starter diet, the starter diet supplemented with one of 2 commercial probiotics (A, B), or a commercial mannan oligosaccharide. MUC2 transcription increased from d zero to d 4 post-hatch (P< 0.05), but there was no effect of probiotic or prebiotic supplementation. Villus height and villus area both increased with Probiotic B and mannan oligosaccharide supplementation (P<0.05) and there was a significant d X treatment interaction effect for crypt depth (P=0.007). These results suggest that probiotic and prebiotic supplementation can positively alter the intestinal microenvironment. PMID:26944966

  2. The green alga Dicytosphaeria ocellata and its organic extracts alter natural bacterial biofilm communities.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Jennifer M; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-04-01

    Surfaces immersed in the marine environment are under intense fouling pressure by a number of invertebrates and algae. The regulation of this fouling can often be attributed to the bacterial biofilm that quickly develops on the surface of any available substratum in the ocean. The bacterial community composition on the surface of the green alga Dictyosphaeria ocellata was investigated and compared to those found on two other green algae, Batophora oerstedii and Cladophoropsis macromeres, and on a reference surface from three sites along the Florida Keys. Although the bacterial community composition of D. ocellata was not consistent across the sites, it was significantly different from the other algae and the reference surface at two of the three sites tested. Methanol extracts of D. ocellata significantly affected the abundance of bacteria and composition of the bacterial community on Phytagel™ plates when compared to solvent controls, suggesting that the alga regulates the bacterial community by producing active metabolites. PMID:21512919

  3. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics.

    PubMed

    de Vrese, Michael; Schrezenmeir, J

    2008-01-01

    According to the German definition, probiotics are defined viable microorganisms, sufficient amounts of which reach the intestine in an active state and thus exert positive health effects. Numerous probiotic microorganisms (e.g. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, bifidobacteria and certain strains of L. casei or the L. acidophilus-group) are used in probiotic food, particularly fermented milk products, or have been investigated--as well as Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, certain enterococci (Enterococcus faecium SF68) and the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii--with regard to their medicinal use. Among the numerous purported health benefits attributed to probiotic bacteria, the (transient) modulation of the intestinal microflora of the host and the capacity to interact with the immune system directly or mediated by the autochthonous microflora, are basic mechanisms. They are supported by an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo experiments using conventional and molecular biologic methods. In addition to these, a limited number of randomized, well-controlled human intervention trials have been reported. Well-established probiotic effects are: 1. Prevention and/or reduction of duration and complaints of rotavirus-induced or antibiotic-associated diarrhea as well as alleviation of complaints due to lactose intolerance. 2. Reduction of the concentration of cancer-promoting enzymes and/or putrefactive (bacterial) metabolites in the gut. 3. Prevention and alleviation of unspecific and irregular complaints of the gastrointestinal tracts in healthy people. 4. Beneficial effects on microbial aberrancies, inflammation and other complaints in connection with: inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, Helicobacter pylori infection or bacterial overgrowth. 5. Normalization of passing stool and stool consistency in subjects suffering from obstipation or an irritable colon. 6. Prevention or alleviation of allergies and atopic diseases in infants. 7

  4. Impact of a probiotic, inulin, or their combination on the piglets' microbiota at different intestinal locations.

    PubMed

    Sattler, V A; Bayer, K; Schatzmayr, G; Haslberger, A G; Klose, V

    2015-01-01

    Natural feed additives are used to maintain health and to promote performance of pigs without antibiotics. Effects of a probiotic, inulin, and their combination (synbiotic), on the microbial diversity and composition at different intestinal locations were analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time PCR, and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacterial diversity assessed by DGGE and/or pyrosequencing was increased by inulin in all three gut locations and by the synbiotic in the caecum and colon. In contrast, the probiotic did only affect the microbiota diversity in the ileum. Shifts in the DGGE microbiota profiles of the caecum and colon were detected for the pro- and synbiotic fed animals, whereas inulin profiles were more similar to the ones of the control. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed that all three additives could reduce Escherichia species in each gut location, indicating a potential beneficial effect on the gut microbiota. An increase of relative abundance of Clostridiaceae in the large intestine was found in the inulin group and of Enterococcaceae in the ileum of probiotic fed pigs. Furthermore, real-time PCR results showed that the probiotic and synbiotic increased bifidobacterial numbers in the ileum, which was supported by sequencing results. The probiotic and inulin, to different extents, changed the diversity, relative abundance of phylotypes, and community profiles of the porcine microbiota. However, alterations of the bacterial community were not uniformly between gut locations, demonstrating that functionality of feed additives is site specific. Therefore, gut sampling from various locations is crucial when investigations aim to identify the composition of a healthy gut microbiota after its manipulation through feed additives. PMID:25380797

  5. Developing oral probiotics from Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Wescombe, Philip A; Hale, John D F; Heng, Nicholas C K; Tagg, John R

    2012-12-01

    Considerable human illness can be linked to the development of oral microbiota disequilibria. The predominant oral cavity commensal, Streptococcus salivarius has emerged as an important source of safe and efficacious probiotics, capable of fostering more balanced, health-associated oral microbiota. Strain K12, the prototype S. salivarius probiotic, originally introduced to counter Streptococcus pyogenes infections, now has an expanded repertoire of health-promoting applications. K12 and several more recently proposed S. salivarius probiotics are now being applied to control diverse bacterial consortia infections including otitis media, halitosis and dental caries. Other potential applications include upregulation of immunological defenses against respiratory viral infections and treatment of oral candidosis. An overview of the key steps required for probiotic development is also presented. PMID:23231486

  6. Probiotics in animal nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Durand, H

    2010-03-01

    The use of probiotics for farm animals has increased considerably over the last 15 years. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which can confer a health benefit for the host when administered in appropriate and regular quantities. Once ingested, the probiotic microorganisms can modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal microbiota, whose role is fundamental to gut homeostasis. It has been demonstrated that numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, can strongly affect the structure and activities of the gut microbial communities, leading to impaired health and performance in livestock animals. In this review, the most important benefits of yeast and bacterial probiotics upon the gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem in ruminants and monogastric animals (equines, pigs, poultry, fish) reported in the recent scientific literature are described, as well as their implications in terms of animal nutrition and health. Additional knowledge on the possible mechanisms of action is also provided. PMID:21840795

  7. Alteration of Bacterial Antibiotic Sensitivity After Short-Term Exposure to Diagnostic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Darvish, Leili; Abounajmi, Mohammad; Zarei, Samira; Zare, Tahereh; Taheri, Mohammad; Nematollahi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background Many pathogenic bacteria show different levels of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, a lot of hospital-acquired infections are caused by highly resistant or multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. According to WHO, patients with drug-resistant infections have higher morbidity and mortality. Moreover, patients infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics considerably consume more healthcare resources. Objectives In this study, we explored a physical method of converting drug-resistant bacteria to drug-sensitive ones. Materials and Methods This is an in vitro case-control study, performed at the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), Shiraz, Iran in 2014. All experiments were carried out using Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia and E. coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus group A, isolated from hospitalized patients. The bacterial strains were obtained from the Persian Type Culture Collection, IROST, Iran (Klebsiella pneumonia PTCC 1290) and Bacteriology Department of Shahid Faghihi Teaching Hospital, Shiraz, Iran (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus group A). The bacteria in culture plates were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound using a MyLab70XVG sonography system for 5 minutes. Then, the bacteria were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and incubated at 35°C for 18 hours. Finally, antibiotic susceptibility test was performed and the inhibition zone in both control and exposed groups were measured. Three replicate agar plates were used for each test and the inhibition zones of the plates were recorded. Results Compared with the results obtained from unexposed bacteria, statistically significant variations of sensitivity to antibiotics were found in some strains after short-term exposure. In particular, we found major differences (making antibiotic-resistant bacteria susceptible or vice versa) in the diameters of

  8. Soluble metals in residual oil fly ash alter innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses to bacterial infection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jenny R. . E-mail: jur6@cdc.gov; Young, Shih-Houng; Castranova, Vincent; Antonini, James M.

    2007-06-15

    The soluble metals of the pollutant, residual oil fly ash (ROFA), have been shown to alter pulmonary bacterial clearance in rats. The goal of this study was to determine the potential effects on both the innate and adaptive lung immune responses after bacterial infection in rats pre-exposed to the soluble metals in ROFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally dosed (i.t.) at day 0 with ROFA (R-Total) (1.0 mg/100 g body weight), the soluble fraction of ROFA (R-Soluble), the soluble sample subject to a chelator (R-Chelex), or phosphate-buffered saline (Saline). On day 3, rats were administered an i.t. dose of 5 x 10{sup 4} Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, bacterial pulmonary clearance was monitored and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on days 3 (pre-infection), 6, 8, and 10. A concentrated first fraction of lavage fluid was retained for analysis of lactate dehydrogenase and albumin to assess lung injury. BAL cell number, phenotype, and production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) were assessed, and a variety of cytokines were measured in the BAL fluid. Rats pre-treated with R-Soluble showed elevated lung injury/cytotoxicity and increased cellular influx into the lungs. R-Soluble-treatment also altered ROS, RNS, and cytokine levels, and caused a degree of macrophage and T cell inhibition. These effects of R-Soluble result in increased pulmonary bacterial burden after infection. The results suggest that soluble metals in ROFA increase lung injury and inflammation, and alter both innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses.

  9. Use of probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders: what to recommend?

    PubMed Central

    Verna, Elizabeth C.; Lucak, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Perturbation of bacterial microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may play an important role in the pathophysiology of some GI disorders. Probiotics have been used as a treatment modality for over a century. They may restore normal bacterial microflora and effect the functioning of the GI tract by a variety of mechanisms. Probiotics are not currently regulated and only few randomized controlled trials exist investigating their efficacy in different GI disorders. They are available in a variety of formulations and delivery systems making interpretation and comparison of studies even more difficult. The efficacy of probiotics, either as a single strain or a combination of probiotics, has been tested in antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile colitis, infectious diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, pouchitis, and irritable bowel syndrome, among other disorders. Results of the studies are reviewed in this article and recommendations for probiotic use in these disorders are made. Although probiotics appear to be generally safe in an outpatient setting, the situation may be different in immunocompromised, hospitalized patients who may be at a greater risk of developing probiotic sepsis. No studies exist addressing the issue of safety specifically. Many questions regarding use of probiotics in GI disorders remain to be answered in future studies, such as most optimal doses, duration of treatment, physiological and immunological effects, efficacy of specific probiotics in specific disease states, and safety in debilitated patients. PMID:21180611

  10. New lactic acid bacterial strains from traditional Mongolian fermented milk products have altered adhesion to porcine gastric mucin depending on the carbon source.

    PubMed

    Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Seishi; Sasaki, Keisuke; Moriya, Naoko; Takenaka, Akio; Suzuki, Chise

    2015-03-01

    Attachment of lactic acid bacteria to the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract is a major property of probiotics. Here, we examined the ability of 21 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk products in Mongolia to adhere to porcine gastric mucin in vitro. Higher attachment was observed with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains 6-8 and 8-1 than with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (positive control). Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain 7-1 adhered to mucin as effectively as did strain GG. Heat inactivation decreased the adhesive ability of strains 6-8 and 8-1 but did not affect strain 7-1. The adhesion of strains 6-8, 7-1 and 8-1 was significantly inhibited when the cells were pretreated with periodate and trypsin, indicating that proteinaceous and carbohydrate-like cell surface compounds are involved in the adhesion of these strains. The adhesion of strain 7-1 was affected by the type of carbohydrate present in the growth medium, being higher with fructose than with lactose, galactose or xylose as the carbon source. The sugar content of 7-1 cells grown on various carbohydrates was negatively correlated with its adhesive ability. We provide new probiotic candidate strains and new information regarding carbohydrate preference that influences lactic acid bacterial adhesion to mucin. PMID:25186082

  11. Photochemical alteration of dissolved organic matter and the subsequent effects on bacterial carbon cycling and diversity.

    PubMed

    Lønborg, Christian; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Hernando-Morales, Victor; Hernández-Ruiz, Marta; Teira, Eva; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón

    2016-05-01

    The impact of solar radiation on dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from 3 different sources (seawater, eelgrass leaves and river water) and the effect on the bacterial carbon cycling and diversity were investigated. Seawater with DOM from the sources was first either kept in the dark or exposed to sunlight (4 days), after which a bacterial inoculum was added and incubated for 4 additional days. Sunlight exposure reduced the coloured DOM and carbon signals, which was followed by a production of inorganic nutrients. Bacterial carbon cycling was higher in the dark compared with the light treatment in seawater and river samples, while higher levels were found in the sunlight-exposed eelgrass experiment. Sunlight pre-exposure stimulated the bacterial growth efficiency in the seawater experiments, while no impact was found in the other experiments. We suggest that these responses are connected to differences in substrate composition and the production of free radicals. The bacterial community that developed in the dark and sunlight pre-treated samples differed in the seawater and river experiments. Our findings suggest that impact of sunlight exposure on the bacterial carbon transfer and diversity depends on the DOM source and on the sunlight-induced production of inorganic nutrients. PMID:26940087

  12. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria: technology and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Kailasapathy, Kaila

    2002-09-01

    In the recent past, there has been an explosion of probiotic health-based products. Many reports indicated that there is poor survival of probiotic bacteria in these products. Further, the survival of these bacteria in the human gastro-intestinal system is questionable. Providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier against adverse environmental conditions is therefore an approach currently receiving considerable interest. The technology of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells evolved from the immobilised cell culture technology used in the biotechnological industry. Several methods of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria have been reported and include spray drying, extrusion, emulsion and phase separation. None of these reported methods however, has resulted in the large numbers of shelf-stable, viable probiotic bacterial cells necessary for use in industry for development of new probiotic products. The most commonly reported micro-encapsulation procedure is based on the calcium-alginate gel capsule formation. Kappa-carrageenan, gellan gum, gelatin and starch are also used as excipients for the micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria. The currently available equipment for micro-encapsulation is not able to generate large quantities of uniform sized micro or nano capsules. There is a need to design and develop equipment that will be able to generate precise and uniform micro or nano capsules in large quantities for industrial applications. The reported food vehicles for delivery of encapsulated probiotic bacteria are yoghurt, cheese, ice cream and mayonnaise. Studies need to be done on the application of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria in other food systems. The number of probiotic supplements will increase in the future. More studies, however, need to be conducted on the efficacy of micro-encapsulation to deliver probiotic bacteria and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:12400637

  13. From the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to the kidneys: live bacterial cultures (probiotics) mediating reductions of uremic toxin levels via free radical signaling.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Linnane, Anthony W; Gobe, Glenda C

    2013-11-01

    A host of compounds are retained in the body of uremic patients, as a consequence of progressive renal failure. Hundreds of compounds have been reported to be retention solutes and many have been proven to have adverse biological activity, and recognized as uremic toxins. The major mechanistic overview considered to contribute to uremic toxin overload implicates glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, hexosamine, increased polyol pathway activity and the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Until recently, the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and its associated micro-biometabolome was a neglected factor in chronic disease development. A systematic underestimation has been to undervalue the contribution of GIT dysbiosis (a gut barrier-associated abnormality) whereby low-level pro-inflammatory processes contribute to chronic kidney disease (CKD) development. Gut dysbiosis provides a plausible clue to the origin of systemic uremic toxin loads encountered in clinical practice and may explain the increasing occurrence of CKD. In this review, we further expand a hypothesis that posits that environmentally triggered and maintained microbiome perturbations drive GIT dysbiosis with resultant uremia. These subtle adaptation responses by the GIT microbiome can be significantly influenced by probiotics with specific metabolic properties, thereby reducing uremic toxins in the gut. The benefit translates to a useful clinical treatment approach for patients diagnosed with CKD. Furthermore, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in different anatomical locales is highlighted as a positive process. Production of ROS in the GIT by the epithelial lining and the commensal microbe cohort is a regulated process, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide which acts as an essential second messenger required for normal cellular homeostasis and physiological function. Whilst this critical review has focused on end-stage CKD (type 5), our aim was to build a plausible hypothesis

  14. Probiotics in Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Boltin, Doron

    2016-02-01

    The ideal treatment regimen for the eradication Helicobacter pylori infection has yet to be identified. Probiotics, particularly Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Saccharomyces, have been suggested as adjuncts to antibiotics for the treatment of H. pylori. There is in vitro evidence that probiotics dampen the Th1 response triggered by H. pylori, attenuate H. pylori associated hypochlorhydria and secrete bacteriocidal metabolites. Probiotics interact with the innate host immune system through adherence to the gastric epithelium and secretion of bacterial adhesins. In prospective human studies, probiotic monotherapy effectively decrease H. pylori density (expired (13)CO2) by 2.0%-64.0%. Probiotic monotherapy has also been shown to eradicate H. pylori in up to 32.5%, although subsequent recrudescence is likely. Eleven meta-analyses have evaluated the efficacy of probiotics as adjuvants to antibiotics for the eradication of H. pylori. The addition of a probiotic increased treatment efficacy, OR 1.12-2.07. This benefit is probably strain-specific and may only be significant with relatively ineffective antibiotic regimens. The pooled prevalence of adverse effects was 12.9%-31.5% among subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with 24.3%-45.9% among controls. Diarrhea in particular was significantly reduced in subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with controls (OR 0.16-0.47). A reduction in adverse events other than diarrhea is variable. Despite the apparent benefit on efficacy and side effects conferred by probiotics, the optimal probiotic species, dose and treatment duration has yet to be determined. Further studies are needed to identify the probiotic, antibiotic and patient factors which might predict benefit from probiotic supplementation. PMID:27048901

  15. Fermented products with probiotic qualities.

    PubMed

    Kalantzopoulos, G

    1997-01-01

    For several centuries, fermented products derived from plant or animal materials have been an acceptable and essential part of the diet in most parts of the world. Health benefits have also often been associated with them. Probiotics can be defined as fermented food containing specific live microorganisms or a live microbial food or feed supplement, which beneficially effects the human or the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Nearly all probiotics currently on the market contain Lactobacilli, Streptococci, Enterococci or Bifidobacteria. In contrast to Japan, where freeze-dried microorganisms are consumed by a substantial part of the human population, in Europe, probiotic action towards humans are only claimed for certain fermented dairy products (e.g. yoghurts). Those species that have been extensively studied so far, with several experimental trials on man, are the two yoghurt bacteria Streptocaccus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. casei and Bifidobacteria. L. acidophilus has also received important scientific interest, however, only a few human studies have been carried out. From the technological point of view a good probiotic should be stable and viable for long periods under storage, should be able to survive the low pH levels of the stomach, be able to colonise the epithelium of the gastro-intestinal tract of the host, should not be pathogenic and, last but not least, must be capable of exerting a growth promoting effect or a resistance to infectious diseases. The beneficial effects of probiotics are mainly contributed to a direct antagonistic effect against specific groups of microorganisms (Enteropathogenes), by an effect on the metabolism in the gut or by a stimulation of systemic or mucosal immunity. We will present major proven health benefits of milks fermented with those bacterial species and discuss, where possible, the impact of the specific selection and utilisation of particular strains. PMID:16887587

  16. Probiotics and pharmabiotics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    That commensal bacteria play an important role in human health is beyond doubt, and it is now widely accepted that humans function as super organisms, whose collective metabolic potential exceeds the sum of our individual eukaryotic and prokaryotic components. However, while it is has been established that the prokaryotic component of the human superorganism is amenable to manipulation by chemotherapeutic, dietary or microbial interventions, the significance of such alterations in terms of human health or well being is less well established. Prebiotics (non- digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or activity of bacteria in the digestive system) and probiotics (live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host) are often bracketed among ‘alternative’ approaches to influencing human health, such as homeopathy, naturopathy, acupuncture and hypnotherapy. Others believe that prebiotics and probiotics have proven their effectiveness in properly conducted, clinically controlled human trials and therefore can be considered as evidence-based alternatives or adjuncts to conventional medicines. My journey from a position of total skepticism to ‘reluctant convert’ is the basis of this article, which should not be considered in any sense as a review of the literature but simply a personal account of this transition. While I am not bent on converting other doubters, I will recount some of the thought processes and evidence that has helped to form my current opinion. PMID:21326932

  17. Probiotics, prebiotics and antioxidants as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Grajek, Włodzimierz; Olejnik, Anna; Sip, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The term "functional foods" comprises some bacterial strains and products of plant and animal origin containing physiologically active compounds beneficial for human health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Among the best known functional compounds probiotics, prebiotics and natural antioxidants should be given as examples. These substances can be obtained by biotechnological methods and by extraction from plant or animal tissues. PMID:16086074

  18. Intrauterine bacterial inoculation and level of dietary methionine alter amino acid metabolism in nulliparous yearling ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an intrauterine bacterial inoculation method, our objective was to determine the effects of acute sepsis and level of dietary metabolizable-methionine on splanchnic metabolism of amino acids in ewes. Twenty-five nulliparous yearling Rambouillet-cross ewes (initial BW = 65.1 ± 0.6 kg), surgical...

  19. Chronic N-amended soils exhibit an altered bacterial community structure in Harvard Forest, MA, USA.

    PubMed

    Turlapati, Swathi A; Minocha, Rakesh; Bhiravarasa, Premsai S; Tisa, Louis S; Thomas, William K; Minocha, Subhash C

    2013-02-01

    At the Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, the impact of 20 years of annual ammonium nitrate application to the mixed hardwood stand on soil bacterial communities was studied using 16S rRNA genes pyrosequencing. Amplification of 16S rRNA genes was done using DNA extracted from 30 soil samples (three treatments × two horizons × five subplots) collected from untreated (control), low N-amended (50 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) and high N-amended (150 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) plots. A total of 1.3 million sequences were processed using qiime. Although Acidobacteria represented the most abundant phylum based on the number of sequences, Proteobacteria were the most diverse in terms of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). UniFrac analyses revealed that the bacterial communities differed significantly among soil horizons and treatments. Microsite variability among the five subplots was also evident. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination of normalized OTU data followed by permutational manova further confirmed these observations. Richness indicators and indicator species analyses revealed higher bacterial diversity associated with N amendment. Differences in bacterial diversity and community composition associated with the N treatments were also observed at lower phylogenetic levels. Only 28-35% of the 6 936 total OTUs identified were common to three treatments, while the rest were specific to one treatment or common to two. PMID:22974374

  20. Dietary format alters fecal bacterial populations in the domestic cat (Felis catus)

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N; Young, Wayne; Kittelmann, Sandra; Kerr, Katherine R; Swanson, Kelly S; Roy, Nicole C; Thomas, David G

    2013-01-01

    The effects of short-term (5-week) exposure to wet or dry diets on fecal bacterial populations in the cat were investigated. Sixteen mixed-sex, neutered, domestic short-haired cats (mean age = 6 years; mean bodyweight = 3.4 kg) were randomly allocated to wet or dry diets in a crossover design. Fecal bacterial DNA was isolated and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons generated and analyzed by 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Cats fed dry diets had higher abundances (P < 0.05) of Actinobacteria (16.5% vs. 0.1%) and lower abundances of Fusobacteria (0.3% vs. 23.1%) and Proteobacteria (0.4% vs. 1.1%) compared with cats fed the wet diet. Of the 46 genera identified, 30 were affected (P < 0.05) by diet, with higher abundances of Lactobacillus (31.8% vs. 0.1%), Megasphaera (23.0% vs. 0.0%), and Olsenella (16.4% vs. 0.0%), and lower abundances of Bacteroides (0.6% vs. 5.7%) and Blautia (0.3% vs. 2.3%) in cats fed the dry diet compared with cats fed the wet diet. These results demonstrate that short-term dietary exposure to diet leads to large shifts in fecal bacterial populations that have the potential to affect the ability of the cat to process macronutrients in the diet. PMID:23297252

  1. Defining microbiota for developing new probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Bäuerl, Christine; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The human body harbors complex communities of microbes that play a prominent role in human health. Detailed characterization of the microbiota in the target population forms the basis of probiotic use. Probiotics are defined as live bacterial preparations with clinically documented health effects in humans, and independent of their genus and species, probiotic strains are unique and their beneficial properties on human health have to be assessed in a case-by-case manner. Understanding the mechanisms by which probiotics influence microbiota would facilitate the use of probiotics for both dietary management and reduction in risk of specific diseases. The development of high throughput sequencing methods has allowed metagenomic approaches to study the human microbiome. These efforts are starting to generate an inventory of bacterial taxons and functional features bound to particular health or disease status that allow inferring aspects of the microbiome's function. In the future, this information will allow the rational design of dietary interventions aimed to improve consumer's health via modulation of the microbiota. PMID:23990820

  2. Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition†

    PubMed Central

    Piccini, Claudia; Conde, Daniel; Pernthaler, Jakob; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of photochemical alterations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on bacterial abundance, activity and community composition in a coastal lagoon of the Atlantic Ocean with high dissolved organic carbon concentration. On two occasions during the austral summer, bacteria-free water of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A + PAR, PAR) or kept in the dark. Subsequently, dilution cultures were established with bacterioplankton from the lagoon that were incubated in the pre-exposed water for 5 h in the dark. Cell abundance, activity, and community composition of bacterioplankton were assessed before and after incubation in the different treatments. Changes in absorption, fluorescence, and DOC concentration were used as proxies for CDOM photoalteration. We found a significant CDOM photobleaching signal, DOC loss, as well as a stimulation of bacterial activity in the treatments pre-exposed to UV radiation, suggesting increased bioavailability of DOM. Bacterial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this stimulation was mainly accompanied by the specific enrichment of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. Thus, our results suggest that CDOM photoalteration not only stimulates bacterioplankton growth, but also induces rapid changes in bacterioplankton composition, which can be of relevance for ecosystem functioning, particularly considering present and future changes in the input of terrestrial CDOM to aquatic systems. PMID:19707620

  3. Grain-rich diets altered the colonic fermentation and mucosa-associated bacterial communities and induced mucosal injuries in goats

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Huimin; Liu, Junhua; Feng, Panfei; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2016-01-01

    Remarkably little information is available about the impact of high-grain (HG) feeding on colonic mucosa-associated bacteria and mucosal morphology. In the present study, 12 male goats were randomly assigned to either a hay diet (n = 6) or an HG diet (65% grain; n = 6) to characterise the changes in the composition of the bacterial community in colonic mucosa and the mucosal morphology of the colon. The results showed that HG feeding decreased the colonic pH and increased the concentrations of total short chain fatty acids and lipopolysaccharides in colonic digesta. The principal coordinate analysis results showed that the HG diet altered the colonic mucosal bacterial communities, with an increase in the abundance of genus Blautia and a decrease in the abundance of genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus. The HG-fed goats showed sloughing of the surface layer epithelium, intercellular tight junction erosion, cell mitochondrial damage, and upregulation of the relative mRNA expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ in colonic mucosa. Collectively, our data indicate that HG feeding induced changes in colonic mucosal morphology and cytokines expression that might be caused by excessive fermentation and dramatic shifts in the bacterial populations in the colon. PMID:26841945

  4. Wheat and Rice Growth Stages and Fertilization Regimes Alter Soil Bacterial Community Structure, But Not Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jichen; Xue, Chao; Song, Yang; Wang, Lei; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining soil fertility and the microbial communities that determine fertility is critical to sustainable agricultural strategies, and the use of different organic fertilizer (OF) regimes represents an important practice in attempts to preserve soil quality. However, little is known about the dynamic response of bacterial communities to fertilization regimes across crop growth stages. In this study, we examined microbial community structure and diversity across eight representative growth stages of wheat-rice rotation under four different fertilization treatments: no nitrogen fertilizer (NNF), chemical fertilizer (CF), organic–inorganic mixed fertilizer (OIMF), and OF. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that growth stage as the best predictor of bacterial community abundance and structure. Additionally, bacterial community compositions differed between wheat and rice rotations. Relative to soils under wheat rotation, soils under rice rotation contained higher relative abundances (RA) of anaerobic and mesophilic microbes and lower RA of aerophilic microbes. With respect to fertilization regime, NNF plots had a higher abundance of nitrogen–fixing Cyanobacteria. OIMF had a lower abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota compared with CF. Application of chemical fertilizers (CF and OIMF treatments) significantly increased the abundance of some generally oligotrophic bacteria such those belonging to the Acidobacteria, while more copiotrophic of the phylum Proteobacteria increased with OF application. A high correlation coefficient was found when comparing RA of Acidobacteria based upon QPCR vs. sequence analysis, yet poor correlations were found for the α- and β- Proteobacteria, highlighting the caution required when interpreting these molecular data. In total, crop, fertilization scheme and plant developmental stage all influenced soil microbial community structure, but not total levels of

  5. Wheat and Rice Growth Stages and Fertilization Regimes Alter Soil Bacterial Community Structure, But Not Diversity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jichen; Xue, Chao; Song, Yang; Wang, Lei; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining soil fertility and the microbial communities that determine fertility is critical to sustainable agricultural strategies, and the use of different organic fertilizer (OF) regimes represents an important practice in attempts to preserve soil quality. However, little is known about the dynamic response of bacterial communities to fertilization regimes across crop growth stages. In this study, we examined microbial community structure and diversity across eight representative growth stages of wheat-rice rotation under four different fertilization treatments: no nitrogen fertilizer (NNF), chemical fertilizer (CF), organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (OIMF), and OF. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that growth stage as the best predictor of bacterial community abundance and structure. Additionally, bacterial community compositions differed between wheat and rice rotations. Relative to soils under wheat rotation, soils under rice rotation contained higher relative abundances (RA) of anaerobic and mesophilic microbes and lower RA of aerophilic microbes. With respect to fertilization regime, NNF plots had a higher abundance of nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria. OIMF had a lower abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota compared with CF. Application of chemical fertilizers (CF and OIMF treatments) significantly increased the abundance of some generally oligotrophic bacteria such those belonging to the Acidobacteria, while more copiotrophic of the phylum Proteobacteria increased with OF application. A high correlation coefficient was found when comparing RA of Acidobacteria based upon QPCR vs. sequence analysis, yet poor correlations were found for the α- and β- Proteobacteria, highlighting the caution required when interpreting these molecular data. In total, crop, fertilization scheme and plant developmental stage all influenced soil microbial community structure, but not total levels of alpha

  6. Site-specific mouth rinsing can improve oral odor by altering bacterial counts

    PubMed Central

    Alqumber, Mohammed A.; Arafa, Khaled A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether site-specific mouth rinsing with oral disinfectants can improve oral odor beyond the traditional panoral mouth disinfection with mouth rinses by targeting specifically oral malodor implicated anaerobic bacteria Methods: Twenty healthy fasting subjects volunteered for a blinded prospective, descriptive correlational crossover cross-section clinical trial conducted during the month of Ramadan between July and August 2013 in Albaha province in Saudi Arabia involving the application of Listerine® Cool Mint® mouth rinse by either the traditional panoral rinsing method, or a site-specific disinfection method targeting the subgingival and supragingival plaque and the posterior third of the tongue dorsum, while avoiding the remaining locations within the oral cavity. The viable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial counts, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) levels, organoleptic assessment of oral odor, and the tongue-coating index were compared at baseline, one, 5, and 9 hours after the treatment. Results: The site-specific disinfection method reduced the VSCs and anaerobic bacterial loads while keeping the aerobic bacterial numbers higher than the traditional panoral rinsing method. Conclusion: Site-specific disinfection can more effectively maintain a healthy oral cavity by predominantly disinfecting the niches of anaerobic bacteria within the oral cavity. PMID:25399224

  7. Microbial characterization of probiotics--advisory report of the Working Group "8651 Probiotics" of the Belgian Superior Health Council (SHC).

    PubMed

    Huys, Geert; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Delvigne, Frank; De Vuyst, Luc; Heyndrickx, Marc; Pot, Bruno; Dubois, Jean-Jacques; Daube, Georges

    2013-08-01

    When ingested in sufficient numbers, probiotics are expected to confer one or more proven health benefits on the consumer. Theoretically, the effectiveness of a probiotic food product is the sum of its microbial quality and its functional potential. Whereas the latter may vary much with the body (target) site, delivery mode, human target population, and health benefit envisaged microbial assessment of the probiotic product quality is more straightforward. The range of stakeholders that need to be informed on probiotic quality assessments is extremely broad, including academics, food and biotherapeutic industries, healthcare professionals, competent authorities, consumers, and professional press. In view of the rapidly expanding knowledge on this subject, the Belgian Superior Health Council installed Working Group "8651 Probiotics" to review the state of knowledge regarding the methodologies that make it possible to characterize strains and products with purported probiotic activity. This advisory report covers three main steps in the microbial quality assessment process, i.e. (i) correct species identification and strain-specific typing of bacterial and yeast strains used in probiotic applications, (ii) safety assessment of probiotic strains used for human consumption, and (iii) quality of the final probiotic product in terms of its microbial composition, concentration, stability, authenticity, and labeling. PMID:23801655

  8. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  9. Permeable Reactive Barriers Designed To Mitigate Eutrophication Alter Bacterial Community Composition and Aquifer Redox Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Kenly A; Foreman, Kenneth H; Weisman, David; Bowen, Jennifer L

    2015-10-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) consist of a labile carbon source that is positioned to intercept nitrate-laden groundwater to prevent eutrophication. Decomposition of carbon in the PRB drives groundwater anoxic, fostering microbial denitrification. Such PRBs are an ideal habitat to examine microbial community structure under high-nitrate, carbon-replete conditions in coastal aquifers. We examined a PRB installed at the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve in Falmouth, MA. Groundwater within and below the PRB was depleted in oxygen compared to groundwater at sites upgradient and at adjacent reference sites. Nitrate concentrations declined from a high of 25 μM upgradient and adjacent to the barrier to <0.1 μM within the PRB. We analyzed the total and active bacterial communities filtered from groundwater flowing through the PRB using amplicons of 16S rRNA and of the 16S rRNA genes. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes collected from the PRB showed that the total bacterial community had high relative abundances of bacteria thought to have alternative metabolisms, such as fermentation, including candidate phyla OD1, OP3, TM7, and GN02. In contrast, the active bacteria had lower abundances of many of these bacteria, suggesting that the bacterial taxa that differentiate the PRB groundwater community were not actively growing. Among the environmental variables analyzed, dissolved oxygen concentration explained the largest proportion of total community structure. There was, however, no significant correlation between measured environmental parameters and the active microbial community, suggesting that controls on the active portion may differ from the community as a whole. PMID:26231655

  10. Permeable Reactive Barriers Designed To Mitigate Eutrophication Alter Bacterial Community Composition and Aquifer Redox Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Kenly A.; Foreman, Kenneth H.; Weisman, David

    2015-01-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) consist of a labile carbon source that is positioned to intercept nitrate-laden groundwater to prevent eutrophication. Decomposition of carbon in the PRB drives groundwater anoxic, fostering microbial denitrification. Such PRBs are an ideal habitat to examine microbial community structure under high-nitrate, carbon-replete conditions in coastal aquifers. We examined a PRB installed at the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve in Falmouth, MA. Groundwater within and below the PRB was depleted in oxygen compared to groundwater at sites upgradient and at adjacent reference sites. Nitrate concentrations declined from a high of 25 μM upgradient and adjacent to the barrier to <0.1 μM within the PRB. We analyzed the total and active bacterial communities filtered from groundwater flowing through the PRB using amplicons of 16S rRNA and of the 16S rRNA genes. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes collected from the PRB showed that the total bacterial community had high relative abundances of bacteria thought to have alternative metabolisms, such as fermentation, including candidate phyla OD1, OP3, TM7, and GN02. In contrast, the active bacteria had lower abundances of many of these bacteria, suggesting that the bacterial taxa that differentiate the PRB groundwater community were not actively growing. Among the environmental variables analyzed, dissolved oxygen concentration explained the largest proportion of total community structure. There was, however, no significant correlation between measured environmental parameters and the active microbial community, suggesting that controls on the active portion may differ from the community as a whole. PMID:26231655

  11. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. PMID:26325197

  12. Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Gut Microbiota and Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Beom Jae

    2011-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder characterized by abdominal symptoms including chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS is multifactorial, as abnormal gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed neural function of the brain-gut axis and an abnormal autonomic nervous system are all implicated in disease progression. Based on recent experimental and clinical studies, it has been suggested that additional etiological factors including low-grade inflammation, altered gut microbiota and alteration in the gut immune system play important roles in the pathogenesis of IBS. Therefore, therapeutic restoration of altered intestinal microbiota may be an ideal treatment for IBS. Probiotics are live organisms that are believed to cause no harm and result in health benefits for the host. Clinical efficacy of probiotics has been shown in the treatment or prevention of some gastrointestinal inflammation-associated disorders including traveler's diarrhea, antibiotics-associated diarrhea, pouchitis of the restorative ileal pouch and necrotizing enterocolitis. The molecular mechanisms, as cause of IBS pathogenesis, affected by altered gut microbiota and gut inflammation-immunity are reviewed. The effect of probiotics on the gut inflammation-immune systems and the results from clinical trials of probiotics for the treatment of IBS are also summarized. PMID:21860817

  13. Probiotics for the Control of Parasites: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Marie-Agnès; Florent, Isabelle; Kohl, Linda; Grellier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live organisms, which confer benefits to the host. Their efficiency was demonstrated for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections, and allergic symptoms, but their use is mostly limited to bacterial and viral diseases. During the last decade, probiotics as means for the control of parasite infections were reported covering mainly intestinal diseases but also some nongut infections, that are all of human and veterinary importance. In most cases, evidence for a beneficial effect was obtained by studies using animal models. In a few cases, cellular interactions between probiotics and pathogens or relevant host cells were also investigated using in vitro culture systems. However, molecular mechanisms mediating the beneficial effects are as yet poorly understood. These studies indicate that probiotics might indeed provide a strain-specific protection against parasites, probably through multiple mechanisms. But more unravelling studies are needed to justify probiotic utilisation in therapeutics. PMID:21966589

  14. Insect Gut Symbiont Susceptibility to Host Antimicrobial Peptides Caused by Alteration of the Bacterial Cell Envelope*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Son, Dae Woo; Kim, Chan-Hee; Cho, Jae Hyun; Marchetti, Roberta; Silipo, Alba; Sturiale, Luisa; Park, Ha Young; Huh, Ye Rang; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Fukatsu, Takema; Molinaro, Antonio; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-01-01

    The molecular characterization of symbionts is pivotal for understanding the cross-talk between symbionts and hosts. In addition to valuable knowledge obtained from symbiont genomic studies, the biochemical characterization of symbionts is important to fully understand symbiotic interactions. The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) has been recognized as a useful experimental insect gut symbiosis model system because of its cultivatable Burkholderia symbionts. This system is greatly advantageous because it allows the acquisition of a large quantity of homogeneous symbionts from the host midgut. Using these naïve gut symbionts, it is possible to directly compare in vivo symbiotic cells with in vitro cultured cells using biochemical approaches. With the goal of understanding molecular changes that occur in Burkholderia cells as they adapt to the Riptortus gut environment, we first elucidated that symbiotic Burkholderia cells are highly susceptible to purified Riptortus antimicrobial peptides. In search of the mechanisms of the increased immunosusceptibility of symbionts, we found striking differences in cell envelope structures between cultured and symbiotic Burkholderia cells. The bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigen was absent from symbiotic cells examined by gel electrophoretic and mass spectrometric analyses, and their membranes were more sensitive to detergent lysis. These changes in the cell envelope were responsible for the increased susceptibility of the Burkholderia symbionts to host innate immunity. Our results suggest that the symbiotic interactions between the Riptortus host and Burkholderia gut symbionts induce bacterial cell envelope changes to achieve successful gut symbiosis. PMID:26116716

  15. Probiotics, gut microbiota and health.

    PubMed

    Butel, M-J

    2014-01-01

    The human gut is a huge complex ecosystem where microbiota, nutrients, and host cells interact extensively, a process crucial for the gut homeostasis and host development with a real partnership. The various bacterial communities that make up the gut microbiota have many functions including metabolic, barrier effect, and trophic functions. Hence, any dysbiosis could have negative consequences in terms of health and many diseases have been associated to impairment of the gut microbiota. These close relationships between gut microbiota, health, and disease, have led to great interest in using probiotics (i.e. live micro-organisms), or prebiotics (i.e. non-digestible substrates) to positively modulate the gut microbiota to prevent or treat some diseases. This review focuses on probiotics, their mechanisms of action, safety, and major health benefits. Health benefits remain to be proven in some indications, and further studies on the best strain(s), dose, and algorithm of administration to be used are needed. Nevertheless, probiotic administration seems to have a great potential in terms of health that justifies more research. PMID:24290962

  16. Microorganisms with Claimed Probiotic Properties: An Overview of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fijan, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Health benefits have mainly been demonstrated for specific probiotic strains of the following genera: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Escherichia coli. The human microbiota is getting a lot of attention today and research has already demonstrated that alteration of this microbiota may have far-reaching consequences. One of the possible routes for correcting dysbiosis is by consuming probiotics. The credibility of specific health claims of probiotics and their safety must be established through science-based clinical studies. This overview summarizes the most commonly used probiotic microorganisms and their demonstrated health claims. As probiotic properties have been shown to be strain specific, accurate identification of particular strains is also very important. On the other hand, it is also demonstrated that the use of various probiotics for immunocompromised patients or patients with a leaky gut has also yielded infections, sepsis, fungemia, bacteraemia. Although the vast majority of probiotics that are used today are generally regarded as safe and beneficial for healthy individuals, caution in selecting and monitoring of probiotics for patients is needed and complete consideration of risk-benefit ratio before prescribing is recommended. PMID:24859749

  17. Space flight alters bacterial gene expression and virulence and reveals a role for global regulator Hfq

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zu Bentrup, K. Höner; Ramamurthy, R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClelland, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; Hunt, A.; Fernandez, D.; Richter, E.; Shah, M.; Kilcoyne, M.; Joshi, L.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hing, S.; Parra, M.; Dumars, P.; Norwood, K.; Bober, R.; Devich, J.; Ruggles, A.; Goulart, C.; Rupert, M.; Stodieck, L.; Stafford, P.; Catella, L.; Schurr, M. J.; Buchanan, K.; Morici, L.; McCracken, J.; Allen, P.; Baker-Coleman, C.; Hammond, T.; Vogel, J.; Nelson, R.; Pierson, D. L.; Stefanyshyn-Piper, H. M.; Nickerson, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the space flight environment has never been accomplished because of significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of space flight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared with identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed that 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground-based microgravity culture model. Space flight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during space flight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth. PMID:17901201

  18. Spaceflight Alters Bacterial Gene Expression and Virulence and Reveals Role for Global Regulator Hfq

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zuBentrup, K. Honer; Ramamurthy R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClellan, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; Hunt, A.; Fernandez, D.; Richter, E.; Shah, M.; Kilcoyne, M.; Joshi, L.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hing, S.; Parra, M.; Dumaras, P.; Norwood, K.; Nickerson, C. A.; Bober, R.; Devich, J.; Ruggles, A.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the spaceflight environment has never been accomplished due to significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of spaceflight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground based microgravity culture model. Spaceflight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during spaceflight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth.

  19. Clinical Uses of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Saif Ul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Probiotics are live nonpathogenic microorganisms. Many of these microorganisms are part of the normal human gut flora, where they live in a symbiotic relationship. Probiotics have been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI medical conditions. However, the data supporting their use are often conflicting, especially for non-GI-associated illnesses. The strongest evidence supporting the use of probiotics is related to the treatment of acute diarrhea and pouchitis. Atopic eczema in children and genitourinary infections are the only non-GI-related medical conditions where probiotics may have some beneficial effects. Product selection and dosing are not the same in all conditions, and the beneficial effects of each probiotic strain cannot be generalized. The purpose of this article is to provide most recent information about probiotics and its uses. In contrast with previously published reviews on probiotics, we also discuss the composition of various products (Table 1), indications for their use (Table 2), product selection, and dosing of probiotics. Probiotics are safe and appear to exert some beneficial effects in GI-related illnesses. The use of probiotics in non-GI illnesses is not sufficiently supported by current data. PMID:26844491

  20. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  1. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    PubMed

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian. PMID:26836977

  2. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification. PMID:26508362

  3. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-10-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification.

  4. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification. PMID:26508362

  5. Efficacy of a commercial probiotic relative to oxytetracycline as Gram-negative bacterial control agents in a rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) batch culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate two gram-negative bacterial control strategies in batch cultures of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. In the first trial, rotifers at an initial density of 47/mL were cultured for 5 d and dosed with a 10-mg/L solution of either oxytetracycline or a commercial p...

  6. Role of Endogenous Microbiota, Probiotics and Their Biological Products in Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, Gordon S.; Wang, Hanru

    2013-01-01

    Although gut diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, mucositis and the alimentary cancers share similar pathogenetic features, further investigation is required into new treatment modalities. An imbalance in the gut microbiota, breached gut integrity, bacterial invasion, increased cell apoptosis to proliferation ratio, inflammation and impaired immunity may all contribute to their pathogenesis. Probiotics are defined as live bacteria, which when administered in sufficient amounts, exert beneficial effects to the gastrointestinal tract. More recently, probiotic-derived factors including proteins and other molecules released from living probiotics, have also been shown to exert beneficial properties. In this review we address the potential for probiotics, with an emphasis on probiotic-derived factors, to reduce the severity of digestive diseases and further discuss the known mechanisms by which probiotics and probiotic-derived factors exert their physiological effects. PMID:23306189

  7. Emerging molecular insights into the interaction between probiotics and the host intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bron, Peter A; van Baarlen, Peter; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria can modulate immune responses in the host gastrointestinal tract to promote health. The genomics era has provided novel opportunities for the discovery and characterization of bacterial probiotic effector molecules that elicit specific responses in the intestinal system. Furthermore, nutrigenomic analyses of the response to probiotics have unravelled the signalling and immune response pathways which are modulated by probiotic bacteria. Together, these genomic approaches and nutrigenomic analyses have identified several bacterial factors that are involved in modulation of the immune system and the mucosal barrier, and have revealed that a molecular 'bandwidth of human health' could represent a key determinant in an individual's physiological responsiveness to probiotics. These approaches may lead to improved stratification of consumers and to subpopulation-level probiotic supplementation to maintain or improve health, or to reduce the risk of disease. PMID:22101918

  8. Probiotics and Gastrointestinal Disease: Clinical Evidence and Basic Science

    PubMed Central

    Petrof, Elaine O.

    2010-01-01

    Our intestinal microbiota serve many roles vital to the normal daily function of the human gastrointestinal tract. Many probiotics are derived from our intestinal bacteria, and have been shown to provide clinical benefit in a variety of gastrointestinal conditions. Current evidence indicates that probiotic effects are strain-specific, they do not act through the same mechanisms, and nor are all probiotics indicated for the same health conditions. However, they do share several common features in that they exert anti-inflammatory effects, they employ different strategies to antagonize competing microorganisms, and they induce cytoprotective changes in the host either through enhancement of barrier function, or through the upregulation of cytoprotective host proteins. In this review we focus on a few selected probiotics – a bacterial mixture (VSL#3), a Gram-negative probiotic (E. coli Nissle 1917), two Gram-positive probiotic bacteria (LGG, L. reuteri), and a yeast probiotic (S. boulardii) – for which sound clinical and mechanistic data is available. Safety of probiotic formulations is also discussed. PMID:20890386

  9. Systematically Altering Bacterial SOS Activity under Stress Reveals Therapeutic Strategies for Potentiating Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Charlie Y.; Manning, Sara A.; Roggiani, Manuela; Culyba, Matthew J.; Samuels, Amanda N.; Sniegowski, Paul D.; Goulian, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The bacterial SOS response is a DNA damage repair network that is strongly implicated in both survival and acquired drug resistance under antimicrobial stress. The two SOS regulators, LexA and RecA, have therefore emerged as potential targets for adjuvant therapies aimed at combating resistance, although many open questions remain. For example, it is not well understood whether SOS hyperactivation is a viable therapeutic approach or whether LexA or RecA is a better target. Furthermore, it is important to determine which antimicrobials could serve as the best treatment partners with SOS-targeting adjuvants. Here we derived Escherichia coli strains that have mutations in either lexA or recA genes in order to cover the full spectrum of possible SOS activity levels. We then systematically analyzed a wide range of antimicrobials by comparing the mean inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and induced mutation rates for each drug-strain combination. We first show that significant changes in MICs are largely confined to DNA-damaging antibiotics, with strains containing a constitutively repressed SOS response impacted to a greater extent than hyperactivated strains. Second, antibiotic-induced mutation rates were suppressed when SOS activity was reduced, and this trend was observed across a wider spectrum of antibiotics. Finally, perturbing either LexA or RecA proved to be equally viable strategies for targeting the SOS response. Our work provides support for multiple adjuvant strategies, while also suggesting that the combination of an SOS inhibitor with a DNA-damaging antibiotic could offer the best potential for lowering MICs and decreasing acquired drug resistance. IMPORTANCE Our antibiotic arsenal is becoming depleted, in part, because bacteria have the ability to rapidly adapt and acquire resistance to our best agents. The SOS pathway, a widely conserved DNA damage stress response in bacteria, is activated by many antibiotics and has been shown to play central role

  10. Systematically Altering Bacterial SOS Activity under Stress Reveals Therapeutic Strategies for Potentiating Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Mo, Charlie Y; Manning, Sara A; Roggiani, Manuela; Culyba, Matthew J; Samuels, Amanda N; Sniegowski, Paul D; Goulian, Mark; Kohli, Rahul M

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial SOS response is a DNA damage repair network that is strongly implicated in both survival and acquired drug resistance under antimicrobial stress. The two SOS regulators, LexA and RecA, have therefore emerged as potential targets for adjuvant therapies aimed at combating resistance, although many open questions remain. For example, it is not well understood whether SOS hyperactivation is a viable therapeutic approach or whether LexA or RecA is a better target. Furthermore, it is important to determine which antimicrobials could serve as the best treatment partners with SOS-targeting adjuvants. Here we derived Escherichia coli strains that have mutations in either lexA or recA genes in order to cover the full spectrum of possible SOS activity levels. We then systematically analyzed a wide range of antimicrobials by comparing the mean inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and induced mutation rates for each drug-strain combination. We first show that significant changes in MICs are largely confined to DNA-damaging antibiotics, with strains containing a constitutively repressed SOS response impacted to a greater extent than hyperactivated strains. Second, antibiotic-induced mutation rates were suppressed when SOS activity was reduced, and this trend was observed across a wider spectrum of antibiotics. Finally, perturbing either LexA or RecA proved to be equally viable strategies for targeting the SOS response. Our work provides support for multiple adjuvant strategies, while also suggesting that the combination of an SOS inhibitor with a DNA-damaging antibiotic could offer the best potential for lowering MICs and decreasing acquired drug resistance. IMPORTANCE Our antibiotic arsenal is becoming depleted, in part, because bacteria have the ability to rapidly adapt and acquire resistance to our best agents. The SOS pathway, a widely conserved DNA damage stress response in bacteria, is activated by many antibiotics and has been shown to play central role in

  11. Probiotics in transition.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Fergus; Dinan, Timothy G; Ross, Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-11-01

    Despite the hyperbole often linked with a popular research field, the scientific rationale for probiotics is sound. The probiotic concept is not new but is undergoing transition as knowledge of the gut microbiota in health and disease becomes translated to the clinic. Operationally, a probiotic represents a mimic of and/or supplement to the normal gut microbiota. Much confusion has arisen among consumers because of media misportrayals of probiotics as all being the same. However, with clarification of the molecular basis of host-microbe interactions, the selection criteria for probiotics and the delineation of their distinct mechanisms of action are improving. Most probiotics are from the genus Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium; this is likely to change and diversify. Similarly, the development of new therapeutic strategies, such as the development of phagebiotics, psychobiotics, and genetically modified pharmabiotics, is poised to become a therapeutic reality. PMID:23010563

  12. Meat, dairy and plant proteins alter bacterial composition of rat gut bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Zhao, Fan; Shi, Xuebin; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Zhu, Weiyun; Xu, Xinglian; Lu, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    Long-term consumption of red meat has been considered a potential risk to gut health, but this is based on clinic investigations, excessive intake of fat, heme and some injurious compounds formed during cooking or additions to processed meat products. Whether intake of red meat protein affects gut bacteria and the health of the host remains unclear. In this work, we compared the composition of gut bacteria in the caecum, by sequencing the V4-V5 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, obtained from rats fed with proteins from red meat (beef and pork), white meat (chicken and fish) and other sources (casein and soy). The results showed significant differences in profiles of gut bacteria between the six diet groups. Rats fed with meat proteins had a similar overall structure of caecal bacterial communities separated from those fed non-meat proteins. The beneficial genus Lactobacillus was higher in the white meat than in the red meat or non-meat protein groups. Also, rats fed with meat proteins and casein had significantly lower levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins, suggesting that the intake of meat proteins may maintain a more balanced composition of gut bacteria, thereby reducing the antigen load and inflammatory response in the host. PMID:26463271

  13. Pretreatment of Epithelial Cells with Rifaximin Alters Bacterial Attachment and Internalization Profiles▿

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Eric L.; Xue, Qiong; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Xu, Yi; DuPont, Herbert L.

    2010-01-01

    Rifaximin is a poorly absorbed semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifampin licensed for use in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea. Rifaximin reduces the symptoms of enteric infection, often without pathogen eradication and with limited effects on intestinal flora. Epithelial cells (HEp-2 [laryngeal], HCT-8 [ileocecal], A549 [lung], and HeLa [cervical]) were pretreated with rifaximin (or control antibiotics) prior to the addition of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC). EAEC adherence was significantly reduced following rifaximin pretreatment compared to pretreatment with rifampin or doxycycline for three of the four cell lines tested. The rifaximin-mediated changes to epithelial cells were explored further by testing the attachment and internalization of either Bacillus anthracis or Shigella sonnei into A549 or HeLa cells, respectively. The attachment and internalization of B. anthracis were significantly reduced following rifaximin pretreatment. In contrast, neither the attachment nor the internalization of S. sonnei was affected by rifaximin pretreatment of HeLa cells, suggesting that rifaximin-mediated modulation of host cell physiology affected bacteria utilizing distinct attachment/internalization mechanisms differently. In addition, rifaximin pretreatment of HEp-2 cells led to reduced concentrations of inflammatory cytokines from uninfected cells. The study provides evidence that rifaximin-mediated changes in epithelial cell physiology are associated with changes in bacterial attachment/internalization and reduced inflammatory cytokine release. PMID:19858255

  14. Mosquito autogeny in Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae): alterations of larval nourishments reservation upon bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashraf M

    2013-08-01

    The present study recorded mosquito autogeny for the first time amongst Aedes caspius species in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Laboratory rearing showed an obligatory autogenous species of Ae. caspius since it foregoes blood feeding during its first ovarian cycle, even in the presence of the hosts (CD mouse), but produces its second egg batch only if ingested a blood meal. Both morphological and molecular identification confirmed that both autogenous and anautogenous strains belong to the same species of Ae. caspius. Data from biochemical analysis showed significant 2, 1.6, and 1.4 folds higher total carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids reserves respectively in the fourth larval instar of the autogenous strain compared to that of the anautogenous ones. In addition, exposing the fourth larval instars of autogenous strain to the infection stress by the mosquito larvicidal bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki has significantly reduced total carbohydrates, proteins and lipids reserves by 29%, 35%, and 46%, respectively, at 12 h postinfection compared to those of uninfected ones. These reductions in nourishment reserves were more pronounced at 24 h postinfection in the case of proteins and lipids, but not carbohydrates. These results may indicate that bacterial infection is a health stress that significantly reduced nourishments reservation, which may interrupt the success of adult autogeny. However, the impact of infection-induced decline in larval nourishments reservation on successful adult autogeny is still to be investigated. PMID:23955943

  15. Meat, dairy and plant proteins alter bacterial composition of rat gut bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Zhao, Fan; Shi, Xuebin; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Zhu, Weiyun; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Lu, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    Long-term consumption of red meat has been considered a potential risk to gut health, but this is based on clinic investigations, excessive intake of fat, heme and some injurious compounds formed during cooking or additions to processed meat products. Whether intake of red meat protein affects gut bacteria and the health of the host remains unclear. In this work, we compared the composition of gut bacteria in the caecum, by sequencing the V4-V5 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, obtained from rats fed with proteins from red meat (beef and pork), white meat (chicken and fish) and other sources (casein and soy). The results showed significant differences in profiles of gut bacteria between the six diet groups. Rats fed with meat proteins had a similar overall structure of caecal bacterial communities separated from those fed non-meat proteins. The beneficial genus Lactobacillus was higher in the white meat than in the red meat or non-meat protein groups. Also, rats fed with meat proteins and casein had significantly lower levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins, suggesting that the intake of meat proteins may maintain a more balanced composition of gut bacteria, thereby reducing the antigen load and inflammatory response in the host. PMID:26463271

  16. Tomato mutants altered in bacterial disease resistance provide evidence for a new locus controlling pathogen recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Salmeron, J M; Barker, S J; Carland, F M; Mehta, A Y; Staskawicz, B J

    1994-01-01

    We have employed a genetic approach to study the resistance of tomato to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato. Resistance to P. s. tomato depends upon expression of the Pto locus in tomato, which encodes a protein with similarity to serine/threonine protein kinases and recognizes pathogen strains expressing the avirulence gene avrPto. Eleven tomato mutants were isolated with altered resistance to P. s. tomato strains expressing avrPto. We identified mutations both in the Pto resistance locus and in a new locus designated Prf (for Pseudomonas resistance and fenthion sensitivity). The genetic approach allowed us to dissect the roles of these loci in signal transduction in response to pathogen attack. Lines carrying mutations in the Pto locus vary 200-fold in the degree to which they are susceptible to P. s. tomato strains expressing avrPto. The pto mutants retain sensitivity to the organophosphate insecticide fenthion; this trait segregates with Pto in genetic crosses. This result suggested that contrary to previous hypotheses, the Pto locus controls pathogen recognition but not fenthion sensitivity. Interestingly, mutations in the prf locus result in both complete susceptibility to P. s. tomato and insensitivity to fenthion, suggesting that Prf plays a role in tomato signaling in response to both pathogen elicitors and fenthion. Because pto and prf mutations do not alter recognition of Xanthomonas campestris strains expressing avrBsP, an avirulence gene recognized by all tested tomato cultivars, Prf does not play a general role in disease resistance but possibly functions specifically in resistance against P. s. tomato. Genetic analysis of F2 populations from crosses of pto and prf homozygotes indicated that the Pto and Prf loci are tightly linked. PMID:7911348

  17. Immunomodulatory effect of probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bodera, Pawel; Chcialowski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics are usually defined as live microbial food ingredients beneficial to health which comprise of normal commensally bacteria as a part of the healthy human gut micro flora. The gut microflora is an important component of the gut defense barrier and have been shown to induce and maintain oral tolerance in experimental animal models. Functional foods, including probiotic bacteria, are an attractive medium for maintaining the steady nutritional state of the host with defective gut barrier functions. The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) embraces a crucial component of the total immunological capacity of the host in recognizing and selectively handling alien antigens for the initiation of immune responses. Normalization of increased intestinal permeability and altered gut micro ecology can ensure improvement of the function of the gut barrier. Probiotics do modify the composition of the gut microflora and, as a consequence, they have been shown to influence both intestinal and body functions. This review also discussed some patent related to the field. PMID:19149747

  18. Taxonomy of Probiotic Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felis, Giovanna E.; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    When referring to probiotics, one refers to probiotic strains, i.e., the microbial individuals, sub-cultures of billion of almost identical cells ideally derived from the same mother cell. Therefore, beneficial effects attributed to probiotics are ascribed in fact to specific strains. However, these strains have to be, by law, clearly identified at the species level (Pineiro and Stanton, 2007). In fact, probiotics have to be safe for consumption, and the evaluation of QPS - qualified presumption of safety - status by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (Opinion, 2007) is discussed for species, not for single strains.

  19. Health benefits of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Goldin, B R

    1998-10-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for the claims of health benefits derived from the use of probiotics. A brief history of probiotics and the types of probiotics currently used and the criteria for the selection of probiotics is discussed. The ability of probiotics to enhance the nutritional content and bioavailability of nutrients and the scientific evidence for the usefulness of probiotics in alleviating the symptoms of lactose intolerance and in enhancing growth development is examined. The remainder of the review focuses on studies of a specific probiotic, Lactobacillus GG which has been extensively investigated for its health benefits in humans and animals. These studies severe as a model for the potential benefits of probiotics. The ability of Lactobacillus GG to treat or prevent diarrhoeal disease, to serve as an adjuvant for vaccines, to prevent rotavirus-induced diarrhoea, to prevent milk-based allergic reactions, alcohol-induced liver disease and colon cancer are presented. The review concludes with a discussion of the data supporting the safety of probiotics. PMID:9924285

  20. Probiotic Bacteria Influence the Composition and Function of the Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Paul W.; Cooney, Jakki C.

    2008-01-01

    Probiotics have a range of proposed health benefits for the consumer, which may include modulating the levels of beneficial elements in the microbiota. Recent investigations using molecular approaches have revealed a human intestinal microbiota comprising over 1000 phylotypes. Mechanisms whereby probiotics impact on the intestinal microbiota include competition for substrates, direct antagonism by inhibitory substances, competitive exclusion, and potentially host-mediated effects such as improved barrier function and altered immune response. We now have the microbial inventories and genetic blueprints to begin tackling intestinal microbial ecology at an unprecedented level of detail, aided by the understanding that dietary components may be utilized differentially by individual phylotypes. Controlled intervention studies in humans, utilizing latest molecular technologies, are required to consolidate evidence for bacterial species that impact on the microbiota. Mechanistic insights should be provided by metabolomics and other analytical techniques for small molecules. Rigorous characterization of interactions between the diet, microbiota, and probiotic bacteria will provide new opportunities for modulating the microbiota towards improving human health. PMID:19277099

  1. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  2. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  3. Mechanisms of probiotic action: Implications for therapeutic applications in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Vanderpool, Charles; Yan, Fang; Polk, D Brent

    2008-11-01

    Probiotics are defined as nonpathogenic living microorganisms, including some commensal bacterial flora, which have beneficial effects on host health and disease prevention and/or treatment. Clinical trials have shown beneficial effects of probiotics on several human diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), which are among the most-studied diseases testing probiotics as a potential therapy. However, a significant question regarding clinical use of probiotics is the mechanism underlying the wide range of actions. Studies discussed in this review suggest 3 distinct cellular and molecular mechanisms for probiotic regulation in IBD therapy: 1) Probiotics block pathogenic bacterial effects by producing bactericidal substances and competing with pathogens and toxins for adherence to the intestinal epithelium; 2) Probiotics regulate immune responses by enhancing the innate immunity and modulating pathogen-induced inflammation via toll-like receptor-regulated signaling pathways; and 3) Probiotics regulate intestinal epithelial homeostasis by promoting intestinal epithelial cell survival, enhancing barrier function, and stimulating protective responses. Probiotics modulate host cell signaling pathways, including Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and nuclear factor-kappaB to mediate these intestinal epithelial functions. It is hoped that developing a mechanistic understanding of probiotic action will provide the rationale to support the development of new hypothesis-driven studies to define the clinical efficacy in preventive, adjunctive, or alternative treatments for IBD. PMID:18623173

  4. Link between hypothyroidism and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Patil, Anant D

    2014-05-01

    Altered gastrointestinal (GI) motility is seen in many pathological conditions. Reduced motility is one of the risk factors for development of a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Hypothyroidism is associated with altered GI motility. The aim of this article was to study the link between hypothyroidism, altered GI motility and development of SIBO. Published literature was reviewed to study the association of altered GI motility, SIBO and hypothyroidism. Altered GI motility leads to SIBO. SIBO is common in patients with hypothyroidism. Patients with chronic GI symptoms in hypothyroidism should be evaluated for the possibility of SIBO. Both antibiotics and probiotics have been studied and found to be effective in management of SIBO. PMID:24944923

  5. Link between hypothyroidism and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Anant D.

    2014-01-01

    Altered gastrointestinal (GI) motility is seen in many pathological conditions. Reduced motility is one of the risk factors for development of a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Hypothyroidism is associated with altered GI motility. The aim of this article was to study the link between hypothyroidism, altered GI motility and development of SIBO. Published literature was reviewed to study the association of altered GI motility, SIBO and hypothyroidism. Altered GI motility leads to SIBO. SIBO is common in patients with hypothyroidism. Patients with chronic GI symptoms in hypothyroidism should be evaluated for the possibility of SIBO. Both antibiotics and probiotics have been studied and found to be effective in management of SIBO. PMID:24944923

  6. Genome sequence of the bacteriocin-producing oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius strain M18.

    PubMed

    Heng, Nicholas C K; Haji-Ishak, Nurul S; Kalyan, Alaina; Wong, Andrew Y C; Lovric, Marija; Bridson, Joanna M; Artamonova, Julia; Stanton, Jo-Ann L; Wescombe, Philip A; Burton, Jeremy P; Cullinan, Mary P; Tagg, John R

    2011-11-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a Gram-positive bacterial commensal and pioneer colonizer of the human oral cavity. Many strains produce ribosomally synthesized proteinaceous antibiotics (bacteriocins), and some strains have been developed for use as oral probiotics. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the bacteriocin-producing oral probiotic S. salivarius strain M18. PMID:22038965

  7. Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Oral Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius Strain M18

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Nicholas C. K.; Haji-Ishak, Nurul S.; Kalyan, Alaina; Wong, Andrew Y. C.; Lovrić, Marija; Bridson, Joanna M.; Artamonova, Julia; Stanton, Jo-Ann L.; Wescombe, Philip A.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Cullinan, Mary P.; Tagg, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a Gram-positive bacterial commensal and pioneer colonizer of the human oral cavity. Many strains produce ribosomally synthesized proteinaceous antibiotics (bacteriocins), and some strains have been developed for use as oral probiotics. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the bacteriocin-producing oral probiotic S. salivarius strain M18. PMID:22038965

  8. Probiotics in human milk and probiotic supplementation in infant nutrition: a workshop report.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Henrike; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Salminen, Seppo; Szajewska, Hania

    2014-10-14

    Probiotics in human milk are a very recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. Current research is focusing on bacterial diversity and the influence of the maternal environment as well as the mode of delivery on human milk microbiota, the pathways of bacterial transfer to milk ducts, possible benefits of specific bacterial strains for the treatment of mastitis in mothers, and disease prevention in children. Recent advances in the assessment of early host-microbe interactions suggest that early colonisation may have an impact on later health. This review article summarises a scientific workshop on probiotics in human milk and their implications for infant health as well as future perspectives for infant feeding. PMID:25160058

  9. [Probiotics and their future].

    PubMed

    Pardio Sedas, V T; Waliszewski Kubiak, K N; Robledo López, G R

    1996-03-01

    This review examines recent scientific information about probiotics, their microbiological composition, general characteristics, function and methods of action as well as factor which determine their activity. The principal producers of probiotics and their future in human and animal nutrition are also discussed. PMID:9161452

  10. The safety of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Snydman, David R

    2008-02-01

    Probiotics are generally defined as microorganisms that, when consumed, generally confer a health benefit on humans. There is considerable interest in probiotics for a variety of medical conditions, and millions of people around the world consume probiotics daily for perceived health benefits. Lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and lactococci have generally been regarded as safe. There are 3 theoretical concerns regarding the safety of probiotics: (1) the occurrence of disease, such as bacteremia or endocarditis; (2) toxic or metabolic effects on the gastrointestinal tract; and (3) the transfer of antibiotic resistance in the gastrointestinal flora. In this review, the evidence for safety of the use of or the study of probiotics is examined. Although there are rare cases of bacteremia or fungemia related to the use of probiotics, epidemiologic evidence suggests no population increase in risk on the basis of usage data. There have been many controlled clinical trials on the use of probiotics that demonstrate safe use. The use of probiotics in clinical trials should be accompanied by the use of a data-safety monitoring board and by knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the organism used. PMID:18181712

  11. Probiotics and microbiota composition.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence, corroborated by a new systematic review by Kristensen et al. (Genome Med 8:52, 2016), suggests that probiotics do not significantly impact the fecal microbiota composition of healthy subjects. Nevertheless, physiological benefits have been associated with probiotic consumption by healthy people. Some studies have suggested that probiotics may impact the function of colonizing microbes, although this needs to be further studied. An alternative hypothesis is that probiotics may promote homeostasis of the gut microbiota, rather than change its composition. This hypothesis warrants investigation as a possible mechanism for how probiotics may benefit healthy people.Please see related article: http://genomemedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13073-016-0300-5 . PMID:27250499

  12. Human milk: mother nature's prototypical probiotic food?

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "probiotic" is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: "a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host." As such, answering the fundamental question posed here-"Is human milk a probiotic?"-requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother's and/or the recipient infant's health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known. PMID:25593150

  13. Probiotics and oral health.

    PubMed

    Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour. PMID:22632388

  14. Probiotics in inflammatory bowel diseases and associated conditions.

    PubMed

    Mack, David R

    2011-02-01

    A complex set of interactions between the human genes encoding innate protective functions and immune defenses and the environment of the intestinal mucosa with its microbiota is currently considered key to the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Probiotics offer a method to potentially alter the intestinal microbiome exogenously or may provide an option to deliver microbial metabolic products to alter the chronicity of intestinal mucosal inflammation characterizing IBD. At present, there is little evidence for the benefit of currently used probiotic microbes in Crohn's disease or associated conditions affecting extra-intestinal organs. However, clinical practice guidelines are now including a probiotic as an option for recurrent and relapsing antibiotic sensitive pouchitis and the use of probiotics in mild ulcerative colitis is provocative and suggests potential for benefit in select patients but concerns remain about proof from trials. PMID:22254095

  15. Probiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Associated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mack, David R.

    2011-01-01

    A complex set of interactions between the human genes encoding innate protective functions and immune defenses and the environment of the intestinal mucosa with its microbiota is currently considered key to the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Probiotics offer a method to potentially alter the intestinal microbiome exogenously or may provide an option to deliver microbial metabolic products to alter the chronicity of intestinal mucosal inflammation characterizing IBD. At present, there is little evidence for the benefit of currently used probiotic microbes in Crohn’s disease or associated conditions affecting extra-intestinal organs. However, clinical practice guidelines are now including a probiotic as an option for recurrent and relapsing antibiotic sensitive pouchitis and the use of probiotics in mild ulcerative colitis is provocative and suggests potential for benefit in select patients but concerns remain about proof from trials. PMID:22254095

  16. The Role of Probiotics in the Poultry Industry

    PubMed Central

    Lutful Kabir, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    The increase of productivity in the poultry industry has been accompanied by various impacts, including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of management practices in rearing cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in poultry, as well as demonstrating the potential role of probiotics in the growth performance and immune response of poultry, safety and wholesomeness of dressed poultry meat evidencing consumer’s protection, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date. PMID:20111681

  17. The role of probiotics in prevention of oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, Magdalena; Bachanek, Teresa; Mazur, Elżbieta; Chałas, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic development of knowledge in the field of probiotics was commenced at the beginning of the 20th century. Since then, many ways of their possible usage in medicine have been established. In accordance with the WHO, probiotics are live microorganisms, which if applied in adequate amounts may benefit the host. Among probiotics, fungi and bacteria are distinguished, and mechanisms of action of these organisms in the oral cavity and gut are parallel. Application in dentistry, in prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases is still not well known. Most commonly, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium are applied. The aim of the study was to collect and systematize the latest information about probiotics and their role in pathomechanisms of dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, candidiasis, and malodour. Based on the analyzed literature, it can be concluded that mechanisms of cariogenic pathogen inhibition using probiotics are still not well understood. The new research trend is based on application of probiotics which can naturally displace cariogenic bacteria in the oral cavity and influence oral health in adults and children. The results of studies also confirmed the beneficial role of probiotics in reduction of the bacterial population in periodontitis and halitosis. Long-term observation and a properly designed study protocol will allow us to answer many questions concerning substitution of one strain of bacteria by another. PMID:27594560

  18. Functional foods as carriers for SYNBIO®, a probiotic bacteria combination.

    PubMed

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2012-07-16

    The popularity of functional foods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10⁹CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO®). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10⁷ and 10⁹CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Büscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date. PMID:22727086

  19. The dual role of bacteriocins as anti- and probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Gillor, O.; Etzion, A.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria employed in probiotic applications help to maintain or restore a host's natural microbial floral. The ability of probiotic bacteria to successfully outcompete undesired species is often due to, or enhanced by, the production of potent antimicrobial toxins. The most commonly encountered of these are bacteriocins, a large and functionally diverse family of antimicrobials found in all major lineages of Bacteria. Recent studies reveal that these proteinaceous toxins play a critical role in mediating competitive dynamics between bacterial strains and closely related species. The potential use of bacteriocin-producing strains as probiotic and bioprotective agents has recently received increased attention. This review will report on recent efforts involving the use of such strains, with a particular focus on emerging probiotic therapies for humans, livestock, and aquaculture. PMID:18853155

  20. Probiotic use in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Sunit C; Baranwal, A

    2008-06-01

    Probiotics are "live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host" (FAO/WHO joint group). Their potential role in bio-ecological modification of pathological internal milieu of the critically ill is under evaluation. Probiotics are available as single microbial strain (e.g., Bacillus clausii, Lactobacillus) or as a mix of multiple strains of Lactobacillus (acidophilus, sporogenes, lactis, reuteri RC-14, GG, and L. plantarum 299v), Bifidobacterium (bifidum, longum, infantis), Streptococcus (thermophillus, lactis, fecalis), Saccharomyces boulardii etc. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria are gram-positive, anaerobic, lactic acid bacteria. These are normal inhabitant of human gut and colonize the colon better than others. Critical illness and its treatment create hostile environment in the gut and alters the micro flora favoring growth of pathogens. Therapy with probiotics is an effort to reduce or eliminate potential pathogens and toxins, to release nutrients, antioxidants, growth factors and coagulation factors, to stimulate gut motility and to modulate innate and adaptive immune defense mechanisms via the normalization of altered gut flora. Scientific evidence shows that use of probiotics is effective in prevention and therapy of antibiotic associated diarrhea. However, available probiotics strains in currently used doses do not provide much needed early benefits, and need long-term administration to have clinically beneficial effects (viz, a reduction in rate of infection, severe sepsis, ICU stay, ventilation days and mortality) in critically ill surgical and trauma patients. Possibly, available strains do not adhere to intestinal mucosa early, or may require higher dose than what is used. Gap exists in our knowledge regarding mechanisms of action of different probiotics, most effective strains--single or multiple, cost effectiveness, risk-benefit potential, optimum dose, frequency and duration of treatment etc. More

  1. Probiotics in neonatology.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Leah; Jacobs, Susan E; Garland, Suzanne M

    2012-09-01

    Probiotics are micro-organisms that confer health benefits on the host. Postulated mechanisms include: increasing resistance of the mucosal barrier to migration of bacteria and their toxins by strengthening intestinal cell junctions, modification of host response to microbial products, augmentation of immunoglobulin A mucosal responses, enhancement of enteral nutrition to inhibit the growth of pathogens; production of antimicrobial proteins; and competitive exclusion of potential pathogens. Published meta-analyses and systematic reviews report the effects of probiotics on important clinical outcomes in neonates. This paper will review the evidence for probiotic supplementation in neonatology, with a focus on preterm infants. PMID:22862675

  2. Metabolites produced by probiotic Lactobacilli rapidly increase glucose uptake by Caco-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although probiotic bacteria and their metabolites alter enterocyte gene expression, rapid, non-genomic responses have not been examined. The present study measured accumulation of tracer (2 μM) glucose by Caco-2 cells after exposure for 10 min or less to a chemically defined medium (CDM) with different monosaccharides before and after anaerobic culture of probiotic Lactobacilli. Results Growth of L. acidophilus was supported by CDM with 110 mM glucose, fructose, and mannose, but not with arabinose, ribose, and xylose or the sugar-free CDM. Glucose accumulation was reduced when Caco-2 cells were exposed for 10 min to sterile CDM with glucose (by 92%), mannose (by 90%), fructose (by 55%), and ribose (by 16%), but not with arabinose and xylose. Exposure of Caco-2 cells for 10 min to bacteria-free supernatants prepared after exponential (48 h) and stationary (72 h) growth phases of L. acidophilus cultured in CDM with 110 mM fructose increased glucose accumulation by 83% and 45%, respectively; exposure to a suspension of the bacteria had no effect. The increase in glucose accumulation was diminished by heat-denaturing the supernatant, indicating the response of Caco-2 cells is triggered by as yet unknown heat labile bacterial metabolites, not by a reduction in CDM components that decrease glucose uptake. Supernatants prepared after anaerobic culture of L. gasseri, L. amylovorus, L. gallinarum, and L. johnsonii in the CDM with fructose increased glucose accumulation by 83%, 32%, 27%, and 14%, respectively. Conclusion The rapid, non-genomic upregulation of SGLT1 by bacterial metabolites is a heretofore unrecognized interaction between probiotics and the intestinal epithelium. PMID:20089192

  3. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Products Used in Shrimp Culture.

    PubMed

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Christensen, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M; Phu, Tran Minh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used in aquaculture to control diseases and improve feed digestion and pond water quality; however, little is known about the antimicrobial resistance properties of such probiotic bacteria and to what extent they may contribute to the development of bacterial resistance in aquaculture ponds. Concerns have been raised that the declared information on probiotic product labels are incorrect and information on bacterial composition are often missing. We therefore evaluated seven probiotics commonly used in Vietnamese shrimp culture for their bacterial species content, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance and associated transferable resistance genes. The bacterial species was established by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 125 representative bacterial isolates. MIC testing was done for a range of antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing of six multiple antimicrobial resistant Bacillus spp. used to identify resistance genes and genetic elements associated with horizontal gene transfer. Thirteen bacterial species declared on the probiotic products could not be identified and 11 non-declared Bacillus spp. were identified. Although our culture-based isolation and identification may have missed a few bacterial species present in the tested products this would represent minor bias, but future studies may apply culture independent identification methods like pyro sequencing. Only 6/60 isolates were resistant to more than four antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing showed that they contained macrolide (ermD), tetracycline (tetL), phenicol (fexA) and trimethoprim (dfrD, dfrG and dfrK) resistance genes, but not known structures associated with horizontal gene transfer. Probiotic bacterial strains used in Vietnamese shrimp culture seem to contribute with very limited types and numbers of resistance genes compared to the naturally occurring bacterial species in aquaculture environments. Approval procedures of probiotic products must be strengthened

  4. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Products Used in Shrimp Culture

    PubMed Central

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md.; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Christensen, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Phu, Tran Minh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used in aquaculture to control diseases and improve feed digestion and pond water quality; however, little is known about the antimicrobial resistance properties of such probiotic bacteria and to what extent they may contribute to the development of bacterial resistance in aquaculture ponds. Concerns have been raised that the declared information on probiotic product labels are incorrect and information on bacterial composition are often missing. We therefore evaluated seven probiotics commonly used in Vietnamese shrimp culture for their bacterial species content, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance and associated transferable resistance genes. The bacterial species was established by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 125 representative bacterial isolates. MIC testing was done for a range of antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing of six multiple antimicrobial resistant Bacillus spp. used to identify resistance genes and genetic elements associated with horizontal gene transfer. Thirteen bacterial species declared on the probiotic products could not be identified and 11 non-declared Bacillus spp. were identified. Although our culture-based isolation and identification may have missed a few bacterial species present in the tested products this would represent minor bias, but future studies may apply culture independent identification methods like pyro sequencing. Only 6/60 isolates were resistant to more than four antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing showed that they contained macrolide (ermD), tetracycline (tetL), phenicol (fexA) and trimethoprim (dfrD, dfrG and dfrK) resistance genes, but not known structures associated with horizontal gene transfer. Probiotic bacterial strains used in Vietnamese shrimp culture seem to contribute with very limited types and numbers of resistance genes compared to the naturally occurring bacterial species in aquaculture environments. Approval procedures of probiotic products must be strengthened

  5. Probiotics: In Depth

    MedlinePlus

    ... the 30 days before the survey. What the Science Says About the Effectiveness of Probiotics Researchers have ... FDA before it can be sold. What the Science Says About the Safety and Side Effects of ...

  6. Basics of Probiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... in our bodies. In fact, microorganisms in the human body outnumber human cells by 10 to 1. Many ... probiotic microorganisms and have different effects in the human body. The effects also may vary from person to ...

  7. Long term repeated fire disturbance alters soil bacterial diversity but not the abundance in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ju-pei; Chen, C R; Lewis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Effects of fire on biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystem are widely acknowledged, while few studies have focused on the bacterial community under the disturbance of long-term frequent prescribed fire. In this study, three treatments (burning every two years (B2), burning every four years (B4) and no burning (B0)) were applied for 38 years in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest. Results showed that bacterial alpha diversity (i.e. bacterial OTU) in the top soil (0-10 cm) was significantly higher in the B2 treatment compared with the B0 and B4 treatments. Non-metric multidimensional analysis (NMDS) of bacterial community showed clear separation of the soil bacterial community structure among different fire frequency regimes and between the depths. Different frequency fire did not have a substantial effect on bacterial composition at phylum level or bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance. Soil pH and C:N ratio were the major drivers for bacterial community structure in the most frequent fire treatment (B2), while other factors (EC, DOC, DON, MBC, NH4(+), TC and TN) were significant in the less frequent burning and no burning treatments (B4 and B0). This study suggested that burning had a dramatic impact on bacterial diversity but not abundance with more frequent fire. PMID:26787458

  8. Long term repeated fire disturbance alters soil bacterial diversity but not the abundance in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ju-pei; Chen, C. R.; Lewis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Effects of fire on biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystem are widely acknowledged, while few studies have focused on the bacterial community under the disturbance of long-term frequent prescribed fire. In this study, three treatments (burning every two years (B2), burning every four years (B4) and no burning (B0)) were applied for 38 years in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest. Results showed that bacterial alpha diversity (i.e. bacterial OTU) in the top soil (0–10 cm) was significantly higher in the B2 treatment compared with the B0 and B4 treatments. Non-metric multidimensional analysis (NMDS) of bacterial community showed clear separation of the soil bacterial community structure among different fire frequency regimes and between the depths. Different frequency fire did not have a substantial effect on bacterial composition at phylum level or bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance. Soil pH and C:N ratio were the major drivers for bacterial community structure in the most frequent fire treatment (B2), while other factors (EC, DOC, DON, MBC, NH4+, TC and TN) were significant in the less frequent burning and no burning treatments (B4 and B0). This study suggested that burning had a dramatic impact on bacterial diversity but not abundance with more frequent fire. PMID:26787458

  9. Long term repeated fire disturbance alters soil bacterial diversity but not the abundance in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ju-Pei; Chen, C. R.; Lewis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Effects of fire on biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystem are widely acknowledged, while few studies have focused on the bacterial community under the disturbance of long-term frequent prescribed fire. In this study, three treatments (burning every two years (B2), burning every four years (B4) and no burning (B0)) were applied for 38 years in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest. Results showed that bacterial alpha diversity (i.e. bacterial OTU) in the top soil (0-10 cm) was significantly higher in the B2 treatment compared with the B0 and B4 treatments. Non-metric multidimensional analysis (NMDS) of bacterial community showed clear separation of the soil bacterial community structure among different fire frequency regimes and between the depths. Different frequency fire did not have a substantial effect on bacterial composition at phylum level or bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance. Soil pH and C:N ratio were the major drivers for bacterial community structure in the most frequent fire treatment (B2), while other factors (EC, DOC, DON, MBC, NH4+, TC and TN) were significant in the less frequent burning and no burning treatments (B4 and B0). This study suggested that burning had a dramatic impact on bacterial diversity but not abundance with more frequent fire.

  10. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  11. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  12. Bioactives from probiotics for dermal health: functions and benefits.

    PubMed

    Lew, L-C; Liong, M-T

    2013-05-01

    Probiotics have been extensively reviewed for decades, emphasizing on improving general gut health. Recently, more studies showed that probiotics may exert other health-promoting effects beyond gut well-being, attributed to the rise of the gut-brain axis correlations. Some of these new benefits include skin health such as improving atopic eczema, atopic dermatitis, healing of burn and scars, skin-rejuvenating properties and improving skin innate immunity. Increasing evidence has also showed that bacterial compounds such as cell wall fragments, their metabolites and dead bacteria can elicit certain immune responses on the skin and improve skin barrier functions. This review aimed to underline the mechanisms or the exact compounds underlying the benefits of bacterial extract on the skin based on evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies. This review could be of help in screening of probiotic strains with potential dermal enhancing properties for topical applications. PMID:23311666

  13. Probiotics: "living drugs".

    PubMed

    Elmer, G W

    2001-06-15

    The uses, mechanisms of action, and safety of probiotics are discussed. Probiotics are live microorganisms or microbial mixtures administered to improve the patient's microbial balance, particularly the environment of the gastrointestinal tract and the vagina. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and the bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus, strain GG, have shown efficacy in clinical trials for the prevention of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea. Other probiotics that have demonstrated at least some promise as prophylaxis for this type of diarrhea are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Enterococcus faecium. The use of S. boulardii as an adjunctive treatment to therapy with metronidazole or vancomycin has been found in controlled studies to decrease further recurrences of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Other gastrointestinal disorders for which probiotics have been studied include traveler's diarrhea, acute infantile diarrhea, and acute diarrhea in adults. Several Lactobacillus species given in yogurt or in tablet or suppository form have shown clinical efficacy as a treatment for vaginal infections. Lactobacillus strains have also been examined as a treatment for urinary-tract infections. Putative mechanisms of action of probiotics include production of pathogen-inhibitory substances, inhibition of pathogen attachment, inhibition of the action of microbial toxins, stimulation of immunoglobulin A, and trophic effects on intestinal mucosa. The available probiotics are considered nonpathogenic, but even benign microorganisms can be infective when a patient is severely debilitated or immunosuppressed. Probiotics have demonstrated an ability to prevent and treat some infections. Effective use of probiotics could decrease patients' exposure to antimicrobials. Additional controlled studies are needed to clearly define the safety and efficacy of these agents. PMID:11449853

  14. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. Researchers have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen so...

  15. [Autochthonous microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics].

    PubMed

    Suárez, Juan Evaristo

    2015-01-01

    The autochthonous microbiota is the community of microorganisms that colonizes the skin and mucosal surfaces. The symbiosis is, generally, mutualistic but it can become parasitic due to immune response alterations. The skin microbiota includes bacteria (95%), lipophilic fungi and mites. In the digestive apparatus, each cavity presents its own microbiota, which reaches its target organ during the perinatal period, originating complex and stable communities (homeostasis). The vaginal microbiota varies with the endocrine activity, significantly increasing during the fertile and pregnancy periods, when lactobacilli are the most abundant organisms. Four are the main benefits of the autochthonous microbiota: i) delivery of essential nutrients, such as vitamins and some amino acids; ii) utilization of undigestible diet components, the colonic microbiota degrades complex glycans and fulfils almost 20% of the calories present in a normal diet; iii) development of the immune system: the continuous contact with the immune system maintains it alert and in good shape to repel pathogens efficaciously and iv) microbial antagonism, hinders colonization of our mucosal surfaces by alochthonous, potentially pathogenic, organisms. This works through three mechanisms: colonization interference, production of antimicrobials and co-aggregation with the potential pathogens. The microbiota can, sporadically, produce damages: opportunistic endogenous infections and generation of carcinogenic compounds. Probiotics are "live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the consumer". Prebiotics are undigestible glycans that enhance the growth or activity of the intestinal microbiota, thus generating a health benefit. Synbiotics are mixes of probiotics and prebiotics that exert a synergistic health effect. PMID:25659048

  16. Current status of practical applications: Probiotics in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gastrointestinal microbial population of dairy cattle is dense and diverse, and can be utilized to reduce pathogenic bacterial populations as well as improve animal productivity and environmental impacts. Because of the nature of the dairy industry, probiotic products have been widely used to e...

  17. Genes and Molecules of Lactobacilli Supporting Probiotic Action

    PubMed Central

    Lebeer, Sarah; Vanderleyden, Jos; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Lactobacilli have been crucial for the production of fermented products for centuries. They are also members of the mutualistic microbiota present in the human gastrointestinal and urogenital tract. Recently, increasing attention has been given to their probiotic, health-promoting capacities. Many human intervention studies demonstrating health effects have been published. However, as not all studies resulted in positive outcomes, scientific interest arose regarding the precise mechanisms of action of probiotics. Many reported mechanistic studies have addressed mainly the host responses, with less attention being focused on the specificities of the bacterial partners, notwithstanding the completion of Lactobacillus genome sequencing projects, and increasing possibilities of genomics-based and dedicated mutant analyses. In this emerging and highly interdisciplinary field, microbiologists are facing the challenge of molecular characterization of probiotic traits. This review addresses the advances in the understanding of the probiotic-host interaction with a focus on the molecular microbiology of lactobacilli. Insight into the molecules and genes involved should contribute to a more judicious application of probiotic lactobacilli and to improved screening of novel potential probiotics. PMID:19052326

  18. Probiotics and prebiotics: immunological and clinical effects in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mimi L K

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in immune development and may play a role in the development of allergic disorders. Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota may therefore offer an approach to the prevention or treatment of allergic diseases. Probiotics and prebiotics, used alone or together (synbiotics), can influence the intestinal microbiota and modulate immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Clinical studies suggest a potential role for selected probiotics (alone or in combination with prebiotics) in the prevention of atopic eczema. A prenatal component of treatment appears important for beneficial effects. Effects are dependent upon the specific bacteria and characteristics of the study population. One study reported beneficial effects for prebiotics in the prevention of eczema in high-risk infants, however, further studies are required to confirm this. The use of probiotics in the treatment of allergic disease is less promising. A Cochrane meta-analysis concluded that probiotics are not effective for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Probiotic effects in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis are conflicting. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics offer potential treatments for the prevention of atopic eczema; however, there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend their use in clinical practice. Studies to clarify the optimal dose, bacterial species/strains, whether there is added benefit with synbiotics, the optimal timing for intervention, and the patient populations who would benefit most from such therapies are warranted. PMID:19710525

  19. A reassessment of the PROPATRIA study and its implications for probiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Bongaerts, Ger P A; Severijnen, René S V M

    2016-01-01

    The PROPATRIA (Probiotics in Pancreatitis Trial) study was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that aimed to reduce infectious complications in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis by the enteral use of a multispecies probiotic preparation. An unprecedented 24 of 152 patients (16%) in the group receiving probiotics died versus 9 of 144 (6%) in the placebo group. This high mortality rate in the probiotic-treated group contrasts strongly with observations from a previous smaller study and from our observations regarding the effects of abundant intestinal lactobacilli in patients with short small bowel (SSB) syndrome. We argue here that a lethal combination of mainly proteolytic pancreas enzymes and probiotic therapy resulted in the high mortality rate of the PROPATRIA trial and that elevated levels of lactic acid produced by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates were a key contributing factor. We suggest that probiotic therapy may not be counter-indicated for the prevention of secondary infections associated with acute pancreatitis, provided that future clinical studies (i) start probiotic therapy immediately after first onset of disease symptoms, (ii) limit the supply of fermentable carbohydrates, (iii) prevent bacterial (over)growth of patient's own intestinal flora and (iv) massively increase the dose of probiotic bacteria. PMID:26744983

  20. The enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid alters brain and plasma phospholipid molecular species: further development of a rodent model of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms and altered blood phospholipid profiles have been reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most of the phospholipid analyses have been conducted on the fatty acid composition of isolated phospholipid classes following hydrolysis. A paucity of information exists on how the intact phospholipid molecular species are altered in ASD. We applied ESI/MS to determine how brain and blood intact phospholipid species were altered during the induction of ASD-like behaviors in rats following intraventricular infusions with the enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid. Animals were infused daily for 8 days, locomotor activity assessed, and animals killed during the induced behaviors. Propionic acid infusions increased locomotor activity. Lipid analysis revealed treatment altered 21 brain and 30 blood phospholipid molecular species. Notable alterations were observed in the composition of brain SM, diacyl mono and polyunsaturated PC, PI, PS, PE, and plasmalogen PC and PE molecular species. These alterations suggest that the propionic acid rat model is a useful tool to study aberrations in lipid metabolism known to affect membrane fluidity, peroxisomal function, gap junction coupling capacity, signaling, and neuroinflammation, all of which may be associated with the pathogenesis of ASD. PMID:22747852

  1. Is There a Role for Probiotics in the Prevention of Preterm Birth?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Siwen; Reid, Gregor; Challis, John R. G.; Kim, Sung O.; Gloor, Gregory B.; Bocking, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) continues to be a global health challenge. An over-production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as an altered maternal vaginal microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammation/infection-associated PTB. Lactobacillus represents the dominant species in the vagina of most healthy pregnant women. The depletion of Lactobacillus in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with an increased risk of PTB. It remains unknown at what point an aberrant vaginal microbiome composition specifically induces the cascade leading to PTB. The ability of oral or vaginal lactobacilli probiotics to reduce BV occurrence and/or dampen inflammation is being considered as a means to prevent PTB. Certain anti-inflammatory properties of lactobacilli suggest potential mechanisms. To date, clinical studies have not been powered with sufficiently high rates of PTB, but overall, there is merit in examining this promising area of clinical science. PMID:25741339

  2. Is there a role for probiotics in the prevention of preterm birth?

    PubMed

    Yang, Siwen; Reid, Gregor; Challis, John R G; Kim, Sung O; Gloor, Gregory B; Bocking, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) continues to be a global health challenge. An over-production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as an altered maternal vaginal microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammation/infection-associated PTB. Lactobacillus represents the dominant species in the vagina of most healthy pregnant women. The depletion of Lactobacillus in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with an increased risk of PTB. It remains unknown at what point an aberrant vaginal microbiome composition specifically induces the cascade leading to PTB. The ability of oral or vaginal lactobacilli probiotics to reduce BV occurrence and/or dampen inflammation is being considered as a means to prevent PTB. Certain anti-inflammatory properties of lactobacilli suggest potential mechanisms. To date, clinical studies have not been powered with sufficiently high rates of PTB, but overall, there is merit in examining this promising area of clinical science. PMID:25741339

  3. Probiotics in the treatment of chronic rhinoconjunctivitis and chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Matthias F; Heath, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (CRS) are relevant health conditions affecting significant percentages of the western population. They are frequently coexisting and aggravating diseases. Both are chronic, noninfectious, and inflammatory conditions sharing to a certain extent important pathophysiologic similarities. Beneficial effects of probiotics are long known to mankind. Research is beginning to unravel the true nature of the human microbiome and its interaction with the immune system. The growing prevalence of atopic diseases in the developed world led to the proposition of the "hygiene hypothesis." Dysbiosis is linked to atopic diseases; probiotic supplementation is able to alter the microbiome and certain probiotic strains have immunomodulatory effects in favour of a suppression of Th-2 and stimulation of a Th1 profile. This review focuses on randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigating clinical parameters in the treatment of chronic rhinitis and CRS. An emerging number of publications demonstrate beneficial effects using probiotics in clinical double-blind placebo-controlled (dbpc) trials in allergic rhinitis (AR). Using probiotics as complementary treatment options in AR seems to be a promising concept although the evidence is of a preliminary nature to date and more convincing trials are needed. There are no current data to support the use of probiotics in non-AR or CRS. PMID:24872820

  4. Selection for Cu-Tolerant Bacterial Communities with Altered Composition, but Unaltered Richness, via Long-Term Cu Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Jeanette; Brandt, Kristian K.; Al-Soud, Waleed A.; Holm, Peter E.; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic metal pollution affects the composition and metal tolerance of soil bacterial communities. However, there is virtually no knowledge concerning the responses of members of specific bacterial taxa (e.g., phyla or classes) to metal toxicity, and contradictory results have been obtained regarding the impact of metals on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness. We used tag-coded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to elucidate the impacts of copper (Cu) on bacterial community composition and diversity within a well-described Cu gradient (20 to 3,537 μg g−1) stemming from industrial contamination with CuSO4 more than 85 years ago. DNA sequence information was linked to analysis of pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) to Cu, as determined by the [3H]leucine incorporation technique, and to chemical characterization of the soil. PICT was significantly correlated to bioavailable Cu, as determined by the results seen with a Cu-specific bioluminescent biosensor strain, demonstrating a specific community response to Cu. The relative abundances of members of several phyla or candidate phyla, including the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrumicrobia, Chloroflexi, WS3, and Planctomycetes, decreased with increasing bioavailable Cu, while members of the dominant phylum, the Actinobacteria, showed no response and members of the Acidobacteria showed a marked increase in abundance. Interestingly, changes in the relative abundances of classes frequently deviated from the responses of the phyla to which they belong. Despite the apparent Cu impacts on Cu resistance and community structure, bioavailable Cu levels did not show any correlation to bacterial OTU richness (97% similarity level). Our report highlights several bacterial taxa responding to Cu and thereby provides new guidelines for future studies aiming to explore the bacterial domain for members of metal-responding taxa. PMID:22904046

  5. [Role of probiotics in obesity management].

    PubMed

    Prados-Bo, Andreu; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Nova, Esther; Marcos, Ascensión

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health issue as it is related to several chronic disorders, including type-2 diabetes, high blood pressure, dyslipemia, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, among others. Novel research shows that the gut microbiota is involved in obesity and metabolic disorders, revealing that obese animal and human subjects have alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota compared to their lean counterparts. Moreover, it has been observed in germ-free mice that transplantation of the microbiota of either obese or lean mice influences body weight, suggesting that the gut ecosystem is a relevant target for weight management. Certain strains of probiotics may regulate body weight by influencing the host's metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune functions. Taken together, our knowledge about the influence of gut microbiota on obesity is progressing. Therefore, modulation of its composition through probiotics may provide new opportunities to manage overweight and obesity. PMID:25659049

  6. Significant alteration of soil bacterial communities and organic carbon decomposition by different long-term fertilization management conditions of extremely low-productivity arable soil in South China.

    PubMed

    Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Guishan; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-06-01

    Different fertilization managements of red soil, a kind of Ferralic Cambisol, strongly affected the soil properties and associated microbial communities. The association of the soil microbial community and functionality with long-term fertilization management in the unique low-productivity red soil ecosystem is important for both soil microbial ecology and agricultural production. Here, 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S recombinant ribonucleic acid genes and GeoChip4-NimbleGen-based functional gene analysis were used to study the soil bacterial community composition and functional genes involved in soil organic carbon degradation. Long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization-induced soil acidification and fertility decline and significantly altered the soil bacterial community, whereas long-term organic fertilization and fallow management improved the soil quality and maintained the bacterial diversity. Short-term quicklime remediation of the acidified soils did not change the bacterial communities. Organic fertilization and fallow management supported eutrophic ecosystems, in which copiotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. However, long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization treatments supported oligotrophic ecosystems, in which oligotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of recalcitrant-C-degrading genes but a lower intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. Quicklime application increased the relative abundance of copiotrophic taxa and crop production, although these effects were utterly inadequate. This study provides insights into the interaction of soil bacterial communities, soil functionality and long-term fertilization management in the red soil ecosystem; these insights are important for improving the fertility of unique low-productivity red soil. PMID:26486414

  7. Changes in vaginal microbiota following antimicrobial and probiotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Macklaim, Jean M.; Clemente, Jose C.; Knight, Rob; Gloor, Gregory B.; Reid, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Background The composition of the vaginal microbiota is known to be important for health. When infections occur, antimicrobial therapy is often poorly efficacious. Objective and design We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize changes in the bacterial microbiota following oral antimicrobial and probiotic interventions. Results While the bacterial vaginal profiles of women with vulvovaginal candidiasis were dominated by lactobacilli as in healthy women, and unchanged by therapy, Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella, Atopobium, Sneathia, and Megasphaera dominated the vagina of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and treatment with tinidazole plus Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14+L. rhamnosus GR-1 resulted in an increased relative abundance of indigenous L. iners or L. crispatus. Conclusions The ability to restore homeostasis provides a rationale for conjoint use of probiotics with antibiotic treatment of BV. PMID:26282697

  8. Whole corn and wet distiller's grains substitution in steam-flaked corn diet alters rumen fermentation and bacterial dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study evaluated effects of whole shelled corn (WSC) in steam-flaked corn (SFC) finishing diets containing differing amounts of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) on ruminal fermentation and shifts in ruminal bacterial populations. A total of 642 heifers (initial body weight (BW) = 412 +/-...

  9. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections.

    PubMed

    Lehtoranta, L; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R

    2014-08-01

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common diseases in humans. A large range of etiologic agents challenge the development of efficient therapies. Research suggests that probiotics are able to decrease the risk or duration of respiratory infection symptoms. However, the antiviral mechanisms of probiotics are unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics on respiratory virus infections and to provide insights on the possible antiviral mechanisms of probiotics. A PubMed and Scopus database search was performed up to January 2014 using appropriate search terms on probiotic and respiratory virus infections in cell models, in animal models, and in humans, and reviewed for their relevance. Altogether, thirty-three clinical trials were reviewed. The studies varied highly in study design, outcome measures, probiotics, dose, and matrices used. Twenty-eight trials reported that probiotics had beneficial effects in the outcome of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and five showed no clear benefit. Only eight studies reported investigating viral etiology from the respiratory tract, and one of these reported a significant decrease in viral load. Based on experimental studies, probiotics may exert antiviral effects directly in probiotic-virus interaction or via stimulation of the immune system. Although probiotics seem to be beneficial in respiratory illnesses, the role of probiotics on specific viruses has not been investigated sufficiently. Due to the lack of confirmatory studies and varied data available, more randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials in different age populations investigating probiotic dose response, comparing probiotic strains/genera, and elucidating the antiviral effect mechanisms are necessary. PMID:24638909

  10. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed. PMID:23320906

  11. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mikiko; Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol. Objective To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies. Methods Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control). Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed. Results Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics) produced changes in total cholesterol (TC) (mean difference –0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.27 to –0.07 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (mean difference –0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.30 to –0.13 mmol/L). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (>4-week) probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤4-week) intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains. Conclusions In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk

  12. Probiotics for inflammatory bowel disease: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Sans, Miquel

    2009-01-01

    The notion that the intestinal microbiota plays a key role for the development of intestinal inflammation, initially based on a series of clinical observations both in human inflammatory bowel disease and experimental colitis, has been reinforced by a growing body of evidence demonstrating that the abnormal recognition of bacterial and other microbiota antigens by the innate immune system is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. In keeping with our present knowledge of inflammatory bowel disease pathophysiology, the search for therapeutic approaches aimed at modifying the composition of the intestinal microbiota to obtain new, more targeted treatments for inflammatory bowel disease that are basically free of side effects has been a subject of intense research activity. Probiotics are defined as live organisms capable of conferring health benefits beyond their nutritional properties. Numerous micro-organisms have been evaluated to induce or maintain remission, or both, in ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and pouchitis. Overall, probiotics have successfully demonstrated some efficacy in some inflammatory bowel disease scenarios. However, a critical review of the available scientific literature shows that: (1) in spite of great expectations, reflected by a high number of review and editorial articles in top journals, the number of published, well-designed clinical trials using probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease is small, often with few patients; (2) the range of microbial agents makes it particularly difficult to draw global conclusions; (3) the quality of the evidence on the efficacy of probiotics in pouchitis is clearly better than that in ulcerative colitis, while there is virtually no evidence of probiotic efficacy in Crohn's disease. The appropriate selection of probiotic agents combined with convincing clinical trials will determine whether probiotics can jump from promise to reality in inflammatory bowel disease

  13. The role of probiotics in the inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni colonization and virulence attenuation.

    PubMed

    Mohan, V

    2015-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenterocolitis worldwide, leading to diarrhea and other serious post-infectious complications. Probiotics form an attractive alternative intervention strategy for most of the enteric infections. However, the role of probiotics in C. jejuni infections requires detailed investigations in order to delineate the probiotic strains that are effective against C. jejuni. Although there are several biological mechanisms involved in the inhibition of pathogenic bacterial growth, the strains of probiotics and their mechanisms of actions through which they combat C. jejuni invasion have not been studied in greater detail. This mini review details the factors that are involved in the colonization and establishment of C. jejuni infection, with special reference to chickens, the natural host of C. jejuni, and the studies that have investigated the effect of different probiotic strains against C. jejuni colonization and growth. This review has collated the studies conducted using probiotics to inhibit C. jejuni colonization and growth to date to provide a collective knowledge about the role of probiotics as an alternative intervention strategy for campylobacteriosis. PMID:25934376

  14. Oral Administration of Fermented Probiotics Improves the Condition of Feces in Adult Horses

    PubMed Central

    ISHIZAKA, Saori; MATSUDA, Akira; AMAGAI, Yosuke; OIDA, Kumiko; JANG, Hyosun; UEDA, Yuko; TAKAI, Masaki; TANAKA, Akane; MATSUDA, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of probiotics on horses are still controversial. The present study was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the ability of probiotics to improve intestinal conditions in adult horses. Fermented probiotics were administered to 10 healthy adult geldings for 28 days. The clinical condition of the horses was monitored daily, and the blood and feces were biochemically analyzed every 14 days. In the probiotic-treated group, the concentration of carboxylic acids in the feces was increased at days 14 and 28. In contrast to the fecal pH in the control group, which increased at days 14 and 28, the fecal pH in the probiotic-treated group did not increase. Additionally, the relative amounts of enteropathogenic bacterial DNA were diminished in the probiotic-treated group. These results suggest that probiotic bacteria proliferated in the equine intestine. No instances of abnormal clinical conditions or abnormal values in blood tests were observed throughout the study. Oral administration of fermented probiotics may have the ability to improve the intestinal environment biochemically and microbiologically without the risk of adverse effects. PMID:25558179

  15. Oral Bacteria as Potential Probiotics for the Pharyngeal Mucosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Taverniti, Valentina; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; Stuknyte, Milda; Karp, Matti; Mora, Diego

    2010-01-01

    The research described here was aimed at the selection of oral bacteria that displayed properties compatible with their potential use as probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa. We included in the study 56 bacteria newly isolated from the pharynges of healthy donors, which were identified at the intraspecies level and characterized in vitro for their probiotic potential. The experiments led us to select two potential probiotic bacterial strains (Streptococcus salivarius RS1 and ST3) and to compare them with the prototype oral probiotic S. salivarius strain K12. All three strains efficiently bound to FaDu human epithelial pharyngeal cells and thereby antagonized Streptococcus pyogenes adhesion and growth. All were sensitive to a variety of antibiotics routinely used for the control of upper respiratory tract infections. Immunological in vitro testing on a FaDu layer revealed different responses to RS1, ST3, and K12. RS1 and ST3 modulated NF-κB activation and biased proinflammatory cytokines at baseline and after interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induction. In conclusion, we suggest that the selected commensal streptococci represent potential pharyngeal probiotic candidates. They could display a good degree of adaptation to the host and possess potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:20418429

  16. New insights into the bioactivity of peptides from probiotics.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Pati, Bikas R; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Franco, Octavio L

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are unique bacteria that offer several therapeutic benefits to human beings when administered in optimum amounts. Probiotics are able to produce antimicrobial substances, which stimulate the body's immune responses. Here, we review in detail the anti-infective peptides derived from probiotics and their potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities, including a major role in cross-talk between probiotics and gut microbiota under adverse conditions. Insights from the engineered cell surface of probiotics may provide novel anti-infective therapy by heterologous expression of receptor peptides of bacterial toxins. It may be possible to use antigenic peptides from viral pathogens as live vaccines. Another possibility is to generate antiviral peptides that bind directly to virus particles, while some peptides exert anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Some extracellular polymeric substances might serve as anti-infective peptides. These avenues of treatment have remained largely unexplored to date, despite their potential in generating powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-infective products. PMID:27100351

  17. Probiotics in Pediatric Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Miloh, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    The gut-liver axis involves complex interaction between the intestinal microbiome and the liver parenchyma. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are used in a variety of diseases. With currently only 2 randomized-controlled studies (one with Lactobacillus GG and the other with VSL #3), data are scarce to support the clinical effect of probiotic use in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. There is evidence that probiotics decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and thereby reduce the prevalence of total parenteral nutrition-induced chronic liver disease. Probiotics are used with a few reported positive outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis and familial hypercholesterolemia and may be promising in other liver conditions. Probiotics are generally safe and well tolerated in children, premature infants, and in patients after liver transplantation. Large, prospective, randomized clinical trials are needed to evaluate the benefit of probiotics in children with liver diseases. PMID:26447962

  18. Risk and Safety of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Doron, Shira; Snydman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have been used safely for years. Safety outcomes are inconsistently reported in published clinical trials. In 2011, a report released by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality concluded that, although the existing probiotic clinical trials reveal no evidence of increased risk, “the current literature is not well equipped to answer questions on the safety of probiotics in intervention studies with confidence.” Critics point out that the preponderance of evidence, including the long history of safe probiotic use as well as data from clinical trials, and animal and in vitro studies all support the assumption that probiotics are generally safe for most populations. Theoretical risks have been described in case reports, clinical trial results and experimental models, include systemic infections, deleterious metabolic activities, excessive immune stimulation in susceptible individuals, gene transfer and gastrointestinal side effects. More research is needed to properly describe the incidence and severity of adverse events related to probiotics. PMID:25922398

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis of a potentially probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10 for the identification of key proteins involved in antibiotic resistance and biocide tolerance.

    PubMed

    Casado Muñoz, María del Carmen; Benomar, Nabil; Ennahar, Saïd; Horvatovich, Peter; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Knapp, Charles W; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2016-04-01

    Probiotic bacterial cultures require resistance mechanisms to avoid stress-related responses under challenging environmental conditions; however, understanding these traits is required to discern their utility in fermentative food preparations, versus clinical and agricultural risk. Here, we compared the proteomic responses of Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10, a potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives, exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics (amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline) and biocides (benzalkonium chloride and triclosan). Several genes became differentially expressed depending on antimicrobial exposure, such as the up-regulation of protein synthesis, and the down-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. The antimicrobials appeared to have altered Lb. pentosus MP-10 physiology to achieve a gain of cellular energy for survival. For example, biocide-adapted Lb. pentosus MP-10 exhibited a down-regulated phosphocarrier protein HPr and an unexpressed oxidoreductase. However, protein synthesis was over-expressed in antibiotic- and biocide-adapted cells (ribosomal proteins and glutamyl-tRNA synthetase), possibly to compensate for damaged proteins targeted by antimicrobials. Furthermore, stress proteins, such as NADH peroxidase (Npx) and a small heat shock protein, were only over-expressed in antibiotic-adapted Lb. pentosus MP-10. Results showed that adaptation to sub-lethal concentrations of antimicrobials could be a good way to achieve desirable robustness of the probiotic Lb. pentosus MP-10 to various environmental and gastrointestinal conditions (e.g., acid and bile stresses). PMID:26827291

  20. Urogenital infections in women: can probiotics help?

    PubMed Central

    Reid, G; Bruce, A

    2003-01-01

    Urogenital infections not caused by sexual transmission, namely yeast vaginitis, bacterial vaginosis, and urinary tract infection remain a major medical problem in terms of the number of women afflicted each year. Although antimicrobial therapy is generally effective at eradicating these infections, there is still a high incidence of recurrence. The patient's quality of life is affected and many women become frustrated by the cycle of repeated antimicrobial agents whose effectiveness is diminishing due to increasing development of microbial resistance. There is good clinical evidence to show that the intestinal and urogenital microbial flora have a central role in maintaining both the health and wellbeing of humans. Furthermore, the use of "good bacteria" to replace or augment bacterial populations is gradually achieving scientific acceptance. This application is termed probiotics: "live micro-organisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host". The role of the intestinal, vaginal, and urethral flora and probiotics in urogenital health will be the focus of this review. PMID:12954951

  1. Cohabitation in the Intestine: Interactions among Helminth Parasites, Bacterial Microbiota, and Host Immunity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2015-11-01

    Both intestinal helminth parasites and certain bacterial microbiota species have been credited with strong immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies reported that the presence of helminth infection alters the composition of the bacterial intestinal microbiota and, conversely, that the presence and composition of the bacterial microbiota affect helminth colonization and persistence within mammalian hosts. This article reviews recent findings on these reciprocal relationships, in both human populations and mouse models, at the level of potential mechanistic pathways and the implications these bear for immunomodulatory effects on allergic and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the multidirectional complex interactions among intestinal microbes, helminth parasites, and the host immune system allows for a more holistic approach when using probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and anthelmintics, as well as when designing treatments for autoimmune and allergic conditions. PMID:26477048

  2. Probiotics for infantile colic: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infantile colic is a common paediatric condition which causes significant parental distress. Increased intestinal coliform colonization in addition to alteration in Lactobacillus abundance and distribution may play an important role in its pathogenesis. The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate the efficacy of probiotic supplementation in the reduction of crying time and successful treatment of infantile colic. Methods Literature searches were conducted of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only randomized controlled trials enrolling term, healthy infants with colic were included. A meta-analysis of included trials was performed utilizing the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Results Three trials that enrolled 220 breastfed infants met inclusion criteria, of which 209 infants were available for analysis. Two of the studies were assessed as good quality. Lactobacillus reuteri (strains-American Type Culture Collection Strain 55730 and DSM 17 938) was the only species utilized in the therapeutic intervention. Two of the trials were industry funded. Probiotic supplementation compared to simethicone or placebo significantly and progressively shortened crying times to 7 days reaching a plateau at three weeks post initiation of therapy [mean difference −56.03 minutes; 95% CI (−59.92, -52.15)]. Similarly, probiotics compared to placebo significantly increased the treatment success of infantile colic with a relative risk (RR) of 0.06; 95% CI (0.01, 0.25) and a number needed to treat of 2. Conclusions Although L. reuteri may be effective as a treatment strategy for crying in exclusively breastfed infants with colic, the evidence supporting probiotic use for the treatment of infant colic or crying in formula-fed infants remains unresolved. Results from larger rigorously designed studies will help draw more definitive conclusions. PMID:24238101

  3. Probiotics for human lactational mastitis.

    PubMed

    Fernández, L; Arroyo, R; Espinosa, I; Marín, M; Jiménez, E; Rodríguez, J M

    2014-06-01

    The use of culture-dependent and -independent techniques to study the human milk microbiota and microbiome has revealed a complex ecosystem with a much greater diversity than previously anticipated. The potential role of the milk microbiome appears to have implications not only for short- and long-term infant health but also for mammary health. In fact, mammary disbiosis, which may be triggered by a variety of host, microbial and medical factors, often leads to acute, subacute or subclinical mastitis, a condition that represents the first medical cause for undesired weaning. Multiresistance to antibiotics, together with formation of biofilms and mechanisms for evasion of the host immune response, is a common feature among the bacterial agents involved. This explains why this condition uses to be elusive to antibiotic therapy and why the development of new strategies for mastitis management based on probiotics is particularly appealing. In fact, selected lactobacilli strains isolated from breast milk have already shown a high efficacy for treatment. PMID:24463206

  4. [Pre- and probiotic cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Simmering, R; Breves, R

    2009-10-01

    The human skin provides a habitat for a variety of microorganisms, the skin microflora. There is a complex network of interactions between the microbes and cells of the epidermis. Modern analytical methods in molecular biology have revealed new insights into this complex diversity of partially unculturable microbial organisms. Most of the resident microbes on healthy skin can be regarded as being harmless or even beneficial to skin. In the case of diseases with some imbalance in microorganisms, such as impure skin/mild acne or dry skin/mild atopic dermatitis, pre- and probiotic concepts represent an effective alternative to strictly antibacterial products. Prebiotic actives rebalance the skin microflora while probiotic approaches predominantly consist of applying an inactivated microbial biomass of beneficial bacteria. Several examples of successful in vivo studies illustrate this new principle for gentle cosmetics derived from the food sector. PMID:19711025

  5. Probiotics in children.

    PubMed

    Kligler, Benjamin; Hanaway, Patrick; Cohrssen, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    The gastrointestinal flora plays a complex and important role in the development of healthy immunologic and digestive function in children. Probiotics are safe in healthy children and effective in reducing the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the duration of acute infectious diarrhea. Probiotics may also be effective in preventing community-acquired diarrheal infections, in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants, and in the prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis. The exact strain or combination of strains most effective for common clinical indications has yet to be determined, but the exact strain used seems less important than whether an adequate dose is used (typically 5 to 10 billion CFUs per day or higher). Clinicians should familiarize themselves with the products available because there is a wide range in their quality. PMID:18061785

  6. Latest Developments in Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Frédéric; Falony, Gwen; Vuyst, Luc De

    Probiotic foods are a group of health-promoting, so-called functional foods, with large commercial interest and growing market shares (Arvanitoyannis & van Houwelingen-Koukaliaroglou, 2005). In general, their health benefits are based on the presence of selected strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that, when taken up in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. They are administered mostly through the consumption of fermented milks or yoghurts (Mercenier, Pavan, & Pot, 2003). In addition to their common use in the dairy industry, probiotic LAB strains may be used in other food products too, including fermented meats (Hammes & Hertel, 1998; Incze, 1998; Kröckel, 2006; Työppönen, Petäjä,& Mattila- Sandholm, 2003).

  7. Immune signalling responses in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to pathogenic Escherichia coli and lactic acid-producing probiotics.

    PubMed

    Ho, N K; Hawley, S P; Ossa, J C; Mathieu, O; Tompkins, T A; Johnson-Henry, K C; Sherman, P M

    2013-06-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and adherent-invasive Escherichia coli are two groups of enteric bacterial pathogens associated with haemorrhagic colitis and Crohn's Disease, respectively. Bacterial contact with host epithelial cells stimulates an immediate innate immune response designed to combat infection. In this study, immune responses of human epithelial cells to pathogens, either alone or in combination with probiotic bacteria were studied. Industrially prepared Lactobacillus helveticus strain R0052 was first examined by microarray analysis and then compared to broth-grown strains of R0052 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG using quantitative realt-time polymerase chain reaction. Results showed host immune activation responses increased following pathogen exposure, which were differentially ameliorated using probiotics depending on both the preparation of probiotics employed and conditions of exposure. These findings provide additional support for the concept that specific probiotic strains serve as a promising option for use in preventing the risk of enteric bacterial infections. PMID:23443951

  8. Salinity altered root distribution and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil of Jerusalem artichoke

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Hu, Jinxiang; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between roots and bacterial communities in halophytic species is poorly understood. Here, we used Jerusalem artichoke cultivar Nanyu 1 (NY-1) to characterise root distribution patterns and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil under variable salinity. Root growth was not inhibited within the salinity range 1.2 to 1.9 g salt/kg, but roots were mainly confined to 0–20 cm soil layer vertically and 0–30 cm horizontally from the plant centre. Root concentrations of K+, Na+, Mg2+ and particularly Ca2+ were relatively high under salinity stress. High salinity stress decreased soil invertase and catalase activity. Using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach, we determined higher diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil at high than low salinity. More than 15,500 valid reads were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria predominated in all samples, accounting for >80% of the reads. On a genus level, 636 genera were common to the low and high salinity treatments at 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm depth. The abundance of Steroidobacter and Sphingomonas was significantly decreased by increasing salinity. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices with increasing severity of salt stress indicated that high salt stress increased diversity in the bacterial communities. PMID:26852800

  9. Oral mucosal lipids are antibacterial against Porphyromonas gingivalis, induce ultrastructural damage, and alter bacterial lipid and protein compositions

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Carol L; Walters, Katherine S; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucosal and salivary lipids exhibit potent antimicrobial activity for a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; however, little is known about their spectrum of antimicrobial activity or mechanisms of action against oral bacteria. In this study, we examine the activity of two fatty acids and three sphingoid bases against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal concentrations, and kill kinetics revealed variable, but potent, activity of oral mucosal and salivary lipids against P. gingivalis, indicating that lipid structure may be an important determinant in lipid mechanisms of activity against bacteria, although specific components of bacterial membranes are also likely important. Electron micrographs showed ultrastructural damage induced by sapienic acid and phytosphingosine and confirmed disruption of the bacterial plasma membrane. This information, coupled with the association of treatment lipids with P. gingivalis lipids revealed via thin layer chromatography, suggests that the plasma membrane is a likely target of lipid antibacterial activity. Utilizing a combination of two-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis and Western blot followed by mass spectroscopy and N-terminus degradation sequencing we also show that treatment with sapienic acid induces upregulation of a set of proteins comprising a unique P. gingivalis stress response, including proteins important in fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism and energy production, protein processing, cell adhesion and virulence. Prophylactic or therapeutic lipid treatments may be beneficial for intervention of infection by supplementing the natural immune function of endogenous lipids on mucosal surfaces. PMID:23867843

  10. Salinity altered root distribution and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil of Jerusalem artichoke.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Hu, Jinxiang; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between roots and bacterial communities in halophytic species is poorly understood. Here, we used Jerusalem artichoke cultivar Nanyu 1 (NY-1) to characterise root distribution patterns and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil under variable salinity. Root growth was not inhibited within the salinity range 1.2 to 1.9 g salt/kg, but roots were mainly confined to 0-20 cm soil layer vertically and 0-30 cm horizontally from the plant centre. Root concentrations of K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+) and particularly Ca(2+) were relatively high under salinity stress. High salinity stress decreased soil invertase and catalase activity. Using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach, we determined higher diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil at high than low salinity. More than 15,500 valid reads were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria predominated in all samples, accounting for >80% of the reads. On a genus level, 636 genera were common to the low and high salinity treatments at 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depth. The abundance of Steroidobacter and Sphingomonas was significantly decreased by increasing salinity. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices with increasing severity of salt stress indicated that high salt stress increased diversity in the bacterial communities. PMID:26852800