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Sample records for probiotics lactobacillus gasseri

  1. Genomic and phenotypic evidence for probiotic influences of Lactobacillus gasseri on human health.

    PubMed

    Selle, Kurt; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2013-11-01

    Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the capacity to occupy mucosal niches of humans, including the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina. Among commensal, LAB are species of the acidophilus complex, which have proven to be a substantial reservoir for microorganisms with probiotic attributes. Specifically, Lactobacillus gasseri is an autochthonous microorganism which has been evaluated for probiotic activity based on the availability of genome sequence and species-specific adaptation to the human mucosa. Niche-related characteristics of L. gasseri contributing to indigenous colonization include tolerance of low pH environments, resistance to bile salts, and adhesion to the host epithelium. In humans, L. gasseri elicits various health benefits through its antimicrobial activity, bacteriocin production, and immunomodulation of the innate and adaptive systems. The genomic and empirical evidence supporting use of L. gasseri in probiotic applications is substantiated by clinical trial data displaying maintenance of vaginal homeostasis, mitigation of Helicobacter pylori infection, and amelioration of diarrhea. PMID:23488471

  2. Expression of Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase gene in Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus johnsonii and characterization of the genetically modified probiotic lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Cho, J S; Choi, Y J; Chung, D K

    2000-04-01

    Endoglucanase A from Clostridium thermocellum resistant to pancreatic proteinase was selected out of a range of microbial cellulases expressed in lactobacilli. Two Lactobacillus-E. coli expression vectors, harboring the endoglucanase gene from C. thermocellum under the control of its own promoter (pSD1) and the Lactococcus lactis lac A promoter (pSD2), were constructed separately. Intestinal Lactobacillus strains, L. gasseri and L. johnsonii, were electrotransformed with pSD1 and pSD2, and the stability of each plasmid was evaluated. The endoglucanase activities of 0.722 and 0.759 U/ml were respectively found in culture medium of L. gasseri and L. johnsonii containing pSD1, and of 0.407 U/ml in medium of L. gasseri harboring pSD2. When the probiotic characteristics such as acid-tolerance, bile-salt tolerance, and antibiotic susceptibility were investigated, L. gasseri and L. johnsonii were resistant to low pHs of 2 and 3. Also, L. johnsonii was bile-salt resistant in the presence of 0.5% oxgall and porcine bile extract. L. johnsonii and L. gasseri showed a rather homogeneous resistant pattern against tested antibiotics. Both strains were resistant to amikacin, bacitracin, gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and colistin. PMID:10688695

  3. Inulin and levan synthesis by probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri strains: characterization of three novel fructansucrase enzymes and their fructan products.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Munir A; Kralj, Slavko; Piqué, Anna Villar; Leemhuis, Hans; van der Maarel, Marc J E C; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2010-04-01

    Fructansucrase enzymes polymerize the fructose moiety of sucrose into levan or inulin fructans, with beta(2-6) and beta(2-1) linkages, respectively. Here, we report an evaluation of fructan synthesis in three Lactobacillus gasseri strains, identification of the fructansucrase-encoding genes and characterization of the recombinant proteins and fructan (oligosaccharide) products. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and polymers produced by the L. gasseri strains and the recombinant enzymes revealed that, in situ, L. gasseri strains DSM 20604 and 20077 synthesize inulin (and oligosaccharides) and levan products, respectively. L. gasseri DSM 20604 is only the second Lactobacillus strain shown to produce inulin polymer and FOS in situ, and is unique in its distribution of FOS synthesized, ranging from DP2 to DP13. The probiotic bacterium L. gasseri DSM 20243 did not produce any fructan, although we identified a fructansucrase-encoding gene in its genome sequence. Further studies showed that this L. gasseri DSM 20243 gene was prematurely terminated by a stop codon. Exchanging the stop codon for a glutamine codon resulted in a recombinant enzyme producing inulin and FOS. The three recombinant fructansucrase enzymes characterized from three different L. gasseri strains have very similar primary protein structures, yet synthesize different fructan products. An interesting feature of the L. gasseri strains is that they were unable to ferment raffinose, whereas their respective recombinant enzymes converted raffinose into fructan and FOS. PMID:20075040

  4. Probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 improves glucose tolerance and reduces body weight gain in rats by stimulating energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Shirouchi, Bungo; Nagao, Koji; Umegatani, Minami; Shiraishi, Aya; Morita, Yukiko; Kai, Shunichi; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Ogawa, Akihiro; Kadooka, Yukio; Sato, Masao

    2016-08-01

    Probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) reduces postprandial TAG absorption and exerts anti-obesity effects in rats and humans; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we addressed the mechanistic insights of the anti-obesity activity of LG2055 by feeding Sprague-Dawley rats diets containing skimmed milk fermented or not by LG2055 for 4 weeks and by analysing energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, the levels of SCFA in the caecum and serum inflammatory markers. Rats fed the LG2055-containing diet demonstrated significantly higher carbohydrate oxidation in the dark cycle (active phase for rats) compared with the control group, which resulted in a significant increase in energy expenditure. LG2055 significantly reduced cumulative blood glucose levels (AUC) compared with the control diet after 3 weeks and increased the molar ratio of butyrate:total SCFA in the caecum after 4 weeks. Furthermore, the LG2055-supplemented diet significantly reduced the levels of serum amyloid P component - an indicator of the inflammatory process. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that, in addition to the inhibition of dietary TAG absorption reported previously, the intake of probiotic LG2055 enhanced energy expenditure via carbohydrate oxidation, improved glucose tolerance and attenuated inflammation, suggesting multiple additive and/or synergistic actions underlying the anti-obesity effects exerted by LG2055. PMID:27267802

  5. Administration of probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus gasseri K7 during pregnancy and lactation changes mouse mesenteric lymph nodes and mammary gland microbiota.

    PubMed

    Treven, P; Mrak, V; Bogovič Matijašić, B; Horvat, S; Rogelj, I

    2015-04-01

    The milk and mammary gland (MG) microbiome can be influenced by several factors, such as mode of delivery, breastfeeding, maternal lifestyle, health status, and diet. An increasing number of studies show a variety of positive effects of consumption of probiotics during pregnancy and breastfeeding on the mother and the newborn. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oral administration of probiotics Lactobacillus gasseri K7 (LK7) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) during pregnancy and lactation on microbiota of the mouse mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), MG, and milk. Pregnant FVB/N mice were fed skim milk or probiotics LGG or LK7 resuspended in skim milk during gestation and lactation. On d 3 and 8 postpartum, blood, feces, MLN, MG, and milk were analyzed for the presence of LGG or LK7. The effects of probiotics on MLN, MG, and milk microbiota was evaluated by real-time PCR and by 16S ribosomal DNA 454-pyrosequencing. In 5 of 8 fecal samples from the LGG group and in 5 of 8 fecal samples from the LK7 group, more than 1 × 10(3) of live LGG or LK7 bacterial cells were detected, respectively, whereas no viable LGG or LK7 cells were detected in the control group. Live lactic acid bacteria but no LGG or LK7 were detected in blood, MLN, and MG. Both probiotics significantly increased the total bacterial load as assessed by copies of 16S ribosomal DNA in MLN, and a similar trend was observed in MG. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that both probiotics increased the abundance of Firmicutes in MG, especially the abundance of lactic acid bacteria. The Lactobacillus genus appeared exclusively in MG from probiotic groups. Both probiotics influenced MLN microbiota by decreasing diversity (Chao1) and increasing the distribution of species (Shannon index). The LGG probiotic also affected the MG microbiota as it increased diversity and distribution of species and proportions of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. These results provide evidence that

  6. Probiotic (yogurt) containing Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 is effective for preventing Candida albicans-induced mucosal inflammation and proliferation in the forestomach of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Yui; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Uchida, Masayuki; Narama, Isao; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2016-06-01

    Oral and esophageal candidiasis sometimes leads to mucosal hyperplasia, and progresses to carcinoma. We have produced an animal model for hyperplastic mucosal candidiasis in the forestomach that has a proliferative lesion of the squamous epithelium with chronic inflammation and C. albicans infection, some of which advanced to squamous cell carcinoma. There are many reports of the antibacterial effects of probiotics, but consensus about their antifungal effect has not been reached. In the present study, we investigate whether probiotic (yogurt) containing Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 (LG21 yogurt) can prevent proliferative and inflammatory changes caused by C. albicans in this mucosal candidiasis animal model. Diabetes was induced in 8-week-old WBN/Kob rats by intravenous administration of alloxan. One group of diabetic rats received a saline containing C. albicans and LG21 yogurt orally (DC+LG21 group) for 30 weeks, and another group received only C. albicans (DC group) for 30 weeks. They were sacrificed at 40 weeks of age, and analyzed histopathologically. In the DC+LG21 group, squamous hyperplasia at the greater curvature was significantly milder, and the Ki-67 positive index was significantly lower compared with the DC group. Suppurative inflammation with C. albicans also tended to be suppressed at the greater curvature. These findings suggest that probiotic (yogurt) containing Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 can suppress squamous hyperplastic change and inflammation associated with C. albicans infection in the forestomach. PMID:26691696

  7. Lactobacillus gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, for growth in milk.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, K; Matsunaga, K; Takihiro, S; Moritoki, A; Ryuto, S; Kawai, Y; Masuda, T; Miyamoto, T

    2015-03-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri is a widespread commensal lactic acid bacterium inhabiting human mucosal niches and has many beneficial effects as a probiotic. However, L. gasseri is difficult to grow in milk, which hurts usability for the food industry. It had been previously reported that supplementation with yeast extract or proteose peptone, including peptides, enables L. gasseri to grow well in milk. In this study, our objective was to confirm peptide requirement of L. gasseri and evaluate efficacy of peptide release by enzymatic proteolysis on growth of L. gassei in milk. Three strains of L. gasseri did not grow well in modified DeMan, Rogosa, Sharpe broth without any nitrogen sources (MRS-N), but addition of a casein-derived peptide mixture, tryptone, promoted growth. In contrast, little effect was observed after adding casein or a casein-derived amino acid mixture, casamino acids. These results indicate that L. gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, among milk-derived nitrogen sources for growth. Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T hardly had growth capacity in 6 kinds of milk-based media: bovine milk, human milk, skim milk, cheese whey, modified MRS-N (MRSL-N) supplemented with acid whey, and MRSL-N supplemented with casein. Moreover, treatment with digestive proteases, particularly pepsin, to release peptides made it grow well in each milk-based medium. The pepsin treatment was the most effective for growth of strain JCM 1131T in skim milk among the tested food-grade proteases such as trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, calf rennet, ficin, bromelain, and papain. As well as strain JCM 1131T, pepsinolysis of milk improved growth of other L. gasseri strains and some strains of enteric lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus reuteri. These results suggest that some relatives of L. gasseri also use peptides as desirable nitrogen sources, and that milk may be a good supplier of nutritious

  8. Assessment of Lactobacillus gasseri as a Candidate Oral Vaccine Vector ▿

    PubMed Central

    Stoeker, Laura; Nordone, Shila; Gunderson, Sara; Zhang, Lin; Kajikawa, Akinobu; LaVoy, Alora; Miller, Michael; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Dean, Gregg A.

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus species are commensal bacteria that have long been recognized as probiotic microbes and are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) for human consumption. We have investigated the use of L. gasseri as a vaccine vector for oral immunization against mucosal pathogens. Recent research has shown that the immune response to different lactobacilli can vary widely depending on the species or subspecies of Lactobacillus being studied. While some lactobacilli seem to induce oral tolerance, others induce an adaptive immune response. This study characterized the systemic and mucosal immune response to wild-type and genetically modified L. gasseri. L. gasseri primarily activates TLR2/6, with additional activation through the TLR2 homodimer. To expand the Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation profile of L. gasseri and the immunogenicity of the vector, a plasmid containing fliC, the gene encoding bacterial flagellin, was introduced which resulted in the strong activation of TLR5. The treatment of human myeloid dendritic cells with recombinant lactobacilli expressing flagellin triggered phenotypic maturation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, bacterial treatment also resulted in a statistically significant increase in IL-10 production. In vivo studies established that treatment with L. gasseri led to a diversification of B-cell populations in the lamina propria of the murine colon. Furthermore, treatment with genetically modified L. gasseri led to a significant decrease in the percentage of FoxP3+ colonic lymphocytes. Taken together, these data clarify the interaction of L. gasseri with the host immune system and support further investigation of the in vivo immunogenicity of L. gasseri expressing both flagellin and candidate vaccine antigens. PMID:21900526

  9. Spontaneously induced prophages in Lactobacillus gasseri contribute to horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Baugher, J L; Durmaz, E; Klaenhammer, T R

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri is an endogenous species of the human gastrointestinal tract and vagina. With recent advances in microbial taxonomy, phylogenetics, and genomics, L. gasseri is recognized as an important commensal and is increasingly being used in probiotic formulations. L. gasseri strain ADH is lysogenic and harbors two inducible prophages. In this study, prophage adh was found to spontaneously induce in broth cultures to populations of ∼ 10(7) PFU/ml by stationary phase. The adh prophage-cured ADH derivative NCK102 was found to harbor a new, second inducible phage, vB_Lga_jlb1 (jlb1). Phage jlb1 was sequenced and found to be highly similar to the closely related phage LgaI, which resides as two tandem prophages in the neotype strain L. gasseri ATCC 33323. The common occurrence of multiple prophages in L. gasseri genomes, their propensity for spontaneous induction, and the high degree of homology among phages within multiple species of Lactobacillus suggest that temperate bacteriophages likely contribute to horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in commensal lactobacilli. In this study, the host ranges of phages adh and jlb1 were determined against 16 L. gasseri strains. The transduction range and the rate of spontaneous transduction were investigated in coculture experiments to ascertain the degree to which prophages can promote HGT among a variety of commensal and probiotic lactobacilli. Both adh and jlb1 particles were confirmed to mediate plasmid transfer. As many as ∼10(3) spontaneous transductants/ml were obtained. HGT by transducing phages of commensal lactobacilli may have a significant impact on the evolution of bacteria within the human microbiota. PMID:24682298

  10. Milk digesta and milk protein fractions influence the adherence of Lactobacillus gasseri R and Lactobacillus casei FMP to human cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Volstatova, Tereza; Havlik, Jaroslav; Potuckova, Miroslava; Geigerova, Martina

    2016-08-10

    Adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is considered an important feature of probiotic bacteria, which may increase their persistence in the intestine, allowing them to exert their beneficial health effect or promote the colonisation process. However, this feature might be largely dependent on the host specificity or diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of selected milks and milk protein fractions on the ability of selected lactobacilli to adhere to the cells of an intestinal model based on co-culture Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell lines. Most milk digesta did not significantly affect bacterial adhesion except for UHT-treated milk and sheep milk. The presence of UHT-treated milk digesta reduced the adhesion of Lactobacillus gasseri R by 61% but not that of Lactobacillus casei FMP. However, sheep milk significantly increased the adherence of L. casei FMP (P < 0.05) but not of L. gasseri R. Among the protein fractions, rennet casein (RCN) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed reproducible patterns and strain-specific effects on bacterial adherence. While RCN reduced the adherence of L. gasseri R to <50% compared to the control, it did not have a significant effect on L. casei FMP. In contrast, BSA reduced L. casei FMP adherence to a higher extent than that of L. gasseri R. Whey protein (WH) tended to increase the adherence of both strains by 130%-180%. Recently, interactions between the host diet and its microbiota have attracted considerable interest. Our results may explain one of the aspects of the role of milk in the development of microbiota or support of probiotic supplements. Based on our data, we conclude that the persistence of probiotic strains supplemented as part of dairy food or constitutional microbiota in the gut might be affected negatively or positively by the food matrix through complex strain or concentration dependent effects. PMID:27435508

  11. Gassericin A: a circular bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus gasseri.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Neha; Malik, R K; Kaushik, J K; Singroha, Garima

    2013-11-01

    During the recent years extensive efforts have been made to find out bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) active against various food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, and superior stabilities against heat treatments and pH variations. Bacteriocins isolated from LAB have been grouped into four classes. Circular bacteriocins which were earlier grouped among the four groups of bacteriocins, have recently been proposed to be classified into a different class, making it class V bacteriocins. Circular bacteriocins are special molecules, whose precursors must be post translationally modified to join the N to C termini with a head-to-tail peptide bond. Cyclization appears to make them less susceptible to proteolytic cleavage, high temperature and pH, and, therefore, provides enhanced stability as compared to linear bacteriocins. The advantages of circularization are also reflected by the fact that a significant number of macrocyclic natural products have found pharmaceutical applications. Circular bacteriocins were unknown two decades ago, and even to date, only a few circular bacteriocins from a diverse group of Gram positive organisms have been reported. The first example of a circular bacteriocin was enterocin AS-48, produced by Enterococcus faecalis AS-48. Gassereccin A, produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, Reutericin 6 produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LA6 and Circularin A, produced by Clostridium beijerinickii ATCC 25,752, are further examples of this group of antimicrobial peptides. In the present scenario, Gassericin A can be an important tool in the food preservation owing to its properties of high pH and temperature tolerance and the fact that it is produced by LAB L. gasseri, whose many strains are proven probiotic. PMID:23712477

  12. Anaerobic induction of adherence to laminin in Lactobacillus gasseri strains by contact with solid surface.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masanori; Murakami, Takatomo; Sato, Takumi; Tarusawa, Yukiko; Nakamura, Shingo; Toba, Takahiro

    2005-10-01

    The effect of growth conditions on adhesion was studied in six species belonging to Lactobacillus acidophilus homology groups. Namely, 17 strains including 6 fresh isolates of L. gasseri from human feces were assessed for their adherence to immobilized fibronectin, laminin, and type IV collagen. These extracellular matrix proteins were used as a model of damaged intestinal mucosa. When the bacteria were grown on MRS agar under anaerobic conditions, all eight L. gasseri strains and one L. johnsonii strain showed strong adhesiveness to laminin, but not when grown in static MRS broth. A similar pattern was observed in four L. gasseri strains in terms of adherence to fibronectin. No L. gasseri or L. johnsonii strains exhibited adhesion to type IV collagen under either growth condition. Adhesion of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. amylovorus, and L. gallinarum was not affected by the growth conditions. Although protease treatment of L. gasseri cells abolished the adhesion, periodate oxidation of the cells increased it except in one strain. The adherence of L. gasseri cells was diminished by periodate and alpha-mannosidase treatments of immobilized laminin. The above results suggest that mannose-specific proteinaceous adhesion can be induced in L. gasseri by contact with a mucosal surface in the anaerobic intestinal lumen. PMID:16086101

  13. Oral administration of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 is effective for preventing influenza in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Yosuke; Moriya, Tomohiro; Sakai, Fumihiko; Ikeda, Noriko; Shiozaki, Takuya; Hosoya, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Hisako; Miyazaki, Tadaaki

    2014-01-01

    The Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) is a probiotic lactic acid bacterium with properties such as bile tolerance and ability to improve the intestinal environment. In this study, we established that the oral administration of LG2055 exhibits efficacy to protect mice infected with the influenza virus A/PR8. The body weight losses were lower with the LG2055 administration after the PR8 virus infection. At 5 days after the infection, the virus titer was significantly decreased as was the amount of produced IL-6 in the lung tissue, the number of total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was reduced by the LG2055 administration. The expression of the Mx1 and Oas1a genes, critical for the viral clearance in the lung tissues was increased by the pre-treatment with LG2055. These findings suggest that the LG2055 administration is effective for the protection against influenza A virus infection by the down-regulation of viral replication through the induction of antiviral genes expression. PMID:24717726

  14. Wide-Inhibitory Spectra Bacteriocins Produced by Lactobacillus gasseri K7.

    PubMed

    Zorič Peternel, Metoda; Čanžek Majhenič, Andreja; Holo, Helge; Nes, Ingolf F; Salehian, Zhian; Berlec, Aleš; Rogelj, Irena

    2010-12-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the genetic characterization and classification of Lb. gasseri K7 bacteriocins, comparison with bacteriocins of the Lb. gasseri LF221 strain and other related strains. Bacteriocin-encoding genes were amplified by PCR, subjected to DNA sequencing, and BLAST sequence analysis was performed to search the database for homologous peptides. Lb. gasseri K7 produces two two-peptide bacteriocins, named gassericin K7 A and gassericin K7 B. Their nucleotide sequences were deposited at GenBank, under accession numbers EF392861 for the gassericin K7 A and AY307382 for the gassericin K7 B. Analysis of gene clusters of bacteriocins in Lb. gasseri K7 strain revealed a 100 percent sequence identity with bacteriocins in LF221 strain. An active peptide of gassericin K7 B is homologous to the complementary peptide of gassericin T, and a complementary peptide of gassericin K7 B is homologous to the active peptide of gassericin T. Another surprising finding was that the sakacin T-beta peptide is partly homologous to the active peptide of gassericin K7 A, while the other sakacin T peptide (alfa) is partly homologous to the complementary peptide of gassericin K7 B. Gassericins of Lb. gasseri K7 strain were both classified as two-peptide bacteriocins. Human probiotic strains Lb. gasseri K7 and LF221 are different isolates but with identical bacteriocin genes. They produce wide-inhibitory spectra bacteriocins that are new members of two-peptide bacteriocins with some homologies to other bacteriocins in this group. Described bacteriocins offer a great potential in applications in food industry, pharmacy and biomedicine. PMID:26781318

  15. Effects and mechanisms of prolongevity induced by Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hisako; Shiozaki, Takuya; Kobatake, Eiji; Hosoya, Tomohiro; Moriya, Tomohiro; Sakai, Fumihiko; Taru, Hidenori; Miyazaki, Tadaaki

    2016-04-01

    Lactic-acid bacteria are widely recognized beneficial host associated groups of the microbiota of humans and animals. Some lactic-acid bacteria have the ability to extend the lifespan of the model animals. The mechanisms behind the probiotic effects of bacteria are not entirely understood. Recently, we reported the benefit effects of Lactobacillus gasseriSBT2055 (LG2055) on animal and human health, such as preventing influenza A virus, and augmentation of IgA production. Therefore, it was preconceived that LG2055 has the beneficial effects on longevity and/or aging. We examined the effects of LG2055 on lifespan and aging of Caenorhabditis elegans and analyzed the mechanism of prolongevity. Our results demonstrated that LG2055 has the beneficial effects on longevity and anti-aging of C. elegans. Feeding with LG2055 upregulated the expression of the skn-1 gene and the target genes of SKN-1, encoding the antioxidant proteins enhancing antioxidant defense responses. We found that feeding with LG2055 directly activated SKN-1 activity via p38 MAPK pathway signaling. The oxidative stress response is elicited by mitochondrial dysfunction in aging, and we examined the influence of LG2055 feeding on the membrane potential of mitochondria. Here, the amounts of mitochondria were significantly increased by LG2055 feeding in comparison with the control. Our result suggests that feeding with LG2055 is effective to the extend lifespan in C. elegans by a strengthening of the resistance to oxidative stress and by stimulating the innate immune response signaling including p38MAPK signaling pathway and others. PMID:26710940

  16. Occurrence and activity of a type II CRISPR-Cas system in Lactobacillus gasseri.

    PubMed

    Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Selle, Kurt; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Klaenhammer, Todd; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-09-01

    Bacteria encode clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated genes (cas), which collectively form an RNA-guided adaptive immune system against invasive genetic elements. In silico surveys have revealed that lactic acid bacteria harbour a prolific and diverse set of CRISPR-Cas systems. Thus, the natural evolutionary role of CRISPR-Cas systems may be investigated in these ecologically, industrially, scientifically and medically important microbes. In this study, 17 Lactobacillus gasseri strains were investigated and 6 harboured a type II-A CRISPR-Cas system, with considerable diversity in array size and spacer content. Several of the spacers showed similarity to phage and plasmid sequences, which are typical targets of CRISPR-Cas immune systems. Aligning the protospacers facilitated inference of the protospacer adjacent motif sequence, determined to be 5'-NTAA-3' flanking the 3' end of the protospacer. The system in L. gasseri JV-V03 and NCK 1342 interfered with transforming plasmids containing sequences matching the most recently acquired CRISPR spacers in each strain. We report the distribution and function of a native type II-A CRISPR-Cas system in the commensal species L. gasseri. Collectively, these results open avenues for applications for bacteriophage protection and genome modification in L. gasseri, and contribute to the fundamental understanding of CRISPR-Cas systems in bacteria. PMID:26297561

  17. Comparative genomics and transcriptional analysis of prophages identified in the genomes of Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Marco; Canchaya, Carlos; Bernini, Valentina; Altermann, Eric; Barrangou, Rodolphe; McGrath, Stephen; Claesson, Marcus J; Li, Yin; Leahy, Sinead; Walker, Carey D; Zink, Ralf; Neviani, Erasmo; Steele, Jim; Broadbent, Jeff; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; O'toole, Paul W; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2006-05-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC 118, and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 contain one (LgaI), four (Sal1, Sal2, Sal3, Sal4), and one (Lca1) distinguishable prophage sequences, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that LgaI, Lca1, Sal1, and Sal2 prophages belong to the group of Sfi11-like pac site and cos site Siphoviridae, respectively. Phylogenetic investigation of these newly described prophage sequences revealed that they have not followed an evolutionary development similar to that of their bacterial hosts and that they show a high degree of diversity, even within a species. The attachment sites were determined for all these prophage elements; LgaI as well as Sal1 integrates in tRNA genes, while prophage Sal2 integrates in a predicted arginino-succinate lyase-encoding gene. In contrast, Lca1 and the Sal3 and Sal4 prophage remnants are integrated in noncoding regions in the L. casei ATCC 334 and L. salivarius UCC 118 genomes. Northern analysis showed that large parts of the prophage genomes are transcriptionally silent and that transcription is limited to genome segments located near the attachment site. Finally, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis followed by Southern blot hybridization with specific prophage probes indicates that these prophage sequences are narrowly distributed within lactobacilli. PMID:16672450

  18. Improved functionality of fermented milk is mediated by the synbiotic interaction between Cudrania tricuspidata leaf extract and Lactobacillus gasseri strains.

    PubMed

    Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Ji Young; Oh, Sangnam; Joung, Jae Yeon; Kim, Su Gyeong; Shin, Yong Kook; Lee, Kwang-Won; Kim, Sae Hun; Kim, Younghoon

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the cooperative effect of selected Lactobacillus gasseri strains and Cudrania tricuspidata (CT) leaf extract in enhancing the health-promoting activities of fermented milk. Addition of CT increased total bacterial counts and proteolysis during fermentation of milk with L. gasseri strains. Antioxidant capacities were determined by measuring the ABTS, DPPH, and peroxyl radical scavenging activities and ferric reducing power. The antioxidant capacity of CT-supplemented milk was greater than that of milk without supplementation; moreover, the antioxidant activity of CT-supplemented milk was synergistically improved by fermentation with L. gasseri strains. In particular, CT-supplemented milk fermented by L. gasseri 505 showed the highest antioxidant activity. The phenolic compounds in CT, such as neo-chlorogenic, chlorogenic, and caffeic acid, were metabolized during fermentation with L. gasseri strains, and 3,4-dihydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid was produced as a fermentation metabolite. Moreover, the liberation of bioactive peptides of fermented milk was increased by the proteolytic activity of L. gasseri strains. In particular, six peptides, which were mainly derived from β-casein, were newly identified in this study. These findings suggest that L. gasseri strains metabolize the phenolic acids in the CT and the bioactive peptides released through this interaction improve the antioxidant activity of the fermented milk. PMID:26996626

  19. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 inhibits adipose tissue inflammation and intestinal permeability in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Michio; Miyoshi, Masaya; Ogawa, Akihiro; Sakai, Fumihiko; Kadooka, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) has anti-obesity effects. Obesity is closely correlated with inflammation in adipose tissue, and maintaining adipose tissue in a less-inflamed state requires intestinal integrity or a barrier function to protect the intestine from the disruption that can be caused by a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we examined the anti-inflammatory and intestinal barrier-protecting effects of LG2055 in C57BL/6 mice fed a normal-fat diet (NFD), HFD, or the HFD containing LG2055 (HFD-LG) for 21 weeks. HFD-LG intake significantly prevented HFD-induced increases in body weight, visceral fat mass, and the ratio of inflammatory-type macrophages to anti-inflammatory ones in adipose tissue. Mice fed the HFD showed higher intestinal permeability to a fluorescent dextran administered by oral administration and an elevated concentration of antibodies specific to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the blood compared with those fed the NFD, suggesting an increased penetration of the gut contents into the systemic circulation. These elevations of intestinal permeability and anti-LPS antibody levels were significantly suppressed in mice fed the HFD-LG. Moreover, treatment with LG2055 cells suppressed an increase in the cytokine-induced permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayers. These results suggest that LG2055 improves the intestinal integrity, reducing the entry of inflammatory substances like LPS from the intestine, which may lead to decreased inflammation in adipose tissue. PMID:27293560

  20. Analysis of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 reveals the molecular basis of an autochthonous intestinal organism.

    PubMed

    Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Altermann, Eric; Goh, Yong Jun; Tallon, Richard; Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary B; Pfeiler, Erika A; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Buck, B Logan; Dobson, Alleson; Duong, Tri; Miller, Michael J; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2008-08-01

    This study presents the complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323, a neotype strain of human origin and a native species found commonly in the gastrointestinal tracts of neonates and adults. The plasmid-free genome was 1,894,360 bp in size and predicted to encode 1,810 genes. The GC content was 35.3%, similar to the GC content of its closest relatives, L. johnsonii NCC 533 (34%) and L. acidophilus NCFM (34%). Two identical copies of the prophage LgaI (40,086 bp), of the Sfi11-like Siphoviridae phage family, were integrated tandomly in the chromosome. A number of unique features were identified in the genome of L. gasseri that were likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer and may contribute to the survival of this bacterium in its ecological niche. L. gasseri encodes two restriction and modification systems, which may limit bacteriophage infection. L. gasseri also encodes an operon for production of heteropolysaccharides of high complexity. A unique alternative sigma factor was present similar to that of B. caccae ATCC 43185, a bacterial species isolated from human feces. In addition, L. gasseri encoded the highest number of putative mucus-binding proteins (14) among lactobacilli sequenced to date. Selected phenotypic characteristics that were compared between ATCC 33323 and other human L. gasseri strains included carbohydrate fermentation patterns, growth and survival in bile, oxalate degradation, and adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, in vitro. The results from this study indicated high intraspecies variability from a genome encoding traits important for survival and retention in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:18539810

  1. Identification and Cloning of gusA, Encoding a New β-Glucuronidase from Lactobacillus gasseri ADH†

    PubMed Central

    Russell, W. M.; Klaenhammer, T. R.

    2001-01-01

    The gusA gene, encoding a new β-glucuronidase enzyme, has been cloned from Lactobacillus gasseri ADH. This is the first report of a β-glucuronidase gene cloned from a bacterial source other than Escherichia coli. A plasmid library of L. gasseri chromosomal DNA was screened for complementation of an E. coli gus mutant. Two overlapping clones that restored β-glucuronidase activity in the mutant strain were sequenced and revealed three complete and two partial open reading frames. The largest open reading frame, spanning 1,797 bp, encodes a 597-amino-acid protein that shows 39% identity to β-glucuronidase (GusA) of E. coli K-12 (EC 3.2.1.31). The other two complete open reading frames, which are arranged to be separately transcribed, encode a putative bile salt hydrolase and a putative protein of unknown function with similarities to MerR-type regulatory proteins. Overexpression of GusA was achieved in a β-glucuronidase-negative L. gasseri strain by expressing the gusA gene, subcloned onto a low-copy-number shuttle vector, from the strong Lactobacillus P6 promoter. GusA was also expressed in E. coli from a pET expression system. Preliminary characterization of the GusA protein from crude cell extracts revealed that the enzyme was active across an acidic pH range and a broad temperature range. An analysis of other lactobacilli identified β-glucuronidase activity and gusA homologs in other L. gasseri isolates but not in other Lactobacillus species tested. PMID:11229918

  2. Effects of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 on Helicobacter pylori-Associated Dyspepsia: A Multicenter Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Hideki; Uemura, Naomi; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Kawai, Takashi; Ohtsu, Toshihiro; Koga, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Some Lactobacillus spp. suppress Helicobacter pylori in the stomach and have potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of gastrointestinal conditions. In this study, the effects of Lactobacillus strains on functional dyspepsia associated with H. pylori infection were examined. Volunteers were screened using the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) and H. pylori stool test, and 131 participants who met the selection criteria (mean age: 48.9 years) were randomly given L. gasseri OLL2716-containing yogurt or placebo yogurt once daily for 12 weeks. Gastrointestinal symptoms (epigastric pain, bloating, postprandial fullness, nausea, and heartburn) and the levels of serum pepsinogen (PG), 13C-UBT, and H. pylori stool antigen were assessed. No significant differences were observed between the groups in UBT results, H. pylori stool antigens, or the serum PGI/II ratio. In the L. gasseri group, postprandial fullness was significantly lower at the end of the trial compared to the initial level (p < 0.05) and significantly fewer patients had a VAS score of >10 for bloating compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with L. gasseri OLL2716-containing yogurt may effectively suppress dyspeptic symptoms in H. pylori-infected patients. This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Network Clinical Trial Registry (UMIN000016746). PMID:27478434

  3. Effects of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 on Helicobacter pylori-Associated Dyspepsia: A Multicenter Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Atsushi; Yanagi, Hidetaka; Ozawa, Hideki; Uemura, Naomi; Nakajima, Shigemi; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Kawai, Takashi; Ohtsu, Toshihiro; Koga, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Some Lactobacillus spp. suppress Helicobacter pylori in the stomach and have potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of gastrointestinal conditions. In this study, the effects of Lactobacillus strains on functional dyspepsia associated with H. pylori infection were examined. Volunteers were screened using the (13)C-urea breath test (UBT) and H. pylori stool test, and 131 participants who met the selection criteria (mean age: 48.9 years) were randomly given L. gasseri OLL2716-containing yogurt or placebo yogurt once daily for 12 weeks. Gastrointestinal symptoms (epigastric pain, bloating, postprandial fullness, nausea, and heartburn) and the levels of serum pepsinogen (PG), (13)C-UBT, and H. pylori stool antigen were assessed. No significant differences were observed between the groups in UBT results, H. pylori stool antigens, or the serum PGI/II ratio. In the L. gasseri group, postprandial fullness was significantly lower at the end of the trial compared to the initial level (p < 0.05) and significantly fewer patients had a VAS score of >10 for bloating compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with L. gasseri OLL2716-containing yogurt may effectively suppress dyspeptic symptoms in H. pylori-infected patients. This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Network Clinical Trial Registry (UMIN000016746). PMID:27478434

  4. Primary structure and functional analysis of the lysis genes of Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh.

    PubMed

    Henrich, B; Binishofer, B; Bläsi, U

    1995-02-01

    The lysis genes of the Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh were isolated by complementation of a lambda Sam mutation in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing of a 1,735-bp DNA fragment revealed two adjacent coding regions of 342 bp (hol) and 951 bp (lys) in the same reading frame which appear to belong to a common transcriptional unit. Proteins corresponding to the predicted gene products, holin (12.9 kDa) and lysin (34.7 kDa), were identified by in vitro and in vivo expression of the cloned genes. The phi adh holin is a membrane-bound protein with structural similarity to lysis proteins of other phage, known to be required for the transit of murein hydrolases through the cytoplasmic membrane. The phi adh lysin shows homology with mureinolytic enzymes encoded by the Lactobacillus bulgaricus phage mv4, the Streptococcus pneumoniae phage Cp-1, Cp-7, and Cp-9, and the Lactococcus lactis phage phi LC3. Significant homology with the N termini of known muramidases suggests that phi adh lysin acts by a similar catalytic mechanism. In E. coli, the phi adh lysin seems to be associated with the total membrane fraction, from which it can be extracted with lauryl sarcosinate. Either one of the phi adh lysis proteins provoked lysis of E. coli when expressed along with holins or lysins of phage lambda or Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29. Concomitant expression of the combined holin and lysin functions of phi adh in E. coli, however, did not result in efficient cell lysis. PMID:7836307

  5. Enzymatic Synthesis and Characterization of Fructooligosaccharides and Novel Maltosylfructosides by Inulosucrase from Lactobacillus gasseri DSM 20604

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Municio, Marina; de las Rivas, Blanca; Jimeno, Maria Luisa; Muñoz, Rosario; Herrero, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The ability of an inulosucrase (IS) from Lactobacillus gasseri DSM 20604 to synthesize fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and maltosylfructosides (MFOS) in the presence of sucrose and sucrose-maltose mixtures was investigated after optimization of synthesis conditions, including enzyme concentration, temperature, pH, and reaction time. The maximum formation of FOS, which consist of β-2,1-linked fructose to sucrose, was 45% (in weight with respect to the initial amount of sucrose) and was obtained after 24 h of reaction at 55°C in the presence of sucrose (300 g liter−1) and 1.6 U ml−1 of IS–25 mM sodium acetate buffer–1 mM CaCl2 (pH 5.2). The production of MFOS was also studied as a function of the initial ratios of sucrose to maltose (10:50, 20:40, 30:30, and 40:20, expressed in g 100 ml−1). The highest yield in total MFOS was attained after 24 to 32 h of reaction time and ranged from 13% (10:50 sucrose/maltose) to 52% (30:30 sucrose/maltose) in weight with respect to the initial amount of maltose. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural characterization indicated that IS from L. gasseri specifically transferred fructose moieties of sucrose to either C-1 of the reducing end or C-6 of the nonreducing end of maltose. Thus, the trisaccharide erlose [α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-fructofuranoside] was the main synthesized MFOS followed by neo-erlose [β-d-fructofuranosyl-(2→6)-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-d-glucopyranose]. The formation of MFOS with a higher degree of polymerization was also demonstrated by the transfer of additional fructose residues to C-1 of either the β-2,1-linked fructose or the β-2,6-linked fructose to maltose, revealing the capacity of MFOS to serve as acceptors. PMID:23645191

  6. Regulatory effect of paraprobiotic Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 on gut environment and function

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Tomonori; Sawada, Daisuke; Ishida, Yu; Aihara, Kotaro; Aoki, Yumeko; Takehara, Isao; Takano, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (CP2305) is a strain of Lactobacillus isolated from a stool sample from a healthy adult that showed beneficial effects on health as a paraprobiotic. In a previous study, we demonstrated that CP2305-fermented heat-treated milk modified gut functions more than artificially acidified sour milk. Thus, the regulatory activity of the former beverage was attributed to the inactivated CP2305 cells. Objective The aim of this study was to elucidate the contribution of non-viable paraprobiotic CP2305 cells to regulating human gut functions. We thus conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded parallel group trial. Design The trial included 118 healthy participants with relatively low or high stool frequencies. The test beverage was prepared by adding 1×1010 washed, heat-treated, and dried CP2305 cells directly to the placebo beverage. The participants ingested a bottle of the assigned beverage daily for 3 weeks and answered daily questionnaires about defecation and quality of life. Fecal samples were collected and the fecal characteristics, microbial metabolite contents of the feces and composition of fecal microbiota were evaluated. Results The number of evacuations and the scores for fecal odors were significantly improved in the group that consumed the CP2305-containing beverage compared with those of the group that consumed the placebo (p=0.035 and p=0.040, respectively). Regarding the fecal contents of microbial metabolites, the level of fecal p-cresol was significantly decreased in the CP2305 group relative to that of the placebo group (p=0.013). The Bifidobacterium content of the intestinal microbiota was significantly increased in the CP2305 group relative to that of the placebo group (p<0.008), whereas the content of Clostridium cluster IV was significantly decreased (p<0.003). The parasympathetic nerve activity of the autonomic nervous system became dominant and the total power of autonomic activity was elevated

  7. Synthesis and structural characterization of raffinosyl-oligofructosides upon transfructosylation by Lactobacillus gasseri DSM 20604 inulosucrase.

    PubMed

    Díez-Municio, Marina; Herrero, Miguel; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Jimeno, M Luisa; Moreno, F Javier

    2016-07-01

    A new process based on enzymatic synthesis of a series of raffinose-derived oligosaccharides or raffinosyl-oligofructosides (RFOS) with degree of polymerization (DP) from 4 to 8 was developed in the presence of raffinose. This process involves a transfructosylation reaction catalyzed by an inulosucrase from Lactobacillus gasseri DSM 20604 (IS). The main synthesized RFOS were structurally characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). According to the elucidated structures, RFOS consist of β-2,1-linked fructose unit(s) to raffinose: α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1↔2)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-((1 ← 2)-β-D-fructofuranoside)n (where n refers to the number of transferred fructose moieties). The maximum yield of RFOS was 33.4 % (in weight respect to the initial amount of raffinose) and was obtained at the time interval of 8-24 h of transfructosylation reaction initiated with 50 % (w/v) of raffinose. Results revealed the high acceptor and donor affinity of IS towards raffinose, being fairly comparable with that of sucrose for the production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), including when both carbohydrates coexisted (sucrose/raffinose mixture, 250 g L(-1) each). The production of RFOS was also attempted in the presence of sucrose/melibiose mixtures; in this case, the predominant acceptor-product formed was raffinose followed by a minor production of a series of oligosaccharides with varying DP. The easiness of RFOS synthesis and the structural similarities with both raffinose and fructan series of oligosaccharides warrant the further study of the potential bioactive properties of these unexplored oligosaccharides. PMID:26940051

  8. Lactobacillus salivarius: bacteriocin and probiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, S; Manai, M; Kergourlay, G; Prévost, H; Connil, N; Chobert, J-M; Dousset, X

    2013-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) antimicrobial peptides typically exhibit antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens, as well as spoilage bacteria. Therefore, they have attracted the greatest attention as tools for food biopreservation. In some countries LAB are already extensively used as probiotics in food processing and preservation. LAB derived bacteriocins have been utilized as oral, topical antibiotics or disinfectants. Lactobacillus salivarius is a promising probiotic candidate commonly isolated from human, porcine, and avian gastrointestinal tracts (GIT), many of which are producers of unmodified bacteriocins of sub-classes IIa, IIb and IId. It is a well-characterized bacteriocin producer and probiotic organism. Bacteriocins may facilitate the introduction of a producer into an established niche, directly inhibit the invasion of competing strains or pathogens, or modulate the composition of the microbiota and influence the host immune system. This review gives an up-to-date overview of all L. salivarius strains, isolated from different origins, known as bacteriocin producing and/or potential probiotic. PMID:24010610

  9. Stress responses in probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Nezhad, Marzieh; Hussain, Malik Altaf; Britz, Margaret Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Survival in harsh environments is critical to both the industrial performance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their competitiveness in complex microbial ecologies. Among the LAB, members of the Lactobacillus casei group have industrial applications as acid-producing starter cultures for milk fermentations and as specialty cultures for the intensification and acceleration of flavor development in certain bacterial-ripened cheese varieties. They are amongst the most common organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and other animals, and have the potential to function as probiotics. Whether used in industrial or probiotic applications, environmental stresses will affect the physiological status and properties of cells, including altering their functionality and biochemistry. Understanding the mechanisms of how LAB cope with different environments is of great biotechnological importance, from both a fundamental and applied perspective: hence, interaction between these strains and their environment has gained increased interest in recent years. This paper presents an overview of the important features of stress responses in Lb. casei, and related proteomic or gene expression patterns that may improve their use as starter cultures and probiotics. PMID:24915363

  10. Lactobacillus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lactis, L. Plantarum, L. Reuteri, L. Rhamnosus, L. Salivarius, L. Sporogenes, Lacto Bacillus, Lactobacille, Lactobacilli, Lactobacilli Acidophilus, ... GG, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus Salivarium, Lactobacillus ... Lactobacilo, Lactospores, LC-1, Probiotics, Probiotiques.

  11. Therapeutic value of a Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium longum fixed bacterium combination in acute diarrhea: a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Margreiter, M; Ludl, K; Phleps, W; Kaehler, S T

    2006-05-01

    A multicenter, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial, involving 169 outpatients at 9 centers, was conducted to assess the efficacy of a fixed bacterium combination of Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium longum in the therapy of acute diarrhea. In particular, this clinical trial was designed to prove equivalent therapeutic efficacy of a fixed bacterium combination versus an exhaustive investigated mono-bacterium medicinal product. All patients, free to carry on usual daily activities, received 1 capsule 3 times a day of either a fixed bacterium combination of Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium longum or Enterococcus faecium mono-bacterium. All treatments were continued for a maximum of 6 days in line with the normal course of acute diarrhea. Primary efficacy criterion was the severity and duration of diarrhea assessed by the ensemble of stool frequency as change from baseline and stool consistency at trial Day 2, 3 and 4, and time in days until normal bowel function (recovery). The median duration of diarrhea was 2.70 days versus 2.67 days (fixed bacterium combination of Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium longum versus mono-bacterium Enterococcus feacium). The total mean difference of duration of diarrhea was 0.072 days. This result can be considered equivalent. However, the proportion of patients with complete recovery tended to be higher in the fixed bacterium combination group (92.6% versus 87.1%) resulting in a number needed to treat (NNT) of 18.1. The fixed bacterium combination reduced the number of unformed stools by 80% and the mono-bacterium by 75% during the first 2 days of treatment. Both treatments were well tolerated. Oral therapy with a fixed combination of Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium longum shortens the duration and decreases the severity of acute self-limiting diarrhea in adults comparable to an effective mono-bacterium medicinal product. It therefore appears to be a useful and

  12. Enhancement of Oral Tolerance Induction in DO11.10 Mice by Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 via Increase of Effector Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Hachimura, Satoshi; Sashihara, Toshihiro; Ikegami, Shuji; Shimizu, Makoto; Totsuka, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a serious problem for infants and young children. Induction of antigen-specific oral tolerance is one therapeutic strategy. Enhancement of oral tolerance induction by diet is a promising strategy to prevent food allergy in infants. Thus, in this study, we evaluate the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 (LG2809) on oral tolerance induction in a mouse model. The degree of oral tolerance induction was evaluated by measuring the proliferation and level of IL-2 production of splenic CD4+ T cells from DO11.10 mice fed ovalbumin (OVA) alone or OVA with LG2809. Oral administration of LG2809 significantly decreased the rate of proliferation and IL-2 production by CD4+ T cells from OVA-fed mice. LG2809 increased a ratio of CD4+ T-cell population, producing high levels of IL-10 and having strong suppressive activity. Moreover, LG2809 increased a ratio of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) among the lamina propria (LP) in small intestine. When used as antigen presenting cells to naïve CD4+ T cells from DO11.10 mice, LP cells from BALB/c mice fed LG2809 induced higher IL-10 production and stronger suppressive activity than those from non-treated mice. These results suggest that oral administration of LG2809 increases the population of pDCs in the LP, resulting in the enhancement of oral tolerance induction by increasing the ratio of effector regulatory T cells. LG2809 could, therefore, act as a potent immunomodulator to prevent food allergies by promoting oral tolerance. PMID:27472281

  13. Enhancement of Oral Tolerance Induction in DO11.10 Mice by Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 via Increase of Effector Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Hachimura, Satoshi; Sashihara, Toshihiro; Ikegami, Shuji; Shimizu, Makoto; Totsuka, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a serious problem for infants and young children. Induction of antigen-specific oral tolerance is one therapeutic strategy. Enhancement of oral tolerance induction by diet is a promising strategy to prevent food allergy in infants. Thus, in this study, we evaluate the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 (LG2809) on oral tolerance induction in a mouse model. The degree of oral tolerance induction was evaluated by measuring the proliferation and level of IL-2 production of splenic CD4+ T cells from DO11.10 mice fed ovalbumin (OVA) alone or OVA with LG2809. Oral administration of LG2809 significantly decreased the rate of proliferation and IL-2 production by CD4+ T cells from OVA-fed mice. LG2809 increased a ratio of CD4+ T-cell population, producing high levels of IL-10 and having strong suppressive activity. Moreover, LG2809 increased a ratio of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) among the lamina propria (LP) in small intestine. When used as antigen presenting cells to naïve CD4+ T cells from DO11.10 mice, LP cells from BALB/c mice fed LG2809 induced higher IL-10 production and stronger suppressive activity than those from non-treated mice. These results suggest that oral administration of LG2809 increases the population of pDCs in the LP, resulting in the enhancement of oral tolerance induction by increasing the ratio of effector regulatory T cells. LG2809 could, therefore, act as a potent immunomodulator to prevent food allergies by promoting oral tolerance. PMID:27472281

  14. Predominant genera of fecal microbiota in children with atopic dermatitis are not altered by intake of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn K; Gøbel, Rikke; Michaelsen, Kim F; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren J; Hansen, Lars H; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2011-03-01

    The effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 on the composition of the Lactobacillus group, Bifidobacterium and the total bacterial population in feces from young children with atopic dermatitis was investigated. The study included 50 children randomized to intake of one of the probiotic strain or placebo. Microbial composition was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR and, in a subset of subjects, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The core population of the Lactobacillus group was identified as Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus oris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, while the bifidobacterial community included Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium catenulatum. The fecal numbers of L. acidophilus and B. lactis increased significantly after intervention, indicating survival of the ingested bacteria. The levels of Bifidobacterium correlated positively (P=0.03), while the levels of the Lactobacillus group negatively (P=0.01) with improvement of atopic eczema evaluated by the Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis index. This correlation was observed across the whole study cohort and not attributed to the probiotic intake. The main conclusion of the study is that administration of L. acidophilus NCFM and B. lactis Bi-07 does not affect the composition and diversity of the main bacterial populations in feces. PMID:21204871

  15. Evaluation of probiotic characteristics of newly isolated Lactobacillus spp.: immune modulation and longevity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin; Yun, Hyun Sun; Cho, Kyu Won; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sae Hun; Chun, Taehoon; Kim, Bongjoon; Whang, Kwang Youn

    2011-08-01

    In the current study, the probiotic potential of approximately 350 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Korean infant feces and Kimchi was investigated. Common probiotic properties of the bacterial strains, such as acid tolerance, bile tolerance and adhesion to human intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29 cells), were examined. Some strains were found to have immune modulatory and antimicrobial properties. Antagonistic activity against a panel of pathogenic bacteria was found to be strain dependent. To evaluate the immune modulatory activity of the strains, lymphocyte interferon (IFN)-γ secretion was determined in conjunction with cell proliferation. Some strains of Lactobacillus gasseri, L. fermentum and L. plantarum exhibited increased IFN-γ levels and lymphocyte proliferation. To evaluate the effects of these immune modulating lactobacilli on host life span, Caenorhabditis elegans was used as an in vivo model. Nematodes that were supplied heat-killed lactobacilli as a food source exhibited obvious differences in life span compared with those fed Escherichia coli OP50. The mean life span (determined as mean percent survival) of worms fed L. plantarum CJLP133 and L. fermentum LA12 was 13.89% and 13.69% greater, respectively, than that of control nematodes after 21 days (P=0.036 and 0.043, respectively). In addition, some of safety profiles, including hemolytic type, gelatin hydration and degradation of urea, were found to be positive. These newly identified lactobacilli hold promise for use as probiotic agents, feed additives and/or in food applications. PMID:21652104

  16. Probiotic features of two oral Lactobacillus isolates

    PubMed Central

    Zavisic, Gordana; Petricevic, Sasa; Radulovic, Zeljka; Begovic, Jelena; Golic, Natasa; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Strahinic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we checked lactobacilli strains of human origin for their potential as probiotic. Samples were collected from oral mucosa of 16 healthy individuals, out of which twenty isolates were obtained and two of them were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (G1) and L. casei (G3). Both isolates exhibited antagonistic action towards pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, and Clostridium sporogenes, but not on the growth of Candida albicans. The bacteriocin activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6358-P was shown only by L. plantarum G1. Moreover, the isolates G1 and G3 showed good viability in the acid gastric environment and in the gut environment containing bovine bile salts. The viability of G1 and G3 isolates in the gastrointestinal tract, and the adhesion to the intestinal mucosa were also confirmed in vivo. The biochemical tests of blood samples revealed lower levels of serum triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as reduced activity of alkaline phosphatase in all lactobacilli-treated Wistar rats, compared to control ones. No toxicity for NMRI Ham mice was observed. According to our experimental results, these findings imply that L. plantarum G1 and L. casei G3 could be characterized as potential probiotics. PMID:24031847

  17. Cholesterol assimilation by Lactobacillus probiotic bacteria: an in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Jones, Mitchell L; Shah, Divya; Jain, Poonam; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

    2014-01-01

    Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18±0.55 mg/10(10) cfu) in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70±63.33 mg/10(10) cfu) of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic. PMID:25295259

  18. Timely approaches to identify probiotic species of the genus Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades the use of probiotics in food has increased largely due to the manufacturer’s interest in placing “healthy” food on the market based on the consumer’s ambitions to live healthy. Due to this trend, health benefits of products containing probiotic strains such as lactobacilli are promoted and probiotic strains have been established in many different products with their numbers increasing steadily. Probiotics are used as starter cultures in dairy products such as cheese or yoghurts and in addition they are also utilized in non-dairy products such as fermented vegetables, fermented meat and pharmaceuticals, thereby, covering a large variety of products. To assure quality management, several pheno-, physico- and genotyping methods have been established to unambiguously identify probiotic lactobacilli. These methods are often specific enough to identify the probiotic strains at genus and species levels. However, the probiotic ability is often strain dependent and it is impossible to distinguish strains by basic microbiological methods. Therefore, this review aims to critically summarize and evaluate conventional identification methods for the genus Lactobacillus, complemented by techniques that are currently being developed. PMID:24063519

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Strain BL23▿

    PubMed Central

    Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

  20. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain BL23.

    PubMed

    Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2010-05-01

    The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

  1. Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Formerly Lactobacillus casei) LOCK908

    PubMed Central

    Koryszewska-Bagińska, Anna; Bardowski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK908, a patented probiotic strain (Polish patent no. 209987), was isolated from the feces of a healthy 6-year-old girl. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of LOCK908 and identify genes likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPSs). PMID:24558250

  2. Characterization of Indigenous Lactobacillus Strains for Probiotic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mojgani, Naheed; Hussaini, Fatimah; Vaseji, Narges

    2015-01-01

    Background: Probiotics are defined as adequate amount of live microorganisms able to confer health benefits on the host. Currently, most commercially available probiotic products in the market belong to genera Lactobacillus. Traditional dairy products are usually rich source of Lactobacillus strains with significant health benefits. In order to evaluate the probiotic potential of these bacteria, it is essential to assess their health benefits, efficacy, and safety. Objectives: The probiotic efficacy of two Lactobacillus strains namely Lactobacillus pentosus LP05 and L. brevis LB32 was evaluated. They were previously isolated from ewes’ milk in a rural area in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The selected isolates were tested for certain phenotypic characters and identified to genus and species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species specific primers. Further analysis included acid and bile resistance, antagonistic activity, cholesterol removing ability, survival in simulated gastric and upper intestine contents, aggregation and coaggregation properties. Finally, the adhering ability of the selected Lactobacillus strains to epithelial cells was tested using Caco-2 cell lines. Results: The selected isolates tolerated bile salt concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 3%, however their coefficient of inhibition were varied. Both isolates hydrolyzed bile and grew at pH values of 3, 4, and 5, while isolate LP05 was not able to hydrolyze arginine. Based on 16s rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific primers, the isolates were identified as L. brevis LB32 and L. pentosus LP05. In contrast to simulated gastric conditions, the growth rate of the isolates in alkaline conditions of upper intestine increased significantly with the passage of time reaching its maximum in 24 hours. These 2 isolates inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Furthermore, L

  3. Probiotic Properties of Lyophilized Cell Free Extract of Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Saadatzadeh, Afrooz; Fazeli, Mohamma Reza; Jamalifar, Hossein; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years there have been considerable interests in the use of probiotic live cells for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. This strategy can be concomitant with some limitations such as survival of live cell during the GI-transit and their effective delivery to target tissues upon ingestion. Several attempts have been made to overcome these limitations such as their microencapsulation, spray-drying and lyophilization. Objectives In this study extract of cultured probiotics without cells was evaluated for its antimicrobial effects, antioxidant activity, and its stability. Materials and Methods In this work the potential of lyophilized-cell-free-probiotic-extract (LPE) as a suitable alternative strategy for the preparation of probiotic-products was investigated. The main aim of this study was to find out the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of LPE and also its stability. LPE was obtained by centrifugation and subsequent lyophilization of the collected supernatant from culture media of Lactobacillus casei. An enzymatic reagent-kit was used for detection of its content of lactic acid. Antibacterial test was performed using agar cup-plat-method, the DPPH scavenging -assay was used to determine its antioxidant activity and during a storage course, LPE was under a long-term stability study. Results Results showed that, LPE had more antipathogenic effects, antioxidant activity, and stability during storage-time when compared to fresh probiotic-extract. Conclusions Employing the LPE as a new approach, gives novel concept of probiotic-products in food and medical marketing. PMID:24624202

  4. Diet alters probiotic Lactobacillus persistence and function in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Tachon, Sybille; Lee, Bokyung; Marco, Maria L

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of host diet on the intestinal persistence and gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in healthy and health-compromised, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated mice. Mice fed either a low-fat chow diet (CD) or high fat and sucrose Western diet (WD) received 10(9) L. plantarum WCFS1 cells for five consecutive days. Lactobacillus plantarum persistence was 10- to 100-fold greater in the intestines of WD-fed compared with CD-fed mice. TNBS, an intestinal irritant that induces the development of inflammatory bowel disease-like symptoms, resulted in up to a 10(4) -fold increase in L. plantarum survival in the digestive tract relative to healthy animals. Expression levels of 12 metabolic and gut-inducible L. plantarum genes were differentially affected by diet and TNBS administration. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA transcripts from the indigenous intestinal microbiota showed that WD resulted in significant reductions in proportions of metabolically active indigenous Lactobacillus species and increases in the Desulfovibrionaceae family. Feeding L. plantarum WCFS1 resulted in lower levels of colitis and higher concentrations of colonic IL-10 and IL-12 in WD and not CD-fed mice. Interactions between probiotics, nutritional components and the intestinal bacteria should be considered when examining for probiotic-mediated effects and elucidating mechanisms of probiotic function in the mammalian gut. PMID:24118739

  5. Lactobacillus with probiotic potential from homemade cheese in Azerbijan

    PubMed Central

    Mojarad Khanghah, Saeed; Ganbarov, Khudaverdi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Lactobacillus is believed to be beneficial in human health, thus the search for isolation and identification of friendly human bacteria from traditional fermented foods is important in medicine. One of the dairy products, traditional cheese as a highly-consumed dairy product could be a valuable source of these friendly edible germs. Methods: In this research, home-made cheese from Lankaran, Jalil Abad and Salian regions in Azerbaijan was characterized for the presence of Lactobacilli with probiotic potential. The bacterial suspension was enriched and screened for acid and bile resistances. Then, the isolates were subjected to antibiotic resistance and antibacterial effects against convenient pathogenic bacteria. The isolates were identified by 16s rDNA sequencing. Results: The results clearly revealed two probiotics with higher homology to Lactobacillus planetarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. Conclusion: No antibiotic resistance was detected in any of the potentially probiotic lactobacilli isolates in these regions, where people continue to follow a life-style that is largely traditional, with traditional medications. PMID:24790899

  6. Probiotics in digestive diseases: focus on Lactobacillus GG.

    PubMed

    Pace, F; Pace, M; Quartarone, G

    2015-12-01

    Probiotics are becoming increasingly important in basic and clinical research, but they are also a subject of considerable economic interest due to their expanding popularity. They are live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. From this very well-known definition, it is clear that, unlike drugs, probiotics might be useful in healthy subjects to reduce the risk of developing certain diseases or to optimise some physiological functions. They also may offer some advantages in already ill persons in relieving symptoms and signs, e.g. people with acute diarrhea. According to current definitions, probiotics should survive both gastric acid and bile to reach the small intestine and colon, where they exert their effects. Many of these are available in a lyophilized (freeze-dried) pill form, though some are available in yogurt or as packets (sachets), which can be mixed into non-carbonated drinks. The present review focuses on three main issues: 1) understanding why, at present, probiotics are so interesting for doctors and consumers; 2) reviewing the available data on probiotic use in digestive diseases, in particular irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), (prevention of) infectious diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and colorectal cancer (CRC); 3) highlighting the individual profile of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in the above contexts, providing an assessment as well as recommendations on its use in gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) disorders. Research studies conducted in animals and humans with the main probiotics strains for GIT diseases, and published from the early 1990s to 2014 have been considered. PubMed, Medline and Ovid were the main sources adopted for data retrieving. The increasing attention on probiotics is a direct consequence of the improvement in the techniques for studying microbiota. Until recently, its composition has been analysed by culture-based methods

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei (Formerly Lactobacillus paracasei) LOCK919

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Bardowski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei is usually regarded as a bacterium that lives naturally in the human intestinal tract, where it can contribute to host health and well-being. We describe here the complete genome sequence of L. casei LOCK919, a strain with probiotic properties isolated from child feces. The genome consists of a 3.11-Mb chromosome and a 29,768-bp plasmid. PMID:24072862

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei (Formerly Lactobacillus paracasei) LOCK919.

    PubMed

    Koryszewska-Baginska, Anna; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Bardowski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei is usually regarded as a bacterium that lives naturally in the human intestinal tract, where it can contribute to host health and well-being. We describe here the complete genome sequence of L. casei LOCK919, a strain with probiotic properties isolated from child feces. The genome consists of a 3.11-Mb chromosome and a 29,768-bp plasmid. PMID:24072862

  9. The domestication of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Matthew J.; Jolley, Keith A.; Bray, James E.; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that has had widespread historical use in the dairy industry and more recently as a probiotic. Although L. acidophilus has been designated as safe for human consumption, increasing commercial regulation and clinical demands for probiotic validation has resulted in a need to understand its genetic diversity. By drawing on large, well-characterised collections of lactic acid bacteria, we examined L. acidophilus isolates spanning 92 years and including multiple strains in current commercial use. Analysis of the whole genome sequence data set (34 isolate genomes) demonstrated L. acidophilus was a low diversity, monophyletic species with commercial isolates essentially identical at the sequence level. Our results indicate that commercial use has domesticated L. acidophilus with genetically stable, invariant strains being consumed globally by the human population. PMID:25425319

  10. Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 – an antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic

    PubMed Central

    Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Mihkel

    2009-01-01

    The paper lays out the short scientific history and characteristics of the new probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain ME-3 DSM-14241, elaborated according to the regulations of WHO/FAO (2002). L. fermentum ME-3 is a unique strain of Lactobacillus species, having at the same time the antimicrobial and physiologically effective antioxidative properties and expressing health-promoting characteristics if consumed. Tartu University has patented this strain in Estonia (priority June 2001, patent in 2006), Russia (patent in 2006) and the USA (patent in 2007). The paper describes the process of the identification and molecular typing of this probiotic strain of human origin, its deposition in an international culture collection, and its safety assessment by laboratory tests and testing on experimental animals and volunteers. It has been established that L. fermentum strain ME-3 has double functional properties: antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogens and high total antioxidative activity (TAA) and total antioxidative status (TAS) of intact cells and lysates, and it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover. The functional efficacy of the antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic has been proven by the eradication of salmonellas and the reduction of liver and spleen granulomas in Salmonella Typhimurium-infected mice treated with the combination of ofloxacin and L. fermentum strain ME-3. Using capsules or foodstuffs enriched with L. fermentum ME-3, different clinical study designs (including double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies) and different subjects (healthy volunteers, allergic patients and those recovering from a stroke), it has been shown that this probiotic increased the antioxidative activity of sera and improved the composition of the low-density lipid particles (LDL) and post-prandial lipids as well as oxidative stress status, thus demonstrating a remarkable anti-atherogenic effect. The

  11. Probiotic and technological properties of Lactobacillus spp. strains from the human stomach in the search for potential candidates against gastric microbial dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Susana; Leite, Analy M O; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Mayo, Baltasar

    2014-01-01

    This work characterizes a set of lactobacilli strains isolated from the stomach of healthy humans that might serve as probiotic cultures. Ten different strains were recognized by rep-PCR and PFGE fingerprinting among 19 isolates from gastric biopsies and stomach juice samples. These strains belonged to five species, Lactobacillus gasseri (3), Lactobacillus reuteri (2), Lactobacillus vaginalis (2), Lactobacillus fermentum (2) and Lactobacillus casei (1). All ten strains were subjected to a series of in vitro tests to assess their functional and technological properties, including acid resistance, bile tolerance, adhesion to epithelial gastric cells, production of antimicrobial compounds, inhibition of Helicobacter pylori, antioxidative activity, antibiotic resistance, carbohydrate fermentation, glycosidic activities, and ability to grow in milk. As expected, given their origin, all strains showed good resistance to low pH (3.0), with small reductions in counts after 90 min exposition to this pH. Species- and strain-specific differences were detected in terms of the production of antimicrobials, antagonistic effects toward H. pylori, antioxidative activity and adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. None of the strains showed atypical resistance to a series of 16 antibiotics of clinical and veterinary importance. Two L. reuteri strains were deemed as the most appropriate candidates to be used as potential probiotics against microbial gastric disorders; these showed good survival under gastrointestinal conditions reproduced in vitro, along with strong anti-Helicobacter and antioxidative activities. The two L. reuteri strains further displayed appropriated technological traits for their inclusion as adjunct functional cultures in fermented dairy products. PMID:25642213

  12. Probiotic and technological properties of Lactobacillus spp. strains from the human stomach in the search for potential candidates against gastric microbial dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Susana; Leite, Analy M. O.; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Mayo, Baltasar

    2015-01-01

    This work characterizes a set of lactobacilli strains isolated from the stomach of healthy humans that might serve as probiotic cultures. Ten different strains were recognized by rep-PCR and PFGE fingerprinting among 19 isolates from gastric biopsies and stomach juice samples. These strains belonged to five species, Lactobacillus gasseri (3), Lactobacillus reuteri (2), Lactobacillus vaginalis (2), Lactobacillus fermentum (2) and Lactobacillus casei (1). All ten strains were subjected to a series of in vitro tests to assess their functional and technological properties, including acid resistance, bile tolerance, adhesion to epithelial gastric cells, production of antimicrobial compounds, inhibition of Helicobacter pylori, antioxidative activity, antibiotic resistance, carbohydrate fermentation, glycosidic activities, and ability to grow in milk. As expected, given their origin, all strains showed good resistance to low pH (3.0), with small reductions in counts after 90 min exposition to this pH. Species- and strain-specific differences were detected in terms of the production of antimicrobials, antagonistic effects toward H. pylori, antioxidative activity and adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. None of the strains showed atypical resistance to a series of 16 antibiotics of clinical and veterinary importance. Two L. reuteri strains were deemed as the most appropriate candidates to be used as potential probiotics against microbial gastric disorders; these showed good survival under gastrointestinal conditions reproduced in vitro, along with strong anti-Helicobacter and antioxidative activities. The two L. reuteri strains further displayed appropriated technological traits for their inclusion as adjunct functional cultures in fermented dairy products. PMID:25642213

  13. Manufacture of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese with Lactobacillus casei Zhang.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Aline B; Jesus, Vitor F; Silva, Ramon; Almada, Carine N; Esmerino, E A; Cappato, Leandro P; Silva, Marcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo N; Carvalho, Celio C; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Bolini, Helena M A; Freitas, Monica Q; Cruz, Adriano G

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the addition of Lactobacillus casei Zhang in the manufacture of Minas Frescal cheese was investigated. Minas Frescal cheeses supplemented with probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei Zhang) were produced by enzymatic coagulation and direct acidification and were subjected to physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, lactic acid, and acetic acid), microbiological (probiotic and lactic bacteria counts), and rheological analyses (uniaxial compression and creep test), instrumental color determination (luminosity, yellow intensity, and red intensity) and sensory acceptance test. The addition of L. casei Zhang resulted in low pH values and high proteolysis indexes during storage (from 5.38 to 4.94 and 0.470 to 0.702, respectively). Additionally, the cheese protocol was not a hurdle for growth of L. casei Zhang, as the population reached 8.16 and 9.02 log cfu/g by means of the direct acidification and enzymatic coagulation protocol, respectively, after 21 d of refrigerated storage. The rheology data showed that all samples presented a more viscous-like behavior, which rigidity tended to decrease during storage and lower luminosity values were also observed. Increased consumer acceptance was observed for the control sample produced by direct acidification (7.8), whereas the cheeses containing L. casei Zhang presented lower values for all sensory attributes, especially flavor and overall liking (5.37 and 4.61 for enzymatic coagulation and 5.57 and 4.72 for direct acidification, respectively). Overall, the addition of L. casei Zhang led to changes in all parameters and affected negatively the sensory acceptance. The optimization of L. casei Zhang dosage during the manufacturing of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese should be performed. PMID:26519974

  14. Strain-specific probiotics properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis isolates from Brazilian food products.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Jespersen, Lene

    2013-10-01

    A total of 234 LAB isolates from Brazilian food products were initially screened for their ability to survive at pH 2.0. Fifty one of the isolates survived and were selected. They were characterized by phenotypic methods, rep-PCR and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus fermentum (34 isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (10) and Lactobacillus brevis (7). Based on being either highly tolerant to bile, showing an ability for auto-aggregation and/or hydrophobic properties, one L. fermentum (CH58), three L. plantarum (CH3, CH41 and SAU96) and two L. brevis (SAU105 and FFC199) were selected. The highest co-aggregation ability with Escherichia coli was observed to L. plantarum CH41. L. brevis SAU105 and FFC199 and L. fermentum CH58 exhibited antagonistic activity towards the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 and L. brevis FFC199 showed adhesion ability to Caco-2 cells (1.6, 1.1 and 0.9%, respectively) similar to the commercial probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (1.5%). They were able to increase the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cells over 24 h (p < 0.05). The present work showed that the probiotic characteristics were strain-specific and that the isolates L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 (cocoa) and L. brevis FFC199 (cauim) exhibited potential probiotics properties. PMID:23764216

  15. Proteolytic activity of probiotic strain Lactobacillus helveticus M92.

    PubMed

    Beganović, Jasna; Kos, Blaženka; Leboš Pavunc, Andreja; Uroić, Ksenija; Džidara, Petra; Šušković, Jagoda

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of previously defined probiotic strain Lactobacillus helveticus M92 as functional starter culture for fermented dairy products. Therefore, proteolytic activity of L. helveticus M92 was investigated and compared with those of different representatives of probiotic and starter culture strains. Cluster analysis of AFLP fingerprints showed a difference of L. helveticus M92 compared to five other L. helveticus strains, but the percentage of similarity confirmed the identification on species level. Casein hydrolysis by L. helveticus M92 was monitored by agar-well diffusion test, SDS-PAGE and Anson's method. L. helveticus M92 exhibited the highest proteolytic activity among tested probiotic and starter cultures strains with the fastest acidification rate and the highest pH decrease after overnight incubation in skim milk. The presence of prtH2 gene was confirmed by PCR amplification with specific primers, while PCR product was not obtained after amplification with primers specific to prtH. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE LC-MS/MS analysis of insoluble proteome of L. helveticus M92 enabled identification of several proteins involved in proteolytic system of L. helveticus such as protease PrtM as well as proteins involved in Opp peptide transport system and the intracellular peptidases PepE, PepN, and PepQ. PMID:23454496

  16. Antioxidative potential of folate producing probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus CD6.

    PubMed

    Ahire, Jayesh Jagannath; Mokashe, Narendra Uttamrao; Patil, Hemant Jagatrao; Chaudhari, Bhushan Liladhar

    2013-02-01

    Folate producing Lactobacillus sp. CD6 isolated from fermented milk showed 98% similarity with Lactobacillus helveticus based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It was found to produce a folic acid derivative 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF). The intracellular cell-free extract of strain demonstrated antioxidative activity with the inhibition rate of ascorbate autoxidation in the range of 27.5% ± 3.7%. It showed highest metal ion chelation ability for Fe(2+) (0.26 ± 0.06 ppm) as compared to Cu(2+). The DPPH (α,α-Diphenyl-β-Picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity for intact cells were found to be 24.7% ± 10.9% proved its antioxidative potential. Furthermore, it demonstrated 14.89% inhibition of epinephrine autoxidation, 20.9 ± 1.8 μg cysteine equivalent reducing activity and 20.8% ± 0.9% hydroxyl radical scavenging effect. The strain was evaluated for probiotic properties as per WHO and FAO guidelines. It showed 90.61% survival at highly acidic condition (pH 2.0), 90.66% viability in presence of synthetic gastric juice and 68% survivability at 0.5% bile concentration for 24 h. It was susceptible to many antibiotics which reduces the prospect to offer resistance determinants to other organisms if administered in the form of probiotic preparations. It showed in vitro mucus binding and antimicrobial activity against enteric pathogens like Salmonella typhimurium (NCIM 2501), Streptococcus pyogenes (NCIM 2608), and Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 5021) and moreover it showed non- hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar. PMID:24425884

  17. Impact of two probiotic Lactobacillus strains feeding on fecal lactobacilli and weight gains in chicken.

    PubMed

    Lan, Pham Thi Ngoc; Binh, Le Thanh; Benno, Yoshimi

    2003-02-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus agilis JCM 1048 and L. salivarius subsp. salicinius JCM 1230 isolated from chicken intestine, exhibited probiotic characteristics that can be applied for chicken production. After 7 days of probiotic feeding (FD7), the count of intestinal lactobacilli in the probiotic group (group P, n=10) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in the control group (group C, n=9). After 40 days of probiotic feeding (FD40), the lactobacilli and enterococci counts were stable but the Enterobacteriaceae number was significantly reduced (p<0.05). A total of 163 isolated lactobacilli were identified as the L. acidophilus/gallinarum group (49.7%), L. agilis (30.7%), L. salivarius (9.2%), L. reuteri (9.2%), and Lactobacillus spp. (1.2%). The probiotic lactobacilli positively affected the Lactobacillus biota in chickens at FD7, with a significant increase in the number (p<0.05) of L. agilis and group P. The viable counts of each Lactobacillus species at FD40, however, showed no differences between two groups. An increasing incidence of L. agilis was also noted with probiotic feeding. The probiotic effect of two strains resulted in significantly increased weight gains (10.7%) of group P in comparison with group C at FD40 (p<0.01). PMID:12682864

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei BD-II ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei BD-II, a patented probiotic strain (U.S. patent 7,270,994 B2), was isolated from homemade koumiss in China and has been implemented in the industrial production as starter cultures. Here we report the complete genome sequence of BD-II, which shows high similarity with the well-studied probiotic BL23. PMID:21478345

  19. Genome Sequence of a Potential Probiotic Strain, Lactobacillus fermentum HFB3, Isolated from a Human Gut.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Madhu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of 2.04 Mb is reported for Lactobacillus fermentum HFB3, which is a lactic acid bacterium with probiotic properties. The gene-coding clusters also predicted the presence of genes responsible for probiotic characteristics. PMID:26543124

  20. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BD-II.

    PubMed

    Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

    2011-06-01

    Lactobacillus casei BD-II, a patented probiotic strain (U.S. patent 7,270,994 B2), was isolated from homemade koumiss in China and has been implemented in the industrial production as starter cultures. Here we report the complete genome sequence of BD-II, which shows high similarity with the well-studied probiotic BL23. PMID:21478345

  1. Evaluation of Phytate-Degrading Lactobacillus Culture Administration to Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Askelson, Tyler E.; Campasino, Ashley; Lee, Jason T.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been demonstrated to promote growth, stimulate immune responses, and improve food safety of poultry. While widely used, their effectiveness is mixed, and the mechanisms through which they contribute to poultry production are not well understood. Microbial phytases are increasingly supplemented in feed to improve digestibility and reduce antinutritive effects of phytate. The microbial origin of these exogenous enzymes suggests a potentially important mechanism of probiotic functionality. We investigated phytate degradation as a novel probiotic mechanism using recombinant Lactobacillus cultures expressing Bacillus subtilis phytase. B. subtilis phyA was codon optimized for expression in Lactobacillus and cloned into the expression vector pTRK882. The resulting plasmid, pTD003, was transformed into Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, and Lactobacillus gasseri. SDS-PAGE revealed a protein in the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus pTD003 transformants with a molecular weight similar to that of the B. subtilis phytase. Expression of B. subtilis phytase increased phytate degradation of L. acidophilus, L. gasseri, and L. gallinarum approximately 4-, 10-, and 18-fold over the background activity of empty-vector transformants, respectively. Phytase-expressing L. gallinarum and L. gasseri were administered to broiler chicks fed a phosphorus-deficient diet. Phytase-expressing L. gasseri improved weight gain of broiler chickens to a level comparable to that for chickens fed a control diet adequate in phosphorus, demonstrating proof of principle that administration of phytate-degrading probiotic cultures can improve performance of livestock animals. This will inform future studies investigating whether probiotic cultures are able to provide both the performance benefits of feed enzymes and the animal health and food safety benefits traditionally associated with probiotics. PMID:24271165

  2. Evaluation of phytate-degrading Lactobacillus culture administration to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Askelson, Tyler E; Campasino, Ashley; Lee, Jason T; Duong, Tri

    2014-02-01

    Probiotics have been demonstrated to promote growth, stimulate immune responses, and improve food safety of poultry. While widely used, their effectiveness is mixed, and the mechanisms through which they contribute to poultry production are not well understood. Microbial phytases are increasingly supplemented in feed to improve digestibility and reduce antinutritive effects of phytate. The microbial origin of these exogenous enzymes suggests a potentially important mechanism of probiotic functionality. We investigated phytate degradation as a novel probiotic mechanism using recombinant Lactobacillus cultures expressing Bacillus subtilis phytase. B. subtilis phyA was codon optimized for expression in Lactobacillus and cloned into the expression vector pTRK882. The resulting plasmid, pTD003, was transformed into Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, and Lactobacillus gasseri. SDS-PAGE revealed a protein in the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus pTD003 transformants with a molecular weight similar to that of the B. subtilis phytase. Expression of B. subtilis phytase increased phytate degradation of L. acidophilus, L. gasseri, and L. gallinarum approximately 4-, 10-, and 18-fold over the background activity of empty-vector transformants, respectively. Phytase-expressing L. gallinarum and L. gasseri were administered to broiler chicks fed a phosphorus-deficient diet. Phytase-expressing L. gasseri improved weight gain of broiler chickens to a level comparable to that for chickens fed a control diet adequate in phosphorus, demonstrating proof of principle that administration of phytate-degrading probiotic cultures can improve performance of livestock animals. This will inform future studies investigating whether probiotic cultures are able to provide both the performance benefits of feed enzymes and the animal health and food safety benefits traditionally associated with probiotics. PMID:24271165

  3. Enteric coating of granules containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Pyar, Hassan; Peh, Kok-Khiang

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V) of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine. PMID:24914724

  4. Potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains from traditional Kurdish cheese.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Shahidi, Fakhri; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Milani, Elnaz; Eshaghi, Zarrin

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional Kurdish cheese was investigated. The Lactobacillus strains were examined for resistance to gastric acidity and bile toxicity, antimicrobial activities, autoaggregation, coaggregation, hydrophobicity, adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and antibiotic susceptibility. The results showed that all strains tested tolerate acid gastric conditions (pH 2.0 and 3.0), and all of them were bile resistant (at 0.3 and 1% concentration). Although no antibacterial activity was detected in vitro assay for the treated (neutralized to pH 6.5 and treated with catalase) cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) of strains, untreated CFCS showed strong antagonistic activity against two known pathogens bacteria. All strains exhibited a strong autoaggregating phenotype and manifested a high degree of coaggregation with pathogens. On the other hand, majority of studied strains were found sensitive to different antibiotics, such as ampicillin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampicin, and tetracycline, and were resistant to vancomycin and streptomycin. Finally, isolated strains showed good hydrophobicity and adherence to Caco-2 cell line, so they could be exploited for food manufacture. PMID:24676764

  5. Importance of Molecular Methods to Determine Whether a Probiotic is the Source of Lactobacillus Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Aroutcheva, Alla; Auclair, Julie; Frappier, Martin; Millette, Mathieu; Lolans, Karen; de Montigny, Danielle; Carrière, Serge; Sokalski, Stephen; Trick, William E; Weinstein, Robert A

    2016-03-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the use of probiotic products for the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Bio-K+(®) is a commercial probiotic product comprising three strains of lactobacilli--Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®), Lact. casei LBC80R(®) and Lact. rhamnosus CLR2(®)--that have been applied to prevent CDI. Generally considered as safe, lactobacilli have potential to cause bacteremia, endocarditis and other infections. The source of Lactobacillus bacteremia can be normal human flora or lactobacilli-containing probiotic. The aim of this study was to assess whether probiotic lactobacilli caused bacteremia and to show the value of molecular identification and typing techniques to determine probiotic and patient strain relatedness. We report an episode of Lactobacillus bacteremia in a 69-year-old man admitted to a hospital with severe congestive heart failure. During his hospitalization, he required long-term antibiotic therapy. Additionally, the patient received Bio-K+(®) probiotic as part of a quality improvement project to prevent CDI. Subsequently, Lactobacillus bacteremia occurred. Two independent blinded laboratory evaluations, using pulse field gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA fingerprint analysis (rep-PCR), were performed to determine whether the recovered Lact. acidophilus originated from the probiotic product. Ultimately, the patient strain was identified as Lact. casei and both laboratories found no genetic relation between the patient's strain and any of the probiotic lactobacilli. This clinical case of lactobacillus bacteremia in the setting of probiotic exposure demonstrates the value of using discriminatory molecular methods to clearly determine whether there were a link between the patient's isolate and the probiotic strains. PMID:26915093

  6. Molecular cloning and sequencing of two phospho-beta-galactosidase I and II genes of Lactobacillus gasseri JCM1031 isolated from human intestine.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Suzuki, M; Konno, K; Kitazawa, H; Kawai, Y; Itoh, T; Kamio, Y

    1998-12-01

    Lactobacillus (Lb.) gasseri JCM1031, which is classified into the B1 subgroup of the Lb. acidophilus group of lactic acid bacteria, characteristically produces two different phospho-beta-galactosidases (P-beta-gal) I and II in the same cytosol as reported in our previous papers [Biosci. Biotech. Biochem., 60, 139-141, 708-710 (1996)]. To clarify the functional and genetic properties of the two enzymes, the structural genes of P-beta-gal I and II were cloned and sequenced. The structural gene of P-beta-gal I had 1,446 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 482 amino acid residues. The structural gene of P-beta-gal II had 1,473 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 491 amino acid residues. The deduced relative molecular masses of 55,188 and 56,243 agreed well with the previous value obtained from the purified P-beta-gal I and II protein, respectively. Multiple alignment of the protein sequence of P-beta-gal I and II with those of P-beta-gals from 5 microorganisms had 30-35% identity on the amino acid level, but those with phospho-beta-glucosidases from 5 microorganisms had the relatively high identity of about 50%. Considering that this strain grows on lactose medium and shows no beta-galactosidase activity, and that purified P-beta-gal I and II can obviously hydrolyze o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside 6-phosphate (substrate), and also the conservation of a cysteine residue in the molecule, the P-beta-gal I and II were each confirmed as a novel P-beta-gal enzyme. PMID:9972258

  7. Heat-killed Lactobacillus gasseri can enhance immunity in the elderly in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, K; Kawase, M; Kubota, A; Yoda, K; Harata, G; Hosoda, M; He, F

    2015-01-01

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to test whether Lactobacillus gasseri TMC0356 (TMC0356) can modify the immune response in the elderly. Heat-killed TMC0356 or placebo was orally administered to 28 healthy subjects aged 50-70 years old for 4 weeks at a dosage of 1.0×10(9) cfu/day. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from the subjects before and after the study completion, together with general health and blood examination records. Isolated PBMCs were examined for the number of T cells, CD8(+)CD28(+) cells, native T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells and the ratios of CD4/CD8 T cells and native/memory T cells. NK cell activation and concanavalin A-induced lymphocyte transformation of the isolated PBMCs were also examined. The number of CD8(+) T cells significantly increased in the subjects after TMC0356 oral administration (P<0.05). Furthermore, the population of CD8(+)CD28(+) T cells and the amount of lymphocyte transformation both significantly decreased in PBMCs from the placebo group (P<0.05). However, such changes were not observed in the subjects exposed to TMC0356. These results suggest that TMC0356 can increase the number of CD8(+) T cells and reduce CD28 expression loss in CD8(+) T cells of the elderly. The effect of TMC0356 on immune responses in the elderly may enhance their natural defence mechanisms against pathogenic infections. PMID:25653155

  8. Molecular Analysis and Clinical Significance of Lactobacillus spp. Recovered from Clinical Specimens Presumptively Associated with Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Raquel M.; Hulten, Kristina G.; Bui, Uyen

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus spp. are part of the normal human flora and are generally assumed to be nonpathogenic. We determined the genotypic identification of >100 Lactobacillus isolates from clinical specimens in the context of presumed pathogenic potential (e.g., recovered as the single/predominant isolate from a sterile site or at ≥105 CFU/ml from urine). This study assessed the clinical significance and the frequency of occurrence of each Lactobacillus sp. We identified 16 species of Lactobacillus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 10 of which could not be associated with disease. While Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus paracasei were associated with infections, L. gasseri was also a common colonizing/contaminating species. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii were associated with at least one infection. Species commonly used in probiotic products (e.g., L. rhamnosus and L. casei) were identical, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, to our isolates associated with disease. Human isolates of Lactobacillus spp. have differing site associations and levels of clinical significance. Knowing the niche and pathogenic potential of each Lactobacillus sp. can be of importance to both clinical microbiology and the food and probiotic supplement industry. PMID:24131686

  9. Genomic Diversity of Phages Infecting Probiotic Strains of Lactobacillus paracasei

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Geneviève M.; Capra, María L.; Quiberoni, Andrea; Tremblay, Denise M.; Labrie, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been extensively studied because some are used as probiotics in foods. Conversely, their phages have received much less attention. We analyzed the complete genome sequences of five L. paracasei temperate phages: CL1, CL2, iLp84, iLp1308, and iA2. Only phage iA2 could not replicate in an indicator strain. The genome lengths ranged from 34,155 bp (iA2) to 39,474 bp (CL1). Phages iA2 and iLp1308 (34,176 bp) possess the smallest genomes reported, thus far, for phages of the L. casei group. The GC contents of the five phage genomes ranged from 44.8 to 45.6%. As observed with many other phages, their genomes were organized as follows: genes coding for DNA packaging, morphogenesis, lysis, lysogeny, and replication. Phages CL1, CL2, and iLp1308 are highly related to each other. Phage iLp84 was also related to these three phages, but the similarities were limited to gene products involved in DNA packaging and structural proteins. Genomic fragments of phages CL1, CL2, iLp1308, and iLp84 were found in several genomes of L. casei strains. Prophage iA2 is unrelated to these four phages, but almost all of its genome was found in at least four L. casei strains. Overall, these phages are distinct from previously characterized Lactobacillus phages. Our results highlight the diversity of L. casei phages and indicate frequent DNA exchanges between phages and their hosts. PMID:26475105

  10. Genomic Diversity of Phages Infecting Probiotic Strains of Lactobacillus paracasei.

    PubMed

    Mercanti, Diego J; Rousseau, Geneviève M; Capra, María L; Quiberoni, Andrea; Tremblay, Denise M; Labrie, Simon J; Moineau, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been extensively studied because some are used as probiotics in foods. Conversely, their phages have received much less attention. We analyzed the complete genome sequences of five L. paracasei temperate phages: CL1, CL2, iLp84, iLp1308, and iA2. Only phage iA2 could not replicate in an indicator strain. The genome lengths ranged from 34,155 bp (iA2) to 39,474 bp (CL1). Phages iA2 and iLp1308 (34,176 bp) possess the smallest genomes reported, thus far, for phages of the L. casei group. The GC contents of the five phage genomes ranged from 44.8 to 45.6%. As observed with many other phages, their genomes were organized as follows: genes coding for DNA packaging, morphogenesis, lysis, lysogeny, and replication. Phages CL1, CL2, and iLp1308 are highly related to each other. Phage iLp84 was also related to these three phages, but the similarities were limited to gene products involved in DNA packaging and structural proteins. Genomic fragments of phages CL1, CL2, iLp1308, and iLp84 were found in several genomes of L. casei strains. Prophage iA2 is unrelated to these four phages, but almost all of its genome was found in at least four L. casei strains. Overall, these phages are distinct from previously characterized Lactobacillus phages. Our results highlight the diversity of L. casei phages and indicate frequent DNA exchanges between phages and their hosts. PMID:26475105

  11. Highly Hydrolytic Reuteransucrase from Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri Strain ATCC 55730

    PubMed Central

    Kralj, S.; Stripling, E.; Sanders, P.; van Geel-Schutten, G. H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the α-(1→4) glucosidic type (∼70%). This reuteran also contains α-(1→6)- linked glucosyl units and 4,6-disubstituted α-glucosyl units at the branching points. The LB BIO glucansucrase gene (gtfO) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the GTFO enzyme was purified. The recombinant GTFO enzyme and the LB BIO culture supernatants synthesized identical glucan polymers with respect to linkage type and size distribution. GTFO thus is a reuteransucrase, responsible for synthesis of this reuteran polymer in LB BIO. The preference of GTFO for synthesizing α-(1→4) linkages is also evident from the oligosaccharides produced from sucrose with different acceptor substrates, e.g., isopanose from isomaltose. GTFO has a relatively high hydrolysis/transferase activity ratio. Complete conversion of 100 mM sucrose by GTFO nevertheless yielded large amounts of reuteran, although more than 50% of sucrose was converted into glucose. This is only the second example of the isolation and characterization of a reuteransucrase and its reuteran product, both found in different L. reuteri strains. GTFO synthesizes a reuteran with the highest amount of α-(1→4) linkages reported to date. PMID:16000808

  12. Comparative Genomic and Functional Analysis of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains Marketed as Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Douillard, François P.; Ribbera, Angela; Järvinen, Hanna M.; Kant, Ravi; Pietilä, Taija E.; Randazzo, Cinzia; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia K.; Caggia, Cinzia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; Palva, Airi

    2013-01-01

    Four Lactobacillus strains were isolated from marketed probiotic products, including L. rhamnosus strains from Vifit (Friesland Campina) and Idoform (Ferrosan) and L. casei strains from Actimel (Danone) and Yakult (Yakult Honsa Co.). Their genomes and phenotypes were characterized and compared in detail with L. casei strain BL23 and L. rhamnosus strain GG. Phenotypic analysis of the new isolates indicated differences in carbohydrate utilization between L. casei and L. rhamnosus strains, which could be linked to their genotypes. The two isolated L. rhamnosus strains had genomes that were virtually identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG, testifying to their genomic stability and integrity in food products. The L. casei strains showed much greater genomic heterogeneity. Remarkably, all strains contained an intact spaCBA pilus gene cluster. However, only the L. rhamnosus strains produced mucus-binding SpaCBA pili under the conditions tested. Transcription initiation mapping demonstrated that the insertion of an iso-IS30 element upstream of the pilus gene cluster in L. rhamnosus strains but absent in L. casei strains had constituted a functional promoter driving pilus gene expression. All L. rhamnosus strains triggered an NF-κB response via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a reporter cell line, whereas the L. casei strains did not or did so to a much lesser extent. This study demonstrates that the two L. rhamnosus strains isolated from probiotic products are virtually identical to L. rhamnosus GG and further highlights the differences between these and L. casei strains widely marketed as probiotics, in terms of genome content, mucus-binding and metabolic capacities, and host signaling capabilities. PMID:23315726

  13. Comparative genomic and functional analysis of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains marketed as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Douillard, François P; Ribbera, Angela; Järvinen, Hanna M; Kant, Ravi; Pietilä, Taija E; Randazzo, Cinzia; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia K; Caggia, Cinzia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-03-01

    Four Lactobacillus strains were isolated from marketed probiotic products, including L. rhamnosus strains from Vifit (Friesland Campina) and Idoform (Ferrosan) and L. casei strains from Actimel (Danone) and Yakult (Yakult Honsa Co.). Their genomes and phenotypes were characterized and compared in detail with L. casei strain BL23 and L. rhamnosus strain GG. Phenotypic analysis of the new isolates indicated differences in carbohydrate utilization between L. casei and L. rhamnosus strains, which could be linked to their genotypes. The two isolated L. rhamnosus strains had genomes that were virtually identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG, testifying to their genomic stability and integrity in food products. The L. casei strains showed much greater genomic heterogeneity. Remarkably, all strains contained an intact spaCBA pilus gene cluster. However, only the L. rhamnosus strains produced mucus-binding SpaCBA pili under the conditions tested. Transcription initiation mapping demonstrated that the insertion of an iso-IS30 element upstream of the pilus gene cluster in L. rhamnosus strains but absent in L. casei strains had constituted a functional promoter driving pilus gene expression. All L. rhamnosus strains triggered an NF-κB response via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a reporter cell line, whereas the L. casei strains did not or did so to a much lesser extent. This study demonstrates that the two L. rhamnosus strains isolated from probiotic products are virtually identical to L. rhamnosus GG and further highlights the differences between these and L. casei strains widely marketed as probiotics, in terms of genome content, mucus-binding and metabolic capacities, and host signaling capabilities. PMID:23315726

  14. Taxonomic and strain-specific identification of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 within the Lactobacillus casei group.

    PubMed

    Coudeyras, Sophie; Marchandin, Hélène; Fajon, Céline; Forestier, Christiane

    2008-05-01

    Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei group. Analysis of rrn operon sequences confirmed that L. rhamnosus 35 indeed belongs to the L. rhamnosus species, and both temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and ribotyping showed that it is closer to the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG) than to the species type strain. In addition, L. casei ATCC 334 gathered in a coherent cluster with L. paracasei type strains, unlike L. casei ATCC 393, which was closer to L. zeae; this is evidence of the lack of relatedness between the two L. casei strains. Further characterization of the eight strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis repetitive DNA element-based PCR identified distinct patterns for each strain, whereas two isolates of L. rhamnosus 35 sampled 40 years apart could not be distinguished. By subtractive hybridization using the L. rhamnosus GG genome as a driver, we were able to isolate five L. rhamnosus 35-specific sequences, including two phage-related ones. The primer pairs designed to amplify these five regions allowed us to develop rapid and highly specific PCR-based identification methods for the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus 35. PMID:18326671

  15. Taxonomic and Strain-Specific Identification of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 within the Lactobacillus casei Group▿

    PubMed Central

    Coudeyras, Sophie; Marchandin, Hélène; Fajon, Céline; Forestier, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei group. Analysis of rrn operon sequences confirmed that L. rhamnosus 35 indeed belongs to the L. rhamnosus species, and both temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and ribotyping showed that it is closer to the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG) than to the species type strain. In addition, L. casei ATCC 334 gathered in a coherent cluster with L. paracasei type strains, unlike L. casei ATCC 393, which was closer to L. zeae; this is evidence of the lack of relatedness between the two L. casei strains. Further characterization of the eight strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis repetitive DNA element-based PCR identified distinct patterns for each strain, whereas two isolates of L. rhamnosus 35 sampled 40 years apart could not be distinguished. By subtractive hybridization using the L. rhamnosus GG genome as a driver, we were able to isolate five L. rhamnosus 35-specific sequences, including two phage-related ones. The primer pairs designed to amplify these five regions allowed us to develop rapid and highly specific PCR-based identification methods for the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus 35. PMID:18326671

  16. Complete genome sequence of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ZLR003 isolated from healthy weaned pig.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongyan; Ji, Haifeng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Sixin; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yamin

    2016-06-20

    Lactobacillus reuteri ZLR003 was isolated from the caecum mucosa of healthy weaned pigs with displaying probiotic properties in our laboratory. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of L. reuteri ZLR003, which consists of a circular 2,234,097bp chromosome (G+C content of 38.66%). Such information will provide insights into the molecular mechanism of its probiotic activity and facilitate its application in animal production. PMID:27130498

  17. Evaluation of profertility effect of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 2621 in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Praveen; Prabha, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Urogenital infections of bacterial origin have a high incidence among the female population at reproductive age, affecting the fertility. Strains of Escherichia coli can colonize the vagina and replace natural microflora. Lactobacillus the predominant vaginal microorganism in healthy women, maintains the acidic vaginal pH which inhibits pathogenic microorganisms. Studies on Lactobacillus have shown that these can inhibit E. coli growth and vaginal colonization. An alternative therapeutic approach to antimicrobial therapy is to re-establish Lactobacillus in this microbiome through probiotic administration to resurge fertility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the capability of L. plantarum 2621 strain with probiotic properties, to prevent the vaginal colonization of E. coli causing agglutination of sperms and to evaluate its profertility effect in a murine model. Methods: Screened mice were divided into five groups i.e. control group, E. coli group, Lactobacillus group, prophylactic and therapeutic groups. The control group was infused with 20 µl PBS, E.coli group was administered with 106 cfu/20 µl E. coli, and probiotic group was administered with Lactobacillus (108 cfu/20 µl) for 10 consecutive days. In prophylactic group, the vagina was colonized with 10 consecutive doses of Lactobacillus (108 cfu/20 µl). After 24 h, it was followed by 10 day intravaginal infection with E. coli (106 cfu/20 µl) whereas for the therapeutic group vagina was colonized with (106 cfu/20 µl) E. coli for 10 consecutive days, followed by 10 day intravaginal administration with Lactobacillus after 24 h. Results: Upon mating and completion of gestation period, control, probiotic and the therapeutic groups had litters in contrast to the prophylactic group and the group administered with E. coli. Interpretation & conclusions: Results indicated that Lactobacillus intermitted colonization of pathogenic strains that resulted in

  18. Improved bioavailability of dietary phenolic acids in whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus johnsonii , and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Hole, Anastasia S; Rud, Ida; Grimmer, Stine; Sigl, Stefanie; Narvhus, Judith; Sahlstrøm, Stefan

    2012-06-27

    The aim of this study was to improve the bioavailability of the dietary phenolic acids in flours from whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibiting high feruloyl esterase activity (FAE). The highest increase of free phenolic acids was observed after fermentation with three probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, with maximum increases from 2.55 to 69.91 μg g(-1) DM and from 4.13 to 109.42 μg g(-1) DM in whole grain barley and oat groat, respectively. Interestingly, higher amounts of bound phenolic acids were detected after both water treatment and LAB fermentation in whole grain barley, indicating higher bioaccessibility, whereas some decrease was detected in oat groat. To conclude, cereal fermentation with specific probiotic strains can lead to significant increase of free phenolic acids, thereby improving their bioavailability. PMID:22676388

  19. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG is a potential probiotic for calves

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Diarrhea is a common occurrence in neonatal calves. Several veterinary probiotics claiming to prevent or treat calf diarrhea are available, but have not been well studied. This study assessed the capability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) to maintain viability in the gastrointestinal tract of calves. We also determined whether LGG can be administered in an oral rehydration solution (ORS) without compromising the efficacy of the ORS or the viability of LGG, and whether LGG produces D-lactate or not. To investigate the intestinal survival of LGG, 15 calves were randomized into 3 groups and LGG was administered orally with their morning milk feeding on 3 consecutive days at a low (LD), medium (MD), or high (HD) dosage. Fecal samples were collected on days 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 and incubated for 72 h on deMan, Rogosa, Sharpe agar. Twenty-four hours after the 1st feeding, LGG was recovered from 1 out of 5 calves in the LD group, 4 out of 5 calves in the MD group, and 5 out of 5 calves in the HD group. To determine if LGG caused the glucose levels in the ORS to drop below effective levels, 1.5 L of the ORS was incubated with LGG for 2 h at 37°C and the glucose concentration was measured every 20 min using a glucose meter. This ORS was then further incubated for 10 h and aliquots analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography to determine if D-lactate was produced by LGG. Glucose concentrations did not change over the 2 h of incubation, and no D-lactate was produced after 48 h. The LGG maintained viability in ORS. Therefore, this study demonstrated that LGG survives intestinal transit in the young calf, produces no D-lactate, and can be administered in an ORS. PMID:15581218

  20. Evaluation of the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains and their in vitro effect.

    PubMed

    Presti, I; D'Orazio, G; Labra, M; La Ferla, B; Mezzasalma, V; Bizzaro, G; Giardina, S; Michelotti, A; Tursi, F; Vassallo, M; Di Gennaro, P

    2015-07-01

    Probiotic ingestion is recommended as a preventive approach to maintain the balance of the intestinal microbiota and to enhance the human well-being. During the whole life of each individual, the gut microbiota composition could be altered by lifestyle, diet, antibiotic therapies and other stress conditions, which may lead to acute and chronic disorders. Hence, probiotics can be administered for the prevention or treatment of some disorders, including lactose malabsorption, acute diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis and mild forms of inflammatory bowel disease. The probiotic-mediated effect is an important issue that needs to be addressed in relation to strain-specific probiotic properties. In this work, the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains were screened, and their effects in vitro were evaluated. They were screened for probiotic properties by determining their tolerance to low pH and to bile salts, antibiotic sensitivity, antimicrobial activity and vitamin B8, B9 and B12 production, and by considering their ability to increase the antioxidant potential and to modulate the inflammatory status of systemic-miming cell lines in vitro. Three out of the examined strains presenting the most performant probiotic properties, as Lactobacillus plantarum PBS067, Lactobacillus rhamnosus PBS070 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis PBSO75, were evaluated for their effects also on human intestinal HT-29 cell line. The obtained results support the possibility to move to another level of study, that is, the oral administration of these probiotical strains to patients with acute and chronic gut disorders, by in vivo experiments. PMID:25744647

  1. Use of a lactobacillus-based probiotic culture to reduce Salmonella in day of hatch broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercially available Lactobacillus probiotic (FM-B11™ Ivesco LLC) (B11) significantly reduced Salmonella recovery from day-of-hatch chicks in several studies. For all experiments, day-of-hatch male broiler chicks (n=40 per pen) were challenged with approximately 10**4 cfu per chick of Salmonell...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus casei LC2W▿

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Ai, Lianzhong; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei LC2W, a patented probiotic strain (Z. Wu, European patent EP 1642963 B1, February 2009), has been isolated from Chinese traditional dairy products and implemented in industrial production as starter culture. Here we present the complete genome sequence of LC2W and the identification of a gene cluster implicated in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides. PMID:21515769

  3. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei LC2W.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Ai, Lianzhong; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

    2011-07-01

    Lactobacillus casei LC2W, a patented probiotic strain (Z. Wu, European patent EP 1642963 B1, February 2009), has been isolated from Chinese traditional dairy products and implemented in industrial production as starter culture. Here we present the complete genome sequence of LC2W and the identification of a gene cluster implicated in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides. PMID:21515769

  4. Identification of Lactobacillus UFV H2B20 (probiotic strain) using DNA-DNA hybridization

    PubMed Central

    de Magalhães, J.T.; Uetanabaro, A.P. T.; de Moraes, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Sequence analyses of the 16S rDNA gene and DNA-DNA hybridization tests were performed for identification of the species of the probiotic Lactobacillus UFV H2b20 strain. Using these two tests, we concluded that this strain, originally considered Lact. acidophilus, should be classified as Lact. delbrueckii. PMID:24031263

  5. Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt.

    PubMed

    Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

  6. Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

  7. Anti-inflammatory potential of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. on carrageenan induced paw edema in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Archer, Ann Catherine; Muthukumar, S P; Halami, Prakash M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory ability of novel indigenous probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum MCC 2759, L. fermentum MCC 2760 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii MCC 2775 in a carrageenan induced acute inflammatory paw edema model. Probiotic cultures were administered to male Wistar rats via oral route. Carrageenan at a concentration of 1% was injected into hind paw of rats 30min after oral gavage on the 8th day of treatment regimen. Paw thickness (mm), stair climbing activity and motility score were the parameters used to score the inflammatory response. L. fermentum MCC 2759, L. fermentum MCC 2760 and L. delbrueckii MCC 2775 showed significant reduction in paw thickness (P<0.05) showing percentage inhibition of 15.67%, 14.72% and 14.84%, respectively, 24h after carrageenan induction. Probiotic treatment also markedly alleviated the stair climbing and motility score. Histological analysis of tissue sections revealed reduction in cellular infiltration of probiotic and drug treatment groups. Adhesion to resected rat intestinal tissue also showed significant adherence capability (>40%) of the probiotic cultures used. Therefore, L. fermentum MCC 2759, L. fermentum MCC 2760 and L. delbrueckii MCC 2775 may be used as potent anti-inflammatory agents with probiotic health benefits. PMID:26314910

  8. The effect of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) on the availability of minerals from Dutch-type cheese.

    PubMed

    Aljewicz, Marek; Siemianowska, Ewa; Cichosz, Grażyna; Tońska, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    The use of probiotic cultures in the production of Dutch-type cheeses did not lead to significant changes in their chemical composition but it lowered their acidity. The availability of calcium and magnesium analyzed by in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis was 19 and 35%, respectively; the availability of phosphorus was significantly higher, at >90%. The use of probiotic cultures significantly increased the availability of calcium (~2.5%), phosphorus (~6%), and magnesium (~18%). The in vitro method supports accurate determination of the effect of the Lactobacillus spp. cultures on the availability of mineral compounds ingested with Dutch-type cheese. PMID:24913654

  9. Whole Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus paracasei N1115, Isolated from Traditional Chinese Fermented Milk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijie; He, Fang; Luo, Yongkang; Kang, Zhiyuan; Lu, Chun; Feng, Lili; Lu, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuling; Wang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 is a new strain with probiotic properties isolated from traditional homemade dairy products in Inner Mongolia, China. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. paracasei N1115, which shows high similarity to the well-studied probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and 3 structures turned out to be inversions, according to the colinearity analysis of the BLAST alignment. PMID:24625864

  10. Study and use of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in pigs: a review.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chengli; Zeng, Xiangfang; Yang, Fengjuan; Liu, Hong; Qiao, Shiyan

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms that provide a wide variety of health benefits to the host when ingested in adequate amounts. The bacterial strains most frequently used as probiotic agents are lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus reuteri, which is one of the few endogenous Lactobacillus species found in the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, including humans, rats, pigs and chickens. L. reuteri is one of the most well documented probiotic species and has been widely utilized as a probiotic in humans and animals for many years. Initially, L. reuteri was used in humans to reduce the incidence and the severity of diarrhea, prevent colic and necrotic enterocolitis, and maintain a functional mucosal barrier. As interest in alternatives to in-feed antibiotics has grown in recent years, some evidence has emerged that probiotics may promote growth, improve the efficiency of feed utilization, prevent diarrhea, and regulate the immune system in pigs. In this review, the characteristics of L. reuteri are described, in order to update the evidence on the efficacy of using L. reuteri in pigs. PMID:25954504

  11. Assessment of potentially probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from chickens.

    PubMed

    Kizerwetter-Świda, M; Binek, M

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed in order to isolate lactobacilli from chicken droppings and to select strains with the most promising probiotic properties. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from a flock of healthy laying hens. The first selection criterion was the ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis. Then the tolerance to low pH and bile salt, the ability to coaggregate with pathogenic bacteria and hydrogen peroxide production were evaluated. Four isolates showing the best antagonistic activity against Salmonella Enetritidis were selected for further research. All isolates tested tolerated low pH and bile salt, likewise all produced hydrogen peroxide. They efficiently coaggregated with C. perfringens and relatively less with E. coli. Isolate 03'04 displayed above-average results in all criteria, thus it is considered as a potential probiotic for chickens, and will be further evaluated for health promoting effect in animals. The results presented in this study confirm the strain specific probiotic properties and prove the probiotic potential of isolate 03'04. Strong antagonistic properties against C. perfringens exhibited by certain Lactobacillus strains indicate the possibility to use them as a component of probiotic supplement in necrotic enteritis of poultry. PMID:27096783

  12. Identification of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic features from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, MA; Bik, EM; Carlin, KP; Venn-Watson, SK; Jensen, ED; Jones, SE; Gaston, EP; Relman, DA; Versalovic, J

    2013-01-01

    Aims In order to develop complementary health management strategies for marine mammals, we used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to identify gastrointestinal lactobacilli of the common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Methods and Results We screened 307 bacterial isolates from oral and rectal swabs, milk and gastric fluid, collected from 38 dolphins in the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, for potentially beneficial features. We focused our search on lactobacilli and evaluated their ability to modulate TNF secretion by host cells and inhibit growth of pathogens. We recovered Lactobacillus salivarius strains which secreted factors that stimulated TNF production by human monocytoid cells. These Lact. salivarius isolates inhibited growth of selected marine mammal and human bacterial pathogens. In addition, we identified a novel Lactobacillus species by culture and direct sequencing with 96·3% 16S rDNA sequence similarity to Lactobacillus ceti. Conclusions Dolphin-derived Lact. salivarius isolates possess features making them candidate probiotics for clinical studies in marine mammals. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to isolate lactobacilli from dolphins, including a novel Lactobacillus species and a new strain of Lact. salivarius, with potential for veterinary probiotic applications. The isolation and identification of novel Lactobacillus spp. and other indigenous microbes from bottlenose dolphins will enable the study of the biology of symbiotic members of the dolphin microbiota and facilitate the understanding of the microbiomes of these unique animals. PMID:23855505

  13. Effect of transient acid stress on the proteome of intestinal probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Lee, KiBeom; Pi, KyungBae

    2010-04-01

    We report the acid tolerance response and changes in the level of protein expression of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri subjected to transient (1.5 h) acid stress at pH 3.0. Sixteen acid-responsive proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting including members of five broad functional categories: metabolism, transcription/translation, DNA replication/repair, transport and binding proteins, and pH homeostasis and stress responses. This work can provide some new and relevant information on the inducible mechanisms underlying the capacity of probiotic L. reuteri to tolerate acid stress. PMID:20618135

  14. Lactobacillus Sepsis and Probiotic Therapy in Newborns: Two New Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Dani, Carlo; Coviello C, Caterina; Corsini I, Iuri; Arena, Fabio; Antonelli, Alberto; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2016-03-01

    Many term and preterm infants are commonly supplemented with probiotics to prevent adverse effects of antibiotic administration and necrotizing enterocolitis and they are believed to be safe. However, the supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been associated with the development of sepsis with a cause-effect relationship in six newborns and children. In this study, we report two further cases and discuss the emerging issue of probiotic supplementation safety in neonates. We conclude that physicians must be aware that supplementation with L. rhamnosus GG can cause sepsis in high-risk patients on rare occasions. PMID:26929865

  15. Lactobacillus Sepsis and Probiotic Therapy in Newborns: Two New Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Dani, Carlo; Coviello C, Caterina; Corsini I, Iuri; Arena, Fabio; Antonelli, Alberto; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2015-01-01

    Many term and preterm infants are commonly supplemented with probiotics to prevent adverse effects of antibiotic administration and necrotizing enterocolitis and they are believed to be safe. However, the supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been associated with the development of sepsis with a cause–effect relationship in six newborns and children. In this study, we report two further cases and discuss the emerging issue of probiotic supplementation safety in neonates. We conclude that physicians must be aware that supplementation with L. rhamnosus GG can cause sepsis in high-risk patients on rare occasions. PMID:26929865

  16. Characterization of a novel Lactobacillus species closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii using a combination of molecular and comparative genomics methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) constitutes a powerful tool for identification and characterization of bacterial strains. In this study we have applied this technique for the characterization of a number of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the intestinal content of rats fed with a diet supplemented with sorbitol. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, recA, pheS, pyrG and tuf sequences identified five bacterial strains isolated from the intestinal content of rats as belonging to the recently described Lactobacillus taiwanensis species. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that these five strains are distinct but closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus gasseri. A whole genome DNA microarray designed for the probiotic L. johnsonii strain NCC533 was used for CGH analysis of L. johnsonii ATCC 33200T, L. johnsonii BL261, L. gasseri ATCC 33323T and L. taiwanensis BL263. In these experiments, the fluorescence ratio distributions obtained with L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri showed characteristic inter-species profiles. The percentage of conserved L. johnsonii NCC533 genes was about 83% in the L. johnsonii strains comparisons and decreased to 51% and 47% for L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri, respectively. These results confirmed the separate status of L. taiwanensis from L. johnsonii at the level of species, and also that L. taiwanensis is closer to L. johnsonii than L. gasseri is to L. johnsonii. Conclusion Conventional taxonomic analyses and microarray-based CGH analysis have been used for the identification and characterization of the newly species L. taiwanensis. The microarray-based CGH technology has been shown as a remarkable tool for the identification and fine discrimination between phylogenetically close species, and additionally provided insight into the adaptation of the strain L. taiwanensis BL263 to its ecological niche. PMID:20849602

  17. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1, a probiotic bacterium producing exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Xia, Xiudong; Chen, Xiaohong; Rui, Xin; Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Qiuqin; Zhou, Jianzhong; Dong, Mingsheng

    2015-09-10

    Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1 is a probiotic bacterium producing exopolysaccharides (EPS), which was isolated from traditional Sayram ropy fermented milk in southern Xinjiang, China. The genome consists of a circular 2,084,058bp chromosome with no plasmid. The genome sequence indicated that this strain includes a 15.20kb gene cluster involved in EPS biosynthesis. Genome sequencing information has provided the basis for understanding the potential molecular mechanism behind the EPS production. PMID:26065338

  18. Evaluation of reuterin production in urogenital probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14.

    PubMed

    Cadieux, Peter; Wind, Anette; Sommer, Philip; Schaefer, Laura; Crowley, Kate; Britton, Robert A; Reid, Gregor

    2008-08-01

    Classified as a distinct species in 1980, Lactobacillus reuteri strains have been used in probiotic formulations for intestinal and urogenital applications. In the former, the primary mechanism of action of L. reuteri SD2112 (ATCC 55730) has been purported to be its ability to produce the antibiotic 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA), also known as reuterin. In the vagina, it has been postulated that probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 does not require reuterin production but mediates a restoration of the normal microbiota via hydrogen peroxide, biosurfactant, lactic acid production, and immune modulation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether strain RC-14 produced reuterin. Using PCR and DNA dot blot analyses, numerous Lactobacillus species, including RC-14, were screened for the presence of the gene encoding the large subunit of glycerol dehydratase (gldC), the enzyme responsible for reuterin production. In addition, lactobacilli were grown in glycerol-based media and both high-performance liquid chromatography and a colorimetric assay were used to test for the presence of reuterin. L. reuteri RC-14 was determined to be negative for gldC sequences, as well as for the production of reuterin when cultured in the presence of glycerol. These findings support that the probiotic effects of L. reuteri RC-14, repeatedly demonstrated during numerous studies of the intestine and vagina, are independent of reuterin production. PMID:18539802

  19. Probiotic Potential and Safety Properties of Lactobacillus plantarum from Slovak Bryndza Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Belicová, Anna; Mikulášová, Mária; Dušinský, Roman

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-five acid-resistant presumptive lactobacilli were isolated from Slovak Bryndza cheese and screened for their antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial pathogens using spot agar assay. Out of twenty-six Lactobacillus strains with strong inhibition activity, twenty were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and six as Lactobacillus fermentum. The most active eleven L. plantarum isolates were further characterized in vitro for some probiotic and safety properties. Only three isolates K10, K21, and ZS07 showed the ability to grow over 50% in the presence of 0.3% bile. Strong deconjugation efficiency was determined for CK06 and K21. The highest β-galactosidase activity was shown in isolates ZS11, B01, CK06, and ZS07. Only three of the strains had the ability to produce tyramine: CK06, LM1, and ZS11. Strains K09, K21, ZS11, and ZS15 were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. Analysis of the results confirmed the L. plantarum isolates ZS07 and K21 as the most suitable for probiotic use, due to their desirable probiotic and safety characteristics. PMID:24093103

  20. Preliminary evaluation of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Sardinian dairy products.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Viale, Silvia; Conti, Stefania; Fadda, Maria Elisabetta; Deplano, Maura; Melis, Maria Paola; Deiana, Monica; Cosentino, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%). All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong β-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products. PMID:25054135

  1. Preliminary Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Sardinian Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Viale, Silvia; Conti, Stefania; Deplano, Maura; Melis, Maria Paola; Deiana, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%). All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong β-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products. PMID:25054135

  2. [Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 - probiotic from human milk with interesting properties].

    PubMed

    Żarłok, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are an intensively growing part of the pharmaceutical and nutrition industries. Along with the intensive development of sales volumes and product offers, more and more scientific publications on this subject are available (at the time of writing this article there are available almost 14 thousand publications in PubMed library). Scientists are trying to find new uses and new sources for this crucial group of nutrients or potential drugs. At the beginning of the XXI century it was discovered that the source of probiotics doesn't need to be only gastrointestinal tract (as previously thought), since they were obtained from breast milk which for many years were considered to be sterile. Probiotics from breast milk are an interesting group which could find application in mastitis, immunity support, infection prevention, infant colics and oral health. Main representative of this group is a strain of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716. PMID:27487547

  3. Isolation and microencapsulation of Lactobacillus spp. from corn silage for probiotic application

    PubMed Central

    Kasra – Kermanshahi, R; Fooladi, J; Peymanfar, S

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Probiotics including strains of Lactobacillus spp. are living microorganisms including which are beneficial to human and animals health. In this study, Lactobacillus has been isolated from corn silage in a cold region of Iran by anaerobic culture. Materials and Methods The bacteriological and biochemical standard methods were used for identification and phenotypic characterization of isolated organism. To increase the stability of organism in the environment, we used microencapsulation technique using stabilizer polymers (Alginate and Chitosan). Results The isolated Lactobacillus spp. was able to ferment tested carbohydrates and grow at 10°C–50°C. Using microencapsulation, the stability and survival of this bacterium increased. Conclusion microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria with alginate and chitosan coating offers an effective way of delivering viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during refrigerated storage. PMID:22347557

  4. Development of antioxidant rich fruit supplemented probiotic yogurts using free and microencapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus culture.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the preparation of probiotic yogurt using Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The standard starter cultures used for yogurt fermentation were Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and obtained from NDRI, Karnal, India. The prepared yogurt was supplemented with fruit pulp (10 % w/v) of apricot, raspberries, plum and jamun. These fruits were rich in antioxidant property as observed by DPPH, nitric oxide radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay methods. The probiotic yogurt products were prepared using free, alginate (2 %) and carrageenan (2 %) encapsulated probiotic L. rhamnosus culture. The microencapsulated beads were characterized by FTIR and alginate beads with bacteria showed characteristic wavelength major at 1424 and 1033 nm. The acidity increased (0.40 ± 0-0.76 ± 0.01 %) and pH of yogurts decreased (4.63 ± 0.06 - 2.83 ± 0.03) during storage. Probiotic L. rhamnosus count decreased during storage and alginate microencapsulated probiotic culture was more stable (8.85 ± 0.01 - 4.35 ± 0.03 log CFU/g) as compared with carrageenan encapsulated (8.79 ± 0.01 -2.56 ± 0.04 log CFU/g) and free culture (8.90 ± 0.01 - 2.26 ± 0.03 log CFU/g). The antioxidant power of fruits supplemented probiotic yogurts decreased successively during storage up to 15 days. PMID:26787986

  5. Highly Heterogeneous Probiotic Lactobacillus Species in Healthy Iranians with Low Functional Activities

    PubMed Central

    Rohani, Mahdi; Noohi, Nasrin; Talebi, Malihe; Katouli, Mohammad; Pourshafie, Mohammad R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been considered as potentially probiotic organisms due to their potential human health properties. This study aimed to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo, the potential probiotic properties of Lactobacillus species isolated from fecal samples of healthy humans in Iran. Methods and Results A total of 470 LAB were initially isolated from 53 healthy individual and characterized to species level. Of these, 88 (86%) were Lactobacillus species. Biochemical and genetic fingerprinting with Phene-Plate system (PhP-LB) and RAPD-PCR showed that the isolates were highly diverse consisted of 67(76.1%) and 75 (85.2%) single types (STs) and a diversity indices of 0.994 and 0.997, respectively. These strains were tested for production of adhesion to Caco-2 cells, antibacterial activity, production of B12, anti-proliferative effect and interleukin-8 induction on gut epithelial cell lines and antibiotic resistance against 9 commonly used antibiotics. Strains showing the characteristics consistent with probiotic strains, were further tested for their anti-inflammatory effect in mouse colitis model. Only one L. brevis; one L. rhamnosus and two L. plantarum were shown to have significant probiotic properties. These strains showed shortening the length of colon compared to dextran sulfate sodium and disease activity index (DAI) was also significantly reduced in mouse. Conclusion Low number of LAB with potential probiotic activity as well as high diversity of lactobacilli species was evident in Iranian population. It also suggest that specific strains of L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. rhamnosus with anti-inflammatory effect in mouse model of colitis could be used as a potential probiotic candidate in inflammatory bowel disease to decrease the disease activity index. PMID:26645292

  6. In Vitro Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria from the Gut of Labeo rohita and Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Tapasa Kumar; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Nagar, Nidhi; Patel, Amiya Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2015-06-01

    We report the evaluation of probiotic properties of potent lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the gut of freshwater fishes, Labeo rohita and Catla catla, for eventually developing probiotic strains for the prevention of bacterial infections in aquaculture and food preservation. Five different LAB strains were isolated and characterized for their probiotic properties. Based on physiological, morphological and biochemical characteristics, three isolates from Labeo rohita and two from Catla catla were identified as putative probiotics and were denoted as LR11, LR14 and LR16 and CC3 and CC4, respectively. Isolates CC3 and CC4 were acid (pH 2.5) and bile salt (0.3% oxygall) tolerant and exhibited strong antibacterial activities against all pathogens including Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, all LAB isolates were susceptible to tested antibiotics, except CC3 and CC4 which were vancomycin resistant. Furthermore, the isolates CC3 and CC4 showed significantly higher in vitro cell surface properties, i.e., hydrophobicity, auto- and co-aggregation. Biochemical tests, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequence analysis established that LR11, LR14, LR16, CC3 and CC4 are Enterococcus avium TSU11, Enterococcus pseudoavium TSU14, Enterococcus raffinosus TSU16, Lactobacillus gasseri TSU3 and Lactobacillus animalis TSU4, respectively. Studies revealed that, Lactobacillus gasseri TSU3 and Lactobacillus animalis TSU4 are ideal probiotic candidates for its use in aquaculture and require further exploratory in vivo evaluation and safety studies. PMID:25634754

  7. Triglyceride-Lowering Effects of Two Probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 and Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601, in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Il-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Jeong, Ji-Woong; Lee, Dong Eun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Hong, Seong Soo; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2016-03-28

    The triglyceride-lowering effect of probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 and Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 were investigated. Male SD Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD and probiotics (5 X 10(9) CFU/day of L. plantarum KY1032 and 5 X 10(9) CFU/day of L. curvatus HY7601), or normal diet for 6 weeks. Probiotic treatment significantly lowered the elevated plasma triglyceride and increased plasma free fatty acid, glycerol, and plasma apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA-V) levels. The probiotic-treated group showed elevated hepatic mRNA expression of PPARα, bile acid receptor (FXR), and ApoA-V. These results demonstrate that L. plantarum KY1032 and L. curvatus HY7601 lower triglycerides in hypertriglyceridemic rats by upregulating ApoA-V, PPARα, and FXR. PMID:26699746

  8. Characterization of the most abundant Lactobacillus species in chicken gastrointestinal tract and potential use as probiotics for genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Fang, Mingjian; Hu, Yanping; Yang, Yuxin; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-01

    The count and diffusion of Lactobacilli species in the different gastrointestinal tract (GI) regions of broilers were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the probiotic characteristics of six L. reuteri species isolated from broilers' GI tract were also investigated to obtain the potential target for genetic engineering. Lactobacilli had the highest diversity in the crop and the lowest one in the cecum. Compared with the lower GI tract, more Lactobacilli were found in the upper GI tract. Lactobacillus reuteri, L. johnsonii, L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. salivarius, and L. aviarius were the predominant Lactobacillus species and present throughout the GI tract of chickens. Lactobacillus reuteri was the most abundant Lactobacillus species. Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 had good probiotic characteristics that would be a potential and desirable target for genetic engineering. PMID:24850302

  9. Effect of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus on Citrobacter rodentium colitis: the role of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Shi, Hai Ning; Walker, W Allan

    2009-02-01

    Modulation of the intestinal immune response early in life by administration of probiotic bacteria may be an effective strategy for preventing or attenuating infectious diarrhea. We preinoculated the mice early in life with the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (La) at age 2 wk. Dendritic cells (DCs) were collected and purified from mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleens of the BalbC/ByJ mice. DC isolation and adoptive transfer was used to examine the function of probiotics. We demonstrated that when mice were adoptively transferred with La-primed DCs (t-LaDC) instead of oral consumption with La, there was a similar effect on fecal bacteria counts, IgA levels, and colonic histopathology, as well as cytokine levels in MLN when there was intestinal bacterial infection. The above findings suggest that DCs play a key role in probiotics attenuating Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) colitis. Moreover, the location of La-primed DC hints that there is interaction of DCs and T cells in the digestive system of the host. Up-regulated expression of a surface marker on DCs indicated that inoculation with probiotics will stimulate the function of DCs, thereby further increasing immune response triggered by DC. PMID:19262293

  10. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 reveals its genetic adaptation and potential probiotic profiles* #

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Li, Xuan; Gu, Qing; Lou, Xiu-yu; Zhang, Xiao-mei; Song, Da-feng; Zhang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In previous studies, Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 showed probiotic properties, such as antimicrobial activity against various pathogens and the capacity to significantly improve pig growth and pork quality. The purpose of this study was to reveal the genes potentially related to its genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles based on comparative genomic analysis. Methods: The genome sequence of L. plantarum ZJ316 was compared with those of eight L. plantarum strains deposited in GenBank. BLASTN, Mauve, and MUMmer programs were used for genome alignment and comparison. CRISPRFinder was applied for searching the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Results: We identified genes that encode proteins related to genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles, including carbohydrate transport and metabolism, proteolytic enzyme systems and amino acid biosynthesis, CRISPR adaptive immunity, stress responses, bile salt resistance, ability to adhere to the host intestinal wall, exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, and bacteriocin biosynthesis. Conclusions: Comparative characterization of the L. plantarum ZJ316 genome provided the genetic basis for further elucidating the functional mechanisms of its probiotic properties. ZJ316 could be considered a potential probiotic candidate. PMID:27487802

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Buffy; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    We present the 1,991,830-bp complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain La-14 (SD-5212). Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.98% similarity overall to the L. acidophilus NCFM genome. Globally, 111 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (95 SNPs, 16 indels) were observed throughout the genome. Also, a 416-bp deletion in the LA14_1146 sugar ABC transporter was identified. PMID:23788546

  12. Influence of manufacturing processes on cell surface properties of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35®.

    PubMed

    Nivoliez, Adrien; Veisseire, Philippe; Alaterre, Elina; Dausset, Caroline; Baptiste, Fabrice; Camarès, Olivier; Paquet-Gachinat, Marylise; Bonnet, Muriel; Forestier, Christiane; Bornes, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the industrial process on the properties of probiotics, administered as complex manufactured products, has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we comparatively assessed the cell wall characteristics of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35® together with three of its commercial formulations with intestinal applications. Putative secreted and transmembrane-protein-encoding genes were initially searched in silico in the genome of L. rhamnosus Lcr35®. A total of 369 candidate genes were identified which expressions were followed using a custom Lactobacillus DNA chip. Among them, 60 or 67 genes had their expression either upregulated or downregulated in the Lcr Restituo® packet or capsule formulations, compared to the native Lcr35® strain. Moreover, our data showed that the probiotic formulations (Lcr Lenio®, Lcr restituo® capsule and packet) showed a better capacity to adhere to intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells than the native Lcr35® strain. Microbial (MATS) tests showed that the probiotic was an electron donor and that they were more hydrophilic than the native strain. The enhanced adhesion capacity of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to epithelial Caco-2 cells and their antipathogen effect could be due to this greater surface hydrophilic character. These findings suggest that the manufacturing process influences the protein composition and the chemical properties of the cell wall. It is therefore likely that the antipathogen effect of the formulation is modulated by the industrial process. Screening of the manufactured products' properties would therefore represent an essential step in evaluating the effects of probiotic strains. PMID:25280746

  13. Functional and Probiotic Attributes of an Indigenous Isolate of Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Jai K.; Kumar, Ashutosh; Duary, Raj K.; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Probiotic microorganisms favorably alter the intestinal microflora balance, promote intestinal integrity and mobility, inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria and increase resistance to infection. Probiotics are increasingly used in nutraceuticals, functional foods or in microbial interference treatment. However, the effectiveness of probiotic organism is considered to be population-specific due to variation in gut microflora, food habits and specific host-microbial interactions. Most of the probiotic strains available in the market are of western or European origin, and a strong need for exploring new indigenous probiotic organisms is felt. Methods and Findings An indigenous isolate Lp9 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by molecular-typing methods was studied extensively for its functional and probiotic attributes, viz., acid and bile salt tolerance, cell surface hydrophobicity, autoaggregation and Caco-2 cell-binding as well as antibacterial and antioxidative activities. Lp9 isolate could survive 2 h incubation at pH 1.5–2.0 and toxicity of 1.5–2.0% oxgall bile. Lp9 could deconjugate major bile salts like glycocholate and deoxytaurocholate, indicating its potential to cause hypocholesterolemia. The isolate exhibited cell-surface hydrophobicity of ∼37% and autoaggregation of ∼31%. Presence of putative probiotic marker genes like mucus-binding protein (mub), fibronectin-binding protein (fbp) and bile salt hydrolase (bsh) were confirmed by PCR. Presence of these genes suggested the possibility of specific interaction and colonization potential of Lp9 isolate in the gut, which was also suggested by a good adhesion ratio of 7.4±1.3% with Caco-2 cell line. The isolate demonstrated higher free radical scavenging activity than standard probiotics L. johnsonii LA1 and L. acidophilus LA7. Lp9 also exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli, L. monocytogenes, S. typhi, S. aureus and B. cereus. Conclusion The indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum Lp

  14. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antimicrobial Activity against Some Human Pathogenic Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147

  15. Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains.

    PubMed

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147

  16. Detection and Identification of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Strains by Multiplex PCR Using RAPD-Derived Primers

    PubMed Central

    Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Tassou, Chrysoula C.; Chorianopoulos, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum 2035 and Lactobacillus plantarum ACA-DC 2640 are two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that have been isolated from Feta cheese. Both display significant potential for the production of novel probiotic food products. The aim of the present study was the development of an accurate and efficient method for the molecular detection and identification of the above strains in a single reaction. A multiplex PCR assay was designed for each strain, based on specific primers derived from Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Sequenced Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) analysis. The specificity of the assay was tested with a total of 23 different LAB strains, for L. plantarum 2035 and L. plantarum ACA-DC 2640. The multiplex PCR assay was also successfully applied for the detection of the above cultures in yogurt samples prepared in our lab. The proposed methodology may be applied for monitoring the presence of these strains in food products, thus evaluating their probiotic character. Moreover, our strategy may be adapted for other novel LAB strains with probiotic potential, thus providing a powerful tool for molecular discrimination that could be invaluable to the food industry. PMID:26506345

  17. Safety Assessment of Two New Lactobacillus Strains as Probiotic for Human Using a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Sieo, Chin Chin; Ho, Yin Wan

    2016-01-01

    Two previously isolated Lactobacillus strains (L. fermentum HM3 from human milk and L. buchneri FD2 from fermented dates), intended as probiotic for human, were assessed for their safety using acute and subacute oral toxicity tests in rats. In addition, their effects on cecal microflora and harmful bacterial enzymes (β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase) of the tested animals were also determined. The results showed that L. buchneri FD2, L. fermentum HM3, or a mixture of them were safe up to a level of 1010 CFU/kg BW/day in a 14-day or 28-day treatment period. Both strains were well tolerated and there were no observed adverse effects on growth, feed consumption, cellular blood components and vital organs of the treated animals. The Lactobacillus strains were also able to reduce harmful intestinal bacterial enzymes, and decrease pathogenic bacterial populations while increasing beneficial bacterial populations. These results suggest that the two Lactobacillus strains are safe and could be potential probiotic for human. PMID:27467068

  18. Safety Assessment of Two New Lactobacillus Strains as Probiotic for Human Using a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Sieo, Chin Chin; Ho, Yin Wan

    2016-01-01

    Two previously isolated Lactobacillus strains (L. fermentum HM3 from human milk and L. buchneri FD2 from fermented dates), intended as probiotic for human, were assessed for their safety using acute and subacute oral toxicity tests in rats. In addition, their effects on cecal microflora and harmful bacterial enzymes (β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase) of the tested animals were also determined. The results showed that L. buchneri FD2, L. fermentum HM3, or a mixture of them were safe up to a level of 1010 CFU/kg BW/day in a 14-day or 28-day treatment period. Both strains were well tolerated and there were no observed adverse effects on growth, feed consumption, cellular blood components and vital organs of the treated animals. The Lactobacillus strains were also able to reduce harmful intestinal bacterial enzymes, and decrease pathogenic bacterial populations while increasing beneficial bacterial populations. These results suggest that the two Lactobacillus strains are safe and could be potential probiotic for human. PMID:27467068

  19. Probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® modifies subpopulations of fecal lactobacilli and Clostridium difficile in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lahtinen, Sampo J; Forssten, Sofia; Aakko, Juhani; Granlund, Linda; Rautonen, Nina; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2012-02-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in the intestinal microbiota and with immunosenescence. Probiotics have the potential to modify a selected part of the intestinal microbiota as well as improve immune functions and may, therefore, be particularly beneficial to elderly consumers. In this randomized, controlled cross-over clinical trial, we assessed the effects of a probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on the intestinal microbiota and fecal immune markers of 31 elderly volunteers and compared these effects with the administration of the same cheese without probiotics. The probiotic cheese was found to increase the number of L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus NCFM in the feces, suggesting the survival of the strains during the gastrointestinal transit. Importantly, probiotic cheese administration was associated with a trend towards lower counts of Clostridium difficile in the elderly, as compared with the run-in period with the plain cheese. The effect was statistically significant in the subpopulation of the elderly who harbored C. difficile at the start of the study. The probiotic cheese was not found to significantly alter the levels of the major microbial groups, suggesting that the microbial changes conferred by the probiotic cheese were limited to specific bacterial groups. Despite that the administration of the probiotic cheese to the study population has earlier been shown to significantly improve the innate immunity of the elders, we did not observe measurable changes in the fecal immune IgA concentrations. No increase in fecal calprotectin and β-defensin concentrations suggests that the probiotic treatment did not affect intestinal inflammatory markers. In conclusion, the administration of probiotic cheese containing L. rhamnosus HN001 and L. acidophilus NCFM, was associated with specific changes in the intestinal microbiota, mainly affecting specific subpopulations of intestinal lactobacilli and C

  20. Probiotic attributes of Lactobacillus fermentum isolated from human feces and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Archer, Ann Catherine; Halami, Prakash M

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize native Lactobacillus fermentum isolates for their probiotic attributes. Accordingly, 12 L. fermentum isolates selected from indigenous fermented dairy products and infant fecal samples were evaluated for their probiotic properties by in vitro and PCR methods. The cultures exhibited high tolerance to acid and bile as well as survival in simulated transit fluids (above 70 %). Cell surface hydrophobicity was in the range of 0.55-57.69 % for xylene and 0.45-77.12 % for hexadecane, whereas auto-aggregation ranged between 9 and 62 %. Isolates exhibited efficient binding to mucin and fibronectin, bile salt hydrolase activity, cholesterol assimilation (49-76 %), and radical scavenging activity (37-77 %). The isolates demonstrated antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341. Molecular fingerprinting and identification of the isolates were achieved by PCR with GTG5 as well as 16S rRNA, phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase alpha subunit (pheS), and RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) genes. This revealed the genomic diversity of the isolates from the two sources. Gene-specific amplification of probiotic marker genes was attained by PCR-based methods, and resultant products were sequenced. Multiple sequence alignment of the probiotic marker genes using bioinformatics revealed similarity to completely sequenced genomes of L. fermentum CECT 5716 and IFO 3956 with a few variations in mucin-binding protein gene sequences. Isolates designated as L. fermentum MCC 2759 and L. fermentum MCC 2760 showed the best probiotic attributes with high survival in simulated gastrointestinal fluids, in vitro adhesion, cholesterol reduction, and high antioxidative potential. Thus, these cultures could be potential probiotic candidates for application as functional foods. PMID:26004804

  1. In vitro importance of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum related to medical field

    PubMed Central

    Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Choi, Ki Choon; Srigopalram, Srisesharam

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a Gram positive lactic acid bacterium commonly found in fermented food and in the gastro intestinal tract and is commonly used in the food industry as a potential starter probiotic. Recently, the consumption of food together with probiotics has tremendously increased. Among the lactic acid bacteria, L. plantarum attracted many researchers because of its wide applications in the medical field with antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anti-obesity and antidiabetic properties. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro importance of L. plantarum toward medical applications. Moreover, this report short listed various reports related to the applications of this promising strain. In conclusion, this study would attract the researchers in commercializing this strain toward the welfare of humans related to medical needs. PMID:26858567

  2. In vitro importance of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum related to medical field.

    PubMed

    Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Choi, Ki Choon; Srigopalram, Srisesharam

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a Gram positive lactic acid bacterium commonly found in fermented food and in the gastro intestinal tract and is commonly used in the food industry as a potential starter probiotic. Recently, the consumption of food together with probiotics has tremendously increased. Among the lactic acid bacteria, L. plantarum attracted many researchers because of its wide applications in the medical field with antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anti-obesity and antidiabetic properties. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro importance of L. plantarum toward medical applications. Moreover, this report short listed various reports related to the applications of this promising strain. In conclusion, this study would attract the researchers in commercializing this strain toward the welfare of humans related to medical needs. PMID:26858567

  3. Role of probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum KKL1 in the preparation of a rice based fermented beverage.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kuntal; Ray, Mousumi; Adak, Atanu; Halder, Suman K; Das, Arpan; Jana, Arijit; Parua Mondal, Saswati; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep K; Pati, Bikas R; Mondal, Keshab C

    2015-01-01

    A dominant lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum KKL1 was isolated from an Indian rice based fermented beverage and its fermentative behavior on rice was evaluated. The isolate grown well in rice and decreased the pH, with an increase of total titratable acidity on account of high yield in lactic acid and acetic acid. The production of α-amylase and glucoamylase by the strain reached plateau on 1st and 2nd day of fermentation respectively. The accumulation of malto-oligosaccharides of different degrees of polymerization was also found highest on 4th day. Besides, phytase activity along with accumulation of free minerals also unremittingly increased throughout the fermentation. The fermented materials showed free radical scavenging activity against DPPH radicals. In-vitro characteristics revealed the suitability of the isolate as probiotic organism. The above profiling revealed that probiotic L. fermentum KKL1 have the significant impact in preparation of rice beer and improves its functional characteristics. PMID:25693452

  4. Histamine H2 Receptor-Mediated Suppression of Intestinal Inflammation by Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chunxu; Major, Angela; Rendon, David; Lugo, Monica; Jackson, Vanessa; Shi, Zhongcheng; Mori-Akiyama, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Probiotics and commensal intestinal microbes suppress mammalian cytokine production and intestinal inflammation in various experimental model systems. Limited information exists regarding potential mechanisms of probiotic-mediated immunomodulation in vivo. In this report, we demonstrate that specific probiotic strains of Lactobacillus reuteri suppress intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse colitis model. Only strains that possess the hdc gene cluster, including the histidine decarboxylase and histidine-histamine antiporter genes, can suppress colitis and mucosal cytokine (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and IL-1β in the colon) gene expression. Suppression of acute colitis in mice was documented by diminished weight loss, colonic injury, serum amyloid A (SAA) protein concentrations, and reduced uptake of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) in the colon by positron emission tomography (PET). The ability of probiotic L. reuteri to suppress colitis depends on the presence of a bacterial histidine decarboxylase gene(s) in the intestinal microbiome, consumption of a histidine-containing diet, and signaling via the histamine H2 receptor (H2R). Collectively, luminal conversion of l-histidine to histamine by hdc+ L. reuteri activates H2R, and H2R signaling results in suppression of acute inflammation within the mouse colon. PMID:26670383

  5. Distinct adhesion of probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 to rat intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Saxami, Georgia; Ypsilantis, Petros; Sidira, Marianthi; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Galanis, Alex

    2012-08-01

    Adhesion to the intestine represents a critical parameter for probiotic action. In this study, the adhesion ability of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 to the gastrointestinal tract of Wistar rats was examined after single and daily administration of fermented milk containing either free or immobilized cells on apple pieces. The adhesion of the probiotic cells at the large intestine (cecum and colon) was recorded at levels ≥6 logCFU/g (suggested minimum levels for conferring a probiotic effect) following daily administration for 7 days by combining microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis. Single dose administration resulted in slightly reduced counts (5 logCFU/g), while they were lower at the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) (≤3 logCFU/g), indicating that adhesion was a targeted process. Of note, the levels of L. casei ATCC 393 were enhanced in the cecal and colon fluids both at single and daily administration of immobilized cells (6 and 7 logCFU/g, respectively). The adhesion of the GI tract was transient and thus daily consumption of probiotic products containing the specific strain is suggested as an important prerequisite for retaining its levels at an effective concentration. PMID:22554894

  6. Microencapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG powders: relationship of powder physical properties to probiotic survival during storage.

    PubMed

    Ying, Dan Yang; Phoon, Mei Chi; Sanguansri, Luz; Weerakkody, Rangika; Burgar, Iko; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Freeze-dried commercial Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) were encapsulated in an emulsion-based formulation stabilized by whey protein and resistant starch and either spray-dried or freeze-dried to produce probiotic microcapsules. There was no difference in loss of probiotics viability after spray drying or freeze drying. Particle size, morphology, moisture sorption, and water mobility of the powder microcapsules were examined. Particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy showed that spray-dried LGG microcapsules (SDMC) were small spherical particles, whereas freeze-dried LGG microcapsules (FDMC) were larger nonspherical particles. Moisture sorption isotherms obtained using dynamic vapor sorption showed a slightly higher water uptake in spray-dried microcapsules. The effect of water mobility, as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, at various water activities (a(w) 0.32, 0.57, and 0.70) and probiotic viability during storage at 25 °C was also examined. Increasing the relative humidity of the environment at which the samples were stored caused an increase in water mobility and the rate of loss in viability. The viability data during storage indicated that SDMC had better storage stability compared to FDMC. Although more water was adsorbed for spray-dried than freeze-dried microcapsules, water mobility was similar for corresponding storage conditions because there was a stronger water-binding energy for spray-dried microcapsule. This possibly accounted for the improved survival of probiotics in spray-dried microcapsules. PMID:21535593

  7. Elaboration of a probiotic oblea from whey fermented using Lactobacillus acidophilus or Bifidobacterium infantis.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-de Santiago, G; Sáenz-Collins, C P; Rojas-de Gante, C

    2012-12-01

    A novel probiotic product was developed, which was formulated as an oblea (wafer-type dehydrated traditional Mexican dessert) using goat sweet whey fermented with Bifidobacterium infantis or Lactobacillus acidophilus. To obtain the probiotic oblea, the fermented whey was formulated with prebiotic carbohydrates (inulin and resistant starch) and gelatin, and the preparation was poured onto a polytetrafluoroethylene-coated nonstick baking pan, dried in a convection oven, and finally dehydrated at a low relative humidity and room temperature (23±2°C). The amounts of prebiotic carbohydrates and gelatin to be used in the formulation were determined by a factorial experimental design. An untrained sensory panel evaluated 3 quality characteristics (film formation, homogeneity, and smoothness) in the final product. Three different drying temperatures were tested, namely, 40, 55, and 70°C. Bacterial survival at each temperature was determined by viable plate-counting. The best formulation, based on the quality characteristics tested, consisted of 58.33% (vol/vol) of fermented whey, 8.33% (vol/vol) of 6% (wt/vol) resistant starch dispersion, 16.66% (vol/vol) of 15% (wt/vol) inulin solution, and 16.66% (vol/vol) of a 10% (wt/vol) gelatin solution. Drying at 55±2°C for 2.66±0.22 h allowed for concentrations of probiotic bacteria above 9 log(10) cfu/g, which is above the minimum concentration required in a probiotic product. PMID:23040019

  8. Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.

    PubMed

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2014-04-01

    The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives. PMID:24290645

  9. In vitro activity of commercial probiotic Lactobacillus strains against uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Delley, Michèle; Bruttin, Anne; Richard, Michel; Affolter, Michael; Rezzonico, Enea; Brück, Wolfram M

    2015-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most prevalent infections in humans. In ≥80% of cases, the etiologic agents are strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which commonly reside in the gastrointestinal tract. Lactobacilli have been shown to prevent UTI reoccurrence by restoring the urogenital microbiota when administered vaginally or orally. The goal of this study was to determine if commercial probiotic Lactobacillus spp. reduce or clear UPEC in vitro. Results show that it is likely that lactobacilli may, in addition to restoring a healthy urogenital microbiota through acidification of their environment, also displace adhering UPEC and cause a reduction of infection. PMID:26078118

  10. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus heilongjiangensis DSM 28069(T): Insight into its probiotic potential.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Beiwen; Jiang, Xiawei; Cheng, Hong; Xu, Zemin; Li, Ang; Hu, Xinjun; Xiao, Yonghong

    2015-12-20

    Lactobacillus heilongjiangensis DSM 28069(T) is a potential probiotic isolated from traditional Chinese pickle. Here we report the complete genome sequence of this strain. The complete genome is 2,790,548bp with the GC content of 37.5% and devoid of plasmids. Sets of genes involved in the biosynthesis of riboflavin and folate were identified in the genome, which revealed its potential application in biotechnological industry. The genome sequence of L. heilongjiangensis DSM 28069(T) now provides the fundamental information for future studies. PMID:26432337

  11. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus CAUH18, a potential probiotic strain originated from koumiss.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; An, Haoran; Zhai, Zhengyuan; Wang, Guohong; Li, Jiaxi; Hao, Yanling

    2016-04-20

    Here we report the complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus CAUH18, a new strain isolated from traditional fermented dairy product koumiss. Its genome has a circular 2.16Mb chromosome with no plasmid. The genome sequence indicated that this strain harbors a gene cluster involved in a novel exopolysaccharides (EPS) biosynthesis and a gene encoding cell-surface aggregation-promoting factors (APFs) to facilitate its colonization in gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This genome sequence provides a basis for further studies about its molecular genetics and probiotic functions. PMID:26953745

  12. Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Kligler, Benjamin; Cohrssen, Andreas

    2008-11-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms with potential health benefits. They may be used to prevent and treat antibiotic-associated diarrhea and acute infectious diarrhea. They may also be effective in relieving symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, and in treating atopic dermatitis in children. Species commonly used include Lactobacillus sp., Bifidobacterium sp., Streptococcus thermophilus, and Saccharomyces boulardii. Typical dosages vary based on the product, but common dosages range from 5 to 10 billion colony-forming units per day for children, and from 10 to 20 billion colony-forming units per day for adults. Significant adverse effects are rare, and there are no known interactions with medications. PMID:19007054

  13. Probiotic features of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Ragusano and Pecorino Siciliano cheeses.

    PubMed

    Caggia, C; De Angelis, M; Pitino, I; Pino, A; Randazzo, C L

    2015-09-01

    In the present study 177 Lactobacillus spp. strains, isolated from Ragusano and Pecorino Siciliano cheeses, were in vitro screened for probiotic traits, and their characteristics were compared to those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, commercial strain. Based on acidic and bile salt resistance, thirteen Lactobacillus strains were selected. The multiplex-PCR application revealed that nine strains belonged to L. rhamnosus species and four to Lactobacillus paracasei species. All selected strains were further investigated for transit tolerance in simulated upper gastrointestinal tract (GI), for adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines, for hydrophobicity, for co-aggregation and auto-aggregation and for antimicrobial activities. Moreover, antibiotic resistance, hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities were investigated for safety assessment. Viable counts after simulated gastric and duodenal transit revealed that overall the selected lactobacilli tolerated better pancreatic juice and bile salts than acidic juice. In particular, three L. rhamnosus strains (FS10, FS2, and PS11) and one L. paracasei strain (PM8) increased their cell density after the simulated GI transit. The same strains showed also high percentage of auto-aggregation and co-aggregation with Escherichia coli. All strains were effective against both Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli and variability was achieved versus Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis used as pathogenic indicator strains. Different behavior was revealed by strains for adhesion ability and hydrophobicity, which are not always linked each other and are strongly strain-dependent. From the safety point of view, no isolate showed hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities, except one, and most of the strains were sensitive to a broad range of clinical antibiotics. This work showed that the L. rhamnosus FS10 and the L. paracasei PM8 are good promising probiotic candidates for further in vivo investigations. PMID

  14. Probiotic potential of lactobacillus strains isolated from sorghum-based traditional fermented food.

    PubMed

    Rao, K Poornachandra; Chennappa, G; Suraj, U; Nagaraja, H; Raj, A P Charith; Sreenivasa, M Y

    2015-06-01

    Sorghum-based traditional fermented food was screened for potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates were identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species identification was done by 16s rRNA sequence analysis. The functional probiotic potential of the two Lactobacillus species viz., Lactobacillus plantarum (Lact. plantarum) and Lactobacillus pentosus (Lact. pentosus) was assessed by different standard parameters. The strains were tolerant to pH 2 for 1 h and resistant to methicillin, kanamycin, vancomycin and norfloxacin. Two (Lact. plantarum COORG-3 and Lact. pentosus COORG-8) out of eight isolates recorded the cell surface hydrophobicity to be 59.12 and 64.06%, respectively. All the strains showed tolerance to artificial duodenum juice (pH 2) for 3 h, positive for bile salt hydrolase test and negative for haemolytic test. The neutralized cell-free supernatant of the strains Lact. pentosus COORG-4, Lact. plantarum COORG-1, Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-8 and Lact. plantarum COORG-3 showed good antibiofilm activity. Lact. pentosus COORG-8 exhibited 74% activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-MTCC 7903 and Lact. plantarum COORG-7 showed 68% inhibition of biofilm against Klebsiella pneumonia MTCC 7407. Three (Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-5 and Lact. pentosus COORG 8) out of eight isolates exhibited a good antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and five isolates (Lact. pentosus COORG 2, Lact. plantarum COORG 1, Lact. plantarum COORG 4, Lact. pentosus COORG 3 and Lact. plantarum COORG 6) are active against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis. The study also evaluated the cholesterol lowering property of the Lactobacillus strains using hen egg yolk as the cholesterol source. The cholesterol in hen egg yolk was assimilated by 74.12 and 68.26% by Lact. plantarum COORG 4 and Lact. pentosus COORG 7

  15. Effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus on the expression of genes involved in European eel spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, M Carmen; Santangeli, Stefania; Maradonna, Francesca; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Verdenelli, Cristina; Gallego, Victor; Peñaranda, David S; Tveiten, Helge; Pérez, Luz; Carnevali, Oliana; Asturiano, Juan F

    2015-11-01

    Positive effects of probiotics on fish reproduction have been reported in several species. In the present study, 40 male European eels were weekly treated with recombinant hCG for 9 weeks and with three different concentrations (10(3), 10(5), and 10(6) CFU/mL) of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 (Sinbyotec, Italy). The probiotics were daily added to the water from the sixth week of the hCG treatment. Males from the treated and control groups were sacrificed after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of probiotic treatment (seventh-ninth weeks of hCG treatment); at this point, sperm and testis samples were also collected. Sperm volume was estimated, and motility was analyzed by computer-assisted sperm analysis software. Alternations in transcription of specific genes involved in reproductive process such as activin, androgen receptors α and β (arα and arβ), progesterone receptor 1 (pr1), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (bmp15), and FSH receptor (fshr) were analyzed in the testis. After 2 weeks of probiotic treatment, sperm production and sperm motility parameters (percentage of motile cells and percentage of straight-swimming spermatozoa) were increased in the European eel treated with 10(5) CFU/mL compared to controls or to the other probiotic doses. These changes were associated with increases in messenger RNA expression of activin, arα, arβ, pr1, and fshr. Conversely, after 3 weeks, activin and pr1 expression decreased. No significant changes were observed on bmp15 expression throughout the duration of the treatment with 10(5) CFU/mL dose. The lowest and highest probiotic dose (10(3) and 10(6) CFU/mL, respectively) inhibited the transcription of all genes along all the experiment, except for arα and arβ after 1 week of probiotic treatment when compared to controls. The changes observed by transcriptomic analysis and the sperm parameters suggest that a treatment with L rhamnosus at 10(5) CFU/mL for 2 weeks could improve spermatogenesis process in Anguilla

  16. [Viability and efects of the probiotic lactobacillus aracaseissp aracasei in Chilean low-fat Gauda cheese].

    PubMed

    Brito, Carmen; Navarrete, Carolina; Schöbitz, Renate; Horzella, Mariela

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study is to infer the survival of the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei added during the processing of low-fat Gouda cheese, during the maturation (21 days) and the commercialization (14 days), in order to see the influence that this organism has on the quality of the product. The treatments were: TI (control): Gouda with normal fat content; T2: Low fat Gouda cheese (QGS) T3: QGS, with additional probiotic added with the initial culture; T4: QGS, with the probiotic added in the cooking of the curd. For the count of the probiotic, the methodology was used set forth by the American Public Health Association, (APHA), proteolysis by the method of soluble tyrosine in trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and the physical and chemical analysis using the methods standardized by the International Dairy Federation, and Chilean normative. The counts obtained were from 10(8) ufc/g y 10(7) ufc/g in the cheeses that had the probiotic additive (T3 and T4, respectively) close to the level of innocuous (10(8) ufc/g) during the study period of 35 days. The proteolysis incremented normally, and was the same in all of the treatments during the 35 days studied. The treatments with fat-reduction presented approximately, 31% less fat than the control treatment, and also higher moistness. Within the treatments, there was no evidence of taste and general feel; in turn the cheeses with the reduction of fat resulted firmer, less cohesive, than the control, and with similar elasticity. PMID:23094525

  17. Effect of probiotic bacterial strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yoshibumi; Kamiya, Shigeru; Hanawa, Tomoko; Fukuda, Minoru; Kawakami, Hayato; Takahashi, Hidemi; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    The effects of nine probiotic strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus on the growth, adhesion activity, and biofilm formation of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) were examined. The culture supernatant of the E. faecium strain, with or without pH adjustment to a neutral pH, had a strong bactericidal effect on EAggEC, including induction of membrane damage and cell lysis. Supernatants of the L. casei ss. casei and L. casei ss. rhamnosus strains also had a bactericidal effect on EAggEC, but this activity was abolished by pH adjustment to a neutral pH. No inhibitory effect of the culture supernatants of Bifidobacterium or E. faecalis strains was detected. Adhesion of EAggEC to intestinal epithelial cells was not inhibited by the bacterial strains tested. Two strains of L. casei enhanced EAggEC biofilm formation, which was characterized by increased bacterial proliferation. These results suggest that the three different bacterial species; Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus, have different effects on EAggEC, and that further analysis is required for the practical use of these bacteria as probiotics against EAggEC infection. PMID:20054601

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. HFC8, Isolated from Human Gut Using PacBio SMRT Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Madhu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a 3.07-Mb complete genome sequence of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. HFC8. The gene-coding clusters are predicated for probiotic characteristics, like bacteriocin production, cell adhesion, bile salt hydrolysis, lactose metabolism, autoaggregation, and tolerance to oxidative stress. PMID:26586884

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain BPL5 (CECT 8800), a Probiotic for Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Chenoll, Empar; Codoñer, Francisco M; Martinez-Blanch, Juan F; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador; Menabrito, Marco

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Lactobacillus rhamnosusBPL5 (CECT 8800), is a probiotic strain suitable for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Here, we report its complete genome sequence deciphered by PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. Analysis of the sequence may provide insight into its functional activity. PMID:27103719

  20. Effect of a Selected Lactobacillus spp-Based Probiotic on Salmonella Serovar Enteritidis-Infected Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of a Lactobacillus-based probiotic (FM-B11**TM) on Salmonella recovery was evaluated in liquid (Exp. 1) and lyophilized (Exp. 2) forms in two separate experiments with two trials each. For each trial, eighty broiler chicks were randomly allocated into two treatments: control and probioti...

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain BPL5 (CECT 8800), a Probiotic for Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Codoñer, Francisco M.; Martinez-Blanch, Juan F.; Ramón, Daniel; Menabrito, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus BPL5 (CECT 8800), is a probiotic strain suitable for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Here, we report its complete genome sequence deciphered by PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. Analysis of the sequence may provide insight into its functional activity. PMID:27103719

  2. Carbohydrate-binding specificities of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains in porcine jejunal (IPEC-J2) cells and porcine mucin.

    PubMed

    Valeriano, Valerie Diane; Bagon, Bernadette B; Balolong, Marilen P; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial lectins are carbohydrate-binding adhesins that recognize glycoreceptors in the gut mucus and epithelium of hosts. In this study, the contribution of lectin-like activities to adhesion of Lactobacillus mucosae LM1 and Lactobacillus johnsonii PF01, which were isolated from swine intestine, were compared to those of the commercial probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Both LM1 and PF01 strains have been reported to have good adhesion ability to crude intestinal mucus of pigs. To confirm this, we quantified their adhesion to porcine gastric mucin and intestinal porcine enterocytes isolated from the jejunum of piglets (IPEC-J2). In addition, we examined their carbohydrate-binding specificities by suspending bacterial cells in carbohydrate solutions prior to adhesion assays. We found that the selected carbohydrates affected the adherences of LM1 to IPEC-J2 cells and of LGG to mucin. In addition, compared to adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells, adhesion to mucin by both LM1 and LGG was characterized by enhanced specific recognition of glycoreceptor components such as galactose, mannose, and N-acetylglucosamine. Hydrophobic interactions might make a greater contribution to adhesion of PF01. A similar adhesin profile between a probiotic and a pathogen, suggest a correlation between shared pathogen-probiotic glycoreceptor recognition and the ability to exclude enteropathogens such as Escherichia coli K88 and Salmonella Typhimurium KCCM 40253. These findings extend our understanding of the mechanisms of the intestinal adhesion and pathogen-inhibition abilities of probiotic Lactobacillus strains. PMID:27350617

  3. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei Zhang, a new probiotic strain isolated from traditional homemade koumiss in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenyi; Yu, Dongliang; Sun, Zhihong; Wu, Rina; Chen, Xia; Chen, Wei; Meng, He; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Heping

    2010-10-01

    Lactobacillus casei Zhang is a new probiotic bacterium isolated from koumiss collected in Inner Mongolia, China. Here, we report the main genome features of L. casei Zhang and the identification of several predicted proteins implicated in interactions with the host. PMID:20675486

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus casei Zhang, a New Probiotic Strain Isolated from Traditional Homemade Koumiss in Inner Mongolia, China▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenyi; Yu, Dongliang; Sun, Zhihong; Wu, Rina; Chen, Xia; Chen, Wei; Meng, He; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Heping

    2010-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei Zhang is a new probiotic bacterium isolated from koumiss collected in Inner Mongolia, China. Here, we report the main genome features of L. casei Zhang and the identification of several predicted proteins implicated in interactions with the host. PMID:20675486

  5. Cracking Streptococcus thermophilus to stimulate the growth of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei in co-culture.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chengjie; Ma, Aimin; Gong, Guangyu; Liu, Zhenmin; Wu, Zhengjun; Guo, Benheng; Chen, Zhengjun

    2015-10-01

    Lactobacillus casei, a probiotic, and Streptococcus thermophilus, a fast acidifying lactic acid bacterial strain, are both used in the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between L. casei and S. thermophilus in the presence or absence of S. thermophilus-specific bacteriophage during milk fermentation. The acidification capability of L. casei co-cultured with S. thermophilus was significantly higher than that observed for L. casei or S. thermophilus cultured alone. However, the probiotic content (i.e., L. casei cell viability) was low. The fastest acidification and the highest viable L. casei cell count were observed in co-cultures of L. casei and S. thermophilus with S. thermophilus phage. In these co-cultures, S. thermophilus compensated for the slow acid production of L. casei in the early exponential growth phase. Thereafter, phage-induced lysis of the S. thermophilus cells eliminated the competition for nutrients, allowing L. casei to grow well. Additionally, the ruptured S. thermophilus cells released intracellular factors, which further promoted the growth and function of the probiotic bacteria. Crude cellular extract isolated from S. thermophilus also significantly accelerated the growth and propagation of L. casei, supporting the stimulatory role of the phage on this micro-ecosystem. PMID:26093989

  6. Effect of Low Shear Modeled Microgravity (LSMMG) on the Probiotic Lactobacillus Acidophilus ATCC 4356

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, S.; Voorhies, A.; Lorenzi, H.; Castro-Wallace, S.; Douglas, G.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) probiotic microbes into the spaceflight food system has the potential for use as a safe, non-invasive, daily countermeasure to crew microbiome and immune dysregulation. However, the microgravity effects on the stress tolerances and genetic expression of probiotic bacteria must be determined to confirm translation of strain benefits and to identify potential for optimization of growth, survival, and strain selection for spaceflight. The work presented here demonstrates the translation of characteristics of a GRAS probiotic bacteria to a microgravity analog environment. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was grown in the low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) orientation and the control orientation in the rotating wall vessel (RWV) to determine the effect of LSMMG on the growth, survival through stress challenge, and gene expression of the strain. No differences were observed between the LSMMG and control grown L. acidophilus, suggesting that the strain will behave similarly in spaceflight and may be expected to confer Earth-based benefits.

  7. Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from Brazilian regional ovine cheese.

    PubMed

    Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Helfer, Virginia Etges; Velho, Renata Voltolini; Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Brandelli, Adriano

    2012-02-01

    Twelve Lactobacillus isolates from Brazilian starter-free ovine cheeses were evaluated for their probiotic potential. The strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum (7), Lb. brevis (2), Lb. casei (2) and Lb. parabuchneri (1). All strains showed variable resistance to gastric juices and relative tolerance to pancreatin and bile salts. Only five strains of Lb. plantarum could not deconjugate the sodium salt of taurodeoxycholic acid. Autoaggregation ability after 24 h was above 50% and hydrophobicity was higher than 60% for most strains. All lactobacilli could inhibit linolenic acid oxidation, except Lb. parabuchneri strain, whereas none of them could scavenge DPPH radical. β-Galactosidase activity ranged from 47·7 to 2503 Miller units. Inhibition of food pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium was demonstrated and the production of organic acids could be associated with this effect. The Lactobacillus strains from Brazilian regional ovine cheese showed interesting functional characteristics, mainly the strains Lb. brevis SM-B and Lb. plantarum SM-I. Both presented high acid tolerance. In addition, Lb. brevis SM-B also displayed remarkable antioxidant activity and Lb. plantarum SM-I was the highest β-galactosidase producer, exhibited high autoaggregation and hydrophobicity properties. PMID:23171587

  8. Probiotic attributes of indigenous Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditional fermented foods and beverages of north-western Himalayas using in vitro screening and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anila; Angmo, Kunzes; Monika; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2016-05-01

    The present research was designed to explore indigenous probiotic Lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented foods and beverages of North-western Himalayas for their probiotic potential. It was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, evaluation of the probiotic traits and adherence ability. Fifty one LAB isolates from traditional fermented foods and beverages were initially screened for their technological properties and among them twenty isolates were selected. These isolates were further characterized and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus brevis (7 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (5), Lactobacillus paracasei (2), Lactobacillus buchneri (1), Lactobacillus plantarum (1) and Lactobacillus sp. (3). Identified isolates were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival in gastrointestinal tract, antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, cell surface characteristics, exopolysacharride production and haemolytic activity. The results of these experiments were used as input data for Principal Component Analysis; thus, to select the most promising probiotic isolates. Three isolates (L. brevis PLA2, L. paracasei PLA8 and L. brevis PLA16) were found to be most technological relevant and promising probiotic candidates in comparison to commercial probiotic strains. L. brevis PLA2 was selected as best isolate with probiotic potential by in vitro adherence to the human intestinal HT-29 cell line. PMID:27407213

  9. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 exhibit strong antifungal effects against vulvovaginal candidiasis-causing Candida glabrata isolates

    PubMed Central

    Chew, SY; Cheah, YK; Seow, HF; Sandai, D; Than, LTL

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study investigates the antagonistic effects of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata. Methods and Results Growth inhibitory activities of Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains against C. glabrata were demonstrated using a spot overlay assay and a plate-based microtitre assay. In addition, these probiotic lactobacilli strains also exhibited potent candidacidal activity against C. glabrata, as demonstrated by a LIVE/DEAD yeast viability assay performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolic activities of all C. glabrata strains were completely shut down in response to the challenges by the probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, both probiotic lactobacilli strains exhibited strong autoaggregation and coaggregation phenotypes in the presence of C. glabrata, which indicate that these lactobacilli strains may exert their probiotic effects through the formation of aggregates and, thus the consequent prevention of colonization by C. glabrata. Conclusions Probiotic Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains exhibited potent antagonistic activities against all of the tested C. glabrata strains. These lactobacilli exhibited antifungal effects, including those attributed to their aggregation abilities, and their presence caused the cessation of growth and eventual cell death of C. glabrata. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to report on the antagonistic effects of these probiotic lactobacilli strains against the non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species C. glabrata. PMID:25688886

  10. Manufacture of Cheddar cheese using probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum K25 and its cholesterol-lowering effects in a mice model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xue; Liu, Chunhong; Li, Changying; Li, Shengyu; Li, Tiezhu; Li, Da; Zhao, Yujuan; Yang, Zhennai

    2013-01-01

    The probiotic adjunct Lactobacillus plantarum K25 was inoculated into milk to produce probiotic cheese. The effect of Lb. plantarum K25 on cheese composition, microbiological growth and survival during the manufacturing and ripening period, primary and secondary proteolysis during cheese ripening, and the in vivo cholesterol-lowering ability of the probiotic cheese were investigated. The results showed that the use of adjunct Lb. plantarum K25 in Cheddar cheese did not affect the cheese components including moisture, protein, fat, salt content and the pH value of cheese. During the whole ripening period, the probiotic adjunct maintained its viability, suggesting the effectiveness of Cheddar cheese as a vehicle for delivery of probiotic bacteria. No significant differences were observed in water-soluble nitrogen, 70 % ethanol-soluble nitrogen, 5 % phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen, free amino acids and urea-PAGE patterns between the control and probiotic cheeses. Assessment of the in vivo cholesterol-lowering property of cheese with Lb. plantarum K25 showed that the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides decreased significantly, and the level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in mice fed with the probiotic cheese. The results indicated the potential function as a dietary item of the probiotic cheese with Lb. plantarum K25 to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22956024

  11. In vitro probiotic characterization of Lactobacillus strains from fermented radish and their anti-adherence activity against enteric pathogens.

    PubMed

    Damodharan, Karthiyaini; Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from fermented radish. All the strains survived the simulated oro-gastrointestinal transit condition and showed significantly higher adherence to Caco-2 cells compared with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The strains showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, autoaggregation, and coaggregation capacity with pathogens. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus strains inhibited the adherence of Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica, Shigella boydii, and Salmonella choleraesuis to the Caco-2 cell line. The strains possessed bile salt hydrolase activity and their cholesterol-lowering activity in vitro was above 50% in the presence of bile. Strains of L. plantarum and L. pentosus possessed the plantaricin-encoding plnEF gene. In addition, the Lactobacillus strains maintained about 80% cell viability after freeze-drying in the presence of a combination of 5% skim milk and 5% maltodextrin as cryoprotectant, and 70% recovery of cell viability was observed in the absence of any cryoprotectant. PMID:26382558

  12. [Bacteria of Lactobacillus casei group: characterization, viability as probiotic in food products and their importance for human health].

    PubMed

    Buriti, Flávia Carolina Alonso; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2007-12-01

    Lactobacillus casei is a group of phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous lactic acid bacteria, able to colonize various natural and man-made environments. Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been widely studied with respect to their health-promoting properties. Several beneficial functions for the human organism have been attributed to regular consumption of food products containing these strains. Bacteria of the Lactobacillus casei group are of great interest for the food industry to improve food quality. A number of studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the viability of strains of Lactobacillus casei group as probiotic in dairy products, desserts, among others food products. Despite its importance for the food industry, the taxonomy of the Lactobacillus casei group is still unclear. This review discusses important studies related to characterization of strains of Lactobacillus casei group, the application of these bacteria as probiotic in different food products and the main beneficial effects attributed to regular consumption of products containing such microorganisms. PMID:18524322

  13. Proteomics and Transcriptomics Characterization of Bile Stress Response in Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG*

    PubMed Central

    Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Laakso, Kati; Koponen, Johanna; Kankainen, Matti; Greco, Dario; Auvinen, Petri; Savijoki, Kirsi; Nyman, Tuula A.; Surakka, Anu; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; de Vos, Willem M.; Tynkkynen, Soile; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Varmanen, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) is a widely used and intensively studied probiotic bacterium. Although the health benefits of strain GG are well documented, the systematic exploration of mechanisms by which this strain exerts probiotic effects in the host has only recently been initiated. The ability to survive the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, including gastric juice containing bile salts, is one of the vital characteristics that enables a probiotic bacterium to transiently colonize the host. Here we used gene expression profiling at the transcriptome and proteome levels to investigate the cellular response of strain GG toward bile under defined bioreactor conditions. The analyses revealed that in response to growth of strain GG in the presence of 0.2% ox gall the transcript levels of 316 genes changed significantly (p < 0.01, t test), and 42 proteins, including both intracellular and surface-exposed proteins (i.e. surfome), were differentially abundant (p < 0.01, t test in total proteome analysis; p < 0.05, t test in surfome analysis). Protein abundance changes correlated with transcriptome level changes for 14 of these proteins. The identified proteins suggest diverse and specific changes in general stress responses as well as in cell envelope-related functions, including in pathways affecting fatty acid composition, cell surface charge, and thickness of the exopolysaccharide layer. These changes are likely to strengthen the cell envelope against bile-induced stress and signal the GG cells of gut entrance. Notably, the surfome analyses demonstrated significant reduction in the abundance of a protein catalyzing the synthesis of exopolysaccharides, whereas a protein dedicated for active removal of bile compounds from the cells was up-regulated. These findings suggest a role for these proteins in facilitating the well founded interaction of strain GG with the host mucus in the presence of sublethal doses of bile. The significance of these findings

  14. Mature Biofilm Degradation by Potential Probiotics: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans versus Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Kouhei; Okinaga, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    The biofilm degradation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is essential as a complete periodontal disease therapy, and here we show the effects of potential probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp. for the biofilm of several serotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Eight of the 13 species showed the competent biofilm degradation of ≥ 90% reduction in biofilm values in A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b) as well as four of the seven species for the biofilm of A. actinomycetemcomitans OMZ 534 (serotype e). In contrast, the probiotic bacteria did not have a big impact for the degradation of A. actinomycetemcomitans SUNY 75 (serotype a) biofilm. The dispersed A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 cells through the biofilm detachment were still viable and plausible factors for the biofilm degradation were not due to the lactic acid and low pH conditions. The three enzymes, protease, lipase, and amylase may be responsible for the biofilm degradation; in particular, lipase was the most effective enzyme for the biofilm degradation of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 along with the protease activity which should be also important for the other serotypes. Remarkable lipase enzyme activities were detected from some of the potential probiotics and a supporting result using a lipase inhibitor presented corroborating evidence that lipase activity is one of the contributing factors for biofilm degradation outside of the protease which is also another possible factor for the biofilm of the other serotype of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. On the other hand, the biofilm of A. actinomycetemcomitans SUNY 75 (serotype a) was not powerfully degraded by the lipase enzyme because the lipase inhibitor was slightly functional for only two of potential probiotics. PMID:27438340

  15. Fortification of table olive packing with the potential probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus pentosus TOMC-LAB2.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Romero-Gil, V; García-García, P; Garrido-Fernández, A; Arroyo-López, Francisco N

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products are currently the main carriers of probiotic microorganisms to the human body. However, the development of new matrices for probiotic delivery is convenient for intolerant to milk (or its derivatives) and those requiring low-cholesterol diet consumers. The present work focused on the fortification of previously fermented green Spanish style olives with the autochthonous putative probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus pentosus TOMC-LAB2. The fortification was carried out by inoculating the bacteria into the packing brines using Manzanilla fruits from three different processes: (i) spontaneously fermented (F1), (ii) fermented using L. pentosus TOMC-LAB2 as starter (F2), and (iii) spontaneously fermented and then thermally treated (F3). Data showed that all inoculated treatments had higher population levels (5.49, 4.41, and 6.77 log10 cfu/cm(2)) than their respective controls (1.66, 4.33, and 0.0 log10 cfu/cm(2), for F1, F2, and F3 treatments, respectively). The presence of L. pentosus TOMC-LAB2 on olive surface was confirmed by rep-PCR, with a recovery frequency at the end of the shelf life (200 days) of 52.6, 57.9, and 100.0% for F1, F2, and F3 treatments, respectively. Thus, results obtained in this work show the ability of this microorganism to survive under packing conditions for long period of times as well as to colonize the olive surface which is the food finally ingested by consumers. This opens the possibility for the development of a new and simply probiotic fortified olive product. PMID:25232354

  16. Fortification of table olive packing with the potential probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus pentosus TOMC-LAB2

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gómez, F.; Romero-Gil, V.; García-García, P.; Garrido-Fernández, A.; Arroyo-López, Francisco N.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products are currently the main carriers of probiotic microorganisms to the human body. However, the development of new matrices for probiotic delivery is convenient for intolerant to milk (or its derivatives) and those requiring low-cholesterol diet consumers. The present work focused on the fortification of previously fermented green Spanish style olives with the autochthonous putative probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus pentosus TOMC-LAB2. The fortification was carried out by inoculating the bacteria into the packing brines using Manzanilla fruits from three different processes: (i) spontaneously fermented (F1), (ii) fermented using L. pentosus TOMC-LAB2 as starter (F2), and (iii) spontaneously fermented and then thermally treated (F3). Data showed that all inoculated treatments had higher population levels (5.49, 4.41, and 6.77 log10 cfu/cm2) than their respective controls (1.66, 4.33, and 0.0 log10 cfu/cm2, for F1, F2, and F3 treatments, respectively). The presence of L. pentosus TOMC-LAB2 on olive surface was confirmed by rep-PCR, with a recovery frequency at the end of the shelf life (200 days) of 52.6, 57.9, and 100.0% for F1, F2, and F3 treatments, respectively. Thus, results obtained in this work show the ability of this microorganism to survive under packing conditions for long period of times as well as to colonize the olive surface which is the food finally ingested by consumers. This opens the possibility for the development of a new and simply probiotic fortified olive product. PMID:25232354

  17. Probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum and bifidobacterium B94: cognitive function in demyelinated model

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzvand, Mahdi; Rasouli koohi, Samira; Khodaii, Zohreh; Soleymanzadeh Moghadam, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the immune system that creates damage of Learning and memory in that. Using probiotic supplements is recommended for preventing MS disease and improving memory. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) and bifidobacterium B94 (BB94), on acquisition phase of spatial memory in the local demyelination of rats` hippocampus. Methods: In this study, 32 male Wistar rats were divided into control, damage group and treatment groups. Treatment groups were including (LP) and (BB94). After the induction of demyelination by 3 μl of EB into the right dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in treatment groups, 1.5×108 probiotic bacteria were administered by gavage for 28 days. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests (p≤0.05). Results: Findings demonstrated that injection of EB caused a significant increase in traveled distance (p<0.01) and also escape latency (p<0.05) compared with control group. Also, effect administrations of (LP) and (BB94) on traveled distance and escape latency were reviewed, and it was determined that administration of them do not cause significant reduction in the traveled distance compared with the lesion group. Also mentioned probiotics has no significant effect on swimming speed compared with lesion and saline groups. Conclusion: According to some studies, probiotics have a positive impact on improving the performance of spatial memory and learning, although the results of the current study could not indicate finality of this assumption. It seems that more researches is needed on this subject. PMID:27579282

  18. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants and Taiwanese pickled cabbage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Lin, Pei-Rong; Ng, Chang-Chai; Shyu, Yuan-Tay

    2010-12-01

    This study assessed potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants and from Taiwanese pickled cabbage for their possible use in probiotic fermented foods by evaluating their (i) in vitro adhesive ability, resistance to biotic stress, resistance to pathogenic bacteria, and production of β-galactosidase; (ii) milk technological properties; and (iii) in vivo adhesive ability, intestinal survival and microbial changes during and after treatment. Five Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus reuteri F03, Lactobacillus paracasei F08, Lactobacillus rhamnosus F14, Lactobacillus plantarum C06, and Lactobacillus acidophilus C11 that showed resistance to gastric juice and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. All the strains demonstrated the ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells, particularly, strain L. plantarum C06 and L. reuteri F03 showed satisfactory abilities, which were similar to that of the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG. The strains L. paracasei F08 and L. acidophilus C11 had the highest β-galactosidase activity. Most of the strains were resistant to aminoglycosides and vancomycin but sensitive to ampicillin, erythromycin, and penicillin. All the 5 strains elicited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and -negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) pathogens. Moreover, the strains L. reuteri F03, L. paracasei F08, and L. plantarum C06 could grow rapidly in milk without nutrient supplementation and reached 10⁸ cfu/mL after 24 h of fermentation at 37 °C. The viable cell counts of the 3 strains remained above 10⁷ cfu/mL after 21 d of storage at 4 °C. In the animal feeding trial, the number of intestinal lactobacilli increased significantly after administration of milk fermented with the 3 strains, and the counts of fecal coliforms and Clostridium perfringens were markedly reduced

  19. Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+): Characterization, Manufacture, Mechanisms of Action, and Quality Control of a Specific Probiotic Combination for Primary Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Julie; Frappier, Martin; Millette, Mathieu

    2015-05-15

    A specific probiotic formulation composed of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+) has been marketed in North America since 1996. The strains and the commercial products have been evaluated for safety, identity, gastrointestinal survival, and stability throughout shelf life. The capacity of both the fermented beverages and the capsules to reduce incidences of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been demonstrated in human clinical trials. Individual strains and the finished products have shown antimicrobial activity against C. difficile and toxin A/B neutralization capacity in vitro. The use of this specific probiotic formulation as part of a bundle of preventive measures to control CDI in healthcare settings is discussed. PMID:25922399

  20. Glutathione-mediated response to acid stress in the probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kibeom; Pi, Kyungbae; Kim, Eun Bae; Rho, Beom-Seop; Kang, Sang-Kee; Lee, Hong Gu; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2010-07-01

    Lactobacillus salivarius, a probiotic bacterium, encounters acidic conditions in its passage through the gastrointestinal tract of human and animal hosts. We studied the effect of a rapid downshift in extracellular pH from 6.5 to 4 on cell growth. The maximum growth rate was higher in low pH medium with glutathione supplementation than without. Cells developed a GSH-mediated acid-tolerance response and, when grown with 0.5 mM GSH, reached a higher final density than with other conditions. These findings suggest that the increased growth rate is caused by uptake of GSH which acts as a nutrient source as well as having protective functions, allowing for continued growth. PMID:20349113

  1. Probiotic Characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum FH185 Isolated from Human Feces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum FH185 was isolated from the feces of healthy adults. In our previous study, L. plantarum FH185 was demonstrated that it has anti-obesity effect in the in vitro and in vivo test. In order to determine its potential for use as a probiotic, we investigated the physiological characteristics of L. plantarum FH185. The optimum growth temperature of L. plantarum FH185 was 40℃. L. plantarum FH185 showed higher sensitivity to novobiocin in a comparison of fifteen different antibiotics and showed higher resistance to polymyxin B and vancomycin. It also showed higher β-galactosidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase activities. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant to bile juice and acid, and inhibited the growths of Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus with rates of 44.76% and 53.88%, respectively. It also showed high adhesion activity to HT-29 cells compared to L. rhamnosus GG. PMID:26761889

  2. Two-dimensional gel-based alkaline proteome of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Avishek; Cai, Liyang; Ejby, Morten; Schmidt, Bjarne G; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jacobsen, Susanne; Svensson, Birte

    2012-04-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) is a well-documented probiotic bacterium isolated from human gut. Detailed 2D gel-based NCFM proteomics addressed the so-called alkaline range, i.e., pH 6-11. Proteins were identified in 150 of the 202 spots picked from the Coomassie Brilliant Blue stained 2D gel using MALDI-TOF-MS. The 102 unique gene products among the 150 protein identifications were assigned to different functional categories, and evaluated by considering a calculated distribution of abundance as well as grand average of hydrophobicity values. None of the very few available lactic acid bacteria proteome reference maps included the range of pI >7.0. The present report of such data on the proteome of NCFM fundamentally complements current knowledge on protein profiles limited to the acid and neutral pH range. PMID:22522807

  3. Genomic and genetic characterization of the bile stress response of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Kristi; Versalovic, James; Roos, Stefan; Britton, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    Probiotic bacteria encounter various stresses after ingestion by the host, including exposure to the low pH in the stomach and bile in the small intestine. The probiotic microorganism Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 has previously been shown to survive in the human small intestine. To address how L. reuteri can resist bile stress, we performed microarray experiments to determine gene expression changes that occur when the organism is exposed to physiological concentrations of bile. A wide variety of genes that displayed differential expression in the presence of bile indicated that the cells were dealing with several types of stress, including cell envelope stress, protein denaturation, and DNA damage. Mutations in three genes were found to decrease the strain's ability to survive bile exposure: lr1864, a Clp chaperone; lr0085, a gene of unknown function; and lr1516, a putative esterase. Mutations in two genes that form an operon, lr1584 (a multidrug resistance transporter in the major facilitator superfamily) and lr1582 (unknown function), were found to impair the strain's ability to restart growth in the presence of bile. This study provides insight into the possible mechanisms that L. reuteri ATCC 55730 may use to survive and grow in the presence of bile in the small intestine. PMID:18245259

  4. Biological effects of probiotics: what impact does Lactobacillus casei shirota have on us?

    PubMed

    Nanno, M; Kato, I; Kobayashi, T; Shida, K

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics have been defined as live bacteria beneficial to the host when administered in adequate amounts. To evaluate the effect of probiotics on the prevention of carcinogenesis, Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) was given to the patients who had undergone the resection of superficial bladder cancer, and administration of LcS significantly reduced the recurrence rate of bladder cancer. When LcS was given to the patients whose colonic polyps were surgically removed, the recurrence of colorectal cancer with moderate or severe atypia was suppressed. To assess the putative actions of LcS on innate immune responses, we examined the effect of LcS on natural killer (NK) cell activity in humans. Daily ingestion of fermented milk containing LcS restored NK cell activity in healthy subjects with low NK cell activity as well as human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1-associated myelopathy patients. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy humans were cultured in the presence of heat-killed LcS, NK cell activity was augmented, which were partly mediated by monocyte-derived interleukin (IL)-12. These findings suggest that LcS may help the reinforcement of our defense system against cancer by modulating innate immune functions. PMID:21329565

  5. The effect of low pH on protein expression by the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Lee, KiBeom; Lee, Hong-Gu; Pi, KyungBae; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2008-04-01

    The ability of a lactic acid bacterium to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract is a key point in its function as a probiotic. In this study, protein synthesis by the probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus reuteri, was analyzed under transiently decreased pH conditions. L. reuteri cells grown to the midexponential growth phase at 37 degrees C were exposed to transient (1 h) low-pH stresses from pH 6.8 to pH 5.0, 4.5, or 4.0. 2-DE allowed us to identify 40 common proteins that were consistently and significantly altered under all three low-pH conditions. PMF was used to identify these 40 proteins, and functional annotation allowed them to be distributed to six major classes: (i) transport and binding proteins; (ii) transcription-translation; (iii) nucleotide metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis; (iv) carbon energy metabolism; (v) pH homeostasis and stress; and (vi) unassigned. These findings provide new insight into the inducible mechanisms underlying the capacity of gastrointestinal L. reuteri to tolerate acid stress. PMID:18351691

  6. Control of cell morphology of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus for enhanced cell stability during industrial processing.

    PubMed

    Senz, Martin; van Lengerich, Bernhard; Bader, Johannes; Stahl, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The viability of bacteria during industrial processing is an essential quality criterion for bacterial preparations, such as probiotics and starter cultures. Therefore, producing stable microbial cultures during proliferation is of great interest. A strong correlation between the culture medium and cellular morphology was observed for the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, which is commonly used in the dairy industry as a probiotic supplement and as a starter culture. The cell shapes ranged from single short rods to long filamentous rods. The culture medium composition could control this phenomenon of pleomorphism, especially the use of peptone in combination with an adequate heating of the medium during preparation. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between the cell size and stability of the microorganisms during industrial processing steps, such as freeze-drying, extrusion encapsulation and storage following dried preparations. The results revealed that short cells are more stable than long cells during each of the industrially relevant processing steps. As demonstrated for L. acidophilus NCFM, the adaptation of the medium composition and optimized medium preparation offer the possibility to increase the concentration of viable cells during up- and survival rate during down-stream processing. PMID:25305442

  7. Inactivation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG by fixation modifies its probiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Markowicz, C; Kubiak, P; Grajek, W; Schmidt, M T

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms that have beneficial effects on the host and are safe for oral intake in a suitable dose. However, there are situations in which the administration of living microorganisms poses a risk for immunocompromised host. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of several fixation methods on selected biological properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG that are relevant to its probiotic action. Fixation of the bacterial cells with ethanol, 2-propanol, glutaraldehyde, paraformaldehyde, and heat treatment resulted in a significant decrease of alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, and β-galactosidase activities. Most of the fixation procedures reduced bacterial cell hydrophobicity and increased adhesion capacity. The fixation procedures resulted in a different perception of the bacterial cells by enterocytes, which was shown as changes in gene expression in enterocytes. The results show that some procedures of inactivation allow a fraction of the enzymatic activity to be maintained. The adhesion properties of the bacterial cells were enhanced, but the response of enterocytes to fixed cells was different than to live bacteria. Inactivation allows maintenance and modification of some of the properties of the bacterial cells. PMID:26634746

  8. In Vitro Inhibition of 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide Genotoxicity by Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC501.

    PubMed

    Bocci, Alessandro; Sebastiani, Bartolomeo; Trotta, Francesca; Federici, Ermanno; Cenci, Giovanni

    2015-10-28

    Inhibition of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) genotoxicity by a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (IMC501) was assessed by the prokaryotic short-term bioassay SOSChromotest, using Escherichia coli PQ37 as the target organism. Results showed the ability of strain IMC501 to rapidly and markedly counteract, in vitro, the DNA damage originated by the considered genotoxin. The inhibition was associated with a spectroscopic hypsochromic shift of the original 4-NQO profile and progressive absorbance increase of a new peak. IR-Raman and GC-MS analyses confirmed the disappearance of 4-NQO after contact with the microorganism, showing also the absence of any genotoxic molecule potentially available for metabolic activation (i.e., 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide and 4-nitrosoquinoline-1-oxide). Furthermore, we have shown the presence of the phenyl-quinoline and its isomers as major non-genotoxic conversion products, which led to the hypothesis of a possible pattern of molecular transformation. These findings increase knowledge on lactobacilli physiology and contribute to the further consideration of antigenotoxicity as a nonconventional functional property of particular probiotic strains. PMID:26059518

  9. Lactobacillus plantarum DK119 as a Probiotic Confers Protection against Influenza Virus by Modulating Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Kyung; NGO, Vu; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Young-Tae; Yoo, Sieun; Cho, Young-Hee; Hong, Sung-Moon; Hwang, Hye Suk; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin; Moon, Dae-Won; Jeong, Eun-Ji; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Yu-Na; Jang, Ji-Hun; Oh, Joon-Suk; Kim, Cheol-Hyun; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum DK119 (DK119) isolated from the fermented Korean cabbage food was used as a probiotic to determine its antiviral effects on influenza virus. DK119 intranasal or oral administration conferred 100% protection against subsequent lethal infection with influenza A viruses, prevented significant weight loss, and lowered lung viral loads in a mouse model. The antiviral protective efficacy was observed in a dose and route dependent manner of DK119 administration. Mice that were treated with DK119 showed high levels of cytokines IL-12 and IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and a low degree of inflammation upon infection with influenza virus. Depletion of alveolar macrophage cells in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavages completely abrogated the DK119-mediated protection. Modulating host innate immunity of dendritic and macrophage cells, and cytokine production pattern appeared to be possible mechanisms by which DK119 exhibited antiviral effects on influenza virus infection. These results indicate that DK119 can be developed as a beneficial antiviral probiotic microorganism. PMID:24124485

  10. Proteomic analysis of responses of a new probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei Zhang to low acid stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rina; Zhang, Wenyi; Sun, Tiansong; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing; Meng, He; Zhang, Heping

    2011-06-30

    Tolerance to acid is an important feature for probiotic bacteria during transition through the gastrointestinal tract. Proteomics analysis of a new probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, was performed upon 30-min exposure to low acid stress (pH 2.5 vs. pH 6.4) using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Out of 33 protein spots that showed changes of expression between the two pHs, 22 showed 1.5-fold higher expression at pH 2.5 than at pH 6.4, whereas five spots had expression decreased by 1.5-fold at pH 2.5. There were also six protein spots that were exclusively present on different pH maps. Further analysis showed that eight of the enhanced proteins, NagA, NagB, PGM, GlmM, LacC, TDP, GALM and PtsI, were involved in carbohydrate catabolism. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of dnaK, nagB, galm, estC, tuf and luxS were consistent with changes in protein expression. We postulate that there might be some relationship between differentially expressed proteins and acid tolerance in L. casei Zhang. PMID:21561676

  11. [Revised classification of native probiotic strains of Lactobacillus used in Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Botina, S G; Klimina, K M; Koroban, N V; Amerkhanova, A M; Zinchenko, V V; Danilenko, V N

    2010-11-01

    Thirteen strains of industrial bacterial cultures of the genus Lactobacillus (from a collection of Gabrichevsky Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology) were studied. These strains were used for decades in Russian Federation for food and drug production, as ferments for lactic acid products, for production of probiotics, biologically active and veterinary preparations. Complex analysis of data on cultures obtained using microbiological and molecular-genetic methods was conducted for the first time. Biochemical characteristics of these cultures were studied and the sequence of the proximal region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene was determined. The employment of the test system API-50CHL was shown to broaden the opportunities of a more accurate biochemical identification of bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, in comparison with the set ANAEROTEST-23. According to the results obtained in a comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene, all strains examined show 97-99% homology of the proximal region of this gene with that of the type representatives of studied species. These data allowed taxonomic reclassification of the species position of cultures with consideration of the more advanced level of systematics. Nucleotide sequences of gene fragments of examined lactobacilli strains were recorded in NCBI database (accession numbers of deposits GU560031, GU560032, GU560033, GU560034, GU560035, GU560036, GU560037, GU560038, GU560039, GU560040, GU560041, GU560042, GU560043). PMID:21261060

  12. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure

    PubMed Central

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains. PMID:26167534

  13. Daily probiotic's (Lactobacillus casei Shirota) reduction of infection incidence in athletes.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael; Bishop, Nicolette C; Oliveira, Marta; Tauler, Pedro

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a probiotic supplement during 4 mo of winter training in men and women engaged in endurance-based physical activities on incidence of upper respiratory-tract infections (URTIs) and immune markers. Eighty-four highly active individuals were randomized to probiotic (n = 42) or placebo (n = 42) groups and, under double-blind procedures, received probiotic (PRO: Lactobacillus casei Shirota [LcS]) or placebo (PLA) daily for 16 wk. Resting blood and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 8 and 16 wk. Weekly training and illness logs were kept. Fifty-eight subjects completed the study (n = 32 PRO, n = 26 PLA). The proportion of subjects on PLA who experienced 1 or more weeks with URTI symptoms was 36% higher than those on PRO (PLA 0.90, PRO 0.66; p = .021). The number of URTI episodes was significantly higher (p < .01) in the PLA group (2.1 ± 1.2) than in the PRO group (1.2 ± 1.0). Severity and duration of symptoms were not significantly different between treatments. Saliva IgA concentration was higher on PRO than PLA, significant treatment effect F(1, 54) = 5.1, p = .03; this difference was not evident at baseline but was significant after 8 and 16 wk of supplementation. Regular ingestion of LcS appears to be beneficial in reducing the frequency of URTI in an athletic cohort, which may be related to better maintenance of saliva IgA levels during a winter period of training and competition. PMID:21411836

  14. Characterisation of probiotic properties in human vaginal lactobacilli strains

    PubMed Central

    Hütt, Pirje; Lapp, Eleri; Štšepetova, Jelena; Smidt, Imbi; Taelma, Heleri; Borovkova, Natalja; Oopkaup, Helen; Ahelik, Ave; Rööp, Tiiu; Hoidmets, Dagmar; Samuel, Külli; Salumets, Andres; Mändar, Reet

    2016-01-01

    Background Vaginal lactobacilli offer protection against recurrent urinary infections, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal candidiasis. Objective To characterise the isolated vaginal lactobacilli strains for their probiotic properties and to compare their probiotic potential. Methods The Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal samples by conventional culturing and identified by sequencing of the 16S rDNA fragment. Several functional properties were detected (production of hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid; antagonistic activity against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Gardnerella vaginalis; auto-aggregation and adhesiveness) as well as safety (haemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of transferrable resistance genes). Results A total of 135 vaginal lactobacilli strains of three species, Lactobacillus crispatus (56%), Lactobacillus jensenii (26%), and Lactobacillus gasseri (18%) were characterised using several functional and safety tests. Most of L. crispatus (89%) and L. jensenii (86%) strains produced H2O2. The best lactic acid producers were L. gasseri (18.2±2.2 mg/ml) compared to L. crispatus (15.6±2.8 mg/ml) and L. jensenii (11.6±2.6 mg/ml) (p<0.0001; p<0.0001, respectively). L. crispatus strains showed significantly higher anti-E. coli activity compared to L. jensenii. L. gasseri strains expressed significantly lower anticandidal activity compared to L. crispatus and L. jensenii (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference between the species in antagonistic activity against G. vaginalis. Nearly a third of the strains were able to auto-aggregate while all the tested strains showed a good ability to adhere to HeLa cells. None of the tested lactobacilli caused haemolysis. Although phenotypical resistance was not found to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin, the erm(B), tet(M), and tet(K) were detected in some strains. All strains were resistant to metronidazole

  15. AI-2 signalling is induced by acidic shock in probiotic strains of Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Moslehi-Jenabian, Saloomeh; Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    2009-11-15

    Survival and ability to respond to various environmental stresses such as low pH are important factors for lactobacilli for their function as probiotics. LuxS-mediated quorum sensing mechanism, which is based on the production of universal signal molecule called autoinducer-2 (AI-2), regulates important physiological traits and a variety of adaptive processes in different bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acidic stress on LuxS-mediated quorum sensing (AI-2 signalling) in four probiotic strains of different Lactobacillus species. Initially, the production of AI-2-like molecule was investigated in four strains of Lactobacillus spp. at standard growth conditions using Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence assay. Species variation in AI-2 activity was observed. AI-2 activity started at early-exponential growth phase and increased during the mid-exponential phase concomitant with the reduction of pH, reaching maximum at late exponential phase (L. rhamnosus GG) or at stationary phase (L. salivarius UCC118, L. acidophilus NCFM and L. johnsonii NCC533). Acidic shock experiments were conducted on L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM after exposure to different acidic shocks (pH 5.0, 4.0 and 3.0) and to pH 6.5 as control, measuring AI-2 activity and transcription of the luxS gene. AI-2 activity increased by lowering the pH in a dose dependent manner and was negatively influenced by acid adaptation. In both species, the luxS gene was repressed after exposure to pH 6.5 as control. However, after acidic shock (pH 4.0) a transient response of luxS gene was observed and the transcription augmented over time, reaching a maximum level and decreased subsequently. Acid adaptation of cells attenuated the transcription of this gene. Based on the observations done in the present study, the luxS gene appears to have a clear role in acidic stress response in probiotic lactobacilli. This might be important in the survival of these bacteria during the passage

  16. Evaluation of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 isolated from human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Meiling; Zhang, Fen; Wan, Cuixiang; Xiong, Yonghua; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua; Tao, Xueying

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, a specific strain isolated from human breast milk, was investigated for its survival capacity (acid and bile salt tolerance, survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract, inhibition of pathogens, antibiotic susceptibility, yield of exopolysaccharides) and probiotic properties (antiadhesion of pathogens, protection from harmful effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and antiinflammatory stress on Caco-2 cells). The results showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 had broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive strains (Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54007, Bacillus cereus ATCC14579, and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003) and gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCC10104, Shigella sonnei ATCC25931, Enterobacter sakazakii ATCC29544, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC13311, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 was susceptible to 8 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin and nitrofurantoin) and resistant to 6 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., kanamycin and bacitracin). Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 was able to survive at pH 2.5 for 3h and at 0.45% bile salt for 12h, suggesting that it can survive well in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the exopolysaccharide yield of Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reached 426.73 ± 65.56 mg/L at 24h. With strategies of competition, inhibition, and displacement, Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reduced the adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 (35.51%), Sal. typhimurium ATCC 13311 (8.10%), and Staph. aureus CMCC 26003 (40.30%) on Caco-2 cells by competition, and subsequently by 59.80, 62.50, and 42.60%, respectively, for the 3 pathogens through inhibition, and by 75.23, 39.97, and 52.88%, respectively, through displacement. Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 attenuated the acute stress induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate on Caco-2 cells and significantly inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α) on Caco-2 cells but increased IL-10 expression in vitro

  17. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Estefânia F; Luciano, Winnie A; Xavier, Danilo E; da Costa, Whyara C A; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A; Lucena, Brígida T L; Picão, Renata C; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains. PMID:27625647

  18. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Estefânia F.; Luciano, Winnie A.; Xavier, Danilo E.; da Costa, Whyara C. A.; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L.; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A.; Lucena, Brígida T. L.; Picão, Renata C.; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains. PMID:27625647

  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC-1118 enhances the survivability of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in an acidic environment.

    PubMed

    Lim, Phebe Lixuan; Toh, Mingzhan; Liu, Shao Quan

    2015-08-01

    The present study attempted to partially characterize and elucidate the viability-enhancing effect of a yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC-1118 on a probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 under acidic conditions using a model system (non-growing cells). The yeast was found to significantly enhance (P < 0.05) the viability of the probiotic strain under acidic conditions (pH 2.5 to 4.0) by 2 to 4 log cycles, and the viability-enhancing effects were observed to be influenced by pH, and probiotic and yeast concentrations. Microscopic observation and co-aggregation assay revealed that the viability-enhancing effect of the yeast could be attributed to direct cell-cell contact co-aggregation mediated by yeast cell surface and/or cell wall components or metabolites. Furthermore, non-viable yeast cells killed by thermal means were observed to enhance the viability of the probiotic strain as well, suggesting that the surface and/or cell wall component(s) of the yeast contributing to co-aggregation was heat-stable. Cell-free yeast supernatant was also found to enhance the viability of the probiotic strain, indicating the presence of protective yeast metabolite(s) in the supernatant. These findings laid the foundation for further understanding of the mechanism(s) involved and for developing novel microbial starter cultures possibly without the use of live yeast for ambient-stable high-moisture probiotic foods. PMID:25846337

  20. The role of lactobacillus probiotics in the treatment or prevention of urogenital infections--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Abad, C L; Safdar, N

    2009-06-01

    Probiotics are increasingly being used to treat and prevent urogenital infections. However, a critical assessment of their efficacy in major urogenital infections is lacking. We report the results of a systematic review to determine the efficacy of probiotics for prevention or treatment of three major urogenital infections: bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and urinary tract infection. Using multiple computerized databases, we extracted data from clinical trials using a lactobacillus-containing preparation to either prevent or treat a urogenital infection. Of 25 included studies, 18 studies used lactobacillus preparations for treatment or prevention of urogenital infections and seven studies focused solely on vaginal colonization. Four studies included patients with vaginal candidiasis, five included patients with urinary tract infections, and eight included patients with bacterial vaginosis. One included several types of genitourinary infections. Overall, lactobacilli were beneficial for the treatment of patients with bacterial vaginosis. No clear benefit was seen for candidiasis or urinary tract infection. Studies were heterogeneous, with some limited by a small population size. In conclusion, the use of certain lactobacillus strains such as L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri for prevention and treatment of recurrent urogenital infection is promising, especially for recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Scant data on the use of probiotics for urinary tract infection and vulvovaginal candidiasis precludes definitive recommendations. Further research and larger studies on types of lactobacilli strains, dosage of lactobacilli, optimal route and vehicle of administration are needed. PMID:19567343

  1. Effect of immobilized Lactobacillus casei on the evolution of flavor compounds in probiotic dry-fermented sausages during ripening.

    PubMed

    Sidira, Marianthi; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2015-02-01

    The effect of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat grains on the generation of volatile compounds in probiotic dry-fermented sausages during ripening was investigated. For comparison reasons, sausages containing free L. casei cells or no starter culture were also included in the study. Samples were collected after 1, 28 and 45days of ripening and subjected to SPME GC/MS analysis. Both the probiotic culture and the ripening process affected significantly the concentration of all volatile compounds. The significantly highest content of total volatiles, esters, alcohols and miscellaneous compounds was observed in sausages containing the highest amount of immobilized culture (300g/kg of stuffing mixture) ripened for 45days. Principal component analysis of the semi-quantitative data revealed that primarily the concentration of the immobilized probiotic culture affected the volatile composition. PMID:25306510

  2. Differential Toll-Like Receptor Recognition and Induction of Cytokine Profile by Bifidobacterium breve and Lactobacillus Strains of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Theo S.; van Maren, Wendy W. C.; van Bergenhenegouwen, Jeroen; Hameetman, Marjolijn; Nierkens, Stefan; Jacobs, Cor; de Jong, Dirk J.; Joosten, Leo A. B.; van't Land, Belinda; Garssen, Johan; Adema, Gosse J.; Netea, Mihai G.

    2011-01-01

    The use of probiotics as a food supplement has gained tremendous interest in the last few years as beneficial effects were reported in gut homeostasis and nutrient absorption but also in immunocompromised patients, supporting protection from colonization or infection with pathogenic bacteria or fungi. As a treatment approach for inflammatory bowel diseases, a suitable probiotic strain would ideally be one with a low immunogenic potential. Insight into the immunogenicities and types of T-cell responses induced by potentially probiotic strains allows a more rational selection of a particular strain. In the present study, the bacterial strains Bifidobacterium breve (NumRes 204), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NumRes1), and Lactobacillus casei (DN-114 001) were compared concerning their capacity to induce inflammatory responses in terms of cytokine production by human and mouse primary immune cells. It was demonstrated that the B. breve strain induced lower levels of the proinflammatory cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) than the tested L. rhamnosus and L. casei strains. Both B. breve and lactobacilli induced cytokines in a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-dependent manner, while the lower inflammatory profile of B. breve was due to inhibitory effects of TLR2. No role for TLR4, NOD2, and C-type lectin receptors was apparent. In conclusion, TLR signaling is involved in the differentiation of inflammatory responses between probiotic strains used as food supplements. PMID:21288993

  3. Clinical and microbiological effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Teughels, Wim; Durukan, Andaç; Ozcelik, Onur; Pauwels, Martine; Quirynen, Marc; Haytac, Mehmet Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Teughels W, Durukan A, Ozcelik O, Pauwels M, Quirynen M, Haytac MC. Clinical and microbiological effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Clin Periodontol 2013; 40: 1025–1035. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12155. AimThe aim of this randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-containing probiotic lozenges as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). Material and MethodsThirty chronic periodontitis patients were recruited and monitored clinically and microbiologically at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks after therapy. All patients received one-stage full-mouth disinfection and randomly assigned over a test (SRP + probiotic, n = 15) or control (SRP + placebo, n = 15) group. The lozenges were used two times a day for 12 weeks. ResultsAt week 12, all clinical parameters were significantly reduced in both groups, while there was significantly more pocket depth reduction (p < 0.05) and attachment gain (p < 0.05) in moderate and deep pockets; more Porphyromonas gingivalis reduction was observed in the SRP + probiotic group. ConclusionsThe results indicate that oral administration of L. reuteri lozenges could be a useful adjunct to SRP in chronic periodontitis. PMID:24164569

  4. Lactobacillus fermentum BR11, a potential new probiotic, alleviates symptoms of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats.

    PubMed

    Geier, Mark S; Butler, Ross N; Giffard, Philip M; Howarth, Gordon S

    2007-03-20

    Current treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are relatively ineffective. Recently, probiotics have emerged as a potential treatment modality for numerous gastrointestinal disorders, including IBD. Few probiotics, however, have undergone appropriate preclinical screening in vivo. The current study compared the effects of four candidate probiotics on development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were gavaged 1 mL of the potential probiotic (1 x 10(10) CFU/mL), or vehicle, twice daily for 14 days. Strains tested were Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 (TH-4), Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) and Lactobacillus fermentum BR11 (BR11). Colitis was induced from day 7 to 14 via administration of 2% DSS in drinking water. Disease activity index (DAI) was monitored daily until rats were killed at day 14. DAI decreased in DSS+Bb12 and DSS+BR11 compared to DSS+Vehicle. Colon length increased in DSS+BR11 (10%) and DSS+LGG (10%) compared to DSS+Vehicle. DSS+Bb12 and DSS+BR11 prevented the distal colon crypt hyperplasia evident in DSS+Vehicle, DSS+LGG and DSS+TH-4. BR11 was most effective at reducing colitic symptoms. Bb12 had minimal effects, whilst TH-4 did not prevent DSS-colitis and LGG actually exacerbated some indicators of colitis. Further studies into the potential benefits of L. fermentum BR11 are indicated. PMID:17150273

  5. Predominance of a bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus salivarius component of a five-strain probiotic in the porcine ileum and effects on host immune phenotype.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Maria C; Gardiner, Gillian E; Hart, Orla M; Lawlor, Peadar G; Daly, Mairead; Lynch, Brendan; Richert, Brian T; Radcliffe, Scott; Giblin, Linda; Hill, Colin; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, Paul

    2008-05-01

    Relative predominance of each of five probiotic strains was investigated in the ileum of weaned pigs, compared with that in feces, when administered in combination at c. 5 x 10(9) CFU day(-1) for 28 days. Probiotic was excreted at 10(6)-10(9) CFU g(-1) feces, while ileal survival ranged from 10(2) to 10(6) CFU g(-1) digesta. In contrast to the feces, where Lactobacillus murinus DPC6002 predominated, the bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus salivarus DPC6005 dominated over coadministered strains both in the ileum digesta and in mucosa. Probiotic administration did not alter counts of culturable fecal Lactobacillus or Enterobacteriaceae but higher ileal Enterobacteriaceae were observed in the ileal digesta of probiotic-fed pigs (P<0.05). We observed decreased CD25 induction on T cells and monocytes (P<0.01) and decreased CTLA-4 induction (P<0.05) by the mitogen phytohemagglutinin on CD4 T cells from the probiotic group. Probiotic treatment also increased the proportion of CD4+ CD8+ T cells within the peripheral T-cell population and increased ileal IL-8 mRNA expression (P<0.05). In conclusion, superior ileal survival of L. salivarius compared with the other coadministered probiotics may be due to a competitive advantage conferred by its bacteriocin. The findings also suggest that the five-strain combination may function as a probiotic, at least in part, via immunomodulation. PMID:18373687

  6. Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota supplementation does not modulate immunity in healthy men with reduced natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Stephanie; Bub, Achim; Franz, Charles M A P; Watzl, Bernhard

    2011-05-01

    Oral intake of probiotic bacteria may beneficially modulate functions of NK cells. In healthy individuals, contradictory results exist as to whether NK cell functions can be modulated by probiotic bacteria. Therefore, the primary objective of our randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the effects of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on the activity of NK cells in healthy men who had been preselected for a reduced lytic function of their NK cells. Study participants (n = 68) were supplemented for 4 wk with a probiotic drink providing 1.95 × 10(10) CFU LcS/d or with a similar milk drink without probiotic additive. A run-in period of 2 wk preceded the probiotic supplementation followed by a 2-wk follow-up phase without the probiotic or control drink. Changes in the relative proportions of NK cells and other leukocytes as well as multiple functional measurements were determined longitudinally at baseline, after the 4-wk supplementation, and at the end of the follow-up. The probiotic supplementation had no significant effect on NK cell numbers and function or on phagocytosis, respiratory burst, or cytokine secretion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In conclusion, 4 wk of supplementation with LcS does not increase NK cell activity in healthy men with a reduced NK cell lytic activity. However, other doses of LcS, time of intervention, or differences, e.g. in the background diet, may result in a different outcome. PMID:21430250

  7. Bioprotection of ready-to-eat probiotic artichokes processed with Lactobacillus paracasei LMGP22043 against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Francesca; Lonigro, Stella Lisa; Di Biase, Mariaelena; de Candia, Silvia; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2013-11-01

    The survival of 3 pathogens Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19115, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ATCC13311, and Escherichia coli ATCC8739 was evaluated over time in ready-to-eat (RTE) artichoke products processed or not with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei LMGP22043. Both probiotic and standard products (final pH about 4.0; aw = 0.98) dressed with oil and packaged in modified atmosphere were inoculated with pathogens at a level of about 3 log CFU/g and stored at 4 ºC for 45 d. Pathogens decreased in the probiotic product in 2 descent phases, without shoulder and/or tailing as observed by fitting the models available in the GInaFit software to the experimental data. S. enterica subsp. enterica was completely inactivated after 14 and 28 d in probiotic and standard products, respectively; E. coli was inhibited in the probiotic food at day 4 (count probiotic product at day 1 reaching values below the DL after 14 d, while 21 d were needed in the standard product, and survived in both samples until the end of the experimental period. Therefore, the probiotic strain, representing always more than the 93% of lactic acid bacteria (about 7 log CFU/g) during the entire experimental period, combines the efficacy of a protective culture, which can control the development of pathogens during storage with probiotic benefits. PMID:24245894

  8. Functional Characterization of a Mucus-Specific LPXTG Surface Adhesin from Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ▿

    PubMed Central

    von Ossowski, Ingemar; Satokari, Reetta; Reunanen, Justus; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Vos, Willem M.; Palva, Airi

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological niche as a comparatively less stringent allochthonous intestine-dwelling bacterium. To uncover additional surface proteins involved in mucosal adhesion, we investigated the adherence properties of the only predicted protein (LGG_02337) in L. rhamnosus GG that exhibits homology with a known mucus-binding domain. We cloned a recombinant form of the gene for this putative mucus adhesin and established that the purified protein readily adheres to human intestinal mucus. We also showed that this mucus adhesin is visibly distributed throughout the cell surface and participates in the adhesive interaction between L. rhamnosus GG and mucus, although less prominently than the mucus-binding pili in this strain. Based on primary structural comparisons, we concluded that the current annotation of the LGG_02337 protein likely does not accurately reflect its predicted properties, and we propose that this mucus-specific adhesin be called the mucus-binding factor (MBF). Finally, we interpret our results to mean that L. rhamnosus GG MBF, as an active mucus-specific surface adhesin with a presumed ancillary involvement in pilus-mediated mucosal adhesion, plays a part in the adherent mechanisms during intestinal colonization by this probiotic. PMID:21602388

  9. Functional characterization of a mucus-specific LPXTG surface adhesin from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    PubMed

    von Ossowski, Ingemar; Satokari, Reetta; Reunanen, Justus; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Vos, Willem M; Palva, Airi

    2011-07-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological niche as a comparatively less stringent allochthonous intestine-dwelling bacterium. To uncover additional surface proteins involved in mucosal adhesion, we investigated the adherence properties of the only predicted protein (LGG_02337) in L. rhamnosus GG that exhibits homology with a known mucus-binding domain. We cloned a recombinant form of the gene for this putative mucus adhesin and established that the purified protein readily adheres to human intestinal mucus. We also showed that this mucus adhesin is visibly distributed throughout the cell surface and participates in the adhesive interaction between L. rhamnosus GG and mucus, although less prominently than the mucus-binding pili in this strain. Based on primary structural comparisons, we concluded that the current annotation of the LGG_02337 protein likely does not accurately reflect its predicted properties, and we propose that this mucus-specific adhesin be called the mucus-binding factor (MBF). Finally, we interpret our results to mean that L. rhamnosus GG MBF, as an active mucus-specific surface adhesin with a presumed ancillary involvement in pilus-mediated mucosal adhesion, plays a part in the adherent mechanisms during intestinal colonization by this probiotic. PMID:21602388

  10. Temporal gene expression and probiotic attributes of Lactobacillus acidophilus during growth in milk.

    PubMed

    Azcarate-Peril, M A; Tallon, R; Klaenhammer, T R

    2009-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have been used as starter strains in the production of fermented dairy products for centuries. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a widely recognized probiotic bacteria commonly added to yogurt and used in dietary supplements. In this study, a whole genome microarray was employed to monitor gene expression of L. acidophilus NCFM cells propagated in 11% skim milk during early, mid and late logarithmic phase, and stationary phase. Approximately 21% of 1,864 open reading frames were differentially expressed at least in one time point. Genes differentially expressed in skim milk included several members of the proteolytic enzyme system. Expression of prtP (proteinase precursor) and prtM (maturase) increased over time as well as several peptidases and transport systems. Expression of Opp1 (oligopeptide transport system 1) was highest at 4 h, whereas gene expression of Opp2 increased over time reaching its highest level at 12 h, suggesting that the 2 systems have different specificities. Expression of a 2-component regulatory system, previously shown to regulate acid tolerance and proteolytic activity, also increased during the early log and early stationary phases of growth. Expression of the genes involved in lactose utilization increased immediately (5 min) upon exposure to milk. The acidification activity, survival under storage conditions, and adhesion to mucin and Caco-2 tissue culture cells of selected mutants containing insertionally inactivated genes differentially expressed in the wild-type strain during growth in milk were examined for any potential links between probiotic properties and bacterial growth and survival in milk. Some of the most interesting genes found to be expressed in milk were correlated with signaling (autoinducer-2) and adherence to mucin and intestinal epithelial cells, in vitro. PMID:19233780

  11. In vitro screening of selected probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented cabbage and cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Dorota; Rzepkowska, Anna; Radawska, Anna; Zieliński, Konrad

    2015-02-01

    Most important during probiotic selection are gastric acid and bile tolerance, the adhesion to the luminal epithelium to colonize the lower gastrointestinal tract of a human and safety for human consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected probiotic in vitro properties of Lactobacillus spp. Strains isolated from traditional fermented food. A total 38 strains were isolated from the pickled samples and 14 were identified as Lactobacillus spp. The survival of almost all strains after incubation at pH 2.5 did not change markedly, and remained at above 90 % (10(9) CFU/mL). The strains also exhibited a high survival rate at pH 3.5 (>90 %), whereas pH 1.5 all were died. Just four strains could survive 90 min. at pH 1.5 (<39 %). The incubation with 0.2 % bile salt solution resulted in a survival rates of 81-94 % after 24 h, whereas after incubation in 2 and 4 % bile salt solution it was 59-94 %. All tested strains showed very good and good resistance to 0.4 % phenol addition, however only Lb. johnsonii K4 was able to multiply. The hydrophobic nature of the cell surface of the tested strains was moderated recording hydrophobicity of Lb. johnsonii K4 and Lb. rhamnosus K3 above 60 %. Safety evaluation excluded four of tested strains as candidate probiotics, according to antibiotic resistance patterns and certain metabolic activities. On the basis on the results 10 of the selected Lactobacillus strains are safe and can survive under gastrointestinal conditions, which requires them to future in vitro and in vivo probiotic studies. PMID:25270682

  12. Feasibility of Genome-Wide Screening for Biosafety Assessment of Probiotics: A Case Study of Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463.

    PubMed

    Senan, S; Prajapati, J B; Joshi, C G

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have witnessed an explosion in genome sequencing of probiotic strains for accurate identification and characterization. Regulatory bodies are emphasizing on the need for performing phase I safety studies for probiotics. The main hypothesis of this study was to explore the feasibility of using genome databases for safety screening of strains. In this study, we attempted to develop a framework for the safety assessment of a potential probiotic strain, Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 based on genome mining for genes associated with antibiotic resistance, production of harmful metabolites, and virulence. The sequencing of MTCC 5463 was performed using GS-FLX Titanium reagents. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance and virulence were identified using Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database and Virulence Factors Database. Results indicated that MTCC 5463 carried antibiotic resistance genes associated with beta-lactam and fluoroquinolone. There is no threat of transfer of these genes to host gut commensals because the genes are not plasmid encoded. The presence of genes for adhesion, biofilm, surface proteins, and stress-related proteins provides robustness to the strain. The presence of hemolysin gene in the genome revealed a theoretical risk of virulence. The results of in silico analysis complemented the in vitro studies and human clinical trials, confirming the safety of the probiotic strain. We propose that the safety assessment of probiotic strains administered live at high doses using a genome-wide screening could be an effective and time-saving tool for identifying prognostic biomarkers of biosafety. PMID:26223907

  13. Human-derived probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains differentially reduce intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuying; Fatheree, Nicole Y; Mangalat, Nisha; Rhoads, Jon Marc

    2010-11-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) is a probiotic that inhibits the severity of enteric infections and modulates the immune system. Human-derived L. reuteri strains DSM17938, ATCC PTA4659, ATCC PTA 5289, and ATCC PTA 6475 have demonstrated strain-specific immunomodulation in cultured monocytoid cells, but information about how these strains affect inflammation in intestinal epithelium is limited. We determined the effects of the four different L. reuteri strains on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in small intestinal epithelial cells and in the ileum of newborn rats. IPEC-J2 cells (derived from the jejunal epithelium of a neonatal piglet) and IEC-6 cells (derived from the rat crypt) were treated with L. reuteri. Newborn rat pups were gavaged cow milk formula supplemented with L. reuteri strains in the presence or absence of LPS. Protein and mRNA levels of cytokines and histological changes were measured. We demonstrate that even though one L. reuteri strain (DSM 17938) did not inhibit LPS-induced IL-8 production in cultured intestinal cells, all strains significantly reduced intestinal mucosal levels of KC/GRO (∼IL-8) and IFN-γ when newborn rat pups were fed formula containing LPS ± L. reuteri. Intestinal histological damage produced by LPS plus cow milk formula was also significantly reduced by all four strains. Cow milk formula feeding (without LPS) produced mild gut inflammation, evidenced by elevated mucosal IFN-γ and IL-13 levels, a process that could be suppressed by strain 17938. Other cytokines and chemokines were variably affected by the different strains, and there was no toxic effect of L. reuteri on intestinal cells or mucosa. In conclusion, L. reuteri strains differentially modulate LPS-induced inflammation. Probiotic interactions with both epithelial and nonepithelial cells in vivo must be instrumental in modulating intrinsic anti-inflammatory effects in the intestine. We suggest that the terms anti- and proinflammatory be used only

  14. Functional characterization of probiotic surface layer protein-carrying Lactobacillus amylovorus strains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adhesiveness to intestinal epithelium, beneficial immunomodulating effects and the production of pathogen-inhibitory compounds are generally considered as beneficial characteristics of probiotic organisms. We showed the potential health-promoting properties and the mechanisms of probiotic action of seven swine intestinal Lactobacillus amylovorus isolates plus the type strain (DSM 20531T) by investigating their adherence to porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-1) and mucus as well as the capacities of the strains to i) inhibit the adherence of Escherichia coli to IPEC-1 cells, ii) to produce soluble inhibitors against intestinal pathogens and iii) to induce immune signaling in dendritic cells (DCs). Moreover, the role of the L. amylovorus surface (S) –layers - symmetric, porous arrays of identical protein subunits present as the outermost layer of the cell envelope - in adherence to IPEC-1 cells was assessed using a novel approach which utilized purified cell wall fragments of the strains as carriers for the recombinantly produced S-layer proteins. Results Three of the L. amylovorus strains studied adhered to IPEC-1 cells, while four strains inhibited the adherence of E. coli, indicating additional mechanisms other than competition for binding sites being involved in the inhibition. None of the strains bound to porcine mucus. The culture supernatants of all of the strains exerted inhibitory effects on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella, Listeria and Yersinia, and a variable, strain-dependent induction was observed of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human DCs. L. amylovorus DSM 16698 was shown to carry two S-layer-like proteins on its surface in addition to the major S-layer protein SlpA. In contrast to expectations, none of the major S-layer proteins of the IPEC-1 -adhering strains mediated bacterial adherence. Conclusions We demonstrated adhesive and significant pathogen inhibitory efficacies among the swine intestinal L. amylovorus

  15. Human-derived probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri demonstrate antimicrobial activities targeting diverse enteric bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Spinler, Jennifer K; Taweechotipatr, Malai; Rognerud, Cheryl L; Ou, Ching N; Tumwasorn, Somying; Versalovic, James

    2008-06-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a commensal-derived anaerobic probiotic that resides in the human gastrointestinal tract. L. reuteri converts glycerol into a potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound, reuterin, which inhibits the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we compared four human-derived L. reuteri isolates (ATCC 55730, ATCC PTA 6475, ATCC PTA 4659 and ATCC PTA 5289) in their ability to produce reuterin and to inhibit the growth of different enteric pathogens in vitro. Reuterin was produced by each of the four L. reuteri strains and assessed for biological activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of reuterin derived from each strain was determined for the following enteric pathogens: enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Salmonella enterica, Shigella sonnei and Vibrio cholerae. We also analyzed the relative abilities of L. reuteri to inhibit enteric pathogens in a pathogen overlay assay. The magnitude of reuterin production did not directly correlate with the relative ability of L. reuteri to suppress the proliferation of enteric pathogens. Additional antimicrobial factors may be produced by L. reuteri, and multiple factors may act synergistically with reuterin to inhibit enteric pathogens. PMID:18396068

  16. Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ameliorates disease due to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in germfree mice.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Kathryn A; Honkala, Alexander; Auchtung, Thomas A; Britton, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Strains of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are a group of Shiga toxin-producing food-borne pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic colitis and can lead to hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), a life-threatening condition that principally affects children and for which there is no effective treatment. We used a germfree mouse model of renal and enteric disease due to EHEC to determine if probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 is effective in suppressing disease symptoms caused by EHEC. When germfree Swiss Webster mice are monocolonized with EHEC, they develop disease characterized by weight loss, cecal luminal fluid accumulation, and renal tubular necrosis. When L. reuteri was administered 1 day prior to EHEC challenge and every other day thereafter, EHEC colonization was suppressed and mice were significantly protected from the manifestations of disease. Protection from disease did not require the induction of the antimicrobial compound reuterin in L. reuteri prior to treatment. The twice-daily administration of L. reuteri appeared more effective than every-other-day administration. These data indicated that L. reuteri partially protects mice from disease manifestations of EHEC. PMID:20974822

  17. The potential of biodetoxification activity as a probiotic property of Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    van Niel, Ed W J; Larsson, Christer U; Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke M; Rådström, Peter

    2012-01-16

    Previous work on the metabolism of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 anticipated a variability in the use of organic electron acceptors as a means to relieve metabolic redox problems. Therefore, investigations focusing on this unique metabolism of L. reuteri may reveal a basis for new probiotic properties. For instance, L. reuteri may use reactive aldehydes and ketones as electron acceptors to balance their redox metabolism, which opens the possibility to exploit this bacterium for in vivo bioreduction of deleterious compounds in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Herein we demonstrate that L. reuteri ATCC 55730 cultures on glucose are able to use furfural (1g/L), and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (0.5g/L), as electron acceptors. The former enhances the growth rate by about 25% and biomass yield by 15%, whereas the latter is inhibitory. Furfural is stoichiometrically reduced to furfuryl alcohol by the culture. The conversion of furfural had no effect on the flux distribution between the simultaneously operating phosphoketolase and Embden-Meyerhof pathways, but initiated a flux to acetate production. In addition to furfural and HMF, cellular extracts showed potential to reoxidize NADH and/or NADPH with acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and diacetyl, indicating that conversion reactions take place intracellularly, however, utilization mechanisms for the latter compounds may not be present in this strain. The strain did not reduce other GIT-related reactive compounds, including acrylamide, glyoxal, and furan. PMID:22071286

  18. Molecular Microbial Analysis of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from the Gut of Calves for Potential Probiotic Use

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Lorena P.; Frizzo, Laureano S.; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Avataneo, Elizabeth; Sequeira, Gabriel J.; Rosmini, Marcelo R.

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has an influence on the growth and health status of the hosts. This is of particular interest in animals reared using intensive farming practices. Hence, it is necessary to know more about complexity of the beneficial intestinal microbiota. The use of molecular methods has revolutionized microbial identification by improving its quality and effectiveness. The specific aim of the study was to analyze predominant species of Lactobacillus in intestinal microbial ecosystem of young calves. Forty-two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from intestinal tract of young calves were characterized by: Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA), by using Hae III, Msp I, and Hinf I restriction enzymes, and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. ARDRA screening revealed nine unique patterns among 42 isolates, with the same pattern for 29 of the isolates. Gene fragments of 16S rDNA of 19 strains representing different patterns were sequenced to confirm the identification of these species. These results confirmed that ARDRA is a good tool for identification and discrimination of bacterial species isolated from complex ecosystem and between closely related groups. This paper provides information about the LAB species predominant in intestinal tract of young calves that could provide beneficial effects when administered as probiotic. PMID:20445780

  19. Development of a Potential Probiotic Fresh Cheese Using Two Lactobacillus salivarius Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Peirotén, Ángela; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Fernández, Leónides

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study. PMID:24971351

  20. Simultaneous Production of Biosurfactants and Bacteriocins by Probiotic Lactobacillus casei MRTL3

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepansh; Singh Saharan, Baljeet

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are ubiquitous and well-known commensal bacteria in the human and animal microflora. LAB are extensively studied and used in a variety of industrial and food fermentations. They are widely used for humans and animals as adjuvants, probiotic formulation, and dietary supplements and in other food fermentation applications. In the present investigation, LAB were isolated from raw milk samples collected from local dairy farms of Haryana, India. Further, the isolates were screened for simultaneous production of biosurfactants and bacteriocins. Biosurfactant produced was found to be a mixture of lipid and sugar similar to glycolipids. The bacteriocin obtained was found to be heat stable (5 min at 100°C). Further, DNA of the strain was extracted and amplified by the 16S rRNA sequencing using universal primers. The isolate Lactobacillus casei MRTL3 was found to be a potent biosurfactant and bacteriocin producer. It seems to have huge potential for food industry as a biopreservative and/or food ingredient. PMID:24669225

  1. Optimization of anticancer exopolysaccharide production from probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Venkataraman; Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Sivasubramaniam, Shiva D; Nellaiah, Hariharan; Sundar, Krishnan

    2016-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the Western world. Recently, much attention has been focused on decreasing the risk of CRC by consuming probiotics. In the present study, exopolysaccharide (EPS) extracted from Lactobacillus acidophilus was found to inhibit the growth of CaCo2 colon cancer cell line in a dose-dependent manner. The experiment was performed in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and EPS was found to reduce the survival of CaCo2 cell line in both the conditions. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) studies demonstrated that EPS treatment upregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in both normoxia and hypoxia conditions, whereas it upregulated the expression of erythropoietin (EPO) in the normoxic condition, but there was no significant expression under hypoxic conditions. Hence, the EPS production was optimized by Plackett-Burman design followed by central composite rotatory design. The optimized production of EPS at 24 hr was found to be 400 mg/L. During batch cultivation the production peaked at 21 hr, resulting in an EPS concentration of 597 mg/L. PMID:25831127

  2. Proteomic comparison of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei Zhang cultivated in milk and soy milk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jicheng; Wu, Rina; Zhang, Wenyi; Sun, Zhihong; Zhao, Wenjing; Zhang, Heping

    2013-09-01

    Soy milk is regarded as a substitute for milk and has become popular in varied diets throughout the world. It has been shown that a newly characterized probiotic bacterium (Lactobacillus casei Zhang) actually grows faster in soy milk than in bovine milk. To elucidate the mechanism involved, we carried out a proteomic analysis to characterize bacterial proteins that varied upon growth in soy milk and bovine milk at 3 different growth phases, and compare their expression under these conditions. A total of 104 differentially expressed spots were identified from different phases using a peptide mass fingerprinting assay. Functional analysis revealed that a major part of these identified proteins is associated with transport and metabolism of carbohydrates, nucleotides, and amino acids as well. The results from our proteomic analysis were clarified by real-time quantitative PCR assay, which showed that Lb. casei Zhang loci involved in purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis were transcriptionally enhanced during growth in soy milk at lag phase (pH 6.4), whereas the loci involved in carbohydrate metabolism were upregulated in bovine milk. Particularly, our results showed that l-glutamine might play an important role in the growth of Lb. casei Zhang in soy milk and bovine milk, perhaps by contributing to purine, pyrimidine, and amino sugar metabolism. PMID:23871367

  3. Transcriptome analysis of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang during fermentation in soymilk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Cheng; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Zhong, Zhi; Wei, Ai-Bin; Bao, Qiu-Hua; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Tian-Song; Postnikoff, Andrew; Meng, He; Zhang, He-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei Zhang is a widely recognized probiotic bacterium, which is being commercially used in China. To study the gene expression dynamics of L. casei Zhang during fermentation in soymilk, a whole genome microarray was used to screen for differentially expressed genes when grown to the lag phase, the late logarithmic phase, and the stationary phase. Comparisons of different transcripts next to each other revealed 162 and 63 significantly induced genes in the late logarithmic phase and stationary phase, of which the expression was at least threefold up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. Approximately 38.4% of the up-regulated genes were associated with amino acid transport and metabolism notably for histidine and lysine biosynthesis, followed by genes/gene clusters involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, lipid transport and metabolism, and inorganic ion transport and metabolism. The analysis results suggest a complex stimulatory effect of soymilk-based ecosystem on the L. casei Zhang growth. On the other hand, it provides the very first insight into the molecular mechanism of L. casei strain for how it will adapt to the protein-rich environment. PMID:21779970

  4. Some probiotic and antibacterial properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus cultured from dahi a native milk product.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Talat; Masud, Tariq; Sohail, Asma

    2014-08-01

    In this study, different strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus from dahi were analyzed for certain probiotic and antibacterial properties. Initially, these strains were confirmed by the amplification of 16S rRNA regions and then screened for antibacterial activities against food borne pathogens. The phenotypic relationship between apparent antibacterial activity and cell wall proteins were established by cluster analysis. It was observed that those strains, which have prominent bands having size 22-25 kDa possess antibacterial activity. On the basis of wide spectrum of killing pattern, a strain LA06FT was further characterized that showed no change in its behavior when subjected to the antibiotic protected environment and grow well in acid-bile conditions. The bacteriocin produced by this strain has specific antibacterial activity of 5369.13 AU mg(-1). It remained stable at 60-90 °C and pH range of 4.5-6.5 while proteolytic enzymes inactivate the bacteriocin that confirm its proteinic nature having molecular weight of ≤8.5 kDa. PMID:24689927

  5. Evaluation of resistance to low pH and bile salts of human Lactobacillus spp. isolates.

    PubMed

    Fuochi, Virginia; Petronio, Giulio Petronio; Lissandrello, Edmondo; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2015-09-01

    There are nearly 100 trillion bacteria in the intestine that together form the intestinal microbiota. They are 'good' bacteria because they help to maintain a physiological balance and are called probiotics. Probiotics must have some important characteristics: be safe for humans, be resistant to the low pH in the stomach, as well as bile salts and pancreatic juice. Indeed, their survival is the most important factor, so that they can arrive alive in the intestine and are able to form colonies, at least temporarily. The aim of our study was the evaluation of resistance of Lactobacillus isolates from fecal and oral swabs compared to that found in a commercial product. Seven strains were randomly chosen: L. jensenii, L. gasseri, L. salivarius, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, L. crispatus, and L. delbrueckii. We observed a large variability in the results: L. gasseri and L. fermentum were the most resistance to low pH, while only L. gasseri showed the best survival rate to bile salts. Interestingly, the commercial product did not show tolerance to both low pH and bile salts. PMID:26216909

  6. Screening of Lactobacilli derived from chicken feces and partial characterization of Lactobacillus acidophilus A12 as an animal probiotics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Yun, Cheol-Won; Kim, Seung Wook; Chang, Hyo-Ihl; Kang, Chang-Won; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2008-02-01

    This study was performed to screen and select Lactobacillus strains from chicken feces for probiotic use in animals. Of these strains, strain A12 had the highest immunostimulatory effect. Therefore, strain A12 was characterized as a potential probiotic. Strain A12 was tentatively identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus A12, using the API 50 CHL kit based on a 99.9% homology. L. acidophilus A12 was highly resistant to artificial gastric juice (pH 2.5) and bile acid (oxgall). Based on results from the API ZYM kit, leucine arylamidase, crystine arylamidase, acid phosphatase, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, alpha-galactosidase, beta- galactosidase, alpha-glucosidase, beta-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-beta- glucosamidase were produced by strain A12. L. acidophilus A12 showed resistance to several antibiotics (nisin, gentamycin, and erythromycin). The amount of interleukin (IL)-1alpha in 20x concentrated supernatant from L. acidophilus A12 was approximately 156 pg/ml. With regard to antioxidant activity, L. acidophilus A12 supernatant showed 60.6% DPPH radical scavenging activity. These results demonstrate the potential use of L. acidophilus A12 as a health-promoting probiotics. PMID:18309281

  7. Isolation of potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains from traditional fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tala; Nishiyama, Keita; Nakamata, Koichi; Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Mikumo, Dai; Oda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao; Sujaya, I Nengah; Urashima, Tadasu; Fukuda, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    To explore potential probiotics in the traditional foods of Indonesia, fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island was investigated in this study. Gram stain, catalase activity, gas production, cell morphology, carbohydrate utilization pattern, and 16S rDNA sequencing were performed to identify isolated lactic acid bacteria. To assess their probiotic ability, tolerance of low pH, bile salts, artificial gastrointestinal fluids, and adhesion properties to extracellular matrices, were examined. In total 27 strains, 25 Lactobacillus rhamnosus and two Lactobacillus fermentum, were obtained. Among the isolated lactobacilli, three Lb. rhamnosus strains, FSMM15, FSMM22, and FSMM26, were selected as candidates for probiotics, using Lb. rhamnosus GG as index. In vitro binding assay of the three strains against several extracellular matrix proteins revealed that FSMM15 and FSMM26 gave greater binding ratios of mucin/bovine serum albumin (BSA) and significantly higher adhesive abilities to fibronectin than Lb. rhamnosus GG. FSMM22 showed significantly higher adhesion to laminin than Lb. rhamnosus GG. PMID:23047104

  8. Monitoring of Water Spectral Pattern Reveals Differences in Probiotics Growth When Used for Rapid Bacteria Selection.

    PubMed

    Slavchev, Aleksandar; Kovacs, Zoltan; Koshiba, Haruki; Nagai, Airi; Bázár, György; Krastanov, Albert; Kubota, Yousuke; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2015-01-01

    Development of efficient screening method coupled with cell functionality evaluation is highly needed in contemporary microbiology. The presented novel concept and fast non-destructive method brings in to play the water spectral pattern of the solution as a molecular fingerprint of the cell culture system. To elucidate the concept, NIR spectroscopy with Aquaphotomics were applied to monitor the growth of sixteen Lactobacillus bulgaricus one Lactobacillus pentosus and one Lactobacillus gasseri bacteria strains. Their growth rate, maximal optical density, low pH and bile tolerances were measured and further used as a reference data for analysis of the simultaneously acquired spectral data. The acquired spectral data in the region of 1100-1850nm was subjected to various multivariate data analyses - PCA, OPLS-DA, PLSR. The results showed high accuracy of bacteria strains classification according to their probiotic strength. Most informative spectral fingerprints covered the first overtone of water, emphasizing the relation of water molecular system to cell functionality. PMID:26133176

  9. Potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019) do not degrade gastric mucin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J S; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S

    2001-01-22

    The mucus layer (mucin) coating the surface of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role in the mucosal barrier system. Any damage or disturbance of this mucin layer will compromise the host's mucosal defence function. In the present study, the ability of three potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lactobacillus acidophilus HN017, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019) to degrade mucin in vitro was evaluated, in order to assess their potential pathogenicity and local toxicity. The LAB strains were incubated in medium containing hog gastric mucin (HGM, 0.3%) at 37 degrees C for 48 h, following which any decrease in carbohydrate and protein concentration in the ethanol-precipitated portion of the culture medium was determined, using phenol-sulphuric acid and bicinchonic acid (BCA) protein assays, respectively. The change in molecular weight of mucin glycoproteins, following incubation with the test strains, was monitored by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In order to expose any ability of the test strains to degrade mucin visually and more directly, the test strains were also cultured on agarose containing 0.3% HGM and incubated anaerobically for 72 h at 37 degrees C. No significant change in the carbohydrate or protein concentration in mucin substrates was found following incubation with the test strains. No mucin fragments were derived from the mucin suspension incubated with test strains, and no mucinolysis zone was identified on agarose. These results demonstrate that the potential probiotic LAB strains tested here were unable to degrade gastrointestinal mucin in vitro, which suggests that these novel probiotic candidates are likely to be non-invasive and non-toxic at the mucosal interface. PMID:11205957

  10. Development of a PCR assay for the strain-specific identification of probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC2.1.

    PubMed

    Sisto, Angelo; De Bellis, Palmira; Visconti, Angelo; Morelli, Lorenzo; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2009-11-30

    Recent investigations clearly indicate that the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC2.1 can be incorporated into vegetables to obtain innovative probiotic foods whose marketing has been authorized by the Italian Ministry of Health. In this study, strain IMPC2.1 was characterized at a molecular level in order to define its taxonomic position and to develop a PCR test for strain-specific identification. Molecular methods, such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multiplex PCR, have provided evidence that strain IMPC2.1 indeed belongs to the L. paracasei species. In addition, a cluster analysis of fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (f-AFLP) data strongly indicated that strain IMPC2.1 and nine other L. paracasei strains (including strain ATCC 334) belong to the same species and are definitely differentiated from the type strain L. casei ATCC 393. The f-AFLP technique was also used to identify a strain-specific DNA fragment of L. paracasei IMPC2.1 - encoding an amino acid sequence similar to a glycosyltransferase of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 - which enabled us to develop a rapid PCR test for strain-specific identification. The strain-specificity of the PCR test was assessed by comparison with a total of 73 bacterial strains mainly isolated from vegetable products that did not produce any amplified fragment. These strains belonged to the L. paracasei species, to 6 additional species of Lactobacillus and to Weissella cibaria, W. confusa, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Pediococcus pentosaceus. A method similar to the one used in this study can be adopted to develop easy, rapid detection techniques for monitoring other bacteria in complex microbiota. PMID:19833402

  11. Spatial Localization and Binding of the Probiotic Lactobacillus farciminis to the Rat Intestinal Mucosa: Influence of Chronic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Arthur; Mercade-Loubière, Myriam; Salvador-Cartier, Christel; Ringot, Bélinda; Léonard, Renaud; Fourquaux, Isabelle; Ait-Belgnaoui, Afifa; Loubière, Pascal; Théodorou, Vassilia; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at detecting the exogenously applied probiotic Lactobacillus farciminis in rats, after exposure to IBS-like chronic stress, based on 4-day Water Avoidance Stress (WAS). The presence of L. farciminis in both ileal and colonic mucosal tissues was demonstrated by FISH and qPCR, with ileum as the preferential niche, as for the SFB population. A different spatial distribution of the probiotic was observed: in the ileum, bacteria were organized in micro-colonies more or less close to the epithelium whereas, in the colon, they were mainly visualized far away from the epithelium. When rats were submitted to WAS, the L. farciminis population substantially decreased in both intestinal regions, due to a stress-induced increase in colonic motility and defecation, rather than a modification of bacterial binding to the intestinal mucin Muc2. PMID:26367538

  12. Caenorhabditis elegans immune conditioning with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NCFM enhances gram-positive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2012-07-01

    Although the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to microbial infections is well established, very little is known about the effects of health-promoting probiotic bacteria on evolutionarily conserved C. elegans host responses. We found that the probiotic Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is not harmful to C. elegans and that L. acidophilus NCFM is unable to colonize the C. elegans intestine. Conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM significantly decreased the burden of a subsequent Enterococcus faecalis infection in the nematode intestine and prolonged the survival of nematodes exposed to pathogenic strains of E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. Preexposure of nematodes to Bacillus subtilis did not provide any beneficial effects. Importantly, L. acidophilus NCFM activates key immune signaling pathways involved in C. elegans defenses against Gram-positive bacteria, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (via TIR-1 and PMK-1) and the β-catenin signaling pathway (via BAR-1). Interestingly, conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM had a minimal effect on Gram-negative infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and had no or a negative effect on defense genes associated with Gram-negative pathogens or general stress. In conclusion, we describe a new system for the study of probiotic immune agents and our findings demonstrate that probiotic conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM modulates specific C. elegans immunity traits. PMID:22585961

  13. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-ZS9, a probiotic starter producing class II bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Li, Pinglan

    2016-03-20

    Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-ZS9 is a probiotic starter isolated from fermented sausage and it is a great producer of class II bacteriocins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first complete sequenced genome of L. paraplantarum deposited in GenBank database. The size of the complete genome of L. paraplantarum L-ZS9 is 3,139,729bp. The genomic sequence revealed that this strain includes 19 genes involved in class II bacteriocins production and regulation. The information fill the gaps of the L. paraplantarum genome information and contribute to the improvement of class II bacteriocins research. PMID:26853479

  14. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95, a potential probiotic strain producing bacteriocins and B-group vitamin riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Gu, Qing

    2016-07-10

    Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95 is a potential probiotic isolated from newborn infant fecal and it is identified to produce riboflavin with great antimicrobial activity. The complete genome sequence of this strain was reported in the present study. The genome contains a 3,261,418-bp chromosome and two plasmids. Genes, related to the biosynthesis of bacteriocins and riboflavin, were identified. This work will facilitate to reveal the biosynthetic mechanism of bacteriocins and B-group vitamins in lactic acid bacteria and provide evidence for its potential application in food industry. PMID:27140869

  15. Reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses harboring exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426.

    PubMed

    Ryan, P M; Burdíková, Z; Beresford, T; Auty, M A E; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P; Sheehan, J J; Stanton, C

    2015-12-01

    Exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was previously shown to have promising hypocholesterolemic activity in the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses as functional (carrier) foods for delivery of this probiotic strain. All cheeses were manufactured at pilot-scale (500-L vats) in triplicate, with standard commercially available starters: for Cheddar, Lactococcus lactis; and for Swiss-type cheese, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was used as an adjunct culture during cheese manufacture, at a level of ~10(6) cfu·mL(-1) cheese milk (subsequently present in the cheese curd at>10(7) cfu·g(-1)). The adjunct strain remained viable at >5×10(7) cfu·g(-1) in both Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses following ripening for 6 mo. Sensory analysis revealed that the presence of the adjunct culture imparted a more appealing appearance in Swiss-type cheese, but had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. Moreover, the adjunct culture had no significant effect on cheese composition, proteolysis, pH, or instrumentally quantified textural characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. These data indicate that low-fat Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses represent suitable food matrices for the delivery of the hypocholesterolemic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in an industrial setting. PMID:26409971

  16. Efficacy and safety of a vaginal medicinal product containing three strains of probiotic bacteria: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tomusiak, Anna; Strus, Magdalena; Heczko, Piotr B; Adamski, Paweł; Stefański, Grzegorz; Mikołajczyk-Cichońska, Aleksandra; Suda-Szczurek, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether vaginal administration of probiotic Lactobacillus results in their colonization and persistence in the vagina and whether Lactobacillus colonization promotes normalization and maintenance of pH and Nugent score. Patients and methods The study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. Altogether, 376 women were assessed for eligibility, and signed informed consent. One hundred and sixty eligible women with abnormal, also called intermediate, vaginal microflora, as indicated by a Nugent score of 4–6 and pH >4.5 and zero or low Lactobacillus count, were randomized. Each participant was examined four times during the study. Women were randomly allocated to receive either the probiotic preparation inVag®, or a placebo (one capsule for seven consecutive days vaginally). The product inVag includes the probiotic strains Lactobacillus fermentum 57A, Lactobacillus plantarum 57B, and Lactobacillus gasseri 57C. We took vaginal swabs during visits I, III, and IV to determine the presence and abundance of bacteria from the Lactobacillus genus, measure the pH, and estimate the Nugent score. Drug safety evaluation was based on analysis of the types and occurrence of adverse events. Results Administration of inVag contributed to a significant decrease (between visits) in both vaginal pH (P<0.05) and Nugent score (P<0.05), and a significant increase in the abundance of Lactobacillus between visit I and visits III and IV (P<0.05). Molecular typing revealed the presence of Lactobacillus strains originating from inVag in 82% of women taking the drug at visit III, and 47.5% at visit IV. There was no serious adverse event related to inVag administration during the study. Conclusion The probiotic inVag is safe for administration to sustainably restore the healthy vaginal microbiota, as demonstrated by predominance of the Lactobacillus bacteria in vaginal microbiota. PMID:26451088

  17. Histamine derived from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri suppresses TNF via modulation of PKA and ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Carissa M; Hong, Teresa; van Pijkeren, Jan Peter; Hemarajata, Peera; Trinh, Dan V; Hu, Weidong; Britton, Robert A; Kalkum, Markus; Versalovic, James

    2012-01-01

    Beneficial microbes and probiotic species, such as Lactobacillus reuteri, produce biologically active compounds that can modulate host mucosal immunity. Previously, immunomodulatory factors secreted by L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 were unknown. A combined metabolomics and bacterial genetics strategy was utilized to identify small compound(s) produced by L. reuteri that were TNF-inhibitory. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography (HILIC-HPLC) separation isolated TNF-inhibitory compounds, and HILIC-HPLC fraction composition was determined by NMR and mass spectrometry analyses. Histamine was identified and quantified in TNF-inhibitory HILIC-HPLC fractions. Histamine is produced from L-histidine via histidine decarboxylase by some fermentative bacteria including lactobacilli. Targeted mutagenesis of each gene present in the histidine decarboxylase gene cluster in L. reuteri 6475 demonstrated the involvement of histidine decarboxylase pyruvoyl type A (hdcA), histidine/histamine antiporter (hdcP), and hdcB in production of the TNF-inhibitory factor. The mechanism of TNF inhibition by L. reuteri-derived histamine was investigated using Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-activated human monocytoid cells. Bacterial histamine suppressed TNF production via activation of the H(2) receptor. Histamine from L. reuteri 6475 stimulated increased levels of cAMP, which inhibited downstream MEK/ERK MAPK signaling via protein kinase A (PKA) and resulted in suppression of TNF production by transcriptional regulation. In summary, a component of the gut microbiome, L. reuteri, is able to convert a dietary component, L-histidine, into an immunoregulatory signal, histamine, which suppresses pro-inflammatory TNF production. The identification of bacterial bioactive metabolites and their corresponding mechanisms of action with respect to immunomodulation may lead to improved anti-inflammatory strategies for chronic immune-mediated diseases. PMID:22384111

  18. Synbiotic functional drink from Jerusalem artichoke juice fermented by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26.

    PubMed

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Velickova, Elena; Dimitrovska, Maja; Langerholc, Tomaz; Winkelhausen, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    A probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26 was used to ferment Jerusalem artichoke juice. Growth kinetics of the bacterial strain was followed during juice fermentation both in flask and in laboratory fermentor. Jerusalem artichoke showed to be an excellent source of nutrients for L. plantarum PCS26 growth. The culture grew very well reaching more than 10(10) cfu/ml in just 12 h. The pH changed from the initial 6.5 to 4.6 at the end of fermentation. The culture hydrolyzed fructooligosaccharides present in the Jerusalem artichoke juice, yielding fructose which was presumably consumed along with the malic acid as energy and carbon source. Lactic acid was the main metabolite produced in concentration of 4.6 g/L. Acetic and succinic acid were also identified. Sensory evaluation of the fermented Jerusalem artichoke juice and its mixtures with blueberry juice showed that the 50/50 % v/v mixture would be very well accepted by the consumers. Above 80 % of the panelists would buy this drink, and over 60 % were willing to pay more for it. Culture survivability in the fermented juices during storage at 4-7 °C was assayed by the Weibullian model. The product shelf-life was extended from 19.70 ± 0.50 days of pure Jerusalem artichoke juice to 35.7 ± 6.4 days of the mixture containing 30 % blueberry juice. PMID:26787997

  19. Characterization of some potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from Iranian native chickens.

    PubMed

    Aazami, Nazila; Salehi Jouzani, Gholamreza; Khodaei, Zohreh; Meimandipour, Amir; Safari, Mohammad; Goudarzvand, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to isolate, identify and characterize new LAB strains with high probiotic potentials from Iranian (Isfahan) indigenous chickens. From 90 isolated LABs, 11 isolates had high growth rate under different stress conditions, including acid (pH 2.5), bile (0.5% oxgall), salt (6-15%) and temperatures 15 and 45°C, and their aggregation time was less than 120 min. Based on the molecular identification using 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the isolates belonged to two Lactobacillus salivarius and L. reuteri species. The isolates showed different tolerance to 16 clinically and veterinary relevant antibiotics, and most of them were resistant to or semi-tolerant of 7-15 different studied antibiotics. The Es11, Es12, Es3 and Es13 strains with resistance to or semi-tolerance of 15, 14 and 13 different antibiotics, respectively, were the most tolerant strains. The selected isolates showed a wide range of antimicrobial activity against 7 different pathogenic strains. All the isolates exhibited antagonistic activity against E. coli, Enterococcus hirae, Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolates Es6 and Es11 with high antagonistic activity and resistance against 6 of the studied pathogens were the most powerful antagonistic isolates. The values and types of adhesion to the Caco-2 cell cultures were significantly different (0-40 bacteria/Caco-2 cell), and the maximum adhesion was observed for the isolates Es6 and Es13 with 35 and 40 bacteria adhesion/cell, respectively. Finally, based on all the experiments, 7 strains, including Es1, Es6, Es7, Es11, Es12 and Es13, were selected for the further in vivo assays and possible use in the poultry industry. PMID:25742971

  20. The effect of a commercial probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on oral health in healthy dentate people

    PubMed Central

    Sutula, Justyna; Coulthwaite, Lisa Ann; Thomas, Linda Valerie; Verran, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background In the past decade, the use of probiotic-containing products has been explored as a potential alternative in oral health therapy. A widely available probiotic drink, Yakult, was evaluated for oral health applications in this longitudinal study. Selected oral health parameters, such as levels and composition of salivary and tongue plaque microbiota and of malodorous gases, in dentate healthy individuals were investigated for changes. The persistence of the probiotic strain in the oral cavity was monitored throughout the study period. Methods A three-phase study (7 weeks) was designed to investigate simultaneously the effect of 4-week consumption of the probiotic-containing milk drink Yakult on the microbiota of saliva and dorsum tongue coating in healthy dentate people (n = 22) and levels of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) in morning breath. Study phases comprised one baseline visit, at which ‘control’ levels of oral parameters were obtained prior to the probiotic product consumption; a 4-week period of daily consumption of one 65 ml bottle of Yakult, each bottle containing a minimum of 6.5×109 viable cells of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS); and a 2-week washout period. The microbial viability and composition of saliva and tongue dorsum coating were assessed using a range of solid media. The presence of LcS in the oral cavity was investigated using a novel selective medium, ‘LcS Select’. Portable sulphur monitors Halimeter® and OralChromaTM were used to measure levels of VSCs in morning breath. Results Utilization of the LcS Select medium revealed a significant (p < 0.05) but temporary and consumption-dependent presence of LcS in saliva and tongue plaque samples from healthy dentate individuals (n = 19) during the probiotic intervention phase. LcS was undetectable with culture after 2 weeks of ceasing its consumption. Morning breath scores measured with Halimeter and OralChroma were not significantly affected throughout the trial

  1. Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

    2014-04-01

    A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

  2. Anti-Infective Activities of Lactobacillus Strains in the Human Intestinal Microbiota: from Probiotics to Gastrointestinal Anti-Infectious Biotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

  3. Screening of Probiotic Candidates in Human Oral Bacteria for the Prevention of Dental Disease

    PubMed Central

    Terai, Tomohiko; Okumura, Takekazu; Imai, Susumu; Nakao, Masumi; Yamaji, Kazuaki; Ito, Masahiko; Nagata, Tsuyoshi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Miyazaki, Kouji; Okada, Ayako; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity in healthy subjects has a well-balanced microbiota that consists of more than 700 species. However, a disturbance of this balance, with an increase of harmful microbes and a decrease of beneficial microbes, causes oral disorders such as periodontal disease or dental caries. Nowadays, probiotics are expected to confer oral health benefits by modulating the oral microbiota. This study screened new probiotic candidates with potential oral health benefits and no harmful effects on the oral cavity. We screened 14 lactobacillus strains and 36 streptococcus strains out of 896 oral isolates derived from healthy subjects. These bacteria did not produce volatile sulfur compounds or water-insoluble glucan, had higher antibacterial activity against periodontal bacteria, and had higher adherence activity to oral epithelial cells or salivary-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro. We then evaluated the risk of primary cariogenicity and infective endocarditis of the selected oral isolates. As a result, Lactobacillus crispatus YIT 12319, Lactobacillus fermentum YIT 12320, Lactobacillus gasseri YIT 12321, and Streptococcus mitis YIT 12322 were selected because they showed no cariogenic potential in an artificial mouth system and a lower risk of experimental infective endocarditis in a rat model. These candidates are expected as new probiotics with potential oral health benefits and no adverse effects on general health. PMID:26053410

  4. Screening of Probiotic Candidates in Human Oral Bacteria for the Prevention of Dental Disease.

    PubMed

    Terai, Tomohiko; Okumura, Takekazu; Imai, Susumu; Nakao, Masumi; Yamaji, Kazuaki; Ito, Masahiko; Nagata, Tsuyoshi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Miyazaki, Kouji; Okada, Ayako; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity in healthy subjects has a well-balanced microbiota that consists of more than 700 species. However, a disturbance of this balance, with an increase of harmful microbes and a decrease of beneficial microbes, causes oral disorders such as periodontal disease or dental caries. Nowadays, probiotics are expected to confer oral health benefits by modulating the oral microbiota. This study screened new probiotic candidates with potential oral health benefits and no harmful effects on the oral cavity. We screened 14 lactobacillus strains and 36 streptococcus strains out of 896 oral isolates derived from healthy subjects. These bacteria did not produce volatile sulfur compounds or water-insoluble glucan, had higher antibacterial activity against periodontal bacteria, and had higher adherence activity to oral epithelial cells or salivary-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro. We then evaluated the risk of primary cariogenicity and infective endocarditis of the selected oral isolates. As a result, Lactobacillus crispatus YIT 12319, Lactobacillus fermentum YIT 12320, Lactobacillus gasseri YIT 12321, and Streptococcus mitis YIT 12322 were selected because they showed no cariogenic potential in an artificial mouth system and a lower risk of experimental infective endocarditis in a rat model. These candidates are expected as new probiotics with potential oral health benefits and no adverse effects on general health. PMID:26053410

  5. Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus (Lacidofil® Cap) for the Prevention of Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin-Yong; Kim, Seong-Eun; Park, Hye-Sook; Jeong, Yoolwon; Hong, Sung Pil; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Won Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jong; Ye, Byong Duk; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Shin, Sung-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Sung, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Eun Young

    2010-01-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is a common complication of antibiotic use. There is growing interest in probiotics for the treatment of AAD and Clostridium difficile infection because of the wide availability of probiotics. The aim of this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was to assess the efficacy of probiotic Lactobacillus (Lacidofil® cap) for the prevention of AAD in adults. From September 2008 to November 2009, a total of 214 patients with respiratory tract infection who had begun receiving antibiotics were randomized to receive Lactobacillus (Lacidofil® cap) or placebo for 14 days. Patients recorded bowel frequency and stool consistency daily for 14 days. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who developed AAD within 14 days of enrollment. AAD developed in 4 (3.9%) of 103 patients in the Lactobacillus group and in 8 (7.2%) of 111 patients in the placebo group (P=0.44). However, the Lactobacillus group showed lower change in bowel frequency and consistency (50/103, 48.5%) than the placebo group (35/111, 31.5%) (P=0.01). Although the Lacidofil® cap does not reduce the rate of occurrence of AAD in adult patients with respiratory tract infection who have taken antibiotics, the Lactobacillus group maintains their bowel habits to a greater extent than the placebo group. PMID:21165295

  6. Dietary supplementation of milk fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum enhances systemic immune response and antioxidant capacity in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rohit; Kapila, Rajeev; Kapasiya, Meena; Saliganti, Vamshi; Dass, Gulshan; Kapila, Suman

    2014-11-01

    Although probiotics are known to enhance the host immune response, their roles in modulating immunosenescence, resisting infection, and improving redox homeostasis during aging remain unclear. Therefore, the present study was devised in aging mice to assess the antiimmunosenescence potential from the consumption of milk that is fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC 5898 (LF). We hypothesized that probiotic supplementation would boost immunity, improve antioxidant capacity, and resist severity of pathogenic infection in aging mice. To test this hypothesis, during a trial period of 2 months, 16-month-old male Swiss mice were kept on 3 experimental diets: basal diet (BD), BD supplemented with skim milk, and BD supplemented with probiotic LF-fermented milk. A concurrent analysis of several immunosenescence markers that include neutrophil functions, interleukins profile, inflammation and antibody responses in the intestine as well as analysis of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and red blood cells was performed. Neutrophil respiratory burst enzymes and phagocytosis increased significantly in probiotic LF-fed groups, whereas no exacerbation in plasma levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and tumor necrosis factor α was observed. Splenocytes registered increased interferon-γ but decreased interleukin 4 and interleukin 10 production, whereas humoral antibodies registered decreases in immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)/IgG2a ratio and IgE levels in the probiotic-fed groups. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) in LF-fed groups showed increased activities, which were more pronounced in the liver than in red blood cell. An Escherichia coli-based infection model in aging mice was also designed to validate the protective attributes of LF. Administration of probiotic LF significantly reduced E coli population in organs (intestine, liver, spleen, and peritoneal fluid), as compared with control groups, by enhancing E coli

  7. Inhibition of Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence to human epithelial cells in vitro by the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colonization of the nasopharynx by Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered a prerequisite for pneumococcal infections such as pneumonia and otitis media. Probiotic bacteria can influence disease outcomes through various mechanisms, including inhibition of pathogen colonization. Here, we examine the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on S. pneumoniae colonization of human epithelial cells using an in vitro model. We investigated the effects of LGG administered before, at the same time as, or after the addition of S. pneumoniae on the adherence of four pneumococcal isolates. Results LGG significantly inhibited the adherence of all the pneumococcal isolates tested. The magnitude of inhibition varied with LGG dose, time of administration, and the pneumococcal isolate used. Inhibition was most effective when a higher dose of LGG was administered prior to establishment of pneumococcal colonization. Mechanistic studies showed that LGG binds to epithelial cells but does not affect pneumococcal growth or viability. Administration of LGG did not lead to any significant changes in host cytokine responses. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that LGG can inhibit pneumococcal colonization of human epithelial cells in vitro and suggest that probiotics could be used clinically to prevent the establishment of pneumococcal carriage. PMID:23561014

  8. Influence of manufacturing processes on in vitro properties of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35®.

    PubMed

    Nivoliez, Adrien; Camares, Olivier; Paquet-Gachinat, Marylise; Bornes, Stéphanie; Forestier, Christiane; Veisseire, Philippe

    2012-08-31

    Probiotics are administered as complex manufactured products and yet most studies on probiotic bacterial strains have been performed with native culture strains. Little is known about the influence of industrial processes on the properties of the microorganisms. In this study, we comparatively assessed the characteristics of the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Lcr35(®)) together with four of its commercial formulations, including three intestinal formulas (BACILOR with Lcr Restituo(®) packet and capsule and FLOREA Lcr Lenio(®)) and one vaginal formula (GYNOPHILUS Lcr Regenerans(®)). Lcr35(®) grown from the intestinal formulas displayed increased resistance to acidic pH and bile stress, especially FLOREA (Lcr Lenio(®)), which showed a 4.5log higher number of viable bacteria compared to the results obtained with the control native Lcr35(®) strain. Adhesion to intestinal cells was significantly higher with Lcr Restituo(®) packet and Lcr Restituo(®) capsule vs Lcr35(®). Bacteria from the vaginal formulation GYNOPHILUS had increased ability to metabolize glycogen thereby increasing lactic acid production. In vitro growth inhibition of the pathogen Candida albicans was significantly higher with bacteria from the vaginal formulation (4.5 log difference) and in the presence of vaginal epithelial cells than with the native strain. Our results show that the manufacturing process influences strain properties and should therefore be adapted according to the strain and the therapeutic indication. PMID:22542933

  9. Free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter cultures for probiotic Feta-type cheese production.

    PubMed

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Marianthi; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2014-01-01

    The use of free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter culture in probiotic Feta-type cheese production was evaluated. The probiotic cultures resulted in significantly higher acidity; lower pH; reduced counts of coliforms, enterobacteria, and staphylococci; and improved quality characteristics compared with cheese with no culture. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis showed that both free and immobilized L. casei ATCC 393 were detected in the novel products at levels required for conferring a probiotic effect at the end of the ripening. The effect of starter culture on production of volatile compounds was investigated by the solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis technique. The immobilized cells resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds and the overall high quality of the novel products was ascertained by the preliminary sensory test. Finally, the high added value produced by exploitation of whey, which is an extremely polluting industrial waste, was highlighted and assessed. PMID:24931523

  10. Probiotic Ferulic Acid Esterase Active Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 APA Microcapsules for Oral Delivery: Preparation and in Vitro Characterization.

    PubMed

    Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Coussa-Charley, Michael; Kahouli, Imen; Jones, Mitchell L; Labbé, Alain; Prakash, Satya

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics possess potential therapeutic and preventative effects for various diseases and metabolic disorders. One important limitation for the oral delivery of probiotics is the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) which challenge bacterial viability and activity. One proposed method to surpass this obstacle is the use of microencapsulation to improve the delivery of bacterial cells to the lower GIT. The aim of this study is to use alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microcapsules to encapsulate Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 and characterize its enzymatic activity and viability through a simulated GIT. This specific strain, in previous research, was characterized for its inherent ferulic acid esterase (FAE) activity which could prove beneficial in the development of a therapeutic for the treatment and prevention of cancers and metabolic disorders. Our findings demonstrate that the APA microcapsule does not slow the mass transfer of substrate into and that of the FA product out of the microcapsule, while also not impairing bacterial cell viability. The use of simulated gastrointestinal conditions led to a significant 2.5 log difference in viability between the free (1.10 × 104 ± 1.00 × 103 cfu/mL) and the microencapsulated (5.50 × 106 ± 1.00 × 105 cfu/mL) L. fermentum NCIMB 5221 following exposure. The work presented here suggests that APA microencapsulation can be used as an effective oral delivery method for L. fermentum NCIMB 5221, a FAE-active probiotic strain. PMID:24288090

  11. The TRPV1 channel in rodents is a major target for antinociceptive effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938.

    PubMed

    Perez-Burgos, Azucena; Wang, Lu; McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Mao, Yu-Kang; Ahmadzai, Mustafa; Janssen, Luke J; Stanisz, Andrew M; Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang A

    2015-09-01

    Certain probiotic bacteria have been shown to reduce distension-dependent gut pain, but the mechanisms involved remain obscure. Live luminal Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938) and its conditioned medium dose dependently reduced jejunal spinal nerve firing evoked by distension or capsaicin, and 80% of this response was blocked by a specific TRPV1 channel antagonist or in TRPV1 knockout mice. The specificity of DSM action on TRPV1 was further confirmed by its inhibition of capsaicin-induced intracellular calcium increases in dorsal root ganglion neurons. Another lactobacillus with ability to reduce gut pain did not modify this response. Prior feeding of rats with DSM inhibited the bradycardia induced by painful gastric distension. These results offer a system for the screening of new and improved candidate bacteria that may be useful as novel therapeutic adjuncts in gut pain. Certain bacteria exert visceral antinociceptive activity, but the mechanisms involved are not determined. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 was examined since it may be antinociceptive in children. Since transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel activity may mediate nociceptive signals, we hypothesized that TRPV1 current is inhibited by DSM. We tested this by examining the effect of DSM on the firing frequency of spinal nerve fibres in murine jejunal mesenteric nerve bundles following serosal application of capsaicin. We also measured the effects of DSM on capsaicin-evoked increase in intracellular Ca(2+) or ionic current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Furthermore, we tested the in vivo antinociceptive effects of oral DSM on gastric distension in rats. Live DSM reduced the response of capsaicin- and distension-evoked firing of spinal nerve action potentials (238 ± 27.5% vs. 129 ± 17%). DSM also reduced the capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 ionic current in DRG neuronal primary culture from 83 ± 11% to 41 ± 8% of the initial response to capsaicin only. Another lactobacillus

  12. Immunomodulatory activity and control of Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in the intestinal tract of chickens by Lactobacillus based probiotic.

    PubMed

    Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; Díaz, Silvia Juliana Acelas; Fernando, Filipe Santos; Chang, Yung-Fu; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio; Berchieri Junior, Angelo

    2015-09-15

    Lactobacillus-based probiotics (LBP) are used as competitive exclusion to control pathogenic enterobacterial infections and improve the weight gain in broiler chickens. This study assessed the inhibition of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infection in one-week-old broiler chicks, using an experimental LBP containing four Lactobacillus strains isolated from chickens (L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. reuteri, L. salivarius). The immunomodulatory effects of this treatment were evaluated, through the analysis of cytokines and influx of macrophages, γδ, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the gut. The intestinal colonization by SE was reduced by 1.8 CFU/g (log10) in chicks treated with LBP (p<0.05). The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, LITAF) were significantly reduced in treated chicks (p<0.05), whilst untreated chicks showed elevated inflammatory stimulus and an increased population of CD8(+) T cells in the intestinal mucosa after challenge (p<0.05). Additionally, the LBP stimulated TLR2 expression in caecal tonsils. The adjuvant property of the Lactobacillus cell wall (LCW) was evaluated, demonstrating good capability to stimulate T helper 2 (Th2) cell proliferation. Pretreatment of chicks with LBP decreased the intestinal colonization by SE, minimizing the tissue lesions and inflammation after challenge and showed a potential use as adjuvant with injectable killed vaccines. PMID:26099807

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of Swine-Derived Lactobacillus reuteri: Probiotic Properties and Effects on Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells Challenged with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhilin; Wang, Li; Chen, Zhuang; Ma, Xianyong; Yang, Xuefen; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-06-28

    Probiotics are considered as the best effective alternatives to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic potential of lactobacilli for use in swine farming by using in vitro evaluation methods. A total of 106 lactic acid bacterial isolates, originating from porcine feces, were first screened for the capacity to survive stresses considered important for putative probiotic strains. Sixteen isolates showed notable acid and bile resistance, antibacterial activity, and adherence to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). One isolate, LR1, identified as Lactobacillus reuteri, was selected for extensive study of its probiotic and functional properties in IPEC-1 cell models. L. reuteri LR1 exhibited good adhesion to IPEC-1 cells and could inhibit the adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to IPEC-1 cells. L. reuteri LR1 could also modulate transcript and protein expression of cytokines involved in inflammation in IPEC-1 cells; the Lactobacillus strain inhibited the ETEC-induced expression of proinflammatory transcripts (IL-6 and TNF-α) and protein (IL-6), and increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). Measurement of the permeation of FD-4 showed that L. reuteri LR1 could maintain barrier integrity in monolayer IPEC-1 cells exposed to ETEC. Immunolocalization experiments showed L. reuteri LR1 could also prevent ETEC-induced tight junction ZO-1 disruption. Together, these results indicate that L. reuteri LR1 exhibits desirable probiotic properties and could be a potential probiotic for use in swine production. PMID:26907754

  14. Exploring metabolic pathway reconstruction and genome-wide expression profiling in Lactobacillus reuteri to define functional probiotic features.

    PubMed

    Saulnier, Delphine M; Santos, Filipe; Roos, Stefan; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Spinler, Jennifer K; Molenaar, Douwe; Teusink, Bas; Versalovic, James

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to differ with respect to antimicrobial production, biofilm formation, and immunomodulation. To explain possible mechanisms of survival in the host and probiosis, we completed a detailed genomic comparison of two breast milk-derived isolates representative of each group: an established probiotic strain (L. reuteri ATCC 55730) and a strain with promising probiotic features (L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475). Transcriptomes of L. reuteri strains in different growth phases were monitored using strain-specific microarrays, and compared using a pan-metabolic model representing all known metabolic reactions present in these strains. Both strains contained candidate genes involved in the survival and persistence in the gut such as mucus-binding proteins and enzymes scavenging reactive oxygen species. A large operon predicted to encode the synthesis of an exopolysaccharide was identified in strain 55730. Both strains were predicted to produce health-promoting factors, including antimicrobial agents and vitamins (folate, vitamin B(12)). Additionally, a complete pathway for thiamine biosynthesis was predicted in strain 55730 for the first time in this species. Candidate genes responsible for immunomodulatory properties of each strain were identified by transcriptomic comparisons. The production of bioactive metabolites by human-derived probiotics may be predicted using metabolic modeling and transcriptomics. Such strategies may facilitate selection and optimization of probiotics for health promotion, disease prevention and amelioration. PMID:21559529

  15. Oral Administration of the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Ameliorates Gut Morphology and Physiology in Malnourished-Giardia intestinalis-Infected BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Geeta; Singh, Sumedha; Verma, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition reduces the host immunity and enhances the host susceptibility to various diseases. The present study describes the effect of oral administration of probiotic Lactobacillus casei to malnourished-Giardia-infected BALB/c mice with respect to surface alterations and brush border membrane enzyme activity of the small intestine. It was observed that probiotic feeding either prior to or simultaneously with Giardia infection to malnourished mice led to significantly enhanced activity of disaccharidases compared with malnourished and Giardia-infected mice. Scanning electron microscopy also revealed less mucosal damage in the villi of small intestine of probiotic-fed malnourished-Giardia-infected mice compared with completely damaged, mummified, or blunted villi of malnourished-Giardia-infected mice. The findings indicate that probiotics can be used as the prophylactic candidate in abrogating the gut and intestinal dissacharidases anamolies in malnourished hosts suffering from the intestinal diseases. PMID:27335861

  16. [Probiotics].

    PubMed

    Capurso, Lucio

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the currently available literature, which includes well-designed clinical trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, certain effects can be ascribed to probiotics as a general class. It is accepted that sufficient evidence has accumulated to support the concept of benefits of certain probiotics; it is reasonable to expect that evidence gained from a defined class of live microbes might be appropriate for certain, but not all, health outcomes. Moreover there is a need for clear communication to consumers and health-care providers of the activity of differentiate probiotic products. PMID:27362718

  17. Lactobacillus

    MedlinePlus

    ... stomach ulcers. Treating diarrhea caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile.Vaginal yeast infections after taking antibiotics. There is ... been used. For treating recurrent diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile: 1.25 billion live Lactobacillus GG in two ...

  18. Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum Lp27 isolated from Tibetan kefir grains: a potential probiotic bacterium with cholesterol-lowering effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Wu, Fei; Wang, Xiaojun; Sui, Yujie; Yang, Longfei; Wang, Jinfeng

    2013-05-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum Lp27 was isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. The Lp27 isolate survived a 3-h incubation at pH 2.0 and grew normally in 0.3% oxgall. In addition, the Lp27 isolate exhibited an adhesion ratio of 9.5 ± 2.5% with Caco-2 cells. Antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that the Lp27 isolate was sensitive to gentamicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol, and was resistant to vancomycin with a minimum inhibitory value of 23µg/mL. The Lp27 isolate inhibited cholesterol absorption through downregulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) expression in Caco-2 cells. The Lp27 isolate was fed to hypercholesterolemic rats at a dose of 10(9) cfu/d for 4wk. The Lp27 feeding significantly lowered serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations, but no change was observed in the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. In addition, liver total cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased in the Lp27-fed group. The expression of NPC1L1 in the duodenum and jejunum was significantly decreased following Lp27 feeding. These results indicate that Lp27 might be an effective cholesterol-lowering probiotic and a possible mechanism for the cholesterol-reducing effects of probiotics. PMID:23498003

  19. Postbiotic Modulation of Retinoic Acid Imprinted Mucosal-like Dendritic Cells by Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri 17938 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Haileselassie, Yeneneh; Navis, Marit; Vu, Nam; Qazi, Khaleda Rahman; Rethi, Bence; Sverremark-Ekström, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli are widely used as probiotics with beneficial effects on infection-associated diarrhea, but also used in clinical trials of e.g., necrotizing enterocolitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. The possibility of using probiotic metabolic products, so-called postbiotics, is desirable as it could prevent possible side effects of live bacteria in individuals with a disturbed gut epithelial barrier. Here, we studied how Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 cell-free supernatant (L. reuteri-CFS) influenced retinoic acid (RA)-driven mucosal-like dendritic cells (DC) and their subsequent effect on T regulatory cells (Treg) in vitro. RA clearly imprinted a mucosal-like DC phenotype with higher IL10 production, increased CD103 and CD1d expression, and a downregulated mRNA expression of several inflammatory-associated genes (NFκB1, RELB, and TNF). Treatment with L. reuteri-CFS further influenced the tolerogenic phenotype of RA-DC by downregulating most genes involved in antigen uptake, antigen presentation, and signal transduction as well as several chemokine receptors, while upregulating IL10 production. L. reuteri-CFS also augmented CCR7 expression on RA-DC. In cocultures, RA-DC increased IL10 and FOXP3 expression in Treg, but pre-treatment with L. reuteri-CFS did not further influence the Treg phenotype. In conclusion, L. reuteri-CFS modulates the phenotype and function of mucosal-like DC, implicating its potential application as postbiotic. PMID:27014275

  20. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 Isolated from Batter of Dosa, a South Indian Fermented Food.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 was isolated from dosa batter and identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species level identification was done by 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing. The probiotic potential of strain LD1 was assessed by different standard parameters. Cell surface hydrophobicity was recorded to be 62% with SAT value <0.007 M. Seventy-eight percent of viable count was found after treatment with simulated gastric juice containing pepsin (pH 2.0). Bile salt tolerance and bile salt hydrolase activity were also demonstrated by strain LD1. The culture supernatant was able to inhibit food-borne as well as clinical pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, urogenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio sp. Strain LD1 was found to be sensitive to most of the antibiotics used in the study. Since strain has been isolated from food source that is most typical of Southern India, it would be safe for further consumption in probiotic products. PMID:24676724

  1. Antigenotoxic and Antimutagenic Activities of Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus Vc against N-Methyl-N'-Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine.

    PubMed

    Pithva, Sheetal P; Ambalam, Padma S; Ramoliya, Jignesh M; Dave, Jayantilal M; Vyas, Bharatkumar Rajiv Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides experimental evidence of in vivo reduction of genotoxic and mutagenic activities of potent carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) by the strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Vc. In vitro studies revealed that coincubation of MNNG with viable cells of L. rhamnosus Vc resulted in the detoxification of the parent compound accompanied with reduction in genotoxicity (69%) and mutagenicity (61%) as evaluated by SOS-Chromotest and Ames test, respectively. Oral feeding of probiotic bacteria L. rhamnosus Vc (10(9) cfu) to Gallus gallus (chicks) for 30 days provided protection against MNNG-induced damage as evidenced from the significant decrease (P = 0.009) in glutathione S-transferase activity in the L. rhamnosus Vc+MNNG-treated chicks in comparison to the MNNG-treated chicks. Histopathology of colon and liver showed intact cells and mild inflammation in the L. rhamnosus Vc+MNNG-treated chicks, whereas heavy inflammation and degenerative changes were observed in MNNG-treated chicks. The results indicate that the probiotic L. rhamnosus Vc provided in vivo protection against MNNG-induced colon damage by detoxification of MNNG to less toxic metabolites. PMID:26312410

  2. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum LZ227, a potential probiotic strain producing B-group vitamins.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhou, Qingqing; Gu, Qing

    2016-09-20

    B-group vitamins play an important role in human metabolism, whose deficiencies are associated with a variety of disorders and diseases. Certain microorganisms such as Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to have capacities for B-group vitamin production and thus could potentially replace chemically synthesized vitamins for food fortification. A potential probiotic strain named Lactobacillus plantarum LZ227, which was isolated from raw cow milk in this study, exhibits the ability to produce B-group vitamins. Complete genome sequencing of LZ227 was performed to gain insights into the genetic elements involved in B-group vitamin production. The genome of LZ227 contains a circular 3,131,750-bp chromosome, three circular plasmids and two predicted linear plasmids. LZ227 also contains gene clusters for biosynthesis of both riboflavin and folate. This genome sequence provides a basis for further elucidation of its molecular genetics and probiotic functions, and will facilitate its applications as starter cultures in food industry. PMID:27480344

  3. Molecular characterisation and biomass and metabolite production of Lactobacillus reuteri LPB P01–001: A potential probiotic

    PubMed Central

    Pancheniak, Elizete de F. R.; Maziero, Maike T.; Rodriguez-León, José A.; Parada, José L.; Spier, Michele R.; Soccol, Carlos R.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri LPB P01–001 was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of wild swine and was characterised by biochemical testing and sequencing of gene 16S rRNA. A simple and low-cost culture medium based on cane sugar (2.5% p/v) and yeast extract (1% p/v) was used in the production of this probiotic. The fermentative conditions were a) pH control at 6.5 and b) no pH control; both were set at 37°C in a 12 L slightly stirred tank bioreactor. Fermentation parameters such as the specific growth rate, productivity and yield of biomass, lactic and acetic acid levels were determined. L. reuteri LPB P01–001 behaves as an aciduric bacteria because it grows better in a low pH medium without pH control. However, the lactic acid production yield was practically half (9.22 g.L-1) of that obtained under a constant pH of 6.5, which reached 30.5 g.L-1 after 28 hours of fermentation. The acetic acid production was also higher under pH-controlled fermentation, reaching 10.09 g.L-1after 28 hours of fermentation. These parameters may raise the interest of those committed to the efficient production of a probiotic agent for swine. PMID:24031812

  4. Effects of a Lactobacillus salivarius probiotic intervention on infection, cold symptom duration and severity, and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael; Bishop, Nicolette C; Oliveira, Marta; McCauley, Tracey; Tauler, Pedro; Lawrence, Claire

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a probiotic supplement during 4 mo of spring training in men and women engaged in endurance-based physical activities on incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and mucosal immune markers. Sixty-six highly active individuals were randomized to probiotic (n = 33) or placebo (n = 33) groups and, under double-blind procedures, received probiotic (PRO: Lactobacillus salivarius, 2 × 1010 bacterium colony-forming units) or placebo (PLA) daily for 16 wk. Resting blood and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 8 and 16 wk. Weekly training and illness logs were kept. Fifty-four subjects completed the study (n = 27 PRO, n = 27 PLA). The proportion of subjects on PRO who experienced 1 or more wk with URTI symptoms was not different from that of those on PLA (PRO .58, PLA .59; p = .947). The number of URTI episodes was similar in the 2 groups (PRO 1.6 ± 0.3, PLA 1.4 ± 0.3; p = .710). Severity and duration of symptoms were not significantly different between treatments. Blood leukocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts; saliva IgA; and lysozyme concentrations did not change over the course of the study and were not different on PRO compared with PLA. Regular ingestion of L. salivarius does not appear to be beneficial in reducing the frequency of URTI in an athletic cohort and does not affect blood leukocyte counts or levels of salivary antimicrobial proteins during a spring period of training and competition. PMID:22645171

  5. Comparative evaluation of yogurt and low-fat cheddar cheese as delivery media for probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Sharp, M D; McMahon, D J; Broadbent, J R

    2008-09-01

    This study used Lactobacillus casei 334e, an erythromycin-resistant derivative of ATCC 334, as a model to evaluate viability and acid resistance of probiotic L. casei in low-fat Cheddar cheese and yogurt. Cheese and yogurt were made by standard methods and the probiotic L. casei adjunct was added at approximately 10(7) CFU/g with the starter cultures. Low-fat cheese and yogurt samples were stored at 8 and 2 degrees C, respectively, and numbers of the L. casei adjunct were periodically determined by plating on MRS agar that contained 5 microg/mL of erythromycin. L. casei 334e counts in cheese and yogurt remained at 10(7) CFU/g over 3 mo and 3 wk, respectively, indicating good survival in both products. Acid challenge studies in 8.7 mM phosphoric acid (pH 2) at 37 degrees C showed numbers of L. casei 334e in yogurt dropped from 10(7) CFU/g to less than 10(1) CFU/g after 30 min, while counts in cheese samples dropped from 10(7) CFU/g to about 10(5) after 30 min, and remained near 10(4) CFU/g after 120 min. As a whole, these data showed that low-fat Cheddar cheese is a viable delivery food for probiotic L. casei because it allowed for good survival during storage and helped protect cells against the very low pH that will be encountered during stomach transit. PMID:18803722

  6. Biopreservation by Lactobacillus paracasei in coculture with Streptococcus thermophilus in potentially probiotic and synbiotic fresh cream cheeses.

    PubMed

    Buriti, Flávia C A; Cardarelli, Haíssa R; Saad, Susana M I

    2007-01-01

    The viability of Lactobacillus paracasei and its effect on growth of the microbiota in potentially probiotic and synbiotic fresh cheeses during storage at 4 +/- 1 degree C was investigated. Three cheese-making trials (T1, T2, and T3) were prepared in quadruplicate, all supplemented with a Streptococcus thermophilus culture. L. paracasei subsp. paracasei was added to cheeses in T1 and T2, and inulin was added to cheeses in T2. Counts of L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., DNase-positive Staphylococcus, and yeasts and molds were monitored during storage for up to 21 days. Viable counts of L. paracasei in probiotic (T1) and synbiotic (T2) cheeses remained above 7 log CFU/g during the entire storage period, whereas counts of S. thermophilus remained above 9.5 log CFU/g for cheeses from TI, T2, and T3. Populations of coliforms, Staphylococcus spp., and DNase-positive Staphylococcus were higher in T3 cheese and differed significantly from those in cheeses from T1 and T2 (P < 0.05). Inhibition of contaminants prevailed when both L. paracasei and S. thermophilus were present in fresh cream cheese and probably was due to acid production by both strains; bacteriocin production was not found. Addition of inulin in T2 did not impact microbial viability (P > 0.05). L. paracasei subsp. paracasei in coculture with S. thermophilus was inhibitory against microbial contaminants in fresh cream cheese with or without the addition of inulin, indicating the potential use of this combination in a probiotic and synbiotic product. PMID:17265887

  7. The Probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 Produces High-Molecular-Mass Inulin from Sucrose by Using an Inulosucrase Enzyme▿

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Munir A.; Kralj, Slavko; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2008-01-01

    Fructansucrase enzymes polymerize the fructose moiety of sucrose into levan or inulin fructans, with β(2-6) and β(2-1) linkages, respectively. The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii strain NCC 533 possesses a single fructansucrase gene (open reading frame AAS08734) annotated as a putative levansucrase precursor. However, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the fructan product synthesized in situ revealed that this is of the inulin type. The ftf gene of L. johnsonii was cloned and expressed to elucidate its exact identity. The purified L. johnsonii protein was characterized as an inulosucrase enzyme, producing inulin from sucrose, as identified by 13C NMR analysis. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the reaction products showed that InuJ synthesized, besides the inulin polymer, a broad range of fructose oligosaccharides. Maximum InuJ enzyme activity was observed in a pH range of 4.5 to 7.0, decreasing sharply at pH 7.5. InuJ exhibited the highest enzyme activity at 55°C, with a drastic decrease at 60°C. Calcium ions were found to have an important effect on enzyme activity and stability. Kinetic analysis showed that the transfructosylation reaction of the InuJ enzyme does not obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The non-Michaelian behavior of InuJ may be attributed to the oligosaccharides that were initially formed in the reaction and which may act as better acceptors than the growing polymer chain. This is only the second example of the isolation and characterization of an inulosucrase enzyme and its inulin (oligosaccharide) product from a Lactobacillus strain. Furthermore, this is the first Lactobacillus strain shown to produce inulin polymer in situ. PMID:18408060

  8. Yogurt containing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 helps resolve moderate diarrhea and increases CD4 count in HIV/AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Anukam, Kingsley C; Osazuwa, Emanual O; Osadolor, Humphrey B; Bruce, Andrew W; Reid, Gregor

    2008-03-01

    HIV/AIDS is changing the human landscape in sub-Saharan Africa. Relatively few patients receive antiretroviral therapy, and many suffer from debilitating diarrhea that affects their quality of life. Given the track record of probiotics to alleviate diarrhea, conventional yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbruekii var bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus was supplemented with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14. Twenty-four HIV/AIDS adult female patients (18 to 44 y) with clinical signs of moderate diarrhea, CD4 counts over 200, and not receiving antiretrovirals or dietary supplements, consumed either 100 mL supplemented or unsupplemented yogurt per day for 15 days. Hematologic profiles, CD4 cell counts, and quality of life was evaluated at baseline, 15 and 30 days postprobiotic-yogurt feeding. There was no significant alteration in the hematologic parameters of both groups before and after the probiotic-yogurt feeding. The probiotic yogurt group at baseline, 15 and 30 days had a mean WBC count of 5.8+/-0.76 x 10(9)/L, 6.0+/-1.02 x 10(9)/L, and 5.4+/-0.14 x 10(9)/L, respectively. However, the mean CD4 cell count remained the same or increased at 15 and 30 days in 11/12 probiotic-treated subjects compared to 3/12 in the control. Diarrhea, flatulence, and nausea resolved in 12/12 probiotic-treated subjects within 2 days, compared to 2/12 receiving yogurt for 15 days. This is the first study to show the benefits of probiotic yogurt on quality of life of women in Nigeria with HIV/AIDS, and suggests that perhaps a simple fermented food can provide some relief in the management of the AIDS epidemic in Africa. PMID:18223503

  9. Characterization of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the feces of breast-feeding piglets.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il Jae; Lee, Nam Keun; Hahm, Young Tae

    2009-09-01

    Lactobacillus spp., referred to as IJ-1 and IJ-2, were isolated from the feces of breast-feeding piglets and analyzed for probiotic properties. According to the analyses of 16S rDNA sequence, Lactobacillus sp. IJ-1 showed greater than 99% homology with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016(T), and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-2 had greater than 99% homology with the L. gasseri ATCC 33323(T) and L. johnsonii ATCC 33200(T). The pH changes in the culture media of Lactobacillus sp. IJ-1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-2 were from 6.5 to 4.2 and 4.6, respectively. Their respective resistance against artificial gastric acid and artificial bile acid led to survival rates of nearly 186+/-44% and 13+/-5%. Neither strain produced the carcinogenic enzyme beta-glucuronidase. Both strains inhibited the growth of pathogenic microorganisms, such as Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Salmonella enterica KCTC 12401, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Staphylococcus aureus KCTC 3881, and Bacillus cereus 3711, within 24 h of growth. PMID:19664551

  10. The effects of combined dietary probiotics Lactococcus lactis BFE920 and Lactobacillus plantarum FGL0001 on innate immunity and disease resistance in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Beck, Bo Ram; Kim, Daniel; Jeon, Jongsu; Lee, Sun-Min; Kim, Hui Kwon; Kim, Oi-Jin; Lee, Jae Il; Suh, Byung Sun; Do, Hyung Ki; Lee, Kwan Hee; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun Gyeong; Song, Seong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a dietary probiotic mixture containing Lactococcus (Lc.) lactis BFE920 isolated from bean sprout and autochthonous Lactobacillus (Lb.) plantarum FGL0001 originally isolated from the hindgut of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were investigated for the purpose of improving the probiotic effects of Lc. lactis BFE920 on the olive flounder. The immunostimulatory, disease protective, and weight gain effects of Lc. lactis BFE920 were significantly improved when olive flounder (average weight 37.5±1.26 g) were fed the probiotic mixture (log10 7.0 CFU each/g feed pellet) for 30 days. Flounder fed the mixture showed improved skin mucus lysozyme activity and phagocytic activity of innate immune cells compared to flounder fed a single probiotic agent or a control diet. While the levels of neutrophil activity in flounder fed the single probiotic agent or the mixture were similar, they were significantly higher than levels in a control group. Additionally, probiotic-fed flounder showed significantly increased expressions of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in the intestine compared to the control group. Following a 30-day period of being fed probiotics or a control diet, the olive flounder were challenged with an i.p. injection of Streptococcus iniae (log10 6.0 CFU/fish). The groups fed the mixed probiotics, Lc. lactis BFE920, Lb. plantarum FGL0001, and the control diet had survival rates of 55%, 45%, 35%, and 20%, respectively. Flounder fed the probiotic mixture gained 38.1±2.8% more body weight compared to flounder fed the control diet during the 30-day study period. These data strongly suggest that a mixture of Lc. lactis BFE920 and Lb. plantarum FGL0001 may serve as an immunostimulating feed additive useful for disease protection in the fish farming industry. PMID:25449382

  11. Blueberry Husks and Probiotics Attenuate Colorectal Inflammation and Oncogenesis, and Liver Injuries in Rats Exposed to Cycling DSS-Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, Åsa; Bränning, Camilla; Molin, Göran; Adawi, Diya; Hagslätt, Marie-Louise; Jeppsson, Bengt; Nyman, Margareta; Ahrné, Siv

    2012-01-01

    Long-term colonic inflammation promotes carcinogenesis and histological abnormalities of the liver, and colorectal tumours frequently arise in a background of dysplasia, a precursor of adenomas. Altered colonic microbiota with an increased proportion of bacteria with pro-inflammatory characteristics, have been implicated in neoplastic progression. The composition of the microbiota can be modified by dietary components such as probiotics, polyphenols and dietary fibres. In the present study, the influence of probiotics in combination with blueberry husks on colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent liver damage was evaluated. Colorectal tumours were induced in rats by cyclic treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Blueberry husks and a mixture of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 15159, Lactobacillus gasseri, DSM 16737 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313) supplemented a basic diet fortified with oats. The condition of the rats was monitored using a disease activity index (DAI). A qualitative and quantitative histological judgement was performed on segments of distal colon and rectum and the caudate lobe of the liver. The formation of short-chain fatty acids, bacterial translocation, the inflammatory reaction and viable count of lactobacilli and Enterobaceriaceae were addressed. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics significantly decreased DAI, and significantly reduced the number of colonic ulcers and dysplastic lesions. With a decreased proportion of blueberry husk in the diet, the probiotic supplement was needed to achieve a significant decrease in numbers of dysplastic lesions. Probiotics decreased faecal viable count of Enterobacteriaceae and increased that of lactobacilli. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics lowered the proportion of butyric acid in distal colon, and decreased the haptoglobin levels. Probiotics mitigated hepatic injuries by decreasing parenchymal infiltration and the incidence of stasis and translocation

  12. Effects of prebiotics, probiotics, and their combination on growth performance, small intestine morphology, and resident Lactobacillus of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Farnell, Y Z; Peebles, E D; Kiess, A S; Wamsley, K G S; Zhai, W

    2016-06-01

    Effects of commercial antimicrobials and the individual and combinational use of commercial prebiotics and probiotics in feed from d zero to 41 on the growth performance, small intestine size, jejunal morphology, and ileal resident bacteria population of broiler chickens were determined. A total of 1,040 one-day-old male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were randomly distributed to 80 floor pens (5 treatments, 16 replications per treatment, 13 chicks per pen). Five dietary treatments were employed: 1) a corn soybean-meal basal diet (served as a negative control diet, NC); 2) a basal diet supplemented with a commercial prebiotic product (Pre); 3) a basal diet supplemented with a probiotic product containing Bacillus subtilis spores (Pro); 4) a basal diet supplemented with both prebiotic and probiotic products (Pre + Pro); and 5) a basal diet supplemented with commercial antimicrobials (served as a positive control diet, PC). At d 14, Pre diets improved the relative level of Lactobacillus in ileal mucosa as compared to NC, Pro, or PC diets (P = 0.045) without improving broiler BW. Broilers fed PC diets exhibited the highest BW gain from d 15 to 27, the lowest duodenum, jejunum, and ileum relative weights as percentage of BW at d 27, and the highest breast weight at d 42 (P = 0.026, 0.035, 0.002, 0.025, and 0.035, respectively). Broilers fed Pro or Pre + Pro diets exhibited higher BW gain from d 28 to 41 (P = 0.005) and higher overall BW gain from d zero to 41 (P = 0.039) than those fed other diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunal morphology or ileal resident Escherichia coli level at any age. From our results, including spores of Bacillus subtilis in feed may stimulate growth at a later age and may facilitate broilers in reaching their target weight sooner. Therefore, probiotics are recommended as potential alternatives to antimicrobials in chicken diets, especially in grower and finisher feed. PMID:26944975

  13. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pyoung Il; Jung, Min Young; Chang, Young-Hyo; Kim, Saehun; Kim, Seong-Jae; Park, Yong-Ha

    2007-04-01

    One strain of Lactobacillus salivarius, two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus amylovorus, and two strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum with antagonistic effect against Clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract. Isolates were assayed for their ability to survive in synthetic gastric juice at pH 2.5 and were examined for their ability to grow on agar plate containing porcine bile extract. There was a large variation in the survival of the isolates in gastric juice and growth in the medium containing 0.3% (w/v) bile. L. salivarius G11 and L. amylovorus S6 adhered to the HT-29 epithelial cell line. Cell-free supernatant of L. amylovorus S6 showed higher antagonistic activity as effective as the antibiotics such as neomycin, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline against bacterial pathogens including C. perfringens, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Edwardsiella tarda, and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:17136367

  14. Effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran on growth and cell viability of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their combination SYNBIO®, in synbiotic fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Silvi, Stefania; Vasile, Aida; Bahrim, Gabriela Elena; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    Fermented foods have a great significance since they provide and preserve large quantities of nutritious foods in a wide diversity of flavors, aromas and texture, which enrich the human diet. Originally fermented milks were developed as a means of preserving nutrients and are the most representatives of the category. The first aim of this study was to screen the effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran as prebiotics on the production of probiotic fiber-enriched fermented milks, by investigating the kinetics of acidification of buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented milk fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their 1:1 combination named SYNBIO®. The probiotic strains viability, pH and sensory characteristics of the fermented fiber-enriched milk products, stored at 4 °C for 28 days were also monitored. The results showed that supplementation of whole milk with the tested probiotic strains and the two vegetable substrates results in a significant faster lowering of the pH. Also, the stability of L. rhamnosus IMC 501®, L. paracasei IMC 502® and SYNBIO® during storage at 4 °C for 28 days in buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented samples was remarkably enhanced. The second aim of the study was to develop a new synbiotic product using the best combination of probiotics and prebiotics by promoting better growth and survival and be acceptable to the consumers with high concentration of probiotic strain. This new product was used to conduct a human feeding trial to validate the fermented milk as a carrier for transporting bacterial cells into the human gastrointestinal tract. The probiotic strains were recovered from fecal samples in 40 out of 40 volunteers fed for 4 weeks one portion per day of synbiotic fermented milk carrying about 10(9) viable cells. PMID:24140807

  15. Lactobacillus species as biomarkers and agents that can promote various aspects of vaginal health

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Mariya I.; Lievens, Elke; Malik, Shweta; Imholz, Nicole; Lebeer, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively referred to as the human microbiota. One of the main microbiota body sites is the female genital tract, commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp., in approximately 70% of women. Each individual species can constitute approximately 99% of the ribotypes observed in any individual woman. The most frequently isolated species are Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus iners. Residing at the port of entry of bacterial and viral pathogens, the vaginal Lactobacillus species can create a barrier against pathogen invasion since mainly products of their metabolism secreted in the cervicovaginal fluid can play an important role in the inhibition of bacterial and viral infections. Therefore, a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota appears to be a good biomarker for a healthy vaginal ecosystem. This balance can be rapidly altered during processes such as menstruation, sexual activity, pregnancy and various infections. An abnormal vaginal microbiota is characterized by an increased diversity of microbial species, leading to a condition known as bacterial vaginosis. Information on the vaginal microbiota can be gathered from the analysis of cervicovaginal fluid, by using the Nugent scoring or the Amsel's criteria, or at the molecular level by investigating the number and type of Lactobacillus species. However, when translating this to the clinical setting, it should be noted that the absence of a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota does not appear to directly imply a diseased condition or dysbiosis. Nevertheless, the widely documented beneficial role of vaginal Lactobacillus species demonstrates the potential of data on the composition and activity of lactobacilli as biomarkers for vaginal health. The substantiation and further validation of such biomarkers will allow the design of better targeted probiotic strategies. PMID:25859220

  16. Lactobacillus species as biomarkers and agents that can promote various aspects of vaginal health.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Mariya I; Lievens, Elke; Malik, Shweta; Imholz, Nicole; Lebeer, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively referred to as the human microbiota. One of the main microbiota body sites is the female genital tract, commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp., in approximately 70% of women. Each individual species can constitute approximately 99% of the ribotypes observed in any individual woman. The most frequently isolated species are Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus iners. Residing at the port of entry of bacterial and viral pathogens, the vaginal Lactobacillus species can create a barrier against pathogen invasion since mainly products of their metabolism secreted in the cervicovaginal fluid can play an important role in the inhibition of bacterial and viral infections. Therefore, a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota appears to be a good biomarker for a healthy vaginal ecosystem. This balance can be rapidly altered during processes such as menstruation, sexual activity, pregnancy and various infections. An abnormal vaginal microbiota is characterized by an increased diversity of microbial species, leading to a condition known as bacterial vaginosis. Information on the vaginal microbiota can be gathered from the analysis of cervicovaginal fluid, by using the Nugent scoring or the Amsel's criteria, or at the molecular level by investigating the number and type of Lactobacillus species. However, when translating this to the clinical setting, it should be noted that the absence of a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota does not appear to directly imply a diseased condition or dysbiosis. Nevertheless, the widely documented beneficial role of vaginal Lactobacillus species demonstrates the potential of data on the composition and activity of lactobacilli as biomarkers for vaginal health. The substantiation and further validation of such biomarkers will allow the design of better targeted probiotic strategies. PMID:25859220

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of a Probiotic Strain, Lactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C.

    PubMed

    Karlyshev, Andrey V; Villena, Julio; Gonzalez, Carlos; Albarracin, Leonardo; Barros, Javier; Garcia, Apolinaria

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum strain UCO-979C. The reads generated by a Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs, with a total size of 2.01 Mb. The data were annotated using the NCBI GenBank and RAST servers. Specific features of the genome are highlighted. PMID:26659681

  18. The in vitro activity of vaginal Lactobacillus with probiotic properties against Candida.

    PubMed

    Strus, Magdalena; Kucharska, Agnieszka; Kukla, Grazyna; Brzychczy-Włoch, Monika; Maresz, Katarzyna; Heczko, Piotr B

    2005-06-01

    Lactobacilli, the predominant vaginal microorganisms in healthy premenopausal women, control other members of the vaginal microflora and thus protect against bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infections. It has been claimed that some lactobacilli are also protective against Candida vaginitis. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms by which these lactobacilli can control vaginal populations of Candida and prevent vaginitis. To address this question, vaginal Lactobacillus strains with known antagonistic properties against bacteria were tested for their cell surface properties, adhesion to vaginal cell lines in vitro and antagonistic activities against Candida. A small proportion of the lactobacilli tested adhered strongly to cultured vaginal epithelial cells and inhibited growth of Candida albicans but not of C. pseudotropicalis. This anticandidal activity was in some Lactobacillus strains related to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, but catalase treatment did not suppress this activity in other Lactobacillus strains, suggesting alternative mechanism(s). Moreover, tested vaginal Candida strains were resistant to relatively high concentrations of H2O2 that markedly exceeded those produced by even the most active Lactobacillus strains. PMID:16011996

  19. The in vitro activity of vaginal Lactobacillus with probiotic properties against Candida.

    PubMed Central

    Strus, Magdalena; Kucharska, Agnieszka; Kukla, Grazyna; Brzychczy-Włoch, Monika; Maresz, Katarzyna; Heczko, Piotr B

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacilli, the predominant vaginal microorganisms in healthy premenopausal women, control other members of the vaginal microflora and thus protect against bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infections. It has been claimed that some lactobacilli are also protective against Candida vaginitis. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms by which these lactobacilli can control vaginal populations of Candida and prevent vaginitis. To address this question, vaginal Lactobacillus strains with known antagonistic properties against bacteria were tested for their cell surface properties, adhesion to vaginal cell lines in vitro and antagonistic activities against Candida. A small proportion of the lactobacilli tested adhered strongly to cultured vaginal epithelial cells and inhibited growth of Candida albicans but not of C. pseudotropicalis. This anticandidal activity was in some Lactobacillus strains related to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, but catalase treatment did not suppress this activity in other Lactobacillus strains, suggesting alternative mechanism(s). Moreover, tested vaginal Candida strains were resistant to relatively high concentrations of H2O2 that markedly exceeded those produced by even the most active Lactobacillus strains. PMID:16011996

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of a Probiotic Strain, Lactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C

    PubMed Central

    Villena, Julio; Gonzalez, Carlos; Albarracin, Leonardo; Barros, Javier

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum strain UCO-979C. The reads generated by a Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs, with a total size of 2.01 Mb. The data were annotated using the NCBI GenBank and RAST servers. Specific features of the genome are highlighted. PMID:26659681

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356

    PubMed Central

    Palomino, Maria Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C.; Fina Martin, Joaquina; Waehner, Pablo M.; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Sanchez Rivas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    We present the 1,956,699-bp draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain ATCC 4356. Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.96% similarity with L. acidophilus NCFM NC_006814.3 and 99.97% with La-14 NC_021181.2 genomes. PMID:25593259

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356.

    PubMed

    Palomino, Maria Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C; Fina Martin, Joaquina; Waehner, Pablo M; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Sanchez Rivas, Carmen; Ruzal, Sandra M

    2015-01-01

    We present the 1,956,699-bp draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain ATCC 4356. Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.96% similarity with L. acidophilus NCFM NC_006814.3 and 99.97% with La-14 NC_021181.2 genomes. PMID:25593259

  3. From Prediction to Function Using Evolutionary Genomics: Human-Specific Ecotypes of Lactobacillus reuteri Have Diverse Probiotic Functions

    PubMed Central

    Spinler, Jennifer K.; Sontakke, Amrita; Hollister, Emily B.; Venable, Susan F.; Oh, Phaik Lyn; Balderas, Miriam A.; Saulnier, Delphine M.A.; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Devaraj, Sridevi; Walter, Jens; Versalovic, James; Highlander, Sarah K.

    2014-01-01

    The vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri has diversified into separate clades reflecting host origin. Strains show evidence of host adaptation, but how host–microbe coevolution influences microbial-derived effects on hosts is poorly understood. Emphasizing human-derived strains of L. reuteri, we combined comparative genomic analyses with functional assays to examine variations in host interaction among genetically distinct ecotypes. Within clade II or VI, the genomes of human-derived L. reuteri strains are highly conserved in gene content and at the nucleotide level. Nevertheless, they share only 70–90% of total gene content, indicating differences in functional capacity. Human-associated lineages are distinguished by genes related to bacteriophages, vitamin biosynthesis, antimicrobial production, and immunomodulation. Differential production of reuterin, histamine, and folate by 23 clade II and VI strains was demonstrated. These strains also differed with respect to their ability to modulate human cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, and IL-13) by myeloid cells. Microarray analysis of representative clade II and clade VI strains revealed global regulation of genes within the reuterin, vitamin B12, folate, and arginine catabolism gene clusters by the AraC family transcriptional regulator, PocR. Thus, human-derived L. reuteri clade II and VI strains are genetically distinct and their differences affect their functional repertoires and probiotic features. These findings highlight the biological impact of microbe:host coevolution and illustrate the functional significance of subspecies differences in the human microbiome. Consideration of host origin and functional differences at the subspecies level may have major impacts on probiotic strain selection and considerations of microbial ecology in mammalian species. PMID:24951561

  4. Mucosal Adhesion Properties of the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG SpaCBA and SpaFED Pilin Subunits▿

    PubMed Central

    von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Vesterlund, Satu; Kankainen, Matti; Huhtinen, Heikki; Tynkkynen, Soile; Salminen, Seppo; de Vos, Willem M.; Palva, Airi

    2010-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a well-established Gram-positive probiotic strain, whose health-benefiting properties are dependent in part on prolonged residence in the gastrointestinal tract and are likely dictated by adherence to the intestinal mucosa. Previously, we identified two pilus gene clusters (spaCBA and spaFED) in the genome of this probiotic bacterium, each of which contained the predicted genes for three pilin subunits and a single sortase. We also confirmed the presence of SpaCBA pili on the cell surface and attributed an intestinal mucus-binding capacity to one of the pilin subunits (SpaC). Here, we report cloning of the remaining pilin genes (spaA, spaB, spaD, spaE, and spaF) in Escherichia coli, production and purification of the recombinant proteins, and assessment of the adherence of these proteins to human intestinal mucus. Our findings indicate that the SpaB and SpaF pilin subunits also exhibit substantial binding to mucus, which can be inhibited competitively in a dose-related manner. Moreover, the binding between the SpaB pilin subunit and the mucosal substrate appears to operate through electrostatic contacts and is not related to a recognized mucus-binding domain. We conclude from these results that it is conceivable that two pilin subunits (SpaB and SpaC) in the SpaCBA pilus fiber play a role in binding to intestinal mucus, but for the uncharacterized and putative SpaFED pilus fiber only a single pilin subunit (SpaF) is potentially responsible for adhesion to mucus. PMID:20118368

  5. Early intervention with probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei F19 has no long-term effect on caries experience.

    PubMed

    Hasslöf, P; West, C E; Videhult, F Karlsson; Brandelius, C; Stecksén-Blicks, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate possible long-term effects of a cereal diet supplemented with Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LF19) during weaning on caries experience, mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LBC) in a group of 9-year-old children. A secondary aim was to evaluate if the intervention resulted in the permanent integration of LF19 as part of the oral microbiota. The study followed up on a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. Among 179 infants that were randomised to a daily diet that included cereals with or without LF19 from 4 to 13 months of age, 56 from the probiotic group and 62 from the placebo group participated in the follow-up at 9 years. Data were collected by oral clinical examination and questionnaires. MS and LBC levels were assessed with conventional cultivation; LF19 was detected by using randomly amplified polymerase chain reactions (RAPD-PCR). At the follow-up, neither decayed, missing and filled surfaces for primary teeth (dmfs) nor decayed, missing and filled surfaces for permanent teeth (DMFS) differed significantly between the probiotic and placebo groups (p > 0.05). MS and LBC levels were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). RAPD-PCR showed no evidence of oral colonisation with LF19 in the study group. It is concluded that an early intervention with LF19 did not affect the frequency of dental caries, MS or LBC. LF19 did not establish itself as a permanent facet of the oral microbiota in any of the subjects included in this study. PMID:23838478

  6. Feeding probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (MTCC 5897) fermented milk to suckling mothers alleviates ovalbumin-induced allergic sensitisation in mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Saliganti, Vamshi; Kapila, Rajeev; Sharma, Rohit; Kapila, Suman

    2015-10-28

    The neonatal period is often polarised to T helper (Th2) response at the time of birth, predisposing offspring to allergic disorders. Passive immunity through the mother's milk is critical for immune system development of newborns. Probiotics have been proposed to harmonise Th1/Th2 imbalance in allergic conditions in adults. In the present study, the anti-allergic effects of feeding probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus-fermented milk (PFM) either to dams during the suckling period or to their offspring after weaning individually or else in successive periods against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergy in newborns was analysed. After allergen sensitisation, physical symptoms of allergy, gut immune response, humoral immune response and cell-mediated response through interleukins were detected. Consumption of PFM by mothers and offspring showed a reduction (P<0·01) in physical allergic symptoms in newborns with an increase (P<0·01) in the numbers of goblet and IgA+ cells in the small intestine. Similarly, considerable (P<0·001) decreases in OVA-specific antibodies (IgE, IgG, IgG1) and ratios of IgE/IgG2a and IgG1/IgG2a in the sera of newborn mice were recorded. A decrease in IL-4 and an increase in interferon-γ levels further confirmed the shift from Th2 to Th1 pathway in PFM-fed mice. It is logical to conclude that the timing of PFM intervention in alleviating allergic symptoms is critical, which was found to be most effective when mothers were fed during the suckling period. PMID:26330132

  7. [Probiotics as stimulators of immune response against pathogens in the respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhin, O V; Afanasyev, S S; Bykov, A S

    2016-01-01

    This review analyzes whether.it is expedient to use oral probiotics for the stimulation of immune response against pathogens in the respiratory tract. It considers a relationship between.mucosal microbial colonization in different biotopes of the body and mucosal.immunity in the respiratory tract. The principal and terminological controversial issues of colonic dysbiosis and the possibilities of using the medicines and products containing live commensals/symbionts to correct microbiota disturbances are examined. There are data on the degree of resistance and resilience of the colonic microbial community exposed to destabilizing factors, antibiotics in particular. The properties of probiotics that have been proven to enhance host response against pathogens and the phenomena that characterize these probiotics as immunomodifiers and distinguish them from other immunostimulating/immunomodulating agents are described. Criteria for choosing effective and safe oral probiotics to stimulate an immune response in the respiratory tract are formulated. Finally, we review the data on the clinical and immunomodulatory effects of dietary supplement containing a combination of three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium bifidum MF 20/5 and Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3) with vitamins and minerals as an agent to prevent and reduce the severity of acute and recurrent respiratory tract infections. PMID:27458629

  8. Live and heat-killed probiotic Lactobacillus casei Lbs2 protects from experimental colitis through Toll-like receptor 2-dependent induction of T-regulatory response.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Bhupesh Kumar; Saha, Piu; Banik, George; Saha, Dhira Rani; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar; Das, Santasabuj

    2016-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory disorders of the intestine caused by dysregulated T-cell mediated immune response against commensal microflora. Probiotics are reported as therapeutically effective against IBD. However, variable efficacy of the live probiotic strains, difference in survival and persistence in the gut between the strains and the lack of insight into the mechanisms of probiotic action limit optimal therapeutic efficacy. Our aims were to evaluate the lactobacillus strains isolated from the North Indian population for the generation of regulatory cells and cytokines in the intestine, to study their effects on pro-inflammatory mediators in the mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease and to explore the underlying mechanisms of their actions. Among the selected lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus casei Lbs2 (MTCC5953) significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-6) secretion. Both live and heat-killed Lbs2 polarized Th0 cells to T-regulatory (Treg) cells in vitro, increased the frequency of FoxP3(+) Treg cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and alleviated macroscopic and histopathological features of colitis in probiotic-fed mice. Moreover, the levels of IL-12, TNF-alpha and IL-17A were suppressed, while IL-10 and TGF-beta levels were augmented in the colonic tissues of Lbs2-treated mice. The induced Treg (iTreg) cells secreted IL-10 and TGF-beta and exerted suppressive effects on the proliferation of effector T-cells. Adoptive transfer of iTreg cells ameliorated the disease manifestations of murine colitis and suppressed the levels of TNF-alpha and IL-17A. Finally, Lbs2 effects were mediated by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation on the dendritic cells. This study identified live and heat-killed Lbs2 as putative therapeutic candidates against IBD and highlighted their Toll-like receptor 2-dependent immunomodulatory and regulatory function. PMID:27107798

  9. Does Short-Term High Dose Probiotic Supplementation Containing Lactobacillus casei Attenuate Exertional-Heat Stress Induced Endotoxaemia and Cytokinaemia?

    PubMed

    Gill, Samantha K; Allerton, Dean M; Ansley-Robson, Paula; Hemmings, Krystal; Cox, Martin; Costa, Ricardo J

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to determine if short-term high dose probiotic supplementation containing Lactobacillus casei (L.casei) attenuates the commonly reported exertional-heat stress (EHS) induced endotoxinaemia and cytokinaemia. Eight endurance trained male volunteers (mean± SD: age 26 ± 6 y, nude body mass 70.2 ± 8.8 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.05 m, VO2max 59 ± 5 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed a blinded randomized cross-over design, whereby oral ingestion of a commercially available probiotic beverage containing L.casei (volume equivalent for ×1011 colony forming units·day-1) (PRO) or placebo (PLA) was consumed for 7 consecutive days before exposure to EHS, which comprised of 2h running exercise at 60% VO2max in hot ambient conditions (34.0 °C and 32% RH). Blood samples were collected at baseline (7 days before EHS), pre-EHS, post-EHS (1 hr, 2 hr, 4 hr, and at 24 hr). Plasma samples were analyzed for gram-negative bacterial endotoxin, cytokine profile (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-8, and IL-10) and plasma osmolality. Plasma osmolality did not differ between trials. Seven days of L.casei supplementation did not show significant changes in resting circulatory endotoxin concentration or plasma cytokine profile compared with PLA. A main effect of time was observed for IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-8; whereby levels increased in response to EHS (p < .05). Relative to pre-EHS concentrations, higher plasma concentrations of endotoxin (p = .05), and a trend for higher plasma TNF-α concentration (p = .09) was observed on PRO compared with PLA throughout recovery. Short-term high dose supplementation of a probiotic beverage containing L.casei before EHS did not attenuate EHS induced endotoxaemia and cytokinaemia; nor is it more positively favorable over a placebo. PMID:26568577

  10. Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus Casei DN-114 001 in Prevention of Radiation-Induced Diarrhea: Results From Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Nutritional Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Giralt, Jordi Regadera, Jose Perez; Verges, Ramona; Romero, Jesus; Fuente, Isabel de la; Biete, Albert; Villoria, Jesus; Cobo, Jose Maria; Guarner, Francisco

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 reduces the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea in patients with gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy (45-50 Gy, conventional fractionation) for either cervical carcinoma (radiotherapy and weekly cisplatin) or endometrial adenocarcinoma (postoperative radiotherapy) were randomly assigned to a probiotic drink or placebo, in a double-blind fashion. The probiotic drink consisted of liquid yogurt containing L. casei DN-114 001 at 10{sup 8} CFU/g. The patients recorded the daily the number of bowel movements and scored the stool consistency using the Bristol scale. Diarrhea was graded weekly according the Common Toxicity Criteria system. The primary endpoint was to reduce the incidence of diarrhea, defined by a Common Toxicity Criteria Grade of 2 or greater or the need for loperamide. Results: A total of 85 patients were enrolled. Grade 2 or greater diarrhea and/or the use of loperamide was observed in 24 of 41 patients in the placebo group and 30 of 44 in the probiotic group (p = 0.568). No differences were found in the median time to the presentation of the primary endpoint. Probiotic intervention had a significant effect on stool consistency (p = 0.04). The median time for patients to present with Bristol scale stools of Type 6 or greater was 14 days for patients receiving the probiotic drink vs. 10 days for those receiving placebo. Conclusion: Nutritional intervention with the probiotic drink containing L. casei DN-114 001 does not reduce the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea as defined by a Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 2 or greater. However, it had a significant effect on stool consistency as measured by the Bristol scale.

  11. Cyclopropane fatty acid synthase mutants of probiotic human-derived Lactobacillus reuteri are defective in TNF inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Saulnier, Delphine; Thomas, Carissa M; Versalovic, James

    2011-01-01

    Although commensal microbes have been shown to modulate host immune responses, many of the bacterial factors that mediate immune regulation remain unidentified. Select strains of human-derived Lactobacillus reuteri synthesize immunomodulins that potently inhibit production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF. In this study, genetic and genomic approaches were used to identify and investigate L. reuteri genes required for human TNF immunomodulatory activity. Analysis of membrane fatty acids from multiple L. reuteri strains cultured in MRS medium showed that only TNF inhibitory strains produced the cyclopropane fatty acid (CFA) lactobacillic acid. The enzyme cyclopropane fatty acid synthase is required for synthesis of CFAs such as lactobacillic acid, therefore the cfa gene was inactivated and supernatants from the cfa mutant strain were assayed for TNF inhibitory activity. We found that supernatants from the wild-type strain, but not the cfa mutant, suppressed TNF production by activated THP-1 human monocytoid cells. Although this suggested a direct role for lactobacillic acid in immunomodulation, purified lactobacillic acid did not suppress TNF at physiologically relevant concentrations. We further analyzed TNF inhibitory and TNF non-inhibitory strains under different growth conditions and found that lactobacillic acid production did not correlate with TNF inhibition. These results indicate that cfa indirectly contributed to L. reuteri immunomodulatory activity and suggest that other mechanisms, such as decreased membrane fluidity or altered expression of immunomodulins, result in the loss of TNF inhibitory activity. By increasing our understanding of immunomodulation by probiotic species, beneficial microbes can be rationally selected to alleviate intestinal inflammation. PMID:21637024

  12. Transferability of a tetracycline resistance gene from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri to bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of humans.

    PubMed

    Egervärn, Maria; Lindmark, Hans; Olsson, Johan; Roos, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    The potential of Lactobacillus reuteri as a donor of antibiotic resistance genes in the human gut was investigated by studying the transferability of the tetracycline resistance gene tet(W) to faecal enterococci, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. In a double-blind clinical study, seven subjects consumed L. reuteri ATCC 55730 harbouring a plasmid-encoded tet(W) gene (tet(W)-reuteri) and an equal number of subjects consumed L. reuteri DSM 17938 derived from the ATCC 55730 strain by the removal of two plasmids, one of which contained the tet(W) gene. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after ingestion of 5 x 10(8) CFU of L. reuteri per day for 14 days. Both L. reuteri strains were detectable at similar levels in faeces after 14 days of intake but neither was detected after a two-week wash-out period. After enrichment and isolation of tetracycline resistant enterococci, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli from each faecal sample, DNA was extracted and analysed for presence of tet(W)-reuteri using a real-time PCR allelic discrimination method developed in this study. No tet(W)-reuteri signal was produced from any of the DNA samples and thus gene transfer to enterococci, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli during intestinal passage of the probiotic strain was non-detectable under the conditions tested, although transfer at low frequencies or to the remaining faecal bacterial population cannot be excluded. PMID:19997864

  13. Increasing work-place healthiness with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: A randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Tubelius, Py; Stan, Vlaicu; Zachrisson, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Background Short term illnesses, usually caused by respiratory or gastrointestinal diseases are disruptive to productivity and there is relatively little focus on preventative measures. This study examined the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri protectis (ATCC55730) on its ability to improve work-place healthiness by reducing short term sick-leave caused by respiratory or gastrointestinal infections. Methods 262 employees at TetraPak in Sweden (day-workers and three-shift-workers) that were healthy at study start were randomised in a double-blind fashion to receive either a daily dose of 108 Colony Forming Units of L. reuteri or placebo for 80 days. The study products were administered with a drinking straw. 181 subjects complied with the study protocol, 94 were randomised to receive L. reuteri and 87 received placebo. Results In the placebo group 26.4% reported sick-leave for the defined causes during the study as compared with 10.6% in the L. reuteri group (p < 0.01). The frequency of sick-days was 0.9% in the placebo group and 0.4% in the L. reuteri group (p < 0.01). Among the 53 shift-workers, 33% in the placebo group reported sick during the study period as compared with none in the L. reuteri group(p < 0.005). PMID:16274475

  14. Exopolysaccharide Production and Ropy Phenotype Are Determined by Two Gene Clusters in Putative Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11

    PubMed Central

    Zivkovic, Milica; Miljkovic, Marija; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Strahinic, Ivana; Tolinacki, Maja; Golic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11, a putative probiotic strain isolated from a soft, white, artisanal cheese, produces a high-molecular-weight heteropolysaccharide, exopolysaccharide (EPS)-CG11, responsible for the ropy phenotype and immunomodulatory activity of the strain. In this study, a 26.4-kb region originating from the pCG1 plasmid, previously shown to be responsible for the production of EPS-CG11 and a ropy phenotype, was cloned, sequenced, and functionally characterized. In this region 16 putative open reading frames (ORFs), encoding enzymes for the production of EPS-CG11, were organized in specific loci involved in the biosynthesis of the repeat unit, polymerization, export, regulation, and chain length determination. Interestingly, downstream of the eps gene cluster, a putative transposase gene was identified, followed by an additional rfb gene cluster containing the rfbACBD genes, the ones most probably responsible for dTDP-l-rhamnose biosynthesis. The functional analysis showed that the production of the high-molecular-weight fraction of EPS-CG11 was absent in two knockout mutants, one in the eps and the other in the rfb gene cluster, as confirmed by size exclusion chromatography analysis. Therefore, both eps and rfb genes clusters are prerequisites for the production of high-molecular-weight EPS-CG11 and for the ropy phenotype of strain L. paraplantarum BGCG11. PMID:25527533

  15. Acid resistance and response to pH-induced stress in two Lactobacillus plantarum strains with probiotic potential.

    PubMed

    Šeme, H; Gjuračić, K; Kos, B; Fujs, Š; Štempelj, M; Petković, H; Šušković, J; Bogovič Matijašić, B; Kosec, G

    2015-01-01

    Two new Lactobacillus plantarum strains, KR6-DSM 28780 and M5 isolated from sour turnip and traditional dried fresh cheese, respectively, were evaluated for species identity, antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to gastrointestinal conditions and adaptive response to low pH. Resistance mechanisms involved in the adaptation to acid-induced stress in these two strains were investigated by quantitative PCR of the atpA, cfa1, mleS and hisD genes. In addition to absence of antibiotic resistance, the two L. plantarum strains showed excellent survival rates at pH values as low as 2.4. Adaptive response to low pH was clearly observed in both strains; strain KR6 was superior to M5, as demonstrated by its ability to survive during 3 h incubation at pH 2.0 upon adaptation to moderately acidic conditions. In contrast, acid adaptation did not significantly affect the survival rate during simulated passage through the gastrointestinal tract. In both strains, induction of histidine biosynthesis (hisD) was upregulated during the acid adaptation response. In addition, significant upregulation of the cfa1 gene, involved in modulation of membrane fatty acid composition, was observed during the adaptation phase in strain KR6 but not in strain M5. Cells adapted to moderately acidic conditions also showed a significantly increased viability after the lyophilisation procedure, a cross-protection phenomenon providing additional advantage in probiotic application. PMID:25380802

  16. The Influence of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei in Combination with Prebiotic Inulin on the Antioxidant Capacity of Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kleniewska, Paulina; Hoffmann, Arkadiusz; Pniewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei (4 × 108 CFU) influences the antioxidant properties of human plasma when combined with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg). Experiments were carried out on healthy volunteers (n = 32). Volunteers were divided according to sex (16 male and 16 female) and randomly assigned to synbiotic and control groups. Blood samples were collected before synbiotic supplementation and after 7 weeks, at the end of the study. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in human plasma were examined. The administration of synbiotics containing L. casei plus Inulin resulted in a significant increase in FRAP values (p = 0.00008) and CAT activity (p = 0.02) and an insignificant increase in SOD and GPx activity compared to controls. Synbiotics containing L. casei (4 × 108 CFU) with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg) may have a positive influence on human plasma antioxidant capacity and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27066188

  17. Dysregulated Circulating Dendritic Cell Function in Ulcerative Colitis Is Partially Restored by Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Elizabeth R.; You, Jialu; Horneffer-van der Sluis, Verena; Omar Al-Hassi, Hafid; Landy, Jon; Peake, Simon T.; Thomas, Linda V.; Tee, Cheng T.; Hart, Ailsa L.; Knight, Stella C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dendritic cells regulate immune responses to microbial products and play a key role in ulcerative colitis (UC) pathology. We determined the immunomodulatory effects of probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on human DC from healthy controls and active UC patients. Methods. Human blood DC from healthy controls (control-DC) and UC patients (UC-DC) were conditioned with heat-killed LcS and used to stimulate allogeneic T cells in a 5-day mixed leucocyte reaction. Results. UC-DC displayed a reduced stimulatory capacity for T cells (P < 0.05) and enhanced expression of skin-homing markers CLA and CCR4 on stimulated T cells (P < 0.05) that were negative for gut-homing marker β7. LcS treatment restored the stimulatory capacity of UC-DC, reflecting that of control-DC. LcS treatment conditioned control-DC to induce CLA on T cells in conjunction with β7, generating a multihoming profile, but had no effects on UC-DC. Finally, LcS treatment enhanced DC ability to induce TGFβ production by T cells in controls but not UC patients. Conclusions. We demonstrate a systemic, dysregulated DC function in UC that may account for the propensity of UC patients to develop cutaneous manifestations. LcS has multifunctional immunoregulatory activities depending on the inflammatory state; therapeutic effects reported in UC may be due to promotion of homeostasis. PMID:23970814

  18. Differential proteome and cellular adhesion analyses of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM grown on raffinose - an emerging prebiotic.

    PubMed

    Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Ejby, Morten; Majumder, Avishek; Købler, Carsten; Goh, Yong Jun; Thorsen, Kristian; Schmidt, Bjarne; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Abou Hachem, Maher; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jacobsen, Susanne; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Brix, Susanne; Mølhave, Kristian; Svensson, Birte

    2016-05-01

    Whole cell and surface proteomes were analyzed together with adhesive properties of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) grown on the emerging prebiotic raffinose, exemplifying a synbiotic. Adhesion of NCFM to mucin and intestinal HT-29 cells increased three-fold after culture with raffinose versus glucose, as also visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Comparative proteomics using 2D-DIGE showed 43 unique proteins to change in relative abundance in whole cell lysates from NCFM grown on raffinose compared to glucose. Furthermore, 14 unique proteins in 18 spots of the surface subproteome underwent changes identified by differential 2DE, including elongation factor G, thermostable pullulanase, and phosphate starvation inducible stress-related protein increasing in a range of +2.1 - +4.7 fold. By contrast five known moonlighting proteins decreased in relative abundance by up to -2.4 fold. Enzymes involved in raffinose catabolism were elevated in the whole cell proteome; α-galactosidase (+13.9 fold); sucrose phosphorylase (+5.4 fold) together with metabolic enzymes from the Leloir pathway for galactose utilization and the glycolysis; β-galactosidase (+5.7 fold); galactose (+2.9/+3.1 fold) and fructose (+2.8 fold) kinases. The insights at the molecular and cellular levels contributed to the understanding of the interplay of a synbiotic composed of NCFM and raffinose with the host. PMID:26959526

  19. Determining the probiotic potential of cholesterol-reducing Lactobacillus and Weissella strains isolated from gherkins (fermented cucumber) and south Indian fermented koozh.

    PubMed

    Anandharaj, Marimuthu; Sivasankari, Balayogan; Santhanakaruppu, Rajendran; Manimaran, Muthusamy; Rani, Rizwana Parveen; Sivakumar, Subramaniyan

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditionally fermented south Indian koozh and gherkin (cucumber). A total of 51 LAB strains were isolated, among which four were identified as Lactobacillus spp. and three as Weissella spp. The strains were screened for their probiotic potential. All isolated Lactobacillus and Weissella strains were capable of surviving under low pH and bile salt conditions. GI9 and FKI21 were able to survive at pH 2.0 and 0.50% bile salt for 3 h without losing their viability. All LAB strains exhibited inhibitory activity against tested pathogens and were able to deconjugate bile salt. Higher deconjugation was observed in the presence of sodium glycocholate (P < 0.05). Strain FKI21 showed maximum auto-aggregation (79%) and co-aggregation with Escherichia coli MTCC 1089 (68%). Exopolysaccharide production of LAB strains ranged from 68.39 to 127.12 mg/L (P < 0.05). Moreover, GI9 (58.08 μg/ml) and FKI21 (56.25 μg/ml) exhibited maximum cholesterol reduction with bile salts. 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed GI9 and FKI21 as Lactobacillus crispatus and Weissella koreensis, respectively. This is the first study to report isolation of W. koreensis FKI21 from fermented koozh and demonstrates its cholesterol-reducing potential. PMID:25839996

  20. [Influence of a low-calorie diet with inclusion of probiotic product containing bacterias Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia DSM 21380 on clinical and metabolic characteristics in patients with obesity and arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Plotnikova, O A; Alekseeva, R I; Sentsova, T B; Kaganov, B S

    2012-01-01

    In a number of studies it is shown that regular use of the probiotic products containing Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia DSM 21380 in complex dietary treatment, not only modulates intestinal microflora, but also has a positive influence on a functional condition of cardiovascular system including levelels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The aim of this research was to study the influence of dietotherapy with inclusion of the probiotic product containing Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia DSM 21380, on clinical and metabolic characteristics in patients with obesity and accompanying arterial hypertension (AH). PMID:22642170

  1. Effect of probiotic-fermented milk administration on gastrointestinal survival of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 and modulation of intestinal microbial flora.

    PubMed

    Sidira, Marianthi; Galanis, Alex; Ypsilantis, Petros; Karapetsas, Athanasios; Progaki, Zoi; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the survival of free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on apple pieces, contained in probiotic-fermented milk, after gastrointestinal (GI) transit and to investigate the potential regulation of intestinal microbial flora in a rat model. In in vitro GI stress tolerance tests, immobilized L. casei ATCC 393 exhibited significantly higher survival rates compared to free cells. At a second stage, probiotic-fermented milk produced by either free or immobilized cells was administered orally at a single dose or daily for 9 days in Wistar rats. By 12 h after single-dose administration, both free and immobilized cells were detected by microbiological and molecular analysis at levels ≥6 logCFU/g of feces. Moreover, daily administration led to significant reduction of staphylococci, enterobacteria, coliforms and streptococci counts. In conclusion, L. casei ATCC 393 contained in fermented milk survived GI transit and modulated intestinal microbiota. PMID:21160205

  2. Social stress-enhanced severity of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis is CCL2-dependent and attenuated by probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Mackos, A R; Galley, J D; Eubank, T D; Easterling, R S; Parry, N M; Fox, J G; Lyte, M; Bailey, M T

    2016-03-01

    Psychological stressors are known to affect colonic diseases but the mechanisms by which this occurs, and whether probiotics can prevent stressor effects, are not understood. Because inflammatory monocytes that traffic into the colon can exacerbate colitis, we tested whether CCL2, a chemokine involved in monocyte recruitment, was necessary for stressor-induced exacerbation of infectious colitis. Mice were exposed to a social disruption stressor that entails repeated social defeat. During stressor exposure, mice were orally challenged with Citrobacter rodentium to induce a colonic inflammatory response. Exposure to the stressor during challenge resulted in significantly higher colonic pathogen levels, translocation to the spleen, increases in colonic macrophages, and increases in inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The stressor-enhanced severity of C. rodentium-induced colitis was not evident in CCL2(-/-) mice, indicating the effects of the stressor are CCL2-dependent. In addition, we tested whether probiotic intervention could attenuate stressor-enhanced infectious colitis by reducing monocyte/macrophage accumulation. Treating mice with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri reduced CCL2 mRNA levels in the colon and attenuated stressor-enhanced infectious colitis. These data demonstrate that probiotic L. reuteri can prevent the exacerbating effects of stressor exposure on pathogen-induced colitis, and suggest that one mechanism by which this occurs is through downregulation of the chemokine CCL2. PMID:26422754

  3. Lactobacillus probiotic protects intestinal epithelium from radiation injury in a TLR-2/cyclo-oxygenase-2-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Matthew A; Riehl, Terrence E; Rao, M Suprada; Moon, Clara; Ee, Xueping; Nava, Gerardo M; Walker, Monica R; Marinshaw, Jeffrey M; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2011-01-01

    Background The small intestinal epithelium is highly sensitive to radiation and is a major site of injury during radiation therapy and environmental overexposure. Objective To examine probiotic bacteria as potential radioprotective agents in the intestine. Methods 8-week-old C57BL/6 wild-type or knockout mice were administered probiotic by gavage for 3 days before 12 Gy whole body radiation. The intestine was evaluated for cell-positional apoptosis (6 h) and crypt survival (84 h). Results Gavage of 5×107 Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) improved crypt survival about twofold (p<0.01); the effect was observed when administered before, but not after, radiation. Conditioned medium (CM) from LGG improved crypt survival (1.95-fold, p<0.01), and both LGG and LGG-CM reduced epithelial apoptosis particularly at the crypt base (33% to 18%, p<0.01). LGG was detected in the distal ileal contents after the gavage cycle, but did not lead to a detectable shift in bacterial family composition. The reduction in epithelial apoptosis and improved crypt survival offered by LGG was lost in MyD88−/−, TLR-2−/− and cyclo-oxygenase-2−/− (COX-2) mice but not TLR-4−/− mice. LGG administration did not lead to increased jejunal COX-2 mRNA or prostaglandin E2 levels or a change in number of COX-2-expressing cells. However, a location shift was observed in constitutively COX-2-expressing cells of the lamina propria from the villi to a position near the crypt base (villi to crypt ratio 80:20 for control and 62:38 for LGG; p<0.001). Co-staining revealed these COX-2-expressing small intestinal lamina propria cells to be mesenchymal stem cells. Conclusions LGG or its CM reduce radiation-induced epithelial injury and improve crypt survival. A TLR-2/MyD88 signalling mechanism leading to repositioning of constitutive COX-2-expressing mesenchymal stem cells to the crypt base is invoked. PMID:22027478

  4. Using Recombinant Lactococci as an Approach to Dissect the Immunomodulating Capacity of Surface Piliation in Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    PubMed Central

    Nummenmaa, Elina; Mäkinen, Veli-Matti; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; de Vos, Willem M.; Palva, Ilkka; Palva, Airi

    2013-01-01

    Primarily arising from their well understood beneficial health effects, many lactobacilli strains are considered good candidates for use as probiotics in humans and animals. Lactobacillar probiosis can itself be best typified by the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain, which, with its well-documented clinical benefits, has emerged as one of the most widely used probiotics in the food and health-supplement industries. Even so, many facets of its molecular mechanisms and limitations as a beneficial commensal bacterium still remain to be thoroughly explored and dissected. Because L. rhamnosus GG is one of only a few such strains exhibiting surface piliation (called SpaCBA), we sought to examine whether this particular type of cell-surface appendage has a discernible immunomodulating capacity and is able to trigger targeted responses in human immune-related cells. Thus, presented herein for this study, we recombinantly engineered Lactococcus lactis to produce native (and pilin-deleted) SpaCBA pili that were assembled in a structurally authentic form and anchored to the cell surface, and which had retained mucus-binding functionality. By using these recombinant lactococcal constructs, we were able to demonstrate that the SpaCBA pilus can be a contributory factor in the activation of Toll-like receptor 2-dependent signaling in HEK cells as well as in the modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12) production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. From these data, we suggest that the recombinant-expressed and surface-anchored SpaCBA pilus, given its projected functioning in the gut environment, might be viewed as a new microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-like modulator of innate immunity. Accordingly, our study has brought some new insight to the molecular immunogenicity of the SpaCBA pilus, thus opening the way to a better understanding of its possible role in the multifaceted nature of L. rhamnosus GG probiosis within the

  5. Fermentation characteristics and transit tolerance of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang in soymilk and bovine milk during storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Guo, Z; Zhang, Q; Yan, L; Chen, W; Liu, X-M; Zhang, H-P

    2009-06-01

    Lactobacillus casei Zhang is a novel strain that was screened out of koumiss collected in Inner Mongolia, and our previous research showed that L. casei Zhang has health benefits such as cholesterol-reducing and immunomodulating effects. The fermentation characteristics of L. casei Zhang in soymilk and bovine milk and the transit tolerance of L. casei Zhang in fermented milk products during refrigerated storage for 28 d were assessed. A faster decrease in pH and faster growth of L. casei Zhang during fermentation were observed in soymilk compared with bovine milk at various inoculation rates, probably because of the low pH buffering capacity of soymilk. The fermented bovine milk samples had much higher final titratable acidity (TA) values (between 0.80 and 0.93%) than the soymilk samples (between 0.40 and 0.46%). Dramatic increases in TA values in the fermented soymilk samples during storage were observed, and the TA values of the fermented soymilk samples changed from <0.56% to values between 0.86 and 0.98%. On the other hand, only slight increases in TA were observed in the bovine milk samples during the 28 d of storage. The survival rates of freshly prepared cultures of L. casei Zhang in simulated gastric juice at pH 2.0 and 2.5 were 31 and 69%, respectively, and the delivery of L. casei Zhang through fermented soymilk and bovine milk significantly improved the viability of L. casei Zhang in simulated gastric transit. Lactobacillus casei Zhang showed good tolerance to simulated gastric juice and intestinal juice in the fermented soymilk and bovine milk samples, and maintained high viability (>10(8) cfu/g) during storage at 4 degrees C for 28 d. Our results indicated that both soymilk and bovine milk could serve as vehicles for delivery of probiotic L. casei Zhang, and further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism of the change in pH and TA of L. casei Zhang in fermented milk samples during fermentation and storage and to understand the difference between

  6. Effect of probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium on gut-derived lipopolysaccharides and inflammatory cytokines: an in vitro study using a human colonic microbiota model.

    PubMed

    Rodes, Laetitia; Khan, Afshan; Paul, Arghya; Coussa-Charley, Michael; Marinescu, Daniel; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Shao, Wei; Kahouli, Imen; Prakash, Satya

    2013-04-01

    Gut-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are critical to the development and progression of chronic low-grade inflammation and metabolic diseases. In this study, the effects of probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium on gut-derived lipopolysaccharide and inflammatory cytokine concentrations were evaluated using a human colonic microbiota model. Lactobacillus reuteri, L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, Bifidobacterium animalis, B. bifidum, B. longum, and B. longum subsp. infantis were identified from the literature for their anti-inflammatory potential. Each bacterial culture was administered daily to a human colonic microbiota model during 14 days. Colonic lipopolysaccharides, and Gram-positive and negative bacteria were quantified. RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were stimulated with supernatant from the human colonic microbiota model. Concentrations of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-4 cytokines were measured. Lipopolysaccharide concentrations were significantly reduced with the administration of B. bifidum (-46.45 +/- 5.65%), L. rhamnosus (-30.40 +/- 5.08%), B. longum (-42.50 +/- 1.28%), and B. longum subsp. infantis (-68.85 +/- 5.32%) (p < 0.05). Cell counts of Gram-negative and positive bacteria were distinctly affected by the probiotic administered. There was a probiotic strain-specific effect on immunomodulatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. B. longum subsp. infantis demonstrated higher capacities to reduce TNF-alpha concentrations (-69.41 +/- 2.78%; p < 0.05) and to increase IL-4 concentrations (+16.50 +/- 0.59%; p < 0.05). Colonic lipopolysaccharides were significantly correlated with TNF-alpha and IL-1beta concentrations (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that specific probiotic bacteria, such as B. longum subsp. infantis, might decrease colonic lipopolysaccharide concentrations, which might reduce the proinflammatory tone. This study has noteworthy applications in the field of biotherapeutics for the prevention and/or treatment of inflammatory and metabolic

  7. Effect of tablets containing probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus reuteri) on early caries lesions in adolescents: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Keller, M K; Nøhr Larsen, I; Karlsson, I; Twetman, S

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of tablets containing probiotic lactobacilli on early caries lesions in adolescents with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). 36 healthy adolescents of both sexes (12-17 years of age) were enrolled and randomly allocated to a placebo-controlled trial with two parallel groups. The test group received two tablets daily containing two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) for a period of three months, while the control group got identical placebo tablets without live bacteria. The primary outcome was QLF-readings (change in fluorescence, ΔF and lesion area, mm2) at baseline and after 3 months, conducted at two buccal sites of each individual, pre-selected with clearly visible clinical signs of enamel demineralisation (white spots). Significantly more premolars were allocated to the placebo group, while the test group had more incisors (P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in fluorescence values between the groups, neither at baseline, nor at the follow-up. There was however a significant decrease in fluorescence over time in the test group, but not in the placebo group (P<0.05). No alterations of the lesion area (ΔA) were found in any group. The inter-examiner intra-class correlation coefficient-value for QLF-readings was excellent. No side- or adverse effects were reported during the intervention period. This pilot study found a significant decrease over time in the test group. However, no statistically significant differences in fluorescence values between the groups were found. Hence, the null hypothesis could not be rejected. PMID:24889893

  8. Preventive effects of oral probiotic on infantile colic: a prospective, randomised, blinded, controlled trial using Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938.

    PubMed

    Savino, F; Ceratto, S; Poggi, E; Cartosio, M E; Cordero di Montezemolo, L; Giannattasio, A

    2015-01-01

    Infants were recruited in four centres in North-West Italy. 138 infants were assessed for eligibility, 113 ones underwent randomisation and 105 completed the study. Newborns aged less than 10 days of life, with gestational age between 37 and 42 weeks, birth weight from 2,500 to 4,300 g and normal physical examination were recruitable. Premature infants and infants affected by outcomes of perinatal hypoxia or necrotising enterocolitis have been excluded. Patients were randomly assigned to receive five drops containing Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (108 cfu) with 400 UI of vitamin D3 or only 400 UI of vitamin D3 daily. The primary endpoints concern the administration of pain relieving agents (cimetropium bromide at least three times per week or simethicone at least five times per week) from baseline to 12 weeks. Additional analyses were done on the percentage of infants that switched from an exclusive breastfeeding to a partial or exclusive formula feeding from baseline to 12 weeks. Data concerning the number of calls to the paediatricians and the number of visits at paediatricians' ambulatories due to infantile colic have been collected by paediatrician and analysed. Comparing the two groups, the relative risk was 0.04 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.01-0.31) for cimetropium bromide, 0.24 (95% CI=0.14-0.41) for simethicone and 0.37 (95% CI=0.17-0.80) for the administration of infant formula, showing a protective action of L. reuteri. The treatment group showed a lower number of paediatric consultations related to episodes of infant colic than the control group (P<0.0001). L. reuteri DSM 17938 supplementation at the tested dosage could reduce parental discomfort due to infantile colic. The consumption of this probiotic is associated with a reduction of paediatric consultations for infantile colic, as well as use of pain relieving agents and of infant formula. PMID:25488262

  9. Modulation of Respiratory TLR3-Anti-Viral Response by Probiotic Microorganisms: Lessons Learned from Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Haruki; Villena, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants and young children. Host immune response is implicated in both protective and immunopathological mechanisms during RSV infection. Activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 in innate immune cells by RSV can induce airway inflammation, protective immune response, and pulmonary immunopathology. A clear understanding of RSV–host interaction is important for the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies. Several studies have centered on whether probiotic microorganisms with the capacity to stimulate the immune system (immunobiotics) might sufficiently stimulate the common mucosal immune system to improve defenses in the respiratory tract. In this regard, it was demonstrated that some orally administered immunobiotics do have the ability to stimulate respiratory immunity and increase resistance to viral infections. Moreover, during the last decade scientists have significantly advanced in the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the protective effect of immunobiotics in the respiratory tract. This review examines the most recent advances dealing with the use of immunobiotic bacteria to improve resistance against viral respiratory infections. More specifically, the article discuss the mechanisms involved in the capacity of the immunobiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 to modulate the TLR3-mediated immune response in the respiratory tract and to increase the resistance to RSV infection. In addition, we review the role of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 in the immunoregulatory effect of the CRL1505 strain that has been successfully used for reducing incidence and morbidity of viral airways infections in children. PMID:24860569

  10. Amelioration of Colitis in Mouse Model by Exploring Antioxidative Potentials of an Indigenous Probiotic Strain of Lactobacillus fermentum Lf1

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ritu; Sudhakaran Vasanthakumari, Aparna; Panwar, Harsh; Mallapa, Rashmi H.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the preliminary screening of eight indigenous putative probiotic Lactobacilli, Lactobacillus fermentum Lf1 was selected for assessing its antioxidative efficacy in DSS colitis mouse model based on its ability to enhance the expression of “Nrf2” by 6.43-fold and malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibition by 78.1  ±  0.24% in HT-29 cells under H2O2 stress. The Disease Activity Index and histological scores of Lf1-treated mice were lower than the control group. However, expression of “Nrf2” was not observed in Lf1-treated mice. A significant increase in the expression of antioxidative enzymes such as SOD2 and TrxR-1 was recorded in both of the groups. The expression of SOD2 was significantly downregulated in colitis-induced mice by −100.00-fold relative to control group, and the downregulation was considerably reduced to −37.04-fold in colitis Lf1 treatment group. Almost, a similar trend was recorded in case of “thioredoxin” expression, though “CAT” was refractile to expression. The Lf1-treated group had decreased malondialdehyde level as compared to colitis control (37.92  ±  6.31 versus 91.13  ±  5.76 μM/g). These results point towards Lf1-induced activation of the antioxidant enzyme system in the mouse model and its prospects to be explored as a new strategy for IBD management. PMID:25061603

  11. An L-Fucose Operon in the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Is Involved in Adaptation to Gastrointestinal Conditions.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Jimmy E; Yebra, María J; Monedero, Vicente

    2015-06-01

    L-Fucose is a sugar present in human secretions as part of human milk oligosaccharides, mucins, and other glycoconjugates in the intestinal epithelium. The genome of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) carries a gene cluster encoding a putative L-fucose permease (fucP), L-fucose catabolic pathway (fucI, fucK, fucU, and fucA), and a transcriptional regulator (fucR). The metabolism of L-fucose in LGG results in 1,2-propanediol production, and their fucI and fucP mutants displayed a severe and mild growth defect on L-fucose, respectively. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the fuc genes are induced by L-fucose and subject to a strong carbon catabolite repression effect. This induction was triggered by FucR, which acted as a transcriptional activator necessary for growth on L-fucose. LGG utilized fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and contrarily to other lactobacilli, the presence of fuc genes allowed this strain to use the L-fucose moiety. In fucI and fucR mutants, but not in fucP mutant, L-fucose was not metabolized and it was excreted to the medium during growth on fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine. The fuc genes were induced by this fucosyl-disaccharide in the wild type and the fucP mutant but not in a fucI mutant, showing that FucP does not participate in the regulation of fuc genes and that L-fucose metabolism is needed for FucR activation. The l-fucose operon characterized here constitutes a new example of the many factors found in LGG that allow this strain to adapt to the gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:25819967

  12. An l-Fucose Operon in the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Is Involved in Adaptation to Gastrointestinal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Jimmy E.; Yebra, María J.

    2015-01-01

    l-Fucose is a sugar present in human secretions as part of human milk oligosaccharides, mucins, and other glycoconjugates in the intestinal epithelium. The genome of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) carries a gene cluster encoding a putative l-fucose permease (fucP), l-fucose catabolic pathway (fucI, fucK, fucU, and fucA), and a transcriptional regulator (fucR). The metabolism of l-fucose in LGG results in 1,2-propanediol production, and their fucI and fucP mutants displayed a severe and mild growth defect on l-fucose, respectively. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the fuc genes are induced by l-fucose and subject to a strong carbon catabolite repression effect. This induction was triggered by FucR, which acted as a transcriptional activator necessary for growth on l-fucose. LGG utilized fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and contrarily to other lactobacilli, the presence of fuc genes allowed this strain to use the l-fucose moiety. In fucI and fucR mutants, but not in fucP mutant, l-fucose was not metabolized and it was excreted to the medium during growth on fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine. The fuc genes were induced by this fucosyl-disaccharide in the wild type and the fucP mutant but not in a fucI mutant, showing that FucP does not participate in the regulation of fuc genes and that l-fucose metabolism is needed for FucR activation. The l-fucose operon characterized here constitutes a new example of the many factors found in LGG that allow this strain to adapt to the gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:25819967

  13. Encapsulation and subsequent freeze-drying of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1324 for its potential inclusion in vaginal probiotic formulations.

    PubMed

    Juárez Tomás, María Silvina; De Gregorio, Priscilla Romina; Leccese Terraf, María Cecilia; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima

    2015-11-15

    Probiotic formulations must include a high number of viable and active microorganisms. In this work, the survival of human vaginal Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1324 during encapsulation, lyophilization and storage, and the activity of encapsulated and/or freeze-dried bacterial cells were evaluated. Extrusion-ionic gelation technique was applied to encapsulate L. reuteri CRL 1324, using xanthan and gellan. Encapsulated and free bacterial cells were freeze-dried with or without lactose and skim milk as lyoprotectors. The different systems obtained were stored at room temperature and at 4°C for 150days. The following determinations were performed: L. reuteri CRL 1324 viability, microorganism released from capsules, survival in a medium simulating the vaginal fluid and maintenance of beneficial properties (growth inhibition of opportunistic pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae NH 17 and biofilm formation). L. reuteri CRL 1324 encapsulation was efficient, allowing the recovery of a high number of entrapped lactobacilli. The survival of encapsulated L. reuteri during lyophilization and storage was significantly higher in the presence of lyoprotectors. At the end of storage, the highest numbers of viable cells were obtained in free or encapsulated cells freeze-dried with lyoprotectors, stored at 4°C. Encapsulated and/or lyophilized L. reuteri cells maintained their viability in simulated vaginal fluid as well as the ability to inhibit S. agalactiae NH 17 growth and to form biofilm. Encapsulated and freeze-dried L. reuteri CRL 1324 can be included in a suitable pharmaceutical form for vaginal application to prevent or treat urogenital infections in women. PMID:26299342

  14. Controlled release of Lactobacillus rhamnosus biofilm probiotics from alginate-locust bean gum microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Kiew, Tie Yi; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2014-03-15

    Chitosan-coated alginate microcapsules containing high-density biofilm Lactobacillus rhamnosus have been previously shown to exhibit higher freeze drying- and thermal-tolerance than their planktonic counterparts. However, their cell release profile remains poor due to the capsules' susceptibility to the gastric environment. Herein the effects of adding locust bean (LB) and xanthan (XT) gums to alginate (AGN) capsules on the stress tolerance and cell release profiles in simulated gastrointestinal fluids are investigated. Compared to the AGN-only capsules, the AGN-LB capsules exhibit improved stress tolerance (i.e. ≈ 6x for freeze drying, 100x for thermotolerance, 10x for acid), whereas the AGN-XT capsules only improve the acid tolerance. Importantly, the AGN-LB capsules possess the optimal cell release profile with a majority of cells released in the simulated intestinal juice than in the gastric juice. The AGN-LB capsules' superiority is attributed to their stronger interaction with the chitosan coating and high swelling capacity, thus delaying their bulk dissolution. PMID:24528770

  15. Effect of oral administration involving a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus reuteri on pro-inflammatory cytokine response in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Szkaradkiewicz, Anna K; Stopa, Janina; Karpiński, Tomasz M

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluation of pro-inflammatory cytokine response (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-17) in patients with chronic periodontitis administered per os with a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus reuteri. In the 38 adult patients with moderate chronic periodontitis, professional cleaning of teeth was performed. Two weeks after performing the oral hygienization procedures, clinical examination permitted to distinguish a group of 24 patients (Group 1) in whom treatment with probiotic tablets containing L. reuteri strain, producing hydrogen peroxide (Prodentis), was conducted. In the remaining 14 patients, no probiotic tablet treatment was applied (the control group; Group 2). From all patients in two terms, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was sampled from all periodontal pockets. Estimation of TNF-α, IL-lβ and IL-17 in GCF was performed using the ELISA method. After completion of the therapy with probiotic tablets, 18 (75%) of the patients of Group 1 have manifested a significant decrease in levels of studied pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-17). In parallel, we have detected an improvement of clinical indices [sulcus bleeding index (SBI), periodontal probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL)]. At individuals of Group 2 levels of studies, pro-inflammatory cytokines and clinical indices (SBI, PPD, CAL) were significantly higher than in Group 1. Results obtained in this study indicate that application of oral treatment with tablets containing probiotic strain of L. reuteri induces in most patients with chronic periodontitis a significant reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine response and improvement of clinical parameters (SBI, PPD, CAL). Therefore, such an effect may result in a reduced activity of the morbid process. PMID:24509697

  16. The other way around: probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 restrict progression of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice via activiation of CD8 alpha+ immune cell-mediated immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the immune-modulating effects of feeding a novel probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD) in rumi...

  17. The other way around: Probiotic lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 restricts progression of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice through activation of CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine immune effects of feeding novel probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD). We hypothesized that fe...

  18. Comparative proteomic analysis of a potentially probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10 for the identification of key proteins involved in antibiotic resistance and biocide tolerance.

    PubMed

    Casado Muñoz, María del Carmen; Benomar, Nabil; Ennahar, Saïd; Horvatovich, Peter; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Knapp, Charles W; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2016-04-01

    Probiotic bacterial cultures require resistance mechanisms to avoid stress-related responses under challenging environmental conditions; however, understanding these traits is required to discern their utility in fermentative food preparations, versus clinical and agricultural risk. Here, we compared the proteomic responses of Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10, a potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives, exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics (amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline) and biocides (benzalkonium chloride and triclosan). Several genes became differentially expressed depending on antimicrobial exposure, such as the up-regulation of protein synthesis, and the down-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. The antimicrobials appeared to have altered Lb. pentosus MP-10 physiology to achieve a gain of cellular energy for survival. For example, biocide-adapted Lb. pentosus MP-10 exhibited a down-regulated phosphocarrier protein HPr and an unexpressed oxidoreductase. However, protein synthesis was over-expressed in antibiotic- and biocide-adapted cells (ribosomal proteins and glutamyl-tRNA synthetase), possibly to compensate for damaged proteins targeted by antimicrobials. Furthermore, stress proteins, such as NADH peroxidase (Npx) and a small heat shock protein, were only over-expressed in antibiotic-adapted Lb. pentosus MP-10. Results showed that adaptation to sub-lethal concentrations of antimicrobials could be a good way to achieve desirable robustness of the probiotic Lb. pentosus MP-10 to various environmental and gastrointestinal conditions (e.g., acid and bile stresses). PMID:26827291

  19. Bioconversion of isoflavones and the probiotic properties of the electroporated parent and subsequent three subcultures of Lactobacillus fermentum BT 8219 in biotin-soymilk.

    PubMed

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Wan-Abdullah, Wan-Nadiah; Alias, Abdul Karim; Liong, Min-Tze

    2012-07-01

    This study was aimed at an evaluation of the potential inheritance of electroporation effects on Lactobacillus fermentum BT 8219 through to three subsequent subcultures, based on their growth, isoflavone bioconversion activities, and probiotic properties, in biotin-supplemented soymilk. Electroporation was seen to cause cell death immediately after treatment, followed by higher growth than the control during fermentation in biotin-soymilk (P<0.05). This was associated with enhanced intracellular and extracellular beta-glucosidase specific activity, leading to increased bioconversion of isoflavone glucosides to aglycones (P<0.05). The growing characteristics, enzyme, and isoflavone bioconversion activities of the first, second, and third subcultures of treated cells in biotin-soymilk were similar to the control (P>0.05). Electroporation affected the probiotic properties of parent L. fermentum BT 8219, by reducing its tolerance towards acid (pH 2) and bile, lowering its inhibitory activities against selected pathogens, and reducing its ability for adhesion, when compared with the control (P<0.05). The first, second, and third subcultures of the treated cells showed comparable traits with that of the control (P>0.05), with the exception of their bile tolerance ability, which was inherited to the treated cells of the first and second subcultures (P<0.05). Our results suggest that electroporation could be used to increase the bioactivity of biotin-soymilk via fermentation with probiotic L. fermentum BT 8219, with a view towards the development of functional foods. PMID:22580314

  20. Partial Purification and Characterization of a Bacteriocin DT24 Produced by Probiotic Vaginal Lactobacillus brevis DT24 and Determination of its Anti-Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Potential.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Disha; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Patel, Jignesh Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2013-06-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance has increased the interest for finding new antimicrobials in the past decade. Probiotic Lactic acid bacteria producing antimicrobial proteins like bacteriocin can be excellent agents for development as novel therapeutic agents and complement to conventional antibiotic therapy. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli, most causative agent of Urinary tract infection, has developed resistance to various antibiotics. In the present investigation, antibacterial substance like bacteriocin (Bacteriocin DT24) produced by probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24 from vaginal sample of healthy Indian woman was partially purified and characterized. It was efficiently working against various pathogens, that is, Uropathogenic E. coli, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial peptide was relatively heat resistant and also active over a broad range of pH 2-10. It has been partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography and checked on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bacteriocin DT24 was approximately 7-kDa protein. The peptide is inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, trypsin and lipase but not when treated with catalase, α-amylase and pepsin. It showed bacteriostatic mode of action against uropathogenic E. coli. Such characteristics indicate that this bacteriocin-producing probiotic may be a potential candidate for alternative agents to control urinary tract infections and other pathogens. PMID:26782739

  1. The Differential Proteome of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Grown on the Potential Prebiotic Cellobiose Shows Upregulation of Two β-Glycoside Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    van Zanten, Gabriella C.; Sparding, Nadja; Majumder, Avishek; Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Svensson, Birte; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is, synbiotics, are known to exert beneficial health effects in humans; however interactions between pro- and prebiotics remain poorly understood at the molecular level. The present study describes changes in abundance of different proteins of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) when grown on the potential prebiotic cellobiose as compared to glucose. Cytosolic cell extract proteomes after harvest at late exponential phase of NCFM grown on cellobiose or glucose were analyzed by two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in the acidic (pH 4–7) and the alkaline (pH 6–11) regions showing a total of 136 spots to change in abundance. Proteins were identified by MS or MS/MS from 81 of these spots representing 49 unique proteins and either increasing 1.5–13.9-fold or decreasing 1.5–7.8-fold in relative abundance. Many of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, including the cellobiose related glycoside hydrolases phospho-β-glucosidase (LBA0881) and phospho-β-galactosidase II (LBA0726). The data provide insight into the utilization of the candidate prebiotic cellobiose by the probiotic bacterium NCFM. Several of the upregulated or downregulated identified proteins associated with utilization of cellobiose indicate the presence of carbon catabolite repression and regulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:25961012

  2. The Differential Proteome of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Grown on the Potential Prebiotic Cellobiose Shows Upregulation of Two β -Glycoside Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Gabriella C; Sparding, Nadja; Majumder, Avishek; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Svensson, Birte; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is, synbiotics, are known to exert beneficial health effects in humans; however interactions between pro- and prebiotics remain poorly understood at the molecular level. The present study describes changes in abundance of different proteins of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) when grown on the potential prebiotic cellobiose as compared to glucose. Cytosolic cell extract proteomes after harvest at late exponential phase of NCFM grown on cellobiose or glucose were analyzed by two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in the acidic (pH 4-7) and the alkaline (pH 6-11) regions showing a total of 136 spots to change in abundance. Proteins were identified by MS or MS/MS from 81 of these spots representing 49 unique proteins and either increasing 1.5-13.9-fold or decreasing 1.5-7.8-fold in relative abundance. Many of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, including the cellobiose related glycoside hydrolases phospho-β-glucosidase (LBA0881) and phospho-β-galactosidase II (LBA0726). The data provide insight into the utilization of the candidate prebiotic cellobiose by the probiotic bacterium NCFM. Several of the upregulated or downregulated identified proteins associated with utilization of cellobiose indicate the presence of carbon catabolite repression and regulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:25961012

  3. Effects of BV-Associated Bacteria and Sexual Intercourse on Vaginal Colonization with the Probiotic Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05

    PubMed Central

    Ngugi, Benjamin M.; Hemmerling, Anke; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Kikuvi, Gideon; Gikunju, Joseph; Shiboski, Stephen; Fredricks, David N.; Cohen, Craig R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Several fastidious bacteria have been associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), but their role in lactobacilli recolonization failure is unknown. We studied the effect of seven BV-associated bacterial species and two Lactobacillus species on vaginal colonization with L. crispatus CTV-05 (LACTIN-V). Methods Twenty four women with BV were given a 5-day course of metronidazole vaginal gel and then randomized 3:1 to receive either LACTIN-V or placebo applied vaginally once daily for 5 initial consecutive days, followed by a weekly application over 2 weeks. Vaginal swabs for L. crispatus CTV-05 culture and 9-bacterium specific 16S rRNA gene quantitative PCR assays were analyzed on several study visits for the 18 women receiving LACTIN-V. Results Vaginal colonization with CTV-05 was achieved in 61% of the participants receiving LACTIN-V at either the day 10 or the 28 visit and 44% at day 28. Participants not colonized with CTV-05 had generally higher median concentrations of BV-associated bacteria compared to those who colonized. Between enrollment and day 28, the median concentration of Gardnerella vaginalis minimally reduced from 104.5 to 104.3 16S rRNA gene copies per swab in women who colonized with CTV-05 but increased from 105.7 to 107.3 in those who failed to colonize (p=0.19). Similarly, the median concentration of Atopobium spp. reduced from 102.7 16S rRNA gene copies per swab to below limit of detection in women who colonized with CTV-05 but increased from 102.7 to 106.6 in those who failed to colonize (p=0.04). The presence of endogenous L. crispatus at enrollment was found to be significantly associated with a reduced odds of colonization with CTV-05 on day 28 (p=0.003) and vaginal intercourse during the study significantly impaired successful CTV-05 colonization (p=0.018). Conclusion Vaginal concentration of certain BV-associated bacteria, vaginal intercourse during treatment and presence of endogenous L. crispatus at enrollment predict

  4. Inactivation of bacterial pathogens in yoba mutandabota, a dairy product fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba.

    PubMed

    Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Nout, Martinus J R; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2016-01-18

    Mutandabota is a dairy product consumed as a major source of proteins and micronutrients in Southern Africa. In this study the microbial safety of traditional and a variant of mutandabota fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba (yoba mutandabota) was investigated by challenging the products with five important food pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Bacillus cereus. Pasteurized full-fat cow's milk was used for producing traditional and yoba mutandabota, and was inoculated with a cocktail of strains of the pathogens at an inoculum level of 5.5 log cfu/mL. Survival of the pathogens was monitored over a potential consumption time of 24h for traditional mutandabota, and over 24h of fermentation followed by 24h of potential consumption time for yoba mutandabota. In traditional mutandabota (pH3.4 ± 0.1) no viable cells of B. cereus and C. jejuni were detected 3h after inoculation, while L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. significantly declined (P<0.05), but could still be detected (<3.5 log inactivation) at the end of the potential consumption time. This indicated that consumption of traditional mutandabota exposes consumers to the risk of food-borne microbial infections. In yoba mutandabota, L. rhamnosus yoba grew from 5.5 ± 0.1 log cfu/mL to 9.1 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL in the presence of pathogens. The pH of yoba mutandabota dropped from 4.2 ± 0.1 to 3.3 ± 0.1 after 24h of fermentation, mainly due to organic acids produced during fermentation. Only Salmonella spp. was able to grow in yoba mutandabota during the first 9h of fermentation, but then decreased in viable plate count. None of the tested pathogens were detected (>3.5 log inactivation) after 3h into potential consumption time of yoba mutandabota. Inactivation of pathogens in mutandabota is of public health significance because food-borne pathogens endanger public health upon consumption of contaminated food

  5. Differential Targeting of the E-Cadherin/β-Catenin Complex by Gram-Positive Probiotic Lactobacilli Improves Epithelial Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Stephanie; Veltman, Katharina; Cichon, Christoph; Sonnenborn, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal ecosystem is balanced by dynamic interactions between resident and incoming microbes, the gastrointestinal barrier, and the mucosal immune system. However, in the context of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), where the integrity of the gastrointestinal barrier is compromised, resident microbes contribute to the development and perpetuation of inflammation and disease. Probiotic bacteria have been shown to exert beneficial effects, e.g., enhancing epithelial barrier integrity. However, the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are only poorly understood. Here, we comparatively investigated the effects of four probiotic lactobacilli, namely, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. gasseri, and L. rhamnosus, in a T84 cell epithelial barrier model. Results of DNA microarray experiments indicating that lactobacilli modulate the regulation of genes encoding in particular adherence junction proteins such as E-cadherin and β-catenin were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, we show that epithelial barrier function is modulated by Gram-positive probiotic lactobacilli via their effect on adherence junction protein expression and complex formation. In addition, incubation with lactobacilli differentially influences the phosphorylation of adherence junction proteins and the abundance of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms such as PKCδ that thereby positively modulates epithelial barrier function. Further insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms triggered by these probiotics might also foster the development of novel strategies for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (e.g., IBD). PMID:22179242

  6. Identification to the species level of Lactobacillus isolated in probiotic prospecting studies of human, animal or food origin by 16S-23S rRNA restriction profiling

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, João Luiz S; Mota, Rodrigo M; Horta, Maria F; Teixeira, Santuza MR; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nicoli, Jacques R; Nunes, Álvaro C

    2005-01-01

    Background The accurate identification of Lactobacillus and other co-isolated bacteria during microbial ecological studies of ecosystems such as the human or animal intestinal tracts and food products is a hard task by phenotypic methods requiring additional tests such as protein and/or lipids profiling. Results Bacteria isolated in different probiotic prospecting studies, using de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS), were typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers using universal primers that anneal within 16S and 23S genes, followed by restriction digestion analyses of PCR products. The set of enzymes chosen differentiates most species of Lactobacillus genus and also co-isolated bacteria such as Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Weissella, Staphylococcus, and Escherichia species. The in silico predictions of restriction patterns generated by the Lactobacillus shorter spacers digested with 11 restriction enzymes with 6 bp specificities allowed us to distinguish almost all isolates at the species level but not at the subspecies one. Simultaneous theoretical digestions of the three spacers (long, medium and short) with the same set of enzymes provided more complex patterns and allowed us to distinguish the species without purifying and cloning of PCR products. Conclusion Lactobacillus isolates and several other strains of bacteria co-isolated on MRS medium from gastrointestinal ecosystem and fermented food products could be identified using DNA fingerprints generated by restriction endonucleases. The methodology based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) is easier, faster and more accurate than the current methodologies based on fermentation profiles, used in most laboratories for the purpose of identification of these bacteria in different prospecting studies. PMID:15788104

  7. [Inhibitory activity of vaginal Lactobacillus bacteria on yeasts causing vulvovaginal candidiasis].

    PubMed

    Strus, Magdalena; Brzychczy-Włoch, Monika; Kucharska, Agnieszka; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Heczko, Piotr B

    2005-01-01

    Growing frequency of therapeutical failures of vulvovaginal candidiasis, resulting from resistance of certain species of Candida to imidazole agents, raises interest in the use of probiotics from Lactobacillus genera as prophylaxis. Unfortunately, little is known about inhibitory mechanisms of Lactobacillus on Candida. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of selected Lactobacillus species, representing the physiological vaginal flora, against Candida as well as investigation whether their inhibitory activity against Candida is related strictly to hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid production. 125 strains from vaginal smears of healthy women were classified by making use of phenotypic and genotypic methods. The majority of strains belonged to L. acidophilus: L. acidophilus sensu stricto, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. johnsonii as well as L. fermentum and L. plantarum species. Culture supernatants of selected 25 strains representing the isolated species were examined for their inhibitory activity against the growth of Candida albicans and C. glabrata. The results showed that the strongest and the fastest activity against C. albicans was demonstrated by L. delbrueckii strains, producing the largest quantities of hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, extended activity, demonstrable after 24 hours, was shown by non-H2O2 producing L. plantarum supernatants. Growth of C. glabrata was not inhibited by any of the examined strains of Lactobacillus. Comparison of activity of live active cultures of Lactobacillus strains and their mixtures with this of pure H2O2 and lactic acid has shown that pure chemical compounds were less active than the cultures. This suggests that mixtures of Lactobacillus strains are in cooperation with each other using many different metabolites. PMID:16130291

  8. Effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides consumption on the growth and expression profile of cell surface-associated proteins of a potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus FSMM15

    PubMed Central

    MURTINI, Devi; ARYANTINI, Ni Putu Desy; SUJAYA, I Nengah; URASHIMA, Tadasu; FUKUDA, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    To investigate carbohydrate preference of a potential probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus FSMM15, six prebiotics, including two milk-derived prebiotics, galactooligosaccharides and lacto-N-biose I, and four plant-origin prebiotics, beet oligosaccharide syrup, difructose anhydride III, fructooligosaccharides, and raffinose, were examined. The strain utilized the milk-derived prebiotics at similar levels to glucose but did not utilize the plant-origin ones in the same manner, reflecting their genetic background, which allows them to adapt to dairy ecological niches. These prebiotics had little influence on the expression pattern of cell surface-associated proteins in the strain; however, an ATP-binding cassette transporter substrate-binding protein and a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were suggested to be upregulated in response to carbon starvation stress. PMID:26858929

  9. A Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled-Trial of a Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus sakei Probio-65 for the Prevention of Canine Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejin; Rather, Irfan A; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Taeeun; Jang, Jaeyoung; Seo, Jimin; Lim, Jeongheui; Park, Yong-Ha

    2015-11-28

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a ubiquitous, chronic inflammatory skin disorder prevalent in dogs, which results in production of abnormal levels of IgE antibodies in reciprocation to an allergen challenge. In this study, administration of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakei probio-65 for 2 months significantly reduced the disease severity index in experimental dogs diagnosed with CAD. In addition, one month pre-medication of L. sakei probio-65 revealed significant difference in the PVAS score in experimental dogs for both probio-65 and placebo groups. However, post 2 months treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the CASESI score values in the probio-65-treated group (p < .0.06). PMID:26282691

  10. Monitoring of Water Spectral Pattern Reveals Differences in Probiotics Growth When Used for Rapid Bacteria Selection

    PubMed Central

    Slavchev, Aleksandar; Kovacs, Zoltan; Koshiba, Haruki; Nagai, Airi; Bázár, György; Krastanov, Albert; Kubota, Yousuke; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2015-01-01

    Development of efficient screening method coupled with cell functionality evaluation is highly needed in contemporary microbiology. The presented novel concept and fast non-destructive method brings in to play the water spectral pattern of the solution as a molecular fingerprint of the cell culture system. To elucidate the concept, NIR spectroscopy with Aquaphotomics were applied to monitor the growth of sixteen Lactobacillus bulgaricus one Lactobacillus pentosus and one Lactobacillus gasseri bacteria strains. Their growth rate, maximal optical density, low pH and bile tolerances were measured and further used as a reference data for analysis of the simultaneously acquired spectral data. The acquired spectral data in the region of 1100-1850nm was subjected to various multivariate data analyses – PCA, OPLS-DA, PLSR. The results showed high accuracy of bacteria strains classification according to their probiotic strength. Most informative spectral fingerprints covered the first overtone of water, emphasizing the relation of water molecular system to cell functionality. PMID:26133176

  11. The Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Helicobacter pylori Eradication Rates and Side Effects during Eradication Therapy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yini; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Guoxin

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous meta-analyses reported that probiotics improve the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication during antibiotic therapy, while results regarding a possible reduction of side effects remained inconclusive. Moreover, the effectiveness of different strains of probiotics has not been studied so far. It is further conceivable that probiotics will produce additional effects only if antibiotics are relatively ineffective. Methods This meta-analysis includes eligible randomized controlled trials examining effects of probiotics supplementation on eradication rates (ER) and side effects, published up to May 2014. Sub-group analysis was performed to compare different probiotic strains and antibiotic therapies with different effectiveness in controls (ER <80% vs.>80%). Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots and Harbord's test. The quality of the trials was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 4459 patients met the inclusion criteria in case of eradication rates of which 20 assessed total side effects in addition. Overall, the pooled eradication rate in probiotics supplementation groups was significantly higher than in controls (ITT analysis: RR 1.122, 95% CI 1.086–1.159, PP analysis: RR 1.114, 95% CI 1.070–1.159). Sub group-analysis could, however, confirm this finding only for four individual strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Bifidobacterium infantis 2036) and for relatively ineffective antibiotic therapies. There was a significant difference between groups in the overall incidence of side effects (RR 0.735, 95% CI 0.598–0.902). This result was, however, only confirmed for non-blinded trials. Conclusions The pooled data suggest that supplementation with specific strains of probiotics compared with eradication therapy may be considered an option for increasing eradication rates, particularly when antibiotic

  12. Protection of probiotic bacteria in synbiotic matrices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotics, like Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, when encapsulated with prebiotic fibers such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), inulin (I) and pectic-oligosaccharides (POS), formed a synbiotic matrix system that protected the bacteria ...

  13. Probiotic bacteria lactobacillus and bifidobacterium attenuate inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Toumi, R; Soufli, I; Rafa, H; Belkhelfa, M; Biad, A; Touil-Boukoffa, C

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) arises from a dysregulated mucosal immune response to the enteric microbiota in the gut of a genetically susceptible individual. No definitive therapies are available for this inflammatory disorder. Therefore it became imperative to develop new strategies for treating this disease. Probiotics have emerged as a potential new therapeutic strategy for IBD, however their exact mechanisms of action is still poorly defined. In this study, we address the potential effect of a probiotic cocktail (Ultrabiotique®) composed of four live bacterial strains (L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, B. lactis and B.breve) to promote recovery from acute colitis. Probiotic was given to mice by oral gavage after the onset of colitis and the establishment of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal injury. Clinical parameters were monitored daily, histological scores of colitis and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were determined. In addition, TLR4, NF-κB and iNOS colonic expression were examined. Probiotic treatment ameliorated clinical symptoms and histological scores. NO and IFN-γ production in plasma were decreased by probiotic. These results were associated with reduced TLR4, iNOS and NF-кB expression in colonic tissue. In conclusion, probiotic exerted anti-inflammatory effects and contributed to a rapid recovery of DSS-induced acute colitis. PMID:25572742

  14. Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or prebiotic inulin attenuates pathogen-mediated intestinal inflammation and Smad 7 cell signaling

    PubMed Central

    Foye, Ondulla T.; Huang, I-Fei; Chiou, Christine C.; Walker, W. Allan; Shi, Hai Ning

    2014-01-01

    Immaturity of gut-associated immunity may contribute to pediatric mortality associated with enteric infections. A murine model to parallel infantile enteric disease was used to determine the effects of probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus (La), prebiotic, inulin, or both (synbiotic, syn) on pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, NF-κB, and Smad 7 signaling. Newborn mice were inoculated bi-weekly for 4 weeks with La, inulin, or syn and challenged with Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) at 5 weeks. Mouse intestinal epithelial cells (CMT93) were exposed to Cr to determine temporal alterations in NF-Kappa B and Smad 7 levels. Mice with pretreatment of La, inulin, and syn show reduced intestinal inflammation following Cr infection compared with controls, which is associated with significantly reduced bacterial colonization in La, inulin, and syn animals. Our results further show that host defense against Cr infection correlated with enhanced colonic IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β expression and inhibition of NF-κB in syn-treated mice, whereas mice pretreated with syn, La, or inulin had attenuation of Cr-induced Smad 7 expression. There was a temporal Smad 7 and NF-κB intracellular accumulation post-Cr infection and post-tumor necrosis factor stimulation in CMT93 cells. These results, therefore, suggest that probiotic, La, prebiotic inulin, or synbiotic may promote host-protective immunity and attenuate Cr-induced intestinal inflammation through mechanisms affecting NF-κB and Smad 7 signaling. PMID:22524476

  15. Potential probiotic attributes and antagonistic activity of an indigenous isolate Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 from an ethnic fermented beverage "Marcha" of north eastern Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2014-05-01

    A novel isolate DM5 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum displayed in vitro probiotic properties as well as antimicrobial activity. It showed adequate level of survival to the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and survived low acidic pH 2.5 for 5 h. Artificial gastric juice and intestinal fluidic environment decreased the initial viable cell population of isolate DM5 only by 7% and 13%, respectively, while lysozyme (200 µg/ml) and bile salt (0.5%) enhanced its growth. It was found to deconjugate taurodeoxycholic acid, indicating its potential to reduce hypercholesterolemia. Isolate DM5 demonstrated cell surface hydrophobicity of 53% and autoaggregation of 54% which are the prerequisite for adhesion to epithelial cells and colonization to host. Bacteriocin activity of isolate was found to be 6400 AU/ml as it inhibited the growth of food borne pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Alcaligenes faecalis. The bactericidal action of bacteriocin from isolate was analyzed by flow cytometry, rendering its use as prospective probiotic and starter culture in food industry. PMID:24393040

  16. Substances released from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 potentiate NF-κB activity in Escherichia coli-stimulated urinary bladder cells.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Mattias; Scherbak, Nikolai; Khalaf, Hazem; Olsson, Per-Erik; Jass, Jana

    2012-11-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic bacterium used to maintain urogenital health. The putative mechanism for its probiotic effect is by modulating the host immunity. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are often caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli that frequently evade or suppress immune responses in the bladder and can target pathways, including nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). We evaluated the role of L. rhamnosus GR-1 on NF-κB activation in E. coli-stimulated bladder cells. Viable L. rhamnosus GR-1 was found to potentiate NF-κB activity in E. coli-stimulated T24 bladder cells, whereas heat-killed lactobacilli demonstrated a marginal increase in NF-κB activity. Surface components released by trypsin- or LiCl treatment, or the resultant heat-killed shaved lactobacilli, had no effect on NF-κB activity. Isolation of released products from L. rhamnosus GR-1 demonstrated that the induction of NF-κB activity was owing to released product(s) with a relatively large native size. Several putative immunomodulatory proteins were identified, namely GroEL, elongation factor Tu and NLP/P60. GroEL and elongation factor Tu have previously been shown to elicit immune responses from human cells. Isolating and using immune-augmenting substances produced by lactobacilli is a novel strategy for the prevention or treatment of UTI caused by immune-evading E. coli. PMID:22620976

  17. Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or prebiotic inulin attenuates pathogen-mediated intestinal inflammation and Smad 7 cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Foye, Ondulla T; Huang, I-Fei; Chiou, Christine C; Walker, W Allan; Shi, Hai Ning

    2012-08-01

    Immaturity of gut-associated immunity may contribute to pediatric mortality associated with enteric infections. A murine model to parallel infantile enteric disease was used to determine the effects of probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus (La), prebiotic, inulin, or both (synbiotic, syn) on pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, NF-κB, and Smad 7 signaling. Newborn mice were inoculated bi-weekly for 4 weeks with La, inulin, or syn and challenged with Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) at 5 weeks. Mouse intestinal epithelial cells (CMT93) were exposed to Cr to determine temporal alterations in NF-Kappa B and Smad 7 levels. Mice with pretreatment of La, inulin, and syn show reduced intestinal inflammation following Cr infection compared with controls, which is associated with significantly reduced bacterial colonization in La, inulin, and syn animals. Our results further show that host defense against Cr infection correlated with enhanced colonic IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β expression and inhibition of NF-κB in syn-treated mice, whereas mice pretreated with syn, La, or inulin had attenuation of Cr-induced Smad 7 expression. There was a temporal Smad 7 and NF-κB intracellular accumulation post-Cr infection and post-tumor necrosis factor stimulation in CMT93 cells. These results, therefore, suggest that probiotic, La, prebiotic inulin, or synbiotic may promote host-protective immunity and attenuate Cr-induced intestinal inflammation through mechanisms affecting NF-κB and Smad 7 signaling. PMID:22524476

  18. Effect of green Spanish-style Manzanilla packaging conditions on the prevalence of the putative probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus pentosus TOMC-LAB2.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Francisco; Romero-Gil, Verónica; García-García, Pedro; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    This work focuses on the persistence of the putative probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus pentosus TOMC-LAB2 on green Spanish-style Manzanilla olives according to different packaging conditions and storage temperatures. The lactic acid bacteria population decreased with time but the highest survival counts (and lowest yeasts) at the end of storage (8 months) were observed in plastic pouches under nitrogen atmosphere and glass jars with brine stored at 20°C. Molecular techniques showed a 100% presence of the putative probiotic bacteria in biofilms adhered to olive epidermis, while it was absent in PPB (plastic pouches with brine) and in olives stored at 7°C. No changes in NaCl, pH or combined acidity were observed during the storage except for a slight increase in titratable acidity at 20°C. The color of the fruits was stable but degraded at 20°C for olives in plastic pouches with brine. PMID:27004108

  19. Co-administration of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 CCM7766 with prebiotic inulin alleviates the intestinal inflammation in rats exposed to N,N-dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Štofilová, Jana; Szabadosová, Viktória; Hrčková, Gabriela; Salaj, Rastislav; Bertková, Izabela; Hijová, Emília; Strojný, Ladislav; Bomba, Alojz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of preventive administration of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 CCM7766 alone or in combination with prebiotic inulin or with flax-seed oil in the gut of rats, which developed chronic inflammation following administration of the pro-carcinogen N,N-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). After 28weeks administration of probiotic/prebiotic-containing diet, rats were killed and their colons were examined by immunohistological criteria, whereas cytokines were determined in the jejunal mucosa. Application of DMH triggered the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α, expression of pro-inflammatory mediators NF-κB, COX-2 and iNOS and caused depletion of goblet cells. Supplementing the diet with L. plantarum and its combination with the prebiotic abolished DMH-induced inflammatory process in the jejunal mucosa by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and by stimulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine synthesis, whereas concentration of TGF-β1 was not influenced significantly. Diet prevented a decrease in goblet cell numbers but numbers of mast cells were lowered only moderately. However, combined treatment of rats with L. plantarum and flax-seed oil had no significant effect on the parameters examined, except for decreased expression of NF-κB, in comparison with the negative control. Results indicate that the preventive administration of probiotic L. plantarum LS/07 CCM7766 alone or in combination with prebiotic inulin to rats with DMH-induced chronic inflammation can reduce inflammatory process in the jejunal and colon mucosa, probably indirectly, and involves down-regulation of synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of NF-κB activity in mucosal cells. PMID:25536541

  20. Performance of two potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains from the olive microbiota as starters in the fermentation of heat shocked green olives.

    PubMed

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Nisiotou, Aspasia A; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2014-02-01

    The performance of two potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains from olive microbiota, namely L. pentosus B281 and L. plantarum B282 was assessed as starter cultures in Spanish-style fermentation of heat shocked green olives cv. Halkidiki. Two different initial salt levels were studied, 10% (w/v) and 8% (w/v) NaCl, and the brines were inoculated with (a) L. pentosus B281, (b) L. plantarum B282, and (c) a mixture of both strains. A spontaneous fermentation was also taken into account as control treatment. Prior to brining, olives were heat shocked at 80 °C for 10 min to reduce the level of the indigenous microbiota on olive drupes and facilitate the dominance of the inoculated cultures. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory analyses were conducted throughout fermentation. The composition of LAB population and the evolution of added inocula were assessed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). The final population of LAB was maintained above 6 log cycles in olive flesh. Both L. pentosus B281 and L. plantarum B282 were able to dominate over indigenous LAB, albeit strain B281 exhibited higher recovery percentages (100 or 94.7% for B281 and 58.8% or 55.0% for B282 in 10% or 8% NaCl, respectively). L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282, when the two strains were co-inoculated in olive fermentations. The sensory assessment showed higher preference for inoculated fermentations of L. pentosus and L. plantarum separately in 8% NaCl, followed by the L. plantarum in 10% NaCl. The present study showed that probiotic strains L. pentosus B281 and L. plantarum B282, may offer a great potential for use as functional starter cultures in olive fermentation and deliver a promising probiotic food to the consumer. PMID:24334091

  1. In Vitro Functional and Immunomodulatory Properties of the Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5-Streptococcus salivarius ST3 Association That Are Relevant to the Development of a Pharyngeal Probiotic Product

    PubMed Central

    Taverniti, Valentina; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; Junttila, Ilkka; Hämäläinen, Sanna; Turpeinen, Hannu; Mora, Diego; Karp, Matti; Pesu, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The use of proper bacterial strains as probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa is a potential prophylactic strategy for upper respiratory tract infections. In this context, we characterized in vitro the functional and immunomodulatory properties of the strains Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 and Streptococcus salivarius ST3 that were selected during previous investigations as promising pharyngeal probiotics. In this study, we demonstrated in vitro that strains MIMLh5 and ST3, alone and in combination, can efficiently adhere to pharyngeal epithelial cells, antagonize Streptococcus pyogenes, and modulate host innate immunity by inducing potentially protective effects. In particular, we found that the strains MIMLh5 and ST3 activate U937 human macrophages by significantly inducing the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Nonetheless, the induction of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) by MIMLh5 or ST3 was never lower than that of TNF-α, suggesting that these bacteria can potentially exert a regulatory rather than a proinflammatory effect. We also found that the strains MIMLh5 and ST3 induce cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression and demonstrated that toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) participates in the recognition of the strains MIMLh5 and ST3 by U937 cells. Finally, we observed that these microorganisms grow efficiently when cocultured in milk, suggesting that the preparation of a milk-based fermented product containing both MIMLh5 and ST3 can be a practical solution for the administration of these bacteria. In conclusion, we propose the combined use of L. helveticus MIMLh5 and S. salivarius ST3 for the preparation of novel products that display probiotic properties for the pharyngeal mucosa. PMID:22504812

  2. In vitro functional and immunomodulatory properties of the Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5-Streptococcus salivarius ST3 association that are relevant to the development of a pharyngeal probiotic product.

    PubMed

    Taverniti, Valentina; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; Junttila, Ilkka; Hämäläinen, Sanna; Turpeinen, Hannu; Mora, Diego; Karp, Matti; Pesu, Marko; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2012-06-01

    The use of proper bacterial strains as probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa is a potential prophylactic strategy for upper respiratory tract infections. In this context, we characterized in vitro the functional and immunomodulatory properties of the strains Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 and Streptococcus salivarius ST3 that were selected during previous investigations as promising pharyngeal probiotics. In this study, we demonstrated in vitro that strains MIMLh5 and ST3, alone and in combination, can efficiently adhere to pharyngeal epithelial cells, antagonize Streptococcus pyogenes, and modulate host innate immunity by inducing potentially protective effects. In particular, we found that the strains MIMLh5 and ST3 activate U937 human macrophages by significantly inducing the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Nonetheless, the induction of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) by MIMLh5 or ST3 was never lower than that of TNF-α, suggesting that these bacteria can potentially exert a regulatory rather than a proinflammatory effect. We also found that the strains MIMLh5 and ST3 induce cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression and demonstrated that toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) participates in the recognition of the strains MIMLh5 and ST3 by U937 cells. Finally, we observed that these microorganisms grow efficiently when cocultured in milk, suggesting that the preparation of a milk-based fermented product containing both MIMLh5 and ST3 can be a practical solution for the administration of these bacteria. In conclusion, we propose the combined use of L. helveticus MIMLh5 and S. salivarius ST3 for the preparation of novel products that display probiotic properties for the pharyngeal mucosa. PMID:22504812

  3. Oral inoculation of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM suppresses tumour growth both in segmental orthotopic colon cancer and extra-intestinal tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Lin, Wei-Chuan; Kong, Man-Shan; Shi, Hai Ning; Walker, W Allan; Lin, Chun-Yen; Huang, Ching-Tai; Lin, Yung-Chang; Jung, Shih-Ming; Lin, Tzou-Yien

    2012-06-01

    Modulation of the cellular response by the administration of probiotic bacteria may be an effective strategy for preventing or inhibiting tumour growth. We orally pre-inoculated mice with probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (La) for 14 d. Subcutaneous dorsal-flank tumours and segmental orthotopic colon cancers were implanted into mice using CT-26 murine colon adenocarcinoma cells. On day 28 after tumour initiation, the lamina propria of the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were harvested and purified for flow cytometry and mRNA analyses. We demonstrated that La pre-inoculation reduced tumour volume growth by 50·3 %, compared with untreated mice at 28 d after tumour implants (2465·5 (SEM 1290·4) v. 4950·9 (SEM 1689·3) mm³, P<0·001). Inoculation with La reduced the severity of colonic carcinogenesis caused by CT-26 cells, such as level of colonic involvement and structural abnormality of epithelial/crypt damage. Moreover, La enhanced apoptosis of CT-26 cells both in dorsal-flank tumour and segmental orthotopic colon cancer, and the mean counts of apoptotic body were higher in mice pre-inoculated with La (P<0·05) compared with untreated mice. La pre-inoculation down-regulated the CXCR4 mRNA expressions in the colon, MLN and extra-intestinal tissue, compared with untreated mice (P<0·05). In addition, La pre-inoculation reduced the mean fluorescence index of MHC class I (H-2Dd, -Kd and -Ld) in flow cytometry analysis. Taken together, these findings suggest that probiotics La may play a role in attenuating tumour growth during CT-26 cell carcinogenesis. The down-regulated expression of CXCR4 mRNA and MHC class I, as well as increasing apoptosis in tumour tissue, indicated that La may be associated with modulating the cellular response triggered by colon carcinogenesis. PMID:21992995

  4. A Lactobacillus casei Shirota probiotic drink reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in patients with spinal cord injuries: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samford; Jamous, Ali; O'Driscoll, Jean; Sekhar, Ravi; Weldon, Mike; Yau, Chi Y; Hirani, Shashivadan P; Grimble, George; Forbes, Alastair

    2014-02-01

    Certain probiotics may prevent the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD), but their effectiveness depends on both strain and dose. There are few data on nutritional interventions to control AAD/CDAD in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. The present study aimed to assess (1) the efficacy of consuming a commercially produced probiotic containing at least 6·5 × 10⁹ live Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) in reducing the incidence of AAD/CDAD, and (2) whether undernutrition and proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are risk factors for AAD/CDAD. A total of 164 SCI patients (50·1 (sd 17·8) years) with a requirement for antibiotics (median 21 d, range 5-366) were randomly allocated to receive LcS (n 76) or no probiotic (n 82). LcS was given once daily for the duration of the antibiotic course and continued for 7 days thereafter. Nutritional risk was assessed by the Spinal Nutrition Screening Tool. The LcS group had a significantly lower incidence of AAD (17·1 v. 54·9%, P< 0·001). At baseline, 65% of patients were at undernutrition risk. Undernutrition (64·1 v. 33·3%, P< 0·01) and the use of PPI (38·4 v. 12·1 %, P= 0·022) were found to be associated with AAD. However, no significant difference was observed in nutrient intake between the groups. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified poor appetite ( < 1/2 meals eaten) (OR 5·04, 95% CI 1·28, 19·84) and no probiotic (OR 8·46, 95% CI 3·22, 22·20) as the independent risk factors for AAD. The present study indicated that LcS could reduce the incidence of AAD in hospitalised SCI patients. A randomised, placebo-controlled study is needed to confirm this apparent therapeutic success in order to translate into improved clinical outcomes. PMID:24044687

  5. Antitumorigenic activity of the prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Luceri, Cristina; Dolara, Piero; Giannini, Augusto; Biggeri, Annibale; Salvadori, Maddalena; Clune, Yvonne; Collins, Kevin J; Paglierani, Milena; Caderni, Giovanna

    2002-11-01

    Prebiotics such as fructans, and probiotics such as Lactobacilli or Bifidobacteria, or a combination of prebiotics and probiotics (synbiotics) are thought to be protective against colon cancer. Therefore, we studied whether the prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose (Raftilose-Synergy1, briefly, Synergy1, 10% of the diet), probiotics [Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb12) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG), each at 5x10(8) c.f.u./g diet] or synbiotics (a combination of the two) protect rats against azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer. Male F344 rats were divided into: Controls; PRE, which were fed a diet containing Synergy1; PRO, fed a diet containing LGG and Bb12; PREPRO, fed a diet containing Synergy1, LGG and BB12. Ten days after beginning the diets, rats were treated with AOM (15 mg/kg s.c. two times); dietary treatments were continued for the entire experiment. Thirty-one weeks after AOM, rats treated with Synergy1 (PRE and PREPRO groups) had a significantly lower (P < 0.001) number of tumours (adenomas and cancers) than rats without Synergy1 (colorectal tumours/rat were 1.9 +/- 1.7, 1.1 +/- 1.1, 2.2 +/- 1.4 and 0.9 +/- 1.2 in Controls, PRE, PRO and PREPRO groups, respectively, means +/- SD). A slight, not significant effect of probiotics in reducing malignant tumours was also observed (P = 0.079). Caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were higher (P < 0.001) in the groups treated with Synergy1. Apoptosis was increased in the normal mucosa of the PRO group, while no variation was observed in the tumours. Colonic proliferation was lower in the PRE group as compared with Controls. Glutathione S-transferase placental enzyme pi type expression, and to a lesser extent, inducible NO synthase were depressed in the tumours from rats in the PRE and PREPRO groups. Cycloxygenase-2 expression was increased in the tumours of control rats but not in those from PRE, PRO or PREPRO rats. In conclusion, prebiotic administration in the diet decreases AOM-induced carcinogenesis

  6. Evaluation of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutans by Addition of Probiotics in the form of Curd in the Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Mantha, Somasundar; Murthi, Surekha; Sura, Himagiri; Kadaru, Pravallika; Jangra, Jogender Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when taken in adequate amounts provide a health benefit on the host. They have been used to improve gastrointestinal health, and their popularity has prompted increased interest for their role in the promotion of oral health also. The study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of diet alteration on oral microflora with the addition of probiotics in the form of curd in the diet. Materials and Methods: Sample pool included total 20 children, 15 in experimental group; who were given curd containing probiotic bacteria in their diet daily and 5 children in control group; who were contradicted of food containing probiotics. All the children were followed for over a period of 1-year. A pre and post quantitative analysis of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli were done in the saliva of both active and control groups, and caries score was recorded. Statistical analysis used: The data thus compiled were statistically evaluated using Chi-square test and Pearson correlation on SPSS software version 14. Results: In experimental group, 87% children showed decrease and 7% showed increase in S. mutans count (P = 0.83), whereas 67% showed increase and 7% decrease in Lactobacilli count (P = 0.002) after 1-year of follow-up. Conclusions: Probiotics are upcoming as an intriguing field in oral health. Efforts should be made to increase the knowledge of the general dental practitioners with this facet of oral disease therapy and promote the implementation of the concept of “food rather than medicine.” PMID:26229377

  7. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Infection in BALB/c Mice by Feeding Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Mice were randomized to ten treatment groups; sentinels, control, heat-killed MAP, viable MAP, heat-killed NP51, viable ...

  8. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058, a probiotic strain with high conjugated linoleic acid production ability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Haiqin; Tian, Fengwei; Zhao, Jianxin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei

    2015-11-20

    Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 was isolated from sauerkraut and identified to synthesize the beneficial metabolite conjugated linoleic acid. The genome contains a 319,7363-bp chromosome and three plasmids. The sequence will facilitate identification and characterization of the genetic determinants for its putative biological benefits. PMID:26439428

  9. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in BALB/c mice by feeding probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Mice were randomized to ten treatment groups; sentinels, control, heat-killed MAP, viable MAP, heat-killed NP51, viable ...

  10. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Infection in Balb/c Mice by Feeding Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease. We hypothesized that feeding NP51 would increase Th-1 responses and decrease prog...

  11. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice by feeding probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease. We hypothesized that feeding NP51 would increase Th-1 responses and decrease prog...

  12. Quantitative profiling of bacteriocins present in dairy-free probiotic preparations of Lactobacillus acidophilus by nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Renu; Talapatra, Kesh

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriocins are a heterogeneous group of ribosomally synthesized peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity, produced predominantly by lactic acid bacteria, with potential applications as biopreservatives and probiotics. We describe here a novel strategy based on a bottom-up, shotgun proteomic approach using nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) with multiple fragmentation techniques for the quantitative profiling of bacteriocins present in the probiotic preparations of Lactobacillus acidophilus. A direct LC-MS/MS analysis with alternate collision-induced dissociation, high-energy collision dissociation, and electron-transfer dissociation fragmentation following a filter-assisted size-exclusion sample prefractionation has resulted in the identification of peptides belonging to 37 bacteriocins or related proteins. Peptides from lactacin F, helveticin J, lysin, avicin A, acidocin M, curvaticin FS47, and carocin D were predominant. The process of freeze drying under vacuum was observed to affect both the diversity and abundance of bacteriocins. Data acquisition using alternating complementary peptide fragmentation modes, especially electron-transfer dissociation, has significantly enhanced the peptide sequence coverage and number of bacteriocin peptides identified. Multi-enzyme proteolytic digestion was observed to increase the sample complexity and dynamic range, lowering the chances of detection of low-abundant bacteriocin peptides by LC-MS/MS. An analytical platform integrating size exclusion prefractionation, nanoLC-MS/MS analysis with multiple fragmentation techniques, and data-dependent decision tree-driven bioinformatic data analysis is novel in bacteriocin research and suitable for the comprehensive bioanalysis of diverse, low-abundant bacteriocins in complex samples. PMID:24565320

  13. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 and L22 display probiotic potential in vitro and protect against Salmonella-induced pullorum disease in a chick model of infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dexian; Li, Rui; Li, Jichang

    2012-08-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 (L. reuteri ATCC 55730) and L. reuteri L22 were studied for their probiotic potential. These two strains were able to produce an antimicrobial substance, termed reuterin, the maximum production of reuterin by these two strains was detected in the late logarithmic growth phase (16 h in MRS and 20 h in LB broths). These two strains could significantly reduce the growth of Salmonella pullorum ATCC 9120 in MRS broth, L. reuteri ATCC 55730 with a reduction of 48.2±4.15% (in 5 log) and 89.7±2.59% (in 4 log) respectively, at the same time, L. reuteri L22 was 69.4±3.48% (in 5 log) and 80.4±3.22% respectively. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 was active against the majority of the pathogenic species, including S. pullorum ATCC 9120 and Escherichia coli O(78), while L. reuteri L22 was not as effective as L. reuteri ATCC 55730. The two potential strains were found to survive variably at pH 2.5 and were unaffected by bile salts, while neither of the strains was haemolytic. Moreover, L. reuteri ATCC 55730 exhibited variable susceptibility towards commonly used antibiotics; but L. reuteri L22 showed resistant to most antibiotics in this study. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 consequently was found to significantly increase survival rate in a Salmonella-induced pullorum disease model in chick. To conclude, strain L. reuteri ATCC 55730 possesses desirable probiotic properties, such as antimicrobial activity and immunomodulation in vitro, which were confirmed in vivo by the use of animal models. PMID:21764090

  14. The potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and its use as starter culture results in safe nutritionally enhanced fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Raquel; Martín, Belén; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    The human-derived potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 was used as a starter culture in reduced fat and sodium low-acid fermented sausages (fuets) to assess its ability to survive through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in a human intervention study consisting of 5 healthy volunteers who consumed 25 g fuet a day for 21 days. Faecal samples were analysed during and after consumption. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 produced a transient colonisation of the human GIT and persisted during the ingestion period of fuet containing L. rhamnosus CTC1679 at levels ca. 8log CFU/g. After 3 days of non-consumption, the strain was still recovered in the faeces of all the volunteers. To evaluate the safety of the nutritionally enhanced manufactured fuets, a challenge test was designed in a separately manufactured batch. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 was able to grow, survive and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB), prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes throughout the whole ripening process of the fuets and eliminated Salmonella. After 35 days of storage at 4 °C, L. monocytogenes was not detected, achieving absence in 25 g of the product. The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (600 MPa for 5 min) at the end of ripening (day 14) produced an immediate reduction of L. monocytogenes to levels <1log CFU/g. After 35 days of storage at 4 °C the pathogen was not detected. Thus, the strain L. rhamnosus CTC1679 is a suitable starter culture for producing safe potentially probiotic fermented sausages. PMID:24998181

  15. The Efficacy of Probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) and 5-ASA (Aminosalicylic Acid) in the Treatment of Experimental Radiation Proctitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dandin, Özgür; Akin, Mehmet Levhi; Balta, Ahmet Ziya; Yücel, Ergün; Karakaş, Dursun Özgür; Demirbaş, Sezai; Özdemir, Sevim; Haholu, Apdullah

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the study are to demonstrate the effect of probiotic use on the healing of radiation proctitis (RP) and evaluate the efficiency of fecal biomarkers at follow-up of the treatment. Thirty-two male/female rats were randomly separated into four groups of eight rats. The first group (control) was not radiated. RP was created by 17.5 Gy single dose rectal irradiation. The second group (RP) was subjected to RP, but not treated. The third group (RP+ASA) was treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) 250 mg/kg daily by gastric lavage for 14 days after the irradiation, and the forth group (RP+LGG) was treated with Lactobacillus GG (LGG) 25 × 100 million CFU daily. Feces samples were taken at the 7th and 14th day of the treatment for fecal biomarkers. Rectums of the rats were resected at the 14th day by laparotomy. Samples were evaluated both macroscopically and microscopically. RP was achieved both macroscopically and microscopically. Weight loss of RP group is statistically significant (p < 0.005) than other groups. The healing ratio of RP+ASA and RP+LGG groups was significantly better than the RP group (p < 0.005) both macroscopically and microscopically. But there was no significant difference between ASA and LGG groups. Biochemically, fecal calprotectin was found to be more effective than fecal myeloperoxidase and fecal lactoferrin to show the efficacy of treatment of radiation proctitis. The results of our study demonstrate that probiotic is as effective as 5-aminosalicylic in the treatment of radiation proctitis, and fecal calprotectin is a useful biomarker in determining the response to the treatment. PMID:26730065

  16. Proteomics analysis of Lactobacillus casei Zhang, a new probiotic bacterium isolated from traditional home-made koumiss in Inner Mongolia of China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rina; Wang, Weiwei; Yu, Dongliang; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Yan; Sun, Zhihong; Wu, Junrui; Meng, He; Zhang, Heping

    2009-10-01

    Lactobacillus casei Zhang, isolated from traditional home-made koumiss in Inner Mongolia of China, was considered as a new probiotic bacterium by probiotic selection tests. We carried out a proteomics study to identify and characterize proteins expressed by L. casei Zhang in the exponential phase and stationary phase. Cytosolic proteins of the strain cultivated in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using pH 4-7 linear gradients. The number of protein spots quantified from the gels was 487 +/- 21 (exponential phase) and 494 +/- 13 (stationary phase) among which a total of 131 spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS and/or MALDI-TOF/TOF according to significant growth phase-related differences or high expression intensity proteins. Accompanied by the cluster of orthologous groups (COG), codon adaptation index (CAI), and GRAVY value analysis, the study provided a very first insight into the profile of protein expression as a reference map of L. casei. Forty-seven spots were also found in the study that showed statistically significant differences between exponential phase and stationary phase. Thirty-three of the spots increased at least 2.5-fold in the stationary phase in comparison with the exponential phase, including 19 protein spots (e.g. Hsp20, DnaK, GroEL, LuxS, pyruvate kinase, and GalU) whose intensity up-shifted above 3.0-fold. Transcriptional profiles were conducted to confirm several important differentially expressed proteins by using real time quantitative PCR. The analysis suggests that the differentially expressed proteins were mainly categorized as stress response proteins and key components of central and intermediary metabolism, indicating that these proteins might play a potential important role for the adaptation to the surroundings, especially the accumulation of lactic acid in the course of growth, and the physiological processes in bacteria cell. PMID:19508964

  17. Consumption of a fermented dairy product containing the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 reduces the duration of respiratory infections in the elderly in a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Guillemard, E; Tondu, F; Lacoin, F; Schrezenmeir, J

    2010-01-01

    Common infectious diseases (CID) of the airways and the gastrointestinal tract are still a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. The present study examined the beneficial effect of a dairy product containing the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 (fermented product) on the resistance of free-living elderly to CID. The study was multicentric, double blind and controlled, involving 1072 volunteers (median age = 76.0 years) randomised for consumption of either 200 g/d of fermented (n 537) or control (non-fermented) dairy product (n 535) for 3 months, followed by an additional 1 month's follow-up. The results showed that, when considering all CID, the fermented product significantly reduced the average duration per episode of CID (6.5 v. 8 d in control group; P = 0.008) and the cumulative duration of CID (7 v. 8 d in control group; P = 0.009). Reduction in both episode and cumulative durations was also significant for all upper respiratory tract infections (URTI; P < 0.001) and for rhinopharyngitis (P < 0.001). This was accompanied with an increase of L. casei species in stools throughout the fermented product consumption (2-3.8 x 107 equivalents of colony-forming unit/g of stools, P < 0.001). The cumulative number of CID (primary outcome) was not different between groups nor was the CID severity, fever, pathogens' occurrence, medication, immune blood parameters and quality of life. The fermented product was safe and well tolerated. In conclusion, consumption of a fermented dairy product containing the probiotic strain L. casei DN-114 001 in elderly was associated with a decreased duration of CID in comparison with the control group, especially for URTI such as rhinopharyngitis. PMID:19747410

  18. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Mascuñan Díaz, J Ignacio; Díaz, Juan J; Ojeda, Pedro Manuel; Ferrer-González, J Pablo; Gil, David; Onrubia, Isabel; Rincón Victor, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as a first-line management for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone, and amino acid formulae in Spain, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (SNS). Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated and non–IgE-mediated allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The models also estimated the SNS cost (at 2012/2013 prices) of managing infants over 18 months after starting a formula as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non–IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared with those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to the SNS for managing both IgE-mediated and non–IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy. Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or amino acid formulae for first-line management of newly-diagnosed infants with cow’s milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources because it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized controlled study showing faster tolerance development in children receiving a probiotic-containing formula is required before this conclusion can be confirmed. PMID:26648744

  19. Assessment of psychotropic-like properties of a probiotic formulation (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in rats and human subjects.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Michaël; Lalonde, Robert; Violle, Nicolas; Javelot, Hervé; Desor, Didier; Nejdi, Amine; Bisson, Jean-François; Rougeot, Catherine; Pichelin, Matthieu; Cazaubiel, Murielle; Cazaubiel, Jean-Marc

    2011-03-01

    In a previous clinical study, a probiotic formulation (PF) consisting of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 (PF) decreased stress-induced gastrointestinal discomfort. Emerging evidence of a role for gut microbiota on central nervous system functions therefore suggests that oral intake of probiotics may have beneficial consequences on mood and psychological distress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anxiolytic-like activity of PF in rats, and its possible effects on anxiety, depression, stress and coping strategies in healthy human volunteers. In the preclinical study, rats were daily administered PF for 2 weeks and subsequently tested in the conditioned defensive burying test, a screening model for anti-anxiety agents. In the clinical trial, volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised parallel group study with PF administered for 30 d and assessed with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-90), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Perceived Stress Scale, the Coping Checklist (CCL) and 24 h urinary free cortisol (UFC). Daily subchronic administration of PF significantly reduced anxiety-like behaviour in rats (P < 0·05) and alleviated psychological distress in volunteers, as measured particularly by the HSCL-90 scale (global severity index, P < 0·05; somatisation, P < 0·05; depression, P < 0·05; and anger-hostility, P < 0·05), the HADS (HADS global score, P < 0·05; and HADS-anxiety, P < 0·06), and by the CCL (problem solving, P < 0·05) and the UFC level (P < 0·05). L. helveticus R0052 and B. longum R0175 taken in combination display anxiolytic-like activity in rats and beneficial psychological effects in healthy human volunteers. PMID:20974015

  20. Genetic transformation of novel isolates of chicken Lactobacillus bearing probiotic features for expression of heterologous proteins: a tool to develop live oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Rodrigo M; Moreira, João Luiz S; Souza, Marcelo R; Fátima Horta, M; Teixeira, Santuza MR; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nicoli, Jacques R; Nunes, Álvaro C

    2006-01-01

    Background The use of lactic acid bacteria as vehicles to delivery antigens to immunize animals is a promising issue. When genetically modified, these bacteria can induce a specific local and systemic immune response against selected pathogens. Gastric acid and bile salts tolerance, production of antagonistic substances against pathogenic microorganisms, and adhesive ability to gut epithelium are other important characteristics that make these bacteria useful for oral immunization. Results Bacteria isolated on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS) from different gastrointestinal portions of broiler chicks were evaluated for their resistance to artificial gastric acid and bile salts, production of hydrogen peroxide, and cell surface hydrophobicity. Thirty-eight isolates were first typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers using universal primers that anneal within 16S and 23S genes, followed by restriction digestion analyses of PCR amplicons (PCR-ARDRA). An expression cassette was assembled onto the pCR2.1-Topo vector by cloning the promoter, leader peptide, cell wall anchor and terminator sequences derived from the laminin binding S-layer protein gene of L. crispatus strain F5.7 (lbs gene). A sequence encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inserted as reporter gene, and an erythromycin resistance gene was added as selective marker. All constructs were able to express GFP in the cloning host E. coli XL1-Blue and different Lactobacillus strains as verified by FACS and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Conclusion Lactobacillus isolated from gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens and selected for probiotic characteristics can be genetically modified by introducing an expression cassette into the lbs locus. The transformed bacteria expressed on its cell wall surface different fluorescent proteins used as reporters of promoter function. It is possible then that similar bacterial model expressing pathogen antigens can

  1. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei L9, a new probiotic strain with high lactic acid-producing capacity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunyun; Li, Zhuanyu; Ren, Fazheng; Liu, Songling; Zhao, Liang; Sun, Erna; Zhang, Ming; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Lu; Hou, Caiyun

    2015-12-20

    Lactobaillus paracasei L9 (CGMCC No. 9800) is a new strain with probiotic properties originating from healthy human intestine. Previous studies evidenced that the strain regulates immune modulation and contributes to the production of high amounts of lactic acid. The genome of L. paracasei L9 contains a circular 3076,437-bp chromosome, encoding 3044 CDSs, 15 rRNA genes and 59 tRNA genes. PMID:26415658

  2. Probiotic Assessment of Lactobacillus plantarum 15HN and Enterococcus mundtii 50H Isolated from Traditional Dairies Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Haghshenas, Babak; Haghshenas, Minoo; Nami, Yousef; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Rosli, Rozita; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Probiotics are microorganisms, which show beneficial health effects on hosts once consumed in sufficient amounts. Among probiotic bacteria, the bioactive compounds from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group can be utilized as preservative agents. LAB group can be isolated and characterized from traditional dairy sources. This study aimed to isolate, identify, and biologically characterize probiotic LAB strains from Iranian traditional dairy products. Methods: A total of 19 LAB strains were identified by sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes. They were examined for adherence to human intestinal Caco-2 cells and tolerance to low pH/high bile salts and simulated in vitro digestion conditions. Moreover, they were evaluated further to assess their ability to prevent the adhesion of Escherichia coli 026 to the intestinal mucosa, inhibitory functions against pathogens, and sensitivity to conventional antibiotics. Results: L. plantarum 15HN and E. mundtii 50H strains displayed ≥ 71% survival rates at low pH/high bile salts and ≥ 40% survival rates in digestive conditions. Their adherences to Caco-2 cells were 3.2×105 and 2.6×105 CFU mL-1 respectively and high values of anti-adhesion capability were observed (≥36%). They inhibited the growth of 13 and 11 indicator pathogens respectively. Moreover, they were sensitive or semi-sensitive to seven and three out of eight antibiotics respectively. Conclusion: L. plantarum 15HN and E. mundtii 50H, which were isolated from shiraz product, displayed above-average results for all of the criteria. Therefore, they can be introduced as novel candidate probiotics that could be used in the food industry. PMID:27123416

  3. Strain-Specific Identification of Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus with Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Derived PCR Primers

    PubMed Central

    Tilsala-Timisjärvi, Anu; Alatossava, Tapani

    1998-01-01

    In the present work, strain-specific PCR primers for Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc 1/3 are described. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to produce potential strain-specific markers. They were screened for specificity by hybridization with DNA from 11 L. rhamnosus strains. A 613-bp RAPD marker found to be strain-specific was sequenced, and a primer pair specific to L. rhamnosus Lc 1/3 was constructed based on the sequence. The primer pair was tested with 11 Lactobacillus species and 11 L. rhamnosus strains and was found to be strain specific. The nucleotide sequence of the specific RAPD marker was found to contain part of a protein encoding region which showed significant similarity to several transposases for insertion sequence elements of various bacteria, including other lactic acid bacterium species. PMID:9835567

  4. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG enhanced Th1 cellular immunity but did not affect antibody responses in a human gut microbiota transplanted neonatal gnotobiotic pig model.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ke; Tin, Christine; Wang, Haifeng; Yang, Xingdong; Li, Guohua; Giri-Rachman, Ernawati; Kocher, Jacob; Bui, Tammy; Clark-Deener, Sherrie; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to establish a human gut microbiota (HGM) transplanted gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of human rotavirus (HRV) infection and diarrhea, and to verify the dose-effects of probiotics on HRV vaccine-induced immune responses. Our previous studies using the Gn pig model found that probiotics dose-dependently regulated both T cell and B cell immune responses induced by rotavirus vaccines. We generated the HGM transplanted neonatal Gn pigs through daily feeding of neonatal human fecal suspension to germ-free pigs for 3 days starting at 12 hours after birth. We found that attenuated HRV (AttHRV) vaccination conferred similar overall protection against rotavirus diarrhea and virus shedding in Gn pigs and HGM transplanted Gn pigs. HGM promoted the development of the neonatal immune system, as evidenced by the significantly enhanced IFN-γ producing T cell responses and reduction of regulatory T cells and their cytokine production in the AttHRV-vaccinated pigs. The higher dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) feeding (14 doses, up to 109 colony-forming-unit [CFU]/dose) effectively increased the LGG counts in the HGM Gn pig intestinal contents and significantly enhanced HRV-specific IFN-γ producing T cell responses to the AttHRV vaccine. Lower dose LGG (9 doses, up to 106 CFU/dose) was ineffective. Neither doses of LGG significantly improved the protection rate, HRV-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers in serum, or IgA antibody titers in intestinal contents compared to the AttHRV vaccine alone, suggesting that an even higher dose of LGG is needed to overcome the influence of the microbiota to achieve the immunostimulatory effect in the HGM pigs. This study demonstrated that HGM Gn pig is an applicable animal model for studying immune responses to rotavirus vaccines and can be used for studying interventions (i.e., probiotics and prebiotics) that may enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccines through improving the gut microbiota. PMID:24722168

  5. Utilization of Natural Fucosylated Oligosaccharides by Three Novel α-l-Fucosidases from a Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Strain ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Monedero, Vicente; Yebra, María J.

    2011-01-01

    Three putative α-l-fucosidases encoded in the Lactobacillus casei BL23 genome were cloned and purified. The proteins displayed different abilities to hydrolyze natural fucosyloligosaccharides like 2′-fucosyllactose, H antigen disaccharide, H antigen type II trisaccharide, and 3′-, 4′-, and 6′-fucosyl-GlcNAc. This indicated a possible role in the utilization of oligosaccharides present in human milk and intestinal mucosa. PMID:21097595

  6. In vitro probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 and its modulatory effect on gut microbiota of mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renhui; Tao, Xueying; Wan, Cuixiang; Li, Shengjie; Xu, Hengyi; Xu, Feng; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-09-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013, a novel strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented acid beans, was systematically evaluated for its survival capacity under stress conditions (pH, bile salt, simulated gastrointestinal tract, and antibiotics), production of exopolysaccharide and antagonism against 8 pathogens. Its effect on mice gut microbiota was also investigated by quantitative PCR and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results showed that ZDY 2013 can grow at pH 3.5 and survive at pH 2.0 for 6 h and at 0.45% bile salt for 3 h. The exopolysaccharide yield was up to 204±7.68 mg/L. The survival rate of ZDY 2013 in a simulated gastrointestinal tract was as high as 65.84%. Antagonism test with a supernatant of ZDY 2013 showed maximum halo of 28 mm against Listeria monocytogenes. The inhibition order was as follows: Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Staphylococcus aureus. Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 was sensitive to some antibiotics (e.g., macrolide, sulfonamides, aminoglycoside, tetracyclines and β-lactams), whereas it was resistant to glycopeptides, quinolones, and cephalosporins antibiotics. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile demonstrated that ZDY 2013 administration altered the composition of the microbiota at various intestinal loci of the mice. Moreover, the quantitative PCR test showed that the administration of ZDY 2013 enhanced the populations of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in either the colon or cecum, and reduced the potential enteropathogenic bacteria (e.g., Enterococcus, Enterobacterium, and Clostridium perfringens). Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 exhibited high resistance against low pH, bile salt, and gastrointestinal fluid, and possessed antibacterial and gut microbiota modulation properties with a potential application in the development of dairy food and nutraceuticals. PMID:26142853

  7. Utilization of natural fucosylated oligosaccharides by three novel alpha-L-fucosidases from a probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Monedero, Vicente; Yebra, María J

    2011-01-01

    Three putative α-L-fucosidases encoded in the Lactobacillus casei BL23 genome were cloned and purified. The proteins displayed different abilities to hydrolyze natural fucosyloligosaccharides like 2'-fucosyllactose, H antigen disaccharide, H antigen type II trisaccharide, and 3'-, 4'-, and 6'-fucosyl-GlcNAc. This indicated a possible role in the utilization of oligosaccharides present in human milk and intestinal mucosa. PMID:21097595

  8. DNA fingerprinting of Lactobacillus crispatus strain CTV-05 by repetitive element sequence-based PCR analysis in a pilot study of vaginal colonization.

    PubMed

    Antonio, May A D; Hillier, Sharon L

    2003-05-01

    Lactobacillus crispatus is one of the predominant hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-producing species found in the vagina and is under development as a probiotic for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. In this study, we assessed whether DNA fingerprinting by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) can be used to distinguish the capsule strain of L. crispatus (CTV-05) from other endogenous strains as well as other species of vaginal lactobacilli. Vaginal and rectal lactobacilli were identified to the species level by using whole-chromosome probe DNA hybridization. The DNAs from L. crispatus, L. jensenii, L. gasseri, and an as-yet-unnamed H(2)O(2)-negative Lactobacillus species designated 1086V were subjected to rep-PCR. The results of gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining of the DNA fingerprints obtained were compared. L. crispatus CTV-05 had a unique DNA fingerprint compared to all other lactobacilli. DNA fingerprints for 27 production lots of L. crispatus sampled from 1994 through 2001 were identical to that of the original strain isolated in 1993, suggesting strain stability. In a pilot study of nine women, this DNA fingerprinting method distinguished CTV-05 from other endogenous vaginal lactobacilli prior to and after vaginal capsule use. rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting is useful for strain typing and for evaluating longitudinal loss or acquisition of vaginal lactobacilli used as probiotics. PMID:12734221

  9. DNA Fingerprinting of Lactobacillus crispatus Strain CTV-05 by Repetitive Element Sequence-Based PCR Analysis in a Pilot Study of Vaginal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, May A. D.; Hillier, Sharon L.

    2003-01-01

    Lactobacillus crispatus is one of the predominant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing species found in the vagina and is under development as a probiotic for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. In this study, we assessed whether DNA fingerprinting by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) can be used to distinguish the capsule strain of L. crispatus (CTV-05) from other endogenous strains as well as other species of vaginal lactobacilli. Vaginal and rectal lactobacilli were identified to the species level by using whole-chromosome probe DNA hybridization. The DNAs from L. crispatus, L. jensenii, L. gasseri, and an as-yet-unnamed H2O2-negative Lactobacillus species designated 1086V were subjected to rep-PCR. The results of gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining of the DNA fingerprints obtained were compared. L. crispatus CTV-05 had a unique DNA fingerprint compared to all other lactobacilli. DNA fingerprints for 27 production lots of L. crispatus sampled from 1994 through 2001 were identical to that of the original strain isolated in 1993, suggesting strain stability. In a pilot study of nine women, this DNA fingerprinting method distinguished CTV-05 from other endogenous vaginal lactobacilli prior to and after vaginal capsule use. rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting is useful for strain typing and for evaluating longitudinal loss or acquisition of vaginal lactobacilli used as probiotics. PMID:12734221

  10. Health benefits of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Goldin, B R

    1998-10-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for the claims of health benefits derived from the use of probiotics. A brief history of probiotics and the types of probiotics currently used and the criteria for the selection of probiotics is discussed. The ability of probiotics to enhance the nutritional content and bioavailability of nutrients and the scientific evidence for the usefulness of probiotics in alleviating the symptoms of lactose intolerance and in enhancing growth development is examined. The remainder of the review focuses on studies of a specific probiotic, Lactobacillus GG which has been extensively investigated for its health benefits in humans and animals. These studies severe as a model for the potential benefits of probiotics. The ability of Lactobacillus GG to treat or prevent diarrhoeal disease, to serve as an adjuvant for vaccines, to prevent rotavirus-induced diarrhoea, to prevent milk-based allergic reactions, alcohol-induced liver disease and colon cancer are presented. The review concludes with a discussion of the data supporting the safety of probiotics. PMID:9924285

  11. Implications of modifying membrane fatty acid composition on membrane oxidation, integrity, and storage viability of freeze-dried probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Marie-Louise R W; Petersen, Mikael A; Risbo, Jens; Hümmer, Magdalena; Clausen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of altering the fatty acid profile of the lipid membrane on storage survival of freeze-dried probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, as well as study the membrane integrity and lipid oxidation. The fatty acid composition of the lipid membrane of L. acidophilus La-5 was significantly different upon growth in MRS (containing Tween 80, an oleic acid source), or in MRS with Tween 20 (containing C12:0 and C14:0), linoleic, or linolenic acid supplemented. Bacteria grown in MRS showed the highest storage survival rates. No indications of loss of membrane integrity could be found, and membrane integrity could therefore not be connected with loss of viability. Survival of bacteria grown with linoleic or linolenic acid was more negatively affected by the presence of oxygen, than bacteria grown in MRS or with Tween 20 supplemented. A small, but significant, loss of linolenic acid during storage could be identified, and an increase of volatile secondary oxidation products during storage was found for bacteria grown in MRS, or with linoleic, or linolenic acid supplemented, but not for bacteria grown with Tween 20. Overall, the results indicate that lipid oxidation and loss of membrane integrity are not the only or most important detrimental reactions which can occur during storage. By altering the fatty acid composition, it was also found that properties of oleic acid gave rise to more robust bacteria than more saturated or unsaturated fatty acids did. PMID:25823709

  12. Biochemical Traits, Survival and Biological Properties of the Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Grown in the Presence of Prebiotic Inulin and Pectin as Energy Source

    PubMed Central

    Nazzaro, Filomena; Fratianni, Florinda; Orlando, Pierangelo; Coppola, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    The viability of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, after its passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices, was evaluated as function of its pre-growth in a medium containing the known prebiotics pectin or inulin, and was compared to glucose used as control. The presence of pectin or inulin did not markedly affect the growth (10.07 log10 colony forming units/mL and 10.28 log10 colony forming units/mL for pectin and inulin respectively versus 10.42 log10 colony forming units/mL obtained for glucose). Pectin and inulin, in contrast to glucose, induced cell stress resistance against gastrointestinal juices (Δ log101.5 and 2.4 colony forming units/mL respectively, versus Δ log10 4.0 for glucose). The data were corroborated by the analysis of the protein pattern following stress treatments which, in the case of microbial cells grown with glucose, revealed a more marked protein degradation after the double passage through simulated gastric and intestinal juices. Inulin stimulated the production of the relevant healthy bio-molecule butyrate, which amount was 30% higher respect of growth in the presence of glucose. Inulin and pectin improved cell DPPH scavenging activity, and an impressive hydrophobicity (35.28% and 34.81%, respectively) was observed with respect to the microbial growth in presence of glucose (3.39%). PMID:24281559

  13. A selected probiotic strain of Lactobacillus fermentum CM33 isolated from breast-fed infants as a potential source of β-galactosidase for prebiotic oligosaccharide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sriphannam, Wattana; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Niumsap, Piyanuch; Ashida, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Khanongnuch, Chartchai

    2012-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria from healthy breast-fed infants were isolated and screened for β-galactosidase production in MRS broth. Among 49 isolates that exhibited the yellow clear zone on MRS agar supplemented with bromocresol blue, the isolate CM33 was selected as being the highest β-galactosidase producer and was identified as Lactobacillus fermentum based on its morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence. L. fermentum CM33 exhibited a good survival rate under the simulated stomach passage model, comparable to known probiotic strains L. gallinarum JCM2011 and L. agilis JCM1187. L. fermentum CM33 was antagonistic to pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella typhi, and Salmonella enteriditis, using the well diffusion method. In addition, the selected lactobacilli exhibited a high growth rate when cultivated in modified MRS containing commercial galactooligosaccharide (GOS) as a sole carbon source, as well as in glucose. A preliminary study on the enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharide using crude β-galactosidase revealed the capability for oligosaccharide synthesis by the transgalactosylation activity. PMID:22367946

  14. Comparative analysis of the gene expression profile of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang with and without fermented milk as a vehicle during transit in a simulated gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jicheng; Zhong, Zhi; Zhang, Wenyi; Bao, Qiuhua; Wei, Aibin; Meng, He; Zhang, Heping

    2012-06-01

    Studies have found that the survival of probiotics could be strongly enhanced with dairy products as delivery vehicles, but the molecular mechanism by which this might occur has seldom been mentioned. In this study, microarray technology was used to detect the gene expression profile of Lactobacillus casei Zhang with and without fermented milk used as a delivery vehicle during transit in simulated gastrointestinal juice. Numerous genes of L. casei Zhang in strain suspension were upregulated compared to those from L. casei Zhang in fermented milk. These data might indicate that L. casei Zhang is stimulated directly without the protection of fermented milk, and the high-level gene expression observed here may be a stress response at the transcriptional level. A large proportion of genes involved in translation and cell division were downregulated in the bacteria that were in strain suspension during transit in simulated intestinal juice. This may impede protein biosynthesis and cell division and partially explain the lower viability of L. casei Zhang during transit in the gastrointestinal tract without the delivery vehicle. PMID:22564557

  15. Probiotics in transition.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Fergus; Dinan, Timothy G; Ross, Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-11-01

    Despite the hyperbole often linked with a popular research field, the scientific rationale for probiotics is sound. The probiotic concept is not new but is undergoing transition as knowledge of the gut microbiota in health and disease becomes translated to the clinic. Operationally, a probiotic represents a mimic of and/or supplement to the normal gut microbiota. Much confusion has arisen among consumers because of media misportrayals of probiotics as all being the same. However, with clarification of the molecular basis of host-microbe interactions, the selection criteria for probiotics and the delineation of their distinct mechanisms of action are improving. Most probiotics are from the genus Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium; this is likely to change and diversify. Similarly, the development of new therapeutic strategies, such as the development of phagebiotics, psychobiotics, and genetically modified pharmabiotics, is poised to become a therapeutic reality. PMID:23010563

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus casei W56

    PubMed Central

    Hochwind, Kerstin; Weinmaier, Thomas; Schmid, Michael; van Hemert, Saskia; Hartmann, Anton; Rattei, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei W56 in one contig. This strain shows immunomodulatory and probiotic properties. The strain is also an ingredient of commercially available probiotic products. PMID:23144392

  17. Draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei W56.

    PubMed

    Hochwind, Kerstin; Weinmaier, Thomas; Schmid, Michael; van Hemert, Saskia; Hartmann, Anton; Rattei, Thomas; Rothballer, Michael

    2012-12-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei W56 in one contig. This strain shows immunomodulatory and probiotic properties. The strain is also an ingredient of commercially available probiotic products. PMID:23144392

  18. Probiotics: "living drugs".

    PubMed

    Elmer, G W

    2001-06-15

    The uses, mechanisms of action, and safety of probiotics are discussed. Probiotics are live microorganisms or microbial mixtures administered to improve the patient's microbial balance, particularly the environment of the gastrointestinal tract and the vagina. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and the bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus, strain GG, have shown efficacy in clinical trials for the prevention of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea. Other probiotics that have demonstrated at least some promise as prophylaxis for this type of diarrhea are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Enterococcus faecium. The use of S. boulardii as an adjunctive treatment to therapy with metronidazole or vancomycin has been found in controlled studies to decrease further recurrences of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Other gastrointestinal disorders for which probiotics have been studied include traveler's diarrhea, acute infantile diarrhea, and acute diarrhea in adults. Several Lactobacillus species given in yogurt or in tablet or suppository form have shown clinical efficacy as a treatment for vaginal infections. Lactobacillus strains have also been examined as a treatment for urinary-tract infections. Putative mechanisms of action of probiotics include production of pathogen-inhibitory substances, inhibition of pathogen attachment, inhibition of the action of microbial toxins, stimulation of immunoglobulin A, and trophic effects on intestinal mucosa. The available probiotics are considered nonpathogenic, but even benign microorganisms can be infective when a patient is severely debilitated or immunosuppressed. Probiotics have demonstrated an ability to prevent and treat some infections. Effective use of probiotics could decrease patients' exposure to antimicrobials. Additional controlled studies are needed to clearly define the safety and efficacy of these agents. PMID:11449853

  19. Enzymology and Structure of the GH13_31 Glucan 1,6-α-Glucosidase That Confers Isomaltooligosaccharide Utilization in the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Marie S.; Fredslund, Folmer; Majumder, Avishek; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N.; Lo Leggio, Leila; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode α-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 31) that confer degradation of IMO. These genes reside frequently within maltooligosaccharide utilization operons, which include an ATP-binding cassette transporter and α-glucan active enzymes, e.g., maltogenic amylases and maltose phosphorylases, and they also occur separated from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of α-1,6- and α-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-α-glucosidase active on IMO and dextran and product-inhibited by glucose. The catalytic efficiency of LaGH13_31 on dextran and the dextran/panose (trisaccharide) efficiency ratio were the highest reported for this class of enzymes, suggesting higher affinity at distal substrate binding sites. The crystal structure of LaGH13_31 was determined to a resolution of 2.05 Å and revealed additional substrate contacts at the +2 subsite in LaGH13_31 compared to the GH13_31 from Streptococcus mutans (SmGH13_31), providing a possible structural rationale to the relatively high affinity for dextran. A comprehensive phylogenetic and activity motif analysis mapped IMO utilization enzymes from gut microbiota to rationalize preferential utilization of IMO by gut residents. PMID:22685275

  20. Relative cost-effectiveness of an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Panca, Monica; Ovcinnikova, Olga; Nocerino, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF) containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as first-line management for cow’s milk allergy (CMA) compared with eHCF alone, soy-based formulae (SBF), hydrolyzed rice formulae (HRF), and amino acid formulae (AAF) in Italy, from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (INHS) and parents. Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months, based on an observational study dataset. The model also estimated the cost (at 2012/2013 prices) of health care resource use funded by the INHS and formulae paid for by parents over 18 months after starting a formula, as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared to those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to both the INHS and parents of infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated CMA. Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF, SBF, HRF, or an AAF for first-line management of newly diagnosed infants with CMA in Italy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources, and is cost-effective from the parents’ perspective, since it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized controlled study showing faster tolerance development in children receiving a probiotic-containing formula is required before this conclusion can be confirmed. PMID:26089692

  1. Enzymology and structure of the GH13_31 glucan 1,6-α-glucosidase that confers isomaltooligosaccharide utilization in the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Møller, Marie S; Fredslund, Folmer; Majumder, Avishek; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N; Lo Leggio, Leila; Svensson, Birte; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2012-08-01

    Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode α-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 31) that confer degradation of IMO. These genes reside frequently within maltooligosaccharide utilization operons, which include an ATP-binding cassette transporter and α-glucan active enzymes, e.g., maltogenic amylases and maltose phosphorylases, and they also occur separated from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of α-1,6- and α-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-α-glucosidase active on IMO and dextran and product-inhibited by glucose. The catalytic efficiency of LaGH13_31 on dextran and the dextran/panose (trisaccharide) efficiency ratio were the highest reported for this class of enzymes, suggesting higher affinity at distal substrate binding sites. The crystal structure of LaGH13_31 was determined to a resolution of 2.05 Å and revealed additional substrate contacts at the +2 subsite in LaGH13_31 compared to the GH13_31 from Streptococcus mutans (SmGH13_31), providing a possible structural rationale to the relatively high affinity for dextran. A comprehensive phylogenetic and activity motif analysis mapped IMO utilization enzymes from gut microbiota to rationalize preferential utilization of IMO by gut residents. PMID:22685275

  2. Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri promotes TNF-induced apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia-derived cells by modulation of NF-kappaB and MAPK signalling.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Chandra; Kosters, Astrid; Sethi, Gautam; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Versalovic, James

    2008-07-01

    The molecular mechanisms of pro-apoptotic effects of human-derived Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 were investigated in this study. L. reuteri secretes factors that potentiate apoptosis in myeloid leukemia-derived cells induced by tumour necrosis factor (TNF), as indicated by intracellular esterase activity, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labelling assays and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. L. reuteri downregulated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-dependent gene products that mediate cell proliferation (Cox-2, cyclin D1) and cell survival (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL). L. reuteri suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation, including NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene expression in a dose-and time-dependent manner. L. reuteri stabilized degradation of IkappaBalpha and inhibited nuclear translocation of p65 (RelA). Although phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha was not affected, subsequent polyubiquitination necessary for regulated IkappaBalpha degradation was abrogated by L. reuteri. In addition, L. reuteri promoted apoptosis by enhancing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities including c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK. In contrast, L. reuteri suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 in TNF-activated myeloid cells. L. reuteri may regulate cell proliferation by promoting apoptosis of activated immune cells via inhibition of IkappaBalpha ubiquitination and enhancing pro-apoptotic MAPK signalling. An improved understanding of L. reuteri-mediated effects on apoptotic signalling pathways may facilitate development of future probiotics-based regimens for prevention of colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:18331465

  3. Antibacterial activity and probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum HKN01: a new insight into the morphological changes of antibacterial compound-treated Escherichia coli by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Hakimeh; Maleki, Hadi; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Sajedinejad, Neda; Houshmand, Behzad; Vali, Hojatollah; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz

    2013-02-01

    Among several bacteria examined, an antibacterial-producing Lactobacillus strain with probiotic characteristics was selected and identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Subsequent purification and mode of action of the antibacterial compounds on target cells including E. coli were investigated. Maximum production of the antibacterial compound was recorded at 18 h incubation at 30 degrees C. Interestingly, antibacterial activity remained unchanged after heating at 121 degrees C for 45 min, 24 h storage in temperature range of 70 degrees C to room temperature, and 15 min exposure to UV light, and it was stable in the pH of range 2-10. The active compounds were inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, indicating their proteinaceous nature, and, therefore, referred to as bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. Isolation and partial purification of the effective agent was done by performing ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the GFC-purified active compound (~3 kDa) was determined by Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE. To predict the mechanisms of action, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of ultrathin sections of E. coli before and after antibacterial treatment was carried out. TEM analysis of antibacterial compounds-treated E. coli demonstrated that the completely altered bacteria appear much darker compared with the less altered bacteria, suggesting a change in the cytoplasmic composition. There were also some membrane-bound convoluted structures visible within the completely altered bacteria, which could be attributed to the response of the E. coli to the treatment with the antibacterial compound. According to the in vivo experiments oral administration of L. plantarum HKN01 resulted in recovery of infected BALB/c mice with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. PMID:23412066

  4. Residue Leu940 Has a Crucial Role in the Linkage and Reaction Specificity of the Glucansucrase GTF180 of the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri 180*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangfeng; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Pijning, Tjaard; López, Cesar A.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2014-01-01

    Highly conserved glycoside hydrolase family 70 glucansucrases are able to catalyze the synthesis of α-glucans with different structure from sucrose. The structural determinants of glucansucrase specificity have remained unclear. Residue Leu940 in domain B of GTF180, the glucansucrase of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri 180, was shown to vary in different glucansucrases and is close to the +1 glucosyl unit in the crystal structure of GTF180-ΔN in complex with maltose. Herein, we show that mutations in Leu940 of wild-type GTF180-ΔN all caused an increased percentage of (α1→6) linkages and a decreased percentage of (α1→3) linkages in the products. α-Glucans with potential different physicochemical properties (containing 67–100% of (α1→6) linkages) were produced by GTF180 and its Leu940 mutants. Mutant L940W was unable to form (α1→3) linkages and synthesized a smaller and linear glucan polysaccharide with only (α1→6) linkages. Docking studies revealed that the introduction of the large aromatic amino acid residue tryptophan at position 940 partially blocked the binding groove, preventing the isomalto-oligosaccharide acceptor to bind in an favorable orientation for the formation of (α1→3) linkages. Our data showed that the reaction specificity of GTF180 mutant was shifted either to increased polysaccharide synthesis (L940A, L940S, L940E, and L940F) or increased oligosaccharide synthesis (L940W). The L940W mutant is capable of producing a large amount of isomalto-oligosaccharides using released glucose from sucrose as acceptors. Thus, residue Leu940 in domain B is crucial for linkage and reaction specificity of GTF180. This study provides clear and novel insights into the structure-function relationships of glucansucrase enzymes. PMID:25288798

  5. Augmentation of T helper type 1 immune response through intestinal immunity in murine cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 infection by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain 06CC2.

    PubMed

    Matsusaki, Tatsuya; Takeda, Shiro; Takeshita, Masahiko; Arima, Yuo; Tsend-Ayush, Chuluunbat; Oyunsuren, Tsendesuren; Sugita, Chihiro; Yoshida, Hiroki; Watanabe, Wataru; Kurokawa, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    We previously found that Lactobacillus plantarum strain 06CC2 showed probiotic potential, and its oral administration effectively induced Th1 cytokine production and activated the Th1 immune response associated with intestinal immunity in mice. In this study, to evaluate its potential as a versatile oral adjuvant for treatment of viral infection, we assessed the immunomodulatory activity of 06CC2 on murine cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, in which a major immune defense system is a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction based on activation of the Th1 immune response, in relation to its oral efficacy for alleviation of herpetic symptoms. In the HSV-1 infection model, oral administration of 06CC2 (20mg/mouse) twice daily for seven days starting two days before infection was significantly effective in delaying the development of skin lesions in the early phase of infection and reducing virus yields in the brain on day 4 after infection. In addition, 06CC2 significantly augmented the DTH reaction to inactivated HSV-1 antigen and elevated interferon (IFN)-γ production by HSV-1 antigen from splenocytes. On day 2, natural killer (NK) cell activity was significantly elevated, and the elevation was still observed on day 4. Furthermore, gene expressions of interleukin-12 receptor β2 and IFN-γ in Peyer's patches were augmented on day 4 by 06CC2 administration. Thus, 06CC2 was suggested to alleviate herpetic symptoms in mice in correlation with augmentation of the Th1 immune responses associated with NK cell activity through intestinal immunity. Strain 06CC2 may be a versatile oral adjuvant to activate Th1 immune response. PMID:27517518

  6. Residue Leu940 has a crucial role in the linkage and reaction specificity of the glucansucrase GTF180 of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri 180.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangfeng; Dobruchowska, Justyna M; Pijning, Tjaard; López, Cesar A; Kamerling, Johannis P; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2014-11-21

    Highly conserved glycoside hydrolase family 70 glucansucrases are able to catalyze the synthesis of α-glucans with different structure from sucrose. The structural determinants of glucansucrase specificity have remained unclear. Residue Leu(940) in domain B of GTF180, the glucansucrase of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri 180, was shown to vary in different glucansucrases and is close to the +1 glucosyl unit in the crystal structure of GTF180-ΔN in complex with maltose. Herein, we show that mutations in Leu(940) of wild-type GTF180-ΔN all caused an increased percentage of (α1→6) linkages and a decreased percentage of (α1→3) linkages in the products. α-Glucans with potential different physicochemical properties (containing 67-100% of (α1→6) linkages) were produced by GTF180 and its Leu(940) mutants. Mutant L940W was unable to form (α1→3) linkages and synthesized a smaller and linear glucan polysaccharide with only (α1→6) linkages. Docking studies revealed that the introduction of the large aromatic amino acid residue tryptophan at position 940 partially blocked the binding groove, preventing the isomalto-oligosaccharide acceptor to bind in an favorable orientation for the formation of (α1→3) linkages. Our data showed that the reaction specificity of GTF180 mutant was shifted either to increased polysaccharide synthesis (L940A, L940S, L940E, and L940F) or increased oligosaccharide synthesis (L940W). The L940W mutant is capable of producing a large amount of isomalto-oligosaccharides using released glucose from sucrose as acceptors. Thus, residue Leu(940) in domain B is crucial for linkage and reaction specificity of GTF180. This study provides clear and novel insights into the structure-function relationships of glucansucrase enzymes. PMID:25288798

  7. Protective effects of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang against endotoxin- and d-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuzhen; Li, Yunxu; Xie, Jiming; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Jinling; Sun, Xiaolin; Zhang, Heping

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei Zhang (LcZ) has been recently isolated from the traditional Mongolian beverage koumiss and has a set of favorable probiotic properties, including aciduricity, bile resistance and ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. We have previously reported the anti-oxidative properties of LcZ in the hyperlipidemic rats. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of LcZ against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and d-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced liver injury were investigated. We found that pretreatment with LcZ significantly improved survival of rats challenged with LPS/D-GalN. In addition, pretreatment with LcZ significantly decreased alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in LPS/D-GalN-challenged rats, which were accompanied by diminished liver injuries, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver homogenates. Pretreatment with LcZ also markedly reduced LPS/D-GalN-induced production of hepatic nitric oxide (NO), activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Furthermore, hepatic toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA and protein levels, the phosphorylation of I-κB and translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were significantly down-regulated by pretreatment with LcZ. These results suggest that pretreatment with LcZ protects against LPS/D-GalN-induced liver injury in rats via its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities. The hepatoprotective effects of LcZ are associated with an inhibition of TLR4 expression and TLR4 signaling. PMID:23146349

  8. Safety assessment of potential probiotic lactic acid bacterial strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lb. acidophilus HN017, and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J S; Shu, Q; Rutherfurd, K J; Prasad, J; Birtles, M J; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S

    2000-05-25

    The general safety of immune-enhancing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20), Lb. acidophilus HN017, and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR10) was investigated in a feeding trial. Groups of BALB/c mice were orally administered test LAB strains or the commercial reference strain Lb. acidophilus LA-1 at 2.5 x 10(9), 5 x 10(10) or 2.5 x 10(12) colony forming units (CFU)/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Throughout this time, their feed intake, water intake, and live body weight were monitored. At the end of the 4 week observation period, samples of blood, liver, spleen, kidney, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gut tissues (ileum, caecum, and colon) were collected to determine: haematological parameters (red blood cell and platelet counts, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration); differential leukocyte counts; blood biochemistry (plasma total protein, albumin, cholesterol, and glucose); mucosal histology (epithelial cell height, mucosal thickness, and villus height); and bacterial translocation to extra-gut tissues (blood, liver, spleen, kidney and mesenteric lymph nodes). DNA finger printing techniques were used to identify any viable bacterial strains recovered from these tissues. The results demonstrated that 4 weeks consumption of these LAB strains had no adverse effects on animals' general health status, haematology, blood biochemistry, gut mucosal histology parameters, or the incidence of bacterial translocation. A few viable LAB cells were recovered from the tissues of animals in both control and test groups, but DNA fingerprinting did not identify any of these as the inoculated strains. The results obtained in this study suggest that the potentially probiotic LAB strains HN001, HN017, and HN019 are non-toxic for mice and are therefore likely to be safe for human use. PMID:10857928

  9. Probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum modulates the formation of aberrant crypt foci, mucin-depleted foci, and cell proliferation on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mohania, Dheeraj; Kansal, Vinod K; Kruzliak, Peter; Kumari, Archana

    2014-08-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF) are pre-neoplastic lesions identified in the colon of carcinogen-treated rodents and in humans at high risk for colon cancer. The present study was carried out to divulge the protective potential of the probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LaVK2 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BbVK3 alone or in combination with piroxicam (PXC) on the development of early biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats administered 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). DMH was injected subcutaneously at the rate of 40 mg/kg body weight per animal twice a week for 2 weeks. A total of 120 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups, each group having 24 animals. The rats were fed with buffalo milk or probiotic supplement (20 grams) alone or as an adjunct with PXC in addition to a basal diet ad libitum for 32 weeks. Group I was offered buffalo milk (BM) and served as the control group. Group II was administered DMH along with BM and served as the DMH-control group; group III was administered BM-DMH-PXC, in which besides administering BM-DMH, PXC was also offered. Group IV was offered probiotic LaBb Dahi and DMH, and group V was offered both probiotic LaBb Dahi and PXC along with DMH. The rats were euthanized at the 8(th), 16(th), and 32(nd) week of the experiment and examined for development of ACF, aberrant crypts per ACF (AC/ACF), mucin-depleted foci (MDF), large MDF, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling index. Administration of DMH in rats induced pre-neoplastic lesions (ACF and MDF) and increased the PCNA index in colorectal tissue. A significant (p<0.05) reduction in the number of ACF, AC/ACF, MDF, large MDF, and PCNA labeling index were observed in the probiotic LaBb Dahi group compared with the DMH control group. Feeding rats with LaBb Dahi or treatment with PXC diminished the initiation and progression of DMH-induced pre-neoplastic lesions and the PCNA index, and treatment with

  10. Effect of chestnut extract and chestnut fiber on viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains under gastrointestinal tract conditions.

    PubMed

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; La Gatta, Barbara; Di Capua, Marika; Di Luccia, Aldo; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The main challenge to probiotics, during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, are the acidic gastric secretions of the stomach, and the bile salts released into the duodenum. The survival of the strains, in this phase, is strongly influenced by the food used for their delivery. This work is part of a project studying the development of novel food processes, based on the use of chestnuts from cultivar "Castagna di Montella". In detail, the effect of indigestible chestnut fiber and of chestnut extract on the viability of selected lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated. Among 28 cultures, twelve strains were selected, on the basis of tolerance to low pH values and bile salts, and submitted to exposition to simulated gastric or bile juice in presence of chestnut extract with or without immobilization in chestnut fiber. The presence of chestnut extract proved to play a significant role on the gastric tolerance improvement of lactobacilli. The recorded protective effect could not be simply related to the starch or reducing sugars content. RP-HPLC demonstrated that in the chestnut flour, there are one or more hydrophobic peptides or oligopeptides, which specifically offer a marked resistance to simulated gastric juice, albeit present at low concentration. These beneficial effects proved to be dependent by the cultivar used to produce the flour. PMID:24010594

  11. [Changes of bacterial flora from hindguts of piglets after oral administration of lactobacillus amylovorus S1 as a probiotic strain].

    PubMed

    Su, Yong; Yao, Wen; Zhu, Wei-yun

    2006-12-01

    Changes of bacterial flora from hindguts of piglets from 7 to 35 days of age (two weeks after weaning) were studied after oral administration of L. amylovorus S1, using molecular techniques based on 16S rDNA gene. Six litters of neonatal piglets were divided randomly into control group and treatment group. At 7, 9, 11 days of age, piglets in treatment group received 1, 2 and 3mL preparation of S1 (5 x 10(9) CFU/mL) through oral administration, respectively. On D 7, 14, 21, 24 and 35, one piglet from each litter was slaughtered and samples of hindguts were collected for analysis. The results showed that high G + C mol% bacteria in hindguts of piglets disappeared after weaning and restored gradually two weeks later. Sequencing analysis indicated that most of these high G + C mol% bacteria blonged to Lactobacillus spp. . Statistical analysis showed that treatment with S1 had no marked effect on diversity index of predominant bacteria from hindguts in piglets. By comparing the bands in DGGE profiles between two groups, a specific band in treatment group was found in profiles from piglets at 14 days of age, sequence matched with that showed 95 % similarity to Clostridium disporicum. At 35 days of age, another specific band appeared in control group, which was identified to be Streptococcus suis (99% ). PMID:17302162

  12. Heat and Osmotic Stress Responses of Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20) in Relation to Viability after Drying

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Jaya; McJarrow, Paul; Gopal, Pramod

    2003-01-01

    The viability of lactic acid bacteria in frozen, freeze-dried, and air-dried forms is of significant commercial interest to both the dairy and food industries. In this study we observed that when prestressed with either heat (50°C) or salt (0.6 M NaCl), Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (also known as DR20) showed significant (P < 0.05) improvement in viability compared with the nonstressed control culture after storage at 30°C in the dried form. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this stress-related viability improvement in L. rhamnosus HN001, we analyzed protein synthesis in cultures subjected to different growth stages and stress conditions, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and N-terminal sequencing. Several proteins were up- or down-regulated after either heat or osmotic shock treatments. Eleven proteins were positively identified, including the classical heat shock proteins GroEL and DnaK and the glycolytic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, enolase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and triose phosphate isomerase, as well as tagatose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase of the tagatose pathway. The phosphocarrier protein HPr (histidine-containing proteins) was up-regulated in cultures after the log phase irrespective of the stress treatments used. The relative synthesis of an ABC transport-related protein was also up-regulated after shock treatments. Carbohydrate analysis of cytoplasmic contents showed higher levels (20 ± 3 μg/mg of protein) in cell extracts (CFEs) derived from osmotically stressed cells than in the unstressed control (15 ± 3 μg/mg of protein). Liquid chromatography of these crude carbohydrate extracts showed significantly different profiles. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of CFEs revealed, in addition to normal mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharides, the presence of saccharides modified with glycerol. PMID:12571012

  13. Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius UBL S22 and Prebiotic Fructo-oligosaccharide on Serum Lipids, Inflammatory Markers, Insulin Sensitivity, and Gut Bacteria in Healthy Young Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Single-Blind Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Kumar, Manoj; Das, Nilita; Kumar, S Nishanth; Challa, Hanumanth R; Nagpal, Ravinder

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of 6-week supplementation of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius UBL S22 with or without prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on serum lipid profiles, immune responses, insulin sensitivity, and gut lactobacilli in 45 healthy young individuals. The patients were divided into 3 groups (15/group), that is, placebo, probiotic, and synbiotic. After 6 weeks, a significant reduction (P < .05) in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides and increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed in the probiotic as well as in the synbiotic group when compared to placebo; however, the results of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were more pronounced in the synbiotic group. Similarly, when compared to the placebo group, the serum concentrations of inflammatory markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL) 6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor α were significantly (P < .05) reduced in both the experimental groups, but again the reduction in the synbiotic group was more pronounced. Also, an increase (P < .05) in the fecal counts of total lactobacilli and a decrease (P < .05) in coliforms and Escherichia coli was observed in both the experimental groups after 6 weeks of ingestion. Overall, the combination of L salivarius with FOS was observed to be more beneficial than L salivarius alone, thereby advocating that such synbiotic combinations could be therapeutically exploited for improved health and quality of life. PMID:25331262

  14. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Jarocka-Cyrta, Elzbieta; Kobelska-Dubiel, Natalia; Krauze, Agnieszka; Sakowska-Maliszewska, Iwona; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF) containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as an initial treatment for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone and amino acid formulas (AAF) in Poland from the perspective of the Polish National Health Fund (Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia [NFZ]) and parents. Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of cow’s milk allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The model also estimated the cost to the NFZ and parents (Polish Zloty [PLN] at 2013–2014 prices) for managing infants over 18 months after starting one of the formulas as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulas. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants who were fed eHCF + LGG (0.82) compared with those fed eHCF alone (0.53) or an AAF (0.22). An infant who is initially managed with eHCF + LGG is expected to consume fewer health care resources than infants managed with the other formulas. Hence, the estimated total health care cost incurred by the NFZ for initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG (PLN 5,693) was less than that of feeding infants with eHCF alone (PLN 7,749) or an AAF (PLN 24,333). However, the total cost incurred by parents for initially feeding infants with an AAF (PLN 815) was marginally less than that of feeding with eHCF + LGG (PLN 993), which was less than that of feeding with eHCF alone (PLN 1,226). Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or an AAF for first-line management of newly diagnosed infants with cow’s milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of NFZ-funded resources, since it improves outcome for less cost. Whether eHCF + LGG would be viewed as being cost-effective by parents is dependent on their willingness to pay an additional cost for additional tolerance acquisition to cow’s milk. PMID:27418845

  15. Impact of inulin and okara on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 viability in a fermented soy product and probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Bedani, Raquel; Rossi, Elizeu Antonio; Isay Saad, Susana Marta

    2013-06-01

    The effect of inulin and/or okara flour on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 viability in a fermented soy product (FSP) and on probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions were investigated throughout 28 days of storage at 4 °C. Employing a 2(2) design, four FSP trials were produced from soymilk fermented with ABT-4 culture (La-5, Bb-12, and Streptococcus thermophilus): FSP (control); FSP-I (with inulin, 3 g/100 mL of soymilk); FSP-O (with okara, 5 g/100 mL); FSP-IO (with inulin + okara, ratio 3:5 g/100 mL). Probiotic viabilities ranged from 8 to 9 log cfu/g during the 28 days of storage, and inulin and/or okara flour did not affect the viability of La-5 and Bb-12. Bb-12 resistance to the artificial gastrointestinal juices was higher than for La-5, since the Bb-12 and La-5 populations decreased approximately 0.6 log cfu/g and 3.8 log cfu/g, respectively, throughout storage period. Even though the protective effect of inulin and/or okara flour on probiotic microorganisms was not significant, when compared to a fresh culture, the FSP matrix improved Bb-12 survival on day 1 of storage and may be considered a good vehicle for Bb-12 and could play an important role in probiotic protection against gastrointestinal juices. PMID:23541206

  16. Use of cheese whey for biomass production and spray drying of probiotic lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Lavari, Luisina; Páez, Roxana; Cuatrin, Alejandra; Reinheimer, Jorge; Vinderola, Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    The double use of cheese whey (culture medium and thermoprotectant for spray drying of lactobacilli) was explored in this study for adding value to this wastewater. In-house formulated broth (similar to MRS) and dairy media (cheese and ricotta whey and whey permeate) were assessed for their capacity to produce biomass of Lactobacillus paracasei JP1, Lb. rhamnosus 64 and Lb. gasseri 37. Simultaneously, spray drying of cheese whey-starch solution (without lactobacilli cells) was optimised using surface response methodology. Cell suspensions of the lactobacilli, produced in in house-formulated broth, were spray-dried in cheese whey-starch solution and viability monitored throughout the storage of powders for 2 months. Lb. rhamnosus 64 was able to grow satisfactorily in at least two of the in-house formulated culture media and in the dairy media assessed. It also performed well in spray drying. The performance of the other strains was less satisfactory. The growth capacity, the resistance to spray drying in cheese whey-starch solution and the negligible lost in viability during the storage (2 months), makes Lb. rhamnosus 64 a promising candidate for further technological studies for developing a probiotic dehydrated culture for foods, utilising wastewaters of the dairy industry (as growth substrate and protectant) and spray drying (a low-cost widely-available technology). PMID:24666842

  17. Probiotics in Pediatric Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Miloh, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    The gut-liver axis involves complex interaction between the intestinal microbiome and the liver parenchyma. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are used in a variety of diseases. With currently only 2 randomized-controlled studies (one with Lactobacillus GG and the other with VSL #3), data are scarce to support the clinical effect of probiotic use in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. There is evidence that probiotics decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and thereby reduce the prevalence of total parenteral nutrition-induced chronic liver disease. Probiotics are used with a few reported positive outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis and familial hypercholesterolemia and may be promising in other liver conditions. Probiotics are generally safe and well tolerated in children, premature infants, and in patients after liver transplantation. Large, prospective, randomized clinical trials are needed to evaluate the benefit of probiotics in children with liver diseases. PMID:26447962

  18. Probiotics from an industrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Forssten, Sofia D; Sindelar, Connie W; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2011-12-01

    Probiotic products have gained popularity with consumers that expect that the products they consume are healthy and help them maintain health. Hence, the need and preferences of the consumers are translated into a product format concept. Probiotics have been used for a long time as natural components in supplements and functional foods, mainly in fermented dairy products. Most of the strains used as probiotics belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. By definition, a strain has to have documented health benefits, in order to be called a probiotic. Although each bacterial strain is unique, there are some points that are essential when selecting a probiotic regarding the genetic stability, survival, and technical properties of a strain. Proper components, food matrices and production processes need to be selected since the matrices may affect the viability of the strain in the product and the intestine. Survival in the product is considered a requirement for the beneficial effects of probiotics. PMID:21549209

  19. Probiotics and oral health.

    PubMed

    Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour. PMID:22632388

  20. Preserving viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in vitro and in vivo by a new encapsulation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotics have shown beneficial effects on human health. To increase the efficacy of probiotic applications, we used Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) as a probiotic model to investigate approaches to enhance the bioavailability of probiotics. LGG was encapsulated in hydrogel beads containing pectin...

  1. Effect of supplementation of fermented milk drink containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota on the concentrations of aflatoxin biomarkers among employees of Universiti Putra Malaysia: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Abd Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Ahmad, Zuraini; Kang, Min-Su; Abdul Rahman, Nurul 'Aqilah; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Elham; Jamaluddin, Rosita

    2016-01-14

    Human exposure to aflatoxin is through the diet, and probiotics are able to bind aflatoxin and prevent its absorption in the small intestine. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) (probiotic drink) to prevent aflatoxin absorption and reduce serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) and urinary aflatoxin M1 concentrations. The present study was a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study with two 4-week intervention phases. In all, seventy-one subjects recruited from the screening stage were divided into two groups--the Yellow group and the Blue group. In the 1st phase, one group received probiotic drinks twice a day and the other group received placebo drinks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline, 2nd and 4th week of the intervention. After a 2-week wash-out period, the treatments were switched between the groups, and blood and urine samples were collected at the 6th, 8th and 10th week (2nd phase) of the intervention. No significant differences in aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were observed during the intervention. A within-group analysis was further carried out. Aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were not significantly different in the Yellow group. Nevertheless, ANOVA for repeated measurements indicated that AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly different (P=0·035) with the probiotic intervention in the Blue group. The 2nd week AFB1-lys concentrations (5·14 (SD 2·15) pg/mg albumin (ALB)) were significantly reduced (P=0·048) compared with the baseline (6·24 (SD 3·42) pg/mg ALB). Besides, the 4th week AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly lower (P<0·05) with probiotic supplementation than with the placebo. Based on these findings, a longer intervention study is warranted to investigate the effects of continuous LcS consumption to prevent dietary aflatoxin exposure. PMID:26490018

  2. Probiotics in critically ill children

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Sunit C.; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  3. Probiotics in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Sunit C; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  4. Effect of the continuous intake of probiotic-fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on fever in a mass outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis and the faecal microflora in a health service facility for the aged.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Satoru; Asahara, Takashi; Ohta, Toshihisa; Yamada, Toshihiko; Kondo, Shigemi; Bian, Lei; Wang, Chongxin; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Nomoto, Koji

    2011-08-01

    For conducting effective risk management in long-stay elderly people at a health service facility, we performed an open case-controlled study to evaluate the effect of the intake of probiotic-fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS-fermented milk) on norovirus gastroenteritis occurring in the winter season during the intake period. A total of seventy-seven elderly people (mean age 84 years) were enrolled in the study. During a 1-month period, there was no significant difference in the incidence of norovirus gastroenteritis between the LcS-fermented milk-administered (n 39) and the non-administered (n 38) groups; however, the mean duration of fever of >37°C after the onset of gastroenteritis was 1·5 (SD 1·7) d in the former and 2·9 (SD 2·3) d in the latter group, showing a significant shortening in the former group (P < 0·05). RT-quantitative PCR analysis targeting ribosomal RNA showed both Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus to be significantly dominant, whereas Enterobacteriaceae decreased in faecal samples from the administered group (n 10, mean age 83 years), with a significant increase in faecal acetic acid concentration. Continuous intake of LcS-fermented milk could positively contribute to the alleviation of fever caused by norovirus gastroenteritis by correcting the imbalance of the intestinal microflora peculiar to the elderly, although such consumption could not protect them from the disease. PMID:21521545

  5. The hsp 16 gene of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus is differently regulated by salt, high temperature and acidic stresses, as revealed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Arena, Mattia Pia; Crisetti, Elisabetta; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are ubiquitous conserved chaperone-like proteins involved in cellular proteins protection under stressful conditions. In this study, a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) procedure was developed and used to quantify the transcript level of a small heat shock gene (shs) in the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, under stress conditions such as heat (45 °C and 53 °C), bile (0.3% w/v), hyperosmosis (1 M and 2.5 M NaCl), and low pH value (pH 4). The shs gene of L. acidophilus NCFM was induced by salt, high temperature and acidic stress, while repression was observed upon bile stress. Analysis of the 5' noncoding region of the hsp16 gene reveals the presence of an inverted repeat (IR) sequence (TTAGCACTC-N9-GAGTGCTAA) homologue to the controlling IR of chaperone expression (CIRCE) elements found in the upstream regulatory region of Gram-positive heat shock operons, suggesting that the hsp16 gene of L. acidophilus might be transcriptionally controlled by HrcA. In addition, the alignment of several small heat shock proteins identified so far in lactic acid bacteria, reveals that the Hsp16 of L. acidophilus exhibits a strong evolutionary relationship with members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group. PMID:21954366

  6. Influence of a probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain on the colonisation with potential pathogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus in the nasopharyngeal space of healthy men with a low baseline NK cell activity.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Seifert, Stephanie; Kramlich, Jeannette; Bub, Achim; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Watzl, Bernhard

    2015-08-01

    The effect of a daily intake of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on the colonisation of pathogens, specifically streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, in the nose and throat of healthy human volunteers with low natural killer cell activity, was investigated in a randomised and controlled intervention study. The study consisted of a 2-week run-in phase, followed by a 4-week intervention phase. The probiotic treatment group received a fermented milk drink with LcS, while the placebo group received an equally composed milk drink without the probiotic additive. To isolate potential pathogenic streptococci and Staph. aureus, samples from the pharynx, as well as of both middle nasal meati, were taken, once after the run-in phase and once at the end of the intervention phase. Isolated bacteria were identified as either Staph. aureus and α- or β-haemolytic streptococci in a polyphasic taxonomical approach based on phenotypic tests, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis genotyping, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representative strains. Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) was used as marker of protective mucosal immunity to evaluate whether LcS treatment influenced SIgA production. No statistically significant effect could be determined for intervention with LcS on the incidence of Staph. aureus in the nasal space, Staph. aureus in the pharyngeal space or for β-haemolytic streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the pharyngeal space. Thus, the intervention did not influence the nasopharyngeal colonisation with Gram-positive potential pathogens. Production of salivary SIgA as a potential means of microbiota modulation was also not affected. PMID:25416927

  7. Probiotics and immunosenescence: cheese as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fandi; Ruvio, Suvi; Granlund, Linda; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2010-06-01

    Oral intake of specific probiotics has been reported to enhance the immunity of the elderly. Earlier studies have used milk or yoghurt as a probiotic carrier. We chose a commercial probiotic cheese to evaluate its potential as a probiotic food. Thirty-one healthy elderly volunteers (21 female, 10 male) aged from 72 to 103 (median 86) consumed a commercial probiotic cheese containing approximately 10(9) CFU day(-1) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. The 4-week probiotic intervention was preceded by a 2-week consumption of probiotic-free cheese (run-in) and followed by a 4-week wash-out period with the same control cheese. The cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative numbers of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in the total PBMCs, and phagocytic activity were assessed. Consumption of the probiotic cheese significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells. A significant increase in phagocytosis was observed for both the control and the probiotic cheese. Cheese was found to be an effective carrier for the study of probiotics, and daily consumption of the probiotic enhanced parameters of innate immunity in elderly volunteers. It remains to be determined whether this enhancement correlates with a beneficial effect on the health of the elderly population. PMID:20236323

  8. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  9. Antimicrobial potential of probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Avonts, L; De Vuyst, L

    2001-01-01

    Antibacterial activity is an important characteristic of probiotics. A possible way to achieve this antibacterial activity is through the production of bacteriocins. This study shows that the commercial probiotic strains Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 and Lactobacillus casei YIT 9029 produce bacteriocins. The nature of the antimicrobial compound could be derived from its behaviour: a narrow inhibitory spectrum (only active against closely related strains), loss of activity when treated with proteinases, and rather small molecular masses (around 6000 Da or less). Further, three bacteriocins produced by Lb. johnsonii LA1, Lb. casei YIT 9029 and Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471 showed inhibitory activity against the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. However, a fourth bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 was not able to inhibit H. pylori. This indicates that some bacteriocins produced by specific probiotic strains can fulfil a role in the inhibition of this common pathogen. PMID:15954651

  10. Probiotics and mastitis: evidence-based marketing?

    PubMed

    Amir, Lisa H; Griffin, Laura; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Scientists have isolated various strains of Lactobacilli from human milk (such as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius), and the presence of these organisms is thought to be protective against breast infections, or mastitis. Trials of probiotics for treating mastitis in dairy cows have had mixed results: some successful and others unsuccessful. To date, only one trial of probiotics to treat mastitis in women and one trial to prevent mastitis have been published. Although trials of probiotics to prevent mastitis in breastfeeding women are still in progress, health professionals in Australia are receiving marketing of these products. High quality randomised controlled trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of probiotics for the prevention and/or treatment of mastitis. PMID:27446229

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sakei Strain FBL1, a Probiotic Bacterium Isolated from Mukeunji, a Long-Fermented Kimchi, in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Eiseul; Kim, Chang-Gyeom; Choo, Dong-Won

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the 2,032,158-bp draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus sakei (L. sakei) strain FBL1, isolated from mukeunji purchased at the Gwangju World Kimchi Culture Festival in 2012, South Korea. The total draft genome size was 2,032,158 bp with a G+C content of 41.2%. PMID:27174278

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sakei Strain FBL1, a Probiotic Bacterium Isolated from Mukeunji, a Long-Fermented Kimchi, in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Eiseul; Kim, Chang-Gyeom; Choo, Dong-Won; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the 2,032,158-bp draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus sakei (L. sakei) strain FBL1, isolated from mukeunji purchased at the Gwangju World Kimchi Culture Festival in 2012, South Korea. The total draft genome size was 2,032,158 bp with a G+C content of 41.2%. PMID:27174278

  13. No evidence of harms of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in healthy elderly-a Phase I Open Label Study to assess safety, tolerability and cytokine responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) has been consumed since the mid 1990s by between 2 and 5 million people daily, the scientific literature lacks rigorous clinical trials that describe the potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly. The primary objective of this open label...

  14. Probiotic supplements (Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) do not affect regrowth of mutans streptococci after full-mouth disinfection with chlorhexidine: a randomized controlled multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Keller, M K; Hasslöf, P; Dahlén, G; Stecksén-Blicks, C; Twetman, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of tablets containing two probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains in inhibiting regrowth of salivary mutans streptococci (MS) after full-mouth disinfection (FMD) with chlorhexidine. The null hypothesis was that the levels of MS would not differ in comparison with a placebo protocol. The study population was comprised of 62 young adults (mean age 23 years) with moderate or high counts of salivary MS who volunteered after informed consent. The study was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. After a 3-day chlorhexidine regimen, the subjects were randomly assigned to a test group (n = 32) with probiotic lozenges (2/day) or a placebo group (n = 30). The intervention period was 6 weeks, and stimulated whole saliva was collected at baseline and after 1, 6, and 12 weeks. The samples were processed for MS by a chair-side test and DNA-DNA hybridization as an estimate of 19 bacterial strains associated with oral health and disease. There was no significant difference between the groups at inclusion, and FMD reduced the salivary MS levels significantly in both groups. The MS suppression lasted less than 6 weeks and there were no statistical differences in salivary MS regrowth between the test and control groups at any of the follow-ups. Likewise, there were no major differences in the regrowth patterns of the checkerboard panel between the two groups. We conclude that daily oral administration of L. reuteri did not seem to affect or delay the regrowth of salivary MS after FMD with chlorhexidine. PMID:22472585

  15. Probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v increases iron absorption from an iron-supplemented fruit drink: a double-isotope cross-over single-blind study in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Michael; Önning, Gunilla; Berggren, Anna; Hulthén, Lena

    2015-10-28

    Iron deficiency is common, especially among young women. Adding probiotics to foods could be one way to increase iron absorption. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that non-haem iron absorption from a fruit drink is improved by adding Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v). Iron absorption was studied in healthy women of reproductive age using a single-blind cross-over design in two trials applying the double-isotope (55Fe and 59Fe) technique. In Trial 1, iron absorption from a fruit drink containing 109 colony-forming units (CFU) Lp299v was compared with that from a control drink without Lp299v. Trial 2 had the same design but 1010 CFU were used. The test and control drinks contained approximately 5 mg of iron as ferrous lactate and were labelled with 59Fe (B) and 55Fe (A), respectively, and consumed on 4 consecutive days in the order AABB. Retention of the isotopes was measured with whole-body counting and in blood. Mean iron absorption from the drink containing 109 CFU Lp299v (28·6(sd 12·5) %) was significantly higher than from the control drink (18·5(sd 5·8) %), n 10, P<0·028). The fruit drink with 1010 CFU Lp299v gave a mean iron absorption of 29·1(sd 17·0) %, whereas the control drink gave an absorption of (20·1(sd 6·4) %) (n 11, P<0·080). The difference in iron absorption between the 109 CFU Lp299v and the 1010 CFU Lp299v drinks was not significant (P=0·941). In conclusion, intake of probiotics can increase iron absorption by approximately 50 % from a fruit drink having an already relatively high iron bioavailability. PMID:26428277

  16. Reduction in cholesterol absorption in Caco-2 cells through the down-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 by the putative probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 from fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hong-Sup; Ju, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Han-Nah; Park, Hyun-Joon; Ji, Yosep; Lee, Ji-Eun; Shin, Hyeun-Kil; Do, Myoung-Sool; Holzapfel, Wilhelm

    2013-02-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is a major risk factor related to atherosclerosis, and it may be influenced by our diet. This study addresses the impact of Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 (isolated from Maasai fermented milk) and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 (from Korean kimchi) on the control of cholesterol absorption through down-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) expression. Caco-2 enterocytes were treated with the live, heat-killed (HK) bacteria, bacterial cell wall extracts and metabolites; mRNA level and protein expression were measured. Caco-2 cells showed lower NPC1L1 expression in the presence of the live test strains than the control, elucidating down-regulation of cholesterol uptake, and were compared well with the positive control, L. rhamnosus GG. This effect was also observed with HK bacteria and cell wall fractions but not with their metabolites. The potential of some Lactobacillus strains associated with traditional fermented foods to suppress cholesterol uptake and promote its efflux in enterocytes has been suggested from these data. PMID:22816655

  17. Complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid plca36 isolated from Lactobacillus casei Zhang.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenyi; Yu, Dongliang; Sun, Zhihong; Chen, Xia; Bao, Qiuhua; Meng, He; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Heping

    2008-09-01

    The complete 36,487 bp sequence of plasmid plca36 from Lactobacillus casei Zhang was determined. Plca36 contains 44 predicted coding regions, and to 23 of them functions could be assigned. For the first time, we identified a relBE toxin-antitoxin (TA) locus in a Lactobacillus genus, perhaps indicating a potential role for plca36 in host survival under extreme nutritional stress. A region encoding a cluster of conjugation genes (tra) was also identified. The cluster showed high similarity and co-linearity with tra regions of pWCFS103 and pMRC01 from Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis, respectively. Comparative gene analysis revealed that plasmids from the genus Lactobacillus may have contributed to the environmental adaptation mainly by providing carbohydrate and amino acid transporters. In addition, two chromosome-encoded relBE systems in Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus gasseri were identified. PMID:18634821

  18. The effects of a probiotic formulation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. helveticus) on developmental trajectories of emotional learning in stressed infant rats.

    PubMed

    Cowan, C S M; Callaghan, B L; Richardson, R

    2016-01-01

    Recently, scientific interest in the brain-gut axis has grown dramatically, particularly with respect to the link between gastrointestinal and psychiatric dysfunction. However, the role of gut function in early emotional dysregulation is yet to be examined, despite the prevalence and treatment resistance of early-onset psychiatric disorders. The present studies utilized a developmental rodent model of early-life stress (ELS) to explore this gap. Rats were exposed to maternal separation (MS) on postnatal days 2-14. Throughout MS, dams received either vehicle or a probiotic formulation (previously shown to reduce gastrointestinal dysfunction) in their drinking water. Replicating past research, untreated MS infants exhibited an adult-like profile of long-lasting fear memories and fear relapse following extinction. In contrast, probiotic-exposed MS infants exhibited age-appropriate infantile amnesia and resistance to relapse. These effects were not mediated by changes in pups' or dams' anxiety at the time of training, nor by maternal responsiveness. Overall, probiotics acted as an effective and non-invasive treatment to restore normal developmental trajectories of emotion-related behaviors in infant rats exposed to ELS. These results provide promising initial evidence for this novel approach to reduce the risk of mental health problems in vulnerable individuals. Future studies are needed to test this treatment in humans exposed to ELS and to elucidate mechanisms for the observed behavioral changes. PMID:27244232

  19. The Efficacy and Safety of the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for Infantile Colic: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Sun, Fei; Wang, Lin; Liu, Xiao-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for treating infantile colic. Methods A systematic literature retrieval was carried out to obtain randomized controlled trials of L. reuteri DSM 17938 for infantile colic. Trials were performed before May 2015 and retrieved from the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, CNKI, WanFang, VIP, and CBM databases. Data extraction and quality evaluation of the trials were performed independently by two investigators. A meta-analysis was performed using STATA version 12.0. Results Six randomized controlled trials of 423 infants with colic were included. Of these subjects, 213 were in the L. reuteri group, and 210 were in the placebo group. Lactobacillus reuteri increased colic treatment effectiveness at two weeks (RR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.24–6.50; p = 0.014) and three weeks (relative risk [RR] = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.38–3.93; P = 0.002) but not at four weeks (RR = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.52–3.82; P = 0.498). Lactobacillus reuteri decreased crying time (min/d) at two weeks (weighted mean difference [WMD] = –42.89; 95% CI: –60.50 to –25.29; P = 0.000) and three weeks (WMD = –45.83; 95% CI: –59.45 to –32.21; P = 0.000). In addition, L. reuteri did not influence infants’ weight, length or head circumference and was not associated with serious adverse events. Conclusions Lactobacillus reuteri possibly increased the effectiveness of treatment for infantile colic and decreased crying time at two to three weeks without causing adverse events. However, these protective roles are usurped by gradual physiological improvements. The study is limited by the heterogeneity of the trials and should be considered with caution. Higher quality, multicenter randomized controlled trials with larger samples are needed. PMID:26509502

  20. Immune system stimulation by probiotic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-01-01

    Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. This review is presented to provide detailed informations about how probiotics stimulate our immune system. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, Bifidobacterium lactis DR10, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii are the most investigated probiotic cultures for their immunomodulation properties. Probiotics can enhance nonspecific cellular immune response characterized by activation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in strain-specific and dose-dependent manner. Mixture and type (gram-positive and gram-negative) of probiotic organisms may induce different cytokine responses. Supplementation of probiotic organisms in infancy could help prevent immune-mediated diseases in childhood, whereas their intervention in pregnancy could affect fetal immune parameters, such as cord blood interferon (IFN)-γ levels, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels, and breast milk immunoglobulin (Ig)A. Probiotics that can be delivered via fermented milk or yogurt could improve the gut mucosal immune system by increasing the number of IgA(+) cells and cytokine-producing cells in the effector site of the intestine. PMID:24499072

  1. Lysate of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 Ameliorates Colitis by Strengthening the Gut Barrier Function and Changing the Gut Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zakostelska, Zuzana; Kverka, Miloslav; Klimesova, Klara; Rossmann, Pavel; Mrazek, Jakub; Kopecny, Jan; Hornova, Michaela; Srutkova, Dagmar; Hudcovic, Tomas; Ridl, Jakub; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Background Probiotic bacteria can be used for the prevention and treatment of human inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the nature of active components and exact mechanisms of this beneficial effects have not been fully elucidated. Our aim was to investigate if lysate of probiotic bacterium L. casei DN-114 001 (Lc) could decrease the severity of intestinal inflammation in a murine model of IBD. Methodology/Principal Findings The preventive effect of oral administration of Lc significantly reduces the severity of acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in BALB/c but not in SCID mice. In order to analyze how this beneficial effect interferes with well-known phases of intestinal inflammation pathogenesis in vivo and in vitro, we evaluated intestinal permeability using the FITC-labeled dextran method and analysed tight junction proteins expression by immunofluorescence and PCR. We also measured CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells proportion by FACS analysis, microbiota composition by pyrosequencing, and local cytokine production by ELISA. Lc leads to a significant protection against increased intestinal permeability and barrier dysfunction shown by preserved ZO-1 expression. We found that the Lc treatment increases the numbers of CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), decreases production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ, and anti-inflammatory IL-10 in Peyer's patches and large intestine, and changes the gut microbiota composition. Moreover, Lc treatment prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α expression in RAW 264.7 cell line by down-regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. Conclusion/Significance Our study provided evidence that even non-living probiotic bacteria can prevent the development of severe forms of intestinal inflammation by strengthening the integrity of intestinal barrier and modulation of gut microenvironment. PMID:22132181

  2. Probiotics: a comprehensive approach toward health foods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Mridula

    2014-01-01

    Food products containing probiotics and prebiotics are an important development in Health foods, which enhance health promoting microbial flora in the intestine. Probiotic refers to viable microorganism that promotes or support a beneficial balance of the autochthonous microbial population of the gastrointestinal tract. A number of genera of bacteria (and yeast) are used as probiotics, including Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, and Enterococcus, but the main species believed to have probiotic characteristics are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp., and L. casei. Probiotics can reduce diarrheal incidence, lactose intolerance, lower serum cholesterol, stimulate the immune system, control infections, act as antibiotics, suppress tumors, and protect against colon or bladder cancer by maintaining a healthy intestinal microflora balance. Lactic acid bacteria produce biopreservatives such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and bacteriocins that are used to retard both spoilage and the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Food, particularly dairy products are considered as an ideal vehicle for delivering probiotic bacteria to the human gastrointestinal tract. Cereals being rich source of prebiotics such as β-glucan and arabinoxylan, galacto-, and fructooligosaccharides are considered for development of probiotic foods. Good manufacturing practices must be applied in the manufacture of probiotic foods with quality assurance, and shelf-life conditions established. PMID:24237003

  3. Comparison of fecundity and offspring immunity in zebrafish fed Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 and Lactobacillus casei BL23.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chubin; Xu, Li; Yang, Yalin; He, Suxu; Dai, Yingying; Zhao, Huiying; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of probiotic effects on zebrafish (Danio rerio), we compare the effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 (a highly adhesive strain) and Lactobacillus casei BL23 (a weakly adhesive strain), on zebrafish reproduction and their offsprings' innate level of immunity to water-borne pathogens. During probiotics treatments from 7 to 28 days, both the Lactobacillus strains, and especially L. casei BL23, significantly increased fecundity in zebrafish: higher rates of egg ovulation, fertilization, and hatching were observed. Increased densities of both small and large vitellogenic follicles, seen in specimens fed either Lactobacillus strain, demonstrated accelerated oocyte maturation. Feeding either strain of Lactobacillus upregulated gene expression of leptin, kiss2, gnrh3, fsh, lh, lhcgr, and paqr8, which were regarded to enhance fecundity and encourage oocyte maturation. Concomitantly, the gene expression of bmp15 and tgfb1 was inhibited, which code for local factors that prevent oocyte maturation. The beneficial effects of the Lactobacillus strains on fecundity diminished after feeding of the probiotics was discontinued, even for the highly adhesive gut Lactobacillus strain. Administering L. rhamnosus CICC 6141 for 28 days was found to affect the innate immunity of offspring derived from their parents, as evinced by a lower level of alkaline phosphatase activity in early larval stages. This study highlights the effects of probiotics both upon the reproductive process and upon the offsprings' immunity during early developmental stages. PMID:24129154

  4. Should yoghurt cultures be considered probiotic?

    PubMed

    Guarner, Francisco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Corthier, Gérard; Salminen, Seppo; Koletzko, Berthold; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2005-06-01

    Probiotics are live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Consumption of yoghurt has been shown to induce measurable health benefits linked to the presence of live bacteria. A number of human studies have clearly demonstrated that yoghurt containing viable bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus) improves lactose digestion and eliminates symptoms of lactose intolerance. Thus, these cultures clearly fulfil the current concept of probiotics. PMID:16022746

  5. Safety of probiotics: translocation and infection.

    PubMed

    Liong, Min-Tze

    2008-04-01

    The long history of safety has contributed to the acceptance of probiotics as a safe food adjunct. Consequently, many probiotic products and their applications have been granted GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status. However, this classification has been frequently generalized for all probiotic strains regardless of their application. Cases of probiotics from the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Enterococcus, and Bifidobacterium have been isolated from infection sites, leading to the postulation that these probiotics can translocate. Probiotic translocation is difficult to induce in healthy humans, and even if it does occur, detrimental effects are rare. Despite this, various reports have documented health-damaging effects of probiotic translocation in immunocompromised patients. Due to probiotics' high degree of safety and their morphological confusion with other pathogenic bacteria, they are often overlooked as contaminants and are least suspected as pathogens. However, the antibiotic resistance of some strains has increased the complexity of their eradication. Probiotic translocation and infection deserve further investigation and should become a facet of safety assessment so the negative effects of probiotics do not outweigh the benefits. PMID:18366533

  6. No Evidence of Harms of Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in Healthy Elderly—A Phase I Open Label Study to Assess Safety, Tolerability and Cytokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Patricia L.; Kleimola, Lauren; Fiorino, Anne-Maria; Botelho, Christine; Haverkamp, Miriam; Andreyeva, Irina; Poutsiaka, Debra; Fraser, Claire; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Snydman, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) has been consumed by 2 to 5 million people daily since the mid 1990s, there are few clinical trials describing potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly. Objectives The primary objective of this open label clinical trial is to assess the safety and tolerability of 1×1010 colony forming units (CFU) of LGG administered orally twice daily to elderly volunteers for 28 days. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects of LGG on the gastrointestinal microbiome, host immune response and plasma cytokines. Methods Fifteen elderly volunteers, aged 66–80 years received LGG capsules containing 1×1010 CFU, twice daily for 28 days and were followed through day 56. Volunteers completed a daily diary, a telephone call on study days 3, 7 and 14 and study visits in the Clinical Research Center at baseline, day 28 and day 56 to determine whether adverse events had occurred. Assessments included prompted and open-ended questions. Results There were no serious adverse events. The 15 volunteers had a total of 47 events (range 1–7 per volunteer), 39 (83%) of which were rated as mild and 40% of which were considered related to consuming LGG. Thirty-one (70%) of the events were expected, prompted symptoms while 16 were unexpected events. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal (bloating, gas, and nausea), 27 rated as mild and 3 rated as moderate. In the exploratory analysis, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 decreased during LGG consumption, returning towards baseline one month after discontinuing LGG (p = 0.038) while there was no difference in other pro- or anti-inflammatory plasma cytokines. Conclusions Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 is safe and well tolerated in healthy adults aged 65 years and older. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01274598 PMID:25438151

  7. Transcriptional and Functional Analysis of Oxalyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) Decarboxylase and Formyl-CoA Transferase Genes from Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea; Bruno-Bárcena, Jose M.; Hassan, Hosni M.; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2006-01-01

    Oxalic acid is found in dietary sources (such as coffee, tea, and chocolate) or is produced by the intestinal microflora from metabolic precursors, like ascorbic acid. In the human intestine, oxalate may combine with calcium, sodium, magnesium, or potassium to form less soluble salts, which can cause pathological disorders such as hyperoxaluria, urolithiasis, and renal failure in humans. In this study, an operon containing genes homologous to a formyl coenzyme A transferase gene (frc) and an oxalyl coenzyme A decarboxylase gene (oxc) was identified in the genome of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus. Physiological analysis of a mutant harboring a deleted version of the frc gene confirmed that frc expression specifically improves survival in the presence of oxalic acid at pH 3.5 compared with the survival of the wild-type strain. Moreover, the frc mutant was unable to degrade oxalate. These genes, which have not previously been described in lactobacilli, appear to be responsible for oxalate degradation in this organism. Transcriptional analysis using cDNA microarrays and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed that mildly acidic conditions were a prerequisite for frc and oxc transcription. As a consequence, oxalate-dependent induction of these genes occurred only in cells first adapted to subinhibitory concentrations of oxalate and then exposed to pH 5.5. Where genome information was available, other lactic acid bacteria were screened for frc and oxc genes. With the exception of Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium lactis, none of the other strains harbored genes for oxalate utilization. PMID:16517636

  8. Consumption of prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis has minor effects on selected immune parameters in polypectomised and colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Roller, Monika; Clune, Yvonne; Collins, Kevin; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Watzl, Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    Probiotics (PRO) modulate immunity in humans, while the effect of prebiotics (PRE) and synbiotics (SYN) on the human immune system are not well studied yet. The objective of this study was to investigate whether daily intake of a SYN modulates immune functions. In a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, thirty-four colon cancer patients who had undergone 'curative resection' and forty polypectomised patients participated. Subjects of the SYN group daily received encapsulated bacteria (1 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and 1 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12)) and 10 g of inulin enriched with oligofructose. Controls received encapsulated maltodextrin and 10 g of maltodextrin. Prior to intervention (T1), and 6 (T2) and 12 weeks after the start of the intervention (T3), phagocytic and respiratory burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes, lytic activity of natural killer cells and production of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10 and IL-12, as well as tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) by activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were measured. In faeces, the concentrations of transforming growth factor-beta1 and prostaglandin E2 were measured. IL-2 secretion by activated PBMC from the polyp group increased significantly between T1 or T2 and T3 (P < 0.05). In the cancer group, SYN treatment resulted in an increased capacity of PBMC to produce IFN-gamma at T3 (P < 0.05). Other immunity-related parameters were not affected by SYN treatment, neither in the cancer nor in the polyp group. In conclusion, supplementation with this SYN has minor stimulatory effects on the systemic immune system of the two study groups. Further studies in humans should aim to focus on the gut-associated immune system. PMID:17349080

  9. Consumption of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (MTCC: 5897) containing fermented milk plays a key role in development of the immune system in newborn mice during the suckling-weaning transition.

    PubMed

    Saliganti, Vamshi; Kapila, Rajeev; Kapila, Suman

    2016-04-01

    Early infancy, the period when offspring rely not only on their own immunity to combat food-borne antigens but also acquire immunity through maternal sources (via transplacental routes and breast milk), is critical for immune system development Hence the present study was designed to evaluate the effect on offspring of administration of probiotic-containing fermented milk (PFM) either to mothers during the suckling period or to their offspring after weaning either separately or sequentially. PFM-fed mice showed enhanced leukocyte functionality in offspring as evidenced by significantly (P < 0.05) increased release of lysosomal enzymes (β-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase) in peritoneal fluid and nitric oxide production in culture supernatants of activated macrophages. Further, remarkably reduced levels (P < 0.01) of inflammatory markers (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and allergic antibodies (total and milk specific IgE) were observed in offspring where PFM was fed either to them or to their mothers. However, considerably increased levels (P < 0.05) of SIgA were found in the guts of control and experimental groups animals irrespective of their exposure to PFM. Restoration of Th1/Th2 homeostasis further confirmed the useful effects of PFM supplementation by shifting the cytokine profile (IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-10) with increased IFN-γ/IL-4 and reduced IgE/Ig2Ga ratios. Hence, it is logical to conclude that administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus-containing (MTCC:5897) fermented milk to mothers during the suckling period and to their offspring after weaning has beneficial effects on the development of newborns immune systems; this effect appears to be more pronounced when mothers are fed with it. PMID:26589556

  10. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the feces of healthy infants against enteropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Davoodabadi, Abolfazl; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Douraghi, Masoumeh; Sharifi Yazdi, Mohammad Kazem; Amin Harati, Farzaneh

    2015-08-01

    Lactobacilli are normal microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are a heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus strains with Probiotic activity may have health Benefits for human. This study investigates the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains obtained from the feces of healthy infants and also explores antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential against enteropathogenic bacteria. Fecal samples were collected from 95 healthy infants younger than 18 months. Two hundred and ninety Lactobacillus strains were isolated and assessed for probiotic potential properties including ability to survive in gastrointestinal conditions (pH 2.0, 0.3% oxgall), adherence to HT-29 cells and antibiotic resistance. Six strains including Lactobacillus fermentum (4 strains), Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum showed good probiotic potential and inhibited the growth of enteropathogenic bacteria including ETEC H10407, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Shigella sonnei ATCC 9290, Salmonella enteritidis H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 23715. These Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential may be useful for prevention or treatment of diarrhea, but further in vitro and in vivo studies on these strains are still required. PMID:25930687

  11. Transposon Mutagenesis of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Identifies asnH, an Asparagine Synthetase Gene Involved in Its Immune-Activating Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Masahiro; Kim, Yun-Gi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Takuya; Kiwaki, Mayumi; Nomoto, Koji; Danbara, Hirofumi; Okada, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei ATCC 27139 enhances host innate immunity, and the J1 phage-resistant mutants of this strain lose the activity. A transposon insertion mutant library of L. casei ATCC 27139 was constructed, and nine J1 phage-resistant mutants out of them were obtained. Cloning and sequencing analyses identified three independent genes that were disrupted by insertion of the transposon element: asnH, encoding asparagine synthetase, and dnaJ and dnaK, encoding the molecular chaperones DnaJ and DnaK, respectively. Using an in vivo mouse model of Listeria infection, only asnH mutant showed deficiency in their ability to enhance host innate immunity, and complementation of the mutation by introduction of the wild-type asnH in the mutant strain recovered the immuno-augmenting activity. AsnH protein exhibited asparagine synthetase activity when the lysozyme-treated cell wall extracts of L. casei ATCC 27139 was added as substrate. The asnH mutants lost the thick and rigid peptidoglycan features that are characteristic to the wild-type cells, indicating that AsnH of L. casei is involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. These results indicate that asnH is required for the construction of the peptidoglycan composition involved in the immune-activating capacity of L. casei ATCC 27139. PMID:24416179

  12. The antimicrobial properties of the lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) fractional components against foodborne pathogens and the conservation of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Alison; Wu, Vivian C H; White, Jennifer; Tadepalli, Shravaini; Andre, Enroe E

    2012-05-01

    The antimicrobial properties of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) were studied against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus to determine which fractional components have antimicrobial effects and which microorganisms are most susceptible to these antimicrobial properties. Lowbush blueberry extract (F1) was separated using a C-18 Sep-Pak cartridge into monomeric phenolics (F2) and anthocyanins plus proanthocyanidins (F3). Fraction 3 was further separated into anthocyanins (F4) and proanthocyanidins (F5) using a LH-20 Sephadex column. Each fraction was initially screened for antimicrobial properties using agar diffusion assay. Treatments that demonstrated inhibition were further analyzed for inhibition in liquid culture. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using a two-fold dilution series and viable cell counts taken at 0 and 24 h to examine growth reduction. Fraction 3 demonstrated the lowest MICs/MBCs followed by F1, F2, F4, and F5. L. monocytogenes was the most susceptible to blueberry fraction treatment, followed by E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium. L. rhamnosus was the least susceptible to each fraction treatment. The results can be applied to the field of preventive medicine, food safety, and enrich the understanding of the health benefits of lowbush blueberries. PMID:22265292

  13. Biosynthesis of tellurium nanoparticles by Lactobacillus plantarum and the effect of nanoparticle-enriched probiotics on the lipid profiles of mice.

    PubMed

    Mirjani, Ruholah; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Setayesh, Neda; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor contributing to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Lactic acid bacteria have attracted much attention regarding their promising effect on serum cholesterol levels. Tellurium (Te) is a rare element that has also gained considerable interest for its biological effects. There have been some recent in vivo reports on the reduction effect of Te on cholesterol content. In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum PTCC 1058 was employed for the intracellular biosynthesis of Te NPs. The UV-visible spectrum of purified NPs showed a peak at 214 nm related to the surface plasmon resonance of the Te NPs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that spherical nanoparticles without aggregation had the average size of 45.7 nm as determined by the laser scattering method. The energy dispersive X-ray pattern confirmed the presence of Te atoms without any impurities. A significant reduction was observed in group which received L. plantarum with or without Te NPs during propylthiouracil and cholesterol diet in compare with the control group which received just propylthiouracil and cholesterol. The levels of triglycerides also remarkably decrease (p<0.05) in mice given L. plantarum with intracellular Te NPs. PMID:26435284

  14. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Cruz, Patricia; Ibáñez, Ana L.; Monroy Hermosillo, Oscar A.; Ramírez Saad, Hugo C.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field. PMID:23762761

  15. Antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gueimonde, Miguel; Sánchez, Borja; G. de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara; Margolles, Abelardo

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The main probiotic bacteria are strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although other representatives, such as Bacillus or Escherichia coli strains, have also been used. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are two common inhabitants of the human intestinal microbiota. Also, some species are used in food fermentation processes as starters, or as adjunct cultures in the food industry. With some exceptions, antibiotic resistance in these beneficial microbes does not constitute a safety concern in itself, when mutations or intrinsic resistance mechanisms are responsible for the resistance phenotype. In fact, some probiotic strains with intrinsic antibiotic resistance could be useful for restoring the gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment. However, specific antibiotic resistance determinants carried on mobile genetic elements, such as tetracycline resistance genes, are often detected in the typical probiotic genera, and constitute a reservoir of resistance for potential food or gut pathogens, thus representing a serious safety issue. PMID:23882264

  16. Genome sequence of Lactobacillus amylovorus GRL1112.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ravi; Paulin, Lars; Alatalo, Edward; de Vos, Willem M; Palva, Airi

    2011-02-01

    Lactobacillus amylovorus is a common member of the normal gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota in pigs. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. amylovorus GRL1112, a porcine feces isolate displaying strong adherence to the pig intestinal epithelial cells. The strain is of interest, as it is a potential probiotic bacterium. PMID:21131492

  17. Genome sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 8530.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Bushell, Barry R; Ziola, Barry

    2012-02-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is found in the human gastrointestinal tract and is important for probiotics. We became interested in L. rhamnosus isolate ATCC 8530 in relation to beer spoilage and hops resistance. We report here the genome sequence of this isolate, along with a brief comparison to other available L. rhamnosus genome sequences. PMID:22247527

  18. Production of functional probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic ice creams.

    PubMed

    Di Criscio, T; Fratianni, A; Mignogna, R; Cinquanta, L; Coppola, R; Sorrentino, E; Panfili, G

    2010-10-01

    In this work, 3 types of ice cream were produced: a probiotic ice cream produced by adding potentially probiotic microorganisms such as Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus; a prebiotic ice cream produced by adding inulin, a prebiotic substrate; and a synbiotic ice cream produced by adding probiotic microorganisms and inulin in combination. In addition to microbial counts, pH, acidity, and physical and functional properties of the ice creams were evaluated. The experimental ice creams preserved the probiotic bacteria and had counts of viable lactic acid bacteria after frozen storage that met the minimum required to achieve probiotic effects. Moreover, most of the ice creams showed good nutritional and sensory properties, with the best results obtained with Lb. casei and 2.5% inulin. PMID:20854989

  19. Transcriptomic Profile of Whole Blood Cells from Elderly Subjects Fed Probiotic Bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) in a Phase I Open Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Molokin, Aleksey; Botelho, Christine; Fiorino, Anne-Maria; Vinyard, Bryan; Li, Robert; Chen, Celine; Urban, Joseph; Dawson, Harry; Andreyeva, Irina; Haverkamp, Miriam; Hibberd, Patricia L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined gene expression of whole blood cells (WBC) from 11 healthy elderly volunteers participating on a Phase I open label study before and after oral treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-ATCC 53103 (LGG)) using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Elderly patients (65–80 yrs) completed a clinical assessment for health status and had blood drawn for cellular RNA extraction at study admission (Baseline), after 28 days of daily LGG treatment (Day 28) and at the end of the study (Day 56) after LGG treatment had been suspended for 28 days. Treatment compliance was verified by measuring LGG-DNA copy levels detected in host fecal samples. Normalized gene expression levels in WBC RNA were analyzed using a paired design built within three analysis platforms (edgeR, DESeq2 and TSPM) commonly used for gene count data analysis. From the 25,990 transcripts detected, 95 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in common by all analysis platforms with a nominal significant difference in gene expression at Day 28 following LGG treatment (FDR<0.1; 77 decreased and 18 increased). With a more stringent significance threshold (FDR<0.05), only two genes (FCER2 and LY86), were down-regulated more than 1.5 fold and met the criteria for differential expression across two analysis platforms. The remaining 93 genes were only detected at this threshold level with DESeq2 platform. Data analysis for biological interpretation of DEGs with an absolute fold change of 1.5 revealed down-regulation of overlapping genes involved with Cellular movement, Cell to cell signaling interactions, Immune cell trafficking and Inflammatory response. These data provide evidence for LGG-induced transcriptional modulation in healthy elderly volunteers because pre-treatment transcription levels were restored at 28 days after LGG treatment was stopped. To gain insight into the signaling pathways affected in response to LGG treatment, DEG were mapped using biological pathways and genomic data mining

  20. Vitamin D receptor pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaoping; Yoon, Sonia; Zhang, Yong-Guo; Lu, Rong; Xia, Yinglin; Wan, Jiandi; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C; Chen, Di; Sun, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Low expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and dysfunction of vitamin D/VDR signaling are reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); therefore, restoration of VDR function to control inflammation in IBD is desirable. Probiotics have been used in the treatment of IBD. However, the role of probiotics in the modulation of VDR signaling to effectively reduce inflammation is unknown. We identified a novel role of probiotics in activating VDR activity, thus inhibiting inflammation, using cell models and VDR knockout mice. We found that the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) increased VDR protein expression in both mouse and human intestinal epithelial cells. Using the VDR luciferase reporter vector, we detected increased transcriptional activity of VDR after probiotic treatment. Probiotics increased the expression of the VDR target genes, such as antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, the role of probiotics in regulating VDR signaling was tested in vivo using a Salmonella-colitis model in VDR knockout mice. Probiotic treatment conferred physiological and histologic protection from Salmonella-induced colitis in VDR(+/+) mice, whereas probiotics had no effects in the VDR(-/-) mice. Probiotic treatment also enhanced numbers of Paneth cells, which secrete AMPs for host defense. These data indicate that the VDR pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis. Understanding how probiotics enhance VDR signaling and inhibit inflammation will allow probiotics to be used effectively, resulting in innovative approaches to the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation. PMID:26159695

  1. Probiotic approach to prevent antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Arthur C; Forssten, Sofia; Hibberd, Ashley A; Lyra, Anna; Stahl, Buffy

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, mainly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although also strain of other species are commercialized, that have a beneficial effect on the host. From the perspective of antibiotic use, probiotics have been observed to reduce the risk of certain infectious disease such as certain types of diarrhea and respiratory tract infection. This may be accompanied with a reduced need of antibiotics for secondary infections. Antibiotics tend to be effective against most common diseases, but increasingly resistance is being observed among pathogens. Probiotics are specifically selected to not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and not carry transferable antibiotic resistance. Concomitant use of probiotics with antibiotics has been observed to reduce the incidence, duration and/or severity of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This contributes to better adherence to the antibiotic prescription and thereby reduces the evolution of resistance. To what extent probiotics directly reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance is still much under investigation; but maintaining a balanced microbiota during antibiotic use may certainly provide opportunities for reducing the spread of resistances. Key messages Probiotics may reduce the risk for certain infectious diseases and thereby reduce the need for antibiotics. Probiotics may reduce the risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhea Probiotics do not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and may even reduce it. PMID:27092975

  2. Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vaginal microbiota of healthy women inhibit Prevotella bivia and Gardnerella vaginalis in coculture and cell culture.

    PubMed

    Atassi, Fabrice; Brassart, Dominique; Grob, Philipp; Graf, Federico; Servin, Alain L

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how human vaginal isolates of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus crispatus inhibit the vaginosis-associated pathogens Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia. Results show that all the strains in coculture condition reduced the viability of G. vaginalis and P. bivia, but with differing degrees of efficacy. The treatment of G. vaginalis- and P. bivia-infected cultured human cervix epithelial HeLa cells with L. gasseri strain KS120.1 culture or cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) results in the killing of the pathogens that are adhering to the cells. The mechanism of the killing activity is not attributable to low pH and the presence of lactic acid alone, but rather to the presence of hydrogen peroxide and proteolytic enzyme-resistant compound(s) present in the CFCSs. In addition, coculture of G. vaginalis or P. bivia with L. gasseri KS120.1 culture or KS120.1 bacteria results in inhibition of the adhesion of the pathogens onto HeLa cells. PMID:17059467

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum SF2A35B.

    PubMed

    Bron, Peter A; Lee, I-Chiao; Backus, Lennart; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Wels, Michiel; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is intensively studied as a model probiotic species. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the exopolysaccharide-producing strain SF2A35B. PMID:26950330

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum SF2A35B

    PubMed Central

    Bron, Peter A.; Lee, I-Chiao; Backus, Lennart; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is intensively studied as a model probiotic species. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the exopolysaccharide-producing strain SF2A35B. PMID:26950330

  5. Characterization of the Lactobacillus casei group and the Lactobacillus acidophilus group by automated ribotyping.

    PubMed

    Ryu, C S; Czajka, J W; Sakamoto, M; Benno, Y

    2001-01-01

    A total of 91 type and reference strains of the Lactobacillus casei group and the L acidophilus group were characterized by the automated ribotyping device Riboprinter microbial characterization system. The L. casei group was divided into five (C1-C5) genotypes by ribotyping. Among them, the strain of L. casei ATCC 334 was clustered to the same genotype group as most of L. paracasei strains and L casei JCM 1134T generated a riboprint pattern that was different from the type strain of L. zeae. These results supported the designation of L. casei ATCC 334 as the neotype strain, but were not consistent with the reclassification of L. casei JCM 1134T as L. zeae. The L. acidophilus group was also divided into 14 (A1-A11, B1-B3) genotypes by ribotyping. L. acidophilus, L. amylovorus, L. crispatus and L. gallinarum generated ribotype patterns that were distinct from the patterns produced by L. gasseri and L. johnsonii. This result confirmed previous data that the L. acidophilus group divided to two major clusters. Five strains of L. acidophilus and two strains of L. gasseri were correctly reidentified by ribotyping. Most strains belonging to the L. casei group and the L. acidophilus group were discriminated at the species level by automated ribotyping. Thus this RiboPrinter system yields rapid, accurate and reproducible genetic information for the identification of many strains. PMID:11386416

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Diverse Lactobacillus Species Present in Advanced Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Roy; Nadkarni, Mangala A.; Chhour, Kim-Ly; Martin, F. Elizabeth; Jacques, Nicholas A.; Hunter, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Our previous analysis of 65 advanced dental caries lesions by traditional culture techniques indicated that lactobacilli were numerous in the advancing front of the progressive lesion. Production of organic acids by lactobacilli is considered to be important in causing decalcification of the dentinal matrix. The present study was undertaken to define more precisely the diversity of lactobacilli found in this environment and to quantify the major species and phylotypes relative to total load of lactobacilli by real-time PCR. Pooled DNA was amplified by PCR with Lactobacillus genus-specific primers for subsequent cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparisons, 18 different phylotypes of lactobacilli were detected, including strong representation of both novel and gastrointestinal phylotypes. Specific PCR primers were designed for nine prominent species, including Lactobacillus gasseri, L. ultunensis, L. salivarius, L. rhamnosus, L. casei, L. crispatus, L. delbrueckii, L. fermentum, and L. gallinarum. More than three different species were identified as being present in most of the dentine samples, confirming the widespread distribution and numerical importance of various Lactobacillus spp. in carious dentine. Quantification by real-time PCR revealed various proportions of the nine species colonizing carious dentine, with higher mean loads of L. gasseri and L. ultunensis than of the other prevalent species. The findings provide a basis for further characterization of the pathogenicity of Lactobacillus spp. in the context of extension of the carious lesion. PMID:15243071

  7. Is the role of probiotics friendly in the treatment of periodontal diseases !!

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, D; Mehta, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics utilize naturally occurring bacteria to confer a health benefit when administered in adequate amounts. A few conventional foods containing probiotics are yogurt, fermented and unfermented milk, soy beverages etc. Most often, they come from two groups of bacteria, Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium. Probiotics have been extensively studied for their health promoting effects. Scientific understanding of probiotics and their potential for preventing and treating periodontal conditions is at its infancy, but moving ahead. Extensive research to create a probiotic product intended to maintain dental and periodontal health is needed. PMID:20376238

  8. Probiotics in the Arabian Gulf Region

    PubMed Central

    Senok, Abiola C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Available reports on adherence to recommended guidelines for labeling of probiotic products are based on assessment of these products in developed countries. In the Arabian Gulf region, there is a paucity of data on the characterization of probiotic products and an absence of local guidelines for their labeling. This study, carried out in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), represents the first evaluation of probiotic products available in the Arabian Peninsula. Methods Probiotic products were purchased over the counter from a variety of sources, including pharmacies, healthfood stores, and supermarkets across the UAE. All identified products were listed and information regarding type of product preparation and labeling information were recorded. Results A total of 37 probiotic products, 15 dairy-based and 22 non-dairy-based were identified. The dairy products comprised of 12 yogurts, two fermented milk products and one powdered baby formula. The majority of non-dairy products were in capsule form (n = 16). While all the non-dairy products gave information about the strain of probiotic microorganism and number present at time of manufacture, this information was provided for only one dairy-based product. Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were the most common probiotic organisms identified. However, one probiotic product listed Enterococcus faecalis (750 million viable bacteria per capsule) as a component. With the exception of one non-dairy-based product, all health-related claims were structure/function statements, according to the US Food and Drug Administration nomenclature. Conclusion These findings indicate that a wide variety of probiotic products are available in the Arabian Gulf. Development of guidelines for labeling of these probiotic products and use of structure/function statements and health claims should be addressed. PMID:19266044

  9. Colon-specific delivery of lactobacillus rhamnosus GG using pectin hydrogel beads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), has shown beneficial effects on human health, and is accepted by increasing populations for the prevention and treatment of irritable bowel diseases. To increase the bioavailability and efficacy of LGG, the probiotic was encapsulated in hydro...

  10. Biofilms of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum: Effect on stress responses, antagonistic effects on pathogen growth and immunomodulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Aoudia, Nabil; Rieu, Aurélie; Briandet, Romain; Deschamps, Julien; Chluba, Johanna; Jego, Gaëtan; Garrido, Carmen; Guzzo, Jean

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have extensively investigated probiotic functions associated with biofilms. Here, we show that strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum are able to grow as biofilm on abiotic surfaces, but the biomass density differs between strains. We performed microtiter plate biofilm assays under growth conditions mimicking to the gastrointestinal environment. Osmolarity and low concentrations of bile significantly enhanced Lactobacillus spatial organization. Two L. plantarum strains were able to form biofilms under high concentrations of bile and mucus. We used the agar well-diffusion method to show that supernatants from all Lactobacillus except the NA4 isolate produced food pathogen inhibitory molecules in biofilm. Moreover, TNF-α production by LPS-activated human monocytoid cells was suppressed by supernatants from Lactobacillus cultivated as biofilms but not by planktonic culture supernatants. However, only L. fermentum NA4 showed anti-inflammatory effects in zebrafish embryos fed with probiotic bacteria, as assessed by cytokine transcript level (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10). We conclude that the biofilm mode of life is associated with beneficial probiotic properties of lactobacilli, in a strain dependent manner. Those results suggest that characterization of isolate phenotype in the biofilm state could be additional valuable information for the selection of probiotic strains. PMID:26611169

  11. Modulating immune responses with probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, T; Chin, J

    2000-02-01

    For many years, probiotic bacteria have been known to confer health benefits to the consumer. One possible mechanism for this may be the ability of probiotic bacteria to modulate immune responses. Oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) has been found to enhance innate immunity by stimulating the activity of splenic NK cells. Oral feeding with killed LcS was able to stimulate the production of Th1 cytokines, resulting in repressed production of IgE antibodies against Ovalbumin in experimental mice. The ability to switch mucosal immune responses towards Th1 with probiotic bacteria provides a strategy for treatment of allergic disorders. Growth of Meth A tumour cells in the lungs was also inhibited by intrapleural injection of LcS. Oral administration of other probiotic bacteria, such as Streptococcus thermophilus (St), Lactobacillus fermentum (Lf) and yeast (Y), elicited different immune responses. Mice that were prefed yeast or Lf followed by feeding with ovalbumin (OVA) responded better to vaccination with OVA than mice not given either probiotic or OVA or mice that had been prefed only OVA. However, antibody responses were significantly suppressed in response to vaccination with OVA in mice that had been prefed yeast followed by yeast and OVA as well as mice prefed Lf followed by Lf and OVA. Prefeeding St followed by OVA feeding enhanced cellular immune responses against ovalbumin. In contrast, mice prefed St followed by St + OVA were hyporesponsive against OVA. While antigen feeding alone appears to prime for an immune response, cofeeding antigen with probiotic bacteria can suppress both antibody and cellular immune responses and may provide an efficacious protocol to attenuate autoimmune diseases, such as experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, by jointly dosing with myelin basic protein and probiotic bacteria. PMID:10651931

  12. Use of probiotics for management of acute gastroenteritis: a position paper by the ESPGHAN Working Group for Probiotics and Prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Szajewska, Hania; Guarino, Alfredo; Hojsak, Iva; Indrio, Flavia; Kolacek, Sanja; Shamir, Raanan; Vandenplas, Yvan; Weizman, Zvi

    2014-04-01

    The use of probiotics has been suggested in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in addition to early rehydration and avoidance of dietary restrictions. This document provides recommendations for the use of probiotics for the treatment of AGE in previously healthy infants and children based on a systematic review of previously completed systematic reviews and of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published subsequently to these reviews. The recommendations were formulated only if at least 2 RCTs that used a given probiotic (with strain specification) were available. The GRADE system developed by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations Working Group, was used to grade the strength of evidence and grades of recommendations used in these guidelines. It offers 4 categories of the quality of the evidence (high, moderate, low, and very low) and 2 categories of the strength of recommendation (strong or weak). The use of the following probiotics (in alphabetical order) may be considered in the management of children with AGE in addition to rehydration therapy: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (low quality of evidence, strong recommendation) and Saccharomyces boulardii (low quality of evidence, strong recommendation). Less compelling evidence is available for Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (very low quality of evidence, weak recommendation) and heat-inactivated Lactobacillus acidophilus LB (very low quality of evidence, weak recommendation). The latter, although traditionally discussed with other probiotics, does not fit with the definition of probiotics. Other strains or combinations of strains have been tested, but evidence of their efficacy is weak or preliminary. PMID:24614141

  13. Lactobacillus species: taxonomic complexity and controversial susceptibilities.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M

    2015-05-15

    The genus Lactobacillus is a taxonomically complex and is composed of over 170 species that cannot be easily differentiated phenotypically and often require molecular identification. Although they are part of the normal human gastrointestinal and vaginal flora, they can also be occasional human pathogens. They are extensively used in a variety of commercial products including probiotics. Their antimicrobial susceptibilities are poorly defined in part because of their taxonomic complexity and are compounded by the different methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and International Dairy Foundation. Their use as probiotics for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection is prevalent among consumers worldwide but raises the question of will the use of any concurrent antibiotic effect their ability to survive. Lactobacillus species are generally acid resistant and are able to survive ingestion. They are generally resistant to metronidazole, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin with L. acidophilus being susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin, whereas L. rhamnosus and L. casei are resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin. PMID:25922408

  14. Antagonistic Activity of Lactobacillus Isolates against Salmonella typhi In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Daim, Amira; Hassouna, Nadia; Hafez, Mohamed; Ashor, Mohamed Seif Aldeen; Aboulwafa, Mohammad M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Enteric fever is a global health problem, and rapidly developing resistance to various drugs makes the situation more alarming. The potential use of Lactobacillus to control typhoid fever represents a promising approach, as it may exert protective actions through various mechanisms. Methods. In this study, the probiotic potential and antagonistic activities of 32 Lactobacillus isolates against Salmonella typhi were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of cell free supernatants of Lactobacillus isolates, interference of Lactobacillus isolates with the Salmonella adherence and invasion, cytoprotective effect of Lactobacillus isolates, and possibility of concurrent use of tested Lactobacillus isolates and antibiotics were evaluated by testing their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents, and their oxygen tolerance was also examined. Results. The results revealed that twelve Lactobacillus isolates could protect against Salmonella typhi infection through interference with both its growth and its virulence properties, such as adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity. These Lactobacillus isolates exhibited MIC values for ciprofloxacin higher than those of Salmonella typhi and oxygen tolerance and were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Conclusion. The tested Lactobacillus plantarum isolates can be introduced as potential novel candidates that have to be subjected for in vivo and application studies for treatment and control of typhoid fever. PMID:24191248

  15. Epithelial cell adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry.

    PubMed

    Spivey, Megan A; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Duong, Tri

    2014-11-01

    Administration of probiotic Lactobacillus cultures is an important alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoters and has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and preharvest food safety in poultry production. Whereas gastrointestinal colonization is thought to be critical to their probiotic functionality, factors important to Lactobacillus colonization in chickens are not well understood. In this study we investigate epithelial cell adhesion in vitro and colonization of Lactobacillusin vivo in broiler chickens. Adhesion of Lactobacillus cultures to epithelial cells was evaluated using the chicken LMH cell line. Lactobacillus cultures were able adhere effectively to LMH cells relative to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Epithelial cell adhesion was similar for Lactobacillus crispatus TDCC 75, L. cristpatus TDCC 76, and Lactobacillus gallinarum TDCC 77, and all 3 were more adherent than L. gallinarum TDCC 78. However, when colonization was evaluated in the ileum and cecum of broiler chicks, L. crispatus TDCC 75 and L. gallinarum TDCC 77 were more persistent than L. crispatus TDCC 76 and L. gallinarum TDCC 78. The reduction of growth in medium supplemented with oxgal was greater for L. gallinarum TDCC 78 than L. gallinarum TDCC 77, suggesting that whereas adhesion was similar for the 2 strains, the difference in colonization between L. gallinarum strains may be due in part to their bile sensitivity. This study demonstrates that whereas adhesion to epithelial cells may be important in predicting gastrointestinal colonization, other factors including bile tolerance may also contribute to the colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry. Additionally, the chicken LMH cell line is expected to provide a platform for investigating mechanisms of Lactobacillus adhesion to epithelial tissue and evaluating the probiotic potential Lactobacillus in poultry. PMID:25239531

  16. Characterization of a bovine isolate Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 which produces an exopolysaccharide composed predominantly of mannose residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: Identification of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing lactobacilli as EPS production is potentially a very important trait among probiotic lactobacilli from technological and health promoting perspectives. Methods and Results: Characterization of EPS-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in de...

  17. Probiotics as efficient immunopotentiators: translational role in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Shida, Kan; Nomoto, Koji

    2013-11-01

    Accumulating evidences indicate that some diseases are triggered by abnormalities of the gut microbiota. Among these, immune-related diseases can be the promising targets for probiotcs. Several studies have proved the efficacy of probiotics for preventing such diseases including cancers, infections, allergies, inflammatory bowel diseases and autoimmune diseases. Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) is one of the most popular probiotics, benefits of which in health maintenance and disease control have been supported by several science-based evidences. This review summarizes human clinical trials with this probiotic against cancer development and also discusses the possible immunomodulatory mechanisms by which LcS exerts anti-cancer activity. PMID:24434333

  18. The role of probiotics in prevention of oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, Magdalena; Bachanek, Teresa; Mazur, Elżbieta; Chałas, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic development of knowledge in the field of probiotics was commenced at the beginning of the 20th century. Since then, many ways of their possible usage in medicine have been established. In accordance with the WHO, probiotics are live microorganisms, which if applied in adequate amounts may benefit the host. Among probiotics, fungi and bacteria are distinguished, and mechanisms of action of these organisms in the oral cavity and gut are parallel. Application in dentistry, in prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases is still not well known. Most commonly, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium are applied. The aim of the study was to collect and systematize the latest information about probiotics and their role in pathomechanisms of dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, candidiasis, and malodour. Based on the analyzed literature, it can be concluded that mechanisms of cariogenic pathogen inhibition using probiotics are still not well understood. The new research trend is based on application of probiotics which can naturally displace cariogenic bacteria in the oral cavity and influence oral health in adults and children. The results of studies also confirmed the beneficial role of probiotics in reduction of the bacterial population in periodontitis and halitosis. Long-term observation and a properly designed study protocol will allow us to answer many questions concerning substitution of one strain of bacteria by another. PMID:27594560

  19. Functional foods as carriers for SYNBIO®, a probiotic bacteria combination.

    PubMed

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2012-07-16

    The popularity of functional foods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10⁹CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO®). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10⁷ and 10⁹CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Büscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date. PMID:22727086

  20. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ramya, T. N. C.; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions. PMID:27258038

  1. Probiotics in the Management of Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Adcock, Ian M.; Folkerts, Gert; Barnes, Peter J.; Paul Vos, Arjan; Garssen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The physiology and pathology of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are closely related. This similarity between the two organs may underlie why dysfunction in one organ may induce illness in the other. For example, smoking is a major risk factor for COPD and IBD and increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease. Probiotics have been defined as “live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host.” In model systems probiotics regulate innate and inflammatory immune responses. Commonly used probiotics include lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces, and these are often used as dietary supplements to provide a health benefit in gastrointestinal diseases including infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer. In this respect, probiotics probably act as immunomodulatory agents and activators of host defence pathways which suggest that they could influence disease severity and incidence at sites distal to the gut. There is increasing evidence that orally delivered probiotics are able to regulate immune responses in the respiratory system. This review provides an overview of the possible role of probiotics and their mechanisms of action in the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases. PMID:23737654

  2. Probiotics in Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Boltin, Doron

    2016-02-01

    The ideal treatment regimen for the eradication Helicobacter pylori infection has yet to be identified. Probiotics, particularly Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Saccharomyces, have been suggested as adjuncts to antibiotics for the treatment of H. pylori. There is in vitro evidence that probiotics dampen the Th1 response triggered by H. pylori, attenuate H. pylori associated hypochlorhydria and secrete bacteriocidal metabolites. Probiotics interact with the innate host immune system through adherence to the gastric epithelium and secretion of bacterial adhesins. In prospective human studies, probiotic monotherapy effectively decrease H. pylori density (expired (13)CO2) by 2.0%-64.0%. Probiotic monotherapy has also been shown to eradicate H. pylori in up to 32.5%, although subsequent recrudescence is likely. Eleven meta-analyses have evaluated the efficacy of probiotics as adjuvants to antibiotics for the eradication of H. pylori. The addition of a probiotic increased treatment efficacy, OR 1.12-2.07. This benefit is probably strain-specific and may only be significant with relatively ineffective antibiotic regimens. The pooled prevalence of adverse effects was 12.9%-31.5% among subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with 24.3%-45.9% among controls. Diarrhea in particular was significantly reduced in subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with controls (OR 0.16-0.47). A reduction in adverse events other than diarrhea is variable. Despite the apparent benefit on efficacy and side effects conferred by probiotics, the optimal probiotic species, dose and treatment duration has yet to be determined. Further studies are needed to identify the probiotic, antibiotic and patient factors which might predict benefit from probiotic supplementation. PMID:27048901

  3. Fermented products with probiotic qualities.

    PubMed

    Kalantzopoulos, G

    1997-01-01

    For several centuries, fermented products derived from plant or animal materials have been an acceptable and essential part of the diet in most parts of the world. Health benefits have also often been associated with them. Probiotics can be defined as fermented food containing specific live microorganisms or a live microbial food or feed supplement, which beneficially effects the human or the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Nearly all probiotics currently on the market contain Lactobacilli, Streptococci, Enterococci or Bifidobacteria. In contrast to Japan, where freeze-dried microorganisms are consumed by a substantial part of the human population, in Europe, probiotic action towards humans are only claimed for certain fermented dairy products (e.g. yoghurts). Those species that have been extensively studied so far, with several experimental trials on man, are the two yoghurt bacteria Streptocaccus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. casei and Bifidobacteria. L. acidophilus has also received important scientific interest, however, only a few human studies have been carried out. From the technological point of view a good probiotic should be stable and viable for long periods under storage, should be able to survive the low pH levels of the stomach, be able to colonise the epithelium of the gastro-intestinal tract of the host, should not be pathogenic and, last but not least, must be capable of exerting a growth promoting effect or a resistance to infectious diseases. The beneficial effects of probiotics are mainly contributed to a direct antagonistic effect against specific groups of microorganisms (Enteropathogenes), by an effect on the metabolism in the gut or by a stimulation of systemic or mucosal immunity. We will present major proven health benefits of milks fermented with those bacterial species and discuss, where possible, the impact of the specific selection and utilisation of particular strains. PMID:16887587

  4. Functional proteomics within the genus Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains. PMID:27001126

  5. Microorganisms with Claimed Probiotic Properties: An Overview of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fijan, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Health benefits have mainly been demonstrated for specific probiotic strains of the following genera: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Escherichia coli. The human microbiota is getting a lot of attention today and research has already demonstrated that alteration of this microbiota may have far-reaching consequences. One of the possible routes for correcting dysbiosis is by consuming probiotics. The credibility of specific health claims of probiotics and their safety must be established through science-based clinical studies. This overview summarizes the most commonly used probiotic microorganisms and their demonstrated health claims. As probiotic properties have been shown to be strain specific, accurate identification of particular strains is also very important. On the other hand, it is also demonstrated that the use of various probiotics for immunocompromised patients or patients with a leaky gut has also yielded infections, sepsis, fungemia, bacteraemia. Although the vast majority of probiotics that are used today are generally regarded as safe and beneficial for healthy individuals, caution in selecting and monitoring of probiotics for patients is needed and complete consideration of risk-benefit ratio before prescribing is recommended. PMID:24859749

  6. [Effects of mono-, poly- and composite probiotics on the ulceration caused by restraint stress].

    PubMed

    Virchenko, O V; Falalyeyeva, T M; Beregova, T V; Spivak, M Y; Lazarenko, L M; Demchenko, O M

    2015-01-01

    It was studied the effect of probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium animalis VKL, Bifidobacterium animalis VKB and Lactobacillus casei IMVB-7280, and their mixtures on erosive and ulcerative lesions of the gastric mucosa (GM) of rats. GM was induced by water-immersion restraint stress. It was found that investigated probiotics did not have gastroprotective properties under a single and seven-day prophylactic administration. However, multiprobiotics (polyprobiotic Bifidobacterium animalis VKL and Bifidobacterium animalis VKB and composite probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis VKL, Bifidobacterium animalis VKB and Lactobacillus casei IMVB-7280) reduced the erosive and ulcerative lesions and the intensity of bleeding in rat GM when given within 14 days. It was shown that one of the mechanisms of antiulcer preventive effect of the multistrain probiotics is the restoration of pro/antioxidant balance in the GM under the stress action. The obtained results show the effectiveness of poly- and composite probiotics in the gastric ulcer prevention. PMID:26040033

  7. Survival of four commercial probiotic mixtures in full fat and reduced fat peanut butter.

    PubMed

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2014-12-01

    A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Lactococcus were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Resulting products were stored at 4, 25 or 37 °C for 12 months. Populations of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus/Lactococcus were determined periodically. The average viable cell counts of N and S were significantly lower than those of B and U (p < 0.05). In all probiotic products stored at different temperatures, Bifidobacterium had the greatest survivability, followed by Lactobacillus and Streptococcus/Lactococcus. The probiotics used in the study had different surviving patterns, and their survival was influenced by storage conditions. Fat content of peanut butter had no significant impacts on probiotic viability. Results suggest that peanut butter can be a vehicle to deliver probiotics for preventing diarrhea among malnourished children. PMID:25084642

  8. Colonization of congenitally immunodeficient mice with probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, R D; Warner, T; Roberts, L; Farmer, J; Balish, E

    1997-01-01

    We assessed the capacity of four probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus casei GG, and Bifidobacterium animalis) to colonize, infect, stimulate immune responses in, and affect the growth and survival of congenitally immunodeficient gnotobiotic beige-athymic (bg/bg-nu/nu) and beige-euthymic (bg/bg-nu/+) mice. The bacteria colonized and persisted, in pure culture, in the alimentary tracts of both mouse strains for the entire study period (12 weeks). Although all adult and neonatal beige-euthymic mice survived probiotic colonization, some infant mortality occurred in beige-athymic pups born to mothers colonized with pure cultures of L. reuteri or L. casei GG. The probiotic bacteria manifested different capacities to adhere to epithelial surfaces, disseminate to internal organs, affect the body weight of adult mice and the growth of neonatal mice, and stimulate immune responses. Although the probiotic species were innocuous for adults, these results suggest that caution and further studies to assess the safety of probiotic bacteria for immunodeficient hosts, especially neonates, are required. PMID:9234796

  9. Probiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Alfredo; Guandalini, Stefano; Lo Vecchio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used for prevention and treatment of diarrhea more in children than in adults. Given the broad spectrum of diarrhea, this review focuses on the main etiologies: acute gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). For each, we reviewed randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and guidelines. For acute gastroenteritis we found 12 guidelines: 5 recommended probiotics and 7 did not. However, the guidelines containing positive recommendations provided proof of evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Saccharomyces boulardii had the most compelling evidence of efficacy as they reduced the duration of the disease by 1 day. For AAD 4 meta-analyses were found, reporting variable efficacy of probiotics in preventing diarrhea, based on the setting, patient's age, and antibiotics. The most effective strains were LGG and S. boulardii. For NEC, we found 3 randomized controlled trials, 5 meta-analyses, and 4 position papers. Probiotics reduced the risk of NEC enterocolitis and mortality in preterm babies. Guidelines did not support a routine use of probiotics and asked for further data for such sensitive implications. In conclusion, there is strong and solid proof of efficacy of probiotics as active treatment of gastroenteritis in addition to rehydration. There is solid evidence that probiotics have some efficacy in prevention of AAD, but the number needed to treat is an issue. For both etiologies LGG and S. boulardii have the strongest evidence. In NEC the indications are more debated, yet on the basis of available data and their implications, probiotics should be carefully considered. PMID:26447963

  10. Feeding Lactobacillus spp. and Bacillus spp. Does Not Improve Growth or Survival of Channel Catfish Experimentally Challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major problem in the channel catfish industry has been high disease loss to enteric septicemia of catfish, caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. Feeding probiotics may prove beneficial in improving disease resistance. The first study examined the effects of a Lactobacillus probiotic (Flor...

  11. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics.

    PubMed

    de Vrese, Michael; Schrezenmeir, J

    2008-01-01

    According to the German definition, probiotics are defined viable microorganisms, sufficient amounts of which reach the intestine in an active state and thus exert positive health effects. Numerous probiotic microorganisms (e.g. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, bifidobacteria and certain strains of L. casei or the L. acidophilus-group) are used in probiotic food, particularly fermented milk products, or have been investigated--as well as Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, certain enterococci (Enterococcus faecium SF68) and the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii--with regard to their medicinal use. Among the numerous purported health benefits attributed to probiotic bacteria, the (transient) modulation of the intestinal microflora of the host and the capacity to interact with the immune system directly or mediated by the autochthonous microflora, are basic mechanisms. They are supported by an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo experiments using conventional and molecular biologic methods. In addition to these, a limited number of randomized, well-controlled human intervention trials have been reported. Well-established probiotic effects are: 1. Prevention and/or reduction of duration and complaints of rotavirus-induced or antibiotic-associated diarrhea as well as alleviation of complaints due to lactose intolerance. 2. Reduction of the concentration of cancer-promoting enzymes and/or putrefactive (bacterial) metabolites in the gut. 3. Prevention and alleviation of unspecific and irregular complaints of the gastrointestinal tracts in healthy people. 4. Beneficial effects on microbial aberrancies, inflammation and other complaints in connection with: inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, Helicobacter pylori infection or bacterial overgrowth. 5. Normalization of passing stool and stool consistency in subjects suffering from obstipation or an irritable colon. 6. Prevention or alleviation of allergies and atopic diseases in infants. 7

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus farciminis NBRC 111452, Isolated from Kôso, a Japanese Sugar-Vegetable Fermented Beverage.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Tai-Ying; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Takahashi, Tomoya

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Lactobacillus farciminis strain NBRC 111452, isolated from kôso, a Japanese sugar-vegetable fermented beverage. This genome information is of potential use in studies of Lactobacillus farciminis as a probiotic. PMID:26769925

  13. [LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE COMPLEX PROBIOTIC PREPARATION "BIFILACT-BILS" IN CAPSULATED FORM].

    PubMed

    Neschislyaev, V A; Stolbova, M G; Mokin, P A; Orlova, E V; Ershov, A E

    2016-01-01

    The composition and technology of complex probiotic in hard gelatin capsules was developed in Perm Branch "Biomed" of "Microgen" State Company. The preparation contains three production strains: Lactobacillus plantarum 8P-A3, L. acidophilus K3W24 and Bifidobacterium bifidum 1. Laboratory and experimental (preclinical) study of the probiotic included investigation of the antagonistic activity, "acute" and "chronic" toxicity, the effect of the preparation on histology and hematology of laboratory animals. The result of these studies suggested of the probiotic had high inhibitory activity against pathogenic microflora when compared with probiotic monopreparations and had no toxic effects on laboratory animals. PMID:27301138

  14. Modulation of humoral immune response through probiotic intake.

    PubMed

    Fang, H; Elina, T; Heikki, A; Seppo, S

    2000-09-01

    Thirty healthy volunteers were randomised into three different treatment groups and consumed Lactobacillus GG, Lactococcus lactis or placebo (ethyl cellulose) for 7 days. On days 1, 3 and 5, an attenuated Salmonella typhi Ty21a oral vaccine was given to all subjects to mimic an enteropathogenic infection. All subjects responded well to the vaccine, but no significant differences were observed in numbers of IgA-, IgG- and IgM-secreting cells among the different groups. There was a trend towards a greater increase in specific IgA among the subjects receiving the vaccine in combination with Lactobacillus GG. Those receiving L. lactis with their vaccine evinced significantly higher CR3 receptor expression on neutrophils than those receiving either the placebo or Lactobacillus GG. These results indicate that probiotics may influence differently the immune response to oral S. typhi vaccine and that the immunomodulatory effect of probiotics is strain-dependent. PMID:10967260

  15. In vitro screening of probiotic characteristics of some italian products.

    PubMed

    De Vecchi, E; Nicola, L; Zanini, S; Drago, L

    2008-06-01

    Six commercial probiotic products produced and marketed Italy (containing Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus casei DG, Lactobacillus reuteri, Bacillus clausii spores, Bifidobacterium longum and Saccharomyces boulardii) were assayed for their stability during storage, acid, base and bile tolerance and adherence to human intestinal cells. Results indicate that storage, even at conditions established by manufacturers, affects the microbial content of products based on B. longum and partially of that containing L. casei GG . Differences in acid and bile tolerance were found for the products, S. boulardii being better able to survive acid and bile than bacteria. Vegetative cells of B. clausii and B. longum were more susceptible than lactobacilli to low pH values, while fewer differences were found for bile tolerance. Lactobacilli and only partially B. longum, were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells, while S. boulardii and B. clausii showed reduced adherence to human intestinal cells. In conclusion, the products did not completely fulfill all probiotic attributes. PMID:18606590

  16. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. PMID:26325197

  17. Probiotics and refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    PubMed

    Nettis, E; Di Leo, E; Pastore, A; Distaso, M; Zaza, I; Vacca, M; Macchia, L; Vacca, A

    2016-09-01

    Background. In chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) first-line therapy with an antihistamine-based regimen may not achieve satisfactory control in patients. Thus, a continuing need exists for effective and safe treatments for refractory CSU. Aim. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of an intake of a combination of 2 probiotics (Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03) in patients with CSU who remain symptomatic despite concomitant H1-antihistamine therapy. Methods. This report analyzes the effects of therapy with two probiotic strains on the clinical progress of 52 unselected patients with difficulty to treat CSU underwent to medical examination in two Italian specialist urticaria Clinics between September 2013 and September 2014. A mixture of Lactobacillus LS01 and Bifidobacterium BR03 were administered in each patient twice daily for 8 weeks. To evaluate patients' improvement with probiotics, urticaria activity score over 7 days (UAS7) was used at baseline and at week 8 in addition to a 5-question urticaria quality of life questionnaire. Results. Fifty-two patients with CSU were included in this study (10 male and 42 female, age range 19-72 years). Mean disease duration was 1.5 years. Fourteen patients discontinued treatment, so evaluable population consisted of 38 patients. Nine of the 38 patients experienced mild clinical improvement during probiotic treatment (23.7%); one patient reported significant clinical improvement (2.6%) and one patient had complete remission of urticaria (2.6%). Twenty-seven patients did not have improvement in symptoms (71.1%). No side effects during the course of therapy were reported. Conclusions. A combination of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 administered twice daily for 8 weeks might reduce the symptoms scores and improve quality of life scores in a part of patients with CSU who remained symptomatic despite treatment with H1 antihistamine mostly in subjects with allergic

  18. Effect of Lactobacillus species on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ayaz; Dachang, Wu; Lei, Zhou; Jianjun, Liu; Juanjuan, Qiu; Yi, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary pathogen responsible for initiating dental caries and decay. The presence of sucrose, stimulates S. mutans to produce insoluble glucans to form oral biofilm also known as dental plaque to initiate caries lesion. The GtfB and LuxS genes of S. mutans are responsible for formation and maturation of biofilm. Lactobacillus species as probiotic can reduces the count of S. mutans. In this study effect of different Lactobacillus species against the formation of S. mutans biofilm was observed. Growing biofilm in the presence of sucrose was detected using 96 well microtiter plate crystal violet assay and biofilm formation by S. mutans in the presence of Lactobacillus was detected. Gene expression of biofilm forming genes (GtfB and LuxS) was quantified through Real-time PCR. All strains of Lactobacillus potently reduced the formation of S. mutans biofilm whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus reduced the genetic expression by 60-80%. Therefore, probiotic Lactobacillus species can be used as an alternative instead of antibiotics to decrease the chance of dental caries by reducing the count of S. mutans and their gene expression to maintain good oral health. PMID:25176247

  19. Probiotic use in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Sunit C; Baranwal, A

    2008-06-01

    Probiotics are "live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host" (FAO/WHO joint group). Their potential role in bio-ecological modification of pathological internal milieu of the critically ill is under evaluation. Probiotics are available as single microbial strain (e.g., Bacillus clausii, Lactobacillus) or as a mix of multiple strains of Lactobacillus (acidophilus, sporogenes, lactis, reuteri RC-14, GG, and L. plantarum 299v), Bifidobacterium (bifidum, longum, infantis), Streptococcus (thermophillus, lactis, fecalis), Saccharomyces boulardii etc. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria are gram-positive, anaerobic, lactic acid bacteria. These are normal inhabitant of human gut and colonize the colon better than others. Critical illness and its treatment create hostile environment in the gut and alters the micro flora favoring growth of pathogens. Therapy with probiotics is an effort to reduce or eliminate potential pathogens and toxins, to release nutrients, antioxidants, growth factors and coagulation factors, to stimulate gut motility and to modulate innate and adaptive immune defense mechanisms via the normalization of altered gut flora. Scientific evidence shows that use of probiotics is effective in prevention and therapy of antibiotic associated diarrhea. However, available probiotics strains in currently used doses do not provide much needed early benefits, and need long-term administration to have clinically beneficial effects (viz, a reduction in rate of infection, severe sepsis, ICU stay, ventilation days and mortality) in critically ill surgical and trauma patients. Possibly, available strains do not adhere to intestinal mucosa early, or may require higher dose than what is used. Gap exists in our knowledge regarding mechanisms of action of different probiotics, most effective strains--single or multiple, cost effectiveness, risk-benefit potential, optimum dose, frequency and duration of treatment etc. More

  20. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Tehrani, Hajar-Alsadat; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Mokarian, Fariborz; Mahdavi, Hoda; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. Results: White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey) during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 106 cells/μL, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 103 cells/μL and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 103 cells/μL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of probiotics or

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus against microbial flora of cervicovaginal infections

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Subramanyam; Shouri, Raju Naidu Devanaboyaina; Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Valluru, Lokanatha

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the probiotic nature of Lactobacillus in preventing cervical pathogens by studying the effectiveness of antimicrobial activity against vaginal pathogens. Methods Lactobacilli were isolated from healthy vaginal swabs on selective media and different pathogenic bacteria were isolated by using different selective media. The Lactobacillus strains were tested for the production of hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobial compounds along with probiotic properties. Results Of the 10 isolated Lactobacillus strains, strain 1, 3 and 6 are high hydrogen peroxide producers and the rest were low producers. Results of pH and amines tests indicated that pH increased with fishy odour in the vaginal fluids of cervicovaginal infection patients when compared with vaginal fluids of healthy persons. The isolates were found to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-capsule forming and catalase-negative bacilli. The results of antimicrobial activity of compounds indicated that 280 and 140 µg/mL was the minimum concentration to inhibit the growth of both pathogens and test organisms respectively. Conclusions The results demonstrated that Lactobacillus producing antimicrobial compounds inhibits the growth of cervical pathogens, revealing that the hypothesis of preventing vaginal infection by administering probiotic organisms has a great appeal to patients, which colonize the vagina to help, restore and maintain healthy vagina.

  2. Nutritionally enhanced fermented sausages as a vehicle for potential probiotic lactobacilli delivery.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Raquel; Jofré, Anna; Aymerich, Teresa; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Garriga, Margarita

    2014-02-01

    The suitability of three potential probiotic lactobacilli strains (Lactobacillus casei CTC1677, L. casei CTC1678 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679), previously isolated from infants' faeces and characterized, and three commercial probiotic strains (Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, L. rhamnosus GG and L. casei Shirota) was assessed during the manufacture of low-acid fermented sausages (fuets) with reduced Na(+) and fat content. The inoculated strains were successfully monitored by RAPD-PCR during the process. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 was the only strain able to grow and dominate (levels ca. 10(8)CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria population in two independent trials, throughout the ripening process. Thus, fuet containing L. rhamnosus CTC1679 as a starter culture could be a suitable vehicle for putative probiotic bacteria delivery. All the final products recorded a satisfactory overall sensory quality without any noticeable off-flavour, and with the characteristic sensory properties of low-acid fermented sausages. PMID:24211552

  3. Influence of a probiotic mixture on antibiotic induced microbiota disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Forssten, Sofia; Evans, Malkanthi; Wilson, Dale; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of probiotic consumption on the faecal microbiota during and after antibiotic exposure. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study with a two species probiotic combination [Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) ATCC 700396 and Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) ATCC SD5220] on healthy adults during and after antibiotic treatment (amoxicillin 875 and 125 mg clavulanate). The dominant faecal microbiota was studied by real time-polymerase chain reaction to determine if this probiotic preparation could facilitate restoring the microbiota to its pre-antibiotic state and influence the prevalence of beta-lactam resistance. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded by questionnaire and Bristol stool scale. RESULTS: Subjects on the probiotic combination had significantly higher faecal counts of L. acidophilus ATCC 700396 and B. lactis at day 8 (end of antibiotic treatment period) vs those on placebo. Furthermore, subjects on the probiotic combination had significantly higher faecal counts of L. acidophilus ATCC 700396 and B. lactis at Day 15 (end of probiotic treatment) vs those on placebo. Lactobacillus counts remained stable in the probiotic group over the course of the study, while Clostridium XIV group was higher at the end of the study and closer to baseline levels; this in contrast to the placebo group. Beta-lactam resistance in creased after antibiotic exposure and was not different between both treatment groups. Gastrointestinal symptoms were generally mild and did not differ between the treatment groups, which correlates with the generally small changes in the microbiota. CONCLUSION: Consumption of the probiotic combination mainly leads to an increase in the faecal levels of the species included in the preparation. PMID:25206295

  4. Molecular detection of Lactobacillus species in the neovagina of male-to-female transsexual women.

    PubMed

    Petricevic, Ljubomir; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Domig, Konrad J; Kraler, Manuel; Marschalek, Julian; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kiss, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    There is a general opinion that penile skin lined neovagina of transsexual women is not able to support the growth of lactobacilli. This study was undertaken to prove if lactobacilli strains could survive in neovagina and to characterise the most dominant Lactobacillus species. Sixty three male-to-female transsexual women without abnormal vaginal discharge, clinical signs of infection were recruited on an ongoing basis from among transsexual outpatients in an academic research institution and tertiary care centre. Neovaginal smears were taken for molecular Lactobacillus spp. profiling by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Lactobacillus species were detected from 47/63 transsexual women (75%). The 279 Lactobacillus