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Sample records for probiotics lactobacillus gasseri

  1. Genomic and phenotypic evidence for probiotic influences of Lactobacillus gasseri on human health.

    PubMed

    Selle, Kurt; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2013-11-01

    Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the capacity to occupy mucosal niches of humans, including the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina. Among commensal, LAB are species of the acidophilus complex, which have proven to be a substantial reservoir for microorganisms with probiotic attributes. Specifically, Lactobacillus gasseri is an autochthonous microorganism which has been evaluated for probiotic activity based on the availability of genome sequence and species-specific adaptation to the human mucosa. Niche-related characteristics of L. gasseri contributing to indigenous colonization include tolerance of low pH environments, resistance to bile salts, and adhesion to the host epithelium. In humans, L. gasseri elicits various health benefits through its antimicrobial activity, bacteriocin production, and immunomodulation of the innate and adaptive systems. The genomic and empirical evidence supporting use of L. gasseri in probiotic applications is substantiated by clinical trial data displaying maintenance of vaginal homeostasis, mitigation of Helicobacter pylori infection, and amelioration of diarrhea. PMID:23488471

  2. Probiotic and cultural characteristic of strain Lactobacillus gasseri 4/13 of human origin

    PubMed Central

    Baltova, Kalinka; Dimitrov, Zhechko

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri within the Lactobacillus acidophilus group is a major species in the human microflora. The potential probiotic properties of a L. gasseri strain of human origin were evaluated. Out of 17 studied L. gasseri strains, L. gasseri 4/13 showed the highest immunomodulatory effect (induction of interferon gamma measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in Balb/c mouse splenocytes in vitro and the highest rate of adhesion to Caco-2 human epithelial cells. The strain also reduced the concentration of cholesterol in the growth medium by 65% as compared with the initial concentration (measured spectrophotometrically). These probiotic properties indicate that L. gasseri 4/13 could prove an attractive concentrated adjunct monoculture in the production of new functional foods. To obtain a freeze-dried bacterial concentrate from L. gasseri 4/13, the influence of different culture media, temperatures and pH values on the accumulation of cell biomass was studied. Yoghurt samples were produced using a classical fermentation technology. Freeze-dried concentrated monoculture of L. gasseri 4/13 with over 1 × 1010 CFU/g viable cells was added as an adjunct culture together with a starter. The viable L. gasseri 4/13 cells remained above the critical value of 106 CFU/g during storage at 5 °C for the entire 20-day period. Organoleptic tests did not reveal any adverse change in the product taste and aroma of yoghurt samples at the 20th day. In conclusion, L. gasseri 4/13 was selected as having suitable probiotic and cultural characteristics for production of fermented milk products with high nutritional and biological value. PMID:26692783

  3. Expression of Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase gene in Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus johnsonii and characterization of the genetically modified probiotic lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Cho, J S; Choi, Y J; Chung, D K

    2000-04-01

    Endoglucanase A from Clostridium thermocellum resistant to pancreatic proteinase was selected out of a range of microbial cellulases expressed in lactobacilli. Two Lactobacillus-E. coli expression vectors, harboring the endoglucanase gene from C. thermocellum under the control of its own promoter (pSD1) and the Lactococcus lactis lac A promoter (pSD2), were constructed separately. Intestinal Lactobacillus strains, L. gasseri and L. johnsonii, were electrotransformed with pSD1 and pSD2, and the stability of each plasmid was evaluated. The endoglucanase activities of 0.722 and 0.759 U/ml were respectively found in culture medium of L. gasseri and L. johnsonii containing pSD1, and of 0.407 U/ml in medium of L. gasseri harboring pSD2. When the probiotic characteristics such as acid-tolerance, bile-salt tolerance, and antibiotic susceptibility were investigated, L. gasseri and L. johnsonii were resistant to low pHs of 2 and 3. Also, L. johnsonii was bile-salt resistant in the presence of 0.5% oxgall and porcine bile extract. L. johnsonii and L. gasseri showed a rather homogeneous resistant pattern against tested antibiotics. Both strains were resistant to amikacin, bacitracin, gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and colistin. PMID:10688695

  4. Differential modulation of innate immunity in vitro by probiotic strains of Lactobacillus gasseri

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Probiotics species appear to differentially regulate the intestinal immune response. Moreover, we have shown that different immune-modulatory abilities can be found among probiotic strains belonging to the same species. In this study, we further addressed this issue while studying L. gasseri, a species that induces relevant immune activities in human patients. Results We determined the ability of two strains of L. gasseri, OLL2809 and L13-Ia, to alter cell surface antigen expression, cytokine production and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated cytoprotection in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and MODE-K cells, which represent an enterocyte model. Differential effects of L. gasseri strains were observed on the expression of surface markers in mature DCs; nevertheless, both strains dramatically induced production of IL-12, TNF-α and IL-10. Distinctive responses to OLL2809 and L13-Ia were also shown in MODE-K cells by analyzing the expression of MHC II molecules and the secretion of IL-6; however, both L. gasseri strains raised intracellular glutathione. Treatment of immature DCs with culture medium from MODE-K monolayers improved cytoprotection and modified the process of DC maturation by down-regulating the expression of co-stimulatory markers and by altering the cytokine profile. Notably, bacteria-conditioned MODE-K cell medium suppressed the expression of the examined cytokines, whereas cytoprotective defenses were significantly enhanced only in DCs exposed to OLL2809-conditioned medium. These effects were essentially mediated by secreted bacterial metabolites. Conclusions We have demonstrated that L. gasseri strains possess distinctive abilities to modulate in vitro DCs and enterocytes. In particular, our results highlight the potential of metabolites secreted by L. gasseri to influence enterocyte-DC crosstalk. Regulation of cellular mechanisms of innate immunity by selected probiotic strains may contribute to the beneficial effects of these bacteria in gut homeostasis. PMID:24365457

  5. Detection and quantification of probiotic strain Lactobacillus gasseri K7 in faecal samples by targeting bacteriocin genes.

    PubMed

    Treven, Primo; Turkova, Kristyna; Trm?i?, Aljoa; Obermajer, Tanja; Rogelj, Irena; Matijai?, Bojana Bogovi?

    2013-11-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri K7 is a probiotic strain that produces bacteriocins gassericin K7 A and K7 B. In order to develop a real-time quantitative PCR assay for the detection of L. gasseri K7, 18 reference strains of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group and 45 faecal samples of adults who have never consumed strain K7 were tested with PCR using 14 pairs of primers specific for gassericin K7 A and K7 B gene determinants. Incomplete gassericin K7 A or K7 B gene clusters were found to be dispersed in different lactobacilli strains as well as in faecal microbiota. One pair of primers was found to be specific for the total gene cluster of gassericin K7A and one for gassericin K7B. The real-time PCR analysis of faecal samples spiked with K7 strain revealed that primers specific for the gene cluster of the gassericin K7 A were more suitable for quantitative determination than those for gassericin K7 B, due to the lower detection level. Targeting of the gassericin K7 A or K7 B gene cluster with specific primers could be used for detection and quantification of L. gasseri K7 in human faecal samples without prior cultivation. The results of this study also present new insights into the prevalence of bacteriocin-encoding genes in gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23616265

  6. Administration of probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus gasseri K7 during pregnancy and lactation changes mouse mesenteric lymph nodes and mammary gland microbiota.

    PubMed

    Treven, P; Mrak, V; Bogovič Matijašić, B; Horvat, S; Rogelj, I

    2015-04-01

    The milk and mammary gland (MG) microbiome can be influenced by several factors, such as mode of delivery, breastfeeding, maternal lifestyle, health status, and diet. An increasing number of studies show a variety of positive effects of consumption of probiotics during pregnancy and breastfeeding on the mother and the newborn. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oral administration of probiotics Lactobacillus gasseri K7 (LK7) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) during pregnancy and lactation on microbiota of the mouse mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), MG, and milk. Pregnant FVB/N mice were fed skim milk or probiotics LGG or LK7 resuspended in skim milk during gestation and lactation. On d 3 and 8 postpartum, blood, feces, MLN, MG, and milk were analyzed for the presence of LGG or LK7. The effects of probiotics on MLN, MG, and milk microbiota was evaluated by real-time PCR and by 16S ribosomal DNA 454-pyrosequencing. In 5 of 8 fecal samples from the LGG group and in 5 of 8 fecal samples from the LK7 group, more than 1 × 10(3) of live LGG or LK7 bacterial cells were detected, respectively, whereas no viable LGG or LK7 cells were detected in the control group. Live lactic acid bacteria but no LGG or LK7 were detected in blood, MLN, and MG. Both probiotics significantly increased the total bacterial load as assessed by copies of 16S ribosomal DNA in MLN, and a similar trend was observed in MG. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that both probiotics increased the abundance of Firmicutes in MG, especially the abundance of lactic acid bacteria. The Lactobacillus genus appeared exclusively in MG from probiotic groups. Both probiotics influenced MLN microbiota by decreasing diversity (Chao1) and increasing the distribution of species (Shannon index). The LGG probiotic also affected the MG microbiota as it increased diversity and distribution of species and proportions of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. These results provide evidence that probiotics can modulate the bacterial composition of MLN and MG microbiota in ways that could improve the health of the MG and, ultimately, the health of the newborn. PMID:25622869

  7. Lactobacillus gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, for growth in milk.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, K; Matsunaga, K; Takihiro, S; Moritoki, A; Ryuto, S; Kawai, Y; Masuda, T; Miyamoto, T

    2015-03-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri is a widespread commensal lactic acid bacterium inhabiting human mucosal niches and has many beneficial effects as a probiotic. However, L. gasseri is difficult to grow in milk, which hurts usability for the food industry. It had been previously reported that supplementation with yeast extract or proteose peptone, including peptides, enables L. gasseri to grow well in milk. In this study, our objective was to confirm peptide requirement of L. gasseri and evaluate efficacy of peptide release by enzymatic proteolysis on growth of L. gassei in milk. Three strains of L. gasseri did not grow well in modified DeMan, Rogosa, Sharpe broth without any nitrogen sources (MRS-N), but addition of a casein-derived peptide mixture, tryptone, promoted growth. In contrast, little effect was observed after adding casein or a casein-derived amino acid mixture, casamino acids. These results indicate that L. gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, among milk-derived nitrogen sources for growth. Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T hardly had growth capacity in 6 kinds of milk-based media: bovine milk, human milk, skim milk, cheese whey, modified MRS-N (MRSL-N) supplemented with acid whey, and MRSL-N supplemented with casein. Moreover, treatment with digestive proteases, particularly pepsin, to release peptides made it grow well in each milk-based medium. The pepsin treatment was the most effective for growth of strain JCM 1131T in skim milk among the tested food-grade proteases such as trypsin, ?-chymotrypsin, calf rennet, ficin, bromelain, and papain. As well as strain JCM 1131T, pepsinolysis of milk improved growth of other L. gasseri strains and some strains of enteric lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus reuteri. These results suggest that some relatives of L. gasseri also use peptides as desirable nitrogen sources, and that milk may be a good supplier of nutritious peptides to enteric lactobacilli including L. gasseri after peptic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. This is the first report showing peptide requirement of L. gasseri and efficacy of pepsinolysis on the growth of L. gasseri and its relatives in milk. This study would contribute to increasing usability of L. gasseri and its relatives as probiotics in dairy foods. PMID:25529420

  8. Spontaneously Induced Prophages in Lactobacillus gasseri Contribute to Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Baugher, J. L.; Durmaz, E.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri is an endogenous species of the human gastrointestinal tract and vagina. With recent advances in microbial taxonomy, phylogenetics, and genomics, L. gasseri is recognized as an important commensal and is increasingly being used in probiotic formulations. L. gasseri strain ADH is lysogenic and harbors two inducible prophages. In this study, prophage ?adh was found to spontaneously induce in broth cultures to populations of ?107 PFU/ml by stationary phase. The ?adh prophage-cured ADH derivative NCK102 was found to harbor a new, second inducible phage, vB_Lga_jlb1 (jlb1). Phage jlb1 was sequenced and found to be highly similar to the closely related phage LgaI, which resides as two tandem prophages in the neotype strain L. gasseri ATCC 33323. The common occurrence of multiple prophages in L. gasseri genomes, their propensity for spontaneous induction, and the high degree of homology among phages within multiple species of Lactobacillus suggest that temperate bacteriophages likely contribute to horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in commensal lactobacilli. In this study, the host ranges of phages ?adh and jlb1 were determined against 16 L. gasseri strains. The transduction range and the rate of spontaneous transduction were investigated in coculture experiments to ascertain the degree to which prophages can promote HGT among a variety of commensal and probiotic lactobacilli. Both ?adh and jlb1 particles were confirmed to mediate plasmid transfer. As many as ?103 spontaneous transductants/ml were obtained. HGT by transducing phages of commensal lactobacilli may have a significant impact on the evolution of bacteria within the human microbiota. PMID:24682298

  9. Gassericin A: a circular bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus gasseri.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Neha; Malik, R K; Kaushik, J K; Singroha, Garima

    2013-11-01

    During the recent years extensive efforts have been made to find out bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) active against various food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, and superior stabilities against heat treatments and pH variations. Bacteriocins isolated from LAB have been grouped into four classes. Circular bacteriocins which were earlier grouped among the four groups of bacteriocins, have recently been proposed to be classified into a different class, making it class V bacteriocins. Circular bacteriocins are special molecules, whose precursors must be post translationally modified to join the N to C termini with a head-to-tail peptide bond. Cyclization appears to make them less susceptible to proteolytic cleavage, high temperature and pH, and, therefore, provides enhanced stability as compared to linear bacteriocins. The advantages of circularization are also reflected by the fact that a significant number of macrocyclic natural products have found pharmaceutical applications. Circular bacteriocins were unknown two decades ago, and even to date, only a few circular bacteriocins from a diverse group of Gram positive organisms have been reported. The first example of a circular bacteriocin was enterocin AS-48, produced by Enterococcus faecalis AS-48. Gassereccin A, produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, Reutericin 6 produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LA6 and Circularin A, produced by Clostridium beijerinickii ATCC 25,752, are further examples of this group of antimicrobial peptides. In the present scenario, Gassericin A can be an important tool in the food preservation owing to its properties of high pH and temperature tolerance and the fact that it is produced by LAB L. gasseri, whose many strains are proven probiotic. PMID:23712477

  10. Oral administration of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 is effective for preventing influenza in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Yosuke; Moriya, Tomohiro; Sakai, Fumihiko; Ikeda, Noriko; Shiozaki, Takuya; Hosoya, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Hisako; Miyazaki, Tadaaki

    2014-01-01

    The Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) is a probiotic lactic acid bacterium with properties such as bile tolerance and ability to improve the intestinal environment. In this study, we established that the oral administration of LG2055 exhibits efficacy to protect mice infected with the influenza virus A/PR8. The body weight losses were lower with the LG2055 administration after the PR8 virus infection. At 5 days after the infection, the virus titer was significantly decreased as was the amount of produced IL-6 in the lung tissue, the number of total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was reduced by the LG2055 administration. The expression of the Mx1 and Oas1a genes, critical for the viral clearance in the lung tissues was increased by the pre-treatment with LG2055. These findings suggest that the LG2055 administration is effective for the protection against influenza A virus infection by the down-regulation of viral replication through the induction of antiviral genes expression. PMID:24717726

  11. Wide-Inhibitory Spectra Bacteriocins Produced by Lactobacillus gasseri K7.

    PubMed

    Zorič Peternel, Metoda; Čanžek Majhenič, Andreja; Holo, Helge; Nes, Ingolf F; Salehian, Zhian; Berlec, Aleš; Rogelj, Irena

    2010-12-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the genetic characterization and classification of Lb. gasseri K7 bacteriocins, comparison with bacteriocins of the Lb. gasseri LF221 strain and other related strains. Bacteriocin-encoding genes were amplified by PCR, subjected to DNA sequencing, and BLAST sequence analysis was performed to search the database for homologous peptides. Lb. gasseri K7 produces two two-peptide bacteriocins, named gassericin K7 A and gassericin K7 B. Their nucleotide sequences were deposited at GenBank, under accession numbers EF392861 for the gassericin K7 A and AY307382 for the gassericin K7 B. Analysis of gene clusters of bacteriocins in Lb. gasseri K7 strain revealed a 100 percent sequence identity with bacteriocins in LF221 strain. An active peptide of gassericin K7 B is homologous to the complementary peptide of gassericin T, and a complementary peptide of gassericin K7 B is homologous to the active peptide of gassericin T. Another surprising finding was that the sakacin T-beta peptide is partly homologous to the active peptide of gassericin K7 A, while the other sakacin T peptide (alfa) is partly homologous to the complementary peptide of gassericin K7 B. Gassericins of Lb. gasseri K7 strain were both classified as two-peptide bacteriocins. Human probiotic strains Lb. gasseri K7 and LF221 are different isolates but with identical bacteriocin genes. They produce wide-inhibitory spectra bacteriocins that are new members of two-peptide bacteriocins with some homologies to other bacteriocins in this group. Described bacteriocins offer a great potential in applications in food industry, pharmacy and biomedicine. PMID:26781318

  12. In Vitro Fermentation of Breast Milk Oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus gasseri

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Robert E.; Nionuevo, Milady; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; German, J. Bruce

    2006-01-01

    It has been proposed that human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) function as a prebiotic for bifidobacteria, yet this activity has not been adequately investigated. In this study, Bifidobacterium infantis was shown to ferment purified HMO as a sole carbon source, while another gut commensal, Lactobacillus gasseri, did not ferment HMO. Our results support the hypothesis that HMO selectively amplify bacterial populations in the infant intestine. PMID:16751577

  13. Effects and mechanisms of prolongevity induced by Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hisako; Shiozaki, Takuya; Kobatake, Eiji; Hosoya, Tomohiro; Moriya, Tomohiro; Sakai, Fumihiko; Taru, Hidenori; Miyazaki, Tadaaki

    2016-04-01

    Lactic-acid bacteria are widely recognized beneficial host associated groups of the microbiota of humans and animals. Some lactic-acid bacteria have the ability to extend the lifespan of the model animals. The mechanisms behind the probiotic effects of bacteria are not entirely understood. Recently, we reported the benefit effects of Lactobacillus gasseriSBT2055 (LG2055) on animal and human health, such as preventing influenza A virus, and augmentation of IgA production. Therefore, it was preconceived that LG2055 has the beneficial effects on longevity and/or aging. We examined the effects of LG2055 on lifespan and aging of Caenorhabditis elegans and analyzed the mechanism of prolongevity. Our results demonstrated that LG2055 has the beneficial effects on longevity and anti-aging of C. elegans. Feeding with LG2055 upregulated the expression of the skn-1 gene and the target genes of SKN-1, encoding the antioxidant proteins enhancing antioxidant defense responses. We found that feeding with LG2055 directly activated SKN-1 activity via p38 MAPK pathway signaling. The oxidative stress response is elicited by mitochondrial dysfunction in aging, and we examined the influence of LG2055 feeding on the membrane potential of mitochondria. Here, the amounts of mitochondria were significantly increased by LG2055 feeding in comparison with the control. Our result suggests that feeding with LG2055 is effective to the extend lifespan in C. elegans by a strengthening of the resistance to oxidative stress and by stimulating the innate immune response signaling including p38MAPK signaling pathway and others. PMID:26710940

  14. Occurrence and activity of a type II CRISPR-Cas system in Lactobacillus gasseri.

    PubMed

    Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Selle, Kurt; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Klaenhammer, Todd; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-09-01

    Bacteria encode clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated genes (cas), which collectively form an RNA-guided adaptive immune system against invasive genetic elements. In silico surveys have revealed that lactic acid bacteria harbour a prolific and diverse set of CRISPR-Cas systems. Thus, the natural evolutionary role of CRISPR-Cas systems may be investigated in these ecologically, industrially, scientifically and medically important microbes. In this study, 17 Lactobacillus gasseri strains were investigated and 6 harboured a type II-A CRISPR-Cas system, with considerable diversity in array size and spacer content. Several of the spacers showed similarity to phage and plasmid sequences, which are typical targets of CRISPR-Cas immune systems. Aligning the protospacers facilitated inference of the protospacer adjacent motif sequence, determined to be 5'-NTAA-3' flanking the 3' end of the protospacer. The system in L. gasseri JV-V03 and NCK 1342 interfered with transforming plasmids containing sequences matching the most recently acquired CRISPR spacers in each strain. We report the distribution and function of a native type II-A CRISPR-Cas system in the commensal species L. gasseri. Collectively, these results open avenues for applications for bacteriophage protection and genome modification in L. gasseri, and contribute to the fundamental understanding of CRISPR-Cas systems in bacteria. PMID:26297561

  15. Fermentation metabolites from Lactobacillus gasseri and Propionibacterium freudenreichii exert bacteriocidal effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Kato-Mori, Yuko; Orihashi, Takenori; Kanai, Yuta; Sato, Michiko; Sera, Kenji; Hagiwara, Katsuro

    2010-12-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri OLL 2716 promotes the elimination of Helicobacter pylori and is utilized in yogurts that are specifically labeled as health foods. On the other hand, milk whey fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ET-3, which increases the numbers of Bifidobacterium, is effective for intestinal disorders. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of L. gasseri and P. freudenreichii fermentation metabolites (LP-FM) improved calf intestinal microflora and reduced the incidence of diarrhea. However, the detailed immunological mechanisms responsible for these effects remain to be fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether LP-FM stimulates the innate immune response and promotes the elimination of Listeria monocytogenes in mice. The C57BL/6 female mice that were treated with LP-FM or L. gasseri fermentation metabolites alone for 4 weeks had more peripheral white blood cells than the untreated control mice. In particular, LP-FM-treated mice had higher CD4- and CD8-positive T-cell counts. The levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by peritoneal macrophages were also higher in LP-FM-treated mice. Furthermore, LP-FM-treated mice that were infected with L. monocytogenes exhibited significant enhancement of the elimination of Listeria from the spleen and the liver in comparison with untreated control mice infected with Listeria. The activation of innate immunity by LP-FM was increased by the combination of fermentation metabolites from P. freudenreichii. These results suggest that LP-FM, which contains metabolites from L. gasseri and P. freudenreichii, stimulates the function of the innate immune system, thereby significantly promoting the elimination of L. monocytogenes in mice. PMID:20954806

  16. Assessment and comparison of probiotic potential of four Lactobacillus species isolated from feces samples of Iranian infants.

    PubMed

    Halimi, Shahnaz; Mirsalehian, Akbar

    2016-02-01

    The probiotic potential of Lactobacillus species isolated from infant feces was investigated. For this study, the antibiotic susceptibility, tolerance in gut-related conditions, antimicrobial activity, and ability to adhere to a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2 cells) of four common Lactobacillus species (Lactobacillus paracasei [n?=?15], Lactobacillus rhamnosus [n?=?45], Lactobacillus gasseri [n?=?20] and Lactobacillus fermentum [n?=?18]) were assessed. Most isolates that which were sensitive to imipenem, ampicillin, gentamycin, erythromycin and tetracycline were selected for other tests. L. gasseri isolates had the greatest sensitivity to gastric and intestinal fluids (<10% viability). L. fermentum (FH5, FH13 and FH18) had the highest adhesion to Caco-2 cells. The lowest antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria was shown by L. gasseri strains in spot tests. Furthermore, non-adjusted cell-free culture supernatants with low pH had greater antimicrobial activity, which was related to organic acid. The results showed that some isolates of L. rhamnosus and L. fermentum are suitable for use as a probiotic. PMID:26648174

  17. Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 in fermented milk on abdominal adiposity in adults in a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kadooka, Yukio; Sato, Masao; Ogawa, Akihiro; Miyoshi, Masaya; Uenishi, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Hitomi; Ikuyama, Ken; Kagoshima, Masatoyo; Tsuchida, Takashi

    2013-11-14

    Consumption of fermented milk (FM) containing a probiotic, Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055), previously showed a reduction in abdominal adiposity in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) using FM with 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) of LG2055/g. However, whether the effectiveness is observed at lower concentrations, the recommended minimum or intermediate levels of probiotics (10(6) or 10(7) cfu/g, respectively), remains to be examined. A multi-centre, double-blind, parallel-group RCT was conducted using 210 healthy Japanese adults with large visceral fat areas (80·2 - 187·8 cm(2)). They were balanced for their baseline characteristics and randomly assigned to three groups receiving FM containing 10(7), 10(6) or 0 (control) cfu LG2055/g of FM, and were asked to consume 200 g FM/d for 12 weeks. Abdominal visceral fat areas, which were determined by computed tomography, at week 12, changed from baseline by an average of -8·5 % (95 % CI -11·9, -5·1; P< 0·01) in the 10(7) dose group, and by -8·2 % (95 % CI -10·8, -5·7; P< 0·01) in the 10(6) dose group. Other measures including BMI, waist and hip circumferences, and body fat mass were also significantly decreased from baseline at week 12 in both groups; interestingly, the cessation of taking FM for 4 weeks attenuated these effects. In the control group, none of these parameters significantly decreased from baseline. These findings demonstrate that consumption of LG2055 at doses as low as the order of 10(8) cfu/d exhibited a significant lowering effect on abdominal adiposity, and suggest that constant consumption might be needed to maintain the effect. PMID:23614897

  18. Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 on Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keun-Mi; Kang, Ji-Hee; Yun, Sung-Il; Park, Han-Oh; Moon, Yong; Kim, Jong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 is a type of probiotic strain isolated from human breast milk. A study was reported regarding the fact that BNR17 was an inhibitor of obesity and diabetic activities in the human body through previous animal experiments. This study was furthered to investigate the effect of BNR17, a probiotic strain isolated from human breast milk, on obese and overweight adults. Methods Sixty-two obese volunteers aged 19 to 60 with body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2 and fasting blood sugar ≥ 100 mg/dL participated in a placebo controlled, randomized, and double-blind trial. For 12 weeks, 57 participants were given either placebo or BNR17 and were tested by measuring body fat, body weight, various biochemical parameters, vital signs, and computed tomography at the start of the study and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. The subjects assumed usual daily activities without having to make behavioral or dietary modifications during the course of the study. Results At the 12th week, a slight reduction in body weight was noted in the BNR17 group, but there were no significant weight changes between groups. Decrease of waist and hip circumferences in the BNR17 group was more pronounced than those in the placebo group. The two groups had no special or severe adverse reactions. Conclusion Despite there being no change in behavior or diet, administration of only the supplement of BNR17 reduced weight and waist and hip circumference. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups. These findings warrant a subsequent longer-term prospective clinical investigation with a large population. PMID:23560206

  19. Analysis of the Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 Reveals the Molecular Basis of an Autochthonous Intestinal Organism▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea; Altermann, Eric; Goh, Yong Jun; Tallon, Richard; Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary B.; Pfeiler, Erika A.; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Buck, B. Logan; Dobson, Alleson; Duong, Tri; Miller, Michael J.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323, a neotype strain of human origin and a native species found commonly in the gastrointestinal tracts of neonates and adults. The plasmid-free genome was 1,894,360 bp in size and predicted to encode 1,810 genes. The GC content was 35.3%, similar to the GC content of its closest relatives, L. johnsonii NCC 533 (34%) and L. acidophilus NCFM (34%). Two identical copies of the prophage LgaI (40,086 bp), of the Sfi11-like Siphoviridae phage family, were integrated tandomly in the chromosome. A number of unique features were identified in the genome of L. gasseri that were likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer and may contribute to the survival of this bacterium in its ecological niche. L. gasseri encodes two restriction and modification systems, which may limit bacteriophage infection. L. gasseri also encodes an operon for production of heteropolysaccharides of high complexity. A unique alternative sigma factor was present similar to that of B. caccae ATCC 43185, a bacterial species isolated from human feces. In addition, L. gasseri encoded the highest number of putative mucus-binding proteins (14) among lactobacilli sequenced to date. Selected phenotypic characteristics that were compared between ATCC 33323 and other human L. gasseri strains included carbohydrate fermentation patterns, growth and survival in bile, oxalate degradation, and adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, in vitro. The results from this study indicated high intraspecies variability from a genome encoding traits important for survival and retention in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:18539810

  20. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 reduces postprandial and fasting serum non-esterified fatty acid levels in Japanese hypertriacylglycerolemic subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) inhibits dietary fat absorption in rats and exerts preventive effects on abdominal adiposity in rats and humans. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of LG2055 on postprandial serum lipid responses in Japanese subjects with hypertriacylglycerolemia after the intake of oral fat-loading test (OFLT) meals. Methods We conducted a single-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, repeated-measure intervention trial. Twenty subjects initially ingested the fermented milk (FM) without LG2055 for 4 weeks (control FM period), followed by a 4-week washout period, and then consumed FM containing LG2055 for 4 weeks (active FM period). The subjects were asked to consume FM at 200 g/day. At the end of each 4-week period, an 8-h OFLT was conducted. Blood samples were collected at fasting and every hour for 8 h after OFLT meal intake. Thereafter, postprandial serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) levels and fasting blood parameters were measured. Results The OFLT showed that the postprandial serum NEFA levels from 120 to 480 min and the postprandial serum TAG level at 120 min in the active FM period were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in the control FM period. The fasting serum NEFA level in the active FM period significantly (P < 0.001) decreased at week 4 from the initial period compared with the control FM period. Conclusions The consumption of probiotic LG2055 reduced postprandial and fasting serum NEFA levels, suggesting its possible contribution to the reduction of the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Trial registration UMIN000011605 PMID:24548293

  1. Enzymatic Synthesis and Characterization of Fructooligosaccharides and Novel Maltosylfructosides by Inulosucrase from Lactobacillus gasseri DSM 20604

    PubMed Central

    Dez-Municio, Marina; de las Rivas, Blanca; Jimeno, Maria Luisa; Muoz, Rosario; Herrero, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The ability of an inulosucrase (IS) from Lactobacillus gasseri DSM 20604 to synthesize fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and maltosylfructosides (MFOS) in the presence of sucrose and sucrose-maltose mixtures was investigated after optimization of synthesis conditions, including enzyme concentration, temperature, pH, and reaction time. The maximum formation of FOS, which consist of ?-2,1-linked fructose to sucrose, was 45% (in weight with respect to the initial amount of sucrose) and was obtained after 24 h of reaction at 55C in the presence of sucrose (300 g liter?1) and 1.6 U ml?1 of IS25 mM sodium acetate buffer1 mM CaCl2 (pH 5.2). The production of MFOS was also studied as a function of the initial ratios of sucrose to maltose (10:50, 20:40, 30:30, and 40:20, expressed in g 100 ml?1). The highest yield in total MFOS was attained after 24 to 32 h of reaction time and ranged from 13% (10:50 sucrose/maltose) to 52% (30:30 sucrose/maltose) in weight with respect to the initial amount of maltose. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural characterization indicated that IS from L. gasseri specifically transferred fructose moieties of sucrose to either C-1 of the reducing end or C-6 of the nonreducing end of maltose. Thus, the trisaccharide erlose [?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-d-fructofuranoside] was the main synthesized MFOS followed by neo-erlose [?-d-fructofuranosyl-(2?6)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-glucopyranose]. The formation of MFOS with a higher degree of polymerization was also demonstrated by the transfer of additional fructose residues to C-1 of either the ?-2,1-linked fructose or the ?-2,6-linked fructose to maltose, revealing the capacity of MFOS to serve as acceptors. PMID:23645191

  2. Lactobacillus salivarius and L. gasseri down-regulate Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans exotoxins expression.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Lorenzo; Sgorbati, Barbara; Biavati, Bruno; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial microbes, such as lactobacilli establish a symbiosis with the host and confer health-associated effects, by limiting the growth of indigenous pathogens and challenging microbes introduced by altered foods. Nevertheless, there is scarce information on the effects of beneficial microbes on the virulence properties of bacterial species associated with oral diseases, such as periodontitis. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative species highly implicated in the etiology of localized aggressive periodontitis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lactobacilli on the expression of the two major virulence factors of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Lactobacillus salivarius and L. gasseri were selected as beneficial species. The gene expressions of leukotoxin (LtxA) and cytolethal distending toxin (CdtB) by A. actinomycetemcomitans were analyzed in response to challenge by lactobacilli cell-free supernatants. Neither lactobacilli affected the growth, but strongly attenuated the expressions of both CdtB and LtxA in the two A. actinomycetemcomitans strains tested. This reduction of the expression of these two exotoxins was time-dependent. These fundamental findings may indicate that lactobacilli can reduce the virulence of putative opportunistic oral pathogens, and may provide insights to future therapeutic approaches for the respective diseases. PMID:24860281

  3. Primary structure and functional analysis of the lysis genes of Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh.

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, B; Binishofer, B; Blsi, U

    1995-01-01

    The lysis genes of the Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh were isolated by complementation of a lambda Sam mutation in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing of a 1,735-bp DNA fragment revealed two adjacent coding regions of 342 bp (hol) and 951 bp (lys) in the same reading frame which appear to belong to a common transcriptional unit. Proteins corresponding to the predicted gene products, holin (12.9 kDa) and lysin (34.7 kDa), were identified by in vitro and in vivo expression of the cloned genes. The phi adh holin is a membrane-bound protein with structural similarity to lysis proteins of other phage, known to be required for the transit of murein hydrolases through the cytoplasmic membrane. The phi adh lysin shows homology with mureinolytic enzymes encoded by the Lactobacillus bulgaricus phage mv4, the Streptococcus pneumoniae phage Cp-1, Cp-7, and Cp-9, and the Lactococcus lactis phage phi LC3. Significant homology with the N termini of known muramidases suggests that phi adh lysin acts by a similar catalytic mechanism. In E. coli, the phi adh lysin seems to be associated with the total membrane fraction, from which it can be extracted with lauryl sarcosinate. Either one of the phi adh lysis proteins provoked lysis of E. coli when expressed along with holins or lysins of phage lambda or Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29. Concomitant expression of the combined holin and lysin functions of phi adh in E. coli, however, did not result in efficient cell lysis. PMID:7836307

  4. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 Reduces Infection by and Colonization of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Keita; Seto, Yasuyuki; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Takai, Shinji; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter is a normal inhabitant of the chicken gut. Pathogenic infection with this organism in humans is accompanied by severe inflammation of the intestinal mucosal surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) to inhibit the adhesion and invasion of Campylobacter jejuni in vitro and to suppress C. jejuni colonization of chicks in vivo. Pretreatment with LG2055 significantly reduced adhesion to and invasion of a human epithelial cell line, Intestine 407, by C. jejuni 81–176. Methanol (MeOH)-fixed LG2055 also reduced infection by C. jejuni 81–176. However, proteinase K (ProK)-treated LG2055 eliminated the inhibitory effects. Moreover, LG2055 co-aggregated with C. jejuni 81–176. ProK treatment prevented this co-aggregation, indicating that the co-aggregation phenotype mediated by the proteinaceous cell-surface components of LG2055 is important for reducing C. jejuni 81–176 adhesion and invasion. In an in vivo assay, oral doses of LG2055 were administered to chicks daily for 14 days after oral inoculation with C. jejuni 81–176. At 14 days post-inoculation, chicks treated with LG2055 had significantly reduced cecum colonization by C. jejuni. Reduction in the number of C. jejuni 81–176 cells adhering to and internalized by human epithelial cells demonstrated that LG2055 is an organism that effectively and competitively excludes C. jejuni 81–176. In addition, the results of the chick colonization assay suggest that treatment with LG2055 could be useful in suppressing C. jejuni colonization of the chicks at early growth stages. PMID:25264604

  5. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 Induces TGF-β Expression in Dendritic Cells and Activates TLR2 Signal to Produce IgA in the Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ono-Ohmachi, Aiko; Ukibe, Ken; Ogawa, Akihiro; Moriya, Tomohiro; Kadooka, Yukio; Shiozaki, Takuya; Nakagawa, Hisako; Nakayama, Yosuke; Miyazaki, Tadaaki

    2014-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria provide benefits in enhancing host immune responses and protecting against infection. Induction of IgA production by oral administration of probiotic bacteria in the intestine has been considered to be one reason for this beneficial effect, but the mechanisms of the effect are poorly understood. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) is a probiotic bacterium with properties such as bile tolerance, ability to improve the intestinal environment, and it has preventive effects related to abdominal adiposity. In this study, we have found that oral administration of LG2055 induced IgA production and increased the rate of IgA+ cell population in Peyer's patch and in the lamina propria of the mouse small intestine. The LG2055 markedly increased the amount of IgA in a co-culture of B cells and bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC), and TLR2 signal is critical for it. In addition, it is demonstrated that LG2055 stimulates BMDC to promote the production of TGF-β, BAFF, IL-6, and IL-10, all critical for IgA production from B cells. Combined stimulation of B cells with BAFF and LG2055 enhanced the induction of IgA production. Further, TGF-β signal was shown to be critical for LG2055-induced IgA production in the B cell and BMDC co-culture system, but TGF-β did not induce IgA production in a culture of only B cells stimulated with LG2055. Furthermore, TGF-β was critical for the production of BAFF, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β itself from LG2055-stimulated BMDC. These results demonstrate that TGF-β was produced by BMDC stimulated with LG2055 and it has an autocrine/paracrine function essential for BMDC to induce the production of BAFF, IL-6, and IL-10. PMID:25144744

  6. Lactobacillus salivarius: bacteriocin and probiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, S; Manai, M; Kergourlay, G; Prévost, H; Connil, N; Chobert, J-M; Dousset, X

    2013-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) antimicrobial peptides typically exhibit antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens, as well as spoilage bacteria. Therefore, they have attracted the greatest attention as tools for food biopreservation. In some countries LAB are already extensively used as probiotics in food processing and preservation. LAB derived bacteriocins have been utilized as oral, topical antibiotics or disinfectants. Lactobacillus salivarius is a promising probiotic candidate commonly isolated from human, porcine, and avian gastrointestinal tracts (GIT), many of which are producers of unmodified bacteriocins of sub-classes IIa, IIb and IId. It is a well-characterized bacteriocin producer and probiotic organism. Bacteriocins may facilitate the introduction of a producer into an established niche, directly inhibit the invasion of competing strains or pathogens, or modulate the composition of the microbiota and influence the host immune system. This review gives an up-to-date overview of all L. salivarius strains, isolated from different origins, known as bacteriocin producing and/or potential probiotic. PMID:24010610

  7. Quantitative determination by real-time PCR of four vaginal Lactobacillus species, Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae indicates an inverse relationship between L. gasseri and L. iners

    PubMed Central

    De Backer, Ellen; Verhelst, Rita; Verstraelen, Hans; Alqumber, Mohammed A; Burton, Jeremy P; Tagg, John R; Temmerman, Marleen; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Background Most studies of the vaginal microflora have been based on culture or on qualitative molecular techniques. Here we applied existing real-time PCR formats for Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and Gardnerella vaginalis and developed new formats for Atopobium vaginae, L. iners and L. jensenii to obtain a quantitative non culture-based determination of these species in 71 vaginal samples from 32 pregnant and 28 non-pregnant women aged between 18 and 45 years. Results The 71 vaginal microflora samples of these women were categorized, using the Ison and Hay criteria, as refined by Verhelst et al. (2005), as follows: grade Ia: 8 samples, grade Iab: 10, grade Ib: 13, grade I-like: 10, grade II: 11, grade III: 12 and grade IV: 7. L. crispatus was found in all but 5 samples and was the most frequent Lactobacillus species detected. A significantly lower concentration of L. crispatus was found in grades II (p < 0.0001) and III (p = 0.002) compared to grade I. L. jensenii was found in all grades but showed higher concentration in grade Iab than in grade Ia (p = 0.024). A. vaginae and G. vaginalis were present in high concentrations in grade III, with log10 median concentrations (log10 MC), respectively of 9.0 and 9.2 cells/ml. Twenty (38.5%) of the 52 G. vaginalis positive samples were also positive for A. vaginae. In grade II we found almost no L. iners (log10 MC: 0/ml) but a high concentration of L. gasseri (log10 MC: 8.7/ml). By contrast, in grade III we found a high concentration of L. iners (log10 MC: 8.3/ml) and a low concentration of L. gasseri (log10 MC: 0/ml). These results show a negative association between L. gasseri and L. iners (r = -0.397, p = 0.001) and between L. gasseri and A. vaginae (r = -0.408, p < 0.0001). Conclusion In our study we found a clear negative association between L. iners and L. gasseri and between A. vaginae and L. gasseri. Our results do not provide support for the generally held proposition that grade II is an intermediate stage between grades I and III, because L. gasseri, abundant in grade II is not predominant in grade III, whereas L. iners, abundant in grade III is present only in low numbers in grade II samples. PMID:18093311

  8. Probiotic features of two oral Lactobacillus isolates

    PubMed Central

    Zavisic, Gordana; Petricevic, Sasa; Radulovic, Zeljka; Begovic, Jelena; Golic, Natasa; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Strahinic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we checked lactobacilli strains of human origin for their potential as probiotic. Samples were collected from oral mucosa of 16 healthy individuals, out of which twenty isolates were obtained and two of them were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (G1) and L. casei (G3). Both isolates exhibited antagonistic action towards pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, and Clostridium sporogenes, but not on the growth of Candida albicans. The bacteriocin activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6358-P was shown only by L. plantarum G1. Moreover, the isolates G1 and G3 showed good viability in the acid gastric environment and in the gut environment containing bovine bile salts. The viability of G1 and G3 isolates in the gastrointestinal tract, and the adhesion to the intestinal mucosa were also confirmed in vivo. The biochemical tests of blood samples revealed lower levels of serum triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as reduced activity of alkaline phosphatase in all lactobacilli-treated Wistar rats, compared to control ones. No toxicity for NMRI Ham mice was observed. According to our experimental results, these findings imply that L. plantarum G1 and L. casei G3 could be characterized as potential probiotics. PMID:24031847

  9. Administration of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 suppresses macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Ukibe, Ken; Miyoshi, Masaya; Kadooka, Yukio

    2015-10-28

    Administration of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) has been shown to prevent body weight gain and it also down-regulates the expression of the Ccl2 gene in adipose tissue in diet-induced obese mice. The CC chemokine ligand 2 has a crucial role in macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, which is known to exacerbate inflammation. However, it is not yet known how LG2055 affects the invasion of macrophages into adipose tissue. C57BL/6J male mice were fed a normal-fat diet (10 % energy fat), high-fat diet (HFD; 45 % energy fat), or HFD containing LG2055 for 12 weeks. After the feeding period, gene expression and macrophage population in adipose tissue were analysed by real-time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. Body weight and abdominal fat weight were not altered by feeding LG2055. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the population of macrophages in adipose tissue was significantly reduced by feeding LG2055 compared with HFD only. Furthermore, the ratio of classically activated inflammatory macrophages (M1 macrophages) to total macrophages was significantly decreased in the LG2055-fed group. The expressions of Ccl2, Ccr2 and Lep were down-regulated and that of Il6, Tnf and Nos2 tended to be down-regulated in adipose tissue by feeding LG2055. In addition, fasting glucose levels were significantly decreased in the LG2055-fed group. These data suggest that administration of LG2055 might attenuate inflammation, which is caused by the intake of an HFD, through the inhibition of macrophage invasion into adipose tissue. PMID:26299683

  10. Cholesterol Assimilation by Lactobacillus Probiotic Bacteria: An In Vitro Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Mitchell L.; Shah, Divya; Jain, Poonam; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

    2014-01-01

    Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18 0.55?mg/1010?cfu) in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70 63.33?mg/1010?cfu) of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic. PMID:25295259

  11. Characterization of Selected Lactobacillus Strains for Use as Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Song, Minyu; Yun, Bohyun; Moon, Jae-Hak; Park, Dong-June; Lim, Kwangsei; Oh, Sejong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria from various sources and to identify strains for use as probiotics. Ten Lactobacillus strains were selected and their properties such as bile tolerance, acid resistance, cholesterol assimilation activity, and adherence to HT-29 cells were assessed to determine their potential as probiotics. Lactobacillus sp. JNU 8829, L. casei MB3, L. sakei MA9, L. sakei CH8, and L. acidophilus M23 were found to show full tolerance to the 0.3% bile acid. All strains without L. acidophilus M23 were the most acid-tolerant strains. After incubating the strains at pH 2.5 for 2 h, their viability decreased by 3 Log cells. Some strains survived at pH 2.5 in the presence of pepsin and 0.3% bile acid. Lactobacillus sp. JNU 8829, L. acidophilus KU41, L. acidophilus M23, L. fermentum NS2, L. plantarum M13, and L. plantarum NS3 were found to reduce cholesterol levels by >50% in vitro. In the adhesion assay, Lactobacillus sp. JNU 8829, L. casei MB3, L. sakei MA9, and L. sakei CH8 showed higher adhesion activities after 2 h of co-incubation with the intestinal cells. The results of this comprehensive analysis shows that this new probiotic strain named, Lactobacillus sp. JNU 8829 could be a promising candidate for dairy products. PMID:26761878

  12. Characterization of Selected Lactobacillus Strains for Use as Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minyu; Yun, Bohyun; Moon, Jae-Hak; Park, Dong-June; Lim, Kwangsei; Oh, Sejong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria from various sources and to identify strains for use as probiotics. Ten Lactobacillus strains were selected and their properties such as bile tolerance, acid resistance, cholesterol assimilation activity, and adherence to HT-29 cells were assessed to determine their potential as probiotics. Lactobacillus sp. JNU 8829, L. casei MB3, L. sakei MA9, L. sakei CH8, and L. acidophilus M23 were found to show full tolerance to the 0.3% bile acid. All strains without L. acidophilus M23 were the most acid-tolerant strains. After incubating the strains at pH 2.5 for 2 h, their viability decreased by 3 Log cells. Some strains survived at pH 2.5 in the presence of pepsin and 0.3% bile acid. Lactobacillus sp. JNU 8829, L. acidophilus KU41, L. acidophilus M23, L. fermentum NS2, L. plantarum M13, and L. plantarum NS3 were found to reduce cholesterol levels by >50% in vitro. In the adhesion assay, Lactobacillus sp. JNU 8829, L. casei MB3, L. sakei MA9, and L. sakei CH8 showed higher adhesion activities after 2 h of co-incubation with the intestinal cells. The results of this comprehensive analysis shows that this new probiotic strain named, Lactobacillus sp. JNU 8829 could be a promising candidate for dairy products. PMID:26761878

  13. Timely approaches to identify probiotic species of the genus Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades the use of probiotics in food has increased largely due to the manufacturer’s interest in placing “healthy” food on the market based on the consumer’s ambitions to live healthy. Due to this trend, health benefits of products containing probiotic strains such as lactobacilli are promoted and probiotic strains have been established in many different products with their numbers increasing steadily. Probiotics are used as starter cultures in dairy products such as cheese or yoghurts and in addition they are also utilized in non-dairy products such as fermented vegetables, fermented meat and pharmaceuticals, thereby, covering a large variety of products. To assure quality management, several pheno-, physico- and genotyping methods have been established to unambiguously identify probiotic lactobacilli. These methods are often specific enough to identify the probiotic strains at genus and species levels. However, the probiotic ability is often strain dependent and it is impossible to distinguish strains by basic microbiological methods. Therefore, this review aims to critically summarize and evaluate conventional identification methods for the genus Lactobacillus, complemented by techniques that are currently being developed. PMID:24063519

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Strain BL23▿

    PubMed Central

    Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

  15. Food preservative potential of gassericin A-containing concentrate prepared from a cheese whey culture supernatant from Lactobacillus gasseri LA39.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Arakawa, Kensuke; Kawai, Yasushi; Yasuta, Narimi; Chujo, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masamichi; Iioka, Hiroyuki; Tanioka, Masashi; Nishimura, Junko; Kitazawa, Haruki; Tsurumi, Koichi; Saito, Tadao

    2013-02-01

    Gassericin A (GA) is a circular bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39. In this study, GA-containing concentrate was prepared using a cross-flow membrane filtration device (30 kDa cut-off) from the culture supernatant of Lb. gasseri LA39 cultivated in a cheese whey-based food-grade medium. The bacteriocin activity titer in the concentrate was 16 times as high as that of the culture supernatant and was completely maintained through each incubation at 4C for 3 months, 37C for 2 months, 60C for 5 h, and 100C for 30 min. The GA-containing concentrate was used with glycine powder to make custard creams, and then four representative strains of custard cream spoilage bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Achromobacter denitrificans and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were individually inoculated at c. 10(3) colony forming units/g in the custard creams. Throughout 30 days of incubation at 30C, all of the inoculated bacteria were completely inhibited by the combination of 5% (w/w) of the GA-containing concentrate and 0.5% (w/w) glycine. This is the first highly practical application of GA to foods as a biopreservative, and the concentration method and the bacteriocin concentrate would contribute to biopreservation of several foods. PMID:23384356

  16. Characterization of Indigenous Lactobacillus Strains for Probiotic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mojgani, Naheed; Hussaini, Fatimah; Vaseji, Narges

    2015-01-01

    Background: Probiotics are defined as adequate amount of live microorganisms able to confer health benefits on the host. Currently, most commercially available probiotic products in the market belong to genera Lactobacillus. Traditional dairy products are usually rich source of Lactobacillus strains with significant health benefits. In order to evaluate the probiotic potential of these bacteria, it is essential to assess their health benefits, efficacy, and safety. Objectives: The probiotic efficacy of two Lactobacillus strains namely Lactobacillus pentosus LP05 and L. brevis LB32 was evaluated. They were previously isolated from ewes’ milk in a rural area in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The selected isolates were tested for certain phenotypic characters and identified to genus and species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species specific primers. Further analysis included acid and bile resistance, antagonistic activity, cholesterol removing ability, survival in simulated gastric and upper intestine contents, aggregation and coaggregation properties. Finally, the adhering ability of the selected Lactobacillus strains to epithelial cells was tested using Caco-2 cell lines. Results: The selected isolates tolerated bile salt concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 3%, however their coefficient of inhibition were varied. Both isolates hydrolyzed bile and grew at pH values of 3, 4, and 5, while isolate LP05 was not able to hydrolyze arginine. Based on 16s rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific primers, the isolates were identified as L. brevis LB32 and L. pentosus LP05. In contrast to simulated gastric conditions, the growth rate of the isolates in alkaline conditions of upper intestine increased significantly with the passage of time reaching its maximum in 24 hours. These 2 isolates inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Furthermore, L. brevis LB32 was able to reduce approximately 86% of cholesterol compared to L. pentosus LP05, which showed only 69% of reduction. Higher aggregation and coaggregation percentage and adherence to Caco-2 cell line was observed in L. pentosus LP05 compared to L. brevis LB32. Conclusions: This research study proved the presence of viable probiotic LAB microflora in the ewe milk with enhanced health benefits. The 2 selected Lactobacillus strains could be exploited in dairy or pharmaceutical industry in future. PMID:25793099

  17. Probiotic Properties of Lyophilized Cell Free Extract of Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Saadatzadeh, Afrooz; Fazeli, Mohamma Reza; Jamalifar, Hossein; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years there have been considerable interests in the use of probiotic live cells for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. This strategy can be concomitant with some limitations such as survival of live cell during the GI-transit and their effective delivery to target tissues upon ingestion. Several attempts have been made to overcome these limitations such as their microencapsulation, spray-drying and lyophilization. Objectives In this study extract of cultured probiotics without cells was evaluated for its antimicrobial effects, antioxidant activity, and its stability. Materials and Methods In this work the potential of lyophilized-cell-free-probiotic-extract (LPE) as a suitable alternative strategy for the preparation of probiotic-products was investigated. The main aim of this study was to find out the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of LPE and also its stability. LPE was obtained by centrifugation and subsequent lyophilization of the collected supernatant from culture media of Lactobacillus casei. An enzymatic reagent-kit was used for detection of its content of lactic acid. Antibacterial test was performed using agar cup-plat-method, the DPPH scavenging -assay was used to determine its antioxidant activity and during a storage course, LPE was under a long-term stability study. Results Results showed that, LPE had more antipathogenic effects, antioxidant activity, and stability during storage-time when compared to fresh probiotic-extract. Conclusions Employing the LPE as a new approach, gives novel concept of probiotic-products in food and medical marketing. PMID:24624202

  18. Diet alters probiotic Lactobacillus persistence and function in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Tachon, Sybille; Lee, Bokyung; Marco, Maria L

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of host diet on the intestinal persistence and gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in healthy and health-compromised, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated mice. Mice fed either a low-fat chow diet (CD) or high fat and sucrose Western diet (WD) received 10(9) L. plantarum WCFS1 cells for five consecutive days. Lactobacillus plantarum persistence was 10- to 100-fold greater in the intestines of WD-fed compared with CD-fed mice. TNBS, an intestinal irritant that induces the development of inflammatory bowel disease-like symptoms, resulted in up to a 10(4) -fold increase in L. plantarum survival in the digestive tract relative to healthy animals. Expression levels of 12 metabolic and gut-inducible L. plantarum genes were differentially affected by diet and TNBS administration. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA transcripts from the indigenous intestinal microbiota showed that WD resulted in significant reductions in proportions of metabolically active indigenous Lactobacillus species and increases in the Desulfovibrionaceae family. Feeding L. plantarum WCFS1 resulted in lower levels of colitis and higher concentrations of colonic IL-10 and IL-12 in WD and not CD-fed mice. Interactions between probiotics, nutritional components and the intestinal bacteria should be considered when examining for probiotic-mediated effects and elucidating mechanisms of probiotic function in the mammalian gut. PMID:24118739

  19. Probiotics in digestive diseases: focus on Lactobacillus GG.

    PubMed

    Pace, F; Pace, M; Quartarone, G

    2015-12-01

    Probiotics are becoming increasingly important in basic and clinical research, but they are also a subject of considerable economic interest due to their expanding popularity. They are live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. From this very well-known definition, it is clear that, unlike drugs, probiotics might be useful in healthy subjects to reduce the risk of developing certain diseases or to optimise some physiological functions. They also may offer some advantages in already ill persons in relieving symptoms and signs, e.g. people with acute diarrhea. According to current definitions, probiotics should survive both gastric acid and bile to reach the small intestine and colon, where they exert their effects. Many of these are available in a lyophilized (freeze-dried) pill form, though some are available in yogurt or as packets (sachets), which can be mixed into non-carbonated drinks. The present review focuses on three main issues: 1) understanding why, at present, probiotics are so interesting for doctors and consumers; 2) reviewing the available data on probiotic use in digestive diseases, in particular irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), (prevention of) infectious diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and colorectal cancer (CRC); 3) highlighting the individual profile of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in the above contexts, providing an assessment as well as recommendations on its use in gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) disorders. Research studies conducted in animals and humans with the main probiotics strains for GIT diseases, and published from the early 1990s to 2014 have been considered. PubMed, Medline and Ovid were the main sources adopted for data retrieving. The increasing attention on probiotics is a direct consequence of the improvement in the techniques for studying microbiota. Until recently, its composition has been analysed by culture-based methods that use differential media to select for specific populations of bacteria according to their metabolic requirements. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are by and large the most commonly used probiotics. Strictly speaking, however, the term "probiotic" should be reserved for live microbes that have been shown in controlled human studies to provide a health benefit. Taking into account patients suffering from the most common gastrointestinal diseases, in whose establishment the GI microbiota plays a key role, probiotics have to be considered as very promising agents, capable of beneficially modulating the intestinal ecosystem, which is perturbed in cases of dysbiosis. Although more clinical data are still needed to better assess the clinical relevance of probiotics, to date, procariota such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli strains, and eucariota such as some Saccharomyces strains are among the most widely used agents in GIT disorders. LGG is a well-known probiotic strain that was isolated more than 20 years ago by Goldin and Gorbach from a faecal sample of a healthy adult, based on several selection criteria: high adhesion in vitro, high resistance against gastric acidity and high antimicrobial activity against pathogens such as Salmonella. In vivo studies have also shown a good persistence of LGG in the human GIT. Since its isolation, LGG has become one of the best clinically documented probiotic strains. A growing body of evidence suggests benefits such as prevention and relief of various types of diarrhoea, and treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis. Thus, with respect to both adaptation to the GIT and probiotic effects, LGG can be regarded as a prototypical probiotic strain. PMID:26657927

  20. Adhesive and chemokine stimulatory properties of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains.

    PubMed

    Vizoso Pinto, María G; Schuster, Tobias; Briviba, Karlis; Watzl, Bernhard; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

    2007-01-01

    Five Lactobacillus plantarum strains and two Lactobacillus johnsonii strains, stemming either from African traditionally fermented milk products or children's feces, were investigated for probiotic properties in vitro. The relationship between the hydrophobic-hydrophilic cell surface and adhesion ability to HT29 intestinal epithelial cells was investigated, and results indicated that especially the L. johnsonii strains, which exhibited both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface characteristics, adhered well to HT29 cells. Four L. plantarum and two L. johnsonii strains showed high adherence to HT29 cells, generally higher than that of the probiotic control strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Most strains with high adhesion ability also showed high autoaggregation ability. The two L. johnsonii strains coaggregated well with the intestinal pathogens Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028. The L. plantarum BFE 1685 and L. johnsonii 6128 strains furthermore inhibited the adhesion of at least two of these intestinal pathogens in coculture with HT29 cells in a strain-dependent way. These two potential probiotic strains also significantly increased interleukin-8 (IL-8) chemokine production by HT29 cells, although modulation of other cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), did not occur. Altogether, our results suggested that L. plantarum BFE 1685 and L. johnsonii BFE 6128 showed good adherence, coaggregated with pathogens, and stimulated chemokine production of intestinal epithelial cells, traits that may be considered promising for their development as probiotic strains. PMID:17265871

  1. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus inhibits the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps.

    PubMed

    Vong, Linda; Lorentz, Robert J; Assa, Amit; Glogauer, Michael; Sherman, Philip M

    2014-02-15

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are an essential component of the antimicrobial repertoire and represent an effective means by which neutrophils capture, contain, and kill microorganisms. However, the uncontrolled or excessive liberation of NETs also damages surrounding cells and can contribute to disease pathophysiology. Alterations in the gut microbiota, as well as the presence of local and systemic markers of inflammation, are strongly associated with the manifestation of a spectrum of intestinal disorders, including chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Although probiotics exert beneficial effects on gut homeostasis, their direct effect on neutrophils, which are abundant in the setting of intestinal inflammation, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of nonpathogenic, enteropathogenic, and probiotic bacteria on the dynamics of NET formation. Using murine bone marrow-derived neutrophils and the neutrophil-differentiated human myeloid cell line d.HL-60, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG inhibits both PMA- and Staphylococcus aureus-induced formation of NETs. Moreover, probiotic L. rhamnosus strain GG had potent antioxidative activity: dampening reactive oxygen species production and phagocytic capacity of the neutrophils while protecting against cell cytotoxicity. Within the milieu of the gut, this represents a novel mechanism by which probiotics can locally dampen innate immune responses and confer desensitization toward luminal Ags. PMID:24465012

  2. Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Tibetan Kefir Grains

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 g/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for manufacturing novel fermented foods. PMID:23894554

  3. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Tibetan kefir grains.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for manufacturing novel fermented foods. PMID:23894554

  4. Classy non-wovens based on animate L. gasseri-inanimate poly(vinyl alcohol): upstream application in food engineering.

    PubMed

    Amna, Touseef; Hassan, M Shamshi; Pandeya, Dipendra Raj; Khil, Myung-Seob; Hwang, I H

    2013-05-01

    We explored electrospinning as a feasible and practicable mode for encapsulation and stabilization of Lactobacillus gasseri. The utilized nanocomposite was prepared using sol-gel composed of animate L. gasseri and inanimate PVA. The objective was to examine the ability of electrospinning method to protect functional properties of probiotic L. gasseri. The PVA was used as an encapsulation matrix as it is biocompatible and hydrophilic in nature thus facilitate an easy revival of bacteria. The characterization of as-spun bioproduct was done by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, SEM, and TEM, whereas thermal behavior was analyzed by thermogravimetry. The viability was confirmed by traditional pour plate method and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, to test whether the functionality of L. gasseri was affected, the encapsulated L. gasseri were fed to mouse for colonization. Our results pointed out that encapsulated bacteria were viable for months, and their metabolism was not affected by immobilization; thus, they could be used in food engineering and trade. PMID:23306644

  5. Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 – an antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic

    PubMed Central

    Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Mihkel

    2009-01-01

    The paper lays out the short scientific history and characteristics of the new probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain ME-3 DSM-14241, elaborated according to the regulations of WHO/FAO (2002). L. fermentum ME-3 is a unique strain of Lactobacillus species, having at the same time the antimicrobial and physiologically effective antioxidative properties and expressing health-promoting characteristics if consumed. Tartu University has patented this strain in Estonia (priority June 2001, patent in 2006), Russia (patent in 2006) and the USA (patent in 2007). The paper describes the process of the identification and molecular typing of this probiotic strain of human origin, its deposition in an international culture collection, and its safety assessment by laboratory tests and testing on experimental animals and volunteers. It has been established that L. fermentum strain ME-3 has double functional properties: antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogens and high total antioxidative activity (TAA) and total antioxidative status (TAS) of intact cells and lysates, and it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover. The functional efficacy of the antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic has been proven by the eradication of salmonellas and the reduction of liver and spleen granulomas in Salmonella Typhimurium-infected mice treated with the combination of ofloxacin and L. fermentum strain ME-3. Using capsules or foodstuffs enriched with L. fermentum ME-3, different clinical study designs (including double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies) and different subjects (healthy volunteers, allergic patients and those recovering from a stroke), it has been shown that this probiotic increased the antioxidative activity of sera and improved the composition of the low-density lipid particles (LDL) and post-prandial lipids as well as oxidative stress status, thus demonstrating a remarkable anti-atherogenic effect. The elaboration of the probiotic L. fermentum strain ME-3 has drawn on wide international cooperative research and has taken more than 12 years altogether. The new ME-3 probiotic-containing products have been successfully marketed and sold in Baltic countries and Finland. PMID:19381356

  6. Probiotic and technological properties of Lactobacillus spp. strains from the human stomach in the search for potential candidates against gastric microbial dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Susana; Leite, Analy M. O.; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Mayo, Baltasar

    2015-01-01

    This work characterizes a set of lactobacilli strains isolated from the stomach of healthy humans that might serve as probiotic cultures. Ten different strains were recognized by rep-PCR and PFGE fingerprinting among 19 isolates from gastric biopsies and stomach juice samples. These strains belonged to five species, Lactobacillus gasseri (3), Lactobacillus reuteri (2), Lactobacillus vaginalis (2), Lactobacillus fermentum (2) and Lactobacillus casei (1). All ten strains were subjected to a series of in vitro tests to assess their functional and technological properties, including acid resistance, bile tolerance, adhesion to epithelial gastric cells, production of antimicrobial compounds, inhibition of Helicobacter pylori, antioxidative activity, antibiotic resistance, carbohydrate fermentation, glycosidic activities, and ability to grow in milk. As expected, given their origin, all strains showed good resistance to low pH (3.0), with small reductions in counts after 90 min exposition to this pH. Species- and strain-specific differences were detected in terms of the production of antimicrobials, antagonistic effects toward H. pylori, antioxidative activity and adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. None of the strains showed atypical resistance to a series of 16 antibiotics of clinical and veterinary importance. Two L. reuteri strains were deemed as the most appropriate candidates to be used as potential probiotics against microbial gastric disorders; these showed good survival under gastrointestinal conditions reproduced in vitro, along with strong anti-Helicobacter and antioxidative activities. The two L. reuteri strains further displayed appropriated technological traits for their inclusion as adjunct functional cultures in fermented dairy products. PMID:25642213

  7. Manufacture of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese with Lactobacillus casei Zhang.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Aline B; Jesus, Vitor F; Silva, Ramon; Almada, Carine N; Esmerino, E A; Cappato, Leandro P; Silva, Marcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo N; Carvalho, Celio C; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Bolini, Helena M A; Freitas, Monica Q; Cruz, Adriano G

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the addition of Lactobacillus casei Zhang in the manufacture of Minas Frescal cheese was investigated. Minas Frescal cheeses supplemented with probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei Zhang) were produced by enzymatic coagulation and direct acidification and were subjected to physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, lactic acid, and acetic acid), microbiological (probiotic and lactic bacteria counts), and rheological analyses (uniaxial compression and creep test), instrumental color determination (luminosity, yellow intensity, and red intensity) and sensory acceptance test. The addition of L. casei Zhang resulted in low pH values and high proteolysis indexes during storage (from 5.38 to 4.94 and 0.470 to 0.702, respectively). Additionally, the cheese protocol was not a hurdle for growth of L. casei Zhang, as the population reached 8.16 and 9.02 log cfu/g by means of the direct acidification and enzymatic coagulation protocol, respectively, after 21d of refrigerated storage. The rheology data showed that all samples presented a more viscous-like behavior, which rigidity tended to decrease during storage and lower luminosity values were also observed. Increased consumer acceptance was observed for the control sample produced by direct acidification (7.8), whereas the cheeses containing L. casei Zhang presented lower values for all sensory attributes, especially flavor and overall liking (5.37 and 4.61 for enzymatic coagulation and 5.57 and 4.72 for direct acidification, respectively). Overall, the addition of L. casei Zhang led to changes in all parameters and affected negatively the sensory acceptance. The optimization of L. casei Zhang dosage during the manufacturing of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese should be performed. PMID:26519974

  8. Probiotic abilities of riboflavin-overproducing Lactobacillus strains: a novel promising application of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Arena, Mattia P; Russo, Pasquale; Capozzi, Vittorio; Lpez, Paloma; Fiocco, Daniela; Spano, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    The probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum strains, capable of overproducing riboflavin, was investigated. The riboflavin production was quantified in co-cultures of lactobacilli and human intestinal epithelial cells, and the riboflavin overproduction ability was confirmed. When milk and yogurt were used as carrier matrices, L. plantarum and L. fermentum strains displayed a significant ability to survive through simulated gastrointestinal transit. Adhesion was studied on both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Both strains adhered strongly on Caco-2 cells, negatively influenced the adhesion of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and strongly inhibited the growth of three reference pathogenic microbial strains. Resistance to major antibiotics and potential hemolytic activity were assayed. Overall, this study reveals that these Lactobacillus stains are endowed with promising probiotic properties and thus are candidates for the development of novel functional food which would be both enriched in riboflavin and induce additional health benefits, including a potential in situ riboflavin production, once the microorganisms colonize the host intestine. PMID:24903812

  9. Antifungal activity of two Lactobacillus strains with potential probiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Gerbaldo, Gisela A; Barberis, Carla; Pascual, Liliana; Dalcero, Ana; Barberis, Lucila

    2012-07-01

    Aflatoxin (highly toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by fungi) contamination is a serious problem worldwide. Modern agriculture and animal production systems need to use high-quality and mycotoxin-free feedstuffs. The use of microorganisms to preserve food has gained importance in recent years due to the demand for reduced use of chemical preservatives by consumers. Lactic acid bacteria are known to produce various antimicrobial compounds that are considered to be important in the biopreservation of food and feed. Lactobacillus rhamnosus L60 and Lactobacillus fermentum L23 are producers of secondary metabolites, such as organic acids, bacteriocins and, in the case of L60, hydrogen peroxide. The antifungal activity of lactobacilli strains was determined by coculture with Aspergillus section Flavi strains by two qualitative and one quantitative methods. Both L23 and L60 completely inhibited the fungal growth of all aflatoxicogenic strains assayed. Aflatoxin B (1) production was reduced 95.7-99.8% with L60 and 27.5-100% with L23. Statistical analysis of the data revealed the influence of L60 and L23 on growth parameters and aflatoxin B (1) production. These results are important given that these aflatoxicogenic fungi are natural contaminants of feed used for animal production, and could be effectively controlled by Lactobacillus L60 and L23 strains with probiotic properties. PMID:22497448

  10. Evaluation of Phytate-Degrading Lactobacillus Culture Administration to Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Askelson, Tyler E.; Campasino, Ashley; Lee, Jason T.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been demonstrated to promote growth, stimulate immune responses, and improve food safety of poultry. While widely used, their effectiveness is mixed, and the mechanisms through which they contribute to poultry production are not well understood. Microbial phytases are increasingly supplemented in feed to improve digestibility and reduce antinutritive effects of phytate. The microbial origin of these exogenous enzymes suggests a potentially important mechanism of probiotic functionality. We investigated phytate degradation as a novel probiotic mechanism using recombinant Lactobacillus cultures expressing Bacillus subtilis phytase. B. subtilis phyA was codon optimized for expression in Lactobacillus and cloned into the expression vector pTRK882. The resulting plasmid, pTD003, was transformed into Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, and Lactobacillus gasseri. SDS-PAGE revealed a protein in the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus pTD003 transformants with a molecular weight similar to that of the B. subtilis phytase. Expression of B. subtilis phytase increased phytate degradation of L. acidophilus, L. gasseri, and L. gallinarum approximately 4-, 10-, and 18-fold over the background activity of empty-vector transformants, respectively. Phytase-expressing L. gallinarum and L. gasseri were administered to broiler chicks fed a phosphorus-deficient diet. Phytase-expressing L. gasseri improved weight gain of broiler chickens to a level comparable to that for chickens fed a control diet adequate in phosphorus, demonstrating proof of principle that administration of phytate-degrading probiotic cultures can improve performance of livestock animals. This will inform future studies investigating whether probiotic cultures are able to provide both the performance benefits of feed enzymes and the animal health and food safety benefits traditionally associated with probiotics. PMID:24271165

  11. Genome Sequence of a Potential Probiotic Strain, Lactobacillus fermentum HFB3, Isolated from a Human Gut

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Madhu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of 2.04Mb is reported for Lactobacillus fermentum HFB3, which is a lactic acid bacterium with probiotic properties. The gene-coding clusters also predicted the presence of genes responsible for probiotic characteristics. PMID:26543124

  12. Genome Sequence of a Potential Probiotic Strain, Lactobacillus fermentum HFB3, Isolated from a Human Gut.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Madhu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of 2.04Mb is reported for Lactobacillus fermentum HFB3, which is a lactic acid bacterium with probiotic properties. The gene-coding clusters also predicted the presence of genes responsible for probiotic characteristics. PMID:26543124

  13. Probiotic interference of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 with the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Khler, Gerwald A; Assefa, Senait; Reid, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most important Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). VVC has significant medical and economical impact on women's health and wellbeing. While current antifungal treatment is reasonably effective, supportive and preventive measures such as application of probiotics are required to reduce the incidence of VVC. We investigated the potential of the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 towards control of C. albicans. In vitro experiments demonstrated that lactic acid at low pH plays a major role in suppressing fungal growth. Viability staining following cocultures with lactobacilli revealed that C. albicans cells lost metabolic activity and eventually were killed. Transcriptome analyses showed increased expression of stress-related genes and lower expression of genes involved in fluconazole resistance, which might explain the increased eradication of Candida in a previous clinical study on conjoint probiotic therapy. Our results provide insights on the impact of probiotics on C. albicans survival. PMID:22811591

  14. Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt.

    PubMed

    Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29days of storage at 5C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

  15. Enteric coating of granules containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Pyar, Hassan; Peh, Kok-Khiang

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V) of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine. PMID:24914724

  16. The effect of probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei on gastropathic consequences in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Hariom; Jain, Shalini; Sinha, P R

    2008-03-01

    In the present study, the effects of oral administration of probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei on gastropathic consequences in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were evaluated, and effects were compared with skim milk- and control dahi-fed groups. The feeding of probiotic dahi did not change the blood glucose levels in chronic hyperglycemic conditions. The rate of charcoal transit was significantly higher in probiotic dahi-fed animals than in those of the diabetic control group (P < .05). Moreover, the oral administration of probiotic dahi significantly increased counts of lactobacilli adherent to epithelial walls and free in the lumen of the small and large intestine, while decreasing attached as well as free coliform counts (P < .05). In addition, probiotic dahi reversed the decrease in total lactobacilli and increase in total coliforms in fecal samples of diabetic animals. It was also shown that oral ingestion of probiotic dahi reduced the oxidative stress marker thiobarbituric acid-reactive species in intestinal tissues and glycosylation of hemoglobin (P < .05). All the effects were predominantly higher in the probiotic dahi-fed group than the skim milk- and control dahi-fed groups. The results indicate that probiotic dahi may be used as a therapeutic regimen to diminish the gastropathic consequences of diabetes. PMID:18361739

  17. Potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains from traditional Kurdish cheese.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Shahidi, Fakhri; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Milani, Elnaz; Eshaghi, Zarrin

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional Kurdish cheese was investigated. The Lactobacillus strains were examined for resistance to gastric acidity and bile toxicity, antimicrobial activities, autoaggregation, coaggregation, hydrophobicity, adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and antibiotic susceptibility. The results showed that all strains tested tolerate acid gastric conditions (pH 2.0 and 3.0), and all of them were bile resistant (at 0.3 and 1% concentration). Although no antibacterial activity was detected in vitro assay for the treated (neutralized to pH 6.5 and treated with catalase) cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) of strains, untreated CFCS showed strong antagonistic activity against two known pathogens bacteria. All strains exhibited a strong autoaggregating phenotype and manifested a high degree of coaggregation with pathogens. On the other hand, majority of studied strains were found sensitive to different antibiotics, such as ampicillin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampicin, and tetracycline, and were resistant to vancomycin and streptomycin. Finally, isolated strains showed good hydrophobicity and adherence to Caco-2 cell line, so they could be exploited for food manufacture. PMID:24676764

  18. Importance of Molecular Methods to Determine Whether a Probiotic is the Source of Lactobacillus Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Aroutcheva, Alla; Auclair, Julie; Frappier, Martin; Millette, Mathieu; Lolans, Karen; de Montigny, Danielle; Carrière, Serge; Sokalski, Stephen; Trick, William E; Weinstein, Robert A

    2016-03-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the use of probiotic products for the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Bio-K+(®) is a commercial probiotic product comprising three strains of lactobacilli-Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®), Lact. casei LBC80R(®) and Lact. rhamnosus CLR2(®)-that have been applied to prevent CDI. Generally considered as safe, lactobacilli have potential to cause bacteremia, endocarditis and other infections. The source of Lactobacillus bacteremia can be normal human flora or lactobacilli-containing probiotic. The aim of this study was to assess whether probiotic lactobacilli caused bacteremia and to show the value of molecular identification and typing techniques to determine probiotic and patient strain relatedness. We report an episode of Lactobacillus bacteremia in a 69-year-old man admitted to a hospital with severe congestive heart failure. During his hospitalization, he required long-term antibiotic therapy. Additionally, the patient received Bio-K+(®) probiotic as part of a quality improvement project to prevent CDI. Subsequently, Lactobacillus bacteremia occurred. Two independent blinded laboratory evaluations, using pulse field gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA fingerprint analysis (rep-PCR), were performed to determine whether the recovered Lact. acidophilus originated from the probiotic product. Ultimately, the patient strain was identified as Lact. casei and both laboratories found no genetic relation between the patient's strain and any of the probiotic lactobacilli. This clinical case of lactobacillus bacteremia in the setting of probiotic exposure demonstrates the value of using discriminatory molecular methods to clearly determine whether there were a link between the patient's isolate and the probiotic strains. PMID:26915093

  19. Heat-killed Lactobacillus gasseri can enhance immunity in the elderly in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, K; Kawase, M; Kubota, A; Yoda, K; Harata, G; Hosoda, M; He, F

    2015-01-01

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to test whether Lactobacillus gasseri TMC0356 (TMC0356) can modify the immune response in the elderly. Heat-killed TMC0356 or placebo was orally administered to 28 healthy subjects aged 50-70 years old for 4 weeks at a dosage of 1.010(9) cfu/day. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from the subjects before and after the study completion, together with general health and blood examination records. Isolated PBMCs were examined for the number of T cells, CD8(+)CD28(+) cells, native T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells and the ratios of CD4/CD8 T cells and native/memory T cells. NK cell activation and concanavalin A-induced lymphocyte transformation of the isolated PBMCs were also examined. The number of CD8(+) T cells significantly increased in the subjects after TMC0356 oral administration (P<0.05). Furthermore, the population of CD8(+)CD28(+) T cells and the amount of lymphocyte transformation both significantly decreased in PBMCs from the placebo group (P<0.05). However, such changes were not observed in the subjects exposed to TMC0356. These results suggest that TMC0356 can increase the number of CD8(+) T cells and reduce CD28 expression loss in CD8(+) T cells of the elderly. The effect of TMC0356 on immune responses in the elderly may enhance their natural defence mechanisms against pathogenic infections. PMID:25653155

  20. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of two potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains by in vivo tests.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dayong; Li, Chang; Qin, Yanqing; Yin, Ronglan; Du, Shouwen; Liu, Hongfeng; Zhang, Yanfang; Wang, Cuiyan; Rong, Fengjun; Jin, Ningyi

    2015-10-01

    Here we evaluate the immunomodulatory function of two potential probiotic strains, Lactobacillus salivarius CICC 23174 and Lactobacillus plantarum CGMCC 1.557. Mice were fed with each Lactobacillus strain at different doses for several consecutive days. The effects of the two probiotic strains on immune organs, immune cells and immune molecules were investigated on days 10 and 20. Both Lactobacillus strains increased the spleen index, improved the spleen lymphocyte transformation rate, enhanced sIgA production and improved the number of CD11c(+) CD80(+) double-positive cells. L. plantarum CGMCC 1.557 was the more active strain in enhancing the phagocytic activity of macrophages, while, L. salivarius CICC 23174 was the more effective strain at maintaining the Th1/Th2 balance. This study suggests that these two Lactobacillus strains have beneficial effects on regulation of immune responses, which has promising implications for the development of ecological agents and functional foods. PMID:26143437

  1. Genomic Diversity of Phages Infecting Probiotic Strains of Lactobacillus paracasei.

    PubMed

    Mercanti, Diego J; Rousseau, Genevive M; Capra, Mara L; Quiberoni, Andrea; Tremblay, Denise M; Labrie, Simon J; Moineau, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been extensively studied because some are used as probiotics in foods. Conversely, their phages have received much less attention. We analyzed the complete genome sequences of five L. paracasei temperate phages: CL1, CL2, iLp84, iLp1308, and iA2. Only phage iA2 could not replicate in an indicator strain. The genome lengths ranged from 34,155 bp (iA2) to 39,474 bp (CL1). Phages iA2 and iLp1308 (34,176 bp) possess the smallest genomes reported, thus far, for phages of the L. casei group. The GC contents of the five phage genomes ranged from 44.8 to 45.6%. As observed with many other phages, their genomes were organized as follows: genes coding for DNA packaging, morphogenesis, lysis, lysogeny, and replication. Phages CL1, CL2, and iLp1308 are highly related to each other. Phage iLp84 was also related to these three phages, but the similarities were limited to gene products involved in DNA packaging and structural proteins. Genomic fragments of phages CL1, CL2, iLp1308, and iLp84 were found in several genomes of L. casei strains. Prophage iA2 is unrelated to these four phages, but almost all of its genome was found in at least four L. casei strains. Overall, these phages are distinct from previously characterized Lactobacillus phages. Our results highlight the diversity of L. casei phages and indicate frequent DNA exchanges between phages and their hosts. PMID:26475105

  2. Invitro evaluation of the probiotic and functional potential of Lactobacillus strains isolated from fermented food and human intestine.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dayong; Li, Chang; Qin, Yanqing; Yin, Ronglan; Du, Shouwen; Ye, Fei; Liu, Cunxia; Liu, Hongfeng; Wang, Maopeng; Li, Yi; Sun, Yang; Li, Xiao; Tian, Mingyao; Jin, Ningyi

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the functional and probiotic characteristics of eight indigenous Lactobacillus strains invitro. The selected lactobacilli include strains of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salicinius, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. All strains tolerated both pH 2 for 3h and 1% bile salt for 24h. The strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 were the most adhesive strains producing the highest quantity of EPS. Although a wide variation in the ability of the eight strains to deplete cholesterol and nitrite, antagonize pathogens, scavenge free radical, and stimulate innate immune response were observed, the strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 showed the widest range of these useful traits. Taken together, the strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 exhibited the best probiotic properties with the potential for use in the production of probiotic fermented foods. PMID:25046742

  3. Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Gregor; Hammond, Jo-Anne

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To define the term probiotics, to indicate how to identify products that have been proven beneficial, and to assess the quality of evidence regarding probiotics. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE A few level I studies support the effectiveness of specific probiotics for certain diagnoses. For most so-called probiotics, however, weak or no evidence supports their effectiveness. MAIN MESSAGE Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Level I evidence supports use of VSL#3 for maintaining remission of inflammatory colitis. Probiotics for treating vaginal infections, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14, have level I evidence of effectiveness, but are not available in Canada. Specific probiotics taken for certain indications improve health and have few side effects. CONCLUSION Limited but good evidence supports the role of certain probiotics in medical practice. Because consumer pressure will undoubtedly stimulate further interest in probiotics, family doctors need to be informed about them so they can advise their patients appropriately. PMID:16353831

  4. Comparative Genomic and Functional Analysis of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains Marketed as Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Douillard, François P.; Ribbera, Angela; Järvinen, Hanna M.; Kant, Ravi; Pietilä, Taija E.; Randazzo, Cinzia; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia K.; Caggia, Cinzia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; Palva, Airi

    2013-01-01

    Four Lactobacillus strains were isolated from marketed probiotic products, including L. rhamnosus strains from Vifit (Friesland Campina) and Idoform (Ferrosan) and L. casei strains from Actimel (Danone) and Yakult (Yakult Honsa Co.). Their genomes and phenotypes were characterized and compared in detail with L. casei strain BL23 and L. rhamnosus strain GG. Phenotypic analysis of the new isolates indicated differences in carbohydrate utilization between L. casei and L. rhamnosus strains, which could be linked to their genotypes. The two isolated L. rhamnosus strains had genomes that were virtually identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG, testifying to their genomic stability and integrity in food products. The L. casei strains showed much greater genomic heterogeneity. Remarkably, all strains contained an intact spaCBA pilus gene cluster. However, only the L. rhamnosus strains produced mucus-binding SpaCBA pili under the conditions tested. Transcription initiation mapping demonstrated that the insertion of an iso-IS30 element upstream of the pilus gene cluster in L. rhamnosus strains but absent in L. casei strains had constituted a functional promoter driving pilus gene expression. All L. rhamnosus strains triggered an NF-κB response via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a reporter cell line, whereas the L. casei strains did not or did so to a much lesser extent. This study demonstrates that the two L. rhamnosus strains isolated from probiotic products are virtually identical to L. rhamnosus GG and further highlights the differences between these and L. casei strains widely marketed as probiotics, in terms of genome content, mucus-binding and metabolic capacities, and host signaling capabilities. PMID:23315726

  5. Taxonomic and Strain-Specific Identification of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 within the Lactobacillus casei Group?

    PubMed Central

    Coudeyras, Sophie; Marchandin, Hlne; Fajon, Cline; Forestier, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei group. Analysis of rrn operon sequences confirmed that L. rhamnosus 35 indeed belongs to the L. rhamnosus species, and both temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and ribotyping showed that it is closer to the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG) than to the species type strain. In addition, L. casei ATCC 334 gathered in a coherent cluster with L. paracasei type strains, unlike L. casei ATCC 393, which was closer to L. zeae; this is evidence of the lack of relatedness between the two L. casei strains. Further characterization of the eight strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis repetitive DNA element-based PCR identified distinct patterns for each strain, whereas two isolates of L. rhamnosus 35 sampled 40 years apart could not be distinguished. By subtractive hybridization using the L. rhamnosus GG genome as a driver, we were able to isolate five L. rhamnosus 35-specific sequences, including two phage-related ones. The primer pairs designed to amplify these five regions allowed us to develop rapid and highly specific PCR-based identification methods for the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus 35. PMID:18326671

  6. Screening of Lactobacillus strains of domestic goose origin against bacterial poultry pathogens for use as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Dec, Marta; Puchalski, Andrzej; Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Lactobacilli are natural inhabitants of human and animal mucous membranes, including the avian gastrointestinal tract. Recently, increasing attention has been given to their probiotic, health-promoting capacities, among which their antagonistic potential against pathogens plays a key role. A study was conducted to evaluate probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from feces or cloacae of domestic geese. Among the 104 examined isolates, previously identified to the species level by whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and analysis of 16S-23S regions of rDNA, dominated Lactobacillus salivarius (35%), followed by Lactobacillus johnsonii (18%) and Lactobacillus ingluviei (11%). All lactobacilli were screened for antimicrobial activity toward Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida, and Riemerella anatipestifer using the agar slab method and the well diffusion method. Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum exhibited particularly strong antagonism toward all of the indicator strains. In the agar slab method, the highest sensitivity to Lactobacillus was observed in R. anatipestifer and P. multocida, and the lowest in E. coli and S. aureus. The ability to produce H₂O₂was exhibited by 92% of isolates, but there was no correlation between the rate of production of this reactive oxygen species and the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus sp. All lactobacilli showed resistance to pH 3.0 and 3.5 and to 2% bile. The data demonstrate that Lactobacillus isolates from geese may have probiotic potential in reducing bacterial infections. The antibacterial activity of the selected lactobacilli is mainly due to lactic acid production by these bacteria. The selected Lactobacillus strains that strongly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and were also resistant to low pH and bile salts, can potentially restore the balance of intestinal microflora in geese and could offer an alternative to antibiotic therapy. PMID:25104766

  7. Evaluation of profertility effect of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 2621 in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Praveen; Prabha, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Urogenital infections of bacterial origin have a high incidence among the female population at reproductive age, affecting the fertility. Strains of Escherichia coli can colonize the vagina and replace natural microflora. Lactobacillus the predominant vaginal microorganism in healthy women, maintains the acidic vaginal pH which inhibits pathogenic microorganisms. Studies on Lactobacillus have shown that these can inhibit E. coli growth and vaginal colonization. An alternative therapeutic approach to antimicrobial therapy is to re-establish Lactobacillus in this microbiome through probiotic administration to resurge fertility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the capability of L. plantarum 2621 strain with probiotic properties, to prevent the vaginal colonization of E. coli causing agglutination of sperms and to evaluate its profertility effect in a murine model. Methods: Screened mice were divided into five groups i.e. control group, E. coli group, Lactobacillus group, prophylactic and therapeutic groups. The control group was infused with 20 l PBS, E.coli group was administered with 106 cfu/20 l E. coli, and probiotic group was administered with Lactobacillus (108 cfu/20 l) for 10 consecutive days. In prophylactic group, the vagina was colonized with 10 consecutive doses of Lactobacillus (108 cfu/20 l). After 24 h, it was followed by 10 day intravaginal infection with E. coli (106 cfu/20 l) whereas for the therapeutic group vagina was colonized with (106 cfu/20 l) E. coli for 10 consecutive days, followed by 10 day intravaginal administration with Lactobacillus after 24 h. Results: Upon mating and completion of gestation period, control, probiotic and the therapeutic groups had litters in contrast to the prophylactic group and the group administered with E. coli. Interpretation & conclusions: Results indicated that Lactobacillus intermitted colonization of pathogenic strains that resulted in reinforcement of natural microflora and resurge fertility. PMID:26261170

  8. Induction of local protective immunity to Eimeria acervulina by a Lactobacillus-based probiotic.

    PubMed

    Dalloul, Rami A; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Tamim, Nada M; Shellem, Timothy A; Doerr, John A

    2005-01-01

    Previously we have shown that resistance to Eimeria acervulina (EA) infection in broiler chickens was enhanced by a probiotic treatment. In the present studies, we examined cytokine and oocyst production under similar conditions using a commercial Lactobacillus-based probiotic. Day-old male broiler chicks were fed control or probiotic diets and were orally challenged with either 2x10(4) (Experiment 1) or 1x10(4) (Experiment 2) oocysts of EA at 3 weeks of age. For the first experiment, fecal oocyst shedding and IFN-gamma levels in the culture supernatants of ConA-stimulated spleen lymphocytes were evaluated. Humoral and local cell-mediated immunity in the second experiment were assessed by evaluating antibody and cytokine (IFN-gamma and IL-2) levels in sera and intestinal secretions on a 3-day interval post inoculation. Results showed small but significant (P<0.05) differences in cytokine levels and oocyst production but not antibody levels between the probiotic-treated and control groups. Collectively, these data suggest a positive impact of the probiotic on cellular immune responses of infected broilers as compared to control chickens resulting in enhanced resistance to EA as shown in reduced fecal oocyst shedding. The results showed an immunoregulatory effect of probiotic diets on the local cell-mediated immunity in poultry and provide a rationale for further study to investigate the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus-based probiotics in food animals. PMID:16293311

  9. Survival and therapeutic potential of probiotic organisms with reference to Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp.

    PubMed

    Kailasapathy, K; Chin, J

    2000-02-01

    The present paper provides an overview on the use of probiotic organisms as live supplements, with particular emphasis on Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. The therapeutic potential of these bacteria in fermented dairy products is dependent on their survival during manufacture and storage. Probiotic bacteria are increasingly used in food and pharmaceutical applications to balance disturbed intestinal microflora and related dysfunction of the human gastrointestinal tract. Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. have been reported to be beneficial probiotic organisms that provide excellent therapeutic benefits. The biological activity of probiotic bacteria is due in part to their ability to attach to enterocytes. This inhibits the binding of enteric pathogens by a process of competitive exclusion. Attachment of probiotic bacteria to cell surface receptors of enterocytes also initiates signalling events that result in the synthesis of cytokines. Probiotic bacteria also exert an influence on commensal micro-organisms by the production of lactic acid and bacteriocins. These substances inhibit growth of pathogens and also alter the ecological balance of enteric commensals. Production of butyric acid by some probiotic bacteria affects the turnover of enterocytes and neutralizes the activity of dietary carcinogens, such as nitrosamines, that are generated by the metabolic activity of commensal bacteria in subjects consuming a high-protein diet. Therefore, inclusion of probiotic bacteria in fermented dairy products enhances their value as better therapeutic functional foods. However, insufficient viability and survival of these bacteria remain a problem in commercial food products. By selecting better functional probiotic strains and adopting improved methods to enhance survival, including the use of appropriate prebiotics and the optimal combination of probiotics and prebiotics (synbiotics), an increased delivery of viable bacteria in fermented products to the consumers can be achieved. PMID:10651933

  10. Evaluation of the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains and their in vitro effect.

    PubMed

    Presti, I; D'Orazio, G; Labra, M; La Ferla, B; Mezzasalma, V; Bizzaro, G; Giardina, S; Michelotti, A; Tursi, F; Vassallo, M; Di Gennaro, P

    2015-07-01

    Probiotic ingestion is recommended as a preventive approach to maintain the balance of the intestinal microbiota and to enhance the human well-being. During the whole life of each individual, the gut microbiota composition could be altered by lifestyle, diet, antibiotic therapies and other stress conditions, which may lead to acute and chronic disorders. Hence, probiotics can be administered for the prevention or treatment of some disorders, including lactose malabsorption, acute diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis and mild forms of inflammatory bowel disease. The probiotic-mediated effect is an important issue that needs to be addressed in relation to strain-specific probiotic properties. In this work, the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains were screened, and their effects in vitro were evaluated. They were screened for probiotic properties by determining their tolerance to low pH and to bile salts, antibiotic sensitivity, antimicrobial activity and vitamin B8, B9 and B12 production, and by considering their ability to increase the antioxidant potential and to modulate the inflammatory status of systemic-miming cell lines in vitro. Three out of the examined strains presenting the most performant probiotic properties, as Lactobacillus plantarum PBS067, Lactobacillus rhamnosus PBS070 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis PBSO75, were evaluated for their effects also on human intestinal HT-29 cell line. The obtained results support the possibility to move to another level of study, that is, the oral administration of these probiotical strains to patients with acute and chronic gut disorders, by in vivo experiments. PMID:25744647

  11. Use of a lactobacillus-based probiotic culture to reduce Salmonella in day of hatch broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercially available Lactobacillus probiotic (FM-B11 Ivesco LLC) (B11) significantly reduced Salmonella recovery from day-of-hatch chicks in several studies. For all experiments, day-of-hatch male broiler chicks (n=40 per pen) were challenged with approximately 10**4 cfu per chick of Salmonell...

  12. Complete genome sequence of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenyi; Sun, Zhihong; Bilige, Menghe; Zhang, Heping

    2015-01-10

    Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 is a probiotic bacterium, which shows high antibacterial activity. The genome consists of a circular 3,033,693-bp chromosome and six plasmids. Bioinformatics inspection of the genome revealed a gene cluster relating to bacteriocin production. Genome information has provided the basis for understanding the potential molecular mechanism behind the bacteriocin production. PMID:25444879

  13. Genome sequence of Lactobacillus salivarius GJ-24, a probiotic strain isolated from healthy adult intestine.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong-Joon; Choi, Jae Kyoung; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lim, Yea-Seul; Ham, Jun-Sang; Kang, Dae-Kyung; Chun, Jongsik; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Geun-Bae

    2011-09-01

    The draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus salivarius GJ-24 isolated from the feces of healthy adults was determined. Its properties, including milk fermentation activity and bacteriocin production, suggest its potential uses as a probiotic lactic acid bacterium and start culture for dairy products. PMID:21742893

  14. Plant extract enhances the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in probiotic nonfat yogurt

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127

  15. Anti-inflammatory potential of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. on carrageenan induced paw edema in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Archer, Ann Catherine; Muthukumar, S P; Halami, Prakash M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory ability of novel indigenous probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum MCC 2759, L. fermentum MCC 2760 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii MCC 2775 in a carrageenan induced acute inflammatory paw edema model. Probiotic cultures were administered to male Wistar rats via oral route. Carrageenan at a concentration of 1% was injected into hind paw of rats 30min after oral gavage on the 8th day of treatment regimen. Paw thickness (mm), stair climbing activity and motility score were the parameters used to score the inflammatory response. L. fermentum MCC 2759, L. fermentum MCC 2760 and L. delbrueckii MCC 2775 showed significant reduction in paw thickness (P<0.05) showing percentage inhibition of 15.67%, 14.72% and 14.84%, respectively, 24h after carrageenan induction. Probiotic treatment also markedly alleviated the stair climbing and motility score. Histological analysis of tissue sections revealed reduction in cellular infiltration of probiotic and drug treatment groups. Adhesion to resected rat intestinal tissue also showed significant adherence capability (>40%) of the probiotic cultures used. Therefore, L. fermentum MCC 2759, L. fermentum MCC 2760 and L. delbrueckii MCC 2775 may be used as potent anti-inflammatory agents with probiotic health benefits. PMID:26314910

  16. The effect of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) on the availability of minerals from Dutch-type cheese.

    PubMed

    Aljewicz, Marek; Siemianowska, Ewa; Cichosz, Gra?yna; To?ska, El?bieta

    2014-01-01

    The use of probiotic cultures in the production of Dutch-type cheeses did not lead to significant changes in their chemical composition but it lowered their acidity. The availability of calcium and magnesium analyzed by in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis was 19 and 35%, respectively; the availability of phosphorus was significantly higher, at >90%. The use of probiotic cultures significantly increased the availability of calcium (~2.5%), phosphorus (~6%), and magnesium (~18%). The in vitro method supports accurate determination of the effect of the Lactobacillus spp. cultures on the availability of mineral compounds ingested with Dutch-type cheese. PMID:24913654

  17. Phenotypic Characteristics and Probiotic Potentials of Lactobacillus spp. Isolated From Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Noohi, Nasrin; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhosein; Rohani, Mahdi; Talebi, Malihe; Pourshafie, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lactic acid bacteria, especially Lactobacillus spp., have been considered as excellent probiotic microorganisms, because of their activities in reducing the enteric diseases and maintaining healthy poultry. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the phenotypic characteristics and the probiotic potentials of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from poultry. Materials and Methods: A total of 168 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from healthy six and twenty-one-day old chickens and their feed samples. The isolated bacteria were identified by morphological, biochemical, and molecular tests including Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Biochemical fingerprinting with Phene Plate system (Ph-P) was done and the acid and bile resistant lactobacilli were subjected to the antibiotic susceptibility test. Results: Amongst all of the examined LAB, 30.3% were resistant to bile and acid. Most of the isolated LAB (57.1%) belonged to the genus Lactobacillus with Lactobacillus brevis (78.1%) as the dominant species followed by L. reuteri (16.6%), L. plantarum (3%), and L. vaginalis (2%). The remaining isolates were identified as Pediococcus spp. (42.9%). The Ph-P cluster analysis of 75 L. brevis and 16 L. reuteri strains showed high phenotypic diversity. Whilst the results of Ph-P typing from L. reuteri strains showed low phenotypic variations especially among the strains sensitive to acid and bile salts. Conclusions: Overall, the results showed that some of the high potential probiotic LAB species existed in Iranian poultry. PMID:25485067

  18. Study and use of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in pigs: a review.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chengli; Zeng, Xiangfang; Yang, Fengjuan; Liu, Hong; Qiao, Shiyan

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms that provide a wide variety of health benefits to the host when ingested in adequate amounts. The bacterial strains most frequently used as probiotic agents are lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus reuteri, which is one of the few endogenous Lactobacillus species found in the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, including humans, rats, pigs and chickens. L. reuteri is one of the most well documented probiotic species and has been widely utilized as a probiotic in humans and animals for many years. Initially, L. reuteri was used in humans to reduce the incidence and the severity of diarrhea, prevent colic and necrotic enterocolitis, and maintain a functional mucosal barrier. As interest in alternatives to in-feed antibiotics has grown in recent years, some evidence has emerged that probiotics may promote growth, improve the efficiency of feed utilization, prevent diarrhea, and regulate the immune system in pigs. In this review, the characteristics of L. reuteri are described, in order to update the evidence on the efficacy of using L. reuteri in pigs. PMID:25954504

  19. Identification of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic features from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, MA; Bik, EM; Carlin, KP; Venn-Watson, SK; Jensen, ED; Jones, SE; Gaston, EP; Relman, DA; Versalovic, J

    2013-01-01

    Aims In order to develop complementary health management strategies for marine mammals, we used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to identify gastrointestinal lactobacilli of the common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Methods and Results We screened 307 bacterial isolates from oral and rectal swabs, milk and gastric fluid, collected from 38 dolphins in the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, for potentially beneficial features. We focused our search on lactobacilli and evaluated their ability to modulate TNF secretion by host cells and inhibit growth of pathogens. We recovered Lactobacillus salivarius strains which secreted factors that stimulated TNF production by human monocytoid cells. These Lact. salivarius isolates inhibited growth of selected marine mammal and human bacterial pathogens. In addition, we identified a novel Lactobacillus species by culture and direct sequencing with 96·3% 16S rDNA sequence similarity to Lactobacillus ceti. Conclusions Dolphin-derived Lact. salivarius isolates possess features making them candidate probiotics for clinical studies in marine mammals. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to isolate lactobacilli from dolphins, including a novel Lactobacillus species and a new strain of Lact. salivarius, with potential for veterinary probiotic applications. The isolation and identification of novel Lactobacillus spp. and other indigenous microbes from bottlenose dolphins will enable the study of the biology of symbiotic members of the dolphin microbiota and facilitate the understanding of the microbiomes of these unique animals. PMID:23855505

  20. Lactobacillus Sepsis and Probiotic Therapy in Newborns: Two New Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Dani, Carlo; Coviello C, Caterina; Corsini I, Iuri; Arena, Fabio; Antonelli, Alberto; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2015-01-01

    Many term and preterm infants are commonly supplemented with probiotics to prevent adverse effects of antibiotic administration and necrotizing enterocolitis and they are believed to be safe. However, the supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been associated with the development of sepsis with a cause–effect relationship in six newborns and children. In this study, we report two further cases and discuss the emerging issue of probiotic supplementation safety in neonates. We conclude that physicians must be aware that supplementation with L. rhamnosus GG can cause sepsis in high-risk patients on rare occasions. PMID:26929865

  1. Lactobacillus Sepsis and Probiotic Therapy in Newborns: Two New Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Dani, Carlo; Coviello C, Caterina; Corsini I, Iuri; Arena, Fabio; Antonelli, Alberto; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2016-03-01

    Many term and preterm infants are commonly supplemented with probiotics to prevent adverse effects of antibiotic administration and necrotizing enterocolitis and they are believed to be safe. However, the supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been associated with the development of sepsis with a cause-effect relationship in six newborns and children. In this study, we report two further cases and discuss the emerging issue of probiotic supplementation safety in neonates. We conclude that physicians must be aware that supplementation with L. rhamnosus GG can cause sepsis in high-risk patients on rare occasions. PMID:26929865

  2. An in vitro protocol for direct isolation of potential probiotic lactobacilli from raw bovine milk and traditional fermented milks.

    PubMed

    Baruzzi, Federico; Poltronieri, Palmiro; Quero, Grazia Marina; Morea, Maria; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2011-04-01

    A method for isolating potential probiotic lactobacilli directly from traditional milk-based foods was developed. The novel digestion/enrichment protocol was set up taking care to minimize the protective effect of milk proteins and fats and was validated testing three commercial fermented milks containing well-known probiotic Lactobacillus strains. Only probiotic bacteria claimed in the label were isolated from two out of three commercial fermented milks. The application of the new protocol to 15 raw milk samples and 6 traditional fermented milk samples made it feasible to isolate 11 potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains belonging to Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus vaginalis species. Even though further analyses need to ascertain functional properties of these lactobacilli, the novel protocol set-up makes it feasible to isolate quickly potential probiotic strains from traditional milk-based foods reducing the amount of time required by traditional procedures that, in addition, do not allow to isolate microorganisms occurring as sub-dominant populations. PMID:21318359

  3. Microencapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in alginate-chitosan capsules improves survival in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Chávarri, María; Marañón, Izaskun; Ares, Raquel; Ibáñez, Francisco C; Marzo, Florencio; Villarán, María del Carmen

    2010-08-15

    Chitosan was used as a coating material to improve encapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in calcium alginate beads. Chitosan-coated alginate microspheres were produced to encapsulate Lactobacillus gasseri (L) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (B) as probiotics and the prebiotic quercetin (Q) with the objective of enhancing survival of the probiotic bacteria and keeping intact the prebiotic during exposure to the adverse conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The encapsulation yield for viable cells for chitosan-coated alginate microspheres with quercetin (L+Q and B+Q) was very low. These results, together with the study about the survival of microspheres with quercetin during storage at 4 degrees C, demonstrated that probiotic bacteria microencapsulated with quercetin did not survive. Owing to this, quercetin and L. gasseri or B. bifidum were microencapsulated separately. Microencapsulated L. gasseri and microencapsulated B. bifidum were resistant to simulated gastric conditions (pH 2.0, 2h) and bile solution (3%, 2h), resulting in significantly (p<0.05) improved survival when compared with free bacteria. This work showed that the microencapsulation of L. gasseri and B. bifidum with alginate and a chitosan coating offers an effective means of delivery of viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during simulated gastric and intestinal juice. PMID:20659775

  4. Viability of probiotic Lactobacillus casei in yoghurt: defining the best processing step to its addition.

    PubMed

    Bandiera, Nataly Simes; Carneiro, Isadora; da Silva, Alisson Santana; Honjoya, Edson Renato; de Santana, Elsa Helena Walter; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; de Souza, Cnthia Hoch Batista

    2013-03-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms capable of producing beneficial effects on its host when consumed in adequate amounts. To exert these effects, foods must contain probiotic microorganisms in populations above 10(6) CFU/g or mL throughout its shelf life. One of the strategies to ensure high population of probiotics in fermented milk is to add them during or after the fermentation process separately from the starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of the probiotic microorganism Lactobacillus casei added to yoghurt in different stages of production. Yoghurts with L. casei were produced at different stages: before addition of starter (Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), added together with this culture and at the end of fermentation. Yoghurt without probiotic added was produced as a control. The products were stored at 4 degrees C and analyzed after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. In these periods, the populations ofprobiotic and starter cultures were enumerated and the parameters pH and acidity were analyzed. The results were evaluated using analysis of variance and Tukey's test, both at 5% significance level. L. casei remained viable in populations of more than 10(8) CFU / g during 21 days of storage, which is suitable to define the formulations as probiotics. When the different stages of the addition of probiotics in yoghurts were evaluated there was no statistical difference between the formulations (p < 0.05) for populations of L. casei except for the first day of storage. PMID:24167959

  5. The genome sequence of the probiotic intestinal bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533

    PubMed Central

    Pridmore, R. David; Berger, Bernard; Desiere, Frank; Vilanova, David; Barretto, Caroline; Pittet, Anne-Cecile; Zwahlen, Marie-Camille; Rouvet, Martine; Altermann, Eric; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Mollet, Beat; Mercenier, Annick; Klaenhammer, Todd; Arigoni, Fabrizio; Schell, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 is a member of the acidophilus group of intestinal lactobacilli that has been extensively studied for their “probiotic” activities that include, pathogen inhibition, epithelial cell attachment, and immunomodulation. To gain insight into its physiology and identify genes potentially involved in interactions with the host, we sequenced and analyzed the 1.99-Mb genome of L. johnsonii NCC 533. Strikingly, the organism completely lacked genes encoding biosynthetic pathways for amino acids, purine nucleotides, and most cofactors. In apparent compensation, a remarkable number of uncommon and often duplicated amino acid permeases, peptidases, and phosphotransferase-type transporters were discovered, suggesting a strong dependency of NCC 533 on the host or other intestinal microbes to provide simple monomeric nutrients. Genome analysis also predicted an abundance (>12) of large and unusual cell-surface proteins, including fimbrial subunits, which may be involved in adhesion to glycoproteins or other components of mucin, a characteristic expected to affect persistence in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Three bile salt hydrolases and two bile acid transporters, proteins apparently critical for GIT survival, were also detected. In silico genome comparisons with the >95% complete genome sequence of the closely related Lactobacillus gasseri revealed extensive synteny punctuated by clear-cut insertions or deletions of single genes or operons. Many of these regions of difference appear to encode metabolic or structural components that could affect the organisms competitiveness or interactions with the GIT ecosystem. PMID:14983040

  6. In Vitro Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria from the Gut of Labeo rohita and Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Tapasa Kumar; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Nagar, Nidhi; Patel, Amiya Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2015-06-01

    We report the evaluation of probiotic properties of potent lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the gut of freshwater fishes, Labeo rohita and Catla catla, for eventually developing probiotic strains for the prevention of bacterial infections in aquaculture and food preservation. Five different LAB strains were isolated and characterized for their probiotic properties. Based on physiological, morphological and biochemical characteristics, three isolates from Labeo rohita and two from Catla catla were identified as putative probiotics and were denoted as LR11, LR14 and LR16 and CC3 and CC4, respectively. Isolates CC3 and CC4 were acid (pH 2.5) and bile salt (0.3% oxygall) tolerant and exhibited strong antibacterial activities against all pathogens including Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, all LAB isolates were susceptible to tested antibiotics, except CC3 and CC4 which were vancomycin resistant. Furthermore, the isolates CC3 and CC4 showed significantly higher in vitro cell surface properties, i.e., hydrophobicity, auto- and co-aggregation. Biochemical tests, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequence analysis established that LR11, LR14, LR16, CC3 and CC4 are Enterococcus avium TSU11, Enterococcus pseudoavium TSU14, Enterococcus raffinosus TSU16, Lactobacillus gasseri TSU3 and Lactobacillus animalis TSU4, respectively. Studies revealed that, Lactobacillus gasseri TSU3 and Lactobacillus animalis TSU4 are ideal probiotic candidates for its use in aquaculture and require further exploratory in vivo evaluation and safety studies. PMID:25634754

  7. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1, a probiotic bacterium producing exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Xia, Xiudong; Chen, Xiaohong; Rui, Xin; Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Qiuqin; Zhou, Jianzhong; Dong, Mingsheng

    2015-09-10

    Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1 is a probiotic bacterium producing exopolysaccharides (EPS), which was isolated from traditional Sayram ropy fermented milk in southern Xinjiang, China. The genome consists of a circular 2,084,058bp chromosome with no plasmid. The genome sequence indicated that this strain includes a 15.20kb gene cluster involved in EPS biosynthesis. Genome sequencing information has provided the basis for understanding the potential molecular mechanism behind the EPS production. PMID:26065338

  8. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus KLDS1.8701, a probiotic strain producing bacteriocin.

    PubMed

    Li, Bailiang; Liu, Fei; Tang, Yaru; Luo, Guangwen; Evivie, Smith; Zhang, Danqing; Wang, Nana; Li, Wan; Huo, Guicheng

    2015-10-20

    This study investigated the functional diversity of Lactobacillus helveticus KLDS1.8701 by carrying out a whole-genome sequence analyses of L. helveticus KLDS1.8701. L. helveticus KLDS1.8701 strain was isolated from traditional sour milk in Sinkiang of China with desirable probiotic properties. Here we report the complete genome sequence of this organism and its genetic basis for adhesion, exopolysaccharides (EPS) production, acid and bile tolerance, bacteriocin production and immune system against bacteriophage. PMID:26307172

  9. Probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus influences the blood profile in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, A; Kiron, V; Satoh, S; Watanabe, T

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports the effect of feeding probiotic diets on blood profiles in rainbow trout. Two experiments were performed: in the first, fish of average weight 75 g were offered either a commercial feed or the same incorporated with 10(9) CFU g(-1) of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus for 30 days; in the second study performed for a similar duration, fish of average weight 126 g were offered formulated diets that either contained the same bacteria in heat-killed or freeze-dried form (nearly 10(11) CFU g(-1)), or the basal diet without the bacteria. Blood samples were collected at different times after commencement of probiotic feeding to determine the total cholesterol, triglyceride contents, the plasma alkaline phosphatase activity, plasma protein and hematocrit value. The plasma cholesterol significantly increased upon probiotic feeding in the first experiment. A significant elevation (P<0.05) of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride and alkaline phosphatase activity level was found in the freeze-dried probiotic fed groups at 20 and 30 days postfeeding. This was concomitant with the increased plasma protein and hematocrit values in FD group at 20 and 30 days. Likewise, the heat-killed probiotic fed group registered significantly high values of triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase activity, and plasma protein compared to the control diet fed groups after 20 days of feeding. Thus, alterations in the blood profiles could serve as supplementary information when examining the benefits of probiotics for fish. PMID:20127411

  10. Probiotic Potential and Safety Properties of Lactobacillus plantarum from Slovak Bryndza Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Belicová, Anna; Mikulášová, Mária; Dušinský, Roman

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-five acid-resistant presumptive lactobacilli were isolated from Slovak Bryndza cheese and screened for their antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial pathogens using spot agar assay. Out of twenty-six Lactobacillus strains with strong inhibition activity, twenty were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and six as Lactobacillus fermentum. The most active eleven L. plantarum isolates were further characterized in vitro for some probiotic and safety properties. Only three isolates K10, K21, and ZS07 showed the ability to grow over 50% in the presence of 0.3% bile. Strong deconjugation efficiency was determined for CK06 and K21. The highest β-galactosidase activity was shown in isolates ZS11, B01, CK06, and ZS07. Only three of the strains had the ability to produce tyramine: CK06, LM1, and ZS11. Strains K09, K21, ZS11, and ZS15 were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. Analysis of the results confirmed the L. plantarum isolates ZS07 and K21 as the most suitable for probiotic use, due to their desirable probiotic and safety characteristics. PMID:24093103

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Sardinian Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Viale, Silvia; Conti, Stefania; Deplano, Maura; Melis, Maria Paola; Deiana, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%). All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong β-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products. PMID:25054135

  12. Preliminary evaluation of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Sardinian dairy products.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Viale, Silvia; Conti, Stefania; Fadda, Maria Elisabetta; Deplano, Maura; Melis, Maria Paola; Deiana, Monica; Cosentino, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%). All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong ?-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products. PMID:25054135

  13. Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V; Garg, R

    2009-01-01

    The term "probiotic" was first used in 1965, by Lilly and Stillwell, to describe substances secreted by one organism which stimulate the growth of another. The use of antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy and irradiation, amongst other means of treatment, may cause alterations in the composition and have an effect on the GIT flora. Therefore, the introduction of beneficial bacterial species to GI tract may be a very attractive option to re-establish the microbial equilibrium and prevent disease. Prebiotic is a non-digestible food ingredient that confers benefits on the host by selectively stimulating one bacterium or a group of bacteria in the colon with probiotic properties. Both probiotics and prebiotics are together called as Synbiotics. Various bacterial genera most commonly used in probiotic preparations are Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Escherichia, Enterococcus, Bacillus and Streptococcus . Some fungal strains belonging to Saccharomyces have also been used. Probiotics have been shown to be effective in varied clinical conditions- ranging from infantile diarrhoea, necrotizing enterocolitis, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, relapsing Clostridium difficle colitis, Helicobacter pylori infections, inflammatory bowel disease to cancer, female uro-genital infection and surgical infections. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has proven beneficial affects on intestinal immunity. It increases the number of IgA and other immunoglobulins secreting cells in the intestinal mucosa. It also stimulates local release of interferons. It facilitates antigen transport to underlying lymphoid cells, which serves to increase antigen uptake in Peyer's patches. Probiotics are live microorganisms, so it is possible that they may result in infection in the host. The risk and morbidity of sepsis due to probiotic bacteria should be weighed against the potential for sepsis due to more pathological bacteria and the morbidity of diseases for which probiotic bacteria are being used as therapeutic agents. Also, future, well-designed placebo controlled studies with validated results are required for ascertaining the true health benefits of probiotics The important point in this regard is careful selection of the probiotic agent, its dose standardization and a thorough knowledge of its beneficial effects. PMID:19584499

  14. Isolation and microencapsulation of Lactobacillus spp. from corn silage for probiotic application

    PubMed Central

    Kasra Kermanshahi, R; Fooladi, J; Peymanfar, S

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Probiotics including strains of Lactobacillus spp. are living microorganisms including which are beneficial to human and animals health. In this study, Lactobacillus has been isolated from corn silage in a cold region of Iran by anaerobic culture. Materials and Methods The bacteriological and biochemical standard methods were used for identification and phenotypic characterization of isolated organism. To increase the stability of organism in the environment, we used microencapsulation technique using stabilizer polymers (Alginate and Chitosan). Results The isolated Lactobacillus spp. was able to ferment tested carbohydrates and grow at 10C50C. Using microencapsulation, the stability and survival of this bacterium increased. Conclusion microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria with alginate and chitosan coating offers an effective way of delivering viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during refrigerated storage. PMID:22347557

  15. Development of antioxidant rich fruit supplemented probiotic yogurts using free and microencapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus culture.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the preparation of probiotic yogurt using Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The standard starter cultures used for yogurt fermentation were Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and obtained from NDRI, Karnal, India. The prepared yogurt was supplemented with fruit pulp (10 % w/v) of apricot, raspberries, plum and jamun. These fruits were rich in antioxidant property as observed by DPPH, nitric oxide radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay methods. The probiotic yogurt products were prepared using free, alginate (2 %) and carrageenan (2 %) encapsulated probiotic L. rhamnosus culture. The microencapsulated beads were characterized by FTIR and alginate beads with bacteria showed characteristic wavelength major at 1424 and 1033 nm. The acidity increased (0.40 ± 0-0.76 ± 0.01 %) and pH of yogurts decreased (4.63 ± 0.06 - 2.83 ± 0.03) during storage. Probiotic L. rhamnosus count decreased during storage and alginate microencapsulated probiotic culture was more stable (8.85 ± 0.01 - 4.35 ± 0.03 log CFU/g) as compared with carrageenan encapsulated (8.79 ± 0.01 -2.56 ± 0.04 log CFU/g) and free culture (8.90 ± 0.01 - 2.26 ± 0.03 log CFU/g). The antioxidant power of fruits supplemented probiotic yogurts decreased successively during storage up to 15 days. PMID:26787986

  16. Highly Heterogeneous Probiotic Lactobacillus Species in Healthy Iranians with Low Functional Activities

    PubMed Central

    Rohani, Mahdi; Noohi, Nasrin; Talebi, Malihe; Katouli, Mohammad; Pourshafie, Mohammad R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been considered as potentially probiotic organisms due to their potential human health properties. This study aimed to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo, the potential probiotic properties of Lactobacillus species isolated from fecal samples of healthy humans in Iran. Methods and Results A total of 470 LAB were initially isolated from 53 healthy individual and characterized to species level. Of these, 88 (86%) were Lactobacillus species. Biochemical and genetic fingerprinting with Phene-Plate system (PhP-LB) and RAPD-PCR showed that the isolates were highly diverse consisted of 67(76.1%) and 75 (85.2%) single types (STs) and a diversity indices of 0.994 and 0.997, respectively. These strains were tested for production of adhesion to Caco-2 cells, antibacterial activity, production of B12, anti-proliferative effect and interleukin-8 induction on gut epithelial cell lines and antibiotic resistance against 9 commonly used antibiotics. Strains showing the characteristics consistent with probiotic strains, were further tested for their anti-inflammatory effect in mouse colitis model. Only one L. brevis; one L. rhamnosus and two L. plantarum were shown to have significant probiotic properties. These strains showed shortening the length of colon compared to dextran sulfate sodium and disease activity index (DAI) was also significantly reduced in mouse. Conclusion Low number of LAB with potential probiotic activity as well as high diversity of lactobacilli species was evident in Iranian population. It also suggest that specific strains of L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. rhamnosus with anti-inflammatory effect in mouse model of colitis could be used as a potential probiotic candidate in inflammatory bowel disease to decrease the disease activity index. PMID:26645292

  17. Triglyceride-Lowering Effects of Two Probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 and Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601, in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Il-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Jeong, Ji-Woong; Lee, Dong Eun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Hong, Seong Soo; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2016-03-28

    The triglyceride-lowering effect of probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 and Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 were investigated. Male SD Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD and probiotics (5 X 10(9) CFU/day of L. plantarum KY1032 and 5 X 10(9) CFU/day of L. curvatus HY7601), or normal diet for 6 weeks. Probiotic treatment significantly lowered the elevated plasma triglyceride and increased plasma free fatty acid, glycerol, and plasma apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA-V) levels. The probiotic-treated group showed elevated hepatic mRNA expression of PPARα, bile acid receptor (FXR), and ApoA-V. These results demonstrate that L. plantarum KY1032 and L. curvatus HY7601 lower triglycerides in hypertriglyceridemic rats by upregulating ApoA-V, PPARα, and FXR. PMID:26699746

  18. Characterization of the most abundant Lactobacillus species in chicken gastrointestinal tract and potential use as probiotics for genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Fang, Mingjian; Hu, Yanping; Yang, Yuxin; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-01

    The count and diffusion of Lactobacilli species in the different gastrointestinal tract (GI) regions of broilers were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the probiotic characteristics of six L. reuteri species isolated from broilers' GI tract were also investigated to obtain the potential target for genetic engineering. Lactobacilli had the highest diversity in the crop and the lowest one in the cecum. Compared with the lower GI tract, more Lactobacilli were found in the upper GI tract. Lactobacillus reuteri, L. johnsonii, L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. salivarius, and L. aviarius were the predominant Lactobacillus species and present throughout the GI tract of chickens. Lactobacillus reuteri was the most abundant Lactobacillus species. Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 had good probiotic characteristics that would be a potential and desirable target for genetic engineering. PMID:24850302

  19. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention on global serum lipidomic profiles in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kekkonen, Riina A; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Seppnen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Julkunen, Ilkka; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Orei?, Matej; Korpela, Riitta

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of three weeks intervention with a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) bacteria on global serum lipidomic profiles and evaluate whether the changes in inflammatory variables (CRP, TNF-? and IL-6) are reflected in the global lipidomic profiles of healthy adults. METHODS: We performed UPLC/MS-based global lipidomic platform analysis of serum samples (n = 26) in a substudy of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled 3-wk clinical intervention trial investigating the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in healthy adults. RESULTS: A total of 407 lipids were identified, corresponding to 13 different lipid classes. Serum samples showed decreases in the levels of lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoGPCho), sphingomyelins (SM) and several glycerophosphatidylcholines (GPCho), while triacylglycerols (TAG) were mainly increased in the probiotic LGG group during the intervention. Among the inflammatory variables, IL-6 was moderately associated by changes in global lipidomic profiles, with the top-ranked lipid associated with IL-6 being the proinflammatory LysoGPCho (20:4). There was a weak association between the lipidomic profiles and the two other inflammatory markers, TNF-? and CRP. CONCLUSION: This was the first study to investigate the effects of probiotic intervention on global lipidomic profiles in humans. There are indications that probiotic LGG intervention may lead to changes in serum global lipid profiles, as reflected in decreased GPCho, LysoGPCho and SM as well as mainly increased TAG. PMID:18506924

  20. Optimisation of oat milk formulation to obtain fermented derivatives by using probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bernat, N; Cháfer, M; González-Martínez, C; Rodríguez-García, J; Chiralt, A

    2015-03-01

    Functional advantages of probiotics combined with interesting composition of oat were considered as an alternative to dairy products. In this study, fermentation of oat milk with Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus was analysed to develop a new probiotic product. Central composite design with response surface methodology was used to analyse the effect of different factors (glucose, fructose, inulin and starters) on the probiotic population in the product. Optimised formulation was characterised throughout storage time at 4 ℃ in terms of pH, acidity, β-glucan and oligosaccharides contents, colour and rheological behaviour. All formulations studied were adequate to produce fermented foods and minimum dose of each factor was considered as optimum. The selected formulation allowed starters survival above 10(7)/cfu ml to be considered as a functional food and was maintained during the 28 days controlled. β-glucans remained in the final product with a positive effect on viscosity. Therefore, a new probiotic non-dairy milk was successfully developed in which high probiotic survivals were assured throughout the typical yoghurt-like shelf life. PMID:24464238

  1. Effect of Probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus on Citrobacter rodentium Colitis: The Role of Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, CHIEN-CHANG; CHIU, CHENG-HSUN; LIN, TZOU-YIEN; SHI, HAI NING; WALKER, W. ALLAN

    2011-01-01

    Modulation of the intestinal immune response early in life by administration of probiotic bacteria may be an effective strategy for preventing or attenuating infectious diarrhea. We preinoculated the mice early in life with the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (La) at age 2 wk. Dendritic cells (DCs) were collected and purified from mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleens of the BalbC/ByJ mice. DC isolation and adoptive transfer was used to examine the function of probiotics. We demonstrated that when mice were adoptively transferred with La-primed DCs (t-LaDC) instead of oral consumption with La, there was a similar effect on fecal bacteria counts, IgA levels, and colonic histopathology, as well as cytokine levels in MLN when there was intestinal bacterial infection. The above findings suggest that DCs play a key role in probiotics attenuating Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) colitis. Moreover, the location of La-primed DC hints that there is interaction of DCs and T cells in the digestive system of the host. Up-regulated expression of a surface marker on DCs indicated that inoculation with probiotics will stimulate the function of DCs, thereby further increasing immune response triggered by DC. PMID:19262293

  2. Well-controlled proinflammatory cytokine responses of Peyer’s patch cells to probiotic Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Yukihide; Shida, Kan; Nagata, Satoru; Wada, Mariko; Bian, Lei; Wang, Chongxin; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Kiyoshima-Shibata, Junko; Nanno, Msanobu; Nomoto, Koji

    2010-01-01

    In order to clarify the probiotic features of immunomodulation, cytokine production by murine spleen and Peyer’s patch (PP) cells was examined in response to probiotic and pathogenic bacteria. In spleen cells, probiotic Lactobacillus casei induced interleukin (IL)-12 production by CD11b+ cells more strongly than pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and effectively promoted the development of T helper (Th) type 1 cells followed by high levels of secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ. Although the levels of IL-12 secreted by PP cells in response to L. casei were lower in comparison with spleen cells, Th1 cells developed as a result of this low-level induction of IL-12. However, IFN-γ secretion by the L. casei-induced Th1 cells stimulated with a specific antigen was down-regulated in PP cells. Development of IL-17-producing Th17 cells was efficiently induced in PP cells by antigen stimulation. Lactobacillus casei slightly, but significantly, inhibited the antigen-induced secretion of IL-17 without a decrease in the proportion of Th17 cells. No bacteria tested induced the development of IL-10-producing, transforming growth factor-β-producing or Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells, thus suggesting that certain probiotics might regulate proinflammatory responses through as yet unidentified mechanisms in PP cells. These data show probiotic L. casei to have considerable potential to induce IL-12 production and promote Th1 cell development, but the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 and IL-17 may be well controlled in PP cells. PMID:20636824

  3. Functional and Probiotic Attributes of an Indigenous Isolate of Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Jai K.; Kumar, Ashutosh; Duary, Raj K.; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Probiotic microorganisms favorably alter the intestinal microflora balance, promote intestinal integrity and mobility, inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria and increase resistance to infection. Probiotics are increasingly used in nutraceuticals, functional foods or in microbial interference treatment. However, the effectiveness of probiotic organism is considered to be population-specific due to variation in gut microflora, food habits and specific host-microbial interactions. Most of the probiotic strains available in the market are of western or European origin, and a strong need for exploring new indigenous probiotic organisms is felt. Methods and Findings An indigenous isolate Lp9 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by molecular-typing methods was studied extensively for its functional and probiotic attributes, viz., acid and bile salt tolerance, cell surface hydrophobicity, autoaggregation and Caco-2 cell-binding as well as antibacterial and antioxidative activities. Lp9 isolate could survive 2 h incubation at pH 1.5–2.0 and toxicity of 1.5–2.0% oxgall bile. Lp9 could deconjugate major bile salts like glycocholate and deoxytaurocholate, indicating its potential to cause hypocholesterolemia. The isolate exhibited cell-surface hydrophobicity of ∼37% and autoaggregation of ∼31%. Presence of putative probiotic marker genes like mucus-binding protein (mub), fibronectin-binding protein (fbp) and bile salt hydrolase (bsh) were confirmed by PCR. Presence of these genes suggested the possibility of specific interaction and colonization potential of Lp9 isolate in the gut, which was also suggested by a good adhesion ratio of 7.4±1.3% with Caco-2 cell line. The isolate demonstrated higher free radical scavenging activity than standard probiotics L. johnsonii LA1 and L. acidophilus LA7. Lp9 also exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli, L. monocytogenes, S. typhi, S. aureus and B. cereus. Conclusion The indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum Lp9 exhibited high resistance against low pH and bile and possessed antibacterial, antioxidative and cholesterol lowering properties with a potential for exploitation in the development of indigenous functional food or nutraceuticals. PMID:19956615

  4. Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains.

    PubMed

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147

  5. Detection and Identification of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Strains by Multiplex PCR Using RAPD-Derived Primers.

    PubMed

    Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Chorianopoulos, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum 2035 and Lactobacillus plantarum ACA-DC 2640 are two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that have been isolated from Feta cheese. Both display significant potential for the production of novel probiotic food products. The aim of the present study was the development of an accurate and efficient method for the molecular detection and identification of the above strains in a single reaction. A multiplex PCR assay was designed for each strain, based on specific primers derived from Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Sequenced Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) analysis. The specificity of the assay was tested with a total of 23 different LAB strains, for L. plantarum 2035 and L. plantarum ACA-DC 2640. The multiplex PCR assay was also successfully applied for the detection of the above cultures in yogurt samples prepared in our lab. The proposed methodology may be applied for monitoring the presence of these strains in food products, thus evaluating their probiotic character. Moreover, our strategy may be adapted for other novel LAB strains with probiotic potential, thus providing a powerful tool for molecular discrimination that could be invaluable to the food industry. PMID:26506345

  6. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antimicrobial Activity against Some Human Pathogenic Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147

  7. Detection and Identification of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Strains by Multiplex PCR Using RAPD-Derived Primers

    PubMed Central

    Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Tassou, Chrysoula C.; Chorianopoulos, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum 2035 and Lactobacillus plantarum ACA-DC 2640 are two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that have been isolated from Feta cheese. Both display significant potential for the production of novel probiotic food products. The aim of the present study was the development of an accurate and efficient method for the molecular detection and identification of the above strains in a single reaction. A multiplex PCR assay was designed for each strain, based on specific primers derived from Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Sequenced Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) analysis. The specificity of the assay was tested with a total of 23 different LAB strains, for L. plantarum 2035 and L. plantarum ACA-DC 2640. The multiplex PCR assay was also successfully applied for the detection of the above cultures in yogurt samples prepared in our lab. The proposed methodology may be applied for monitoring the presence of these strains in food products, thus evaluating their probiotic character. Moreover, our strategy may be adapted for other novel LAB strains with probiotic potential, thus providing a powerful tool for molecular discrimination that could be invaluable to the food industry. PMID:26506345

  8. Colicin E2 Expression in Lactobacillus brevis DT24, A Vaginal Probiotic Isolate, against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Disha; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to combat the urinary tract infection in women. During menstruation elevated protein concentration and increase in oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations with decrease in vaginal Lactobacilli all together contribute to urinary tract infections. Lactobacillus species are a predominant member of the vaginal microflora and are critical in the prevention of a number of urogenital diseases. In order to increase antimicrobial potential of vaginal Lactobacilli, bacteriocin colicin E2 which has specific activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli has been overexpressed in vaginal probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24. Recombinant Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 showed much higher inhibitory activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli than wild type L. brevis DT24 in vitro. Efficacy of probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 protein is required for further in vivo evaluation. PMID:24649377

  9. Probiotic attributes of Lactobacillus fermentum isolated from human feces and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Archer, Ann Catherine; Halami, Prakash M

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize native Lactobacillus fermentum isolates for their probiotic attributes. Accordingly, 12 L. fermentum isolates selected from indigenous fermented dairy products and infant fecal samples were evaluated for their probiotic properties by in vitro and PCR methods. The cultures exhibited high tolerance to acid and bile as well as survival in simulated transit fluids (above 70 %). Cell surface hydrophobicity was in the range of 0.55-57.69 % for xylene and 0.45-77.12 % for hexadecane, whereas auto-aggregation ranged between 9 and 62 %. Isolates exhibited efficient binding to mucin and fibronectin, bile salt hydrolase activity, cholesterol assimilation (49-76 %), and radical scavenging activity (37-77 %). The isolates demonstrated antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341. Molecular fingerprinting and identification of the isolates were achieved by PCR with GTG5 as well as 16S rRNA, phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase alpha subunit (pheS), and RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) genes. This revealed the genomic diversity of the isolates from the two sources. Gene-specific amplification of probiotic marker genes was attained by PCR-based methods, and resultant products were sequenced. Multiple sequence alignment of the probiotic marker genes using bioinformatics revealed similarity to completely sequenced genomes of L. fermentum CECT 5716 and IFO 3956 with a few variations in mucin-binding protein gene sequences. Isolates designated as L. fermentum MCC 2759 and L. fermentum MCC 2760 showed the best probiotic attributes with high survival in simulated gastrointestinal fluids, in vitro adhesion, cholesterol reduction, and high antioxidative potential. Thus, these cultures could be potential probiotic candidates for application as functional foods. PMID:26004804

  10. In vitro importance of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum related to medical field

    PubMed Central

    Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Choi, Ki Choon; Srigopalram, Srisesharam

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a Gram positive lactic acid bacterium commonly found in fermented food and in the gastro intestinal tract and is commonly used in the food industry as a potential starter probiotic. Recently, the consumption of food together with probiotics has tremendously increased. Among the lactic acid bacteria, L. plantarum attracted many researchers because of its wide applications in the medical field with antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anti-obesity and antidiabetic properties. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro importance of L. plantarum toward medical applications. Moreover, this report short listed various reports related to the applications of this promising strain. In conclusion, this study would attract the researchers in commercializing this strain toward the welfare of humans related to medical needs. PMID:26858567

  11. Role of probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum KKL1 in the preparation of a rice based fermented beverage.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kuntal; Ray, Mousumi; Adak, Atanu; Halder, Suman K; Das, Arpan; Jana, Arijit; Parua Mondal, Saswati; Vgvlgyi, Csaba; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep K; Pati, Bikas R; Mondal, Keshab C

    2015-01-01

    A dominant lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum KKL1 was isolated from an Indian rice based fermented beverage and its fermentative behavior on rice was evaluated. The isolate grown well in rice and decreased the pH, with an increase of total titratable acidity on account of high yield in lactic acid and acetic acid. The production of ?-amylase and glucoamylase by the strain reached plateau on 1st and 2nd day of fermentation respectively. The accumulation of malto-oligosaccharides of different degrees of polymerization was also found highest on 4th day. Besides, phytase activity along with accumulation of free minerals also unremittingly increased throughout the fermentation. The fermented materials showed free radical scavenging activity against DPPH radicals. In-vitro characteristics revealed the suitability of the isolate as probiotic organism. The above profiling revealed that probiotic L. fermentum KKL1 have the significant impact in preparation of rice beer and improves its functional characteristics. PMID:25693452

  12. Distinct adhesion of probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 to rat intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Saxami, Georgia; Ypsilantis, Petros; Sidira, Marianthi; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Galanis, Alex

    2012-08-01

    Adhesion to the intestine represents a critical parameter for probiotic action. In this study, the adhesion ability of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 to the gastrointestinal tract of Wistar rats was examined after single and daily administration of fermented milk containing either free or immobilized cells on apple pieces. The adhesion of the probiotic cells at the large intestine (cecum and colon) was recorded at levels ≥6 logCFU/g (suggested minimum levels for conferring a probiotic effect) following daily administration for 7 days by combining microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis. Single dose administration resulted in slightly reduced counts (5 logCFU/g), while they were lower at the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) (≤3 logCFU/g), indicating that adhesion was a targeted process. Of note, the levels of L. casei ATCC 393 were enhanced in the cecal and colon fluids both at single and daily administration of immobilized cells (6 and 7 logCFU/g, respectively). The adhesion of the GI tract was transient and thus daily consumption of probiotic products containing the specific strain is suggested as an important prerequisite for retaining its levels at an effective concentration. PMID:22554894

  13. Histamine H2 Receptor-Mediated Suppression of Intestinal Inflammation by Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chunxu; Major, Angela; Rendon, David; Lugo, Monica; Jackson, Vanessa; Shi, Zhongcheng; Mori-Akiyama, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Probiotics and commensal intestinal microbes suppress mammalian cytokine production and intestinal inflammation in various experimental model systems. Limited information exists regarding potential mechanisms of probiotic-mediated immunomodulation in vivo. In this report, we demonstrate that specific probiotic strains of Lactobacillus reuteri suppress intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse colitis model. Only strains that possess the hdc gene cluster, including the histidine decarboxylase and histidine-histamine antiporter genes, can suppress colitis and mucosal cytokine (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and IL-1β in the colon) gene expression. Suppression of acute colitis in mice was documented by diminished weight loss, colonic injury, serum amyloid A (SAA) protein concentrations, and reduced uptake of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) in the colon by positron emission tomography (PET). The ability of probiotic L. reuteri to suppress colitis depends on the presence of a bacterial histidine decarboxylase gene(s) in the intestinal microbiome, consumption of a histidine-containing diet, and signaling via the histamine H2 receptor (H2R). Collectively, luminal conversion of l-histidine to histamine by hdc+ L. reuteri activates H2R, and H2R signaling results in suppression of acute inflammation within the mouse colon. PMID:26670383

  14. Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.

    PubMed

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2014-04-01

    The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened invitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0logCFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L.pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L.plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L.pentosus B281 also dominated over L.plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives. PMID:24290645

  15. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus heilongjiangensis DSM 28069(T): Insight into its probiotic potential.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Beiwen; Jiang, Xiawei; Cheng, Hong; Xu, Zemin; Li, Ang; Hu, Xinjun; Xiao, Yonghong

    2015-12-20

    Lactobacillus heilongjiangensis DSM 28069(T) is a potential probiotic isolated from traditional Chinese pickle. Here we report the complete genome sequence of this strain. The complete genome is 2,790,548bp with the GC content of 37.5% and devoid of plasmids. Sets of genes involved in the biosynthesis of riboflavin and folate were identified in the genome, which revealed its potential application in biotechnological industry. The genome sequence of L. heilongjiangensis DSM 28069(T) now provides the fundamental information for future studies. PMID:26432337

  16. Lactobacillus crustorum KH: novel prospective probiotic strain isolated from Iranian traditional dairy products.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Hakimeh; Derakhshan, Venos; Paknejad, Mojgan; Alidoust, Leila; Tohidi, Azadeh; Pornour, Majid; Hajfarajollah, Hamidreza; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, exploring novel probiotic strains for therapeutic intervention has been raised due to the significant increase in market demand. This study aimed to investigate the certain probiotic properties of 15 Lactobacillus isolates from Iranian traditional dairy products. Among them, a novel potential probiotic strain was isolated and identified as Lactobacillus crustorum. The characteristics of potential probiotics were examined in terms of resistance to acidity, bile, and salinity as well as antibiotic tolerance and antibacterial activity. L. crustorum KH has shown tolerance property to bile (0.3 % w), acidity (pH 2-9), and salinity (1-5 % NaCl) and strong antibacterial activity against tested enteropathogens by well-diffusion assay. Furthermore, in vivo study and histological assays were performed to study whether live and heat-killed cells of L. crustorum KH are able to protect against the challenge of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the gastrointestinal tract of mice used as an experimental model. Therefore, heat-killed and live cells of L. crustorum KH were inoculated by gavage to different groups of 4-6-week-old female BALB/c mice in doses of 10(8) colony-forming unit (CFU)/dose. Thereafter, these mice were challenged with E. coli O157:H7 also inoculated in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the animals. The results showed that heat-killed cells of L. crustorum KH exert a protective effect against E. coli O157:H7 colonization at different degrees, being lower than that produced by viable cells. PMID:25467945

  17. Probiotic features of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Ragusano and Pecorino Siciliano cheeses.

    PubMed

    Caggia, C; De Angelis, M; Pitino, I; Pino, A; Randazzo, C L

    2015-09-01

    In the present study 177 Lactobacillus spp. strains, isolated from Ragusano and Pecorino Siciliano cheeses, were in vitro screened for probiotic traits, and their characteristics were compared to those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, commercial strain. Based on acidic and bile salt resistance, thirteen Lactobacillus strains were selected. The multiplex-PCR application revealed that nine strains belonged to L. rhamnosus species and four to Lactobacillus paracasei species. All selected strains were further investigated for transit tolerance in simulated upper gastrointestinal tract (GI), for adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines, for hydrophobicity, for co-aggregation and auto-aggregation and for antimicrobial activities. Moreover, antibiotic resistance, hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities were investigated for safety assessment. Viable counts after simulated gastric and duodenal transit revealed that overall the selected lactobacilli tolerated better pancreatic juice and bile salts than acidic juice. In particular, three L. rhamnosus strains (FS10, FS2, and PS11) and one L. paracasei strain (PM8) increased their cell density after the simulated GI transit. The same strains showed also high percentage of auto-aggregation and co-aggregation with Escherichia coli. All strains were effective against both Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli and variability was achieved versus Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis used as pathogenic indicator strains. Different behavior was revealed by strains for adhesion ability and hydrophobicity, which are not always linked each other and are strongly strain-dependent. From the safety point of view, no isolate showed hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities, except one, and most of the strains were sensitive to a broad range of clinical antibiotics. This work showed that the L. rhamnosus FS10 and the L. paracasei PM8 are good promising probiotic candidates for further in vivo investigations. PMID:25998823

  18. In vitro probiotic properties of Lactobacillus fermentum SK5 isolated from vagina of a healthy woman.

    PubMed

    Kaewnopparat, Sanae; Dangmanee, Nattakan; Kaewnopparat, Nattha; Srichana, Teerapol; Chulasiri, Malyn; Settharaksa, Sukanya

    2013-08-01

    A lactobacillus strain isolated from a vaginal tract of a healthy woman was examined invitro for its probiotic potential. This strain, identified as Lactobacillus fermentum SK5, was able to survive at pH 3-4 and 0.1-0.2% bile, and unaffected by pepsin (3gl(-1)) and pancreatin (1gl(-1)), but was susceptible to all tested antibiotics except metronidazole. L.fermentum SK5 had an antimicrobial potential against gastrointestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli and vaginal pathogenic Gardnerella vaginalis. The effective substance was suspected to be a bacteriocin-like compound with a molecular weight of more than 10kDa, but hydrogen peroxide was also detected. Further studies revealed that L.fermentum SK5 had good autoaggregation characteristic and a high surface hydrophobicity that enhanced its adhesion ability to epithelial cells and for biofilm formation. This lactobacillus showed coaggregation with E.coli and G.vaginalis to affect their adhesion and colonization. The adhesion of L.fermentum SK5 to HeLa, HT-29 and Caco-2 cells and its inhibition of E.coli and G.vaginalis adherence to these cells were demonstrated. These incidences provided evidence of the possible colonization of L.fermentum SK5 that would prevent binding and growth of E.coli and G.vaginalis onto intestinal and vaginal epithelial cells. On the basis of the ability of L.fermentum SK5 to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms through coaggregation and antimicrobial substances, it is likely that this lactobacillus strain could be a potential probiotic candidate for beneficial use in protecting against gastrointestinal and vaginal microbial infections. PMID:23624069

  19. Probiotic potential of lactobacillus strains isolated from sorghum-based traditional fermented food.

    PubMed

    Rao, K Poornachandra; Chennappa, G; Suraj, U; Nagaraja, H; Raj, A P Charith; Sreenivasa, M Y

    2015-06-01

    Sorghum-based traditional fermented food was screened for potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates were identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species identification was done by 16s rRNA sequence analysis. The functional probiotic potential of the two Lactobacillus species viz., Lactobacillus plantarum (Lact. plantarum) and Lactobacillus pentosus (Lact. pentosus) was assessed by different standard parameters. The strains were tolerant to pH 2 for 1 h and resistant to methicillin, kanamycin, vancomycin and norfloxacin. Two (Lact. plantarum COORG-3 and Lact. pentosus COORG-8) out of eight isolates recorded the cell surface hydrophobicity to be 59.12 and 64.06%, respectively. All the strains showed tolerance to artificial duodenum juice (pH 2) for 3 h, positive for bile salt hydrolase test and negative for haemolytic test. The neutralized cell-free supernatant of the strains Lact. pentosus COORG-4, Lact. plantarum COORG-1, Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-8 and Lact. plantarum COORG-3 showed good antibiofilm activity. Lact. pentosus COORG-8 exhibited 74% activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-MTCC 7903 and Lact. plantarum COORG-7 showed 68% inhibition of biofilm against Klebsiella pneumonia MTCC 7407. Three (Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-5 and Lact. pentosus COORG 8) out of eight isolates exhibited a good antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and five isolates (Lact. pentosus COORG 2, Lact. plantarum COORG 1, Lact. plantarum COORG 4, Lact. pentosus COORG 3 and Lact. plantarum COORG 6) are active against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis. The study also evaluated the cholesterol lowering property of the Lactobacillus strains using hen egg yolk as the cholesterol source. The cholesterol in hen egg yolk was assimilated by 74.12 and 68.26% by Lact. plantarum COORG 4 and Lact. pentosus COORG 7, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that the Lactobacillus strains isolated and characterized from sorghum-based fermented product may be used as probiotic strains for therapeutic applications. PMID:25666113

  20. Effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus on the expression of genes involved in European eel spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, M Carmen; Santangeli, Stefania; Maradonna, Francesca; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Verdenelli, Cristina; Gallego, Victor; Peñaranda, David S; Tveiten, Helge; Pérez, Luz; Carnevali, Oliana; Asturiano, Juan F

    2015-11-01

    Positive effects of probiotics on fish reproduction have been reported in several species. In the present study, 40 male European eels were weekly treated with recombinant hCG for 9 weeks and with three different concentrations (10(3), 10(5), and 10(6) CFU/mL) of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 (Sinbyotec, Italy). The probiotics were daily added to the water from the sixth week of the hCG treatment. Males from the treated and control groups were sacrificed after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of probiotic treatment (seventh-ninth weeks of hCG treatment); at this point, sperm and testis samples were also collected. Sperm volume was estimated, and motility was analyzed by computer-assisted sperm analysis software. Alternations in transcription of specific genes involved in reproductive process such as activin, androgen receptors α and β (arα and arβ), progesterone receptor 1 (pr1), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (bmp15), and FSH receptor (fshr) were analyzed in the testis. After 2 weeks of probiotic treatment, sperm production and sperm motility parameters (percentage of motile cells and percentage of straight-swimming spermatozoa) were increased in the European eel treated with 10(5) CFU/mL compared to controls or to the other probiotic doses. These changes were associated with increases in messenger RNA expression of activin, arα, arβ, pr1, and fshr. Conversely, after 3 weeks, activin and pr1 expression decreased. No significant changes were observed on bmp15 expression throughout the duration of the treatment with 10(5) CFU/mL dose. The lowest and highest probiotic dose (10(3) and 10(6) CFU/mL, respectively) inhibited the transcription of all genes along all the experiment, except for arα and arβ after 1 week of probiotic treatment when compared to controls. The changes observed by transcriptomic analysis and the sperm parameters suggest that a treatment with L rhamnosus at 10(5) CFU/mL for 2 weeks could improve spermatogenesis process in Anguilla anguilla. PMID:26271165

  1. Dose-Dependent Immunomodulation of Human Dendritic Cells by the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35

    PubMed Central

    Dosgilbert, Annie; Charbonnel, Nicolas; Alamé, Josette; Tridon, Arlette; Forestier, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    The response of the immune system to probiotics remains controversial. Some strains modulate the cytokine production of dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and induce a regulatory response, while others induce conversely a pro-inflammatory response. These strain-dependent effects are thought to be linked to specific interactions between bacteria and pattern recognition receptors. We investigated the effects of a well characterized probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35, on human monocyte-derived immature DCs, using a wide range of bacterial concentrations (multiplicity of infection, MOI, from 0.01 to 100). DNA microarray and qRT-PCR analysis showed that the probiotic induced a large-scale change in gene expression (nearly 1,700 modulated genes, with 3-fold changes), but only with high doses (MOI, 100). The upregulated genes were mainly involved in immune response and identified a molecular signature of inflammation according to the model of Torri. Flow cytometry analysis also revealed a dose-dependent maturation of the DC membrane phenotype, until DCs reached a semi-mature state, with an upregulation of the membrane expression of CD86, CD83, HLA-DR and TLR4, associated with a down-regulation of DC-SIGN, MR and CD14. Measurement of the DC-secreted cytokines showed that Lcr35 induced a strong dose-dependent increase of the pro-Th1/Th17 cytokine levels (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12p70, IL-12p40 and IL-23), but only a low increase in IL-10 concentration. The probiotic L. rhamnosus Lcr35 therefore induce a dose-dependent immunomodulation of human DCs leading, at high doses, to the semi-maturation of the cells and to a strong pro-inflammatory effect. These results contribute to a fuller understanding of the mechanism of action of this probiotic, and thus of its potential clinical indications in the treatment of either infectious or IgE-dependent allergic diseases. PMID:21533162

  2. Monitoring survival of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 in probiotic yogurts using an efficient molecular tool.

    PubMed

    Sidira, Marianthi; Saxami, Georgia; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Santarmaki, Valentini; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the survival of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 during refrigerated storage of natural regular yogurts compared with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. Both free and immobilized cells on supports of high industrial interest, such as fruits and oat pieces, were tested. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis showed that both free and immobilized Lb. casei ATCC 393 were detected in the novel products at levels required to confer a probiotic effect (at least 6 log cfu/g) for longer periods than required by the dairy industry (≥ 30 d) during storage at 4°C. In contrast, the viable bacterial density of Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus decreased to levels <6 log cfu/g after 14 d of cold storage. Of note, the final pH of all products was 4.2 to 4.3. Acid resistance or cold tolerance of Lb. casei ATCC 393 apparently allows for increased survival compared with Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus in these yogurt formulations. PMID:23498002

  3. Annotated Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus pentosusMP-10, Which Has Probiotic Potential, from Naturally Fermented Alorea Green Table Olives?

    PubMed Central

    Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Prez Pulido, Rubn; Caamero, Magdalena Martnez; Glvez, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus pentosusMP-10 was isolated from brines of naturally fermented Alorea green table olives. MP-10 has potential probiotic traits, including inhibition of human pathogenic bacteria, survival at low pH (1.5), and bile salt tolerance (3%). Here, we report for the first time the annotated genome sequence of L. pentosus. PMID:21705590

  4. Effect of a Selected Lactobacillus spp-Based Probiotic on Salmonella Serovar Enteritidis-Infected Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of a Lactobacillus-based probiotic (FM-B11**TM) on Salmonella recovery was evaluated in liquid (Exp. 1) and lyophilized (Exp. 2) forms in two separate experiments with two trials each. For each trial, eighty broiler chicks were randomly allocated into two treatments: control and probioti...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. HFC8, Isolated from Human Gut Using PacBio SMRT Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Madhu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a 3.07-Mb complete genome sequence of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. HFC8. The gene-coding clusters are predicated for probiotic characteristics, like bacteriocin production, cell adhesion, bile salt hydrolysis, lactose metabolism, autoaggregation, and tolerance to oxidative stress. PMID:26586884

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. HFC8, Isolated from Human Gut Using PacBio SMRT Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Madhu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    We report a 3.07-Mb complete genome sequence of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. HFC8. The gene-coding clusters are predicated for probiotic characteristics, like bacteriocin production, cell adhesion, bile salt hydrolysis, lactose metabolism, autoaggregation, and tolerance to oxidative stress. PMID:26586884

  7. Lactobacillus plantarum strains as potential probiotic cultures with cholesterol-lowering activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Wang, Xiaojun; Wang, Jinfeng; Wu, Fei; Sui, Yujie; Yang, Longfei; Wang, Zonggui

    2013-05-01

    Elevated blood cholesterol is an important risk factor associated with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The search for mediators that fine-tune cholesterol homeostasis has revealed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to be potentially beneficial. The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize probiotic strains with bile salt hydrolase activity from kefir grains and evaluate their potential use as cholesterol-reducing probiotics in rats. Two isolates, Lp09 and Lp45, obtained from kefir grains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum via molecular typing methods. Lactobacillus plantarum Lp09 and Lp45 exhibited excellent tolerance to low pH levels and high bile salt concentrations and showed potential bile salt hydrolase activity, bile salt deconjugation activity, and cholesterol coprecipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of Lb. plantarum Lp09 and Lp45 on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats in 3 treatment groups were fed different experimental diets: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus Lb. plantarum Lp09, or a high-cholesterol diet plus Lb. plantarum Lp45 for 4 wk. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in serum as well as cholesterol and triglyceride levels in liver were significantly decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. Also, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly increased after LAB administration. No significant changes were detected in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. These results suggest that the Lb. plantarum Lp09 and Lp45 strains present the potential to be explored as probiotic agents for the management of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:23498020

  8. Effect of Low Shear Modeled Microgravity (LSMMG) on the Probiotic Lactobacillus Acidophilus ATCC 4356

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, S.; Voorhies, A.; Lorenzi, H.; Castro-Wallace, S.; Douglas, G.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) probiotic microbes into the spaceflight food system has the potential for use as a safe, non-invasive, daily countermeasure to crew microbiome and immune dysregulation. However, the microgravity effects on the stress tolerances and genetic expression of probiotic bacteria must be determined to confirm translation of strain benefits and to identify potential for optimization of growth, survival, and strain selection for spaceflight. The work presented here demonstrates the translation of characteristics of a GRAS probiotic bacteria to a microgravity analog environment. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was grown in the low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) orientation and the control orientation in the rotating wall vessel (RWV) to determine the effect of LSMMG on the growth, survival through stress challenge, and gene expression of the strain. No differences were observed between the LSMMG and control grown L. acidophilus, suggesting that the strain will behave similarly in spaceflight and may be expected to confer Earth-based benefits.

  9. Cracking Streptococcus thermophilus to stimulate the growth of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei in co-culture.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chengjie; Ma, Aimin; Gong, Guangyu; Liu, Zhenmin; Wu, Zhengjun; Guo, Benheng; Chen, Zhengjun

    2015-10-01

    Lactobacillus casei, a probiotic, and Streptococcus thermophilus, a fast acidifying lactic acid bacterial strain, are both used in the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between L. casei and S. thermophilus in the presence or absence of S. thermophilus-specific bacteriophage during milk fermentation. The acidification capability of L. casei co-cultured with S. thermophilus was significantly higher than that observed for L. casei or S. thermophilus cultured alone. However, the probiotic content (i.e., L. casei cell viability) was low. The fastest acidification and the highest viable L. casei cell count were observed in co-cultures of L. casei and S. thermophilus with S. thermophilus phage. In these co-cultures, S. thermophilus compensated for the slow acid production of L. casei in the early exponential growth phase. Thereafter, phage-induced lysis of the S. thermophilus cells eliminated the competition for nutrients, allowing L. casei to grow well. Additionally, the ruptured S. thermophilus cells released intracellular factors, which further promoted the growth and function of the probiotic bacteria. Crude cellular extract isolated from S. thermophilus also significantly accelerated the growth and propagation of L. casei, supporting the stimulatory role of the phage on this micro-ecosystem. PMID:26093989

  10. Potential probiotic characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Inner Mongolia "Hurood" cheese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Yujuan; Niu, Chunhua; Yang, Zhennai; Li, Shengyu

    2014-02-28

    Total 121 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from homemade Inner Mongolia extra hard Hurood cheese. Seven of these strains, identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, were studied for probiotic characteristics. All seven strains survived at pH 3.0 for 3 h, or in the presence of oxgall at 0.3% or 0.6% for 4 h, but their viabilities were affected to different extents at pH 2.0 for 3 h. Strains C37 and C51 showed better adherence to Caco-2 cells, and higher hydrophobicity. The seven L. plantarum strains were different in in vitro free radical scavenging activities and cholesterolreducing ability. In vivo evaluation of the influence of L. plantarum C37 on the intestinal flora in a mouse model showed strain C37 could increase the viable counts of lactobacilli in feces of mice and decrease the viable counts of enterococci. When L. plantarum C37 was used to prepare probiotic Hurood cheese, it was able to maintain high viable counts (>7.8 log CFU/g) during the whole storage period, but the composition of the cheese was not changed. These results indicate that L. plantarum C37 could be considered as a promising probiotic strain. PMID:24225370

  11. Suitability of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotics intended for fruit juices containing citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Maddalena, Lucia; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2013-11-01

    A strain of Lactobacillus plantarum and 4 strains of bifidobacteria were inoculated in apple juice and in a commercial beverage labeled as "red-fruit juice," containing citrus extracts as natural preservatives; the suitability of the probiotics was evaluated in relation to their resistance to 2 kinds of citrus extracts (biocitro and lemon extract), survival in juices at 4 and 37 C, and inhibition of Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Cell count of L. plantarum and bifidobacteria over time was fitted through the Weibull equation, for the evaluation of the first reduction time (?), death time, and microbiological shelf life (the break-point was set to 7 log cfu/mL). Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis experienced the highest ?-value (23.21 d) and death time (96.59 d) in the red-fruit juice at 4 C, whereas L. plantarum was the most promising strain in apple juice at 37 C. Biocitro and lemon extract did not exert a biocidal effect toward probiotics; moreover, the probiotics controlled the growth of Z. bailii and the combination of L. plantarum with 40 ppm of biocitro reduced the level of the yeast after 18 d by 2 log cfu/mL. PMID:24245895

  12. In vitro probiotic characterization of Lactobacillus strains from fermented radish and their anti-adherence activity against enteric pathogens.

    PubMed

    Damodharan, Karthiyaini; Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from fermented radish. All the strains survived the simulated oro-gastrointestinal transit condition and showed significantly higher adherence to Caco-2 cells compared with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The strains showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, autoaggregation, and coaggregation capacity with pathogens. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus strains inhibited the adherence of Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica, Shigella boydii, and Salmonella choleraesuis to the Caco-2 cell line. The strains possessed bile salt hydrolase activity and their cholesterol-lowering activity in vitro was above 50% in the presence of bile. Strains of L. plantarum and L. pentosus possessed the plantaricin-encoding plnEF gene. In addition, the Lactobacillus strains maintained about 80% cell viability after freeze-drying in the presence of a combination of 5% skim milk and 5% maltodextrin as cryoprotectant, and 70% recovery of cell viability was observed in the absence of any cryoprotectant. PMID:26382558

  13. Mixed culture models for predicting intestinal microbial interactions between Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus in the presence of probiotic Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Yang, J J; Niu, C C; Guo, X H

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus has been proposed as a probiotic due to its in vivo effectiveness in the gastrointestinal tract through antimicrobial activities. The present study investigates the effects of Lactobacillus alone or in the presence of Bacillus subtilis MA139 on the inhibition of pathogenic Escherichia coli K88. Mixed cultures were used to predict the possible interactions among these bacteria within the intestinal tract of animals. B. subtilis MA139 was first assayed for its inhibition against E. coli K88 both under shaking and static culture conditions. A co-culture assay was employed under static conditions to test the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus reuteri on E. coli K88, with or without addition of B. subtilis MA139. The results showed that B. subtilis MA139 had marked inhibition against E. coli K88 under shaking conditions and weak inhibition under static conditions. Lactobacillus alone as well as in combination with B. subtilis MA139 spores exerted strong inhibition against E. coli K88 under static conditions. However, the inhibition by Lactobacillus in combination with B. subilis spores was much higher than that by Lactobacillus alone (P<0.01). B. subtilis MA139 significantly decreased the pH and oxidation-reduction potential values of the co-culture broth compared to that of Lactobacillus alone (P<0.05). The viability of Lactobacillus increased when co-cultured with B. subtilis MA139 because of significantly higher Lactobacillus counts and lower pH values in the broth (P<0.05). The role of Bacillus in the mixed culture models suggests that Bacillus may produce beneficial effects by increasing the viability of lactobacilli and subsequently inhibiting the growth of pathogenic E. coli. Therefore, the combination of Bacillus and Lactobacillus species as a probiotic is recommended. PMID:26259891

  14. Proteomics and Transcriptomics Characterization of Bile Stress Response in Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG*

    PubMed Central

    Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Laakso, Kati; Koponen, Johanna; Kankainen, Matti; Greco, Dario; Auvinen, Petri; Savijoki, Kirsi; Nyman, Tuula A.; Surakka, Anu; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; de Vos, Willem M.; Tynkkynen, Soile; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Varmanen, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) is a widely used and intensively studied probiotic bacterium. Although the health benefits of strain GG are well documented, the systematic exploration of mechanisms by which this strain exerts probiotic effects in the host has only recently been initiated. The ability to survive the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, including gastric juice containing bile salts, is one of the vital characteristics that enables a probiotic bacterium to transiently colonize the host. Here we used gene expression profiling at the transcriptome and proteome levels to investigate the cellular response of strain GG toward bile under defined bioreactor conditions. The analyses revealed that in response to growth of strain GG in the presence of 0.2% ox gall the transcript levels of 316 genes changed significantly (p < 0.01, t test), and 42 proteins, including both intracellular and surface-exposed proteins (i.e. surfome), were differentially abundant (p < 0.01, t test in total proteome analysis; p < 0.05, t test in surfome analysis). Protein abundance changes correlated with transcriptome level changes for 14 of these proteins. The identified proteins suggest diverse and specific changes in general stress responses as well as in cell envelope-related functions, including in pathways affecting fatty acid composition, cell surface charge, and thickness of the exopolysaccharide layer. These changes are likely to strengthen the cell envelope against bile-induced stress and signal the GG cells of gut entrance. Notably, the surfome analyses demonstrated significant reduction in the abundance of a protein catalyzing the synthesis of exopolysaccharides, whereas a protein dedicated for active removal of bile compounds from the cells was up-regulated. These findings suggest a role for these proteins in facilitating the well founded interaction of strain GG with the host mucus in the presence of sublethal doses of bile. The significance of these findings in terms of the functionality of a probiotic bacterium is discussed. PMID:21078892

  15. Proteomics and transcriptomics characterization of bile stress response in probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    PubMed

    Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Laakso, Kati; Koponen, Johanna; Kankainen, Matti; Greco, Dario; Auvinen, Petri; Savijoki, Kirsi; Nyman, Tuula A; Surakka, Anu; Salusjrvi, Tuomas; de Vos, Willem M; Tynkkynen, Soile; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Varmanen, Pekka

    2011-02-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) is a widely used and intensively studied probiotic bacterium. Although the health benefits of strain GG are well documented, the systematic exploration of mechanisms by which this strain exerts probiotic effects in the host has only recently been initiated. The ability to survive the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, including gastric juice containing bile salts, is one of the vital characteristics that enables a probiotic bacterium to transiently colonize the host. Here we used gene expression profiling at the transcriptome and proteome levels to investigate the cellular response of strain GG toward bile under defined bioreactor conditions. The analyses revealed that in response to growth of strain GG in the presence of 0.2% ox gall the transcript levels of 316 genes changed significantly (p < 0.01, t test), and 42 proteins, including both intracellular and surface-exposed proteins (i.e. surfome), were differentially abundant (p < 0.01, t test in total proteome analysis; p < 0.05, t test in surfome analysis). Protein abundance changes correlated with transcriptome level changes for 14 of these proteins. The identified proteins suggest diverse and specific changes in general stress responses as well as in cell envelope-related functions, including in pathways affecting fatty acid composition, cell surface charge, and thickness of the exopolysaccharide layer. These changes are likely to strengthen the cell envelope against bile-induced stress and signal the GG cells of gut entrance. Notably, the surfome analyses demonstrated significant reduction in the abundance of a protein catalyzing the synthesis of exopolysaccharides, whereas a protein dedicated for active removal of bile compounds from the cells was up-regulated. These findings suggest a role for these proteins in facilitating the well founded interaction of strain GG with the host mucus in the presence of sublethal doses of bile. The significance of these findings in terms of the functionality of a probiotic bacterium is discussed. PMID:21078892

  16. Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus salivarius MTC 1026 as a potential probiotic.

    PubMed

    Tinrat, Sirikhwan; Saraya, Sumarn; Traidej Chomnawang, Mullika

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are becoming more interested in studying probiotics at present due to their benefit to human and animal health. In this study, newly isolated strains from human feces were evaluated for probiotic properties. A total of sixty isolated strains were collected from feces and six out of sixty isolated strains could inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium. The strain which gave the best inhibitory effect was selected for further characterization as a probiotic strain. The identification of this strain was analyzed on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence. This strain was Gram-positive, rod shaped, and catalase and oxidase-negative, and produced acids from D-glucose, D-fructose, lactose, mannitol, sorbitol, inulin and starch. It could not hydrolyze esculin or red blood cells. Based on its 16S rDNA gene sequence, it was Lactobacillus salivarius, and so was called L. salivarius MTC 1026 in this study, and was closely related with L. salivarius DSPV 344T isolated from the calf gut. It was able to survive in gastric and small intestinal juices at pH 2.0 and 1.0% bile salt for several hours and also could grow at 45°C. Moreover, this strain showed inhibitory activity against a variety of food-borne pathogens. It was highly sensitive to piperacillin, chloramphenicl, ampicillin, erythromycin and ceftazidime. After plasmid curing, this strain was susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. L. salivarius MTC 1026 could significantly inhibit the adhesion process of E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. typhimurium ATCC 13311 on Caco-2 monolayers in a competition assay and also reduced invasion of both pathogens (4-log cfu/ml) in an exclusion and displacement assay. Therefore, it was clearly demonstrated in this study that L. salivarius MTC 1026 has shown promising properties as a candidate for a potential probiotic for applications in humans and animals. PMID:22353742

  17. Probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus suppresses DMH-induced procarcinogenic fecal enzymes and preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci in early colon carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Verma, Angela; Shukla, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    Diet makes an important contribution to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk implying risks for CRC are potentially reducible. Therefore, the probiotics have been suggested as the prophylactic measure in colon cancer. In this study, different probiotics were used to compare their protective potential against 1,2 dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced chemical colon carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats. Animals belonging to different probiotic groups were fed orally with 1 10(9) lactobacilli daily for 1 week, and then a weekly injection of DMH was given intraperitoneally for 6 wks with daily administration of probiotic. Lactobacillus GG and L.acidophilus + DMH-treated animals had maximum percent reduction in ACF counts. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in fecal nitroreductase activity was observed in L.casei + DMH and L.plantarum + DMH-treated rats whereas ?-glucuronidase activity decreased in L.GG + DMH and L.acidophilus + DMH-treated rats. Animals treated with Bifidobacterium bifidum + DMH had significant decreased ?-glucosidase activity. However, not much difference was observed in the colon morphology of animals belonging to various probiotic + DMH-treated rats compared with DMH-treated alone. The results indicated that probiotics, L.GG, and L.acidophilus can be used as the better prophylactic agents for experimental colon carcinogenesis. PMID:23368917

  18. Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product "probiotic table olives".

    PubMed

    Sisto, Angelo; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cultures is desirable to obtain a more controlled process. In this regard, the selected strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 of human origin was used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture, and here we describe the different aspects which have been evaluated and solved to utilize that strain for the development of a new table olive-based probiotic food. These aspects include selection of the strain on the basis of its probiotic properties, molecular characterization, compatibility with the carrier food, and efficacy as starter. The final product meets commercial and functional requirements throughout its shelf-life. PMID:22586426

  19. Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product “probiotic table olives”

    PubMed Central

    Sisto, Angelo; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cultures is desirable to obtain a more controlled process. In this regard, the selected strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 of human origin was used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture, and here we describe the different aspects which have been evaluated and solved to utilize that strain for the development of a new table olive-based probiotic food. These aspects include selection of the strain on the basis of its probiotic properties, molecular characterization, compatibility with the carrier food, and efficacy as starter. The final product meets commercial and functional requirements throughout its shelf-life. PMID:22586426

  20. In vitro probiotic evaluation of phytase producing Lactobacillus species isolated from Uttapam batter and their application in soy milk fermentation.

    PubMed

    Saraniya, Appukuttan; Jeevaratnam, Kadirvelu

    2015-09-01

    Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are health promoters and have been traditionally consumed without the knowledge that they have beneficial properties. These bacteria mainly involve in secreting antimicrobials, enhance immune-modulatory effects, and preserve the intestinal epithelial barrier by competitively inhibiting the pathogenic organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro probiotic properties of Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. argentoratensis, and Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum isolated from fermented Uttapam batter. The isolates produced bacteriocins that were effective against several pathogens. All the isolates exhibited tolerance to bile, gastric, and intestinal conditions. Beneficial properties like cholesterol assimilation and production of enzymes such as ?-galactosidase, phytase and bile hydrolase varied among the isolates. Four isolates from each sub-species effectively adhered to Caco-2 cells and prevented pathogen adhesion. Using these strains, the soy milk was fermented, which exhibited higher antioxidant activity, 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and decreased phytate content when compared to unfermented soy milk. Thus, these probiotic isolates can be successfully used for formulation of functional foods that thereby help to improvise human health. PMID:26344976

  1. Probiotic Characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum FH185 Isolated from Human Feces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum FH185 was isolated from the feces of healthy adults. In our previous study, L. plantarum FH185 was demonstrated that it has anti-obesity effect in the in vitro and in vivo test. In order to determine its potential for use as a probiotic, we investigated the physiological characteristics of L. plantarum FH185. The optimum growth temperature of L. plantarum FH185 was 40℃. L. plantarum FH185 showed higher sensitivity to novobiocin in a comparison of fifteen different antibiotics and showed higher resistance to polymyxin B and vancomycin. It also showed higher β-galactosidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase activities. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant to bile juice and acid, and inhibited the growths of Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus with rates of 44.76% and 53.88%, respectively. It also showed high adhesion activity to HT-29 cells compared to L. rhamnosus GG. PMID:26761889

  2. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus salivarius Ren, a probiotic strain with anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Erna; Ren, Fazheng; Liu, Songling; Ge, Shaoyang; Zhang, Ming; Guo, Huiyuan; Jiang, Lu; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Liang

    2015-09-20

    Lactobacillus salivarius Ren (LsR) (CGMCC No. 3606) is a probiotic strain that was isolated from the feces of a healthy centenarian living in Bama, Guangxi, China. Previous studies have shown that this strain decreases 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced genotoxicity in vitro. It also suppresses 4-NQO-induced oral carcinogenesis and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis, and therefore may be used as an adjuvant therapeutic agent for cancer. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of LsR that consists of a circular chromosome of 1751,565 bp and two plasmids (pR1, 176,951 bp; pR2, 49,848 bp). PMID:26133929

  3. Expression of Rumen Microbial Fibrolytic Enzyme Genes in Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Je-Ruei; Yu, Bi; Liu, Fu-Hwa; Cheng, Kuo-Joan; Zhao, Xin

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the cloning and expression of three rumen microbial fibrolytic enzyme genes in a strain of Lactobacillus reuteri and investigating the probiotic characteristics of these genetically modified lactobacilli. The Neocallimastix patriciarum xylanase gene xynCDBFV, the Fibrobacter succinogenes ?-glucanase (1,3-1,4-?-d-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase [EC 3.2.1.73]) gene, and the Piromyces rhizinflata cellulase gene eglA were cloned in a strain of L. reuteri isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. The enzymes were expressed and secreted under the control of the Lactococcus lactis lacA promoter and its secretion signal. The L. reuteri transformed strains not only acquired the capacity to break down soluble carboxymethyl cellulose, ?-glucan, or xylan but also showed high adhesion efficiency to mucin and mucus and resistance to bile salt and acid. PMID:16269708

  4. Effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus animalis in murine Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MAP is a suspected zoonotic pathogen and the causative agent of Johne’s Disease in cattle and other ruminant animals. With over $1 billion dollars in loss to the dairy industry due to Johne’s Disease, efforts to eliminate or reduce MAP from cattle are of importance. The purpose of this study was to determine if daily intake of probiotics could eliminate or reduce Johne’s Disease associated symptoms and pathogenesis by MAP. Post infection, animals are often asymptomatic carriers with limited shedding of the pathogen, proving early detection to be difficult. Disease and symptoms often appear 3–4 years after infection with antibiotic treatment proving ineffective. Symptoms include chronic gastrointestinal inflammation leading to severe weight-loss from poor feed and water intake cause a wasting disease. These symptoms are similar to those found in individuals with Crohn’s Disease (CD); MAP has been implicated by not proven to be the causative agent of CD. Probiotics administered to livestock animals, including dairy and beef cattle have demonstrated improvements in cattle performance and health. Our objectives included determining the benefits of Lactobacillus animalis (strain name: NP-51) in MAP infected BALB/c mice by evaluating systemic and gastrointestinal response by the host and gut microbiota. Male and female animals were fed 1×106 CFU/g probiotics in sterile, powdered mouse chow daily and infected with 1 × 107 CFU/ml MAP and compared to controls. Animals were evaluated for 180 days to assess acute and chronic stages of disease, with sample collection from animals every 45 days. MAP concentrations from liver and intestinal tissues were examined using real time-PCR methods and the expression of key inflammatory markers were measured during MAP infection (interferon-gamma [IFN-Υ], Interleukin-1α, IL-12, IL-10, IL-6, and Tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]). Results Our results demonstrate administration of probiotics reduces production of IFN-Υ and IL-6 while increasing TNF-α and IL-17 in chronic disease; healthful immune responses that reduce chronic inflammation associated to MAP infection. Conclusions We observed that the immune system’s response in the presence of probiotics to MAP contributes towards host health by influencing the activity of the immune system and gut microbial populations. PMID:23324647

  5. Inactivation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG by fixation modifies its probiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Markowicz, C; Kubiak, P; Grajek, W; Schmidt, M T

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms that have beneficial effects on the host and are safe for oral intake in a suitable dose. However, there are situations in which the administration of living microorganisms poses a risk for immunocompromised host. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of several fixation methods on selected biological properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG that are relevant to its probiotic action. Fixation of the bacterial cells with ethanol, 2-propanol, glutaraldehyde, paraformaldehyde, and heat treatment resulted in a significant decrease of alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, and β-galactosidase activities. Most of the fixation procedures reduced bacterial cell hydrophobicity and increased adhesion capacity. The fixation procedures resulted in a different perception of the bacterial cells by enterocytes, which was shown as changes in gene expression in enterocytes. The results show that some procedures of inactivation allow a fraction of the enzymatic activity to be maintained. The adhesion properties of the bacterial cells were enhanced, but the response of enterocytes to fixed cells was different than to live bacteria. Inactivation allows maintenance and modification of some of the properties of the bacterial cells. PMID:26634746

  6. Development of a Probiotic Cheddar Cheese Containing Human-Derived Lactobacillus paracasei Strains

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, G.; Ross, R. P.; Collins, J. K.; Fitzgerald, G.; Stanton, C.

    1998-01-01

    Cheddar cheese was manufactured with either Lactobacillus salivarius NFBC 310, NFBC 321, or NFBC 348 or L. paracasei NFBC 338 or NFBC 364 as the dairy starter adjunct. These five strains had previously been isolated from the human small intestine and have been characterized extensively with respect to their probiotic potential. Enumeration of these strains in mature Cheddar cheese, however, was complicated by the presence of high numbers (>107 CFU/g of cheese) of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria, principally composed of lactobacilli which proliferate as the cheese ripens. Attempts to differentiate the adjunct lactobacilli from the nonstarter lactobacilli based on bile tolerance and growth temperature were unsuccessful. In contrast, the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method allowed the generation of discrete DNA fingerprints for each strain which were clearly distinguishable from those generated from the natural flora of the cheeses. Using this approach, it was found that both L. paracasei strains grew and sustained high viability in cheese during ripening, while each of the L. salivarius species declined over the ripening period. These data demonstrate that Cheddar cheese can be an effective vehicle for delivery of some probiotic organisms to the consumer. PMID:9603834

  7. Lactobacillus spp. with in vitro probiotic properties from human faeces and traditional fermented products.

    PubMed

    Vizoso Pinto, Maria G; Franz, Charles M A P; Schillinger, Ulrich; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2006-06-15

    Lactobacillus strains from traditional African fermented milk products, as well as human intestinal isolates were identified and investigated in vitro for their technological and functional characteristics as potential new probiotic strains. To test survival under gastrointestinal conditions, first the protective effect of milk and the effects of medium composition, lysozyme, pepsin, and pH of the medium on bacterial viability were assessed in vitro using the Plackett-Burman statistical model and the commercially used L. johnsonii LA1 probiotic strain. The use of either an artificial gastric electrolyte solution or MRS did not play a significant role in the viability of the cultures, while lysozyme, acidic conditions (pH 2.5), pepsin and the presence of milk significantly influenced the survival of the strain. Therefore, these parameters were selected as important test variables in a model stomach passage survival trial. Five strains identified as L. plantarum and two identified as L. johnsonii showed good survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. These selected strains also showed antimicrobial activity, probably due to production of organic acids. All strains exhibited bile salt hydrolase activity, while only the L. plantarum strains showed beta-galactosidase activity. PMID:16503361

  8. Invitro evaluation of the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus salivarius SMXD51.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, S; Madi, A; Prvost, H; Feuilloley, M; Manai, M; Dousset, X; Connil, N

    2012-12-01

    Lactobacillus salivarius SMXD51 was previously isolated from the cecum of a Tunisian poultry and found to produce a bacteriocin-like substance highly active against the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The aim of this study was to examine some probiotic properties of the strain: acid and bile tolerance, capacity of adhesion, stimulation of immune defences (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and ?-defensin 2), and modulation of the barrier integrity. The results showed that L.salivarius SMXD51 can tolerate gastrointestinal conditions (acid and bile), adhere to intestinal cells and stimulate the immune system. The bacterium strengthened the intestinal barrier functions through the increase of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and reinforcement of the F-actin cytoskeleton. One hour pretreatment with L.salivarius SMXD51 protected against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1-induced decrease of TEER and damage of the F-actin cytoskeleton. Our results highlight that L.salivarius SMXD51 fulfils the principle requirements of an efficient probiotic and may be seen as a reliable candidate for further validation studies in chicken. PMID:23122647

  9. Lactobacillus plantarum DK119 as a Probiotic Confers Protection against Influenza Virus by Modulating Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Kyung; NGO, Vu; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Young-Tae; Yoo, Sieun; Cho, Young-Hee; Hong, Sung-Moon; Hwang, Hye Suk; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin; Moon, Dae-Won; Jeong, Eun-Ji; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Yu-Na; Jang, Ji-Hun; Oh, Joon-Suk; Kim, Cheol-Hyun; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum DK119 (DK119) isolated from the fermented Korean cabbage food was used as a probiotic to determine its antiviral effects on influenza virus. DK119 intranasal or oral administration conferred 100% protection against subsequent lethal infection with influenza A viruses, prevented significant weight loss, and lowered lung viral loads in a mouse model. The antiviral protective efficacy was observed in a dose and route dependent manner of DK119 administration. Mice that were treated with DK119 showed high levels of cytokines IL-12 and IFN-? in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and a low degree of inflammation upon infection with influenza virus. Depletion of alveolar macrophage cells in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavages completely abrogated the DK119-mediated protection. Modulating host innate immunity of dendritic and macrophage cells, and cytokine production pattern appeared to be possible mechanisms by which DK119 exhibited antiviral effects on influenza virus infection. These results indicate that DK119 can be developed as a beneficial antiviral probiotic microorganism. PMID:24124485

  10. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure.

    PubMed

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains. PMID:26167534

  11. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure

    PubMed Central

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains. PMID:26167534

  12. Converging effects of a Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus probiotic strain on mouse intestinal physiology.

    PubMed

    Lomasney, Kevin W; Cryan, John F; Hyland, Niall P

    2014-07-15

    Evidence has grown to support the efficacy of probiotics in the management of gastrointestinal disorders, many of which are associated with dysregulated fluid and electrolyte transport. A growing body of evidence now suggests that the host microbiota and probiotics can influence intestinal ion transport and that these effects often occur in a strain-dependent manner. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of two therapeutically relevant organisms, Bifidobacterium infantis 35,624 and Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118, on small intestinal transit, fecal output and water content, transepithelial resistance (TER), and colonic secretomotor function. Mice fed either strain displayed significantly reduced small intestinal transit in vivo, though neither strain influenced fecal pellet output or water content. Colon from mice fed both organisms displayed increased colonic TER, without a concomitant change in the gene expression of the tight junction proteins claudin 1 and occludin. However, L. salivarius UCC118 selectively inhibited neurally evoked ion secretion in tissues from animals fed this particular probiotic. Consistent with this finding, the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTx) significantly inhibited the short-circuit current response induced by L. salivarius UCC118 following addition to colonic preparations in Ussing chambers. Responses to B. infantis 35,624 also displayed sensitivity to TTx, although to a significantly lesser degree than L. salivarius UCC118. Both strains similarly inhibited cholinergic-induced ion transport after addition to Ussing chambers. Taken together, these data suggest that B. infantis 35,624 and L. salivarius UCC118 may be indicated in disorders associated with increased small intestinal transit, and, in particular for L. salivarius UCC118, neurally mediated diarrhea. PMID:24852567

  13. Evaluation of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 isolated from human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Meiling; Zhang, Fen; Wan, Cuixiang; Xiong, Yonghua; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua; Tao, Xueying

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, a specific strain isolated from human breast milk, was investigated for its survival capacity (acid and bile salt tolerance, survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract, inhibition of pathogens, antibiotic susceptibility, yield of exopolysaccharides) and probiotic properties (antiadhesion of pathogens, protection from harmful effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and antiinflammatory stress on Caco-2 cells). The results showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 had broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive strains (Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54007, Bacillus cereus ATCC14579, and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003) and gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCC10104, Shigella sonnei ATCC25931, Enterobacter sakazakii ATCC29544, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC13311, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 was susceptible to 8 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin and nitrofurantoin) and resistant to 6 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., kanamycin and bacitracin). Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 was able to survive at pH 2.5 for 3h and at 0.45% bile salt for 12h, suggesting that it can survive well in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the exopolysaccharide yield of Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reached 426.73±65.56mg/L at 24h. With strategies of competition, inhibition, and displacement, Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reduced the adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 (35.51%), Sal. typhimurium ATCC 13311 (8.10%), and Staph. aureus CMCC 26003 (40.30%) on Caco-2 cells by competition, and subsequently by 59.80, 62.50, and 42.60%, respectively, for the 3 pathogens through inhibition, and by 75.23, 39.97, and 52.88%, respectively, through displacement. Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 attenuated the acute stress induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate on Caco-2 cells and significantly inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α) on Caco-2 cells but increased IL-10 expression in vitro compared with the Salmonella-treated group. In summary, Lb. plantarum WLPL04 from breast milk could be considered as a probiotic candidate for dairy products to promote human health. PMID:26805974

  14. Effect of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis on lipid profile in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ejtahed, H S; Mohtadi-Nia, J; Homayouni-Rad, A; Niafar, M; Asghari-Jafarabadi, M; Mofid, V; Akbarian-Moghari, A

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic and conventional yogurt on the lipid profile in type 2 diabetic people. In a randomized double-blind controlled trial, 60 people (23 males and 37 females) with type 2 diabetes and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) greater than 2.6 mmol/L were assigned to 2 groups. Participants consumed daily 300 g of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 or 300 g of conventional yogurt for 6 wk. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements and 3-d, 24-h dietary recalls were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Probiotic yogurt consumption caused a 4.54% decrease in total cholesterol and a 7.45% decrease in LDL-C compared with the control group. No significant changes from baseline were shown in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the probiotic group. The total cholesterol:HDL-C ratio and LDL-C:HDL-C ratio as atherogenic indices significantly decreased in the probiotic group compared with the control group. Probiotic yogurt improved total cholesterol and LDL-C concentrations in type 2 diabetic people and may contribute to the improvement of cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:21700013

  15. Development of antimicrobial synbiotics using potentially-probiotic faecal isolates of Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacterium longum.

    PubMed

    Likotrafiti, Eleni; Tuohy, Kieran M; Gibson, Glenn R; Rastall, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate invitro the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacterium longum, isolated from faeces of healthy elderly individuals, against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E.coli O157:H7) and enteropathogenic E.coli (E.coli O86), to determine the capability of the selected strains to tolerate acid and bile invitro, to select suitable carbohydrates in order to enhance the growth and maximise antimicrobial activity of the putative probiotic organisms and examine the adhesion properties of the synbiotics. Antimicrobial activity of the putative probiotics and synbiotics was investigated by a microtitre method using cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS). Results of the antimicrobial assay showed that both putative probiotic strains produced compounds at pH 5 that lead to higher lag phases of both E.coli O157:H7 and E.coli O86. When half the quantity of cell-free culture supernatants of both probiotic strains was used at pH 5, B.longum maintained the same antimicrobial effect against both strains of E.coli, whereas L.fermentum lead to a higher lag phase of E.coli O86 only. Neutralization of the culture supernatants with alkali reduced the antimicrobial effect with only cell-free supernatant of L.fermentum causing lower maximum growth rates of E.coli O157:H7 and E.coli O86. L.fermentum appeared to be acid tolerant whereas B.longum was more susceptible to acid and both isolates were bile tolerant. A short chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) and an isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) proved to be the most effective substrates, enhancing antimicrobial activity for L.fermentum and B.longum respectively. The adhesion of the synbiotic combinations showed that L.fermentum, exhibited higher percentage of adhesion when grown on glucose and as a synbiotic combination with scFOS whereas B.longum exhibited lowest percentage of adhesion when grown on both glucose and IMO. PMID:23354005

  16. Treating infant colic with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 reduces crying or fussing in a broad community based sample of breastfed infants and formula fed infants with colic aged less than 3 months. Design Double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial. Setting Community based sample (primary and secondary level care centres) in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 167 breastfed infants or formula fed infants aged less than 3 months meeting Wessels criteria for crying or fussing: 85 were randomised to receive probiotic and 82 to receive placebo. Interventions Oral daily L reuteri (1108 colony forming units) versus placebo for one month. Main outcomes measures The primary outcome was daily duration of cry or fuss at 1 month. Secondary outcomes were duration of cry or fuss; number of cry or fuss episodes; sleep duration of infant at 7, 14, and 21 days, and 1 and 6 months; maternal mental health (Edinburgh postnatal depression subscale); family functioning (paediatric quality of life inventory), parent quality adjusted life years (assessment of quality of life) at 1 and 6 months; infant functioning (paediatric quality of life inventory) at 6 months; infant faecal microbiota (microbial diversity, colonisation with Escherichia coli), and calprotectin levels at 1 month. In intention to treat analyses the two groups were compared using regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Results Of 167 infants randomised from August 2011 to August 2012, 127 (76%) were retained to primary outcome; of these, a subset was analysed for faecal microbial diversity, E coli colonisation, and calprotectin levels. Adherence was high. Mean daily cry or fuss time fell steadily in both groups. At 1 month, the probiotic group cried or fussed 49 minutes more than the placebo group (95% confidence interval 8 to 90 minutes, P=0.02); this mainly reflected more fussing, especially for formula fed infants. The groups were similar on all secondary outcomes. No study related adverse events occurred. Conclusions L reuteri DSM 17938 did not benefit a community sample of breastfed infants and formula fed infants with colic. These findings differ from previous smaller trials of selected populations and do not support a general recommendation for the use of probiotics to treat colic in infants. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN95287767. PMID:24690625

  17. Clinical and microbiological effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Teughels, Wim; Durukan, Andaç; Ozcelik, Onur; Pauwels, Martine; Quirynen, Marc; Haytac, Mehmet Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Teughels W, Durukan A, Ozcelik O, Pauwels M, Quirynen M, Haytac MC. Clinical and microbiological effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Clin Periodontol 2013; 40: 1025–1035. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12155. AimThe aim of this randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-containing probiotic lozenges as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). Material and MethodsThirty chronic periodontitis patients were recruited and monitored clinically and microbiologically at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks after therapy. All patients received one-stage full-mouth disinfection and randomly assigned over a test (SRP + probiotic, n = 15) or control (SRP + placebo, n = 15) group. The lozenges were used two times a day for 12 weeks. ResultsAt week 12, all clinical parameters were significantly reduced in both groups, while there was significantly more pocket depth reduction (p < 0.05) and attachment gain (p < 0.05) in moderate and deep pockets; more Porphyromonas gingivalis reduction was observed in the SRP + probiotic group. ConclusionsThe results indicate that oral administration of L. reuteri lozenges could be a useful adjunct to SRP in chronic periodontitis. PMID:24164569

  18. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus brevis KB290 on incidence of influenza infection among schoolchildren: an open-label pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Waki, N; Matsumoto, M; Fukui, Y; Suganuma, H

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the efficacy of dietary consumption of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290) against influenza in humans by a preliminary intervention study on elementary schoolchildren, using a commercially available probiotic drink. Subjects were divided into Groups A and B, and an open-label, parallel-group trial was conducted in two 8-week periods at a 1-month interval in winter 2013/2014. Group A was provided with a bottle of the test drink containing KB290 (about 6billion colony-forming units) every school day in the first period and had no treatment in the second period, and vice versa for Group B. Epidemic influenza was not observed during the first period and only two of 1783 subjects were diagnosed. In the second period, the incidence of influenza in Groups A (no treatment) and B (provided the test drink) was 239 and 157%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0001). The reduction in the incidence of influenza by KB290 consumption was especially remarkable in unvaccinated individuals. This is believed to be the first study to show a probiotic food reducing the incidence of influenza in schoolchildren, although further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of the probiotic strain KB290. Significance and Impact of the Study We demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of influenza in 1089 schoolchildren by continual intake of a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290), isolated from a traditional Japanese pickle Suguki. The effect was especially evident in subjects not inoculated with influenza vaccine. This is believed to be the first report to show reduced incidence of influenza in schoolchildren taking a probiotic food. Further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of the probiotic strain KB290, which may be useful in the development of potential anti-influenza agents derived from common foods. PMID:25294223

  19. Predominance of a bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus salivarius component of a five-strain probiotic in the porcine ileum and effects on host immune phenotype.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Maria C; Gardiner, Gillian E; Hart, Orla M; Lawlor, Peadar G; Daly, Mairead; Lynch, Brendan; Richert, Brian T; Radcliffe, Scott; Giblin, Linda; Hill, Colin; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, Paul

    2008-05-01

    Relative predominance of each of five probiotic strains was investigated in the ileum of weaned pigs, compared with that in feces, when administered in combination at c. 5 x 10(9) CFU day(-1) for 28 days. Probiotic was excreted at 10(6)-10(9) CFU g(-1) feces, while ileal survival ranged from 10(2) to 10(6) CFU g(-1) digesta. In contrast to the feces, where Lactobacillus murinus DPC6002 predominated, the bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus salivarus DPC6005 dominated over coadministered strains both in the ileum digesta and in mucosa. Probiotic administration did not alter counts of culturable fecal Lactobacillus or Enterobacteriaceae but higher ileal Enterobacteriaceae were observed in the ileal digesta of probiotic-fed pigs (P<0.05). We observed decreased CD25 induction on T cells and monocytes (P<0.01) and decreased CTLA-4 induction (P<0.05) by the mitogen phytohemagglutinin on CD4 T cells from the probiotic group. Probiotic treatment also increased the proportion of CD4+ CD8+ T cells within the peripheral T-cell population and increased ileal IL-8 mRNA expression (P<0.05). In conclusion, superior ileal survival of L. salivarius compared with the other coadministered probiotics may be due to a competitive advantage conferred by its bacteriocin. The findings also suggest that the five-strain combination may function as a probiotic, at least in part, via immunomodulation. PMID:18373687

  20. Bioprotection of ready-to-eat probiotic artichokes processed with Lactobacillus paracasei LMGP22043 against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Francesca; Lonigro, Stella Lisa; Di Biase, Mariaelena; de Candia, Silvia; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2013-11-01

    The survival of 3 pathogens Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19115, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ATCC13311, and Escherichia coli ATCC8739 was evaluated over time in ready-to-eat (RTE) artichoke products processed or not with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei LMGP22043. Both probiotic and standard products (final pH about 4.0; aw = 0.98) dressed with oil and packaged in modified atmosphere were inoculated with pathogens at a level of about 3 log CFU/g and stored at 4 ºC for 45 d. Pathogens decreased in the probiotic product in 2 descent phases, without shoulder and/or tailing as observed by fitting the models available in the GInaFit software to the experimental data. S. enterica subsp. enterica was completely inactivated after 14 and 28 d in probiotic and standard products, respectively; E. coli was inhibited in the probiotic food at day 4 (count probiotic product at day 1 reaching values below the DL after 14 d, while 21 d were needed in the standard product, and survived in both samples until the end of the experimental period. Therefore, the probiotic strain, representing always more than the 93% of lactic acid bacteria (about 7 log CFU/g) during the entire experimental period, combines the efficacy of a protective culture, which can control the development of pathogens during storage with probiotic benefits. PMID:24245894

  1. Functional Characterization of a Mucus-Specific LPXTG Surface Adhesin from Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ▿

    PubMed Central

    von Ossowski, Ingemar; Satokari, Reetta; Reunanen, Justus; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Vos, Willem M.; Palva, Airi

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological niche as a comparatively less stringent allochthonous intestine-dwelling bacterium. To uncover additional surface proteins involved in mucosal adhesion, we investigated the adherence properties of the only predicted protein (LGG_02337) in L. rhamnosus GG that exhibits homology with a known mucus-binding domain. We cloned a recombinant form of the gene for this putative mucus adhesin and established that the purified protein readily adheres to human intestinal mucus. We also showed that this mucus adhesin is visibly distributed throughout the cell surface and participates in the adhesive interaction between L. rhamnosus GG and mucus, although less prominently than the mucus-binding pili in this strain. Based on primary structural comparisons, we concluded that the current annotation of the LGG_02337 protein likely does not accurately reflect its predicted properties, and we propose that this mucus-specific adhesin be called the mucus-binding factor (MBF). Finally, we interpret our results to mean that L. rhamnosus GG MBF, as an active mucus-specific surface adhesin with a presumed ancillary involvement in pilus-mediated mucosal adhesion, plays a part in the adherent mechanisms during intestinal colonization by this probiotic. PMID:21602388

  2. Evaluation of resistance to low pH and bile salts of human Lactobacillus spp. isolates.

    PubMed

    Fuochi, Virginia; Petronio, Giulio Petronio; Lissandrello, Edmondo; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2015-09-01

    There are nearly 100 trillion bacteria in the intestine that together form the intestinal microbiota. They are 'good' bacteria because they help to maintain a physiological balance and are called probiotics. Probiotics must have some important characteristics: be safe for humans, be resistant to the low pH in the stomach, as well as bile salts and pancreatic juice. Indeed, their survival is the most important factor, so that they can arrive alive in the intestine and are able to form colonies, at least temporarily. The aim of our study was the evaluation of resistance of Lactobacillus isolates from fecal and oral swabs compared to that found in a commercial product. Seven strains were randomly chosen: L. jensenii, L. gasseri, L. salivarius, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, L. crispatus, and L. delbrueckii. We observed a large variability in the results: L. gasseri and L. fermentum were the most resistance to low pH, while only L. gasseri showed the best survival rate to bile salts. Interestingly, the commercial product did not show tolerance to both low pH and bile salts. PMID:26216909

  3. In vitro screening of selected probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented cabbage and cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zieli?ska, Dorota; Rzepkowska, Anna; Radawska, Anna; Zieli?ski, Konrad

    2015-02-01

    Most important during probiotic selection are gastric acid and bile tolerance, the adhesion to the luminal epithelium to colonize the lower gastrointestinal tract of a human and safety for human consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected probiotic in vitro properties of Lactobacillus spp. Strains isolated from traditional fermented food. A total 38 strains were isolated from the pickled samples and 14 were identified as Lactobacillus spp. The survival of almost all strains after incubation at pH 2.5 did not change markedly, and remained at above 90 % (10(9) CFU/mL). The strains also exhibited a high survival rate at pH 3.5 (>90 %), whereas pH 1.5 all were died. Just four strains could survive 90 min. at pH 1.5 (<39 %). The incubation with 0.2 % bile salt solution resulted in a survival rates of 81-94 % after 24 h, whereas after incubation in 2 and 4 % bile salt solution it was 59-94 %. All tested strains showed very good and good resistance to 0.4 % phenol addition, however only Lb. johnsonii K4 was able to multiply. The hydrophobic nature of the cell surface of the tested strains was moderated recording hydrophobicity of Lb. johnsonii K4 and Lb. rhamnosus K3 above 60 %. Safety evaluation excluded four of tested strains as candidate probiotics, according to antibiotic resistance patterns and certain metabolic activities. On the basis on the results 10 of the selected Lactobacillus strains are safe and can survive under gastrointestinal conditions, which requires them to future in vitro and in vivo probiotic studies. PMID:25270682

  4. Feasibility of Genome-Wide Screening for Biosafety Assessment of Probiotics: A Case Study of Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463.

    PubMed

    Senan, S; Prajapati, J B; Joshi, C G

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have witnessed an explosion in genome sequencing of probiotic strains for accurate identification and characterization. Regulatory bodies are emphasizing on the need for performing phase I safety studies for probiotics. The main hypothesis of this study was to explore the feasibility of using genome databases for safety screening of strains. In this study, we attempted to develop a framework for the safety assessment of a potential probiotic strain, Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 based on genome mining for genes associated with antibiotic resistance, production of harmful metabolites, and virulence. The sequencing of MTCC 5463 was performed using GS-FLX Titanium reagents. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance and virulence were identified using Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database and Virulence Factors Database. Results indicated that MTCC 5463 carried antibiotic resistance genes associated with beta-lactam and fluoroquinolone. There is no threat of transfer of these genes to host gut commensals because the genes are not plasmid encoded. The presence of genes for adhesion, biofilm, surface proteins, and stress-related proteins provides robustness to the strain. The presence of hemolysin gene in the genome revealed a theoretical risk of virulence. The results of in silico analysis complemented the in vitro studies and human clinical trials, confirming the safety of the probiotic strain. We propose that the safety assessment of probiotic strains administered live at high doses using a genome-wide screening could be an effective and time-saving tool for identifying prognostic biomarkers of biosafety. PMID:26223907

  5. Functional characterization of probiotic surface layer protein-carrying Lactobacillus amylovorus strains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adhesiveness to intestinal epithelium, beneficial immunomodulating effects and the production of pathogen-inhibitory compounds are generally considered as beneficial characteristics of probiotic organisms. We showed the potential health-promoting properties and the mechanisms of probiotic action of seven swine intestinal Lactobacillus amylovorus isolates plus the type strain (DSM 20531T) by investigating their adherence to porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-1) and mucus as well as the capacities of the strains to i) inhibit the adherence of Escherichia coli to IPEC-1 cells, ii) to produce soluble inhibitors against intestinal pathogens and iii) to induce immune signaling in dendritic cells (DCs). Moreover, the role of the L. amylovorus surface (S) –layers - symmetric, porous arrays of identical protein subunits present as the outermost layer of the cell envelope - in adherence to IPEC-1 cells was assessed using a novel approach which utilized purified cell wall fragments of the strains as carriers for the recombinantly produced S-layer proteins. Results Three of the L. amylovorus strains studied adhered to IPEC-1 cells, while four strains inhibited the adherence of E. coli, indicating additional mechanisms other than competition for binding sites being involved in the inhibition. None of the strains bound to porcine mucus. The culture supernatants of all of the strains exerted inhibitory effects on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella, Listeria and Yersinia, and a variable, strain-dependent induction was observed of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human DCs. L. amylovorus DSM 16698 was shown to carry two S-layer-like proteins on its surface in addition to the major S-layer protein SlpA. In contrast to expectations, none of the major S-layer proteins of the IPEC-1 -adhering strains mediated bacterial adherence. Conclusions We demonstrated adhesive and significant pathogen inhibitory efficacies among the swine intestinal L. amylovorus strains studied, pointing to their potential use as probiotic feed supplements, but no independent role could be demonstrated for the major S-layer proteins in adherence to epithelial cells. The results indicate that many intestinal bacteria may coexist with and confer benefits to the host by mechanisms not attributable to adhesion to epithelial cells or mucus. PMID:25070625

  6. Impact of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA in different dairy products on anthropometric and blood biochemical indices of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hütt, P; Songisepp, E; Rätsep, M; Mahlapuu, R; Kilk, K; Mikelsaar, M

    2015-01-01

    The blood pressure-lowering effect of dairy products holds the potential to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). An open question is if the successful expression of functional properties of the probiotic strain depends on host biomarkers and/or food matrix properties. The probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain TENSIA® (DSM 21380) is a novel microorganism with antimicrobial and antihypertensive functional properties. The aim of this study was to characterise the functional properties of the probiotic L. plantarum TENSIA and compare its effects on host anthropometric, clinical, and blood biomarkers when consumed with cheese or yoghurt. This study involved two double-blinded randomised placebo-controlled exploratory trials (ISRCTN15061552 and ISRCTN79645828) of healthy adults over a three-week period. The three-week consumption of probiotic L. plantarum TENSIA in a daily dose of 1×1010 cfu in probiotic cheese or a daily dose of 6×109 cfu in yoghurt with different content of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids did not significantly change the body mass index (BMI), plasma glucose and lipid levels, or inflammatory markers in the blood. Reduced lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were detected, regardless of food matrix or baseline values for blood pressure and BMI. In conclusion, our study showed that three-week consumption of the probiotic L. plantarum TENSIA either in cheese or yoghurt lowered diastolic and systolic blood pressure regardless of food matrix and baseline values of blood pressure and BMI, confirming the impact of the functional properties of the probiotic strain in decreasing CVD risk. PMID:25524863

  7. The use of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and viral findings in the nasopharynx of children attending day care.

    PubMed

    Kumpu, Minna; Lehtoranta, Liisa; Roivainen, Merja; Rnkk, Esa; Ziegler, Thedi; Sderlund-Venermo, Maria; Kautiainen, Hannu; Jrvenp, Salme; Kekkonen, Riina; Hatakka, Katja; Korpela, Riitta; Pitkranta, Anne

    2013-09-01

    Limited data are available on the effects of probiotics on the nasopharyngeal presence of respiratory viruses in children attending day care. In this substudy of a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 28-week intervention study, nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected, on visits to a physician due to symptoms of infection, from children receiving control milk (N?=?97) and children receiving the same milk supplemented with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (N?=?97). The presence of 14 respiratory viruses was assessed by PCR methods, and viral findings were compared with symptom prevalences in the intervention groups. Rhinovirus was identified in 28.6% of 315 swab samples, followed by respiratory syncytial virus (12.4%), parainfluenza virus 1 (12.1%), enterovirus (8.9%), influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (7.9%), human bocavirus 1 (3.8%), parainfluenza virus 2 (3.2%), adenovirus (2.9%), and influenza A(H3N2) (0.6%). The children in the probiotic group had less days with respiratory symptoms per month than the children in the control group (6.48 [95% CI 6.28-6.68] vs. 7.19 [95% CI 6.98-7.41], P?Probiotic intervention did not reduce significantly the occurrence of the examined respiratory viruses, or have an effect on the number of respiratory symptoms observed at the time of a viral finding. Rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus 1 were the most common respiratory viruses in symptomatic children. Children receiving Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG had fewer days with respiratory symptoms than children in the control group, although probiotic intervention was not effective in reducing the amount of viral findings or the respiratory symptoms associated with viral findings. PMID:23794458

  8. Monitoring of Water Spectral Pattern Reveals Differences in Probiotics Growth When Used for Rapid Bacteria Selection.

    PubMed

    Slavchev, Aleksandar; Kovacs, Zoltan; Koshiba, Haruki; Nagai, Airi; Bázár, György; Krastanov, Albert; Kubota, Yousuke; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2015-01-01

    Development of efficient screening method coupled with cell functionality evaluation is highly needed in contemporary microbiology. The presented novel concept and fast non-destructive method brings in to play the water spectral pattern of the solution as a molecular fingerprint of the cell culture system. To elucidate the concept, NIR spectroscopy with Aquaphotomics were applied to monitor the growth of sixteen Lactobacillus bulgaricus one Lactobacillus pentosus and one Lactobacillus gasseri bacteria strains. Their growth rate, maximal optical density, low pH and bile tolerances were measured and further used as a reference data for analysis of the simultaneously acquired spectral data. The acquired spectral data in the region of 1100-1850nm was subjected to various multivariate data analyses - PCA, OPLS-DA, PLSR. The results showed high accuracy of bacteria strains classification according to their probiotic strength. Most informative spectral fingerprints covered the first overtone of water, emphasizing the relation of water molecular system to cell functionality. PMID:26133176

  9. Effect of immobilized Lactobacillus casei on volatile compounds of heat treated probiotic dry-fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Sidira, Marianthi; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the amount of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat grains on the generation of volatile compounds during the production of heat treated probiotic dry-fermented sausages was investigated. For comparison reasons, sausages containing free L. casei cells or no starter culture as well as a similar commercial product were also included in the study. Samples ripened for 8 days and heat treated to 70-72C for 8-10 min were subjected to Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The starter culture affected significantly the production of volatile compounds. The highest content of esters and alcohols was observed in the sample containing 30 g of immobilized cells/kg of stuffing mixture, while the highest concentration of organic acids was observed in the sausages with no starter culture. In contrast, the commercial product contained the lowest concentration of volatiles. Principal component analysis of the semi-quantitative data revealed that the volatile composition was affected primarily by the nature and concentration of the starter culture. PMID:25704702

  10. Molecular Microbial Analysis of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from the Gut of Calves for Potential Probiotic Use

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Lorena P.; Frizzo, Laureano S.; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Avataneo, Elizabeth; Sequeira, Gabriel J.; Rosmini, Marcelo R.

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has an influence on the growth and health status of the hosts. This is of particular interest in animals reared using intensive farming practices. Hence, it is necessary to know more about complexity of the beneficial intestinal microbiota. The use of molecular methods has revolutionized microbial identification by improving its quality and effectiveness. The specific aim of the study was to analyze predominant species of Lactobacillus in intestinal microbial ecosystem of young calves. Forty-two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from intestinal tract of young calves were characterized by: Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA), by using Hae III, Msp I, and Hinf I restriction enzymes, and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. ARDRA screening revealed nine unique patterns among 42 isolates, with the same pattern for 29 of the isolates. Gene fragments of 16S rDNA of 19 strains representing different patterns were sequenced to confirm the identification of these species. These results confirmed that ARDRA is a good tool for identification and discrimination of bacterial species isolated from complex ecosystem and between closely related groups. This paper provides information about the LAB species predominant in intestinal tract of young calves that could provide beneficial effects when administered as probiotic. PMID:20445780

  11. Development of a Potential Probiotic Fresh Cheese Using Two Lactobacillus salivarius Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Peirotén, Ángela; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Fernández, Leónides

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study. PMID:24971351

  12. Development of a potential probiotic fresh cheese using two Lactobacillus salivarius strains isolated from human milk.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Calzada, Javier; Peirotén, Angela; Jiménez, Esther; Escudero, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan M; Medina, Margarita; Fernández, Leónides

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study. PMID:24971351

  13. Some probiotic and antibacterial properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus cultured from dahi a native milk product.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Talat; Masud, Tariq; Sohail, Asma

    2014-08-01

    In this study, different strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus from dahi were analyzed for certain probiotic and antibacterial properties. Initially, these strains were confirmed by the amplification of 16S rRNA regions and then screened for antibacterial activities against food borne pathogens. The phenotypic relationship between apparent antibacterial activity and cell wall proteins were established by cluster analysis. It was observed that those strains, which have prominent bands having size 22-25?kDa possess antibacterial activity. On the basis of wide spectrum of killing pattern, a strain LA06FT was further characterized that showed no change in its behavior when subjected to the antibiotic protected environment and grow well in acid-bile conditions. The bacteriocin produced by this strain has specific antibacterial activity of 5369.13?AU?mg(-1). It remained stable at 60-90?C and pH range of 4.5-6.5 while proteolytic enzymes inactivate the bacteriocin that confirm its proteinic nature having molecular weight of ?8.5?kDa. PMID:24689927

  14. Simultaneous Production of Biosurfactants and Bacteriocins by Probiotic Lactobacillus casei MRTL3.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepansh; Singh Saharan, Baljeet

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are ubiquitous and well-known commensal bacteria in the human and animal microflora. LAB are extensively studied and used in a variety of industrial and food fermentations. They are widely used for humans and animals as adjuvants, probiotic formulation, and dietary supplements and in other food fermentation applications. In the present investigation, LAB were isolated from raw milk samples collected from local dairy farms of Haryana, India. Further, the isolates were screened for simultaneous production of biosurfactants and bacteriocins. Biosurfactant produced was found to be a mixture of lipid and sugar similar to glycolipids. The bacteriocin obtained was found to be heat stable (5?min at 100C). Further, DNA of the strain was extracted and amplified by the 16S rRNA sequencing using universal primers. The isolate Lactobacillus casei MRTL3 was found to be a potent biosurfactant and bacteriocin producer. It seems to have huge potential for food industry as a biopreservative and/or food ingredient. PMID:24669225

  15. Long-Term Use of Probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Has a Prophylactic Effect on the Occurrence and Severity of Pouchitis: A Randomized Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomasz, Banasiewicz; Zoran, Stojcev; Jaros?aw, Walkowiak; Ryszard, Marciniak; Marcin, Grochowalski; Robert, Burdy?ski; Piotr, Krokowicz; Lukasz, Krokowicz; Jacek, Paszkowski; Piotr, Gronek; Przemys?aw, Pyda; Micha?, Drews

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the long-term use of the composite probiotics in patients after restorative proctocolectomy. Method. Forty-three patients (20 females and 23 males, aged 21 to 68 years) after restorative proctocolectomy were included in the study. After randomization patients were divided into placebo group and treatment group with oral intake of probiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Bifidobacterium bifidus. Patients were investigated during initial visit and during final visit after 9 months. All patients were subjected to standard clinical and endoscopic examination with microscopic study of the specimens. Concentrations of calprotectin and pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2-PK were determined in all cases. Results. The average severity of pouchitis and the number of patients with pouchitis significantly decrease after 9 months of the probiotic taking. The concentrations of calprotectin and pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2-PK significantly decreased after the therapy. Conclusions. Nine months of the probiotic treatment (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Bifidobacterium bifidus) reduced the number of patients with pouchitis, decreased the PDAI score, and also decreased the fecal pyruvate kinase and calprotectin. The long-term probiotics use is safe and well accepted and can be an effective method of the pouchitis prevention. PMID:24579075

  16. Comparative Survival Rates of Human-Derived Probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei and L. salivarius Strains during Heat Treatment and Spray Drying

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, G. E.; O'Sullivan, E.; Kelly, J.; Auty, M. A. E.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Collins, J. K.; Ross, R. P.; Stanton, C.

    2000-01-01

    Spray drying of skim milk was evaluated as a means of preserving Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 and Lactobacillus salivarius UCC 118, which are human-derived strains with probiotic potential. Our initial experiments revealed that NFBC 338 is considerably more heat resistant in 20% (wt/vol) skim milk than UCC 118 is; the comparable decimal reduction times were 11.1 and 1.1 min, respectively, at 59°C. An air outlet temperature of 80 to 85°C was optimal for spray drying; these conditions resulted in powders with moisture contents of 4.1 to 4.2% and viable counts of 3.2 × 109 CFU/g for NFBC 338 and 5.2 × 107 CFU/g for UCC 118. Thus, L. paracasei NFBC 338 survived better than L. salivarius UCC 118 during spray drying; similar results were obtained when we used confocal scanning laser microscopy and LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability staining. In addition, confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed that the probiotic lactobacilli were located primarily in the powder particles. Although both spray-dried cultures appeared to be stressed, as shown by increased sensitivity to NaCl, bacteriocin production by UCC 118 was not affected by the process, nor was the activity of the bacteriocin peptide. The level of survival of NFBC 338 remained constant at ∼1 × 109 CFU/g during 2 months of powder storage at 4°C, while a decline in the level of survival of approximately 1 log (from 7.2 × 107 to 9.5 × 106 CFU/g) was observed for UCC 118 stored under the same conditions. However, survival of both Lactobacillus strains during powder storage was inversely related to the storage temperature. Our data demonstrate that spray drying may be a cost-effective way to produce large quantities of some probiotic cultures. PMID:10831444

  17. Comparative survival rates of human-derived probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei and L. salivarius strains during heat treatment and spray drying.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, G E; O'Sullivan, E; Kelly, J; Auty, M A; Fitzgerald, G F; Collins, J K; Ross, R P; Stanton, C

    2000-06-01

    Spray drying of skim milk was evaluated as a means of preserving Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 and Lactobacillus salivarius UCC 118, which are human-derived strains with probiotic potential. Our initial experiments revealed that NFBC 338 is considerably more heat resistant in 20% (wt/vol) skim milk than UCC 118 is; the comparable decimal reduction times were 11.1 and 1.1 min, respectively, at 59 degrees C. An air outlet temperature of 80 to 85 degrees C was optimal for spray drying; these conditions resulted in powders with moisture contents of 4.1 to 4.2% and viable counts of 3.2 x 10(9) CFU/g for NFBC 338 and 5.2 x 10(7) CFU/g for UCC 118. Thus, L. paracasei NFBC 338 survived better than L. salivarius UCC 118 during spray drying; similar results were obtained when we used confocal scanning laser microscopy and LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability staining. In addition, confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed that the probiotic lactobacilli were located primarily in the powder particles. Although both spray-dried cultures appeared to be stressed, as shown by increased sensitivity to NaCl, bacteriocin production by UCC 118 was not affected by the process, nor was the activity of the bacteriocin peptide. The level of survival of NFBC 338 remained constant at approximately 1 x 10(9) CFU/g during 2 months of powder storage at 4 degrees C, while a decline in the level of survival of approximately 1 log (from 7.2 x 10(7) to 9.5 x 10(6) CFU/g) was observed for UCC 118 stored under the same conditions. However, survival of both Lactobacillus strains during powder storage was inversely related to the storage temperature. Our data demonstrate that spray drying may be a cost-effective way to produce large quantities of some probiotic cultures. PMID:10831444

  18. Spatial Localization and Binding of the Probiotic Lactobacillus farciminis to the Rat Intestinal Mucosa: Influence of Chronic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Arthur; Mercade-Loubière, Myriam; Salvador-Cartier, Christel; Ringot, Bélinda; Léonard, Renaud; Fourquaux, Isabelle; Ait-Belgnaoui, Afifa; Loubière, Pascal; Théodorou, Vassilia; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at detecting the exogenously applied probiotic Lactobacillus farciminis in rats, after exposure to IBS-like chronic stress, based on 4-day Water Avoidance Stress (WAS). The presence of L. farciminis in both ileal and colonic mucosal tissues was demonstrated by FISH and qPCR, with ileum as the preferential niche, as for the SFB population. A different spatial distribution of the probiotic was observed: in the ileum, bacteria were organized in micro-colonies more or less close to the epithelium whereas, in the colon, they were mainly visualized far away from the epithelium. When rats were submitted to WAS, the L. farciminis population substantially decreased in both intestinal regions, due to a stress-induced increase in colonic motility and defecation, rather than a modification of bacterial binding to the intestinal mucin Muc2. PMID:26367538

  19. Efficacy and safety of a vaginal medicinal product containing three strains of probiotic bacteria: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tomusiak, Anna; Strus, Magdalena; Heczko, Piotr B; Adamski, Pawe?; Stefa?ski, Grzegorz; Miko?ajczyk-Cicho?ska, Aleksandra; Suda-Szczurek, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether vaginal administration of probiotic Lactobacillus results in their colonization and persistence in the vagina and whether Lactobacillus colonization promotes normalization and maintenance of pH and Nugent score. Patients and methods The study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. Altogether, 376 women were assessed for eligibility, and signed informed consent. One hundred and sixty eligible women with abnormal, also called intermediate, vaginal microflora, as indicated by a Nugent score of 46 and pH >4.5 and zero or low Lactobacillus count, were randomized. Each participant was examined four times during the study. Women were randomly allocated to receive either the probiotic preparation inVag, or a placebo (one capsule for seven consecutive days vaginally). The product inVag includes the probiotic strains Lactobacillus fermentum 57A, Lactobacillus plantarum 57B, and Lactobacillus gasseri 57C. We took vaginal swabs during visits I, III, and IV to determine the presence and abundance of bacteria from the Lactobacillus genus, measure the pH, and estimate the Nugent score. Drug safety evaluation was based on analysis of the types and occurrence of adverse events. Results Administration of inVag contributed to a significant decrease (between visits) in both vaginal pH (P<0.05) and Nugent score (P<0.05), and a significant increase in the abundance of Lactobacillus between visit I and visits III and IV (P<0.05). Molecular typing revealed the presence of Lactobacillus strains originating from inVag in 82% of women taking the drug at visit III, and 47.5% at visit IV. There was no serious adverse event related to inVag administration during the study. Conclusion The probiotic inVag is safe for administration to sustainably restore the healthy vaginal microbiota, as demonstrated by predominance of the Lactobacillus bacteria in vaginal microbiota. PMID:26451088

  20. Microbiological and physicochemical quality of fresh-cut apple enriched with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Isabel; Vias, Inmaculada; Usall, Josep; Anguera, Marina; Abadias, Maribel

    2011-02-01

    The effectiveness as protective culture of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamonosus GG (L. rham. GG) against Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes on minimally-processed apples throughout storage as well as its effect on apple quality and natural microflora was evaluated. Survival to subsequent exposure to gastric stress was also reported. Apples were cut into wedges and dipped in a solution containing Salmonella and L. monocytogenes (10(5) cfu mL(-1)) and/or L. rham. GG (10(8) cfu mL(-1)). Apple wedges were packed and stored at 5 and 10 C. Periodically, microbial population, bacterial survival to gastric stress and quality of apple wedges were evaluated. Although Salmonella was not affected by co-inoculation with L. rham. GG, L. monocytogenes population was 1-log units lower in the presence of L. rham. GG. L. rham. GG population maintained over recommended levels for probiotic action (10(6) cfu g(-1)) along storage, however, viable cells after gastric stress were only above this level during the first 14 days. Pathogen survival after gastric stress was <1% after 7 days at 5 C. Moreover, apple wedges quality was not affected by L. rham. GG addition. Thus, L. rham. GG could be a suitable probiotic for minimally-processed apples capable to reduce L. monocytogenes growth; nevertheless shelf life should not be higher to 14 days to guarantee the probiotic effect. PMID:21056776

  1. The probiotic Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711 reduces the vascular pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory status in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Toral, Marta; Gómez-Guzmán, Manuel; Jiménez, Rosario; Romero, Miguel; Sánchez, Manuel; Utrilla, María Pilar; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Rodríguez-Cabezas, María Elena; Olivares, Mónica; Gálvez, Julio; Duarte, Juan

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is associated with intestine dysbiosis and is characterized by a low-grade inflammatory status, which affects vascular function. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a probiotic with immunomodulatory properties, Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711, in obese mice fed on an HFD (high-fat diet). The probiotic treatment was given for 12 weeks, and it did not affect the weight evolution, although it reduced basal glycaemia and insulin resistance. L. coryniformis administration to HFD-induced obese mice induced marked changes in microbiota composition and reduced the metabolic endotoxaemia as it decreased the LPS (lipopolysaccharide) plasma level, which was associated with a significant improvement in gut barrier disruption. Furthermore, it lowered TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) expression in liver, improving the inflammatory status, and thus the glucose metabolism. Additionally, the probiotic reversed the endothelial dysfunction observed in obese mice when endothelium- and NO (nitric oxide)-dependent vasodilatation induced by acetylcholine in aortic rings was studied. It also restored the increased vessel superoxide levels observed in obese mice, by reducing NADPH oxidase activity and increasing antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, chronic probiotic administration for 2 weeks also improved endothelial dysfunction and vascular oxidative stress induced by in vivo administration of LPS in control mice fed on a standard chow diet. The results of the present study demonstrate an endothelial-protective effect of L. coryniformis CECT5711 in obese mice by increasing NO bioavailability, suggesting the therapeutic potential of this gut microbiota manipulation to prevent vasculopathy in obesity. PMID:24410749

  2. In vitro evaluation of the probiotic potential of bacteriocin producer Lactobacillus sakei 1.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruna C; Rodrigues, Marina R; Winkelstrter, Lizziane K; Nomizo, Auro; de Martinis, Elaine C P

    2012-06-01

    Lactobacillus sakei 1 is a food isolate that produces a heat-stable antimicrobial peptide (sakacin 1, a class IIa bacteriocin) inhibitory to the opportunistic pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Bacterial isolates with antimicrobial activity may be useful for food biopreservation and also for developing probiotics. To evaluate the probiotic potential of L. sakei 1, it was tested for (i) in vitro gastric resistance (with synthetic gastric juice adjusted to pH 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0); (ii) survival and bacteriocin production in the presence of bile salts and commercial prebiotics (inulin and oligofructose); (iii) adhesion to Caco-2 cells; and (iv) effect on the adhesion of L. monocytogenes to Caco-2 cells and invasion of these cells by the organism. The results showed that L. sakei 1 survival in gastric environment varied according to pH, with the maximum survival achieved at pH 3.0, despite a 4-log reduction of the population after 3 h. Regarding the bile salt tolerance and influence of prebiotics, it was observed that L. sakei 1 survival rates were similar (P > 0.05) for all de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth formulations when tests were done after 4 h of incubation. However, after incubation for 24 h, the survival of L. sakei 1 in MRS broth was reduced by 1.8 log (P < 0.001), when glucose was replaced by either inulin or oligofructose (without Oxgall). L. sakei 1 was unable to deconjugate bile salts, and there was a significant decrease (1.4 log) of the L. sakei 1 population in regular MRS broth plus Oxgall (P < 0.05). In spite of this, tolerance levels of L. sakei 1 to bile salts were similar in regular MRS broth and in MRS broth with oligofructose. Lower bacteriocin production was observed in MRS broth when inulin (3,200 AU/ml) or oligofructose (2,400 AU/ml) was used instead of glucose (6,400 AU/ml). L. sakei 1 adhered to Caco-2 cells, and its cell-free pH-neutralized supernatant containing sakacin 1 led to a significant reduction of in vitro listerial invasion of human intestinal Caco-2 cells. PMID:22691476

  3. Effects of encapsulation on the viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum exposed to high acidity condition and presence of bile salts.

    PubMed

    Tee, W F; Nazaruddin, R; Tan, Y N; Ayob, M K

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the survival of encapsulated potential probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum which isolated from fermented cocoa beans. ?-Carrageenan was used to encapsulate the probiotic. Encapsulation techniques such as emulsification, freeze-drying or extrusion were adopted to encapsulate the probiotic. Freeze-drying and extrusion methods showed higher (p?probiotic compared to the emulsification method (82.19??0.71% efficiency). Freeze-dried encapsulated probiotic L. plantarum was selected for further survival analysis as greater amount of beads were produced compared to the extrusion method. Freeze-dried probiotic was found to have significantly (p?probiotic. However, freeze-drying encapsulation was proven not to enhance the resistance of the probiotic to bile salt as evidenced by the one log colony reduction as for the non-encapsulated probiotic. Further modification of freeze-drying encapsulation technique is needed to enhance the survival of the encapsulated potential probiotic L. plantarum toward bile salt in the future. PMID:23774606

  4. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-ZS9, a probiotic starter producing class II bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Li, Pinglan

    2016-03-20

    Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-ZS9 is a probiotic starter isolated from fermented sausage and it is a great producer of class II bacteriocins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first complete sequenced genome of L. paraplantarum deposited in GenBank database. The size of the complete genome of L. paraplantarum L-ZS9 is 3,139,729bp. The genomic sequence revealed that this strain includes 19 genes involved in class II bacteriocins production and regulation. The information fill the gaps of the L. paraplantarum genome information and contribute to the improvement of class II bacteriocins research. PMID:26853479

  5. Reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses harboring exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426.

    PubMed

    Ryan, P M; Burdkov, Z; Beresford, T; Auty, M A E; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P; Sheehan, J J; Stanton, C

    2015-12-01

    Exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was previously shown to have promising hypocholesterolemic activity in the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses as functional (carrier) foods for delivery of this probiotic strain. All cheeses were manufactured at pilot-scale (500-L vats) in triplicate, with standard commercially available starters: for Cheddar, Lactococcus lactis; and for Swiss-type cheese, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was used as an adjunct culture during cheese manufacture, at a level of ~10(6) cfumL(-1) cheese milk (subsequently present in the cheese curd at>10(7) cfug(-1)). The adjunct strain remained viable at >510(7) cfug(-1) in both Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses following ripening for 6 mo. Sensory analysis revealed that the presence of the adjunct culture imparted a more appealing appearance in Swiss-type cheese, but had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. Moreover, the adjunct culture had no significant effect on cheese composition, proteolysis, pH, or instrumentally quantified textural characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. These data indicate that low-fat Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses represent suitable food matrices for the delivery of the hypocholesterolemic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in an industrial setting. PMID:26409971

  6. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Altermann, Eric; Russell, W. Michael; Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Buck, B. Logan; McAuliffe, Olivia; Souther, Nicole; Dobson, Alleson; Duong, Tri; Callanan, Michael; Lick, Sonja; Hamrick, Alice; Cano, Raul; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a probiotic bacterium that has been produced commercially since 1972. The complete genome is 1,993,564 nt and devoid of plasmids. The average GC content is 34.71% with 1,864 predicted ORFs, of which 72.5% were functionally classified. Nine phage-related integrases were predicted, but no complete prophages were found. However, three unique regions designated as potential autonomous units (PAUs) were identified. These units resemble a unique structure and bear characteristics of both plasmids and phages. Analysis of the three PAUs revealed the presence of two R/M systems and a prophage maintenance system killer protein. A spacers interspersed direct repeat locus containing 32 nearly perfect 29-bp repeats was discovered and may provide a unique molecular signature for this organism. In silico analyses predicted 17 transposase genes and a chromosomal locus for lactacin B, a class II bacteriocin. Several mucus- and fibronectin-binding proteins, implicated in adhesion to human intestinal cells, were also identified. Gene clusters for transport of a diverse group of carbohydrates, including fructooligosaccharides and raffinose, were present and often accompanied by transcriptional regulators of the lacI family. For protein degradation and peptide utilization, the organism encoded 20 putative peptidases, homologs for PrtP and PrtM, and two complete oligopeptide transport systems. Nine two-component regulatory systems were predicted, some associated with determinants implicated in bacteriocin production and acid tolerance. Collectively, these features within the genome sequence of L. acidophilus are likely to contribute to the organisms' gastric survival and promote interactions with the intestinal mucosa and microbiota. PMID:15671160

  7. Synbiotic functional drink from Jerusalem artichoke juice fermented by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26.

    PubMed

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Velickova, Elena; Dimitrovska, Maja; Langerholc, Tomaz; Winkelhausen, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    A probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26 was used to ferment Jerusalem artichoke juice. Growth kinetics of the bacterial strain was followed during juice fermentation both in flask and in laboratory fermentor. Jerusalem artichoke showed to be an excellent source of nutrients for L. plantarum PCS26 growth. The culture grew very well reaching more than 10(10) cfu/ml in just 12 h. The pH changed from the initial 6.5 to 4.6 at the end of fermentation. The culture hydrolyzed fructooligosaccharides present in the Jerusalem artichoke juice, yielding fructose which was presumably consumed along with the malic acid as energy and carbon source. Lactic acid was the main metabolite produced in concentration of 4.6 g/L. Acetic and succinic acid were also identified. Sensory evaluation of the fermented Jerusalem artichoke juice and its mixtures with blueberry juice showed that the 50/50 % v/v mixture would be very well accepted by the consumers. Above 80 % of the panelists would buy this drink, and over 60 % were willing to pay more for it. Culture survivability in the fermented juices during storage at 4-7 °C was assayed by the Weibullian model. The product shelf-life was extended from 19.70 ± 0.50 days of pure Jerusalem artichoke juice to 35.7 ± 6.4 days of the mixture containing 30 % blueberry juice. PMID:26787997

  8. Characterization of some potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from Iranian native chickens.

    PubMed

    Aazami, Nazila; Salehi Jouzani, Gholamreza; Khodaei, Zohreh; Meimandipour, Amir; Safari, Mohammad; Goudarzvand, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to isolate, identify and characterize new LAB strains with high probiotic potentials from Iranian (Isfahan) indigenous chickens. From 90 isolated LABs, 11 isolates had high growth rate under different stress conditions, including acid (pH 2.5), bile (0.5% oxgall), salt (6-15%) and temperatures 15 and 45C, and their aggregation time was less than 120 min. Based on the molecular identification using 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the isolates belonged to two Lactobacillus salivarius and L. reuteri species. The isolates showed different tolerance to 16 clinically and veterinary relevant antibiotics, and most of them were resistant to or semi-tolerant of 7-15 different studied antibiotics. The Es11, Es12, Es3 and Es13 strains with resistance to or semi-tolerance of 15, 14 and 13 different antibiotics, respectively, were the most tolerant strains. The selected isolates showed a wide range of antimicrobial activity against 7 different pathogenic strains. All the isolates exhibited antagonistic activity against E. coli, Enterococcus hirae, Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolates Es6 and Es11 with high antagonistic activity and resistance against 6 of the studied pathogens were the most powerful antagonistic isolates. The values and types of adhesion to the Caco-2 cell cultures were significantly different (0-40 bacteria/Caco-2 cell), and the maximum adhesion was observed for the isolates Es6 and Es13 with 35 and 40 bacteria adhesion/cell, respectively. Finally, based on all the experiments, 7 strains, including Es1, Es6, Es7, Es11, Es12 and Es13, were selected for the further in vivo assays and possible use in the poultry industry. PMID:25742971

  9. The effect of a commercial probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on oral health in healthy dentate people

    PubMed Central

    Sutula, Justyna; Coulthwaite, Lisa Ann; Thomas, Linda Valerie; Verran, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background In the past decade, the use of probiotic-containing products has been explored as a potential alternative in oral health therapy. A widely available probiotic drink, Yakult, was evaluated for oral health applications in this longitudinal study. Selected oral health parameters, such as levels and composition of salivary and tongue plaque microbiota and of malodorous gases, in dentate healthy individuals were investigated for changes. The persistence of the probiotic strain in the oral cavity was monitored throughout the study period. Methods A three-phase study (7 weeks) was designed to investigate simultaneously the effect of 4-week consumption of the probiotic-containing milk drink Yakult on the microbiota of saliva and dorsum tongue coating in healthy dentate people (n = 22) and levels of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) in morning breath. Study phases comprised one baseline visit, at which control levels of oral parameters were obtained prior to the probiotic product consumption; a 4-week period of daily consumption of one 65 ml bottle of Yakult, each bottle containing a minimum of 6.5109 viable cells of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS); and a 2-week washout period. The microbial viability and composition of saliva and tongue dorsum coating were assessed using a range of solid media. The presence of LcS in the oral cavity was investigated using a novel selective medium, LcS Select. Portable sulphur monitors Halimeter and OralChromaTM were used to measure levels of VSCs in morning breath. Results Utilization of the LcS Select medium revealed a significant (p < 0.05) but temporary and consumption-dependent presence of LcS in saliva and tongue plaque samples from healthy dentate individuals (n = 19) during the probiotic intervention phase. LcS was undetectable with culture after 2 weeks of ceasing its consumption. Morning breath scores measured with Halimeter and OralChroma were not significantly affected throughout the trial, except in a small number of individual cases where Halimeter scores were significantly reduced during the probiotic intervention period. Natural fluctuations in resident acidogenic populations, and numbers of Candida and anaerobic species, including malodourous Gram-negative anaerobes, were unaffected. Conclusion While no broad ecological changes in the mouth were induced by consumption of Yakult in healthy dentate individuals, findings of this study confirm the temporary and intake-dependent presence of LcS. Future studies could focus on subjects at greater risk of oral infection, where ill-defined microbiota (e.g. an increased presence of periopathogens) or clinically diagnosed halitosis might be significantly affected by consumption of this probiotic. PMID:24179468

  10. Screening of Probiotic Candidates in Human Oral Bacteria for the Prevention of Dental Disease

    PubMed Central

    Terai, Tomohiko; Okumura, Takekazu; Imai, Susumu; Nakao, Masumi; Yamaji, Kazuaki; Ito, Masahiko; Nagata, Tsuyoshi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Miyazaki, Kouji; Okada, Ayako; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity in healthy subjects has a well-balanced microbiota that consists of more than 700 species. However, a disturbance of this balance, with an increase of harmful microbes and a decrease of beneficial microbes, causes oral disorders such as periodontal disease or dental caries. Nowadays, probiotics are expected to confer oral health benefits by modulating the oral microbiota. This study screened new probiotic candidates with potential oral health benefits and no harmful effects on the oral cavity. We screened 14 lactobacillus strains and 36 streptococcus strains out of 896 oral isolates derived from healthy subjects. These bacteria did not produce volatile sulfur compounds or water-insoluble glucan, had higher antibacterial activity against periodontal bacteria, and had higher adherence activity to oral epithelial cells or salivary-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro. We then evaluated the risk of primary cariogenicity and infective endocarditis of the selected oral isolates. As a result, Lactobacillus crispatus YIT 12319, Lactobacillus fermentum YIT 12320, Lactobacillus gasseri YIT 12321, and Streptococcus mitis YIT 12322 were selected because they showed no cariogenic potential in an artificial mouth system and a lower risk of experimental infective endocarditis in a rat model. These candidates are expected as new probiotics with potential oral health benefits and no adverse effects on general health. PMID:26053410

  11. IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY AND LACTOBACILLUS-BASED PROBIOTIC ON HOST IMMUNE RESPONSES IN EIMERIA ACERVULINA-INFECTED BROILERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we have shown in separate experiments that resistance in broilers to Eimeria acervulina (EA) was reduced by vitamin A deficiency and enhanced by a probiotic (Lactobacillus-based, Primalac®). In the present 2 x 2 factorial study, a broiler starter ration was amended for vitamin A (control...

  12. Anti-Infective Activities of Lactobacillus Strains in the Human Intestinal Microbiota: from Probiotics to Gastrointestinal Anti-Infectious Biotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

  13. Enhanced viability of Lactobacillus reuteri for probiotics production in mixed solid-state fermentation in the presence of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Ran; Xiong, Hai-Rong; Guo, Xiao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a multi-microbe probiotic preparation of Lactobacillus reuteri G8-5 and Bacillus subtilis MA139 in solid-state fermentation, a series of parameters were optimized sequentially in shake flask culture. The effect of supplementation of B. subtilis MA139 as starters on the viability of L. reuteri G8-5 was also explored. The results showed that the optimized process was as follows: water content, 50 %; initial pH of diluted molasses, 6.5; inocula volume, 2 %; flask dry contents, 30?35 g/250 g without sterilization; and fermentation time, 2 days. The multi-microbial preparations finally provided the maximum concentration of Lactobacillus of about 9.01 0.15 log CFU/g and spores of Bacillus of about 10.30 0.08 log CFU/g. Compared with pure fermentation of L. reuteri G8-5, significantly high viable cells, low value of pH, and reducing sugar in solid substrates were achieved in mixed fermentation in the presence of B. subtilis MA139 (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the mixed fermentation showed the significantly higher antimicrobial activity against E. coli K88 (P < 0.05). Based on the overall results, the optimized process enhanced the production of multi-microbe probiotics in solid-state fermentation with low cost. Moreover, the viability of L. reuteri G8-5 could be significantly enhanced in the presence of B. subtilis MA139 in solid-state fermentation, which favored the production of probiotics for animal use. PMID:23775321

  14. Probiotic Ferulic Acid Esterase Active Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 APA Microcapsules for Oral Delivery: Preparation and in Vitro Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Coussa-Charley, Michael; Kahouli, Imen; Jones, Mitchell L.; Labbé, Alain; Prakash, Satya

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics possess potential therapeutic and preventative effects for various diseases and metabolic disorders. One important limitation for the oral delivery of probiotics is the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) which challenge bacterial viability and activity. One proposed method to surpass this obstacle is the use of microencapsulation to improve the delivery of bacterial cells to the lower GIT. The aim of this study is to use alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microcapsules to encapsulate Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 and characterize its enzymatic activity and viability through a simulated GIT. This specific strain, in previous research, was characterized for its inherent ferulic acid esterase (FAE) activity which could prove beneficial in the development of a therapeutic for the treatment and prevention of cancers and metabolic disorders. Our findings demonstrate that the APA microcapsule does not slow the mass transfer of substrate into and that of the FA product out of the microcapsule, while also not impairing bacterial cell viability. The use of simulated gastrointestinal conditions led to a significant 2.5 log difference in viability between the free (1.10 × 104 ± 1.00 × 103 cfu/mL) and the microencapsulated (5.50 × 106 ± 1.00 × 105 cfu/mL) L. fermentum NCIMB 5221 following exposure. The work presented here suggests that APA microencapsulation can be used as an effective oral delivery method for L. fermentum NCIMB 5221, a FAE-active probiotic strain. PMID:24288090

  15. Probiotic Ferulic Acid Esterase Active Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 APA Microcapsules for Oral Delivery: Preparation and in Vitro Characterization.

    PubMed

    Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Coussa-Charley, Michael; Kahouli, Imen; Jones, Mitchell L; Labbé, Alain; Prakash, Satya

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics possess potential therapeutic and preventative effects for various diseases and metabolic disorders. One important limitation for the oral delivery of probiotics is the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) which challenge bacterial viability and activity. One proposed method to surpass this obstacle is the use of microencapsulation to improve the delivery of bacterial cells to the lower GIT. The aim of this study is to use alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microcapsules to encapsulate Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 and characterize its enzymatic activity and viability through a simulated GIT. This specific strain, in previous research, was characterized for its inherent ferulic acid esterase (FAE) activity which could prove beneficial in the development of a therapeutic for the treatment and prevention of cancers and metabolic disorders. Our findings demonstrate that the APA microcapsule does not slow the mass transfer of substrate into and that of the FA product out of the microcapsule, while also not impairing bacterial cell viability. The use of simulated gastrointestinal conditions led to a significant 2.5 log difference in viability between the free (1.10 × 104 ± 1.00 × 103 cfu/mL) and the microencapsulated (5.50 × 106 ± 1.00 × 105 cfu/mL) L. fermentum NCIMB 5221 following exposure. The work presented here suggests that APA microencapsulation can be used as an effective oral delivery method for L. fermentum NCIMB 5221, a FAE-active probiotic strain. PMID:24288090

  16. Cellular injuries of spray-dried Lactobacillus spp. isolated from kefir and their impact on probiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Golowczyc, Marina A; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula; De Antoni, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G

    2011-01-01

    The injuries caused by spray drying (SD) of three potential probiotic lactobacilli isolated from kefir grains and the impact on some probiotic properties, were evaluated. Results demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum 83114 and L. kefir 8321 showed a slight reduction of viability (0.11 and 0.29 log CFU/ml respectively) after SD process, and L. kefir 8348 was found to be more sensitive to the process with a reduction in viability of 0.70 log CFU/ml. Neither membrane damage, evaluated by increased sensitivity to NaCl, lysozyme, bile salt and penicillin G, nor changes in acidifying activity in MRS and milk by lactobacilli were detected after SD. L. plantarum 83114 and L. kefir 8321 after SD did not lose their capacity to adhere to intestinal cells. Nevertheless, L. kefir 8348 showed a significant loss of adhesion capacity after SD. In addition, rehydrated spray-dried L. kefir 8321 retained the ability to protect against Salmonella invasion of intestinal cells. This effect was observed when L. kefir is co-incubated with Salmonella before invasion assay. This work shows that the membrane integrity evaluated by indirect methods and some probiotic properties of lactobacilli isolated from kefir did not change significantly after SD, and these powders could be used in functional foods applications. PMID:21144610

  17. Characterization of a noncytotoxic bacteriocin from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 with potential as a food preservative.

    PubMed

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to purify and characterize the bacteriocin produced by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 in order to evaluate its potential as nutraceuticals. Lb. plantarum DM5 exhibited in vitro probiotic properties such as high resistance to gastric juice and bile salt, adherence to human adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells, bile salt hydrolase and cholesterol assimilation activity. Moreover, Lb. plantarum DM5 showed bacteriocin activity against several major food borne pathogens. Zymogram analysis of purified bacteriocin (plantaricin DM5) showed a molecular size of ?15.2 kDa. Plantaricin DM5 was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes but stable in the pH range of 2.0-10.0, and it was heat resistant (121 C for 15 min) and remained active upon treatment with surfactants and detergents. Cytotoxicity analysis of plantaricin DM5 on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines revealed its nontoxic and biocompatible nature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the isolated strain expressing probiotic properties and broad antimicrobial activity without any cytotoxic effect on mammalian cells from indigenous fermented beverage Marcha from India, and thus contributes to the food industry as a novel bio-preservant. PMID:25103206

  18. Immunomodulatory activity and control of Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in the intestinal tract of chickens by Lactobacillus based probiotic.

    PubMed

    Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; Díaz, Silvia Juliana Acelas; Fernando, Filipe Santos; Chang, Yung-Fu; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio; Berchieri Junior, Angelo

    2015-09-15

    Lactobacillus-based probiotics (LBP) are used as competitive exclusion to control pathogenic enterobacterial infections and improve the weight gain in broiler chickens. This study assessed the inhibition of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infection in one-week-old broiler chicks, using an experimental LBP containing four Lactobacillus strains isolated from chickens (L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. reuteri, L. salivarius). The immunomodulatory effects of this treatment were evaluated, through the analysis of cytokines and influx of macrophages, γδ, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the gut. The intestinal colonization by SE was reduced by 1.8 CFU/g (log10) in chicks treated with LBP (p<0.05). The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, LITAF) were significantly reduced in treated chicks (p<0.05), whilst untreated chicks showed elevated inflammatory stimulus and an increased population of CD8(+) T cells in the intestinal mucosa after challenge (p<0.05). Additionally, the LBP stimulated TLR2 expression in caecal tonsils. The adjuvant property of the Lactobacillus cell wall (LCW) was evaluated, demonstrating good capability to stimulate T helper 2 (Th2) cell proliferation. Pretreatment of chicks with LBP decreased the intestinal colonization by SE, minimizing the tissue lesions and inflammation after challenge and showed a potential use as adjuvant with injectable killed vaccines. PMID:26099807

  19. The Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Helicobacter pylori Eradication Rates and Side Effects during Eradication Therapy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yini; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Guoxin

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous meta-analyses reported that probiotics improve the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication during antibiotic therapy, while results regarding a possible reduction of side effects remained inconclusive. Moreover, the effectiveness of different strains of probiotics has not been studied so far. It is further conceivable that probiotics will produce additional effects only if antibiotics are relatively ineffective. Methods This meta-analysis includes eligible randomized controlled trials examining effects of probiotics supplementation on eradication rates (ER) and side effects, published up to May 2014. Sub-group analysis was performed to compare different probiotic strains and antibiotic therapies with different effectiveness in controls (ER <80% vs.>80%). Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots and Harbord's test. The quality of the trials was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 4459 patients met the inclusion criteria in case of eradication rates of which 20 assessed total side effects in addition. Overall, the pooled eradication rate in probiotics supplementation groups was significantly higher than in controls (ITT analysis: RR 1.122, 95% CI 1.0861.159, PP analysis: RR 1.114, 95% CI 1.0701.159). Sub group-analysis could, however, confirm this finding only for four individual strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Bifidobacterium infantis 2036) and for relatively ineffective antibiotic therapies. There was a significant difference between groups in the overall incidence of side effects (RR 0.735, 95% CI 0.5980.902). This result was, however, only confirmed for non-blinded trials. Conclusions The pooled data suggest that supplementation with specific strains of probiotics compared with eradication therapy may be considered an option for increasing eradication rates, particularly when antibiotic therapies are relatively ineffective. The impact on side effects remains unclear and more high quality trials on specific probiotic strains and side effects are thus needed. PMID:25365320

  20. Relationships between the genome and some phenotypical properties of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT 5716, a probiotic strain isolated from human milk.

    PubMed

    Crdenas, Nivia; Laio, Jonathan E; Delgado, Susana; Jimnez, Esther; Jurez del Valle, Marianela; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; Sesma, Fernando; Mayo, Baltasar; Fernndez, Lenides; LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Rodrguez, Juan M

    2015-05-01

    Lactobacillus fermentum CECT 5716, isolated from human milk, has immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infectious properties, as revealed by several in vitro and in vivo assays, which suggests a strong potential as a probiotic strain. In this work, some phenotypic properties of L. fermentum CECT 5716 were evaluated, and the genetic basis for the obtained results was searched for in the strain genome. L. fermentum CECT 5716 does not contain plasmids and showed neither bacteriocin nor biogenic amine biosynthesis ability but was able to produce organic acids, glutathione, riboflavin, and folates and to moderately stimulate the maturation of mouse dendritic cells. No prophages could be induced, and the strain was sensitive to all antibiotics proposed by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) standards, while no transmissible genes potentially involved in antibiotic resistance were detected in its genome. Globally, there was an agreement between the phenotype properties of L. fermentum CECT 5716 and the genetic information contained in its genome. PMID:25661998

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Intraurethrally Administered Probiotic Lactobacillus casei in a Murine Model of Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Watanuki, Masaaki; Yokokura, Teruo

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the intraurethrally administered probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota against Escherichia coli in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model was examined. UTI was induced by intraurethral administration of Escherichia coli strain HU-1 (a clinical isolate from a UTI patient, positive for type 1 and P fimbriae), at a dose of 1 × 106 to 2 × 106 CFU in 20 μl of saline, into a C3H/HeN mouse bladder which had been traumatized with 0.1 N HCl followed immediately by neutralization with 0.1 N NaOH 24 h before the challenge infection. Chronic infection with the pathogen at 106 CFU in the urinary tract (bladder and kidneys) was maintained for more than 3 weeks after the challenge, and the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and myeloperoxidase activity in the urine were markedly elevated during the infection period. A single administration of L. casei Shirota at a dose of 108 CFU 24 h before the challenge infection dramatically inhibited E. coli growth and inflammatory responses in the urinary tract. Multiple daily treatments with L. casei Shirota during the postinfection period also showed antimicrobial activity in this UTI model. A heat-killed preparation of L. casei Shirota exerted significant antimicrobial effects not only with a single pretreatment (100 μg/mouse) but also with multiple daily treatments during the postinfection period. The other Lactobacillus strains tested, i.e., L. fermentum ATCC 14931T, L. jensenii ATCC 25258T, L. plantarum ATCC 14917T, and L. reuteri JCM 1112T, had no significant antimicrobial activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the probiotic L. casei strain Shirota is a potent therapeutic agent for UTI. PMID:11353622

  2. Some low homogenization pressures improve certain probiotic characteristics of yogurt culture bacteria and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-K.

    PubMed

    Muramalla, T; Aryana, K J

    2011-08-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus are dairy cultures widely used in the manufacture of cultured dairy products. Commonly used homogenization pressures in the dairy industry are 13.80 MPa or less. It is not known whether low homogenization pressures can stimulate bacteria to improve their probiotic characteristics. Objectives were to determine the effect of homogenization at 0, 3.45, 6.90, 10.34, and 13.80 MPa on acid tolerance, bile tolerance, protease activity, and growth of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12, S. salivarius ssp. thermophilus ST-M5, and L. acidophilus LA-K. The cultures were individually inoculated in cool autoclaved skim milk (4°C) and homogenized for 5 continuous passes. Growth and bile tolerance of samples were determined hourly for 10h of incubation. Acid tolerance was determined every 20 min for 120 min of incubation. Protease activity was determined at 0, 12, and 24h of incubation. All homogenization pressures studied improved acid tolerance of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12 but had no beneficial effect on protease activity and had negative effects on growth and bile tolerance. A pressure of 6.90 MPa improved acid tolerance, bile tolerance, and protease activity of S. salivarius ssp. thermophilus ST-M5, but none of the homogenization pressures studied had an effect on its growth. Homogenization pressures of 13.80 and 6.90 MPa improved acid tolerance and bile tolerance, respectively, of L. acidophilus LA-K but had no effect on protease activity and its growth. Some low homogenization pressures positively influenced some characteristics of yogurt culture bacteria and L. acidophilus LA-K. Culture pretreatment with some low homogenization pressures can be recommended for improvement of certain probiotic characteristics. PMID:21787909

  3. Influence of a probiotic lactobacillus strain on the intestinal ecosystem in a stress model mouse.

    PubMed

    Palomar, Martin Manuel; Maldonado Galdeano, Carolina; Perdigón, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Daily exposure to stressful situations affects the health of humans and animals. It has been shown that psychological stress affects the immune system and can exacerbate diseases. Probiotics can act as biological immunomodulators in healthy people, increasing both intestinal and systemic immune responses. The use of probiotics in stress situations may aid in reinforcing the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a probiotic bacterium on the gut immune system of mice that were exposed to an experimental model of stress induced by food and mobility restriction. The current study focused on immune cells associated with the lamina propria of the intestine, including CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD11b+ macrophages, CD11c+ dendritic cells, and IgA+ B lymphocytes, as well as the concentrations of secretory IgA (S-IgA) and cytokine interferon gamma (INF-γ in intestinal fluid. We also evaluated the probiotic's influence on the gut microbiota. Probiotic administration increased IgA producing cells, CD4+ cells in the lamina propria of the small intestine, and S-IgA in the lumen; it also reduced the levels of IFN-γ that had increased during stress and improved the intestinal microbiota as measured by an increase in the lactobacilli population. The results obtained from administration of the probiotic to stressed mice suggest that the use of food containing these microorganisms may work as a palliative to reinforce the immune system. PMID:24016865

  4. Postbiotic Modulation of Retinoic Acid Imprinted Mucosal-like Dendritic Cells by Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri 17938 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Haileselassie, Yeneneh; Navis, Marit; Vu, Nam; Qazi, Khaleda Rahman; Rethi, Bence; Sverremark-Ekström, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli are widely used as probiotics with beneficial effects on infection-associated diarrhea, but also used in clinical trials of e.g., necrotizing enterocolitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. The possibility of using probiotic metabolic products, so-called postbiotics, is desirable as it could prevent possible side effects of live bacteria in individuals with a disturbed gut epithelial barrier. Here, we studied how Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 cell-free supernatant (L. reuteri-CFS) influenced retinoic acid (RA)-driven mucosal-like dendritic cells (DC) and their subsequent effect on T regulatory cells (Treg) in vitro. RA clearly imprinted a mucosal-like DC phenotype with higher IL10 production, increased CD103 and CD1d expression, and a downregulated mRNA expression of several inflammatory-associated genes (NFκB1, RELB, and TNF). Treatment with L. reuteri-CFS further influenced the tolerogenic phenotype of RA-DC by downregulating most genes involved in antigen uptake, antigen presentation, and signal transduction as well as several chemokine receptors, while upregulating IL10 production. L. reuteri-CFS also augmented CCR7 expression on RA-DC. In cocultures, RA-DC increased IL10 and FOXP3 expression in Treg, but pre-treatment with L. reuteri-CFS did not further influence the Treg phenotype. In conclusion, L. reuteri-CFS modulates the phenotype and function of mucosal-like DC, implicating its potential application as postbiotic. PMID:27014275

  5. Modulation of Intestinal TLR4-Inflammatory Signaling Pathways by Probiotic Microorganisms: Lessons Learned from Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937.

    PubMed

    Villena, Julio; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2014-01-14

    The intestinal mucosa plays a critical role in the host's interactions with innocuous commensal microbiota and invading pathogenic microorganisms. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and gut associated immune cells recognize the bacterial components via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and are responsible for maintaining tolerance to the large communities of resident luminal bacteria while being also able to mount inflammatory responses against pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of PRRs that are present on IECs and immune cells which are involved in the induction of both tolerance and inflammation. A growing body of experimental and clinical evidence supports the therapeutic and preventive application of probiotics for several gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders in which?TLRs exert a significant role. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of probiotic microorganisms with the capacity to modulate the immune system (immunobiotics) in the regulation of intestinal inflammation in pigs, which are very important as both livestock and human model. Especially we discuss the role of?TLRs, their signaling pathways, and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory intestinal injury and the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in general, and Lactobacillus jensenii?TL2937 in particular. This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with IECs and immune cells through?TLRs and their application for improving animal and human health. PMID:24459463

  6. In vitro and in vivo characterization and strain safety of Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30253 for probiotic applications.

    PubMed

    Sulemankhil, Imran; Parent, Mathieu; Jones, Mitchell Lawrence; Feng, Zhenqian; Labb, Alain; Prakash, Satya

    2012-06-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30253 was shown to have potential as a probiotic by reducing the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8. Moreover, this strain was evaluated, by in vitro and in vivo techniques, for its safety for human consumption. The identity of the strain was investigated by metabolic profiling and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and in vitro safety evaluations were performed by molecular and metabolic techniques. Genetic analysis was confirmed by assessing the minimum inhibitory concentration to a panel of antibiotics, showing that the strain was susceptible to 8 antibiotics tested. The ability of the strain to produce potentially harmful by-products and antimicrobial compounds was evaluated, showing that the strain does not produce biogenic amines and does not show bacteriocin activity or reuterin production. A 28-day repeated oral dose study was conducted in normal Sprague-Dawley rats to support the in vivo strain safety. Oral administration of the strain resulted in no changes in general condition and no clinically significant changes to biochemical and haematological markers of safety relative to vehicle control treated animals. This comprehensive assessment of safety of L.reuteri NCIMB 30253 supports the safety of the strain for use as a probiotic. PMID:22642667

  7. Molecular characterisation and biomass and metabolite production of Lactobacillus reuteri LPB P01–001: A potential probiotic

    PubMed Central

    Pancheniak, Elizete de F. R.; Maziero, Maike T.; Rodriguez-León, José A.; Parada, José L.; Spier, Michele R.; Soccol, Carlos R.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri LPB P01–001 was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of wild swine and was characterised by biochemical testing and sequencing of gene 16S rRNA. A simple and low-cost culture medium based on cane sugar (2.5% p/v) and yeast extract (1% p/v) was used in the production of this probiotic. The fermentative conditions were a) pH control at 6.5 and b) no pH control; both were set at 37°C in a 12 L slightly stirred tank bioreactor. Fermentation parameters such as the specific growth rate, productivity and yield of biomass, lactic and acetic acid levels were determined. L. reuteri LPB P01–001 behaves as an aciduric bacteria because it grows better in a low pH medium without pH control. However, the lactic acid production yield was practically half (9.22 g.L-1) of that obtained under a constant pH of 6.5, which reached 30.5 g.L-1 after 28 hours of fermentation. The acetic acid production was also higher under pH-controlled fermentation, reaching 10.09 g.L-1after 28 hours of fermentation. These parameters may raise the interest of those committed to the efficient production of a probiotic agent for swine. PMID:24031812

  8. Molecular characterisation and biomass and metabolite production of Lactobacillus reuteri LPB P01-001: A potential probiotic.

    PubMed

    Pancheniak, Elizete de F R; Maziero, Maike T; Rodriguez-Len, Jos A; Parada, Jos L; Spier, Michele R; Soccol, Carlos R

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri LPB P01-001 was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of wild swine and was characterised by biochemical testing and sequencing of gene 16S rRNA. A simple and low-cost culture medium based on cane sugar (2.5% p/v) and yeast extract (1% p/v) was used in the production of this probiotic. The fermentative conditions were a) pH control at 6.5 and b) no pH control; both were set at 37C in a 12 L slightly stirred tank bioreactor. Fermentation parameters such as the specific growth rate, productivity and yield of biomass, lactic and acetic acid levels were determined. L. reuteri LPB P01-001 behaves as an aciduric bacteria because it grows better in a low pH medium without pH control. However, the lactic acid production yield was practically half (9.22 g.L(-1)) of that obtained under a constant pH of 6.5, which reached 30.5 g.L(-1) after 28 hours of fermentation. The acetic acid production was also higher under pH-controlled fermentation, reaching 10.09 g.L(-1)after 28 hours of fermentation. These parameters may raise the interest of those committed to the efficient production of a probiotic agent for swine. PMID:24031812

  9. Modulation of Intestinal TLR4-Inflammatory Signaling Pathways by Probiotic Microorganisms: Lessons Learned from Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937

    PubMed Central

    Villena, Julio; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa plays a critical role in the host’s interactions with innocuous commensal microbiota and invading pathogenic microorganisms. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and gut associated immune cells recognize the bacterial components via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and are responsible for maintaining tolerance to the large communities of resident luminal bacteria while being also able to mount inflammatory responses against pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of PRRs that are present on IECs and immune cells which are involved in the induction of both tolerance and inflammation. A growing body of experimental and clinical evidence supports the therapeutic and preventive application of probiotics for several gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders in which TLRs exert a significant role. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of probiotic microorganisms with the capacity to modulate the immune system (immunobiotics) in the regulation of intestinal inflammation in pigs, which are very important as both livestock and human model. Especially we discuss the role of TLRs, their signaling pathways, and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory intestinal injury and the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in general, and Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937 in particular. This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with IECs and immune cells through TLRs and their application for improving animal and human health. PMID:24459463

  10. Blueberry Husks and Probiotics Attenuate Colorectal Inflammation and Oncogenesis, and Liver Injuries in Rats Exposed to Cycling DSS-Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, Åsa; Bränning, Camilla; Molin, Göran; Adawi, Diya; Hagslätt, Marie-Louise; Jeppsson, Bengt; Nyman, Margareta; Ahrné, Siv

    2012-01-01

    Long-term colonic inflammation promotes carcinogenesis and histological abnormalities of the liver, and colorectal tumours frequently arise in a background of dysplasia, a precursor of adenomas. Altered colonic microbiota with an increased proportion of bacteria with pro-inflammatory characteristics, have been implicated in neoplastic progression. The composition of the microbiota can be modified by dietary components such as probiotics, polyphenols and dietary fibres. In the present study, the influence of probiotics in combination with blueberry husks on colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent liver damage was evaluated. Colorectal tumours were induced in rats by cyclic treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Blueberry husks and a mixture of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 15159, Lactobacillus gasseri, DSM 16737 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313) supplemented a basic diet fortified with oats. The condition of the rats was monitored using a disease activity index (DAI). A qualitative and quantitative histological judgement was performed on segments of distal colon and rectum and the caudate lobe of the liver. The formation of short-chain fatty acids, bacterial translocation, the inflammatory reaction and viable count of lactobacilli and Enterobaceriaceae were addressed. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics significantly decreased DAI, and significantly reduced the number of colonic ulcers and dysplastic lesions. With a decreased proportion of blueberry husk in the diet, the probiotic supplement was needed to achieve a significant decrease in numbers of dysplastic lesions. Probiotics decreased faecal viable count of Enterobacteriaceae and increased that of lactobacilli. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics lowered the proportion of butyric acid in distal colon, and decreased the haptoglobin levels. Probiotics mitigated hepatic injuries by decreasing parenchymal infiltration and the incidence of stasis and translocation. The results demonstrate a dietary option for use of blueberry husks and probiotics to delay colonic carcinogenesis and hepatic injuries in the rat model. PMID:22457771

  11. The Probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 Produces High-Molecular-Mass Inulin from Sucrose by Using an Inulosucrase Enzyme?

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Munir A.; Kralj, Slavko; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2008-01-01

    Fructansucrase enzymes polymerize the fructose moiety of sucrose into levan or inulin fructans, with ?(2-6) and ?(2-1) linkages, respectively. The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii strain NCC 533 possesses a single fructansucrase gene (open reading frame AAS08734) annotated as a putative levansucrase precursor. However, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the fructan product synthesized in situ revealed that this is of the inulin type. The ftf gene of L. johnsonii was cloned and expressed to elucidate its exact identity. The purified L. johnsonii protein was characterized as an inulosucrase enzyme, producing inulin from sucrose, as identified by 13C NMR analysis. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the reaction products showed that InuJ synthesized, besides the inulin polymer, a broad range of fructose oligosaccharides. Maximum InuJ enzyme activity was observed in a pH range of 4.5 to 7.0, decreasing sharply at pH 7.5. InuJ exhibited the highest enzyme activity at 55C, with a drastic decrease at 60C. Calcium ions were found to have an important effect on enzyme activity and stability. Kinetic analysis showed that the transfructosylation reaction of the InuJ enzyme does not obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The non-Michaelian behavior of InuJ may be attributed to the oligosaccharides that were initially formed in the reaction and which may act as better acceptors than the growing polymer chain. This is only the second example of the isolation and characterization of an inulosucrase enzyme and its inulin (oligosaccharide) product from a Lactobacillus strain. Furthermore, this is the first Lactobacillus strain shown to produce inulin polymer in situ. PMID:18408060

  12. Yogurt containing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 helps resolve moderate diarrhea and increases CD4 count in HIV/AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Anukam, Kingsley C; Osazuwa, Emanual O; Osadolor, Humphrey B; Bruce, Andrew W; Reid, Gregor

    2008-03-01

    HIV/AIDS is changing the human landscape in sub-Saharan Africa. Relatively few patients receive antiretroviral therapy, and many suffer from debilitating diarrhea that affects their quality of life. Given the track record of probiotics to alleviate diarrhea, conventional yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbruekii var bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus was supplemented with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14. Twenty-four HIV/AIDS adult female patients (18 to 44 y) with clinical signs of moderate diarrhea, CD4 counts over 200, and not receiving antiretrovirals or dietary supplements, consumed either 100 mL supplemented or unsupplemented yogurt per day for 15 days. Hematologic profiles, CD4 cell counts, and quality of life was evaluated at baseline, 15 and 30 days postprobiotic-yogurt feeding. There was no significant alteration in the hematologic parameters of both groups before and after the probiotic-yogurt feeding. The probiotic yogurt group at baseline, 15 and 30 days had a mean WBC count of 5.8+/-0.76 x 10(9)/L, 6.0+/-1.02 x 10(9)/L, and 5.4+/-0.14 x 10(9)/L, respectively. However, the mean CD4 cell count remained the same or increased at 15 and 30 days in 11/12 probiotic-treated subjects compared to 3/12 in the control. Diarrhea, flatulence, and nausea resolved in 12/12 probiotic-treated subjects within 2 days, compared to 2/12 receiving yogurt for 15 days. This is the first study to show the benefits of probiotic yogurt on quality of life of women in Nigeria with HIV/AIDS, and suggests that perhaps a simple fermented food can provide some relief in the management of the AIDS epidemic in Africa. PMID:18223503

  13. Lactobacillus species as biomarkers and agents that can promote various aspects of vaginal health

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Mariya I.; Lievens, Elke; Malik, Shweta; Imholz, Nicole; Lebeer, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively referred to as the human microbiota. One of the main microbiota body sites is the female genital tract, commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp., in approximately 70% of women. Each individual species can constitute approximately 99% of the ribotypes observed in any individual woman. The most frequently isolated species are Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus iners. Residing at the port of entry of bacterial and viral pathogens, the vaginal Lactobacillus species can create a barrier against pathogen invasion since mainly products of their metabolism secreted in the cervicovaginal fluid can play an important role in the inhibition of bacterial and viral infections. Therefore, a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota appears to be a good biomarker for a healthy vaginal ecosystem. This balance can be rapidly altered during processes such as menstruation, sexual activity, pregnancy and various infections. An abnormal vaginal microbiota is characterized by an increased diversity of microbial species, leading to a condition known as bacterial vaginosis. Information on the vaginal microbiota can be gathered from the analysis of cervicovaginal fluid, by using the Nugent scoring or the Amsel's criteria, or at the molecular level by investigating the number and type of Lactobacillus species. However, when translating this to the clinical setting, it should be noted that the absence of a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota does not appear to directly imply a diseased condition or dysbiosis. Nevertheless, the widely documented beneficial role of vaginal Lactobacillus species demonstrates the potential of data on the composition and activity of lactobacilli as biomarkers for vaginal health. The substantiation and further validation of such biomarkers will allow the design of better targeted probiotic strategies. PMID:25859220

  14. Effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran on growth and cell viability of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their combination SYNBIO®, in synbiotic fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Silvi, Stefania; Vasile, Aida; Bahrim, Gabriela Elena; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    Fermented foods have a great significance since they provide and preserve large quantities of nutritious foods in a wide diversity of flavors, aromas and texture, which enrich the human diet. Originally fermented milks were developed as a means of preserving nutrients and are the most representatives of the category. The first aim of this study was to screen the effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran as prebiotics on the production of probiotic fiber-enriched fermented milks, by investigating the kinetics of acidification of buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented milk fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their 1:1 combination named SYNBIO®. The probiotic strains viability, pH and sensory characteristics of the fermented fiber-enriched milk products, stored at 4 °C for 28 days were also monitored. The results showed that supplementation of whole milk with the tested probiotic strains and the two vegetable substrates results in a significant faster lowering of the pH. Also, the stability of L. rhamnosus IMC 501®, L. paracasei IMC 502® and SYNBIO® during storage at 4 °C for 28 days in buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented samples was remarkably enhanced. The second aim of the study was to develop a new synbiotic product using the best combination of probiotics and prebiotics by promoting better growth and survival and be acceptable to the consumers with high concentration of probiotic strain. This new product was used to conduct a human feeding trial to validate the fermented milk as a carrier for transporting bacterial cells into the human gastrointestinal tract. The probiotic strains were recovered from fecal samples in 40 out of 40 volunteers fed for 4 weeks one portion per day of synbiotic fermented milk carrying about 10(9) viable cells. PMID:24140807

  15. Performance and Condemnation Rate Analysis of Commercial Turkey Flocks Treated with a Lactobacillus spp. - Based Probiotic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of selected probiotic cultures in the poultry industry has recently become more common. However, few conclusive studies regarding their efficacy under commercial conditions have been reported in the scientific literature. We conducted a study which included 118 commercial turkey hen lots, r...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of a Probiotic Strain, Lactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C

    PubMed Central

    Villena, Julio; Gonzalez, Carlos; Albarracin, Leonardo; Barros, Javier

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum strain UCO-979C. The reads generated by a Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs, with a total size of 2.01 Mb. The data were annotated using the NCBI GenBank and RAST servers. Specific features of the genome are highlighted. PMID:26659681

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of a Probiotic Strain, Lactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C.

    PubMed

    Karlyshev, Andrey V; Villena, Julio; Gonzalez, Carlos; Albarracin, Leonardo; Barros, Javier; Garcia, Apolinaria

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum strain UCO-979C. The reads generated by a Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs, with a total size of 2.01Mb. The data were annotated using the NCBI GenBank and RAST servers. Specific features of the genome are highlighted. PMID:26659681

  18. Feeding probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (MTCC 5897) fermented milk to suckling mothers alleviates ovalbumin-induced allergic sensitisation in mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Saliganti, Vamshi; Kapila, Rajeev; Sharma, Rohit; Kapila, Suman

    2015-10-28

    The neonatal period is often polarised to T helper (Th2) response at the time of birth, predisposing offspring to allergic disorders. Passive immunity through the mother's milk is critical for immune system development of newborns. Probiotics have been proposed to harmonise Th1/Th2 imbalance in allergic conditions in adults. In the present study, the anti-allergic effects of feeding probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus-fermented milk (PFM) either to dams during the suckling period or to their offspring after weaning individually or else in successive periods against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergy in newborns was analysed. After allergen sensitisation, physical symptoms of allergy, gut immune response, humoral immune response and cell-mediated response through interleukins were detected. Consumption of PFM by mothers and offspring showed a reduction (P<0·01) in physical allergic symptoms in newborns with an increase (P<0·01) in the numbers of goblet and IgA+ cells in the small intestine. Similarly, considerable (P<0·001) decreases in OVA-specific antibodies (IgE, IgG, IgG1) and ratios of IgE/IgG2a and IgG1/IgG2a in the sera of newborn mice were recorded. A decrease in IL-4 and an increase in interferon-γ levels further confirmed the shift from Th2 to Th1 pathway in PFM-fed mice. It is logical to conclude that the timing of PFM intervention in alleviating allergic symptoms is critical, which was found to be most effective when mothers were fed during the suckling period. PMID:26330132

  19. From Prediction to Function Using Evolutionary Genomics: Human-Specific Ecotypes of Lactobacillus reuteri Have Diverse Probiotic Functions

    PubMed Central

    Spinler, Jennifer K.; Sontakke, Amrita; Hollister, Emily B.; Venable, Susan F.; Oh, Phaik Lyn; Balderas, Miriam A.; Saulnier, Delphine M.A.; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Devaraj, Sridevi; Walter, Jens; Versalovic, James; Highlander, Sarah K.

    2014-01-01

    The vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri has diversified into separate clades reflecting host origin. Strains show evidence of host adaptation, but how host–microbe coevolution influences microbial-derived effects on hosts is poorly understood. Emphasizing human-derived strains of L. reuteri, we combined comparative genomic analyses with functional assays to examine variations in host interaction among genetically distinct ecotypes. Within clade II or VI, the genomes of human-derived L. reuteri strains are highly conserved in gene content and at the nucleotide level. Nevertheless, they share only 70–90% of total gene content, indicating differences in functional capacity. Human-associated lineages are distinguished by genes related to bacteriophages, vitamin biosynthesis, antimicrobial production, and immunomodulation. Differential production of reuterin, histamine, and folate by 23 clade II and VI strains was demonstrated. These strains also differed with respect to their ability to modulate human cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, and IL-13) by myeloid cells. Microarray analysis of representative clade II and clade VI strains revealed global regulation of genes within the reuterin, vitamin B12, folate, and arginine catabolism gene clusters by the AraC family transcriptional regulator, PocR. Thus, human-derived L. reuteri clade II and VI strains are genetically distinct and their differences affect their functional repertoires and probiotic features. These findings highlight the biological impact of microbe:host coevolution and illustrate the functional significance of subspecies differences in the human microbiome. Consideration of host origin and functional differences at the subspecies level may have major impacts on probiotic strain selection and considerations of microbial ecology in mammalian species. PMID:24951561

  20. Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus Casei DN-114 001 in Prevention of Radiation-Induced Diarrhea: Results From Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Nutritional Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Giralt, Jordi Regadera, Jose Perez; Verges, Ramona; Romero, Jesus; Fuente, Isabel de la; Biete, Albert; Villoria, Jesus; Cobo, Jose Maria; Guarner, Francisco

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 reduces the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea in patients with gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy (45-50 Gy, conventional fractionation) for either cervical carcinoma (radiotherapy and weekly cisplatin) or endometrial adenocarcinoma (postoperative radiotherapy) were randomly assigned to a probiotic drink or placebo, in a double-blind fashion. The probiotic drink consisted of liquid yogurt containing L. casei DN-114 001 at 10{sup 8} CFU/g. The patients recorded the daily the number of bowel movements and scored the stool consistency using the Bristol scale. Diarrhea was graded weekly according the Common Toxicity Criteria system. The primary endpoint was to reduce the incidence of diarrhea, defined by a Common Toxicity Criteria Grade of 2 or greater or the need for loperamide. Results: A total of 85 patients were enrolled. Grade 2 or greater diarrhea and/or the use of loperamide was observed in 24 of 41 patients in the placebo group and 30 of 44 in the probiotic group (p = 0.568). No differences were found in the median time to the presentation of the primary endpoint. Probiotic intervention had a significant effect on stool consistency (p = 0.04). The median time for patients to present with Bristol scale stools of Type 6 or greater was 14 days for patients receiving the probiotic drink vs. 10 days for those receiving placebo. Conclusion: Nutritional intervention with the probiotic drink containing L. casei DN-114 001 does not reduce the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea as defined by a Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 2 or greater. However, it had a significant effect on stool consistency as measured by the Bristol scale.

  1. Amelioration of Colitis in Mouse Model by Exploring Antioxidative Potentials of an Indigenous Probiotic Strain of Lactobacillus fermentum Lf1

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ritu; Sudhakaran Vasanthakumari, Aparna; Panwar, Harsh; Mallapa, Rashmi H.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the preliminary screening of eight indigenous putative probiotic Lactobacilli, Lactobacillus fermentum Lf1 was selected for assessing its antioxidative efficacy in DSS colitis mouse model based on its ability to enhance the expression of Nrf2 by 6.43-fold and malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibition by 78.1????0.24% in HT-29 cells under H2O2 stress. The Disease Activity Index and histological scores of Lf1-treated mice were lower than the control group. However, expression of Nrf2 was not observed in Lf1-treated mice. A significant increase in the expression of antioxidative enzymes such as SOD2 and TrxR-1 was recorded in both of the groups. The expression of SOD2 was significantly downregulated in colitis-induced mice by ?100.00-fold relative to control group, and the downregulation was considerably reduced to ?37.04-fold in colitis Lf1 treatment group. Almost, a similar trend was recorded in case of thioredoxin expression, though CAT was refractile to expression. The Lf1-treated group had decreased malondialdehyde level as compared to colitis control (37.92????6.31 versus 91.13????5.76??M/g). These results point towards Lf1-induced activation of the antioxidant enzyme system in the mouse model and its prospects to be explored as a new strategy for IBD management. PMID:25061603

  2. Safety and Protective Effectiveness of Two Strains of Lactobacillus with Probiotic Features in an Experimental Model of Salmonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Raphael S.; Silva, Lilian C. S.; Souza, Tássia C.; Lima, Maurício T.; de Oliveira, Nayara L. G.; Vieira, Leda Q.; Arantes, Rosa M. E.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Nicoli, Jacques R.; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nunes, Álvaro C.

    2014-01-01

    Two strains of Lactobacillus, previously isolated from bovine faeces and tested in vitro for properties desired in probiotics, were evaluated for their in vivo effectiveness in protecting against experimental salmonellosis. L. salivarius L38 and L. acidophilus L36 previously demonstrated the ability to successfully colonize the gastrointestinal tract of germ-free mice and stimulate the immune system associated with the intestinal mucosa. L38- or L36-feeding showed no detrimental effect on the general health indicators and did not induce changes in normal architecture of liver and small intestine, indicating that the use of these strains is apparently safe. In control animals fed L38 strain, several cytokines had augmented mRNA levels that can be associated with a homeostatic state of intestinal mucosa, while L36 had less diverse regulation. IgA production and secretion in the intestinal lumen induced by infection was abrogated by pretreating with both lactobacilli. In addition, liver and small intestine histological scores and, translocation of Salmonella cells to liver and spleen, indicated that these strains did not confer protection against the infection. So, the IL-12:IL-18➔IFN-γ axis, essential for an effective immune response against Salmonella, was not favored with L38 or L36 strains. However, increased expression of IL-10 in different portions of the gastrointestinal tract of L38-fed animals is indicative of anti-inflammatory effect to be explored furthermore. PMID:25162711

  3. Exopolysaccharide Production and Ropy Phenotype Are Determined by Two Gene Clusters in Putative Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11

    PubMed Central

    Zivkovic, Milica; Miljkovic, Marija; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Strahinic, Ivana; Tolinacki, Maja; Golic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11, a putative probiotic strain isolated from a soft, white, artisanal cheese, produces a high-molecular-weight heteropolysaccharide, exopolysaccharide (EPS)-CG11, responsible for the ropy phenotype and immunomodulatory activity of the strain. In this study, a 26.4-kb region originating from the pCG1 plasmid, previously shown to be responsible for the production of EPS-CG11 and a ropy phenotype, was cloned, sequenced, and functionally characterized. In this region 16 putative open reading frames (ORFs), encoding enzymes for the production of EPS-CG11, were organized in specific loci involved in the biosynthesis of the repeat unit, polymerization, export, regulation, and chain length determination. Interestingly, downstream of the eps gene cluster, a putative transposase gene was identified, followed by an additional rfb gene cluster containing the rfbACBD genes, the ones most probably responsible for dTDP-l-rhamnose biosynthesis. The functional analysis showed that the production of the high-molecular-weight fraction of EPS-CG11 was absent in two knockout mutants, one in the eps and the other in the rfb gene cluster, as confirmed by size exclusion chromatography analysis. Therefore, both eps and rfb genes clusters are prerequisites for the production of high-molecular-weight EPS-CG11 and for the ropy phenotype of strain L. paraplantarum BGCG11. PMID:25527533

  4. Safety and protective effectiveness of two strains of Lactobacillus with probiotic features in an experimental model of salmonellosis.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Raphael S; Silva, Lilian C S; Souza, Tssia C; Lima, Maurcio T; de Oliveira, Nayara L G; Vieira, Leda Q; Arantes, Rosa M E; Miyoshi, Anderson; Nicoli, Jacques R; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nunes, Alvaro C

    2014-09-01

    Two strains of Lactobacillus, previously isolated from bovine faeces and tested in vitro for properties desired in probiotics, were evaluated for their in vivo effectiveness in protecting against experimental salmonellosis. L. salivarius L38 and L. acidophilus L36 previously demonstrated the ability to successfully colonize the gastrointestinal tract of germ-free mice and stimulate the immune system associated with the intestinal mucosa. L38- or L36-feeding showed no detrimental effect on the general health indicators and did not induce changes in normal architecture of liver and small intestine, indicating that the use of these strains is apparently safe. In control animals fed L38 strain, several cytokines had augmented mRNA levels that can be associated with a homeostatic state of intestinal mucosa, while L36 had less diverse regulation. IgA production and secretion in the intestinal lumen induced by infection was abrogated by pretreating with both lactobacilli. In addition, liver and small intestine histological scores and, translocation of Salmonella cells to liver and spleen, indicated that these strains did not confer protection against the infection. So, the IL-12:IL-18IFN-g axis, essential for an effective immune response against Salmonella, was not favored with L38 or L36 strains. However, increased expression of IL-10 in different portions of the gastrointestinal tract of L38-fed animals is indicative of anti-inflammatory effect to be explored furthermore. PMID:25162711

  5. Exopolysaccharide production and ropy phenotype are determined by two gene clusters in putative probiotic strain Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11.

    PubMed

    Zivkovic, Milica; Miljkovic, Marija; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Strahinic, Ivana; Tolinacki, Maja; Golic, Natasa; Kojic, Milan

    2015-02-01

    Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11, a putative probiotic strain isolated from a soft, white, artisanal cheese, produces a high molecular-weight heteropolysaccharide, exopolysaccharide (EPS)-CG11, responsible for the ropy phenotype and immunomodulatory activity of the strain. In this study, a 26.4-kb region originating from the pCG1 plasmid, previously shown to be responsible for the production of EPS-CG11 and a ropy phenotype, was cloned, sequenced, and functionally characterized. In this region 16 putative open reading frames (ORFs), encoding enzymes for the production of EPS-CG11, were organized in specific loci involved in the biosynthesis of the repeat unit, polymerization, export, regulation, and chain length determination. Interestingly, downstream of the eps gene cluster, a putative transposase gene was identified, followed by an additional rfb gene cluster containing the rfbACBD genes, the ones most probably responsible for dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis. The functional analysis showed that the production of the high-molecular-weight fraction of EPS-CG11 was absent in two knockout mutants, one in the eps and the other in the rfb gene cluster, as confirmed by size exclusion chromatography analysis. Therefore, both eps and rfb genes clusters are prerequisites for the production of high-molecular-weight EPS-CG11 and for the ropy phenotype of strain L. paraplantarum BGCG11. PMID:25527533

  6. Industrial Whey Utilization as a Medium Supplement for Biphasic Growth and Bacteriocin Production by Probiotic Lactobacillus casei LA-1.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Jain, Alok Kumar; Ghosh, Moushumi; Ganguli, Abhijit

    2012-09-01

    The ability of probiotic Lactobacillus casei LA-1 for bacteriocin production using industrial by-products, such as whey, as supplement in growth medium has been demonstrated for the first time. Whey was investigated as a sole carbon source in cooperation with other components to substitute expensive nutrients as MRS for economical bacteriocin production. Industrial whey-supplemented MRS medium was then selected as to determine the effect of four variables (temperature, initial pH, incubation time, and whey concentration) by response surface methodology on bacteriocin production. Statistical analysis of results showed that two variables have a significant effect on bacteriocin production. Response surface data showed maximum bacteriocin production of 6,132.33AU/mL at an initial pH of 7.12, temperature 34.29C, and whey concentration 13.74g/L. The production of bacteriocin started during the exponential growth phase, reaching maximum values at stationary phase, and a biphasic growth and production pattern was observed. Our current work demonstrates that this approach of utilization of whey as substitution in costly medium as MRS has great promise for cost reduction in industry for the production of novel biological metabolic product that can be utilized as a food preservative. PMID:26782046

  7. Genomic Analysis by Deep Sequencing of the Probiotic Lactobacillus brevis KB290 Harboring Nine Plasmids Reveals Genomic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Fukao, Masanori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Morita, Hidetoshi; Toh, Hidehiro; Suda, Wataru; Kim, Seok-Won; Suzuki, Shigenori; Yakabe, Takafumi; Hattori, Masahira; Yajima, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We determined the complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus brevis KB290, a probiotic lactic acid bacterium isolated from a traditional Japanese fermented vegetable. The genome contained a 2,395,134-bp chromosome that housed 2,391 protein-coding genes and nine plasmids that together accounted for 191 protein-coding genes. KB290 contained no virulence factor genes, and several genes related to presumptive cell wall-associated polysaccharide biosynthesis and the stress response were present in L. brevis KB290 but not in the closely related L. brevis ATCC 367. Plasmid-curing experiments revealed that the presence of plasmid pKB290-1 was essential for the strain's gastrointestinal tract tolerance and tendency to aggregate. Using next-generation deep sequencing of current and 18-year-old stock strains to detect low frequency variants, we evaluated genome stability. Deep sequencing of four periodic KB290 culture stocks with more than 1,000-fold coverage revealed 3 mutation sites and 37 minority variation sites, indicating long-term stability and providing a useful method for assessing the stability of industrial bacteria at the nucleotide level. PMID:23544154

  8. [Influence of a low-calorie diet with inclusion of probiotic product containing bacterias Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia DSM 21380 on clinical and metabolic characteristics in patients with obesity and arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Plotnikova, O A; Alekseeva, R I; Sentsova, T B; Kaganov, B S

    2012-01-01

    In a number of studies it is shown that regular use of the probiotic products containing Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia DSM 21380 in complex dietary treatment, not only modulates intestinal microflora, but also has a positive influence on a functional condition of cardiovascular system including levelels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The aim of this research was to study the influence of dietotherapy with inclusion of the probiotic product containing Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia DSM 21380, on clinical and metabolic characteristics in patients with obesity and accompanying arterial hypertension (AH). PMID:22642170

  9. Social stress-enhanced severity of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis is CCL2-dependent and attenuated by probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Mackos, A R; Galley, J D; Eubank, T D; Easterling, R S; Parry, N M; Fox, J G; Lyte, M; Bailey, M T

    2016-03-01

    Psychological stressors are known to affect colonic diseases but the mechanisms by which this occurs, and whether probiotics can prevent stressor effects, are not understood. Because inflammatory monocytes that traffic into the colon can exacerbate colitis, we tested whether CCL2, a chemokine involved in monocyte recruitment, was necessary for stressor-induced exacerbation of infectious colitis. Mice were exposed to a social disruption stressor that entails repeated social defeat. During stressor exposure, mice were orally challenged with Citrobacter rodentium to induce a colonic inflammatory response. Exposure to the stressor during challenge resulted in significantly higher colonic pathogen levels, translocation to the spleen, increases in colonic macrophages, and increases in inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The stressor-enhanced severity of C. rodentium-induced colitis was not evident in CCL2(-/-) mice, indicating the effects of the stressor are CCL2-dependent. In addition, we tested whether probiotic intervention could attenuate stressor-enhanced infectious colitis by reducing monocyte/macrophage accumulation. Treating mice with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri reduced CCL2 mRNA levels in the colon and attenuated stressor-enhanced infectious colitis. These data demonstrate that probiotic L. reuteri can prevent the exacerbating effects of stressor exposure on pathogen-induced colitis, and suggest that one mechanism by which this occurs is through downregulation of the chemokine CCL2. PMID:26422754

  10. Anticandidal activity of cell extracts from 13 probiotic Lactobacillus strains and characterisation of lactic acid and a novel fatty acid derivative from one strain.

    PubMed

    Nyanzi, Richard; Awouafack, Maurice D; Steenkamp, Paul; Jooste, Piet J; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the anti-Candida activity of methanol extracts from freeze-dried probiotic cells and the isolation of some constituents in the extracts. The MIC values of the probiotic methanol cell extracts against Candida albicans ranged between 1.25 and 5mg/ml after 48 h of incubation. However, Lactococcus latics subsp. lactis strain X and Lactobacillus casei strain B extracts had an MIC of 10mg/ml after 48 h of incubation. The extracts had fungistatic rather than fungicidal activity. These extracts had a much higher antifungal activity than antifungal compounds isolated from the growth medium by many other authors. This indicates that probiotics may also release antifungal compounds in their cells that could contribute to a therapeutic effect. Lactic acid (1) and 6-O-(?-D-glucopyranosyl)-1,6-di-O-pentadecanoyl-?-D-glucopyranose a novel fatty acid derivative (2) were isolated from methanol probiotic extracts and the structure of these compounds were elucidated using NMR (1 and 2D) and mass spectrometry (MS). PMID:24996359

  11. Lactobacillus probiotic protects intestinal epithelium from radiation injury in a TLR-2/cyclo-oxygenase-2-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Matthew A; Riehl, Terrence E; Rao, M Suprada; Moon, Clara; Ee, Xueping; Nava, Gerardo M; Walker, Monica R; Marinshaw, Jeffrey M; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2011-01-01

    Background The small intestinal epithelium is highly sensitive to radiation and is a major site of injury during radiation therapy and environmental overexposure. Objective To examine probiotic bacteria as potential radioprotective agents in the intestine. Methods 8-week-old C57BL/6 wild-type or knockout mice were administered probiotic by gavage for 3 days before 12 Gy whole body radiation. The intestine was evaluated for cell-positional apoptosis (6 h) and crypt survival (84 h). Results Gavage of 5×107 Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) improved crypt survival about twofold (p<0.01); the effect was observed when administered before, but not after, radiation. Conditioned medium (CM) from LGG improved crypt survival (1.95-fold, p<0.01), and both LGG and LGG-CM reduced epithelial apoptosis particularly at the crypt base (33% to 18%, p<0.01). LGG was detected in the distal ileal contents after the gavage cycle, but did not lead to a detectable shift in bacterial family composition. The reduction in epithelial apoptosis and improved crypt survival offered by LGG was lost in MyD88−/−, TLR-2−/− and cyclo-oxygenase-2−/− (COX-2) mice but not TLR-4−/− mice. LGG administration did not lead to increased jejunal COX-2 mRNA or prostaglandin E2 levels or a change in number of COX-2-expressing cells. However, a location shift was observed in constitutively COX-2-expressing cells of the lamina propria from the villi to a position near the crypt base (villi to crypt ratio 80:20 for control and 62:38 for LGG; p<0.001). Co-staining revealed these COX-2-expressing small intestinal lamina propria cells to be mesenchymal stem cells. Conclusions LGG or its CM reduce radiation-induced epithelial injury and improve crypt survival. A TLR-2/MyD88 signalling mechanism leading to repositioning of constitutive COX-2-expressing mesenchymal stem cells to the crypt base is invoked. PMID:22027478

  12. Using Recombinant Lactococci as an Approach to Dissect the Immunomodulating Capacity of Surface Piliation in Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    PubMed Central

    Nummenmaa, Elina; Mäkinen, Veli-Matti; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; de Vos, Willem M.; Palva, Ilkka; Palva, Airi

    2013-01-01

    Primarily arising from their well understood beneficial health effects, many lactobacilli strains are considered good candidates for use as probiotics in humans and animals. Lactobacillar probiosis can itself be best typified by the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain, which, with its well-documented clinical benefits, has emerged as one of the most widely used probiotics in the food and health-supplement industries. Even so, many facets of its molecular mechanisms and limitations as a beneficial commensal bacterium still remain to be thoroughly explored and dissected. Because L. rhamnosus GG is one of only a few such strains exhibiting surface piliation (called SpaCBA), we sought to examine whether this particular type of cell-surface appendage has a discernible immunomodulating capacity and is able to trigger targeted responses in human immune-related cells. Thus, presented herein for this study, we recombinantly engineered Lactococcus lactis to produce native (and pilin-deleted) SpaCBA pili that were assembled in a structurally authentic form and anchored to the cell surface, and which had retained mucus-binding functionality. By using these recombinant lactococcal constructs, we were able to demonstrate that the SpaCBA pilus can be a contributory factor in the activation of Toll-like receptor 2-dependent signaling in HEK cells as well as in the modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12) production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. From these data, we suggest that the recombinant-expressed and surface-anchored SpaCBA pilus, given its projected functioning in the gut environment, might be viewed as a new microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-like modulator of innate immunity. Accordingly, our study has brought some new insight to the molecular immunogenicity of the SpaCBA pilus, thus opening the way to a better understanding of its possible role in the multifaceted nature of L. rhamnosus GG probiosis within the human gut. PMID:23691212

  13. Probiotic supplementation with Lactobacillus casei (Actimel) induces a Th1 response in an animal model of antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Amital, Howard; Gilburd, B; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2007-09-01

    Probiotic fermented milk products have the capacity to modulate many immunological mechanisms. Several attempts have been made to alter the progression of various atopic and inflammatory disorders in which the immune system plays a major role. We studied this issue in an animal model of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) by supplementing the animals' daily intake with a probiotic mixture. We studied the effects of nutritional supplementation of a commercial product that consists of 10(8)/ml Lactobacillus casei (Actimel) on Balb/c mice that were immunized with beta-2- glycoprotein (beta2GPI) in order to induce a familiar murine model of APS. As controls, we used similar animals that were fed with either yogurt or sham solution as a supplement. We analyzed the effect of Actimel on the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-10 interferon gamma (IFNgamma) as well as the extent of the primary T cell response to beta2GPI, and the levels of autoantibodies to beta2GPI determined by ELISA. Two weeks after priming (in the hind footpad) of Balb/c mice with beta2GPI, we analyzed the cytokine profile of the animals by measuring the concentration of IL-10 and IFNgamma in the supernatants of lymphocytes that were extracted from the popliteal lymph nodes. Following stimulation with 10 microg/mL of beta2GPI, we noticed significant (P < 0.05) suppression of IL-10 production by the stimulated lymphocytes in the animals fed with Actimel and yogurt in comparison to sham solution (73.42 +/- 29.4, 84.7 +/- 8, 196 +/- 41.62 pg/mL, respectively). Both dairy products enhanced the secretion of IFNgamma from 657 +/- 47.09 pg/mL to 896 +/- 78.1, and 933 +/- 76.7 (P < 0.01), respectively; similarly they also accelerated by a mild degree the level of the T cell primary response to beta2GPI measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. The level of autoantibodies to beta2GPI was suppressed in mice fed with actimel and yogurt in a significant manner (P < 0.05). Actimel as well as yogurt confer an immunological impact on Balb/c mice immunized with beta2GPI. Actimel was able not only to enhance IFNgamma secretion but also to inhibit IL-10 production. PMID:17911481

  14. Production, purification and structural characterization of an exopolysaccharide produced by a probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 9510.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Bindhumol; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

    2010-12-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) from lactic acid bacteria contribute to specific rheology and texture of fermented milk products and finds applications even in non-dairy foods and in therapeutics. Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to formulate the production medium for exopolysaccharide (EPS). FT-IR spectral analysis of the purified EPS from Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 9510 revealed prominent characteristic groups corresponding to polyhydric alcohols. The degradation temperature (Td) of the polysaccharide was found to be 260°C with the help of thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Structure elucidation of the EPS showed that it consists of a trisaccharide repeating unit of α-D: -glucose, β-D: -glucose and α-D: -mannose. PMID:20957348

  15. Study of antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus strains as probiotics on multi drug resistant (MDR) bacteria isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs)

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Atiyeh; Kasra-Kermanshahi, Roha; Gharavi, Sara; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Saffarian, Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by bacteria is one of the most frequent infections in human population. Inappropriate use of antibiotics, often leads to appearance of drug resistance in bacteria. However, use of probiotic bacteria has been suggested as a partial replacement. This study was aimed to assess the antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus standard strains against bacteria isolated from UTI infections. Materials and Methods: Among 600 samples; those with ?10,000 cfu/ml were selected as UTI positive samples. Enterococcus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter sp., and Escherichia coli were found the most prevalent UTI causative agents. All isolates were screened for multi drug resistance and subjected to the antimicrobial effects of three Lactobacillus strains by using microplate technique and the MICs amounts were determined. In order to verify the origin of antibiotic resistance of isolates, plasmid curing using ethidium bromide and acridine orange was carried out. Results: No antagonistic activity in Lactobacilli suspension was detected against test on Enterococcus and Enterobacter strains and K. pneumoniae, which were resistant to most antibiotics. However, an inhibitory effect was observed for E. coli which were resistant to 8-9 antibiotics. In addition, L. casei was determined to be the most effective probiotic. Results from replica plating suggested one of the plasmids could be related to the gene responsible for ampicillin resistance. Conclusion: Treatment of E. coli with probiotic suspension was not effective on inhibition of the plasmid carrying hypothetical ampicillin resistant gene. Moreover, the plasmid profiles obtained from probiotic-treated isolates were identical to untreated isolates. PMID:24847423

  16. An L-Fucose Operon in the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Is Involved in Adaptation to Gastrointestinal Conditions.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Jimmy E; Yebra, María J; Monedero, Vicente

    2015-06-01

    L-Fucose is a sugar present in human secretions as part of human milk oligosaccharides, mucins, and other glycoconjugates in the intestinal epithelium. The genome of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) carries a gene cluster encoding a putative L-fucose permease (fucP), L-fucose catabolic pathway (fucI, fucK, fucU, and fucA), and a transcriptional regulator (fucR). The metabolism of L-fucose in LGG results in 1,2-propanediol production, and their fucI and fucP mutants displayed a severe and mild growth defect on L-fucose, respectively. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the fuc genes are induced by L-fucose and subject to a strong carbon catabolite repression effect. This induction was triggered by FucR, which acted as a transcriptional activator necessary for growth on L-fucose. LGG utilized fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and contrarily to other lactobacilli, the presence of fuc genes allowed this strain to use the L-fucose moiety. In fucI and fucR mutants, but not in fucP mutant, L-fucose was not metabolized and it was excreted to the medium during growth on fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine. The fuc genes were induced by this fucosyl-disaccharide in the wild type and the fucP mutant but not in a fucI mutant, showing that FucP does not participate in the regulation of fuc genes and that L-fucose metabolism is needed for FucR activation. The l-fucose operon characterized here constitutes a new example of the many factors found in LGG that allow this strain to adapt to the gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:25819967

  17. An l-Fucose Operon in the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Is Involved in Adaptation to Gastrointestinal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Jimmy E.; Yebra, María J.

    2015-01-01

    l-Fucose is a sugar present in human secretions as part of human milk oligosaccharides, mucins, and other glycoconjugates in the intestinal epithelium. The genome of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) carries a gene cluster encoding a putative l-fucose permease (fucP), l-fucose catabolic pathway (fucI, fucK, fucU, and fucA), and a transcriptional regulator (fucR). The metabolism of l-fucose in LGG results in 1,2-propanediol production, and their fucI and fucP mutants displayed a severe and mild growth defect on l-fucose, respectively. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the fuc genes are induced by l-fucose and subject to a strong carbon catabolite repression effect. This induction was triggered by FucR, which acted as a transcriptional activator necessary for growth on l-fucose. LGG utilized fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and contrarily to other lactobacilli, the presence of fuc genes allowed this strain to use the l-fucose moiety. In fucI and fucR mutants, but not in fucP mutant, l-fucose was not metabolized and it was excreted to the medium during growth on fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine. The fuc genes were induced by this fucosyl-disaccharide in the wild type and the fucP mutant but not in a fucI mutant, showing that FucP does not participate in the regulation of fuc genes and that l-fucose metabolism is needed for FucR activation. The l-fucose operon characterized here constitutes a new example of the many factors found in LGG that allow this strain to adapt to the gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:25819967

  18. Encapsulation and subsequent freeze-drying of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1324 for its potential inclusion in vaginal probiotic formulations.

    PubMed

    Jurez Toms, Mara Silvina; De Gregorio, Priscilla Romina; Leccese Terraf, Mara Cecilia; Nader-Macas, Mara Elena Ftima

    2015-11-15

    Probiotic formulations must include a high number of viable and active microorganisms. In this work, the survival of human vaginal Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1324 during encapsulation, lyophilization and storage, and the activity of encapsulated and/or freeze-dried bacterial cells were evaluated. Extrusion-ionic gelation technique was applied to encapsulate L. reuteri CRL 1324, using xanthan and gellan. Encapsulated and free bacterial cells were freeze-dried with or without lactose and skim milk as lyoprotectors. The different systems obtained were stored at room temperature and at 4C for 150days. The following determinations were performed: L. reuteri CRL 1324 viability, microorganism released from capsules, survival in a medium simulating the vaginal fluid and maintenance of beneficial properties (growth inhibition of opportunistic pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae NH 17 and biofilm formation). L. reuteri CRL 1324 encapsulation was efficient, allowing the recovery of a high number of entrapped lactobacilli. The survival of encapsulated L. reuteri during lyophilization and storage was significantly higher in the presence of lyoprotectors. At the end of storage, the highest numbers of viable cells were obtained in free or encapsulated cells freeze-dried with lyoprotectors, stored at 4C. Encapsulated and/or lyophilized L. reuteri cells maintained their viability in simulated vaginal fluid as well as the ability to inhibit S. agalactiae NH 17 growth and to form biofilm. Encapsulated and freeze-dried L. reuteri CRL 1324 can be included in a suitable pharmaceutical form for vaginal application to prevent or treat urogenital infections in women. PMID:26299342

  19. Probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and acidophilus R0052) Reduce the Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Mice with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Meegun; Kim, Seung Woo; Han, Sang Hak; Kim, Dong Joon; Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Myong Jo; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo; Ham, Young Lim

    2015-01-01

    Objective The role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR 4) in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been widely established. We evaluated the biological effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and acidophilus R0052), KRG (Korea red ginseng), and urushiol (Rhus verniciflua Stokes) on ALD, including their effects on normal and high-fat diet in mice. Methods One hundred C57BL/6 mice were classified into normal (N) and high-fat diet (H) groups. Each group was divided into 5 sub-groups: control, alcohol, alcohol+probiotics, alcohol+KRG, and alcohol+urushiol. A liver function test, histology, electron-microscopy, interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-6, and IL-10, and TLR 4 were evaluated and compared. Results In the N group, probiotics, KRG, and urushiol significantly reduced levels of TNF-? (12.35.1, 13.43.9, and 12.14.3 vs. 27.915.2 pg/mL) and IL-1? (108.439.4, 75.051.0, and 101.126.8 vs. 162.437.5 pg/mL), which were increased by alcohol. Alcohol-induced TLR 4 expression was reduced by probiotics and urushiol (0.70.2, and 0.80.1 vs. 1.00.3, p<0.001). In the H group, IL-10 was significantly increased by probiotics and KRG, compared with alcohol (25.315.6 and 20.46.2 vs. 7.65.6 pg/mL) and TLR 4 expression was reduced by probiotics (0.80.2 vs. 1.00.3, p = 0.007). Conclusions Alcohol-induced TLR 4 expression was down-regulated by probiotics in the normal and high-fat diet groups. Probiotics, KRG, and urushiol might be effective in the treatment of ALD by regulating the gut-liver axis. PMID:25692549

  20. Controlled release of Lactobacillus rhamnosus biofilm probiotics from alginate-locust bean gum microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Kiew, Tie Yi; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2014-03-15

    Chitosan-coated alginate microcapsules containing high-density biofilm Lactobacillus rhamnosus have been previously shown to exhibit higher freeze drying- and thermal-tolerance than their planktonic counterparts. However, their cell release profile remains poor due to the capsules' susceptibility to the gastric environment. Herein the effects of adding locust bean (LB) and xanthan (XT) gums to alginate (AGN) capsules on the stress tolerance and cell release profiles in simulated gastrointestinal fluids are investigated. Compared to the AGN-only capsules, the AGN-LB capsules exhibit improved stress tolerance (i.e. ? 6x for freeze drying, 100x for thermotolerance, 10x for acid), whereas the AGN-XT capsules only improve the acid tolerance. Importantly, the AGN-LB capsules possess the optimal cell release profile with a majority of cells released in the simulated intestinal juice than in the gastric juice. The AGN-LB capsules' superiority is attributed to their stronger interaction with the chitosan coating and high swelling capacity, thus delaying their bulk dissolution. PMID:24528770

  1. Oral administration of a probiotic Lactobacillus modulates cytokine production and TLR expression improving the immune response against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diarrheal infections caused by Salmonella, are one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Salmonella causes various diseases that range from mild gastroenteritis to enteric fever, depending on the serovar involved, infective dose, species, age and immune status of the host. Probiotics are proposed as an attractive alternative possibility in the prevention against this pathogen infection. Previously we demonstrated that continuous Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 administration to BALB/c mice before and after challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) decreased the severity of Salmonella infection. The aim of the present work was to deep into the knowledge about how this probiotic bacterium exerts its effect, by assessing its impact on the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory (TNFα, IFNγ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in the inductor and effector sites of the gut immune response, and analyzing toll-like receptor (TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9) expressions in both healthy and infected mice. Results Probiotic administration to healthy mice increased the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and improved the production and secretion of TNFα, IFNγ and IL-10 in the inductor sites of the gut immune response (Peyer's patches). Post infection, the continuous probiotic administration, before and after Salmonella challenge, protected the host by modulating the inflammatory response, mainly in the immune effector site of the gut, decreasing TNFα and increasing IFNγ, IL-6 and IL-10 production in the lamina propria of the small intestine. Conclusions The oral administration of L. casei CRL 431 induces variations in the cytokine profile and in the TLRs expression previous and also after the challenge with S. Typhimurium. These changes show some of the immune mechanisms implicated in the protective effect of this probiotic strain against S. Typhimurium, providing an alternative way to reduce the severity of the infection. PMID:21813005

  2. Dietary intervention with the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus 145 and Bifidobacterium longum 913 modulates the potential of human faecal water to induce damage in HT29clone19A cells.

    PubMed

    Oberreuther-Moschner, Daniela L; Jahreis, Gerhard; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L

    2004-06-01

    Probiotics reduce the risk of colon cancer by inhibiting carcinogen-induced DNA damage in animals, but there are no analogous data in human subjects. To enhance knowledge of the effects of probiotics in human subjects, we have investigated the genotoxicity of faecal water after dietary intervention with standard yoghurt or with probiotic yoghurt, which included the strains Lactobacillus acidophilus 145 and Bifidobacterium longum 913. Faeces were collected from nine healthy volunteers after intervention with probiotic yoghurt or standard yoghurt. Faecal water was isolated and incubated with human colon tumour cells HT29clone19A. DNA strand breaks, oxidised DNA bases and damage after challenge with H2O2 were determined by micro-gel-electrophoresis. Faecal water was genotoxic in comparison with NaCl, but protected against H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks. The intervention with probiotic yoghurt significantly lowered faecal water genotoxicity compared with standard yoghurt. However, probiotic intervention also increased oxidative damage; this either reflected prooxidative activity or stimulation of endogenous defence systems. Altogether, the balance of effects favoured protection, since faecal water from the probiotic group reduced overall genetic damage. Thus, there was a reduction of strand break-inducing compounds in human faeces after dietary intervention with probiotic bacteria. This protection reflected results from previous studies in carcinogen-exposed animals where probiotics reduced DNA damage in colon cells. PMID:15182396

  3. Protective Effects of a Novel Probiotic Strain of Lactobacillus plantarum JSA22 from Traditional Fermented Soybean Food Against Infection by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Song, Jin; Choi, Hye Sun

    2015-04-01

    Lactobacillus species have been shown to enhance intestinal epithelial barrier function, modulate host immune responses, and suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and viruses. Thus, lactobacilli have been used as probiotics for treating various diseases, including intestinal disorders, and as biological preservatives in the food and agricultural industries. However, the molecular mechanisms used by lactobacilli to suppress pathogenic bacterial infections have been poorly characterized. We previously isolated Lactobacillus plantarum JSA22 from buckwheat sokseongjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, which possessed high enzymatic, fibrinolytic, and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens. In this study, we investigated the effects of L. plantarum JSA22 on the growth of S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium-induced cytotoxicity by stimulating the host immune response in intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that coincubation of S. Typhimurium and L. plantarum JSA22 with intestinal epithelial cells suppressed S. Typhimurium infection, S. Typhimurium-induced NF-kappaB activation, and IL-8 production, and lowered the phosphorylation of both Akt and p38. These data indicated that L. plantarum JSA22 has probiotic properties, and can inhibit S. Typhimurium infection of intestinal epithelial cells. Our findings can be used to develop therapeutic and prophylactic agents against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25639720

  4. Polyphosphate, an active molecule derived from probiotic Lactobacillus brevis, improves the fibrosis in murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Shin; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Konishi, Hiroaki; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Inaba, Yuhei; Moriichi, Kentaro; Tanabe, Hiroki; Ikuta, Katsuya; Ohtake, Takaaki; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease frequently causes intestinal obstruction because of extensive fibrosis. This study investigated whether polyphosphate (poly P), an active molecule derived from Lactobacillus brevis, could improve the fibrosis in a model of chronic colitis. In this study, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced chronic colitis models and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis models were used as models of fibrosis. To clarify the mechanism responsible for the observed effects, Caco-2/brush border epithelial (BBE) and naive T helper lymphocyte (THP)-1 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation. Non-cancer human colon fibroblast (CCD-18) cells were treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) to induce fibrosis. The expression levels of fibrosis- and inflammation-associated molecules were evaluated by both a Western blotting analysis and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The histologic inflammation and fibrosis were significantly improved in the group administered poly P in both the DSS and TNBS colitis models. The levels of interleukin 1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) were significantly decreased by poly P treatment. The expression levels of TGF-?1 and collagens in the colitis mice were decreased by poly P. The LPS-induced expressions of IL-1? and TGF-?1 in Caco-2/BBE cells and of TNF-? in THP-1 cells were reduced by poly P treatment. Poly P did not affect the expression of collagens and connective tissue growth factor in the CCD-18 cells. In conclusion, poly P suppresses intestinal inflammation and fibrosis by downregulating the expression of inflammation- and fibrosis-associated molecules in the intestinal epithelium. The administration of poly P is therefore a novel option to treat fibrosis because of chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:25766132

  5. The other way around: probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 restrict progression of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice via activiation of CD8 alpha+ immune cell-mediated immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the immune-modulating effects of feeding a novel probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD) in rumi...

  6. The other way around: Probiotic lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 restricts progression of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice through activation of CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine immune effects of feeding novel probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD). We hypothesized that fe...

  7. Characterisation of the exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11 and its non-EPS producing derivative strains as potential probiotics.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Milica; López, Patricia; Strahinic, Ivana; Suárez, Ana; Kojic, Milan; Fernández-García, María; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Golic, Natasa; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2012-08-17

    Traditional fermented foods are the best source for the isolation of strains with specific traits to act as functional starters and to keep the biodiversity of the culture collections. Besides, these strains could be used in the formulation of foods claimed to promote health benefits, i.e. those containing probiotic microorganisms. For the rational selection of strains acting as probiotics, several in vitro tests have been proposed. In the current study, we have characterized the probiotic potential of the strain Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11, isolated from a Serbian soft, white, homemade cheese, which is able to produce a "ropy" exopolysaccharide (EPS). Three novobiocin derivative strains, which have lost the ropy phenotype, were characterized as well in order to determine the putative role of the EPS in the probiotic potential. Under chemically gastrointestinal conditions, all strains were able to survive around 1-2% (10(6)-10(7)cfu/ml cultivable bacteria) only when they were included in a food matrix (1% skimmed milk). The strains were more resistant to acid conditions than to bile salts and gastric or pancreatic enzymes, which could be due to a pre-adaptation of the parental strain to acidic conditions in the cheese habitat. The ropy EPS did not improve the survival of the producing strain. On the contrary, the presence of an EPS layer surrounding the strain BGCG11 hindered its adhesion to the three epithelial intestinal cell lines tested, since the adhesion of the three non-ropy derivatives was higher than the parental one and also than that of the reference strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Aiming to propose a potential target application of these strains as probiotics, the cytokine production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was analyzed. The EPS-producing L. paraplantarum BGCG11 strain showed an anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressor profile whereas the non-ropy derivative strains induced higher pro-inflammatory response. In addition, when PBMC were stimulated with increasing concentrations of the purified ropy EPS (1, 10 and 100μg/ml) the cytokine profile was similar to that obtained with the EPS-producing lactobacilli, therefore pointing to a putative role of this biopolymer in its immune response. PMID:22858135

  8. In-vitro assessment of the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-24 isolated from Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) forage.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Kim, Da Hye; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Priya, Kannappan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the probiotic potential of the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-24 (L. plantarum KCC-24), that was isolated and characterized from Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) forage. The following experiments were performed to assess the probiotic characteristics such as antifungal activity, antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to low pH, stimulated gastric juice and bile salts, proteolytic activity, auto-aggregation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and in vitro antioxidant property. The isolated L. plantarum KCC-24 exhibited significant antifungal activity against the various fungal strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (73.43%), Penicillium chrysogenum (59.04%), Penicillium roqueforti (56.67%), Botrytis elliptica (40.23%), Fusarium oxysporum (52.47%) and it was susceptible to numerous antibiotics, survived in low pH, was resistant to stimulated gastric juices and bile salts (0.3% w/v). Moreover, L. plantarum KCC-24 exhibited good proteolytic activity. In addition L. plantarum KCC-24 showed potent antioxidant and hydrogen peroxide resistant property. In conclusion, the isolated L. plantarum KCC-24 exhibited several characteristics to prove it's excellent as a potential probiotic candidate for developing quality food for ruminant animals and human. PMID:25576238

  9. The Differential Proteome of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Grown on the Potential Prebiotic Cellobiose Shows Upregulation of Two ?-Glycoside Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    van Zanten, Gabriella C.; Sparding, Nadja; Majumder, Avishek; Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Svensson, Birte; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is, synbiotics, are known to exert beneficial health effects in humans; however interactions between pro- and prebiotics remain poorly understood at the molecular level. The present study describes changes in abundance of different proteins of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) when grown on the potential prebiotic cellobiose as compared to glucose. Cytosolic cell extract proteomes after harvest at late exponential phase of NCFM grown on cellobiose or glucose were analyzed by two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in the acidic (pH 47) and the alkaline (pH 611) regions showing a total of 136 spots to change in abundance. Proteins were identified by MS or MS/MS from 81 of these spots representing 49 unique proteins and either increasing 1.513.9-fold or decreasing 1.57.8-fold in relative abundance. Many of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, including the cellobiose related glycoside hydrolases phospho-?-glucosidase (LBA0881) and phospho-?-galactosidase II (LBA0726). The data provide insight into the utilization of the candidate prebiotic cellobiose by the probiotic bacterium NCFM. Several of the upregulated or downregulated identified proteins associated with utilization of cellobiose indicate the presence of carbon catabolite repression and regulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:25961012

  10. Identification of One Novel Candidate Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Strain Active against Influenza Virus Infection in Mice by a Large-Scale Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Gratadoux, Jean-Jacques; Blugeon, Sébastien; Bertho, Nicolas; Chevalier, Christophe; Le Goffic, Ronan; Courau, Stéphanie; Molimard, Pascal; Chatel, Jean Marc

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a large-scale screening of bacterial strains in order to identify novel candidate probiotics with immunomodulatory properties. For this, 158 strains, including a majority of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), were screened by two different cellular models: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-activated HT-29 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Different strains responsive to both models (pro- and anti-inflammatory strains) were selected, and their protective effects were tested in vivo in a murine model of influenza virus infection. Daily intragastric administrations during 10 days before and 10 days after viral challenge (100 PFU of influenza virus H1N1 strain A Puerto Rico/8/1934 [A/PR8/34]/mouse) of Lactobacillus plantarum CNRZ1997, one potentially proinflammatory probiotic strain, led to a significant improvement in mouse health by reducing weight loss, alleviating clinical symptoms, and inhibiting significantly virus proliferation in lungs. In conclusion, in this study, we have combined two cellular models to allow the screening of a large number of LAB for their immunomodulatory properties. Moreover, we identified a novel candidate probiotic strain, L. plantarum CNRZ1997, active against influenza virus infection in mice. PMID:23263960

  11. Immunoprotective Effect of Probiotic Dahi Containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum on Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Sagar R; Shandilya, Umesh Kr; Kansal, Vinod K

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, probiotic Dahi (LaBb Dahi) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LaVK2 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BbVK3 was selected as a probiotic therapy to investigate its protective effect on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis model in mice that mimics the picture in human. LaBb Dahi was prepared by co-culturing Dahi bacteria (Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris NCDC-86 and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylactis NCDC-60) along with selected strain of L. acidophilus LaVK2 and B. bifidum BbVK3 in buffalo milk (3% fat). Four groups of swiss albino male mice (12 each) were fed buffalo milk (3% fat), buffalo milk (3% fat) plus DSS, Dahi plus DSS, and LaBb Dahi plus DSS, respectively, for 17days with basal diet. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon (IFN-?) were assessed as inflammatory markers, and the histopathological picture of the colon of mice was studied. DSS-induced colitis appeared to induce significant increase in MPO activity, levels of TNF-?, IL-6 and IFN-?. Feeding with LaBb Dahi offered significant reduction in MPO activity, levels of TNF-?, IL-6 and IFN-? when compared to either buffalo milk group or group III (Dahi). The present study suggests that LaBb probiotic Dahi can be used to combat DSS-induced biochemical and histological changes and to achieve more effective treatment for ulcerative colitis. PMID:26781733

  12. Partial Purification and Characterization of a Bacteriocin DT24 Produced by Probiotic Vaginal Lactobacillus brevis DT24 and Determination of its Anti-Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Potential.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Disha; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Patel, Jignesh Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2013-06-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance has increased the interest for finding new antimicrobials in the past decade. Probiotic Lactic acid bacteria producing antimicrobial proteins like bacteriocin can be excellent agents for development as novel therapeutic agents and complement to conventional antibiotic therapy. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli, most causative agent of Urinary tract infection, has developed resistance to various antibiotics. In the present investigation, antibacterial substance like bacteriocin (Bacteriocin DT24) produced by probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24 from vaginal sample of healthy Indian woman was partially purified and characterized. It was efficiently working against various pathogens, that is, Uropathogenic E. coli, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial peptide was relatively heat resistant and also active over a broad range of pH 2-10. It has been partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography and checked on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bacteriocin DT24 was approximately 7-kDa protein. The peptide is inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, trypsin and lipase but not when treated with catalase, ?-amylase and pepsin. It showed bacteriostatic mode of action against uropathogenic E. coli. Such characteristics indicate that this bacteriocin-producing probiotic may be a potential candidate for alternative agents to control urinary tract infections and other pathogens. PMID:26782739

  13. Bioconversion of isoflavones and the probiotic properties of the electroporated parent and subsequent three subcultures of Lactobacillus fermentum BT 8219 in biotin-soymilk.

    PubMed

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Wan-Abdullah, Wan-Nadiah; Alias, Abdul Karim; Liong, Min-Tze

    2012-07-01

    This study was aimed at an evaluation of the potential inheritance of electroporation effects on Lactobacillus fermentum BT 8219 through to three subsequent subcultures, based on their growth, isoflavone bioconversion activities, and probiotic properties, in biotin-supplemented soymilk. Electroporation was seen to cause cell death immediately after treatment, followed by higher growth than the control during fermentation in biotin-soymilk (P<0.05). This was associated with enhanced intracellular and extracellular beta-glucosidase specific activity, leading to increased bioconversion of isoflavone glucosides to aglycones (P<0.05). The growing characteristics, enzyme, and isoflavone bioconversion activities of the first, second, and third subcultures of treated cells in biotin-soymilk were similar to the control (P>0.05). Electroporation affected the probiotic properties of parent L. fermentum BT 8219, by reducing its tolerance towards acid (pH 2) and bile, lowering its inhibitory activities against selected pathogens, and reducing its ability for adhesion, when compared with the control (P<0.05). The first, second, and third subcultures of the treated cells showed comparable traits with that of the control (P>0.05), with the exception of their bile tolerance ability, which was inherited to the treated cells of the first and second subcultures (P<0.05). Our results suggest that electroporation could be used to increase the bioactivity of biotin-soymilk via fermentation with probiotic L. fermentum BT 8219, with a view towards the development of functional foods. PMID:22580314

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of a potentially probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10 for the identification of key proteins involved in antibiotic resistance and biocide tolerance.

    PubMed

    Casado Muñoz, María Del Carmen; Benomar, Nabil; Ennahar, Saïd; Horvatovich, Peter; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Knapp, Charles W; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2016-04-01

    Probiotic bacterial cultures require resistance mechanisms to avoid stress-related responses under challenging environmental conditions; however, understanding these traits is required to discern their utility in fermentative food preparations, versus clinical and agricultural risk. Here, we compared the proteomic responses of Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10, a potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives, exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics (amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline) and biocides (benzalkonium chloride and triclosan). Several genes became differentially expressed depending on antimicrobial exposure, such as the up-regulation of protein synthesis, and the down-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. The antimicrobials appeared to have altered Lb. pentosus MP-10 physiology to achieve a gain of cellular energy for survival. For example, biocide-adapted Lb. pentosus MP-10 exhibited a down-regulated phosphocarrier protein HPr and an unexpressed oxidoreductase. However, protein synthesis was over-expressed in antibiotic- and biocide-adapted cells (ribosomal proteins and glutamyl-tRNA synthetase), possibly to compensate for damaged proteins targeted by antimicrobials. Furthermore, stress proteins, such as NADH peroxidase (Npx) and a small heat shock protein, were only over-expressed in antibiotic-adapted Lb. pentosus MP-10. Results showed that adaptation to sub-lethal concentrations of antimicrobials could be a good way to achieve desirable robustness of the probiotic Lb. pentosus MP-10 to various environmental and gastrointestinal conditions (e.g., acid and bile stresses). PMID:26827291

  15. Inactivation of bacterial pathogens in yoba mutandabota, a dairy product fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba.

    PubMed

    Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Nout, Martinus J R; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2016-01-18

    Mutandabota is a dairy product consumed as a major source of proteins and micronutrients in Southern Africa. In this study the microbial safety of traditional and a variant of mutandabota fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba (yoba mutandabota) was investigated by challenging the products with five important food pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Bacillus cereus. Pasteurized full-fat cow's milk was used for producing traditional and yoba mutandabota, and was inoculated with a cocktail of strains of the pathogens at an inoculum level of 5.5 log cfu/mL. Survival of the pathogens was monitored over a potential consumption time of 24h for traditional mutandabota, and over 24h of fermentation followed by 24h of potential consumption time for yoba mutandabota. In traditional mutandabota (pH3.4 ± 0.1) no viable cells of B. cereus and C. jejuni were detected 3h after inoculation, while L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. significantly declined (P<0.05), but could still be detected (<3.5 log inactivation) at the end of the potential consumption time. This indicated that consumption of traditional mutandabota exposes consumers to the risk of food-borne microbial infections. In yoba mutandabota, L. rhamnosus yoba grew from 5.5 ± 0.1 log cfu/mL to 9.1 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL in the presence of pathogens. The pH of yoba mutandabota dropped from 4.2 ± 0.1 to 3.3 ± 0.1 after 24h of fermentation, mainly due to organic acids produced during fermentation. Only Salmonella spp. was able to grow in yoba mutandabota during the first 9h of fermentation, but then decreased in viable plate count. None of the tested pathogens were detected (>3.5 log inactivation) after 3h into potential consumption time of yoba mutandabota. Inactivation of pathogens in mutandabota is of public health significance because food-borne pathogens endanger public health upon consumption of contaminated food, especially in Southern Africa where there are many vulnerable consumers of mutandabota such as children, elderly and immuno-compromised people with HIV/AIDS. The findings of this study demonstrate that mutandabota fermented with L. rhamnosus yoba has antimicrobial properties against the tested pathogens and it is safer compared to the traditional mutandabota. PMID:26490648

  16. Development of a Strain-Specific Real-Time PCR Assay for Enumeration of a Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in Chicken Feed and Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Verity Ann; Mohnl, Michaela; Klose, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    A strain-specific real-time PCR assay was developed for quantification of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 16350) in poultry feed and intestine. The specific primers were designed based on a genomic sequence of the strain derived from suppression subtractive hybridization with the type strain L. reuteri DSM 20016. Specificity was tested using a set of non-target strains from several sources. Applicability of the real-time PCR assay was evaluated in a controlled broiler feeding trial by using standard curves specific for feed and intestinal matrices. The amount of the probiotic L. reuteri was determined in feed from three feeding phases and in intestinal samples of the jejunum, ileum, and caecum of three, 14, and 39 day old birds. L. reuteri DSM 16350 cells were enumerated in all feeds supplemented with the probiotic close to the inclusion rate of 7.0×103 cfu/g, however, were not detected in L. reuteri DSM 16350 free feed. In three day old birds L. reuteri DSM 16350 was only detected in intestinal samples from probiotic fed animals ranging from 8.2±7.8×105 cfu/g in the jejunum, 1.0±1.1×107 cfu/g in the ileum, and 2.5±5.7×105 cfu/g in the caecum. Similar results were obtained for intestinal samples of older birds (14 and 39 days). With increasing age of the animals the amount of L. reuteri signals in the control animals, however, also increased, indicating the appearance of highly similar bacterial genomes in the gut microbiota. The L. reuteri DSM 16350 qPCR assay could be used in future for feeding trials to assure the accurate inclusion of the supplement to the feed and to monitor it's uptake into the GIT of young chicken. PMID:24587284

  17. Development of a strain-specific real-time PCR assay for enumeration of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in chicken feed and intestine.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Verity Ann; Mohnl, Michaela; Klose, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    A strain-specific real-time PCR assay was developed for quantification of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 16350) in poultry feed and intestine. The specific primers were designed based on a genomic sequence of the strain derived from suppression subtractive hybridization with the type strain L. reuteri DSM 20016. Specificity was tested using a set of non-target strains from several sources. Applicability of the real-time PCR assay was evaluated in a controlled broiler feeding trial by using standard curves specific for feed and intestinal matrices. The amount of the probiotic L. reuteri was determined in feed from three feeding phases and in intestinal samples of the jejunum, ileum, and caecum of three, 14, and 39 day old birds. L. reuteri DSM 16350 cells were enumerated in all feeds supplemented with the probiotic close to the inclusion rate of 7.0 10(3) cfu/g, however, were not detected in L. reuteri DSM 16350 free feed. In three day old birds L. reuteri DSM 16350 was only detected in intestinal samples from probiotic fed animals ranging from 8.2 7.8 10(5) cfu/g in the jejunum, 1.0 1.110(7) cfu/g in the ileum, and 2.5 5.7 10(5) cfu/g in the caecum. Similar results were obtained for intestinal samples of older birds (14 and 39 days). With increasing age of the animals the amount of L. reuteri signals in the control animals, however, also increased, indicating the appearance of highly similar bacterial genomes in the gut microbiota. The L. reuteri DSM 16350 qPCR assay could be used in future for feeding trials to assure the accurate inclusion of the supplement to the feed and to monitor it's uptake into the GIT of young chicken. PMID:24587284

  18. Monitoring of Water Spectral Pattern Reveals Differences in Probiotics Growth When Used for Rapid Bacteria Selection

    PubMed Central

    Slavchev, Aleksandar; Kovacs, Zoltan; Koshiba, Haruki; Nagai, Airi; Bázár, György; Krastanov, Albert; Kubota, Yousuke; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2015-01-01

    Development of efficient screening method coupled with cell functionality evaluation is highly needed in contemporary microbiology. The presented novel concept and fast non-destructive method brings in to play the water spectral pattern of the solution as a molecular fingerprint of the cell culture system. To elucidate the concept, NIR spectroscopy with Aquaphotomics were applied to monitor the growth of sixteen Lactobacillus bulgaricus one Lactobacillus pentosus and one Lactobacillus gasseri bacteria strains. Their growth rate, maximal optical density, low pH and bile tolerances were measured and further used as a reference data for analysis of the simultaneously acquired spectral data. The acquired spectral data in the region of 1100-1850nm was subjected to various multivariate data analyses – PCA, OPLS-DA, PLSR. The results showed high accuracy of bacteria strains classification according to their probiotic strength. Most informative spectral fingerprints covered the first overtone of water, emphasizing the relation of water molecular system to cell functionality. PMID:26133176

  19. Isolation, identification and characterisation of three novel probiotic strains (Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036) from the faeces of exclusively breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Muoz-Quezada, Sergio; Chenoll, Empar; Vieites, Jos Mara; Genovs, Salvador; Maldonado, Jos; Bermdez-Brito, Miriam; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Matencio, Esther; Bernal, Mara Jos; Romero, Fernando; Surez, Antonio; Ramn, Daniel; Gil, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate, identify and characterise novel strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria with probiotic properties from the faeces of exclusively breast-fed infants. Of the 4680 isolated colonies, 758 exhibited resistance to low pH and tolerance to high concentrations of bile salts; of these, only forty-two exhibited a strong ability to adhere to enterocytes in vitro. The identities of the isolates were confirmed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing, which permitted the grouping of the forty-two bacteria into three different strains that showed more than 99% sequence identity with Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium breve, respectively. The strain identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions. Strains were assayed for enzymatic activity and carbohydrate utilisation, and they were deposited in the Collection Nationale de Cultures de Microorganismes (CNCM) of the Institute Pasteur and named L. paracasei CNCM I-4034, B. breve CNCM I-4035 and L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. The strains were susceptible to antibiotics and did not produce undesirable metabolites, and their safety was assessed by acute ingestion in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mouse models. The three novel strains inhibited in vitro the meningitis aetiological agent Listeria monocytogenes and human rotavirus infections. B. breve CNCM I-4035 led to a higher IgA concentration in faeces and plasma of mice. Overall, these results suggest that L. paracasei CNCM I-4034, B. breve CNCM I-4035 and L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 should be considered as probiotic strains, and their human health benefits should be further evaluated. PMID:23360881

  20. Probiotic and prebiotic-probiotic PEC microparticles for sustaining and enhancing intestinal probiotic growth.

    PubMed

    Harshitha, K; Kulkarni, P K; Vaghela, Rudra; Kumar Varma, V Naga Sravan; Deshpande, D Rohan; Hani, Umme

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate Polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) microparticles composing Lactobacillus Acidophilus (probiotic) and Fructo oligosaccharide-Lactobacillus Acidophilus (prebiotic-probiotic), for sustaining and enhancing intestinal growth of probiotic bacteria. Gum Karaya-Chitosan(GK-CH) was used to fabricate PEC microparticles by extrusion method. The prepared microparticles were characterized for FT-IR, DSC and particle size and evaluated for percentage yield, swelling, surface morphology, entrapment rate and further studied for influence of prebiotic over probiotic growth. The fabricated PEC microparticles composed of Probiotic and Prebiotic- Probiotic have exhibited sustainability of probiotic bacteria for 12 hrs in GIT conditions and presence of prebiotic in the preparation enhanced the probiotic cell growth. Hence, it can be concluded that PEC between GK-CH was found to be successful in sustaining cell release and presence of prebiotic was found to enhance the probiotic cell growth. PMID:25495646

  1. Effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides consumption on the growth and expression profile of cell surface-associated proteins of a potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus FSMM15

    PubMed Central

    MURTINI, Devi; ARYANTINI, Ni Putu Desy; SUJAYA, I Nengah; URASHIMA, Tadasu; FUKUDA, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    To investigate carbohydrate preference of a potential probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus FSMM15, six prebiotics, including two milk-derived prebiotics, galactooligosaccharides and lacto-N-biose I, and four plant-origin prebiotics, beet oligosaccharide syrup, difructose anhydride III, fructooligosaccharides, and raffinose, were examined. The strain utilized the milk-derived prebiotics at similar levels to glucose but did not utilize the plant-origin ones in the same manner, reflecting their genetic background, which allows them to adapt to dairy ecological niches. These prebiotics had little influence on the expression pattern of cell surface-associated proteins in the strain; however, an ATP-binding cassette transporter substrate-binding protein and a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were suggested to be upregulated in response to carbon starvation stress. PMID:26858929

  2. Effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides consumption on the growth and expression profile of cell surface-associated proteins of a potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus FSMM15.

    PubMed

    Murtini, Devi; Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Sujaya, I Nengah; Urashima, Tadasu; Fukuda, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    To investigate carbohydrate preference of a potential probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus FSMM15, six prebiotics, including two milk-derived prebiotics, galactooligosaccharides and lacto-N-biose I, and four plant-origin prebiotics, beet oligosaccharide syrup, difructose anhydride III, fructooligosaccharides, and raffinose, were examined. The strain utilized the milk-derived prebiotics at similar levels to glucose but did not utilize the plant-origin ones in the same manner, reflecting their genetic background, which allows them to adapt to dairy ecological niches. These prebiotics had little influence on the expression pattern of cell surface-associated proteins in the strain; however, an ATP-binding cassette transporter substrate-binding protein and a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were suggested to be upregulated in response to carbon starvation stress. PMID:26858929

  3. Beneficial effects of long-term consumption of a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Bifidobacterium breve Yakult may persist after suspension of therapy in lactose-intolerant patients.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Almeida CC; Lorena SL; Pavan CR; Akasaka HM; Mesquita MA

    2012-04-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of some probiotic strains for the management of lactose intolerance remains to be established.AIM: To evaluate the effects of a 4-week consumption of a probiotic product containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Bifidobacterium breve Yakult (10(7)-10(9) CFU of each strain) on symptoms and breath hydrogen exhalation after a lactose load in lactose-intolerant patients and whether the beneficial results persisted after probiotic discontinuation.METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with lactose maldigestion and intolerance participated in this study, which comprised 4 hydrogen breath tests: baseline condition (20 g lactose), after lactase ingestion (9000 FCC units), at the end of 4-week probiotic supplementation, and a follow-up test performed 3 months after probiotic discontinuation. For each test, the area under the breath hydrogen concentration vs time curve (AUC(180 min)) was calculated, and symptom scores were recorded.RESULTS: The probiotic combination significantly reduced symptom scores (P < .01) and breath hydrogen AUC (P = .04) compared with the baseline condition. The comparison with the lactase test showed that symptom scores were similar (P > .05), despite the significantly higher (P = .01) AUC values after probiotic use. In the follow-up test, symptom scores and breath hydrogen AUC values remained similar to those found at the end of probiotic intervention.CONCLUSION: Four-week consumption of a probiotic combination of L casei Shirota and B breve Yakult seems to improve symptoms and decrease hydrogen production intake in lactose-intolerant patients. These effects may persist for at least 3 months after suspension of probiotic consumption.

  4. Identification and evaluation of the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus paraplantarum FT259, a bacteriocinogenic strain isolated from Brazilian semi-hard artisanal cheese.

    PubMed

    Tulini, Fabrcio Luiz; Winkelstrter, Lizziane Kretli; De Martinis, Elaine C P

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to identify a bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus isolate (FT259) obtained from Brazilian semi-hard Minas type cheese and to evaluate its probiotic and antimicrobial potentials. The strain was identified by biochemical tests (at genus level), and by 16S rDNA sequencing combined with recA gene amplification (for species). To determine the inhibitory spectrum towards food borne pathogens and lactic acid bacteria, the spot-on-the-lawn assay was carried out. Moreover, the proteinaceous nature of the antimicrobial compound produced was evaluated by susceptibility to degradation by proteolytic enzymes. The isolated strain was tested for survival in acidified culture media (pH 2.0, 2.5 and 3.5), invitro tolerance to bile salts and viability under gastric conditions. Adhesion of Lactobacillus paraplantarum FT259 to Caco-2 cells was evaluated by surface plate count on De Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) agar and also by FISH method (fluorescent in situ hybridization) with the aid of Eub338 probe for fluorescence microscopy analysis. The isolate was identified as L. paraplantarum FT259 and it produced bacteriocins that inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua and several lactic acid bacteria. It was also observed that L.paraplantarum FT259 tolerated exposure to pH 3.5, and bile salts 0.3% for up to 180min. In experiments with simulated gastric juice, viable cells of L.paraplantarum FT259 decreased from 8.6log CFU/mL to 3.5log CFU/mL after 180min. For the same strain, in studies with Caco-2 cells, 74% of adhesion was observed through plate count and FISH assays. It was also demonstrated isolated FT259 was susceptible to the majority the antibiotics tested. Overall, the results indicated L. paraplantarum FT259 is a potential probiotic and the production of bacteriocin may be an interesting feature for food applications. PMID:23792229

  5. Effect of denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on growth and survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Ehsandoost, E; Gholami, S P; Nazemi, M

    2013-12-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of different doses (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) of Denak powder (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in milk and yoghurt during 21 day refrigerated storage for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt. In order to determine the effect of different doses of Denak powder on growth of probiotic bacteria in milk and yoghurt, first lyophilized bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus was added to 1 liter of low fat sterilized milk and was considered as control. Denak powder at the concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% were added to the samples and incubated until acidity reached 40 degrees Dornic and then left in refrigerator. Similar procedure was applied to the bacteria Bifidobacterium bifidum. The results of this experiment indicate the positive correlation between increased bacterial growth and increased Denak concentration. The investigation showed that the yoghurt containing 1% Denak powder had the best for taste, color, and insolubility. The sample with 1.5% Denak powder in milk and yoghurt had greater viscosity than the other samples investigated. The shelf lives of products were determined to be 21 days during which the bacterial count decreased but not less than 10(9). All the results suggest that Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) promoted the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in milk and yoghurt. According to these findings, addition of Denak powder to milk and yoghurt can be recommended to take advantage of their beneficial properties on human health attributed to antimicrobial activities. PMID:24517020

  6. Protection of probiotic bacteria in synbiotic matrices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotics, like Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, when encapsulated with prebiotic fibers such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), inulin (I) and pectic-oligosaccharides (POS), formed a synbiotic matrix system that protected the bacteria ...

  7. Potential probiotic attributes and antagonistic activity of an indigenous isolate Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 from an ethnic fermented beverage "Marcha" of north eastern Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2014-05-01

    A novel isolate DM5 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum displayed in vitro probiotic properties as well as antimicrobial activity. It showed adequate level of survival to the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and survived low acidic pH 2.5 for 5?h. Artificial gastric juice and intestinal fluidic environment decreased the initial viable cell population of isolate DM5 only by 7% and 13%, respectively, while lysozyme (200?g/ml) and bile salt (0.5%) enhanced its growth. It was found to deconjugate taurodeoxycholic acid, indicating its potential to reduce hypercholesterolemia. Isolate DM5 demonstrated cell surface hydrophobicity of 53% and autoaggregation of 54% which are the prerequisite for adhesion to epithelial cells and colonization to host. Bacteriocin activity of isolate was found to be 6400?AU/ml as it inhibited the growth of food borne pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Alcaligenes faecalis. The bactericidal action of bacteriocin from isolate was analyzed by flow cytometry, rendering its use as prospective probiotic and starter culture in food industry. PMID:24393040

  8. The probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus fermentum D3 increases in vitro the bioavailability of Ca, P, and Zn in fermented goat milk.

    PubMed

    Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Navarro-Alarcn, Miguel; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Olalla, Manuel; Gimnez, Rafael; Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Ruiz-Bravo, Alfonso; Lasserrot, Agustn; Ruiz-Lpez, Ma Dolores

    2013-02-01

    We determined calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc levels in a total of 27 samples of commercial goat- and cow-milk fermented products and 9 samples of a goat-milk fermented product with addition of a probiotic bacterial strain, Lactobacillus fermentum D3, manufactured experimentally by our research group. Atomic absorption spectroscopy with flame atomization and UV/VIS spectrophotometry were used as analytic techniques. The results of an in vitro digestion process showed that the bioavailability of calcium, phosphorus, and zinc was significantly higher in our fermented milk containing the probiotic bacterial strain than it was in commercial goat-milk fermented products. Furthermore, our product showed a significantly higher bioavailability of calcium and zinc compared to goat- and cow-milk fermented products made with other microorganisms. We conclude that, in in vitro assays, strain D3 seems to increase the bioavailability of these minerals and that this new product may constitute a better source of bioavailable minerals compared to other products already on the market. PMID:23179347

  9. Characterization of the genetic locus responsible for the production of ABP-118, a novel bacteriocin produced by the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC118.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Sarah; van Sinderen, Douwe; Thornton, Gerardine M; Holo, Helge; Nes, Ingolf F; Collins, J Kevin

    2002-04-01

    ABP-118, a small heat-stable bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC118, a strain isolated from the ileal-caecal region of the human gastrointestinal tract, was purified to homogeneity. Using reverse genetics, a DNA fragment specifying part of ABP-118 was identified on a 10769 bp chromosomal region. Analysis of this region revealed that ABP-118 was a Class IIb two-peptide bacteriocin composed of Abp118alpha, which exhibited the antimicrobial activity, and Abp118beta, which enhanced the antimicrobial activity. The gene conferring strain UCC118 immunity to the action of ABP-118, abpIM, was identified downstream of the abp118beta gene. Located further downstream of abp118beta, several ORFs were identified whose deduced proteins resembled those of proteins involved in bacteriocin regulation and secretion. Heterologous expression of ABP-118 was achieved in Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis and Bacillus cereus. In addition, the abp118 locus encoded an inducing peptide, AbpIP, which was shown to play a role in the regulation of ABP-118 production. This novel bacteriocin is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be isolated from a known human probiotic bacterium and to be characterized at the genetic level. PMID:11932444

  10. In vitro functional and immunomodulatory properties of the Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5-Streptococcus salivarius ST3 association that are relevant to the development of a pharyngeal probiotic product.

    PubMed

    Taverniti, Valentina; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; Junttila, Ilkka; Hämäläinen, Sanna; Turpeinen, Hannu; Mora, Diego; Karp, Matti; Pesu, Marko; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2012-06-01

    The use of proper bacterial strains as probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa is a potential prophylactic strategy for upper respiratory tract infections. In this context, we characterized in vitro the functional and immunomodulatory properties of the strains Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 and Streptococcus salivarius ST3 that were selected during previous investigations as promising pharyngeal probiotics. In this study, we demonstrated in vitro that strains MIMLh5 and ST3, alone and in combination, can efficiently adhere to pharyngeal epithelial cells, antagonize Streptococcus pyogenes, and modulate host innate immunity by inducing potentially protective effects. In particular, we found that the strains MIMLh5 and ST3 activate U937 human macrophages by significantly inducing the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Nonetheless, the induction of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) by MIMLh5 or ST3 was never lower than that of TNF-α, suggesting that these bacteria can potentially exert a regulatory rather than a proinflammatory effect. We also found that the strains MIMLh5 and ST3 induce cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression and demonstrated that toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) participates in the recognition of the strains MIMLh5 and ST3 by U937 cells. Finally, we observed that these microorganisms grow efficiently when cocultured in milk, suggesting that the preparation of a milk-based fermented product containing both MIMLh5 and ST3 can be a practical solution for the administration of these bacteria. In conclusion, we propose the combined use of L. helveticus MIMLh5 and S. salivarius ST3 for the preparation of novel products that display probiotic properties for the pharyngeal mucosa. PMID:22504812

  11. Co-administration of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 CCM7766 with prebiotic inulin alleviates the intestinal inflammation in rats exposed to N,N-dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Štofilová, Jana; Szabadosová, Viktória; Hrčková, Gabriela; Salaj, Rastislav; Bertková, Izabela; Hijová, Emília; Strojný, Ladislav; Bomba, Alojz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of preventive administration of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 CCM7766 alone or in combination with prebiotic inulin or with flax-seed oil in the gut of rats, which developed chronic inflammation following administration of the pro-carcinogen N,N-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). After 28weeks administration of probiotic/prebiotic-containing diet, rats were killed and their colons were examined by immunohistological criteria, whereas cytokines were determined in the jejunal mucosa. Application of DMH triggered the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α, expression of pro-inflammatory mediators NF-κB, COX-2 and iNOS and caused depletion of goblet cells. Supplementing the diet with L. plantarum and its combination with the prebiotic abolished DMH-induced inflammatory process in the jejunal mucosa by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and by stimulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine synthesis, whereas concentration of TGF-β1 was not influenced significantly. Diet prevented a decrease in goblet cell numbers but numbers of mast cells were lowered only moderately. However, combined treatment of rats with L. plantarum and flax-seed oil had no significant effect on the parameters examined, except for decreased expression of NF-κB, in comparison with the negative control. Results indicate that the preventive administration of probiotic L. plantarum LS/07 CCM7766 alone or in combination with prebiotic inulin to rats with DMH-induced chronic inflammation can reduce inflammatory process in the jejunal and colon mucosa, probably indirectly, and involves down-regulation of synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of NF-κB activity in mucosal cells. PMID:25536541

  12. In Vitro Functional and Immunomodulatory Properties of the Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5-Streptococcus salivarius ST3 Association That Are Relevant to the Development of a Pharyngeal Probiotic Product

    PubMed Central

    Taverniti, Valentina; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; Junttila, Ilkka; Hmlinen, Sanna; Turpeinen, Hannu; Mora, Diego; Karp, Matti; Pesu, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The use of proper bacterial strains as probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa is a potential prophylactic strategy for upper respiratory tract infections. In this context, we characterized in vitro the functional and immunomodulatory properties of the strains Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 and Streptococcus salivarius ST3 that were selected during previous investigations as promising pharyngeal probiotics. In this study, we demonstrated in vitro that strains MIMLh5 and ST3, alone and in combination, can efficiently adhere to pharyngeal epithelial cells, antagonize Streptococcus pyogenes, and modulate host innate immunity by inducing potentially protective effects. In particular, we found that the strains MIMLh5 and ST3 activate U937 human macrophages by significantly inducing the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). Nonetheless, the induction of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) by MIMLh5 or ST3 was never lower than that of TNF-?, suggesting that these bacteria can potentially exert a regulatory rather than a proinflammatory effect. We also found that the strains MIMLh5 and ST3 induce cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression and demonstrated that toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) participates in the recognition of the strains MIMLh5 and ST3 by U937 cells. Finally, we observed that these microorganisms grow efficiently when cocultured in milk, suggesting that the preparation of a milk-based fermented product containing both MIMLh5 and ST3 can be a practical solution for the administration of these bacteria. In conclusion, we propose the combined use of L. helveticus MIMLh5 and S. salivarius ST3 for the preparation of novel products that display probiotic properties for the pharyngeal mucosa. PMID:22504812

  13. Performance of two potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains from the olive microbiota as starters in the fermentation of heat shocked green olives.

    PubMed

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Nisiotou, Aspasia A; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2014-02-01

    The performance of two potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains from olive microbiota, namely L. pentosus B281 and L. plantarum B282 was assessed as starter cultures in Spanish-style fermentation of heat shocked green olives cv. Halkidiki. Two different initial salt levels were studied, 10% (w/v) and 8% (w/v) NaCl, and the brines were inoculated with (a) L. pentosus B281, (b) L. plantarum B282, and (c) a mixture of both strains. A spontaneous fermentation was also taken into account as control treatment. Prior to brining, olives were heat shocked at 80 C for 10 min to reduce the level of the indigenous microbiota on olive drupes and facilitate the dominance of the inoculated cultures. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory analyses were conducted throughout fermentation. The composition of LAB population and the evolution of added inocula were assessed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). The final population of LAB was maintained above 6 log cycles in olive flesh. Both L. pentosus B281 and L. plantarum B282 were able to dominate over indigenous LAB, albeit strain B281 exhibited higher recovery percentages (100 or 94.7% for B281 and 58.8% or 55.0% for B282 in 10% or 8% NaCl, respectively). L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282, when the two strains were co-inoculated in olive fermentations. The sensory assessment showed higher preference for inoculated fermentations of L. pentosus and L. plantarum separately in 8% NaCl, followed by the L. plantarum in 10% NaCl. The present study showed that probiotic strains L. pentosus B281 and L. plantarum B282, may offer a great potential for use as functional starter cultures in olive fermentation and deliver a promising probiotic food to the consumer. PMID:24334091

  14. Transcript map of the temperate Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phiadh.

    PubMed

    Altermann, Eric; Henrich, Bernhard

    2003-10-01

    Temporal transcription of phage phiadh was analysed during lytic reproduction. Based on Northern hybridizations the phage genome was divided into regions of early, middle and late transcription. Eight groups of overlapping transcripts, probably originating from common precursors, were distinguished. Early transcription of a 10.9 kb region adjacent to the lytic/lysogenic switch started within the first 10 min of infection and produced three groups of mRNAs mostly related to DNA replication. Four middle transcripts were observed 30 min after infection, corresponding to an 8.5 kb genomic region, which started at the replication origin (ori) and encompassed a DNA packaging function and the cos site. Three groups of late transcripts were first observed 50 min after infection, corresponding to a 21.1 kb region between the middle region and the attachment site (attP), encoding functions for capsid morphogenesis and host cell lysis. A fourth group of late-appearing mRNAs was divergently transcribed from the 3.2 kb section between attP and the lytic/lysogenic switch, including the repressor and integrase genes. Except for one set of early mRNAs, all the transcripts persisted until the end of the reproduction cycle. Two confirmed and two predicted promoters were assigned to transcript 5' ends in the early region. PMID:14523130

  15. Screening of Probiotic Activities of Forty-Seven Strains of Lactobacillus spp. by In Vitro Techniques and Evaluation of the Colonization Ability of Five Selected Strains in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, C. N.; Rosenfeldt Nielsen, V.; Hayford, A. E.; Mller, P. L.; Michaelsen, K. F.; Prregaard, A.; Sandstrm, B.; Tvede, M.; Jakobsen, M.

    1999-01-01

    The probiotic potential of 47 selected strains of Lactobacillus spp. was investigated. The strains were examined for resistance to pH 2.5 and 0.3% oxgall, adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and antimicrobial activities against enteric pathogenic bacteria in model systems. From the results obtained in vitro, five strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2, L. reuteri DSM 12246, L. rhamnosus LGG, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CHCC 2329, and L. casei subsp. alactus CHCC 3137, were selected for in vivo studies. The daily consumption by 12 healthy volunteers of two doses of 1010 freeze-dried bacteria of the selected strains for 18 days was followed by a washout period of 17 days. Fecal samples were taken at days 0 and 18 and during the washout period at days 5 and 11. Lactobacillus isolates were initially identified by API 50CHL and internal transcribed spacer PCR, and their identities were confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis in combination with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Among the tested strains, L. rhamnosus 19070-2, L. reuteri DSM 12246, and L. rhamnosus LGG were identified most frequently in fecal samples; they were found in 10, 8, and 7 of the 12 samples tested during the intervention period, respectively, whereas reisolations were less frequent in the washout period. The bacteria were reisolated in concentrations from 105 to 108 cells/g of feces. Survival and reisolation of the bacteria in vivo appeared to be linked to pH tolerance, adhesion, and antimicrobial properties in vitro. PMID:10543808

  16. Lactobacillus species shift in distal esophagus of high-fat-diet-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Xie, Ning; Wang, Xue-Hong; Cui, Yi; Yang, Jun-Wen; Chen, Lin-Lin; Lu, Fang-Gen

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the microbiota shift in the distal esophagus of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet. METHODS: Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into high-fat diet and normal control groups of 10 rats each. The composition of microbiota in the mucosa from the distal esophagus was analyzed based on selective culture. A variety of Lactobacillus species were identified by molecular biological techniques. Bacterial DNA from Lactobacillus colonies was extracted, and 16S rDNA was amplified by PCR using bacterial universal primers. The amplified 16S rDNA products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Every single band was purified from the gel and sent to be sequenced. RESULTS: Based on mucosal bacterial culturing in the distal esophagus, Staphylococcus aureus was absent, and total anaerobes and Lactobacillus species were decreased significantly in the high-fat diet group compared with the normal control group (P < 0.01). Detailed DGGE analysis on the composition of Lactobacillus species in the distal esophagus revealed that Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri (L. gasseri) and Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) comprised the Lactobacillus species in the high-fat diet group, while the composition of Lactobacillus species in the normal control group consisted of L. gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii and L. reuteri. CONCLUSION: High-fat diet led to a mucosal microflora shift in the distal esophagus in rats, especially the composition of Lactobacillus species. PMID:21912459

  17. Evaluation of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutans by Addition of Probiotics in the form of Curd in the Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Mantha, Somasundar; Murthi, Surekha; Sura, Himagiri; Kadaru, Pravallika; Jangra, Jogender Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when taken in adequate amounts provide a health benefit on the host. They have been used to improve gastrointestinal health, and their popularity has prompted increased interest for their role in the promotion of oral health also. The study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of diet alteration on oral microflora with the addition of probiotics in the form of curd in the diet. Materials and Methods: Sample pool included total 20 children, 15 in experimental group; who were given curd containing probiotic bacteria in their diet daily and 5 children in control group; who were contradicted of food containing probiotics. All the children were followed for over a period of 1-year. A pre and post quantitative analysis of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli were done in the saliva of both active and control groups, and caries score was recorded. Statistical analysis used: The data thus compiled were statistically evaluated using Chi-square test and Pearson correlation on SPSS software version 14. Results: In experimental group, 87% children showed decrease and 7% showed increase in S. mutans count (P = 0.83), whereas 67% showed increase and 7% decrease in Lactobacilli count (P = 0.002) after 1-year of follow-up. Conclusions: Probiotics are upcoming as an intriguing field in oral health. Efforts should be made to increase the knowledge of the general dental practitioners with this facet of oral disease therapy and promote the implementation of the concept of “food rather than medicine.” PMID:26229377

  18. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058, a probiotic strain with high conjugated linoleic acid production ability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Haiqin; Tian, Fengwei; Zhao, Jianxin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei

    2015-11-20

    Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 was isolated from sauerkraut and identified to synthesize the beneficial metabolite conjugated linoleic acid. The genome contains a 319,7363-bp chromosome and three plasmids. The sequence will facilitate identification and characterization of the genetic determinants for its putative biological benefits. PMID:26439428

  19. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Infection in Balb/c Mice by Feeding Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease. We hypothesized that feeding NP51 would increase Th-1 responses and decrease prog...

  20. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Infection in BALB/c Mice by Feeding Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Mice were randomized to ten treatment groups; sentinels, control, heat-killed MAP, viable MAP, heat-killed NP51, viable ...

  1. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in BALB/c mice by feeding probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Mice were randomized to ten treatment groups; sentinels, control, heat-killed MAP, viable MAP, heat-killed NP51, viable ...

  2. Prevention of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice by feeding probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP-51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of feeding Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease. We hypothesized that feeding NP51 would increase Th-1 responses and decrease prog...

  3. In vitro characterization of aggregation and adhesion properties of viable and heat-killed forms of two probiotic Lactobacillus strains and interaction with foodborne zoonotic bacteria, especially Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Tareb, Raouf; Bernardeau, Marion; Gueguen, Marielle; Vernoux, Jean-Paul

    2013-04-01

    Bacterial aggregation and/or adhesion are key factors for colonization of the digestive ecosystem and the ability of probiotic strains to exclude pathogens. In the present study, two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM-I-3699, were evaluated as viable or heat-killed forms and compared with probiotic reference Lactobacillus strains (Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. farciminis CIP 103136). The autoaggregation potential of both forms was higher than that of reference strains and twice that of pathogenic strains. The coaggregation potential of these two beneficial micro-organisms was evaluated against several pathogenic agents that threaten the global safety of the feed/food chain: Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The strongest coaggregative interactions were demonstrated with Campylobacter spp. by a coaggregation test, confirmed by electron microscopic examination for the two forms. Viable forms were investigated for the nature of the bacterial cell-surface molecules involved, by sugar reversal tests and chemical and enzymic pretreatments. The results suggest that the coaggregation between both probiotic strains and C. jejuni CIP 70.2(T) is mediated by a carbohydrate-lectin interaction. The autoaggregation potential of the two probiotics decreased upon exposure to proteinase, SDS or LiCl, showing that proteinaceous components on the surface of the two lactobacilli play an important role in this interaction. Adhesion abilities of both Lactobacillus strains were also demonstrated at significant levels on Caco-2 cells, mucin and extracellular matrix material. Both viable and heat-killed forms of the two probiotic lactobacilli inhibited the attachment of C. jejuni CIP 70.2(T) to mucin. In conclusion, in vitro assays showed that Lb. rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and Lb. farciminis CNCM-I-3699, as viable or heat-killed forms, are adherent to different intestinal matrix models and are highly aggregative in vitro with pathogens, especially Campylobacter spp., the most commonly reported zoonotic agent in the European Union. This study supports the need for further in vivo investigations to demonstrate the potential food safety benefits of Lb. rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and Lb. farciminis CNCM-I-3699, live or heat-killed, in the global feed/food chain. PMID:23329323

  4. Quantitative profiling of bacteriocins present in dairy-free probiotic preparations of Lactobacillus acidophilus by nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Renu; Talapatra, Kesh

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriocins are a heterogeneous group of ribosomally synthesized peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity, produced predominantly by lactic acid bacteria, with potential applications as biopreservatives and probiotics. We describe here a novel strategy based on a bottom-up, shotgun proteomic approach using nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) with multiple fragmentation techniques for the quantitative profiling of bacteriocins present in the probiotic preparations of Lactobacillus acidophilus. A direct LC-MS/MS analysis with alternate collision-induced dissociation, high-energy collision dissociation, and electron-transfer dissociation fragmentation following a filter-assisted size-exclusion sample prefractionation has resulted in the identification of peptides belonging to 37 bacteriocins or related proteins. Peptides from lactacin F, helveticin J, lysin, avicin A, acidocin M, curvaticin FS47, and carocin D were predominant. The process of freeze drying under vacuum was observed to affect both the diversity and abundance of bacteriocins. Data acquisition using alternating complementary peptide fragmentation modes, especially electron-transfer dissociation, has significantly enhanced the peptide sequence coverage and number of bacteriocin peptides identified. Multi-enzyme proteolytic digestion was observed to increase the sample complexity and dynamic range, lowering the chances of detection of low-abundant bacteriocin peptides by LC-MS/MS. An analytical platform integrating size exclusion prefractionation, nanoLC-MS/MS analysis with multiple fragmentation techniques, and data-dependent decision tree-driven bioinformatic data analysis is novel in bacteriocin research and suitable for the comprehensive bioanalysis of diverse, low-abundant bacteriocins in complex samples. PMID:24565320

  5. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Mascuñan Díaz, J Ignacio; Díaz, Juan J; Ojeda, Pedro Manuel; Ferrer-González, J Pablo; Gil, David; Onrubia, Isabel; Rincón Victor, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as a first-line management for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone, and amino acid formulae in Spain, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (SNS). Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated and non–IgE-mediated allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The models also estimated the SNS cost (at 2012/2013 prices) of managing infants over 18 months after starting a formula as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non–IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared with those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to the SNS for managing both IgE-mediated and non–IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy. Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or amino acid formulae for first-line management of newly-diagnosed infants with cow’s milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources because it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized controlled study showing faster tolerance development in children receiving a probiotic-containing formula is required before this conclusion can be confirmed. PMID:26648744

  6. The Efficacy of Probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) and 5-ASA (Aminosalicylic Acid) in the Treatment of Experimental Radiation Proctitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dandin, Özgür; Akin, Mehmet Levhi; Balta, Ahmet Ziya; Yücel, Ergün; Karakaş, Dursun Özgür; Demirbaş, Sezai; Özdemir, Sevim; Haholu, Apdullah

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the study are to demonstrate the effect of probiotic use on the healing of radiation proctitis (RP) and evaluate the efficiency of fecal biomarkers at follow-up of the treatment. Thirty-two male/female rats were randomly separated into four groups of eight rats. The first group (control) was not radiated. RP was created by 17.5 Gy single dose rectal irradiation. The second group (RP) was subjected to RP, but not treated. The third group (RP+ASA) was treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) 250 mg/kg daily by gastric lavage for 14 days after the irradiation, and the forth group (RP+LGG) was treated with Lactobacillus GG (LGG) 25 × 100 million CFU daily. Feces samples were taken at the 7th and 14th day of the treatment for fecal biomarkers. Rectums of the rats were resected at the 14th day by laparotomy. Samples were evaluated both macroscopically and microscopically. RP was achieved both macroscopically and microscopically. Weight loss of RP group is statistically significant (p < 0.005) than other groups. The healing ratio of RP+ASA and RP+LGG groups was significantly better than the RP group (p < 0.005) both macroscopically and microscopically. But there was no significant difference between ASA and LGG groups. Biochemically, fecal calprotectin was found to be more effective than fecal myeloperoxidase and fecal lactoferrin to show the efficacy of treatment of radiation proctitis. The results of our study demonstrate that probiotic is as effective as 5-aminosalicylic in the treatment of radiation proctitis, and fecal calprotectin is a useful biomarker in determining the response to the treatment. PMID:26730065

  7. Genetic transformation of novel isolates of chicken Lactobacillus bearing probiotic features for expression of heterologous proteins: a tool to develop live oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Rodrigo M; Moreira, João Luiz S; Souza, Marcelo R; Fátima Horta, M; Teixeira, Santuza MR; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nicoli, Jacques R; Nunes, Álvaro C

    2006-01-01

    Background The use of lactic acid bacteria as vehicles to delivery antigens to immunize animals is a promising issue. When genetically modified, these bacteria can induce a specific local and systemic immune response against selected pathogens. Gastric acid and bile salts tolerance, production of antagonistic substances against pathogenic microorganisms, and adhesive ability to gut epithelium are other important characteristics that make these bacteria useful for oral immunization. Results Bacteria isolated on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS) from different gastrointestinal portions of broiler chicks were evaluated for their resistance to artificial gastric acid and bile salts, production of hydrogen peroxide, and cell surface hydrophobicity. Thirty-eight isolates were first typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers using universal primers that anneal within 16S and 23S genes, followed by restriction digestion analyses of PCR amplicons (PCR-ARDRA). An expression cassette was assembled onto the pCR2.1-Topo vector by cloning the promoter, leader peptide, cell wall anchor and terminator sequences derived from the laminin binding S-layer protein gene of L. crispatus strain F5.7 (lbs gene). A sequence encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inserted as reporter gene, and an erythromycin resistance gene was added as selective marker. All constructs were able to express GFP in the cloning host E. coli XL1-Blue and different Lactobacillus strains as verified by FACS and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Conclusion Lactobacillus isolated from gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens and selected for probiotic characteristics can be genetically modified by introducing an expression cassette into the lbs locus. The transformed bacteria expressed on its cell wall surface different fluorescent proteins used as reporters of promoter function. It is possible then that similar bacterial model expressing pathogen antigens can be used as live oral vaccines to immunize broilers against infectious diseases. PMID:16396687

  8. Growth, bioconversion of isoflavones and probiotic properties of parent and subsequent passages of Lactobacillus upon ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Siok-Koon; Liong, Min-Tze

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVB; 90 J/m²) on growth, bioconversion of isoflavones and probiotic properties of parent and subsequent passages of L. casei FTDC 2113. UV radiation significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) the growth of parent cells in mannitol-soymilk fermented at 37°C for 24 h. This had led to an enhanced intracellular and extracellular β-glucosidase activity with a subsequent increase in bioconversion of isoflavones in mannitol-soymilk (P < 0.05). UV radiation also promoted (P < 0.05) the tolerance of parent cells towards acidic condition (pH 2 and 3) and intestinal bile salts (oxgall, taurocholic and cholic acid). In addition, parent treated cells also exhibited better (P < 0.05) adhesion ability to mucin and antimicrobial activity compared to that of the control. All these positive effects of UV radiation were only prevalent in the parent cells without inheritance by first, second and third passage of cells. Although temporary, our results suggested that UV radiation could enhance the bioactive and probiotic potentials of L. casei FTDC 2113, and thus could be applied for the production of probiotic products with enhanced bioactivity. PMID:22264088

  9. Clinical trial: Probiotic Bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 Versus Placebo for the Symptoms of Bloating in Patients with Functional Bowel Disorders - a Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Yehuda; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar; Maier, Danielle; Carroll, Ian; Galanko, Joseph A; Leyer, Gregory; Palsson, Olafur S

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent data suggest a role for the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of functional bowel disorders (FBD). Probiotic studies in FBD generated inconsistent results suggesting a strain and product specific effect. Aim To investigate the clinical efficacy of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (L-NCFM) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 (B-LBi07) in non-constipation FBD. Methods A double-blind, placebo-control clinical trial of the probiotic bacteria L-NCFM and B-LBi07 bid (2×1011cfu/day) vs. placebo over 8-weeks. Primary endpoints: global relief of GI symptoms and satisfaction with treatment. Secondary endpoints: Change in symptoms severity, well being, and quality of life. Microbiology effect was assessed by qPCR on fecal samples. Results Sixty subjects (probiotic n=31; placebo n=29), 72% females, 84% whites, mean age 37 years. Abdominal bloating improved in the probiotics compared to the placebo group at 4 weeks (4.10 vs. 6.17, p=0.009; change in bloating severity p=0.02) and 8 weeks (4.26 vs. 5.84, p=0.06; change in bloating severity p<0.01). Analyses on the IBS subgroup (n=33) showed similar results. Conclusions L-NCFM and B-LBi07 BID improve symptoms of bloating in patients with FBD. This data supports the role of intestinal bacteria in the pathophysiology of FBD and the role for probiotic bacteria in the management of these disorders. PMID:21436726

  10. Lactobacillus plantarum: microfiltration experiments for the production of probiotic biomass to be used in food and nutraceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Alfano, Alberto; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Cimini, Donatella; Fusco, Alessandra; Marzaioli, Iolanda; De Rosa, Mario; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have focused their attention on increasing the production of lactobacillus ssp. (LAB) biomass via-fermentation, in particular exploiting novel in situ product removal bioreactors that prevent accumulation of lactic acid, and therefore growth inhibition. Lactobacillus plantarum is one of the most studied species, used in nutritional supplements and in food processing. This research aimed to obtain high cell densities of L. plantarum, through fed-batch and microfiltration experiments. The latter achieved a 5-fold higher biomass density compared with batch experiments. Furthermore, the L. plantarum strain, isolated from Portoguese chorizo, was characterized for its ability to survive simulated digestion in vitro and competition potential toward certain common pathogens. Finally, the possibility of exploiting dairy liquid wastes (whey) as medium components was also explored demonstrating the strain's capability of metabolizing bovine-ovine whey. This finding might be relevant in liquid waste treatments of diary industries that are well distributed in our region. PMID:25582766

  11. High-Dose Probiotic Supplementation Containing Lactobacillus casei for 7 Days Does Not Enhance Salivary Antimicrobial Protein Responses to Exertional Heat Stress Compared With Placebo.

    PubMed

    Gill, Samantha Kirsty; Teixeira, Ana Maria; Rosado, Fatima; Cox, Martin; Costa, Ricardo Jose

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to determine whether high-dose probiotic supplementation containing Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) for 7 consecutive days enhances salivary antimicrobial protein (S-AMP) responses to exertional-heat stress (EHS). Eight endurance-trained male volunteers (age 26 ± 6 years, nude body mass 70.2 ± 8.8 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.05 m, VO2max 59 ± 5 ml·kg-1·min-1 [M ± SD]) completed a blinded randomized and counterbalanced crossover design. Oral supplementation of the probiotic beverage (PRO; L. casei . 1011 colony-forming units·day-1) or placebo (PLA) was consumed for 7 consecutive days before 2 hr running exercise at 60% VO2max in hot ambient conditions (34.0° C and 32% RH). Body mass and unstimulated saliva and venous blood samples were collected at baseline (7 days before EHS), pre-EHS, post-EHS (1 hr, 2 hr, and 4 hr), and at 24 hr. Saliva samples were analyzed for salivary (S) IgA, α-amylase, lysozyme, and cortisol. Plasma samples were analyzed for plasma osmolality. Body mass and plasma osmolality did not differ between trials. Saliva flow rate remained relatively constant throughout the experimental design in PRO (overall M ± SD = 601 ± 284 μl/min) and PLA (557 ± 296 μl/min). PRO did not induce significant changes in resting S-AMP responses compared with PLA (p > .05). Increases in S-IgA, S-α-amylase, and S-cortisol responses, but not S-lysozyme responses, were observed after EHS (p < .05). No main effects of trial or Time x Trial interaction were observed for S-AMP and S-cortisol responses. Supplementation of a probiotic beverage containing L. casei for 7 days before EHS does not provide any further oral-respiratory mucosal immune protection, with respect to S-AMP, over PLA. PMID:26479711

  12. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG enhanced Th1 cellular immunity but did not affect antibody responses in a human gut microbiota transplanted neonatal gnotobiotic pig model.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ke; Tin, Christine; Wang, Haifeng; Yang, Xingdong; Li, Guohua; Giri-Rachman, Ernawati; Kocher, Jacob; Bui, Tammy; Clark-Deener, Sherrie; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to establish a human gut microbiota (HGM) transplanted gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of human rotavirus (HRV) infection and diarrhea, and to verify the dose-effects of probiotics on HRV vaccine-induced immune responses. Our previous studies using the Gn pig model found that probiotics dose-dependently regulated both T cell and B cell immune responses induced by rotavirus vaccines. We generated the HGM transplanted neonatal Gn pigs through daily feeding of neonatal human fecal suspension to germ-free pigs for 3 days starting at 12 hours after birth. We found that attenuated HRV (AttHRV) vaccination conferred similar overall protection against rotavirus diarrhea and virus shedding in Gn pigs and HGM transplanted Gn pigs. HGM promoted the development of the neonatal immune system, as evidenced by the significantly enhanced IFN-? producing T cell responses and reduction of regulatory T cells and their cytokine production in the AttHRV-vaccinated pigs. The higher dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) feeding (14 doses, up to 109 colony-forming-unit [CFU]/dose) effectively increased the LGG counts in the HGM Gn pig intestinal contents and significantly enhanced HRV-specific IFN-? producing T cell responses to the AttHRV vaccine. Lower dose LGG (9 doses, up to 106 CFU/dose) was ineffective. Neither doses of LGG significantly improved the protection rate, HRV-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers in serum, or IgA antibody titers in intestinal contents compared to the AttHRV vaccine alone, suggesting that an even higher dose of LGG is needed to overcome the influence of the microbiota to achieve the immunostimulatory effect in the HGM pigs. This study demonstrated that HGM Gn pig is an applicable animal model for studying immune responses to rotavirus vaccines and can be used for studying interventions (i.e., probiotics and prebiotics) that may enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccines through improving the gut microbiota. PMID:24722168

  13. In vitro probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 and its modulatory effect on gut microbiota of mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renhui; Tao, Xueying; Wan, Cuixiang; Li, Shengjie; Xu, Hengyi; Xu, Feng; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-09-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013, a novel strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented acid beans, was systematically evaluated for its survival capacity under stress conditions (pH, bile salt, simulated gastrointestinal tract, and antibiotics), production of exopolysaccharide and antagonism against 8 pathogens. Its effect on mice gut microbiota was also investigated by quantitative PCR and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results showed that ZDY 2013 can grow at pH 3.5 and survive at pH 2.0 for 6 h and at 0.45% bile salt for 3 h. The exopolysaccharide yield was up to 204±7.68 mg/L. The survival rate of ZDY 2013 in a simulated gastrointestinal tract was as high as 65.84%. Antagonism test with a supernatant of ZDY 2013 showed maximum halo of 28 mm against Listeria monocytogenes. The inhibition order was as follows: Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Staphylococcus aureus. Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 was sensitive to some antibiotics (e.g., macrolide, sulfonamides, aminoglycoside, tetracyclines and β-lactams), whereas it was resistant to glycopeptides, quinolones, and cephalosporins antibiotics. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile demonstrated that ZDY 2013 administration altered the composition of the microbiota at various intestinal loci of the mice. Moreover, the quantitative PCR test showed that the administration of ZDY 2013 enhanced the populations of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in either the colon or cecum, and reduced the potential enteropathogenic bacteria (e.g., Enterococcus, Enterobacterium, and Clostridium perfringens). Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 exhibited high resistance against low pH, bile salt, and gastrointestinal fluid, and possessed antibacterial and gut microbiota modulation properties with a potential application in the development of dairy food and nutraceuticals. PMID:26142853

  14. Utilization of natural fucosylated oligosaccharides by three novel alpha-L-fucosidases from a probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Daz, Jess; Monedero, Vicente; Yebra, Mara J

    2011-01-01

    Three putative ?-L-fucosidases encoded in the Lactobacillus casei BL23 genome were cloned and purified. The proteins displayed different abilities to hydrolyze natural fucosyloligosaccharides like 2'-fucosyllactose, H antigen disaccharide, H antigen type II trisaccharide, and 3'-, 4'-, and 6'-fucosyl-GlcNAc. This indicated a possible role in the utilization of oligosaccharides present in human milk and intestinal mucosa. PMID:21097595

  15. The Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium microflora of the human intestine: composition and succession.

    PubMed

    Reuter, G

    2001-09-01

    Lactobacillus and bifidobacterial cultures are increasingly used as probiotics in pharmaceuticals and in foods. The selection of strains is performed often for technological rather than for microecological reasons. Detailed reports about species and strains composition of these microorganisms in the intestinal microflora of man are rare. Our investigations were performed with samples originating from infants and adults, taken from faeces and from upper sections of the intestinal tract including mouth and stomach, and from caecum and colon. Post mortem cases as well as test subjects under physiological conditions were analyzed using an automatic capsule system sampling at defined times in different parts of the intestinal tract. The fate of selected strains after oral intake was studied, too. Furthermore, influences of the microflora originating from food were considered. The identification of autochthonous (indigenous) and allochthonous (transient) species could be achieved with descriptions of new species in the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. L. gasseri and L. reuteri proved to be predominant autochthonous Lactobacillus species in infants as well as in adults. Both species were occasionally present even in the stomach. This was also the case with an anaerobic lactic acid bacterium, previously named Catenabacterium catenaforme, later classified as L. ruminis, a non-motile variant of this species. The bifidobacterial microflora differed in composition between infants and adults and in different stages of the host's life. Up to 5 species or special strains of bifidobacteria could be present in different, individually fixed, combinations. Species typical for infants were B. bifidum, B. infantis, B. breve, and B. parvulorum. Typical for adults were 4 different variants of B. adolescentis. B. bifidum and B. longum could often be found in both groups, but in lower numbers. B. longum showed some oxygen tolerance whereas B. bifidum and B. adolescentis required strict anaerobic and fastidious conditions for cultivation. The autochthonous Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium microflora in man will remain stable life-long. With lactobacilli, however, some successions may be caused by transient species derived from food or from the oral cavity, thus giving the impression of an altered microflora. Nevertheless L. gasseri, L. reuteri, L. ruminis, and to some degree, L. salivarius, may be present as autochthonous species all of the time. With bifidobacteria, a decreasing tendency in counts and in multiple composition in elderly people exists. Furthermore, this microflora is also influenced by consumption habits, which are probably caused by geographical circumstances. PMID:11721280

  16. Survival of a probiotic, Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, in the gastrointestinal tract: selective isolation from faeces and identification using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yuki, N; Watanabe, K; Mike, A; Tagami, Y; Tanaka, R; Ohwaki, M; Morotomi, M

    1999-04-01

    Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LCS) is a probiotic bacterium used in the production of fermented milk products and lactic acid bacteria preparations. To investigate the survival of LCS in the gastrointestinal tract, we have developed a selective medium and specific monoclonal antibodies to isolate and identify this strain. Selective LLV agar medium was prepared by modifying LBS medium, a selective medium for lactobacilli, through the replacement of glucose with lactitol as a carbon source and vancomycin as a selective antibiotic. Culture in LLV agar medium followed by ELISA using monoclonal antibodies specific for LCS was able to detect the organism in faeces. Using this method, we studied the faecal recovery of LCS in individuals who drank 125 ml of fermented milk which contained 10(10) live LCS for 3 days. The mean recovery was about 10(7) live bacteria per gram of faeces, indicating that LCS survived transit through the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion of the fermented milk. PMID:10375134

  17. Use of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 299 to reduce pathogenic bacteria in the oropharynx of intubated patients: a randomised controlled open pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Klarin, Bengt; Molin, Gran; Jeppsson, Bengt; Larsson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is usually caused by aspiration of pathogenic bacteria from the oropharynx. Oral decontamination with antiseptics, such as chlorhexidine (CHX) or antibiotics, has been used as prophylaxis against this complication. We hypothesised that the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 299 (Lp299) would be as efficient as CHX in reducing the pathogenic bacterial load in the oropharynx of tracheally intubated, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients. Methods Fifty critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation were randomised to either oral mechanical cleansing followed by washing with 0.1% CHX solution or to the same cleansing procedure followed by oral application of an emulsion of Lp299. Samples for microbiological analyses were taken from the oropharynx and trachea at inclusion and at defined intervals thereafter. Results Potentially pathogenic bacteria that were not present at inclusion were identified in oropharyngeal samples from eight of the patients treated with Lp299 and 13 of those treated with CHX (p = 0.13). Analysis of tracheal samples yielded similar results. Lp299 was recovered from the oropharynx of all patients in the Lp299 group. Conclusions In this pilot study, we found no difference between the effect of Lp299 and CHX used in oral care procedures, when we examined the effects of those agents on colonisation of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the oropharynx of intubated, mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:18990201

  18. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium adhesion and cytotoxicity during epithelial cell stress is reduced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Kristin M; Bhunia, Arun K

    2009-01-01

    Background Physiological stressors may alter susceptibility of the host intestinal epithelium to infection by enteric pathogens. In the current study, cytotoxic effect, adhesion and invasion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) to Caco-2 cells exposed to thermal stress (41°C, 1 h) was investigated. Probiotic bacteria have been shown to reduce interaction of pathogens with the epithelium under non-stress conditions and may have a significant effect on epithelial viability during infection; however, probiotic effect on pathogen interaction with epithelial cells under physiological stress is not known. Therefore, we investigated the influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus gasseri on Salmonella adhesion and Salmonella-induced cytotoxicity of Caco-2 cells subjected to thermal stress. Results Thermal stress increased the cytotoxic effect of both S. Typhimurium (P = 0.0001) and nonpathogenic E. coli K12 (P = 0.004) to Caco-2 cells, and resulted in greater susceptibility of cell monolayers to S. Typhimurium adhesion (P = 0.001). Thermal stress had no significant impact on inflammatory cytokines released by Caco-2 cells, although exposure to S. Typhimurium resulted in greater than 80% increase in production of IL-6 and IL-8. Blocking S. Typhimurium with anti-ShdA antibody prior to exposure of Salmonella decreased adhesion (P = 0.01) to non-stressed and thermal-stressed Caco-2 cells. Pre-exposure of Caco-2 cells to L. rhamnosus GG significantly reduced Salmonella-induced cytotoxicity (P = 0.001) and Salmonella adhesion (P = 0.001) to Caco-2 cells during thermal stress, while L. gasseri had no effect. Conclusion Results suggest that thermal stress increases susceptibility of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells to Salmonella adhesion, and increases the cytotoxic effect of Salmonella during infection. Use of L. rhamnosus GG as a probiotic may reduce the severity of infection during epithelial cell stress. Mechanisms by which thermal stress increases susceptibility to S. Typhimurium colonization and by which L. rhamnosus GG limits the severity of infection remain to be elucidated. PMID:19589170

  19. Relative cost-effectiveness of an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow’s milk allergy in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Julian F; Panca, Monica; Ovcinnikova, Olga; Nocerino, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF) containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as first-line management for cow’s milk allergy (CMA) compared with eHCF alone, soy-based formulae (SBF), hydrolyzed rice formulae (HRF), and amino acid formulae (AAF) in Italy, from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (INHS) and parents. Methods Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months, based on an observational study dataset. The model also estimated the cost (at 2012/2013 prices) of health care resource use funded by the INHS and formulae paid for by parents over 18 months after starting a formula, as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. Results The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared to those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to both the INHS and parents of infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated CMA. Conclusion Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF, SBF, HRF, or an AAF for first-line management of newly diagnosed infants with CMA in Italy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources, and is cost-effective from the parents’ perspective, since it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized controlled study showing faster tolerance development in children receiving a probiotic-containing formula is required before this conclusion can be confirmed. PMID:26089692

  20. Enzymology and Structure of the GH13_31 Glucan 1,6-α-Glucosidase That Confers Isomaltooligosaccharide Utilization in the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Marie S.; Fredslund, Folmer; Majumder, Avishek; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N.; Lo Leggio, Leila; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode α-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 31) that confer degradation of IMO. These genes reside frequently within maltooligosaccharide utilization operons, which include an ATP-binding cassette transporter and α-glucan active enzymes, e.g., maltogenic amylases and maltose phosphorylases, and they also occur separated from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of α-1,6- and α-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-α-glucosidase active on IMO and dextran and product-inhibited by glucose. The catalytic efficiency of LaGH13_31 on dextran and the dextran/panose (trisaccharide) efficiency ratio were the highest reported for this class of enzymes, suggesting higher affinity at distal substrate binding sites. The crystal structure of LaGH13_31 was determined to a resolution of 2.05 Å and revealed additional substrate contacts at the +2 subsite in LaGH13_31 compared to the GH13_31 from Streptococcus mutans (SmGH13_31), providing a possible structural rationale to the relatively high affinity for dextran. A comprehensive phylogenetic and activity motif analysis mapped IMO utilization enzymes from gut microbiota to rationalize preferential utilization of IMO by gut residents. PMID:22685275

  1. Effect of kynurenic acid on the viability of probiotics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dolecka, Jadwiga; Urbanik-Sypniewska, Teresa; Skrzyd?o-Radoma?ska, Barbara; Parada-Turska, Jolanta

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics are bacteria that are commercially available as dietary supplements. One of the important properties of probiotics is their ability to survive in the intestine. Recent evidence has identified kynurenic acid (KYNA) as a bactericidal constituent of intestinal fluid. These data led us to study the influence of KYNA on the viability of selected probiotics. We found that KYNA supported the growth of bacteria in the probiotics Acidolac (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium) and Lakcid Forte (Lactobacillus rhamnosus) or retarded the growth of bacteria from the Acidolac, BioGaia (Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis), Dicoflor (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG), Lacium (Lactobacillus plantarum) and Trilac (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis) probiotics depending on its concentration. KYNA did not affect the viability of bacteria from the probiotic Linex (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12). Our results suggest a potential role of KYNA in the regulation of bacterial growth in the digestive system. PMID:21602611

  2. Residue Leu940 Has a Crucial Role in the Linkage and Reaction Specificity of the Glucansucrase GTF180 of the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri 180*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangfeng; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Pijning, Tjaard; Lpez, Cesar A.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2014-01-01

    Highly conserved glycoside hydrolase family 70 glucansucrases are able to catalyze the synthesis of ?-glucans with different structure from sucrose. The structural determinants of glucansucrase specificity have remained unclear. Residue Leu940 in domain B of GTF180, the glucansucrase of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri 180, was shown to vary in different glucansucrases and is close to the +1 glucosyl unit in the crystal structure of GTF180-?N in complex with maltose. Herein, we show that mutations in Leu940 of wild-type GTF180-?N all caused an increased percentage of (?1?6) linkages and a decreased percentage of (?1?3) linkages in the products. ?-Glucans with potential different physicochemical properties (containing 67100% of (?1?6) linkages) were produced by GTF180 and its Leu940 mutants. Mutant L940W was unable to form (?1?3) linkages and synthesized a smaller and linear glucan polysaccharide with only (?1?6) linkages. Docking studies revealed that the introduction of the large aromatic amino acid residue tryptophan at position 940 partially blocked the binding groove, preventing the isomalto-oligosaccharide acceptor to bind in an favorable orientation for the formation of (?1?3) linkages. Our data showed that the reaction specificity of GTF180 mutant was shifted either to increased polysaccharide synthesis (L940A, L940S, L940E, and L940F) or increased oligosaccharide synthesis (L940W). The L940W mutant is capable of producing a large amount of isomalto-oligosaccharides using released glucose from sucrose as acceptors. Thus, residue Leu940 in domain B is crucial for linkage and reaction specificity of GTF180. This study provides clear and novel insights into the structure-function relationships of glucansucrase enzymes. PMID:25288798

  3. Antibacterial activity and probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum HKN01: a new insight into the morphological changes of antibacterial compound-treated Escherichia coli by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Hakimeh; Maleki, Hadi; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Sajedinejad, Neda; Houshmand, Behzad; Vali, Hojatollah; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz

    2013-02-01

    Among several bacteria examined, an antibacterial-producing Lactobacillus strain with probiotic characteristics was selected and identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Subsequent purification and mode of action of the antibacterial compounds on target cells including E. coli were investigated. Maximum production of the antibacterial compound was recorded at 18 h incubation at 30 degrees C. Interestingly, antibacterial activity remained unchanged after heating at 121 degrees C for 45 min, 24 h storage in temperature range of 70 degrees C to room temperature, and 15 min exposure to UV light, and it was stable in the pH of range 2-10. The active compounds were inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, indicating their proteinaceous nature, and, therefore, referred to as bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. Isolation and partial purification of the effective agent was done by performing ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the GFC-purified active compound (~3 kDa) was determined by Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE. To predict the mechanisms of action, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of ultrathin sections of E. coli before and after antibacterial treatment was carried out. TEM analysis of antibacterial compounds-treated E. coli demonstrated that the completely altered bacteria appear much darker compared with the less altered bacteria, suggesting a change in the cytoplasmic composition. There were also some membrane-bound convoluted structures visible within the completely altered bacteria, which could be attributed to the response of the E. coli to the treatment with the antibacterial compound. According to the in vivo experiments oral administration of L. plantarum HKN01 resulted in recovery of infected BALB/c mice with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. PMID:23412066

  4. Lactobacillus Adhesion to Mucus

    PubMed Central

    Tassell, Maxwell L. Van; Miller, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Mucus provides protective functions in the gastrointestinal tract and plays an important role in the adhesion of microorganisms to host surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins polymerize, forming a framework to which certain microbial populations can adhere, including probiotic Lactobacillus species. Numerous mechanisms for adhesion to mucus have been discovered in lactobacilli, including partially characterized mucus binding proteins. These mechanisms vary in importance with the in vitro models studied, which could significantly affect the perceived probiotic potential of the organisms. Understanding the nature of mucus-microbe interactions could be the key to elucidating the mechanisms of probiotic adhesion within the host. PMID:22254114

  5. Optimization of culture conditions for exopolysaccharide production by a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus E/N.

    PubMed

    Polak-Berecka, Magdalena; Wa?ko, Adam; Kubik-Komar, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of culture conditions on exopolysaccharides (EPS) production by a probiotic Lb. rhamnosus E/N have been studied using the Plackett-Burman design. Process optimization was performed in stationary cultures to maximize the production of EPS. In order to verify the optimal conditions, an analysis was performed of EPS production in fermentation culture. Batch fermentation was carried out at working volume of 2.51. The optimal temperature, pH, carbon source, and nitrogen source conditions were 37 degrees C, pH 5.0, galactose, and yeast extract, respectively. EPS production was improved by 210.28 mg/l in stationary cultures compared to 134.2 mg/l in a control grown on commercial MRS medium. The fermentor experiment showed the possibility of increasing EPS biosynthesis by 175.8%. Our results clearly demonstrate that in the case of Lb. rhamnosus E/N specific culture conditions can enhance EPS production for possible application in the industry. PMID:25115122

  6. Effect of chestnut extract and chestnut fiber on viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains under gastrointestinal tract conditions.

    PubMed

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; La Gatta, Barbara; Di Capua, Marika; Di Luccia, Aldo; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The main challenge to probiotics, during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, are the acidic gastric secretions of the stomach, and the bile salts released into the duodenum. The survival of the strains, in this phase, is strongly influenced by the food used for their delivery. This work is part of a project studying the development of novel food processes, based on the use of chestnuts from cultivar "Castagna di Montella". In detail, the effect of indigestible chestnut fiber and of chestnut extract on the viability of selected lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated. Among 28 cultures, twelve strains were selected, on the basis of tolerance to low pH values and bile salts, and submitted to exposition to simulated gastric or bile juice in presence of chestnut extract with or without immobilization in chestnut fiber. The presence of chestnut extract proved to play a significant role on the gastric tolerance improvement of lactobacilli. The recorded protective effect could not be simply related to the starch or reducing sugars content. RP-HPLC demonstrated that in the chestnut flour, there are one or more hydrophobic peptides or oligopeptides, which specifically offer a marked resistance to simulated gastric juice, albeit present at low concentration. These beneficial effects proved to be dependent by the cultivar used to produce the flour. PMID:24010594

  7. Probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum modulates the formation of aberrant crypt foci, mucin-depleted foci, and cell proliferation on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mohania, Dheeraj; Kansal, Vinod K; Kruzliak, Peter; Kumari, Archana

    2014-08-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF) are pre-neoplastic lesions identified in the colon of carcinogen-treated rodents and in humans at high risk for colon cancer. The present study was carried out to divulge the protective potential of the probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LaVK2 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BbVK3 alone or in combination with piroxicam (PXC) on the development of early biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats administered 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). DMH was injected subcutaneously at the rate of 40?mg/kg body weight per animal twice a week for 2 weeks. A total of 120 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups, each group having 24 animals. The rats were fed with buffalo milk or probiotic supplement (20 grams) alone or as an adjunct with PXC in addition to a basal diet ad libitum for 32 weeks. Group I was offered buffalo milk (BM) and served as the control group. Group II was administered DMH along with BM and served as the DMH-control group; group III was administered BM-DMH-PXC, in which besides administering BM-DMH, PXC was also offered. Group IV was offered probiotic LaBb Dahi and DMH, and group V was offered both probiotic LaBb Dahi and PXC along with DMH. The rats were euthanized at the 8(th), 16(th), and 32(nd) week of the experiment and examined for development of ACF, aberrant crypts per ACF (AC/ACF), mucin-depleted foci (MDF), large MDF, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling index. Administration of DMH in rats induced pre-neoplastic lesions (ACF and MDF) and increased the PCNA index in colorectal tissue. A significant (p<0.05) reduction in the number of ACF, AC/ACF, MDF, large MDF, and PCNA labeling index were observed in the probiotic LaBb Dahi group compared with the DMH control group. Feeding rats with LaBb Dahi or treatment with PXC diminished the initiation and progression of DMH-induced pre-neoplastic lesions and the PCNA index, and treatment with LaBb Dahi and PXC combined was significantly more effective. The dietary intervention of probiotics and PXC significantly protects against the development of CRC in the rat-DMH model. These observations suggest that probiotic LaBb Dahi alone or as an adjunct with PXC may have anti-neoplastic and anti-proliferative activities. Moreover, probiotic LaBb Dahi possesses the medicinal properties to prevent colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:24524423

  8. Properties of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus plantarum 8-RA-3 Grown in a Biofilm by Solid Substrate Cultivation Method.

    PubMed

    Ushakova, Nina A; Abramov, Vyacheslav M; Khlebnikov, Valentin S; Semenov, Alexandr M; Kuznetsov, Boris B; Kozlova, Anna A; Nifatov, Alexey V; Sakulin, Vadim K; Kosarev, Igor V; Vasilenko, Raisa N; Sukhacheva, Marina V; Melnikov, Vyacheslav

    2012-09-01

    The biofilm formation took place in 48h within the solid substrate cultivation of Lactobacillus plantarum 8-RA-3 strain on the wheat bran saturated with the MRS medium. The drying of the bran fermented by lactobacilli resulted in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFU) from 23.0נ10(8) to 6.9נ10(5)CFU/g in daily samples and to less than 10(4)CFU/g in 2- and 3-day samples. However, according to the fluorescence-based live/dead assay data, more than 40% of the non-cultured bacteria were viable. As a result of mice kept on a diet with the introduction of bran fermented by Lact. plantarum 8-RA-3 for 72h into the fodder, a recovery of normal level of intestinal lactobacilli, inhibited by administration of antibiotic was noted. The strain genetically identical to the Lact. plantarum 8-RA-3 was isolated from the feces of these mice. The results indicate that solid substrate cultivated Lact. plantarum 8-RA-3 strain formed a biofilm. Once dried and transferred into a non-cultured state, biofilm cells retained its viability and biological activity. PMID:26782044

  9. Lysate of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum K8 Modulate the Mucosal Inflammatory System in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is caused by dysregulation of colon mucosal immunity and mucosal epithelial barrier function. Recent studies have reported that lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus plantarum K8 reduces excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally pretreated with lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 (low dose or high dose) or live Lb. plantarum K8 prior to the induction of colitis using 4% DSS. Disease progression was monitored by assessment of disease activity index (DAI). Histological changes of colonic tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The colon mRNA expressions of TNF-?, IL-6, and toll like receptor-2 (TLR-2) were examined by quantitative real-time-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 suppressed colon shortening, edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of DSS-induced crypts. The groups that received lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 exhibited significantly decreased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-6 in the colon. Interestingly, colonic expression of toll like receptor-2 mRNA in the high-dose lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 group increased significantly. Our study demonstrates the protective effects of oral lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 administration on DSS-induced colitis via the modulation of pro-inflammatory mediators of the mucosal immune system.

  10. Antimicrobial activity and antibiotic susceptibility of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. intended for use as starter and probiotic cultures

    PubMed Central

    Georgieva, Ralitsa; Yocheva, Lyubomira; Tserovska, Lilia; Zhelezova, Galina; Stefanova, Nina; Atanasova, Akseniya; Danguleva, Antonia; Ivanova, Gergana; Karapetkov, Nikolay; Rumyan, Nevenka; Karaivanova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity and antibiotic susceptibility were tested for 23 Lactobacillus and three Bifidobacterium strains isolated from different ecological niches. Agar-well diffusion method was used to test the antagonistic effect (against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans) of acid and neutralized (pH 5.5) lyophilized concentrated supernatants (cell-free supernatant; CFS) and whey (cell-free whey fractions; CFW) from de Man–Rogosa–Sharpe/trypticase-phytone-yeast broth and skim milk. Acid CFS and CFW showed high acidification rate-dependent bacterial inhibition; five strains were active against C. albicans. Neutralized CFS/CFW assays showed six strains active against S. aureus (L. acidophilus L-1, L. brevis 1, L. fermentum 1, B. animalis subsp. lactis L-3), E. coli (L. bulgaricus 6) or B. cereus (L. plantarum 24-4В). Inhibition of two pathogens with neutralized CFS (L. bulgaricus 6, L. helveticus 3, L. plantarum 24-2L, L. fermentum 1)/CFW (L. plantarum 24-5D, L. plantarum 24-4В) was detected. Some strains maintained activity after pH neutralization, indicating presence of active substances. The antibiotics minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the Epsilometer test method. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin and tetracycline. Four lactobacilli were resistant to one antibiotic (L. rhamnosus Lio 1 to streptomycin) or two antibiotics (L. acidophilus L-1 and L. brevis 1 to kanamycin and clindamycin; L. casei L-4 to clindamycin and chloramphenicol). Vancomycin MICs > 256 μg/mL indicated intrinsic resistance for all heterofermentative lactobacilli. The antimicrobially active strains do not cause concerns about antibiotic resistance transfer and could be used as natural biopreservatives in food and therapeutic formulations. PMID:26019620

  11. Heat and osmotic stress responses of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20) in relation to viability after drying.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Jaya; McJarrow, Paul; Gopal, Pramod

    2003-02-01

    The viability of lactic acid bacteria in frozen, freeze-dried, and air-dried forms is of significant commercial interest to both the dairy and food industries. In this study we observed that when prestressed with either heat (50 degrees C) or salt (0.6 M NaCl), Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (also known as DR20) showed significant (P < 0.05) improvement in viability compared with the nonstressed control culture after storage at 30 degrees C in the dried form. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this stress-related viability improvement in L. rhamnosus HN001, we analyzed protein synthesis in cultures subjected to different growth stages and stress conditions, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and N-terminal sequencing. Several proteins were up- or down-regulated after either heat or osmotic shock treatments. Eleven proteins were positively identified, including the classical heat shock proteins GroEL and DnaK and the glycolytic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, enolase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and triose phosphate isomerase, as well as tagatose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase of the tagatose pathway. The phosphocarrier protein HPr (histidine-containing proteins) was up-regulated in cultures after the log phase irrespective of the stress treatments used. The relative synthesis of an ABC transport-related protein was also up-regulated after shock treatments. Carbohydrate analysis of cytoplasmic contents showed higher levels (20 +/- 3 microg/mg of protein) in cell extracts (CFEs) derived from osmotically stressed cells than in the unstressed control (15 +/- 3 microg/mg of protein). Liquid chromatography of these crude carbohydrate extracts showed significantly different profiles. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of CFEs revealed, in addition to normal mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharides, the presence of saccharides modified with glycerol. PMID:12571012

  12. Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius UBL S22 and Prebiotic Fructo-oligosaccharide on Serum Lipids, Inflammatory Markers, Insulin Sensitivity, and Gut Bacteria in Healthy Young Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Single-Blind Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Kumar, Manoj; Das, Nilita; Kumar, S Nishanth; Challa, Hanumanth R; Nagpal, Ravinder

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of 6-week supplementation of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius UBL S22 with or without prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on serum lipid profiles, immune responses, insulin sensitivity, and gut lactobacilli in 45 healthy young individuals. The patients were divided into 3 groups (15/group), that is, placebo, probiotic, and synbiotic. After 6 weeks, a significant reduction (P < .05) in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides and increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed in the probiotic as well as in the synbiotic group when compared to placebo; however, the results of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were more pronounced in the synbiotic group. Similarly, when compared to the placebo group, the serum concentrations of inflammatory markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL) 6, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor ? were significantly (P < .05) reduced in both the experimental groups, but again the reduction in the synbiotic group was more pronounced. Also, an increase (P < .05) in the fecal counts of total lactobacilli and a decrease (P < .05) in coliforms and Escherichia coli was observed in both the experimental groups after 6 weeks of ingestion. Overall, the combination of L salivarius with FOS was observed to be more beneficial than L salivarius alone, thereby advocating that such synbiotic combinations could be therapeutically exploited for improved health and quality of life. PMID:25331262

  13. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS supplementation on intestinal and systemic markers of inflammation in ApoE*3Leiden mice consuming a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Oksaharju, Anna; Kooistra, Teake; Kleemann, Robert; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Miettinen, Minja; Lappalainen, Jani; Lindstedt, Ken A; Kovanen, Petri T; Korpela, Riitta; Kekkonen, Riina A

    2013-07-14

    A high-fat diet disturbs the composition and function of the gut microbiota and generates local gut-associated and also systemic responses. Intestinal mast cells, for their part, secrete mediators which play a role in the orchestration of physiological and immunological functions of the intestine. Probiotic bacteria, again, help to maintain the homeostasis of the gut microbiota by protecting the gut epithelium and regulating the local immune system. In the present study, we explored the effects of two probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii spp. shermanii JS (PJS), on high fat-fed ApoE*3Leiden mice by estimating the mast cell numbers and the immunoreactivity of TNF-? and IL-10 in the intestine, as well as plasma levels of several markers of inflammation and parameters of lipid metabolism. We found that mice that received GG and PJS exhibited significantly lower numbers of intestinal mast cells compared with control mice. PJS lowered intestinal immunoreactivity of TNF-?, while GG increased intestinal IL-10. PJS was also observed to lower the plasma levels of markers of inflammation including vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and also the amount of gonadal adipose tissue. GG lowered alanine aminotransferase, a marker of hepatocellular activation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that probiotic GG and PJS tend to down-regulate both intestinal and systemic pro-inflammatory changes induced by a high-fat diet in this humanised mouse model. PMID:23211714

  14. Role of probiotics and functional foods in health: gut immune stimulation by two probiotic strains and a potential probiotic yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Maldonado Galdeano, Carolina; Novotny Nuez, Ivanna; Carmuega, Esteban; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Perdign, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    There are numerous reports that show the benefits on the health attributed to the probiotic consumptions. Most of the studies were performed using animal models and only some of them were validated in controlled human trials. The present review is divided in two sections. In the first section we describe how the probiotic microorganisms can interact with the intestinal epithelial cells that are the first line of cell in the mucosal site, focusing in the studies of two probiotic strains: Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 (actually Lactobacillus paracasei CNCMI-1518) and Lactobacillus casei CRL 431. Then we describe same beneficial effects attributed to probiotic administration and the administration of fermented milks containing these microorganisms or potential probiotic yoghurt, principally on the immune system and on the intestinal barrier in different experimental mouse models like enteropathogenic infection, malnutrition, cancer and intestinal inflammation. PMID:25516152

  15. Effect of supplementation of fermented milk drink containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota on the concentrations of aflatoxin biomarkers among employees of Universiti Putra Malaysia: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Abd Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Ahmad, Zuraini; Kang, Min-Su; Abdul Rahman, Nurul 'Aqilah; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Elham; Jamaluddin, Rosita

    2016-01-14

    Human exposure to aflatoxin is through the diet, and probiotics are able to bind aflatoxin and prevent its absorption in the small intestine. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) (probiotic drink) to prevent aflatoxin absorption and reduce serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) and urinary aflatoxin M1 concentrations. The present study was a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study with two 4-week intervention phases. In all, seventy-one subjects recruited from the screening stage were divided into two groups--the Yellow group and the Blue group. In the 1st phase, one group received probiotic drinks twice a day and the other group received placebo drinks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline, 2nd and 4th week of the intervention. After a 2-week wash-out period, the treatments were switched between the groups, and blood and urine samples were collected at the 6th, 8th and 10th week (2nd phase) of the intervention. No significant differences in aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were observed during the intervention. A within-group analysis was further carried out. Aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were not significantly different in the Yellow group. Nevertheless, ANOVA for repeated measurements indicated that AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly different (P=0·035) with the probiotic intervention in the Blue group. The 2nd week AFB1-lys concentrations (5·14 (SD 2·15) pg/mg albumin (ALB)) were significantly reduced (P=0·048) compared with the baseline (6·24 (SD 3·42) pg/mg ALB). Besides, the 4th week AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly lower (P<0·05) with probiotic supplementation than with the placebo. Based on these findings, a longer intervention study is warranted to investigate the effects of continuous LcS consumption to prevent dietary aflatoxin exposure. PMID:26490018

  16. Effect of the continuous intake of probiotic-fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on fever in a mass outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis and the faecal microflora in a health service facility for the aged.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Satoru; Asahara, Takashi; Ohta, Toshihisa; Yamada, Toshihiko; Kondo, Shigemi; Bian, Lei; Wang, Chongxin; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Nomoto, Koji

    2011-08-01

    For conducting effective risk management in long-stay elderly people at a health service facility, we performed an open case-controlled study to evaluate the effect of the intake of probiotic-fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS-fermented milk) on norovirus gastroenteritis occurring in the winter season during the intake period. A total of seventy-seven elderly people (mean age 84 years) were enrolled in the study. During a 1-month period, there was no significant difference in the incidence of norovirus gastroenteritis between the LcS-fermented milk-administered (n 39) and the non-administered (n 38) groups; however, the mean duration of fever of >37°C after the onset of gastroenteritis was 1·5 (SD 1·7) d in the former and 2·9 (SD 2·3) d in the latter group, showing a significant shortening in the former group (P < 0·05). RT-quantitative PCR analysis targeting ribosomal RNA showed both Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus to be significantly dominant, whereas Enterobacteriaceae decreased in faecal samples from the administered group (n 10, mean age 83 years), with a significant increase in faecal acetic acid concentration. Continuous intake of LcS-fermented milk could positively contribute to the alleviation of fever caused by norovirus gastroenteritis by correcting the imbalance of the intestinal microflora peculiar to the elderly, although such consumption could not protect them from the disease. PMID:21521545

  17. The hsp 16 Gene of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus Is Differently Regulated by Salt, High Temperature and Acidic Stresses, as Revealed by Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Arena, Mattia Pia; Crisetti, Elisabetta; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are ubiquitous conserved chaperone-like proteins involved in cellular proteins protection under stressful conditions. In this study, a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) procedure was developed and used to quantify the transcript level of a small heat shock gene (shs) in the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, under stress conditions such as heat (45 °C and 53 °C), bile (0.3% w/v), hyperosmosis (1 M and 2.5 M NaCl), and low pH value (pH 4). The shs gene of L. acidophilus NCFM was induced by salt, high temperature and acidic stress, while repression was observed upon bile stress. Analysis of the 5′ noncoding region of the hsp16 gene reveals the presence of an inverted repeat (IR) sequence (TTAGCACTC-N9-GAGTGCTAA) homologue to the controlling IR of chaperone expression (CIRCE) elements found in the upstream regulatory region of Gram-positive heat shock operons, suggesting that the hsp16 gene of L. acidophilus might be transcriptionally controlled by HrcA. In addition, the alignment of several small heat shock proteins identified so far in lactic acid bacteria, reveals that the Hsp16 of L. acidophilus exhibits a strong evolutionary relationship with members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group. PMID:21954366

  18. Influence of a probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain on the colonisation with potential pathogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus in the nasopharyngeal space of healthy men with a low baseline NK cell activity.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Seifert, Stephanie; Kramlich, Jeannette; Bub, Achim; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Watzl, Bernhard

    2015-08-01

    The effect of a daily intake of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on the colonisation of pathogens, specifically streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, in the nose and throat of healthy human volunteers with low natural killer cell activity, was investigated in a randomised and controlled intervention study. The study consisted of a 2-week run-in phase, followed by a 4-week intervention phase. The probiotic treatment group received a fermented milk drink with LcS, while the placebo group received an equally composed milk drink without the probiotic additive. To isolate potential pathogenic streptococci and Staph. aureus, samples from the pharynx, as well as of both middle nasal meati, were taken, once after the run-in phase and once at the end of the intervention phase. Isolated bacteria were identified as either Staph. aureus and α- or β-haemolytic streptococci in a polyphasic taxonomical approach based on phenotypic tests, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis genotyping, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representative strains. Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) was used as marker of protective mucosal immunity to evaluate whether LcS treatment influenced SIgA production. No statistically significant effect could be determined for intervention with LcS on the incidence of Staph. aureus in the nasal space, Staph. aureus in the pharyngeal space or for β-haemolytic streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the pharyngeal space. Thus, the intervention did not influence the nasopharyngeal colonisation with Gram-positive potential pathogens. Production of salivary SIgA as a potential means of microbiota modulation was also not affected. PMID:25416927

  19. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  20. No evidence of harms of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in healthy elderly-a Phase I Open Label Study to assess safety, tolerability and cytokine responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) has been consumed since the mid 1990s by between 2 and 5 million people daily, the scientific literature lacks rigorous clinical trials that describe the potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly. The primary objective of this open label...

  1. Molecular identification of Lactobacillus spp. associated with puba, a Brazilian fermented cassava food

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, S.M.; Nascimento, A.M.A.; Costa, P.S.; Moreira, J.L.S.; Nunes, A.C.; Nicoli, J.R.; Lima, F.L.; Mota, V.T.; Nardi, R.M.D.

    2013-01-01

    Puba or carim is a Brazilian staple food obtained by spontaneous submerged fermentation of cassava roots. A total of 116 lactobacilli and three cocci isolates from 20 commercial puba samples were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); they were characterized for their antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens and identified taxonomically by classical and molecular methods. In all samples, lactic acid bacteria were recovered as the dominant microbiota (7.86 0.41 log10 CFU/g). 16S23S rRNA ARDRA pattern assigned 116 isolates to the Lactobacillus genus, represented by the species Lactobacillus fermentum (59 isolates), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (18 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (9 isolates), Lactobacillus reuteri (6 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (3 isolates), Lactobacillus gasseri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus nagelii (1 isolate), and Lactobacillus plantarum group (18 isolates). recA gene-multiplex PCR analysis revealed that L. plantarum group isolates belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum (15 isolates) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3 isolates). Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence)-based PCR using the primer ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus). The Lactobacillus isolates exhibited genetic heterogeneity and species-specific fingerprint patterns. All the isolates showed antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria tested. This antibacterial effect was attributed to acid production, except in the cases of three isolates that apparently produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. This study provides the first insight into the genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp. of puba. PMID:24159278

  2. Probiotic bacteria: selective enumeration and survival in dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Shah, N P

    2000-04-01

    A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp., and Lactobacillus casei. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. However, studies have shown low viability of probiotics in market preparations. In order to assess viability of probiotic bacteria, it is important to have a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria. Viability of probiotic bacteria is important in order to provide health benefits. Viability of probiotic bacteria can be improved by appropriate selection of acid and bile resistant strains, use of oxygen impermeable containers, two-step fermentation, micro-encapsulation, stress adaptation, incorporation of micronutrients such as peptides and amino acids and by sonication of yogurt bacteria. This review will cover selective enumeration and survival of probiotic bacteria in dairy foods. PMID:10791807

  3. [Use of Lactobacillus as a probiotic factor to treat urogenital and intestinal infections as well as to prevent and treat allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Merk, Kathrin; Borelli, Claudia; Schaller, Martin; Korting, Hans Christian

    2004-09-01

    Lactobacilli are probiotic micro-organisms that are part of the oral, intestinal and urogenital commensal flora. The beneficial effect of these bacterial strains, especially the eradication of or protection against pathogenic bacteria and yeasts, was shown by several studies. The preventive and therapeutic effect of lactobacilli applies to diarrhoea and urogenital infections in particular. Lactobacilli also seem to have a protective influence on the development and treatment of atopic disease. PMID:16279218

  4. Inhibition of in vitro growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 by probiotic Lactobacillus strains due to production of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, M; Shimizu, K; Nomoto, K; Tanaka, R; Hamabata, T; Yamasaki, S; Takeda, T; Takeda, Y

    2001-08-15

    The inhibiting characteristics of lactic acid bacteria on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 (three strains, clinically isolated) was investigated by using a batch fermentation system. The species such as Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota or L. acidophilus YIT 0070 exert growth inhibitory and bactericidal activities on STEC. The pH value and undissociated lactic acid (U-LA) concentration of the culture medium of STEC cocultured with L. casei or L. acidophilus dramatically lowered or increased, respectively [corrected], when compared with those of the control culture. The cytotoxic properties of U-LA on STEC strain 89020087 analyzed in vitro was divided into two phases, i.e., the bacteriostatic phase (between 3.2 to 62 mM) and the bactericidal phase (over 62 mM). These data suggest that the bactericidal effect of Lactobacillus on STEC depends on its lactic acid production and pH reductive effect. PMID:11545213

  5. Probiotics: potential pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Saini, Amarpreet

    2002-02-01

    Realisation of the importance of human gut microbiota in health restoration and maintenance has kindled an interest in probiotics. Probiotics are defined as the microbial food supplements, which beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Probiotics are the health enhancing functional food ingredients used therapeutically to prevent diarrhea, improve lactose tolerance and modulate immunity. They may also have potential to prevent cancer and lower serum cholesterol levels. Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and several other microbial species are perceived to exert such effects by changing the composition of the gut microbiota. However, it is important that exogenously administered bacteria reach and establish themselves in the large intestine in an intact form. The use of non-digestible oligosaccharides ('prebiotics') can fortify intestinal microflora and stimulate their growth. The present review encompasses information regarding the probiotics and their proposed uses. It addresses the concepts of prebiotics and synbiotics, the application of genetic engineering to produce newer probiotics. Finally, the list of commercially available products are reviewed with discussion of questions regarding the reliability, utility and the safety of these products. PMID:11803126

  6. The Efficacy and Safety of the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for Infantile Colic: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Sun, Fei; Wang, Lin; Liu, Xiao-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for treating infantile colic. Methods A systematic literature retrieval was carried out to obtain randomized controlled trials of L. reuteri DSM 17938 for infantile colic. Trials were performed before May 2015 and retrieved from the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, CNKI, WanFang, VIP, and CBM databases. Data extraction and quality evaluation of the trials were performed independently by two investigators. A meta-analysis was performed using STATA version 12.0. Results Six randomized controlled trials of 423 infants with colic were included. Of these subjects, 213 were in the L. reuteri group, and 210 were in the placebo group. Lactobacillus reuteri increased colic treatment effectiveness at two weeks (RR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.24–6.50; p = 0.014) and three weeks (relative risk [RR] = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.38–3.93; P = 0.002) but not at four weeks (RR = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.52–3.82; P = 0.498). Lactobacillus reuteri decreased crying time (min/d) at two weeks (weighted mean difference [WMD] = –42.89; 95% CI: –60.50 to –25.29; P = 0.000) and three weeks (WMD = –45.83; 95% CI: –59.45 to –32.21; P = 0.000). In addition, L. reuteri did not influence infants’ weight, length or head circumference and was not associated with serious adverse events. Conclusions Lactobacillus reuteri possibly increased the effectiveness of treatment for infantile colic and decreased crying time at two to three weeks without causing adverse events. However, these protective roles are usurped by gradual physiological improvements. The study is limited by the heterogeneity of the trials and should be considered with caution. Higher quality, multicenter randomized controlled trials with larger samples are needed. PMID:26509502

  7. Immune system stimulation by probiotic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-01-01

    Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. This review is presented to provide detailed informations about how probiotics stimulate our immune system. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, Bifidobacterium lactis DR10, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii are the most investigated probiotic cultures for their immunomodulation properties. Probiotics can enhance nonspecific cellular immune response characterized by activation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in strain-specific and dose-dependent manner. Mixture and type (gram-positive and gram-negative) of probiotic organisms may induce different cytokine responses. Supplementation of probiotic organisms in infancy could help prevent immune-mediated diseases in childhood, whereas their intervention in pregnancy could affect fetal immune parameters, such as cord blood interferon (IFN)-γ levels, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels, and breast milk immunoglobulin (Ig)A. Probiotics that can be delivered via fermented milk or yogurt could improve the gut mucosal immune system by increasing the number of IgA(+) cells and cytokine-producing cells in the effector site of the intestine. PMID:24499072

  8. Lysate of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 Ameliorates Colitis by Strengthening the Gut Barrier Function and Changing the Gut Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zakostelska, Zuzana; Kverka, Miloslav; Klimesova, Klara; Rossmann, Pavel; Mrazek, Jakub; Kopecny, Jan; Hornova, Michaela; Srutkova, Dagmar; Hudcovic, Tomas; Ridl, Jakub; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Background Probiotic bacteria can be used for the prevention and treatment of human inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the nature of active components and exact mechanisms of this beneficial effects have not been fully elucidated. Our aim was to investigate if lysate of probiotic bacterium L. casei DN-114 001 (Lc) could decrease the severity of intestinal inflammation in a murine model of IBD. Methodology/Principal Findings The preventive effect of oral administration of Lc significantly reduces the severity of acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in BALB/c but not in SCID mice. In order to analyze how this beneficial effect interferes with well-known phases of intestinal inflammation pathogenesis in vivo and in vitro, we evaluated intestinal permeability using the FITC-labeled dextran method and analysed tight junction proteins expression by immunofluorescence and PCR. We also measured CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells proportion by FACS analysis, microbiota composition by pyrosequencing, and local cytokine production by ELISA. Lc leads to a significant protection against increased intestinal permeability and barrier dysfunction shown by preserved ZO-1 expression. We found that the Lc treatment increases the numbers of CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), decreases production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ, and anti-inflammatory IL-10 in Peyer's patches and large intestine, and changes the gut microbiota composition. Moreover, Lc treatment prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α expression in RAW 264.7 cell line by down-regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. Conclusion/Significance Our study provided evidence that even non-living probiotic bacteria can prevent the development of severe forms of intestinal inflammation by strengthening the integrity of intestinal barrier and modulation of gut microenvironment. PMID:22132181

  9. Clinical indications for probiotics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Goldin, B R; Gorbach, S L

    2008-02-01

    Probiotic bacteria are used to treat or prevent a broad range of human diseases, conditions, and syndromes. In addition, there are areas of medical use that have been proposed for future probiotic applications. Randomized double-blind studies have provided evidence of probiotic effectiveness for the treatment and prevention of acute diarrhea and antibiotic-induced diarrhea, as well as for the prevention of cow milk-induced food allergy in infants and young children. Research studies have also provided evidence of effectiveness for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea, relapsing Clostridium difficile-induced colitis, and urinary tract infections. There are also studies indicating that probiotics may be useful for prevention of respiratory infections in children, dental caries, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Areas of future interest for the application of probiotics include colon and bladder cancers, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. The probiotics with the greatest number of proven benefits are Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Saccharomyces boulardii. PMID:18181732

  10. Longitudinal analysis of the vaginal microflora in pregnancy suggests that L. crispatus promotes the stability of the normal vaginal microflora and that L. gasseri and/or L. iners are more conducive to the occurrence of abnormal vaginal microflora

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite their antimicrobial potential, vaginal lactobacilli often fail to retain dominance, resulting in overgrowth of the vagina by other bacteria, as observed with bacterial vaginosis. It remains elusive however to what extent interindividual differences in vaginal Lactobacillus community composition determine the stability of this microflora. In a prospective cohort of pregnant women we studied the stability of the normal vaginal microflora (assessed on Gram stain) as a function of the presence of the vaginal Lactobacillus index species (determined through culture and molecular analysis with tRFLP). Results From 100 consecutive Caucasian women vaginal swabs were obtained at mean gestational ages of 8.6 (SD 1.4), 21.2 (SD 1.3), and 32.4 (SD 1.7) weeks, respectively. Based on Gram stain, 77 women had normal or Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microflora (VMF) during the first trimester, of which 18 had grade Ia (L. crispatus cell morphotypes) VMF (23.4%), 16 grade Iab (L. crispatus and other Lactobacillus cell morphotypes) VMF (20.8%), and 43 grade Ib (non-L. crispatus cell morphotypes) VMF (55.8%). Thirteen women with normal VMF at baseline, converted in the second or third trimester (16.9%) to abnormal VMF defined as VMF dominated by non-Lactobacillus bacteria. Compared to grade Ia and grade Iab VMF, grade Ib VMF were 10 times (RR = 9.49, 95% CI 1.30 – 69.40) more likely to convert from normal to abnormal VMF (p = 0.009). This was explained by the observation that normal VMF comprising L. gasseri/iners incurred a ten-fold increased risk of conversion to abnormal VMF relative to non-L. gasseri/iners VMF (RR 10.41, 95% CI 1.39–78.12, p = 0.008), whereas normal VMF comprising L. crispatus had a five-fold decreased risk of conversion to abnormal VMF relative to non-L. crispatus VMF (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05–0.89, p = 0.04). Conclusion The presence of different Lactobacillus species with the normal vaginal microflora is a major determinant to the stability of this microflora in pregnancy: L. crispatus promotes the stability of the normal vaginal microflora while L. gasseri and/or L. iners predispose to some extent to the occurrence of abnormal vaginal microflora. PMID:19490622

  11. Probiotics: a comprehensive approach toward health foods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Mridula

    2014-01-01

    Food products containing probiotics and prebiotics are an important development in Health foods, which enhance health promoting microbial flora in the intestine. Probiotic refers to viable microorganism that promotes or support a beneficial balance of the autochthonous microbial population of the gastrointestinal tract. A number of genera of bacteria (and yeast) are used as probiotics, including Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, and Enterococcus, but the main species believed to have probiotic characteristics are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp., and L. casei. Probiotics can reduce diarrheal incidence, lactose intolerance, lower serum cholesterol, stimulate the immune system, control infections, act as antibiotics, suppress tumors, and protect against colon or bladder cancer by maintaining a healthy intestinal microflora balance. Lactic acid bacteria produce biopreservatives such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and bacteriocins that are used to retard both spoilage and the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Food, particularly dairy products are considered as an ideal vehicle for delivering probiotic bacteria to the human gastrointestinal tract. Cereals being rich source of prebiotics such as ?-glucan and arabinoxylan, galacto-, and fructooligosaccharides are considered for development of probiotic foods. Good manufacturing practices must be applied in the manufacture of probiotic foods with quality assurance, and shelf-life conditions established. PMID:24237003

  12. Should Lactobacillus sporogenes and Bacillus coagulans have a future?

    PubMed

    Drago, L; De Vecchi, E

    2009-08-01

    Probiotics are gaining increasing scientific and commercial interest as functional foods. Their success has led to the development and marketing of a broad range of products based on probiotics. In this context, resolution of the taxonomy of microbial species remains a key point, since different species belonging to the same genus may have different beneficial properties. Lactobacillus sporogenes, which should be correctly classified as Bacillus coagulans, represents the archetypal misidentified probiotic and its inclusion among probiotics has often been a matter of debate. Since this bacterium shows characteristics of both genera Lactobacillus and Bacillus, its taxonomic position between the families lactobacillaceae and bacillaceae has often been discussed.This review summarizes the salient probiotic features of L. sporogenes /B. coagulans by examining currently available information. Although the use of L. sporogenes spores as a probiotic has increased in recent years, clinical evidence of its benefits are limited to only a few studies involving small patient populations. PMID:19622453

  13. Comparison of fecundity and offspring immunity in zebrafish fed Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 and Lactobacillus casei BL23.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chubin; Xu, Li; Yang, Yalin; He, Suxu; Dai, Yingying; Zhao, Huiying; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of probiotic effects on zebrafish (Danio rerio), we compare the effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CICC 6141 (a highly adhesive strain) and Lactobacillus casei BL23 (a weakly adhesive strain), on zebrafish reproduction and their offsprings' innate level of immunity to water-borne pathogens. During probiotics treatments from 7 to 28 days, both the Lactobacillus strains, and especially L. casei BL23, significantly increased fecundity in zebrafish: higher rates of egg ovulation, fertilization, and hatching were observed. Increased densities of both small and large vitellogenic follicles, seen in specimens fed either Lactobacillus strain, demonstrated accelerated oocyte maturation. Feeding either strain of Lactobacillus upregulated gene expression of leptin, kiss2, gnrh3, fsh, lh, lhcgr, and paqr8, which were regarded to enhance fecundity and encourage oocyte maturation. Concomitantly, the gene expression of bmp15 and tgfb1 was inhibited, which code for local factors that prevent oocyte maturation. The beneficial effects of the Lactobacillus strains on fecundity diminished after feeding of the probiotics was discontinued, even for the highly adhesive gut Lactobacillus strain. Administering L. rhamnosus CICC 6141 for 28 days was found to affect the innate immunity of offspring derived from their parents, as evinced by a lower level of alkaline phosphatase activity in early larval stages. This study highlights the effects of probiotics both upon the reproductive process and upon the offsprings' immunity during early developmental stages. PMID:24129154

  14. Should yoghurt cultures be considered probiotic?

    PubMed

    Guarner, Francisco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Corthier, Grard; Salminen, Seppo; Koletzko, Berthold; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2005-06-01

    Probiotics are live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Consumption of yoghurt has been shown to induce measurable health benefits linked to the presence of live bacteria. A number of human studies have clearly demonstrated that yoghurt containing viable bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus) improves lactose digestion and eliminates symptoms of lactose intolerance. Thus, these cultures clearly fulfil the current concept of probiotics. PMID:16022746

  15. Transcriptional and Functional Analysis of Oxalyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) Decarboxylase and Formyl-CoA Transferase Genes from Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea; Bruno-Bárcena, Jose M.; Hassan, Hosni M.; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2006-01-01

    Oxalic acid is found in dietary sources (such as coffee, tea, and chocolate) or is produced by the intestinal microflora from metabolic precursors, like ascorbic acid. In the human intestine, oxalate may combine with calcium, sodium, magnesium, or potassium to form less soluble salts, which can cause pathological disorders such as hyperoxaluria, urolithiasis, and renal failure in humans. In this study, an operon containing genes homologous to a formyl coenzyme A transferase gene (frc) and an oxalyl coenzyme A decarboxylase gene (oxc) was identified in the genome of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus. Physiological analysis of a mutant harboring a deleted version of the frc gene confirmed that frc expression specifically improves survival in the presence of oxalic acid at pH 3.5 compared with the survival of the wild-type strain. Moreover, the frc mutant was unable to degrade oxalate. These genes, which have not previously been described in lactobacilli, appear to be responsible for oxalate degradation in this organism. Transcriptional analysis using cDNA microarrays and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed that mildly acidic conditions were a prerequisite for frc and oxc transcription. As a consequence, oxalate-dependent induction of these genes occurred only in cells first adapted to subinhibitory concentrations of oxalate and then exposed to pH 5.5. Where genome information was available, other lactic acid bacteria were screened for frc and oxc genes. With the exception of Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium lactis, none of the other strains harbored genes for oxalate utilization. PMID:16517636

  16. No Evidence of Harms of Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in Healthy ElderlyA Phase I Open Label Study to Assess Safety, Tolerability and Cytokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Patricia L.; Kleimola, Lauren; Fiorino, Anne-Maria; Botelho, Christine; Haverkamp, Miriam; Andreyeva, Irina; Poutsiaka, Debra; Fraser, Claire; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Snydman, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) has been consumed by 2 to 5 million people daily since the mid 1990s, there are few clinical trials describing potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly. Objectives The primary objective of this open label clinical trial is to assess the safety and tolerability of 11010 colony forming units (CFU) of LGG administered orally twice daily to elderly volunteers for 28 days. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects of LGG on the gastrointestinal microbiome, host immune response and plasma cytokines. Methods Fifteen elderly volunteers, aged 6680 years received LGG capsules containing 11010 CFU, twice daily for 28 days and were followed through day 56. Volunteers completed a daily diary, a telephone call on study days 3, 7 and 14 and study visits in the Clinical Research Center at baseline, day 28 and day 56 to determine whether adverse events had occurred. Assessments included prompted and open-ended questions. Results There were no serious adverse events. The 15 volunteers had a total of 47 events (range 17 per volunteer), 39 (83%) of which were rated as mild and 40% of which were considered related to consuming LGG. Thirty-one (70%) of the events were expected, prompted symptoms while 16 were unexpected events. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal (bloating, gas, and nausea), 27 rated as mild and 3 rated as moderate. In the exploratory analysis, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 decreased during LGG consumption, returning towards baseline one month after discontinuing LGG (p?=?0.038) while there was no difference in other pro- or anti-inflammatory plasma cytokines. Conclusions Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 is safe and well tolerated in healthy adults aged 65 years and older. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01274598 PMID:25438151

  17. Transposon Mutagenesis of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Identifies asnH, an Asparagine Synthetase Gene Involved in Its Immune-Activating Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Masahiro; Kim, Yun-Gi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Takuya; Kiwaki, Mayumi; Nomoto, Koji; Danbara, Hirofumi; Okada, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei ATCC 27139 enhances host innate immunity, and the J1 phage-resistant mutants of this strain lose the activity. A transposon insertion mutant library of L. casei ATCC 27139 was constructed, and nine J1 phage-resistant mutants out of them were obtained. Cloning and sequencing analyses identified three independent genes that were disrupted by insertion of the transposon element: asnH, encoding asparagine synthetase, and dnaJ and dnaK, encoding the molecular chaperones DnaJ and DnaK, respectively. Using an in vivo mouse model of Listeria infection, only asnH mutant showed deficiency in their ability to enhance host innate immunity, and complementation of the mutation by introduction of the wild-type asnH in the mutant strain recovered the immuno-augmenting activity. AsnH protein exhibited asparagine synthetase activity when the lysozyme-treated cell wall extracts of L. casei ATCC 27139 was added as substrate. The asnH mutants lost the thick and rigid peptidoglycan features that are characteristic to the wild-type cells, indicating that AsnH of L. casei is involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. These results indicate that asnH is required for the construction of the peptidoglycan composition involved in the immune-activating capacity of L. casei ATCC 27139. PMID:24416179

  18. Biosynthesis of tellurium nanoparticles by Lactobacillus plantarum and the effect of nanoparticle-enriched probiotics on the lipid profiles of mice.

    PubMed

    Mirjani, Ruholah; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Setayesh, Neda; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor contributing to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Lactic acid bacteria have attracted much attention regarding their promising effect on serum cholesterol levels. Tellurium (Te) is a rare element that has also gained considerable interest for its biological effects. There have been some recent in vivo reports on the reduction effect of Te on cholesterol content. In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum PTCC 1058 was employed for the intracellular biosynthesis of Te NPs. The UV-visible spectrum of purified NPs showed a peak at 214 nm related to the surface plasmon resonance of the Te NPs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that spherical nanoparticles without aggregation had the average size of 45.7 nm as determined by the laser scattering method. The energy dispersive X-ray pattern confirmed the presence of Te atoms without any impurities. A significant reduction was observed in group which received L. plantarum with or without Te NPs during propylthiouracil and cholesterol diet in compare with the control group which received just propylthiouracil and cholesterol. The levels of triglycerides also remarkably decrease (p<0.05) in mice given L. plantarum with intracellular Te NPs. PMID:26435284

  19. Protective effects of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum BJ0021 on liver and kidney oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by endosulfan in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Bouhafs, Leila; Moudilou, Elara N; Exbrayat, Jean Marie; Lahouel, Mesbah; Idoui, Tayeb

    2015-01-01

    Endosulfan (EDS) is one of the most widely organochlorine insecticide used in many parts of the world, although it is currently banned or severely restricted in use in some countries. EDS causes a variety of negative effects in non-target species including humans. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum BJ0021 on toxicity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis induced by EDS intoxication on liver and kidneys of pregnant rats. This pesticide induced a significant increase in total cholesterol, alanine-amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate-amino transferase (ASAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), urea and creatinine in serum, while urinary urea and creatinine were lower than those of the control group. In the liver and kidney, lipid peroxidation increased significantly, the antioxidant levels, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were markedly depressed and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) revealed more apoptotic cells. In contrast, co-administration of L. plantarum BJ0021 to EDS-treated animals ameliorated most of these biochemical parameters, but the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT) did not modify and the number of apoptotic nuclei remained significantly raised in kidney compared to control. In conclusion, the administration of L. plantarum BJ0021 decreased apoptosis and might play a protective role in reducing toxicity of EDS in pregnant rats. PMID:26287934

  20. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Cruz, Patricia; Ibáñez, Ana L.; Monroy Hermosillo, Oscar A.; Ramírez Saad, Hugo C.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field. PMID:23762761

  1. Market potential for probiotics.

    PubMed

    Stanton, C; Gardiner, G; Meehan, H; Collins, K; Fitzgerald, G; Lynch, P B; Ross, R P

    2001-02-01

    "Functional foods" as a marketing term was initiated in Japan in the late 1980s and is used to describe foods fortified with ingredients capable of producing health benefits. This concept is becoming increasingly popular with consumers because of a heightened awareness of the link between health, nutrition, and diet. Food manufacturers are enthusiastic about developing such products because the added ingredients give increased value to food. The global market for functional foods in the coming years is predicted to grow rapidly. Although Japan currently accounts for about one-half of this market, the fastest rate of growth is expected to be in the United States. Probiotic products represent a strong growth area within the functional foods group and intense research efforts are under way to develop dairy products into which probiotic organisms such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are incorporated. Such probiotic foods may modulate gut microbial composition, thereby leading to improved gut health, for example, through improved tolerance to lactose in lactose-intolerant individuals or improved resistance to pathogenic bacteria. Large numbers of viable microorganisms are likely to be required in the food product, which should be consumed regularly to experience the health effect. The probiotic market, especially dairy products such as yogurts and fermented milks, has experienced rapid growth in Europe. The long-term exploitation of probiotics as health promoters is dependent on several factors, including sound, scientifically proven clinical evidence of health-promoting activity; accurate consumer information; effective marketing strategies; and, above all, a quality product that fulfills consumer expectations. PMID:11157361

  2. Effects of a novel encapsulating technique on the temperature tolerance and anti-colitis activity of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Yao; Ho, Yi-Fang; Chen, Yen-Po; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2015-04-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 (M1) has been shown to possess many different beneficial health effects including anti-colitis activity. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel and easily scaled-up encapsulating technique that would improve the temperature tolerance of the bacterium and reduce the sensitivity of the organism to gastrointestinal fluid. A mixture of sodium alginate, gellan gum and skim milk powder was used as a coating material to entrap M1. The M1 gel was then directly freeze dried in order to dehydrate the covering and form microcapsules. The viable cell numbers of M1 present only dropped ten folds after the freeze-drying encapsulation process. The viable cell counts remained constant at 5 × 10(7) CFU/g after heating from 25 °C to 75 °C and holding at 75 °C for 1 min. The viable cell counts were reduced to 10(6) CFU/g and 10(5) CFU/g after 8-week storage at 4 °C and subsequent heat treatment with simulated gastrointestinal fluid test (SGFT) and bile salts, respectively. The effect of encapsulated M1 on the organism's anti-colitis activity was evaluated using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced colitis mouse model. An in vivo study indicated that administration of heat treated encapsulated M1 was able to ameliorate DSS-induced colitis producing a significant reduction in the bleeding score and an attenuation of inflammatory score. These findings clearly demonstrate that encapsulation of M1 using this novel technique is able to provide good protection from temperature changes and SGFT treatment and also does not affect the organism's anti-colitis activity. PMID:25475320

  3. Transcriptomic Profile of Whole Blood Cells from Elderly Subjects Fed Probiotic Bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) in a Phase I Open Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Molokin, Aleksey; Botelho, Christine; Fiorino, Anne-Maria; Vinyard, Bryan; Li, Robert; Chen, Celine; Urban, Joseph; Dawson, Harry; Andreyeva, Irina; Haverkamp, Miriam; Hibberd, Patricia L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined gene expression of whole blood cells (WBC) from 11 healthy elderly volunteers participating on a Phase I open label study before and after oral treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-ATCC 53103 (LGG)) using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Elderly patients (65–80 yrs) completed a clinical assessment for health status and had blood drawn for cellular RNA extraction at study admission (Baseline), after 28 days of daily LGG treatment (Day 28) and at the end of the study (Day 56) after LGG treatment had been suspended for 28 days. Treatment compliance was verified by measuring LGG-DNA copy levels detected in host fecal samples. Normalized gene expression levels in WBC RNA were analyzed using a paired design built within three analysis platforms (edgeR, DESeq2 and TSPM) commonly used for gene count data analysis. From the 25,990 transcripts detected, 95 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in common by all analysis platforms with a nominal significant difference in gene expression at Day 28 following LGG treatment (FDR<0.1; 77 decreased and 18 increased). With a more stringent significance threshold (FDR<0.05), only two genes (FCER2 and LY86), were down-regulated more than 1.5 fold and met the criteria for differential expression across two analysis platforms. The remaining 93 genes were only detected at this threshold level with DESeq2 platform. Data analysis for biological interpretation of DEGs with an absolute fold change of 1.5 revealed down-regulation of overlapping genes involved with Cellular movement, Cell to cell signaling interactions, Immune cell trafficking and Inflammatory response. These data provide evidence for LGG-induced transcriptional modulation in healthy elderly volunteers because pre-treatment transcription levels were restored at 28 days after LGG treatment was stopped. To gain insight into the signaling pathways affected in response to LGG treatment, DEG were mapped using biological pathways and genomic data mining packages to indicate significant biological relevance. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01274598 PMID:26859761

  4. Probiotics and allergy.

    PubMed

    Furrie, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    Allergy is caused by an immune reaction that is out of all proportion to the antigenic stimuli. Classical allergy is a type I hypersensitivity reaction mediated by the interaction of mast cells (and eosinophils) coated with allergen-specific IgE and a cross-linking allergen. The physiological outcome is inflammation commonly displayed by urticaria, rhinitis, vomiting and diarrhoea, depending on the route of allergen entry. In extreme reactions anaphylactic shock can result that may lead to death. Chronic allergic responses most commonly present themselves as asthma and eczema. All these symptoms are the consequence of an imbalanced immune system making an unsuitable response to an environmental or food antigen. On bacterial colonisation of the colon after birth the appropriate microbiological stimuli is essential to redress the balance of the skewed T-helper 2 immune response present in the newborn. This normal interaction between baby and microbes is thought to be compromised in the Western world, with a reduction in bifidobacteria and an increase in clostridial species, particularly in bottle-fed infants. The use of probiotic therapy to prevent allergic disease has been demonstrated in two studies using a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in neonates. A long-term reduction in allergy has been shown in the test group, with lactobacillus reducing the incidence of atopic eczema. Management of allergy through probiotics has also been demonstrated in infants, using lactobacilli to control atopic eczema and cow's milk allergy. Unfortunately, these positive results have not been repeated in studies with older children and young adults. PMID:16313688

  5. Vitamin D receptor pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaoping; Yoon, Sonia; Zhang, Yong-Guo; Lu, Rong; Xia, Yinglin; Wan, Jiandi; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C; Chen, Di; Sun, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Low expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and dysfunction of vitamin D/VDR signaling are reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); therefore, restoration of VDR function to control inflammation in IBD is desirable. Probiotics have been used in the treatment of IBD. However, the role of probiotics in the modulation of VDR signaling to effectively reduce inflammation is unknown. We identified a novel role of probiotics in activating VDR activity, thus inhibiting inflammation, using cell models and VDR knockout mice. We found that the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) increased VDR protein expression in both mouse and human intestinal epithelial cells. Using the VDR luciferase reporter vector, we detected increased transcriptional activity of VDR after probiotic treatment. Probiotics increased the expression of the VDR target genes, such as antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, the role of probiotics in regulating VDR signaling was tested in vivo using a Salmonella-colitis model in VDR knockout mice. Probiotic treatment conferred physiological and histologic protection from Salmonella-induced colitis in VDR(+/+) mice, whereas probiotics had no effects in the VDR(-/-) mice. Probiotic treatment also enhanced numbers of Paneth cells, which secrete AMPs for host defense. These data indicate that the VDR pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis. Understanding how probiotics enhance VDR signaling and inhibit inflammation will allow probiotics to be used effectively, resulting in innovative approaches to the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation. PMID:26159695

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Diverse Lactobacillus Species Present in Advanced Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Roy; Nadkarni, Mangala A.; Chhour, Kim-Ly; Martin, F. Elizabeth; Jacques, Nicholas A.; Hunter, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Our previous analysis of 65 advanced dental caries lesions by traditional culture techniques indicated that lactobacilli were numerous in the advancing front of the progressive lesion. Production of organic acids by lactobacilli is considered to be important in causing decalcification of the dentinal matrix. The present study was undertaken to define more precisely the diversity of lactobacilli found in this environment and to quantify the major species and phylotypes relative to total load of lactobacilli by real-time PCR. Pooled DNA was amplified by PCR with Lactobacillus genus-specific primers for subsequent cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparisons, 18 different phylotypes of lactobacilli were detected, including strong representation of both novel and gastrointestinal phylotypes. Specific PCR primers were designed for nine prominent species, including Lactobacillus gasseri, L. ultunensis, L. salivarius, L. rhamnosus, L. casei, L. crispatus, L. delbrueckii, L. fermentum, and L. gallinarum. More than three different species were identified as being present in most of the dentine samples, confirming the widespread distribution and numerical importance of various Lactobacillus spp. in carious dentine. Quantification by real-time PCR revealed various proportions of the nine species colonizing carious dentine, with higher mean loads of L. gasseri and L. ultunensis than of the other prevalent species. The findings provide a basis for further characterization of the pathogenicity of Lactobacillus spp. in the context of extension of the carious lesion. PMID:15243071

  7. Lactobacillus rodentium sp. nov., from the digestive tract of wild rodents.

    PubMed

    Killer, J; Havlk, J; Vlkov, E; Rada, V; Pechar, R; Benada, O; Kope?n, J; Kofro?ov, O; Sechovcov, H

    2014-05-01

    Three strains of regular, long, Gram-stain-positive bacterial rods were isolated using TPY, M.R.S. and Rogosa agar under anaerobic conditions from the digestive tract of wild mice (Mus musculus). All 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates were most similar to sequences of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323T and Lactobacillus johnsonii ATCC 33200T (97.3% and 97.2% sequence similarities, respectively). The novel strains shared 99.2-99.6% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. Type strains of L. gasseri and L. johnsonii were also most related to the newly isolated strains according to rpoA (83.9-84.0% similarities), pheS (84.6-87.8%), atpA (86.2-87.7%), hsp60 (89.4-90.4%) and tuf (92.7-93.6%) gene sequence similarities. Phylogenetic studies based on 16S rRNA, hsp60, rpoA, atpA and pheS gene sequences, other genotypic and many phenotypic characteristics (results of API 50 CHL, Rapid ID 32A and API ZYM biochemical tests; cellular fatty acid profiles; cellular polar lipid profiles; end products of glucose fermentation) showed that these bacterial strains represent a novel species within the genus Lactobacillus. The name Lactobacillus rodentium sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate this group of new isolates. The type strain is MYMRS/TLU1T (=DSM 24759T=CCM 7945T). PMID:24478214

  8. Probiotics for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Doron, Shira Idit; Hibberd, Patricia L; Gorbach, Sherwood L

    2008-07-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) occurs in approximately 25% of patients receiving antibiotics. Hospitalized patients with AAD are at increased risk for nosocomial infections and have a higher mortality. Probiotics are living microorganisms used to restore gut health by changing the intestinal microbiota. Several have been studied for the prevention of AAD. Five meta-analyses of trials of probiotics for the prevention of AAD have been performed. The results showed an overall reduction in the risk of AAD when probiotics were coadministered with antibiotics. McFarland conducted the largest meta-analysis to date analyzing 25 randomized controlled trials of probiotics for the prevention of AAD including 2810 subjects. More than half of the trials demonstrated efficacy of the probiotic. In particular, Lactobacillus GG, Saccharomyces boulardii, and the probiotic mixtures were effective. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews published a review of the literature on the use of probiotics for the prevention of pediatric AAD, including 10 randomized trials testing 1986 children. The per protocol pooled analysis, but not the intent-to-treat analysis, showed that probiotics are effective for preventing AAD with the number needed to treat to prevent 1 case of diarrhea being 10. Lactobacillus GG, Bacillus coagulans, and S. boulardii appeared to be most effective. Probiotics are generally safe, however, they should be used with caution in patients who have compromise of either the immune system or the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, and in the presence of a central venous catheter. PMID:18542041

  9. A simple identification method for vaginal secretions using relative quantification of Lactobacillus DNA.

    PubMed

    Doi, Masanori; Gamo, Shinsuke; Okiura, Tatsuyuki; Nishimukai, Hiroaki; Asano, Migiwa

    2014-09-01

    In criminal investigations there are some cases in which identifying the presence of vaginal secretions provides crucial evidence in proving sexual assault. However, there are no methods for definitively identifying vaginal secretions. In the present study, we focused on Lactobacillus levels in vaginal secretions and developed a novel identification method for vaginal secretions by relative quantification based on real time PCR. We designed a Lactobacillus conserved region primer pair (LCP) by aligning 16S rRNA gene sequences from major vaginal Lactobacillus species (Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus iners and Lactobacillus jensenii), and selected the human specific primer pair (HSP) as an endogenous control for relative quantification. As a result, the ΔCt (ΔCt=Ct[LCP]-Ct[HSP]) values of vaginal secretions (11 out of 12 samples) were significantly lower than those of saliva, semen and skin surface samples, and it was possible to discriminate between vaginal secretions and other body fluids. For the one remaining sample, it was confirmed that the predominant species in the microflora was not of the Lactobacillus genus. The ΔCt values in this study were calculated when the total DNA input used from the vaginal secretions was 10pg or more. Additionally, the ΔCt values of samples up to 6-months-old, which were kept at room temperature, remained unchanged. Thus, we concluded in this study that the simple ΔCt method by real time PCR is a useful tool for detecting the presence of vaginal secretions. PMID:24905338

  10. Probiotics in the Arabian Gulf Region

    PubMed Central

    Senok, Abiola C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Available reports on adherence to recommended guidelines for labeling of probiotic products are based on assessment of these products in developed countries. In the Arabian Gulf region, there is a paucity of data on the characterization of probiotic products and an absence of local guidelines for their labeling. This study, carried out in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), represents the first evaluation of probiotic products available in the Arabian Peninsula. Methods Probiotic products were purchased over the counter from a variety of sources, including pharmacies, healthfood stores, and supermarkets across the UAE. All identified products were listed and information regarding type of product preparation and labeling information were recorded. Results A total of 37 probiotic products, 15 dairy-based and 22 non-dairy-based were identified. The dairy products comprised of 12 yogurts, two fermented milk products and one powdered baby formula. The majority of non-dairy products were in capsule form (n = 16). While all the non-dairy products gave information about the strain of probiotic microorganism and number present at time of manufacture, this information was provided for only one dairy-based product. Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were the most common probiotic organisms identified. However, one probiotic product listed Enterococcus faecalis (750 million viable bacteria per capsule) as a component. With the exception of one non-dairy-based product, all health-related claims were structure/function statements, according to the US Food and Drug Administration nomenclature. Conclusion These findings indicate that a wide variety of probiotic products are available in the Arabian Gulf. Development of guidelines for labeling of these probiotic products and use of structure/function statements and health claims should be addressed. PMID:19266044

  11. Oral Probiotics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... U V W X Y Z Probiotics: In Depth Share: On This Page What’s the Bottom Line ... NLM), PubMed® contains publication information and (in most cases) brief summaries of articles from scientific and medical ...

  12. Colon-specific delivery of lactobacillus rhamnosus GG using pectin hydrogel beads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), has shown beneficial effects on human health, and is accepted by increasing populations for the prevention and treatment of irritable bowel diseases. To increase the bioavailability and efficacy of LGG, the probiotic was encapsulated in hydro...

  13. The Effects of Two Lactobacillus plantarum Strains on Rat Lipid Metabolism Receiving a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Salaj, Rastislav; Štofilová, Jana; Šoltesová, Alena; Hertelyová, Zdenka; Hijová, Emília; Bertková, Izabela; Strojný, Ladislav; Kružliak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the different probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96, on lipid metabolism and body weight in rats fed a high fat diet. Compared with the high fat diet group, the results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 reduced serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 decreased triglycerides and VLDL, while there was no change in the serum HDL level and liver lipids. Both probiotic strains lowered total bile acids in serum. Our strains have no significant change in body weight, gain weight, and body fat. These findings indicate that the effect of lactobacilli on lipid metabolism may differ among strains and that the Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 can be used to improve lipid profile and can contribute to a healthier bowel microbial balance. PMID:24470789

  14. Biofilms of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum: Effect on stress responses, antagonistic effects on pathogen growth and immunomodulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Aoudia, Nabil; Rieu, Aurélie; Briandet, Romain; Deschamps, Julien; Chluba, Johanna; Jego, Gaëtan; Garrido, Carmen; Guzzo, Jean

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have extensively investigated probiotic functions associated with biofilms. Here, we show that strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum are able to grow as biofilm on abiotic surfaces, but the biomass density differs between strains. We performed microtiter plate biofilm assays under growth conditions mimicking to the gastrointestinal environment. Osmolarity and low concentrations of bile significantly enhanced Lactobacillus spatial organization. Two L. plantarum strains were able to form biofilms under high concentrations of bile and mucus. We used the agar well-diffusion method to show that supernatants from all Lactobacillus except the NA4 isolate produced food pathogen inhibitory molecules in biofilm. Moreover, TNF-α production by LPS-activated human monocytoid cells was suppressed by supernatants from Lactobacillus cultivated as biofilms but not by planktonic culture supernatants. However, only L. fermentum NA4 showed anti-inflammatory effects in zebrafish embryos fed with probiotic bacteria, as assessed by cytokine transcript level (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10). We conclude that the biofilm mode of life is associated with beneficial probiotic properties of lactobacilli, in a strain dependent manner. Those results suggest that characterization of isolate phenotype in the biofilm state could be additional valuable information for the selection of probiotic strains. PMID:26611169

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Probiotic Efficacy for Gastrointestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Marina L.; Romanuk, Tamara N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Meta-analyses on the effects of probiotics on specific gastrointestinal diseases have generally shown positive effects on disease prevention and treatment; however, the relative efficacy of probiotic use for treatment and prevention across different gastrointestinal diseases, with differing etiology and mechanisms of action, has not been addressed. Methods/Principal Findings We included randomized controlled trials in humans that used a specified probiotic in the treatment or prevention of Pouchitis, Infectious diarrhea, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile Disease, Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea, Traveler's Diarrhea, or Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Random effects models were used to evaluate efficacy as pooled relative risks across the eight diseases as well as across probiotic species, single vs. multiple species, patient ages, dosages, and length of treatment. Probiotics had a positive significant effect across all eight gastrointestinal diseases with a relative risk of 0.58 (95% (CI) 0.510.65). Six of the eight diseases: Pouchitis, Infectious diarrhea, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile Disease, and Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea, showed positive significant effects. Traveler's Diarrhea and Necrotizing Enterocolitis did not show significant effects of probiotcs. Of the 11 species and species mixtures, all showed positive significant effects except for Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bifidobacterium infantis. Across all diseases and probiotic species, positive significant effects of probiotics were observed for all age groups, single vs. multiple species, and treatment lengths. Conclusions/Significance Probiotics are generally beneficial in treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases. Efficacy was not observed for Traveler's Diarrhea or Necrotizing Enterocolitis or for the probiotic species L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, and B. infantis. When choosing to use probiotics in the treatment or prevention of gastrointestinal disease, the type of disease and probiotic species (strain) are the most important factors to take into consideration. PMID:22529959

  16. Use of probiotics for management of acute gastroenteritis: a position paper by the ESPGHAN Working Group for Probiotics and Prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Szajewska, Hania; Guarino, Alfredo; Hojsak, Iva; Indrio, Flavia; Kolacek, Sanja; Shamir, Raanan; Vandenplas, Yvan; Weizman, Zvi

    2014-04-01

    The use of probiotics has been suggested in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in addition to early rehydration and avoidance of dietary restrictions. This document provides recommendations for the use of probiotics for the treatment of AGE in previously healthy infants and children based on a systematic review of previously completed systematic reviews and of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published subsequently to these reviews. The recommendations were formulated only if at least 2 RCTs that used a given probiotic (with strain specification) were available. The GRADE system developed by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations Working Group, was used to grade the strength of evidence and grades of recommendations used in these guidelines. It offers 4 categories of the quality of the evidence (high, moderate, low, and very low) and 2 categories of the strength of recommendation (strong or weak). The use of the following probiotics (in alphabetical order) may be considered in the management of children with AGE in addition to rehydration therapy: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (low quality of evidence, strong recommendation) and Saccharomyces boulardii (low quality of evidence, strong recommendation). Less compelling evidence is available for Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (very low quality of evidence, weak recommendation) and heat-inactivated Lactobacillus acidophilus LB (very low quality of evidence, weak recommendation). The latter, although traditionally discussed with other probiotics, does not fit with the definition of probiotics. Other strains or combinations of strains have been tested, but evidence of their efficacy is weak or preliminary. PMID:24614141

  17. Lactobacillus species: taxonomic complexity and controversial susceptibilities.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M

    2015-05-15

    The genus Lactobacillus is a taxonomically complex and is composed of over 170 species that cannot be easily differentiated phenotypically and often require molecular identification. Although they are part of the normal human gastrointestinal and vaginal flora, they can also be occasional human pathogens. They are extensively used in a variety of commercial products including probiotics. Their antimicrobial susceptibilities are poorly defined in part because of their taxonomic complexity and are compounded by the different methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and International Dairy Foundation. Their use as probiotics for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection is prevalent among consumers worldwide but raises the question of will the use of any concurrent antibiotic effect their ability to survive. Lactobacillus species are generally acid resistant and are able to survive ingestion. They are generally resistant to metronidazole, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin with L. acidophilus being susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin, whereas L. rhamnosus and L. casei are resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin. PMID:25922408

  18. Functionality of probiotics - potential for product development.

    PubMed

    Dekker, James; Collett, Michael; Prasad, Jaya; Gopal, Pramod

    2007-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly accepted by consumers that live lactic acid bacteria do exert health benefits when eaten. In addition, it is also becoming recognised that not all probiotic bacteria are equal. It is now no longer just a question of providing sufficient numbers of viable bacteria in a product; industry must also provide proof of efficacy for each strain. In the early 1990s, Fonterra embarked on a programme to develop proprietary probiotic strains, and as a result, commercialised two strains, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. Over the past decade, Fonterra has developed a significant body of peerreviewed published reports around these strains, including studies showing safety in animal and human trials, protection against pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7, modulation of human and animal immune markers at realistic dose rates, and efficacy in human clinical trials. Based on this work, HN019 and HN001 have been applied to several functional foods both by Fonterra (under the DR10 and DR20 brands, respectively) and by third parties (e.g. under the HOWARU brand by Danisco). While the 'gold standard' of proof of efficacy is a phase III clinical trial, ethical considerations as well as expense preclude the use of clinical trials as screening tools for probiotics. Therefore, biomarkers have to be employed to identify strains with probiotic utility, and to define the different positive health benefits of existing probiotic strains. However, as the mechanisms by which most probiotic bacteria exert their health benefits remain unclear, the question of which biomarkers accurately reflect efficacy in vivo remains unresolved. With recent technological advances, and the shift toward probiotics targeted to specific conditions, researchers are beginning to tease out how probiotic bacteria work, and it is this knowledge that will inform biomarker development and improve the ability to offer the market safe and effective probiotic functional foods. PMID:17684416

  19. Probiotics as efficient immunopotentiators: Translational role in cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Shida, Kan; Nomoto, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidences indicate that some diseases are triggered by abnormalities of the gut microbiota. Among these, immune-related diseases can be the promising targets for probiotcs. Several studies have proved the efficacy of probiotics for preventing such diseases including cancers, infections, allergies, inflammatory bowel diseases and autoimmune diseases. Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) is one of the most popular probiotics, benefits of which in health maintenance and disease control have been supported by several science-based evidences. This review summarizes human clinical trials with this probiotic against cancer development and also discusses the possible immunomodulatory mechanisms by which LcS exerts anti-cancer activity. PMID:24434333

  20. Characterization of a bovine isolate Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 which produces an exopolysaccharide composed predominantly of mannose residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: Identification of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing lactobacilli as EPS production is potentially a very important trait among probiotic lactobacilli from technological and health promoting perspectives. Methods and Results: Characterization of EPS-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in de...

  1. Functional foods as carriers for SYNBIO, a probiotic bacteria combination.

    PubMed

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2012-07-16

    The popularity of functional foods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10?CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502 mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10? and 10?CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Bscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date. PMID:22727086

  2. Microorganisms with Claimed Probiotic Properties: An Overview of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fijan, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Health benefits have mainly been demonstrated for specific probiotic strains of the following genera: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Escherichia coli. The human microbiota is getting a lot of attention today and research has already demonstrated that alteration of this microbiota may have far-reaching consequences. One of the possible routes for correcting dysbiosis is by consuming probiotics. The credibility of specific health claims of probiotics and their safety must be established through science-based clinical studies. This overview summarizes the most commonly used probiotic microorganisms and their demonstrated health claims. As probiotic properties have been shown to be strain specific, accurate identification of particular strains is also very important. On the other hand, it is also demonstrated that the use of various probiotics for immunocompromised patients or patients with a leaky gut has also yielded infections, sepsis, fungemia, bacteraemia. Although the vast majority of probiotics that are used today are generally regarded as safe and beneficial for healthy individuals, caution in selecting and monitoring of probiotics for patients is needed and complete consideration of risk-benefit ratio before prescribing is recommended. PMID:24859749

  3. Intestinal Microbiota and Probiotics in Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grzeskowiak, Lukasz Marcin; de Sales Teixeira, Tatiana Fiche; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Celiac disease (CD) is a common chronic autoimmune enteropathy caused by gluten intake. To date, the only therapy for CD is the complete exclusion of dietary sources of grains and any food containing gluten. It has been hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota is somehow involved in CD. For this reason, probiotics are appearing as an interesting adjuvant in the dietetic management of CD. This review aims to discuss the characteristics of the microbiota in CD subjects and the use of probiotics as a novel therapy for CD. Comparisons between children with CD and controls show that their microbiota profiles differ; the former have fewer lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Specific probiotics have been found to digest or alter gluten polypeptides. It has also been demonstrated that some bacterial species belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium exert protective properties on epithelial cells from damage caused by gliadin. PMID:24982318

  4. Probiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Alfredo; Guandalini, Stefano; Lo Vecchio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used for prevention and treatment of diarrhea more in children than in adults. Given the broad spectrum of diarrhea, this review focuses on the main etiologies: acute gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). For each, we reviewed randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and guidelines. For acute gastroenteritis we found 12 guidelines: 5 recommended probiotics and 7 did not. However, the guidelines containing positive recommendations provided proof of evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Saccharomyces boulardii had the most compelling evidence of efficacy as they reduced the duration of the disease by 1 day. For AAD 4 meta-analyses were found, reporting variable efficacy of probiotics in preventing diarrhea, based on the setting, patient's age, and antibiotics. The most effective strains were LGG and S. boulardii. For NEC, we found 3 randomized controlled trials, 5 meta-analyses, and 4 position papers. Probiotics reduced the risk of NEC enterocolitis and mortality in preterm babies. Guidelines did not support a routine use of probiotics and asked for further data for such sensitive implications. In conclusion, there is strong and solid proof of efficacy of probiotics as active treatment of gastroenteritis in addition to rehydration. There is solid evidence that probiotics have some efficacy in prevention of AAD, but the number needed to treat is an issue. For both etiologies LGG and S. boulardii have the strongest evidence. In NEC the indications are more debated, yet on the basis of available data and their implications, probiotics should be carefully considered. PMID:26447963

  5. Probiotics as drugs against human gastrointestinal infections.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Yolanda; Nadal, Inmaculada; Snchez, Ester

    2007-06-01

    The commensal gut microbiota confer health benefits to their host by helping dietary digestion, regulating gut immunity, maintaining the microbial balance, and preventing pathogen colonization. A number of probiotic strains have been introduced in the market in dietary and pharmaceutical forms. Lactic acid bacteria (e.g. Lactobacillus) and Bifidobacterium constitute the main group of probiotics commercialized for human consumption. The treatment of gastrointestinal infections continues to be complicated due to the expansion of antibiotic resistances. Of the benefits of probiotics, those related to their preventive and therapeutic uses against gastrointestinal infections have an outstanding position, as reflected in a large number of patents. The mechanisms of action of probiotics against gastrointestinal pathogens addressed in diverse patent applications include: (i) modification of the environmental conditions, (ii) competition for nutrients and adhesion sites, (iii) production of antimicrobial metabolites and (iv) modulation of the immune and non-immune defense mechanisms of the host. The bioactive components of probiotics include cell-wall fractions, surface proteins, nucleic acids, organic and short-chain fatty acids, antimicrobial proteins and other less-well identified soluble factors. The effectiveness of probiotics is supported by solid clinical studies mainly on treatment of acute diarrhea in children and prevention of antibiotic associated disorders. Currently, probiotics and their bioactive compounds constitute attractive alternative drugs that can help to reduce the use of antibiotics as well as to improve conventional pharmacological therapies. The advances on the knowledge of the intricate host-microbe dialogues within the intestine and extraintestinal sites will result in the future development of a new generation probiotic-based products targeting broader range of pathologies and their etiologic agents. PMID:18221171

  6. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics.

    PubMed

    de Vrese, Michael; Schrezenmeir, J

    2008-01-01

    According to the German definition, probiotics are defined viable microorganisms, sufficient amounts of which reach the intestine in an active state and thus exert positive health effects. Numerous probiotic microorganisms (e.g. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, bifidobacteria and certain strains of L. casei or the L. acidophilus-group) are used in probiotic food, particularly fermented milk products, or have been investigated--as well as Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, certain enterococci (Enterococcus faecium SF68) and the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii--with regard to their medicinal use. Among the numerous purported health benefits attributed to probiotic bacteria, the (transient) modulation of the intestinal microflora of the host and the capacity to interact with the immune system directly or mediated by the autochthonous microflora, are basic mechanisms. They are supported by an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo experiments using conventional and molecular biologic methods. In addition to these, a limited number of randomized, well-controlled human intervention trials have been reported. Well-established probiotic effects are: 1. Prevention and/or reduction of duration and complaints of rotavirus-induced or antibiotic-associated diarrhea as well as alleviation of complaints due to lactose intolerance. 2. Reduction of the concentration of cancer-promoting enzymes and/or putrefactive (bacterial) metabolites in the gut. 3. Prevention and alleviation of unspecific and irregular complaints of the gastrointestinal tracts in healthy people. 4. Beneficial effects on microbial aberrancies, inflammation and other complaints in connection with: inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, Helicobacter pylori infection or bacterial overgrowth. 5. Normalization of passing stool and stool consistency in subjects suffering from obstipation or an irritable colon. 6. Prevention or alleviation of allergies and atopic diseases in infants. 7. Prevention of respiratory tract infections (common cold, influenza) and other infectious diseases as well as treatment of urogenital infections. Insufficient or at most preliminary evidence exists with respect to cancer prevention, a so-called hypocholesterolemic effect, improvement of the mouth flora and caries prevention or prevention or therapy of ischemic heart diseases or amelioration of autoimmune diseases (e.g. arthritis). A prebiotic is "a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well being and health", whereas synergistic combinations of pro- and prebiotics are called synbiotics. Today, only bifidogenic, non-digestible oligosaccharides (particularly inulin, its hydrolysis product oligofructose, and (trans)galactooligosaccharides), fulfill all the criteria for prebiotic classification. They are dietary fibers with a well-established positive impact on the intestinal microflora. Other health effects of prebiotics (prevention of diarrhoea or obstipation, modulation of the metabolism of the intestinal flora, cancer prevention, positive effects on lipid metabolism, stimulation of mineral adsorption and immunomodulatory properties) are indirect, i.e. mediated by the intestinal microflora, and therefore less-well proven. In the last years, successful attempts have been reported to make infant formula more breast milk-like by the addition of fructo- and (primarily) galactooligosaccharides. PMID:18461293

  7. Feeding Lactobacillus spp. and Bacillus spp. Does Not Improve Growth or Survival of Channel Catfish Experimentally Challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major problem in the channel catfish industry has been high disease loss to enteric septicemia of catfish, caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. Feeding probiotics may prove beneficial in improving disease resistance. The first study examined the effects of a Lactobacillus probiotic (Flor...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus farciminis NBRC 111452, Isolated from Kso, a Japanese Sugar-Vegetable Fermented Beverage.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Tai-Ying; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Takahashi, Tomoya

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Lactobacillus farciminis strain NBRC 111452, isolated from kso, a Japanese sugar-vegetable fermented beverage. This genome information is of potential use in studies of Lactobacillus farciminis as a probiotic. PMID:26769925

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus farciminis NBRC 111452, Isolated from Kso, a Japanese Sugar-Vegetable Fermented Beverage

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Takahashi, Tomoya

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Lactobacillus farciminis strain NBRC 111452, isolated from kso, a Japanese sugar-vegetable fermented beverage. This genome information is of potential use in studies of Lactobacillus farciminis as a probiotic. PMID:26769925

  10. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermdez-Humarn, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. PMID:26325197

  11. Manufacturing process influences properties of probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Grześkowiak, Łukasz; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2011-03-01

    Production and manufacturing methods and the food carrier may influence the properties of probiotic strains, and have an impact on the outcome of clinical intervention studies. The aim of the present study was to establish whether the properties of a specific probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, may differ depending on the product and source of the strain. In total, fifteen different L. rhamnosus isolates, among them fourteen labelled as L. rhamnosus GG, were isolated from specific probiotic products. The micro-organisms were phenotypically and genotypically characterised. Their adhesion properties were compared using the human intestinal mucus model, and the ability of the isolates to influence model pathogen adhesion to human colonic mucus was assessed. All L. rhamnosus isolates used were confirmed as members of the species L. rhamnosus. Except the reference strain OL, all L. rhamnosus isolates showed randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103). All L. rhamnosus isolates showed similar tolerance to acid and were able to bind to human colonic mucus. However, pathogen exclusion by inhibition and competition varied significantly among the different L. rhamnosus isolates and pathogens tested. The results suggest that different sources of the same probiotic may have significantly altered strain properties. This should be considered in in vivo studies on human subjects and also for quality control of probiotic products. PMID:21059281

  12. Effect of Lactobacillus species on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ayaz; Dachang, Wu; Lei, Zhou; Jianjun, Liu; Juanjuan, Qiu; Yi, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary pathogen responsible for initiating dental caries and decay. The presence of sucrose, stimulates S. mutans to produce insoluble glucans to form oral biofilm also known as dental plaque to initiate caries lesion. The GtfB and LuxS genes of S. mutans are responsible for formation and maturation of biofilm. Lactobacillus species as probiotic can reduces the count of S. mutans. In this study effect of different Lactobacillus species against the formation of S. mutans biofilm was observed. Growing biofilm in the presence of sucrose was detected using 96 well microtiter plate crystal violet assay and biofilm formation by S. mutans in the presence of Lactobacillus was detected. Gene expression of biofilm forming genes (GtfB and LuxS) was quantified through Real-time PCR. All strains of Lactobacillus potently reduced the formation of S. mutans biofilm whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus reduced the genetic expression by 60-80%. Therefore, probiotic Lactobacillus species can be used as an alternative instead of antibiotics to decrease the chance of dental caries by reducing the count of S. mutans and their gene expression to maintain good oral health. PMID:25176247

  13. CD4 detected from Lactobacillus helps understand the interaction between Lactobacillus and HIV.

    PubMed

    Su, Yan; Zhang, Baojiang; Su, Lingling

    2013-06-12

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preferentially infects and destroys CD4+ cells and leads to a gradual decline in the number of CD4 cells. Despite evidence that probiotics increase CD4+ T lymphocytes in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and lower the risk of HIV transmission, little is known about the detailed mechanism underlying these effects. In this study, we investigated the cell surface protein of Lactobacillus and its role in blocking HIV-1 transmission by lactobacilli. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting, FACS), we detected the CD4 receptor on the surface of Lactobacillus. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) for the CD4 receptor could partially inhibit HIV-1 binding to Lactobacillus. In addition, Lactobacillus could decrease HIV-1 pseudovirus infection of TZM-bl cells in vitro by 60-70%. Our data suggest that Lactobacillus can use this receptor to bind HIV and block HIV infection. This may in turn increase the CD4 T lymphocyte count in patients with HIV. These data provide direct evidence that Lactobacillus expresses the CD4 receptor and utilizes it to block HIV transmission. PMID:23318049

  14. A comparative study of the effect of probiotics on cariogenic biofilm model for preventing dental caries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Jae

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries is induced by oral biofilm containing Streptococcus mutans. Probiotic bacteria were mainly studied for effect on the gastrointestinal tract and have been known to promote human health. However, the information of probiotics for oral health has been lack yet. In this study, we investigated influence of various probiotics on oral bacteria or cariogenic biofilm and evaluated candidate probiotics for dental caries among them. The antimicrobial activity of the spent culture medium of probiotics for oral streptococci was performed. Probiotics were added during the biofilm formation with salivary bacteria including S. mutans. The oral biofilms were stained with a fluorescent dye and observed using the confocal laser scanning microscope. To count bacteria in the biofilm, the bacteria were plated on MSB and BHI agar plates after disrupting the biofilm and cultivated. Glucosyltransferases (gtfs) expression of S. mutans and integration of lactobacilli into the biofilm were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Among probiotics, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited growth of oral streptococci. Moreover, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited formation of cariogenic biofilm model. The expression of gtfs was significantly reduced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The integration of L. rhamnosus into the biofilm model did not exhibit. However, L. acidophilus and L casei integrated into the biofilm model. These results suggest that L. rhamnosus may inhibit oral biofilm formation by decreasing glucan production of S. mutans and antibacterial activity and did not integrate into oral biofilm, which can be a candidate for caries prevention strategy. PMID:24919536

  15. Absence of cholic acid 7 alpha-dehydroxylase activity in the strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Morotomi, M

    1994-11-01

    To investigate the presence of 7 alpha-dehydroxylase activity on bile acids in the bacterial strains of fermented milk products, 46 strains of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis, and Streptococcus salivarius spp. thermophilus were tested for their ability to produce deoxycholic acid from cholic acid. The production of deoxycholic acid was quantitatively measured by radiochromatographic analysis in anaerobically prepared washed whole resting cells and by HPLC analysis in growing cultures. Resting whole cells from a positive control strain, Eubacterium lentum-like strain c-25, converted 81.7% of .2 mM cholic acid to deoxycholic acid and 3.7% to 7-keto-deoxycholic acid, when the cell suspension was incubated anaerobically at a concentration of 2 mg of protein/ml for 4 h at pH 7.3. However, none of the test strains investigated in this study was able to transform cholic acid under the same conditions. In growing cultures, 91.5% of 150 micrograms/ml of cholic acid was transformed to deoxycholic acid and 1.1% to 7-keto-deoxycholic acid by E. lentum-like c-25 after a 7-d anaerobic incubation. None of the test strains showed production of either deoxycholic acid or 7-keto-deoxycholic acid as growing cultures. PMID:7814703

  16. Molecular detection of Lactobacillus species in the neovagina of male-to-female transsexual women

    PubMed Central

    Petricevic, Ljubomir; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Domig, Konrad J.; Kraler, Manuel; Marschalek, Julian; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kiss, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    There is a general opinion that penile skin lined neovagina of transsexual women is not able to support the growth of lactobacilli. This study was undertaken to prove if lactobacilli strains could survive in neovagina and to characterise the most dominant Lactobacillus species. Sixty three male-to-female transsexual women without abnormal vaginal discharge, clinical signs of infection were recruited on an ongoing basis from among transsexual outpatients in an academic research institution and tertiary care centre. Neovaginal smears were taken for molecular Lactobacillus spp. profiling by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR–DGGE). Lactobacillus species were detected from 47/63 transsexual women (75%). The 279 Lactobacillus signals detected by PCR-DGGE technique belonged to 13 different species. Lactobacilli of the L. delbrueckii group (L. gasseri, L. crispatus, L. johnsonii, L. iners, L. jensenii) were predominant. More than 90% of women harboured a combination of two or more neovaginal Lactobacillus species. In this study we report the frequent occurrence of lactobacilli from neovagina of transsexual women. Both, frequency and composition were similar to the normal lactic acid bacterial microflora in both women of reproductive age and postmenopausal women. PMID:24434849

  17. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Tehrani, Hajar-Alsadat; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Mokarian, Fariborz; Mahdavi, Hoda; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. Results: White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey) during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 106 cells/μL, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 103 cells/μL and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 103 cells/μL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of probiotics or probiotic plus honey on hematologic and immunologic parameters in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. PMID:26622258

  18. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Potentially Probiotic Vaginal Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Ocaa, Virginia; Silva, Clara; Nader-Macas, Mara Elena

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To study the antimicrobial susceptibility of six vaginal probiotic lactobacilli. Methods. The disc diffusion method in Meller Hinton, LAPTg and MRS agars by the NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) procedure was performed. Due to the absence of a Lactobacillus reference strains, the results were compared to those of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) with 21 different antibiotics in LAPTg agar and broth was also determined. Results. LAPTg and MRS agars are suitable media to study antimicrobial susceptibility of lactobacilli. However, the NCCLS procedure needs to be standardized for this genus. The MICs have shown that all Lactobacillus strains grew at concentrations above 10 ?g/mL of chloramphenicol, aztreonam, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, streptomycin and kanamycin. Four lactobacilli were sensitive to 1 ?g/mL vancomycin and all of them were resistant to 1000 ?g/mL of metronidazole. Sensitivity to other antibiotics depended on each particular strain. Conclusions. The NCCLS method needs to be standardized in an appropriate medium to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus. Vaginal probiotic lactobacilli do not display uniform susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to high concentrations of metronidazole suggests that lactobacilli could be simultaneously used with a bacterial vaginosis treatment to restore the vaginal normal flora. PMID:17485797

  19. Influence of a probiotic mixture on antibiotic induced microbiota disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Forssten, Sofia; Evans, Malkanthi; Wilson, Dale; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of probiotic consumption on the faecal microbiota during and after antibiotic exposure. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study with a two species probiotic combination [Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) ATCC 700396 and Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) ATCC SD5220] on healthy adults during and after antibiotic treatment (amoxicillin 875 and 125 mg clavulanate). The dominant faecal microbiota was studied by real time-polymerase chain reaction to determine if this probiotic preparation could facilitate restoring the microbiota to its pre-antibiotic state and influence the prevalence of beta-lactam resistance. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded by questionnaire and Bristol stool scale. RESULTS: Subjects on the probiotic combination had significantly higher faecal counts of L. acidophilus ATCC 700396 and B. lactis at day 8 (end of antibiotic treatment period) vs those on placebo. Furthermore, subjects on the probiotic combination had significantly higher faecal counts of L. acidophilus ATCC 700396 and B. lactis at Day 15 (end of probiotic treatment) vs those on placebo. Lactobacillus counts remained stable in the probiotic group over the course of the study, while Clostridium XIV group was higher at the end of the study and closer to baseline levels; this in contrast to the placebo group. Beta-lactam resistance in creased after antibiotic exposure and was not different between both treatment groups. Gastrointestinal symptoms were generally mild and did not differ between the treatment groups, which correlates with the generally small changes in the microbiota. CONCLUSION: Consumption of the probiotic combination mainly leads to an increase in the faecal levels of the species included in the preparation. PMID:25206295

  20. ?-Glucan as an encapsulating agent: Effect on probiotic survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Shah, Asima; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Masoodi, F A

    2016-01-01

    Three strains of probiotics Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus plantarum were encapsulated in ?-glucan matrix using emulsion technique. Further the encapsulated cells were studied for their tolerance in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and its storage stability. The average encapsulation efficiency of ?-glucan-probiotic beads was found to be 74.01%. The surface morphology of ?-glucan containing bacteria was studied using SEM. The noteworthy absorptions in the FT-IR spectra between 1300-900cm(-1) and 2918-2925cm(-1) corresponds to the presence of bacteria into the glucan matrix. Also, the thermal stability of ?-glucan was evaluated using Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The efficiency of ?-glucan in protecting the surviability of probiotic cells under simulated gastrointestinal conditions was studied. Results revealed significant (p<0.05) improvement to tolerance when the encapsulated cells were subjected to stresses like low pH, heat treatment, simulated intestinal conditions and storage. PMID:26562556

  1. Antiproliferative Effects of Homogenates Derived from Five Strains of Candidate Probiotic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pessi, Tanja; Sütas, Yelda; Saxelin, Maija; Kallioinen, Harri; Isolauri, Erika

    1999-01-01

    Unheated and heat-treated homogenates were separately prepared from candidate probiotic bacteria, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. We compared the phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation of mononuclear cells in the presence of homogenates and in the presence of a control containing no homogenate by assessing thymidine incorporation in cell cultures. All homogenates suppressed proliferation, whether the enzymatic activity was inactivated or not inactivated by heating. When the proliferation assays were repeated with cytoplasmic and cell wall extracts derived from the homogenate of L. rhamnosus GG, the cytoplasmic extract but not the cell wall extract was suppressive. These findings indicate that candidate probiotic bacteria possess a heat-stable antiproliferative component(s). These bacteria may be used to generate microbiologically nonviable yet immunologically active probiotic food products that are easier to store and have a longer shelf life. PMID:10543777

  2. Reduction of ochratoxin A in chicken feed using probiotic.

    PubMed

    ?li?ewska, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Ma?gorzata

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins present in fodders may evoke health problems of animals and people. The data published by FAO in 2001 show that 25% of raw materials are contaminated with mycotoxins, while their type and concentration are to a great extent dependable on the climatic zone. Biological detoxification of mycotoxins by the use of microorganisms is one of the well-known strategies for the management of mycotoxins in foods and feeds. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of spontaneous fermentation and that with the use of probiotic bacteria and yeast on ochratoxin A (OTA) concentration and the microbiota pattern during fermentation. The probiotic preparation is a natural product containing bacteria resistant to gastric juice and bile: Lactobacillus paracasei LOCK 0920, Lactobacillus brevis LOCK 0944, Lactobacillus plantarum LOCK 0945, as well as live yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae LOCK 0140 of high fermenting capacity. After 6-hour fermentation with the probiotic, in feed with a low concentration of ochratoxin A (1 mg/kg) the amount of ochratoxin A decreased by 73%. In the case of high a concentration (5 mg/kg) the decrease in ochratoxin A was lower at about 55%. This tendency was sustained during the following hours of incubation (12th and 24th hours). The application of probiotic bacteria and yeasts resulted in the reduction of aerobic spore forming bacteria. It can be concluded that the probiotic preparation containing bacteria of Lactobacillus strains and yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in the study was conducive to detoxification of ochratoxin A added to a feed. PMID:25528900

  3. Effects of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on selected lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria in co-culture.

    PubMed

    Starke, I C; Zentek, J; Vahjen, W

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 is used as a probiotic for piglets and has been shown to modify the porcine intestinal microbiota. However, the mode of action of this probiotic modification is still unclear. One possible explanation is the direct growth inhibiting or stimulating effect of the probiotic on other indigenous bacteria. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the growth interactions of the probiotic with different indigenous porcine bacteria in vitro. Reference strains were cultivated with the probiotic E. faecium strain NCIMB10415 (SF68) in a checkerboard assay with 102 to 105 cells/ml inoculum per strain. Growth kinetics were recorded for 8 h and used to determine specific growth of the co-cultures. Additionally, total DNA was extracted from the co-cultures at the end of the incubation to verify which strain in the co-culture was affected. Co-cultivation with eight Enterococcus spp. tester strains showed strain-specific growth differences. Three of four E. faecium strains were not influenced by the probiotic strain. PCR results showed reduced growth of the probiotic strain in co-culture with E. faecium DSM 6177. Three of four Enterococcus faecalis strains showed reduced specific growth in co-culture with the probiotic strain. However, E. faecalis DSM 20478 impaired growth of the probiotic E. faecium strain. The growth of Lactobacillus johnsonii DSM 10533 and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 was enhanced in co-culture with the probiotic strain, but co-cultivations with Lactobacillus mucosae DSM13345 or Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM10533 showed no differences. Co-cultures with the probiotic E. faecium showed no impact on the growth rate of four different enterobacterial reference strains (2 strains of Salmonella enterica and 2 strains of Escherichia coli), but PCR results showed reduced cell numbers for a pathogenic E. coli isolate at higher concentration of the probiotic strain. As the in vitro effect of the probiotic E. faecium on enterococci was strain specific and the growth of certain Lactobacillus spp. was enhanced by the probiotic, these results indicate a direct effect of the probiotic on certain members of the porcine gastro intestinal microbiota. PMID:25519527

  4. In vitro fermentation of prebiotic oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Sims, Ian M; Ryan, Jason L J; Kim, Sang H

    2014-02-01

    The utilisation of various prebiotic oligosaccharides by probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was investigated in order to determine the synbiotic potential of various prebiotic/probiotic combinations. Analysis by HPLC and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography of the cell-free medium taken during growth of the three probiotic bacteria showed differences in the consumption of the various oligosaccharides. Analysis of galactooligosaccharides showed that both L.rhamnosus and B.lactis consumed mostly mono- and di-saccharide, while L.acidophilus consumed oligosaccharides up to trisaccharide. Both B.lactis and L.acidophilus utilised fructooligosaccharides and inulin, but showed different patterns of oligosaccharide consumption. Only L.rhamnosus grew on ?-glucan oligosaccharides and preferentially consumed the trisaccharide. The results indicate the synbiotic potential of the various probiotic/prebiotic combinations, particularly L.acidophilus/galactooligosaccharides, L.acidophilus/fructooligosaccharides or inulin and L.rhamnosus/?-glucan oligosaccharides. PMID:24239979

  5. Beta-Glucans Improve Growth, Viability and Colonization of Probiotic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Pasquale; López, Paloma; Capozzi, Vittorio; de Palencia, Pilar Fernández; Dueñas, María Teresa; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics are frequently-used components for the elaboration of functional food. Currently, most of the commercialized probiotics are limited to a few strains of the genera Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus, most of which produce exopolysaccharides (EPS). This suggests that the beneficial properties of these microorganisms may be related to the biological activities of these biopolymers. In this work we report that a 2-substituted-(1,3)-β-d-glucan of non-dairy bacterial origin has a prebiotic effect on three probiotic strains. Moreover, the presence of this β-d-glucan potentiates in vitro adhesion of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 to human intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:22754347

  6. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  7. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  8. The probiotic content of commercial yogurts in west virginia.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Brian S; Yu, Hongwei; Elitsur, Yoram

    2009-06-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that can confer health benefits. Current recommendations for probiotic dosing in pediatrics for acute gastroenteritis range from 109 to 1011 colony forming units (CFUs)/day. In the present study, commercial yogurts were investigated for probiotic content and concentration. A total of 10 yogurts and 1 probiotic supplement were tested. Culture and enumeration were performed on Lactobacillus specific agar, and presence of gram positive rods were confirmed with gram staining. Various PCR techniques were also used to identify different Lactobacillus species. Good colony growth was noted on all cultures, with enumeration results ranging from 4.8 x 109 to 9.5 x 1010 CFU in a single 100mL serving. A wide variety of bacterial species was noted, including unidentified bacteria. All yogurt samples had enough probiotic content to meet current recommendations for treatment of acute gastroenteritis. Physicians should use yogurts with caution in this setting until full bacterial repertoires are available for commercial yogurts. PMID:19246412

  9. Probiotic Strains Influence on Infant Microbiota in the In Vitro Colonic Fermentation Model GIS1.

    PubMed

    Moroeanu, Veronica Ionela; Vamanu, Emanuel; Paun, Gabriela; Neagu, Elena; Ungureanu, Oana Rodica; Eremia, Sandra A V; Radu, Gabriel-Lucian; Ionescu, Robertina; Pelinescu, Diana Roxana

    2015-12-01

    The main goal of our study was to evaluate the effect of the individual administration of five lyophilized lactic acid bacteria strains (Lactobacillus fermentum 428ST, Lactobacillus rhamnosus E4.2, Lactobacillus plantarum FCA3, Lactobacillus sp. 34.1, Weissella paramesenteroides FT1a) against the in vitro simulated microbiota of the human colon using the GIS1 system. The influence on the metabolic activity was also assessed by quantitative determination of proteins and polysaccharides at each segment of human colon. The obtained results indicated that the lactic acid bacteria L. rhamnosus E4.2 and W. paramesenteroides FTa1 had better efficiency in synthesising exopolysaccharides and also a better probiotic potential and therefore could be recommended for use in probiotics products or food industry. PMID:26543268

  10. Growth and Survival of Some Probiotic Strains in Simulated Ice Cream Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homayouni, A.; Ehsani, M. R.; Azizi, A.; Razavi, S. H.; Yarmand, M. S.

    A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment was applied in triplicates to evaluate the survival of four probiotic strains in simulated ice cream conditions. The growth and survival rate of these probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum) in varying amount of sucrose (10, 15, 20 and 25%), oxygen scavenging components (0.05% L-cysteine and 0.05% L-ascorbate) and temperatures (4 and -20°C) during different periods of time (1, 2 and 3 months) were evaluated in MRS-broth medium. Optical density at 580 nm was used to measure growth. Lactobacilli strains proved to be highly resistant in comparison with Biffidobacteria strains. The viable cell number of Lactobacillus casei in different sucrose concentrations, different oxidoreduction potentials and refrigeration temperature was 1x1010, 2x108 and 5x107 cfu mL-1, respectively. Growth and survival rate of Lactobacillus casei showed to be the highest.

  11. Use of probiotics to reduce faecal shedding of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rigobelo, E E C; Karapetkov, N; Maest, S A; Avila, F A; McIntosh, D

    2015-03-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic, foodborne pathogens of humans. Ruminants, including sheep, are the primary reservoirs of STEC and there is a need to develop intervention strategies to reduce the entry of STEC into the food chain. The initiation of the majority of bacterial, enteric infections involves colonisation of the gut mucosal surface by the pathogen. However, probiotic bacteria can serve to decrease the severity of infection via a number of mechanisms including competition for receptors and nutrients, and/or the synthesis of organic acids and bacteriocins that create an environment unfavourable for pathogen development. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the administration of a probiotic mixture to sheep experimentally infected with a non-O157 STEC strain, carrying stx1, stx2 and eae genes, was able to decrease faecal shedding of the pathogen. The probiotic mixture contained Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecium. The numbers of non-O157 STEC in faecal samples collected from sheep receiving daily doses of the probiotic mixture were significantly lower at the 3rd, 5th and 6th week post-inoculation when compared to the levels recorded in untreated animals. It was concluded that administration of the probiotic mixture reduced faecal shedding of non-O157 STEC in sheep, and holds potential as a pre-harvest intervention method to reduce transmission to humans. PMID:25380795

  12. Probiotics and functional gastrointestinal disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Benninga, Marc

    2009-04-01

    Chronic constipation is one of the most frequent complaints in childhood. Although there is evidence that gastrointestinal flora is important in gut motility, there is little evidence that gut flora is abnormal in constipation. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria increase stool frequency and decrease consistency in normal individuals. But, according to several reviews, the evidence of probiotics for efficacy in constipation is limited. Fiber supplements, lactose-free diets, and lactobacillus supplementation are effective in the management of children with recurrent abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome. Several studies with Lactobacillus GG in children showed negative results in children with chronic constipation. Because Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 has been shown to be effective in adults with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome this study should also be performed in a well-designed large placebo-controlled trial in children with constipation. PMID:19300120

  13. Abrupt suspension of probiotics administration may increase host pathogen susceptibility by inducing gut dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Wenshu; Ran, Chao; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A. hydrophila. We further observed that suspension of JCM1149 resulted in host gut microbiota dysbiosis and the subsequent disorder in the intestinal metabolites (bile acids, amino acids, and glucose) and damage in the intestinal epithelium, giving rise to a condition similar to antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis, which collectively impaired tilapia’s gut health and resistance to pathogenic challenges. Additionally, we determined that JCM1149 adhered relatively poorly to tilapia intestinal mucosa and was rapidly released from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after suspension, with the rapid loss of probiotic strain probably being the direct cause of gut dysbiosis. Finally, three other probiotic Lactobacillus strains with low intestinal mucosa binding activity showed similar rapid loss phenotype following administration suspension, and induced higher host susceptibility to infection, indicating that the risk is a generic phenomenon in Lactobacillus. PMID:26983596

  14. Abrupt suspension of probiotics administration may increase host pathogen susceptibility by inducing gut dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Wenshu; Ran, Chao; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A. hydrophila. We further observed that suspension of JCM1149 resulted in host gut microbiota dysbiosis and the subsequent disorder in the intestinal metabolites (bile acids, amino acids, and glucose) and damage in the intestinal epithelium, giving rise to a condition similar to antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis, which collectively impaired tilapia's gut health and resistance to pathogenic challenges. Additionally, we determined that JCM1149 adhered relatively poorly to tilapia intestinal mucosa and was rapidly released from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after suspension, with the rapid loss of probiotic strain probably being the direct cause of gut dysbiosis. Finally, three other probiotic Lactobacillus strains with low intestinal mucosa binding activity showed similar rapid loss phenotype following administration suspension, and induced higher host susceptibility to infection, indicating that the risk is a generic phenomenon in Lactobacillus. PMID:26983596

  15. Enhancement of the immune response and protection induced by probiotic lactic acid bacteria against furunculosis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Balczar, Jos Luis; de Blas, Ignacio; Ruiz-Zarzuela, Imanol; Vendrell, Daniel; Girons, Olivia; Muzquiz, Jos Luis

    2007-10-01

    We analysed the effect of probiotic strains on the cellular and humoral immune responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and their capacity to prevent furunculosis during a challenge trial. Probiotic strains (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis CLFP 100, Leuconostoc mesenteroides CLFP 196, and Lactobacillus sakei CLFP 202) were administered orally to fish for 2 weeks at 10(6) CFU g(-1) of feed. In comparison to untreated control fish, the phagocytic activity of head kidney leukocytes and the alternative complement activity in serum were significantly greater in all probiotic groups at the end of the second week. With the exception of the group fed with Lactobacillus sakei, superoxide anion production was also significantly increased in the probiotic groups. Analysis of lysozyme activity did not exhibit any significant difference in the probiotic and control groups. Fifteen days after the start of the probiotic feeding, fish were challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida. The fish supplemented with probiotics exhibited survival rates ranging from 97.8% to 100%, whereas survival was 65.6% in fish not treated with the probiotics. These results demonstrate that probiotic supplementation to fish can reduce the severity of furunculosis, and suggest that this reduction may be associated with enhanced humoral and cellular immune response. PMID:17645738

  16. Removal of Cholera Toxin from Aqueous Solution by Probiotic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Heikkil, Jari E.; Nybom, Sonja M. K.; Salminen, Seppo J.; Meriluoto, Jussi A. O.

    2012-01-01

    Cholera remains a serious health problem, especially in developing countries where basic hygiene standards are not met. The symptoms of cholera are caused by cholera toxin, an enterotoxin, which is produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. We have recently shown that human probiotic bacteria are capable of removing cyanobacterial toxins from aqueous solutions. In the present study we investigate the ability of the human probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) and Bifidobacteriumlongum 46 (DSM 14583), to remove cholera toxin from solution in vitro. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Bifidobacteriumlongum 46 were able to remove 68% and 59% of cholera toxin from aqueous solutions during 18 h of incubation at 37 C, respectively. The effect was dependent on bacterial concentration and L. rhamnosus GG was more effective at lower bacterial concentrations. No significant effect on cholera toxin concentration was observed when nonviable bacteria or bacterial supernatant was used. PMID:24281668

  17. Orally delivered microencapsulated probiotic formulation favorably impacts polyp formation in APC (Min/+) model of intestinal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Urbanska, Aleksandra Malgorzata; Bhathena, Jasmine; Cherif, Sofiane; Prakash, Satya

    2016-02-01

    The development of intestinal polyps in an orthotopic colorectal mouse model, receiving a probiotic yogurt formulation containing microencapsulated live Lactobacillus acidophilus cells was investigated. The expression of various immunohistochemical markers namely CD8, Mac-1, Ki-67, and cleaved caspase-3, was evaluated. Results suggest that the probiotic formulation decreases overall intestinal inflammation. Mice receiving the probiotic formulation were found to develop almost two-fold fewer tumors in the small intestines. In the large intestine, however, there was no significant difference observed among polyp numbers. The formulation appears to have potential application in the prevention of various GI pathological conditions. PMID:25060720

  18. [Probiotics for the treating acute diarrhea and preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are helpful in the treatment of acute diarrhea. Several systematic reviews show that the use of probiotics shortens the duration of diarrhea in one day and reduces by 59% the risk of diarrhea lasting longer than 4 days. Hospital stay is 24 hours shorter in children treated with probiotics. The benefitial effect of probiotics is species-specific; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii are the two species with proven efficacy in the treatment of acute diarrhea. The use of probiotics reduces by 50% the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. No significant side effects were found in the clinical trials but rare cases of invasive infections have been reported in immunosuppressed children or those with indwelling central venous catheters. PMID:25659056

  19. Aflatoxicosis chemoprevention by probiotic Lactobacillius and lack of effect on the major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Sumit; Bauer, Miranda M; Mendoza, Kristelle M; El-Nezami, Hani; Hall, Jeffery R; Kim, Ji Eun; Stevens, John R; Reed, Kent M; Coulombe, Roger A

    2014-10-01

    Turkeys are extremely sensitive to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) which causes decreased growth, immunosuppression and liver necrosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether probiotic Lactobacillus, shown to be protective in animal and clinical studies, would likewise confer protection in turkeys, which were treated for 11 days with either AFB1 (AFB; 1 ppm in diet), probiotic (PB; 1 10(11) CFU/ml; oral, daily), probiotic + AFB1 (PBAFB), or PBS control (CNTL). The AFB1 induced drop in body and liver weights were restored to normal in CNTL and PBAFB groups. Hepatotoxicity markers were not significantly reduced by probiotic treatment. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes BG1 and BG4, which are differentially expressed in liver and spleens, were not significantly affected by treatments. These data indicate modest protection, but the relatively high dietary AFB1 treatment, and the extreme sensitivity of this species may reveal limits of probiotic-based protection strategies. PMID:24997556

  20. Mechanisms involved in the immunostimulation by probiotic fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Galdeano, Carolina Maldonado; de Leblanc, Alejandra de Moreno; Carmuega, Esteban; Weill, Ricardo; Perdign, Gabriela

    2009-11-01

    The intestinal ecosystem contains a normal microbiota, non-immune cells and immune cells associated with the intestinal mucosa. The mechanisms involved in the modulation of the gut immune system by probiotics are not yet completely understood. The present work studies the effect of a fermented milk containing probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus (Lb.) casei DN114001 on different parameters of the gut immune system involved with the nonspecific, innate and adaptive response. BALB/c mice received the probiotic bacterium Lb. casei DN114001 or the probiotic fermented milk (PFM). The interaction of the probiotic bacteria with the intestine was studied by electron and fluorescence microscopy. The immunological parameters were studied in the intestinal tissue and in the supernatant of intestinal cells (IC). Results showed that the probiotic bacterium interact with the IC. The whole bacterium or its fragments make contact with the gut associated immune cells. The PFM stimulated the IC with IL-6 release, as well as cells related to the nonspecific barrier and with the immune cells associated with the gut. This last activity was observed through the increase in the population of different immune cells: T lymphocytes and IgA+ B lymphocytes, and by the expression of cell markers related to both innate and adaptive response (macrophages). PFM was also able to activate the enzyme calcineurine responsible for the activation of the transcriptional factor NFAT. PFM induced mucosal immune stimulation reinforcing the non-specific barrier and modulating the innate immune response in the gut, maintaining the intestinal homeostasis. PMID:19638260

  1. Immunological Effects of Probiotics and their Significance to Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Harsharn S.; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender K.; Gill, Preet

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit upon the host (FAO/WHO, 2001). Lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are commonly used as probiotics. Other less commonly used probiotics include the yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae and some non-pathogenic Escherichia coli and Bacillus species. Studies over the past 20 years have demonstrated that probiotic intake is able to confer a range of health benefits including modulation of the immune system, protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections, lowering of blood cholesterol levels, attenuation of overt immuno-inflammatory disorders (such as inflammatory bowel disease, allergies) and anti-cancer effects. However, the strongest clinical evidence for probiotics relates to their effectiveness in improving gut health and modulating (via stimulation or regulation) the host immune system. This chapter provides an overview of the current status of our knowledge regarding the immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory effects of probiotics on the immune system and their significance to human health.

  2. Probiotic modulation of dendritic cell function is influenced by ageing

    PubMed Central

    You, Jialu; Dong, Honglin; Mann, Elizabeth R.; Knight, Stella C.; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for the generation of T-cell responses. DC function may be modulated by probiotics, which confer health benefits in immunocompromised individuals, such as the elderly. This study investigated the effects of four probiotics, Bifidobacterium longum bv. infantis CCUG 52486, B. longum SP 07/3, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L.GG) and L. casei Shirota (LcS), on DC function in an allogeneic mixed leucocyte reaction (MLR) model, using DCs and T-cells from young and older donors in different combinations. All four probiotics enhanced expression of CD40, CD80 and CCR7 on both young and older DCs, but enhanced cytokine production (TGF-β, TNF-α) by old DCs only. LcS induced IL-12 and IFNγ production by DC to a greater degree than other strains, while B. longum bv. infantis CCUG 52486 favoured IL-10 production. Stimulation of young T cells in an allogeneic MLR with DC was enhanced by probiotic pretreatment of old DCs, which demonstrated greater activation (CD25) than untreated controls. However, pretreatment of young or old DCs with LPS or probiotics failed to enhance the proliferation of T-cells derived from older donors. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ageing increases the responsiveness of DCs to probiotics, but this is not sufficient to overcome the impact of immunosenescence in the MLR. PMID:24094416

  3. Genes and Molecules of Lactobacilli Supporting Probiotic Action

    PubMed Central

    Lebeer, Sarah; Vanderleyden, Jos; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Lactobacilli have been crucial for the production of fermented products for centuries. They are also members of the mutualistic microbiota present in the human gastrointestinal and urogenital tract. Recently, increasing attention has been given to their probiotic, health-promoting capacities. Many human intervention studies demonstrating health effects have been published. However, as not all studies resulted in positive outcomes, scientific interest arose regarding the precise mechanisms of action of probiotics. Many reported mechanistic studies have addressed mainly the host responses, with less attention being focused on the specificities of the bacterial partners, notwithstanding the completion of Lactobacillus genome sequencing projects, and increasing possibilities of genomics-based and dedicated mutant analyses. In this emerging and highly interdisciplinary field, microbiologists are facing the challenge of molecular characterization of probiotic traits. This review addresses the advances in the understanding of the probiotic-host interaction with a focus on the molecular microbiology of lactobacilli. Insight into the molecules and genes involved should contribute to a more judicious application of probiotic lactobacilli and to improved screening of novel potential probiotics. PMID:19052326

  4. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  5. Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Ljungh, Asa; Wadstrm, Torkel

    2006-09-01

    A number of Lactobacillus species, Bifidobacterium sp, Saccharomyces boulardii, and some other microbes have been proposed as and are used as probiotic strains, i.e. live microorganisms as food supplement in order to benefit health. The health claims range from rather vague as regulation of bowel activity and increasing of well-being to more specific, such as exerting antagonistic effect on the gastroenteric pathogens Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and rotavirus, neutralising food mutagens produced in colon, shifting the immune response towards a Th2 response, and thereby alleviating allergic reactions, and lowering serum cholesterol (Tannock, 2002). Unfortunately, most publications are case reports, uncontrolled studies in humans, or reports of animal or in vitro studies. Whether or not the probiotic strains employed shall be of human origin is a matter of debate but this is not a matter of concern, as long as the strains can be shown to survive the transport in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and to colonise the human large intestine. This includes survival in the stressful environment of the stomach - acidic pH and bile - with induction of new genes encoding a number of stress proteins. Since the availability of antioxidants decreases rostrally in the GI tract production of antioxidants by colonic bacteria provides a beneficial effect in scavenging free radicals. LAB strains commonly produce antimicrobial substance(s) with activity against the homologous strain, but LAB strains also often produce microbicidal substances with effect against gastric and intestinal pathogens and other microbes, or compete for cell surface and mucin binding sites. This could be the mechanism behind reports that some probiotic strains inhibit or decrease translocation of bacteria from the gut to the liver. A protective effect against cancer development can be ascribed to binding of mutagens by intestinal bacteria, reduction of the enzymes beta-glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase, and deconjugation of bile acids, or merely by enhancing the immune system of the host. The latter has attracted considerable interest, and LAB have been tested in several clinical trials in allergic diseases. Characteristics ascribed to a probiotic strain are in general strain specific, and individual strains have to be tested for each property. Survival of strains during production, packing and storage of a viable cell mass has to be tested and declared. PMID:16875422

  6. Supplementation of Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Is Associated with Gut Microbial Changes and Reduction in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se-Hoon; Huh, Chul-Sung; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Yu, Rina; Sung, Mi-Kyung; McGregor, Robin A.; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the functional effects of probiotic treatment on the gut microbiota, as well as liver and adipose gene expression in diet-induced obese mice. Design Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce obesity, and then randomized to receive HFD+probiotic (Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032, n = 9) or HFD+placebo (n = 9) for another 10 weeks. Normal diet (ND) fed mice (n = 9) served as non-obese controls. Results Diet-induced obese mice treated with probiotics showed reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation as well as lowered plasma insulin, leptin, total-cholesterol and liver toxicity biomarkers. A total of 151,061 pyrosequencing reads for fecal microbiota were analyzed with a mean of 6,564, 5,274 and 4,464 reads for the ND, HFD+placebo and HFD+probiotic groups, respectively. Gut microbiota species were shared among the experimental groups despite the different diets and treatments. The diversity of the gut microbiota and its composition were significantly altered in the diet-induced obese mice and after probiotic treatment. We observed concurrent transcriptional changes in adipose tissue and the liver. In adipose tissue, pro-inflammatory genes (TNFα, IL6, IL1β and MCP1) were down-regulated in mice receiving probiotic treatment. In the liver, fatty acid oxidation-related genes (PGC1α, CPT1, CPT2 and ACOX1) were up-regulated in mice receiving probiotic treatment. Conclusions The gut microbiota of diet-induced obese mice appears to be modulated in mice receiving probiotic treatment. Probiotic treatment might reduce diet-induced obesity and modulate genes associated with metabolism and inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue. PMID:23555678

  7. Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, M.; Abedi, D.; Varshosaz, J.; Najjarzadeh, M.; Mirlohi, M.; Tavakoli, N.

    2012-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. It was also of interest to examine the effect of various formulations of cryoprotectant media containing skim milk, trehalose and sodium ascorbate on the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during freeze-drying at various storage temperatures. Without any cryoprotectant, few numbers of microorganisms survived. However, microorganisms tested maintained higher viability after freeze-drying in media containing at least one of the cryoprotectants. Use of skim milk in water resulted in an increased viability after lyophilization. Media with a combination of trehalose and skim milk maintained a higher percentage of live microorganisms, up to 82%. In general, bacteria retained a higher number of viable cells in capsules containing freeze-dried bacteria with sodium ascorbate after three months of storage. After this period, a marked decline was observed in all samples stored at 23°C compared to those stored at 4°C. The maximum survival rate (about 72-76%) was observed with media containing 6% skim milk, 8% trehalose and 4% sodium ascorbate. PMID:23181077

  8. Tolerability of a probiotic in subjects with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation.

    PubMed

    Warrack, S; Panjikar, P; Duster, M; Safdar, N

    2014-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of major public health importance. Colonisation precedes infection; thus reducing MRSA carriage may be of benefit for reducing infection. Probiotics represent a novel approach to reducing MRSA carriage. We undertook a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial of the tolerability and acceptability of probiotics for reducing nasal and intestinal carriage of MRSA. In addition, subjects were screened for vancomycin-resistant enterocococci (VRE). Subjects with a history of MRSA were recruited from a large, academic medical center and randomised to take either a placebo or probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001). Subjects returned to the clinic after four weeks for further testing to determine adherence to the probiotic regimen and colonisation of MRSA. 48 subjects were enrolled and randomised. Nearly 25% were transplant recipients and 30% had diabetes. The probiotic was well tolerated in the study population though minor side effects, such as nausea and bloating, were observed. A majority of the subjects randomised to HN001 had good adherence to the regimen. At the four week time point among subjects randomised to the probiotic, MRSA was detected in 67 and 50% of subjects colonised in the nares and the gastrointestinal tract, respectively. Three subjects who initially tested positive for VRE were negative after four weeks of probiotic exposure. Probiotics were well tolerated in our study population of largely immunocompromised subjects with multiple comorbidities. Adherence to the intervention was good. Probiotics should be studied further for their potential to reduce colonisation by multidrug resistant bacteria. PMID:25213147

  9. Functional properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from kimchi.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heejae; Yoon, Hongsup; Ji, Yosep; Kim, Hannah; Park, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jieun; Shin, Heuynkil; Holzapfel, Wilhelm

    2011-01-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable product generally consumed raw as a side-dish with practically every meal. Twelve mild acid producing facultatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus strains were selected for their potential as starter cultures for fermentation of kimchi, and evaluated for their functional properties. Eleven strains were identified as Lactobacillus sakei and one as Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains identified as L. sakei differed in some physiological features; of particular interest was the fact that 9 of these strains produced L(+) lactic acid from glucose in presence of acetate. All strains were able to survive gastrointestinal conditions simulating stomach and duodenum passage. In addition, they showed higher adherence to HT-29 cells than Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a commercial probiotic strain used worldwide. These strains also showed antimicrobial activity against a number of food-borne pathogens. Their ability to lower cholesterol was demonstrated by BSH (bile salt hydrolytic) activity, and cholesterol assimilation tests in vitro. The results suggest the probiotic potential of these strains for use in kimchi fermentation. PMID:21215484

  10. Genome sequence of Lactobacillus ruminis SPM0211, isolated from a fecal sample from a healthy Korean.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunghee; Cho, Yong-Joon; Lee, Anne Hayoung; Chun, Jongsik; Ha, Nam-Joo; Ko, GwangPyo

    2011-09-01

    Lactobacillus ruminis SPM0211 is a potential probiotic strain that shows antimicrobial activity against emerging pathogens. Here we present the draft genomic sequence of L. ruminis SPM0211, isolated from a fecal sample from a healthy Korean and describe both the common and unique features of this strain. PMID:21742873

  11. Genome Sequence of Rough and Smooth Variants of Pleomorphic Strain Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM-I-3699

    PubMed Central

    Tareb, R.; Bernardeau, M.

    2015-01-01

    The probiotic Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM-I-3699 is a pleomorphic strain exhibiting smooth and rough variants. We report their complete genomes consisting of a chromosome of 2, 4 Mb and a plasmid of 6,417 bp. The smooth variant differs by the presence of an additional plasmid of 35,418 bp. PMID:26383668

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of a Novel Lactobacillus salivarius Strain Isolated from Piglet.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Donald A; McLay, Kirsten; Roos, Stefan; Walter, Jens; Swarbreck, David; Drou, Nizar; Crossman, Lisa C; Juge, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus salivarius is part of the vertebrate indigenous microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract, oral cavity, and milk. The properties associated with some L.salivarius strains have led to their use as probiotics. Here we describe the draft genome of the pig isolate L.salivarius cp400, providing insights into host-niche specialization. PMID:24526652

  13. Probiotics and Intestinal Colonization by Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Mice and Humans?

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Magali; Forestier, Christiane; Charbonnel, Nicolas; Henard, Sandrine; Rabaud, Christian; Lesens, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the impact of probiotics on the intestinal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35 but not Escherichia coli Nissle reduced, although not significantly, the density of VRE colonization in a murine model. No effect of Lcr35 was observed in a double-blind placebo randomized study, involving nine patients. PMID:20421444

  14. Characterization of a Panela cheese with added probiotics and fava bean starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty Lactobacillus spp. and eight Bifidobacterium spp. were screened for their ability to ferment fava bean starch. B. breve ATCC 15700 and L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were selected as probiotics for use in fresh style Panela cheese. Two types of fresh cheese (with and without 3% fava bean starch) ...

  15. Probiotics cultures in animal feed: Effects on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to infectious diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...

  16. In vivo gut transcriptome responses to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus in neonatal gnotobiotic piglets

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Liu, Zhe; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak; Zhang, Xiaoli; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics facilitate mucosal repair and maintain gut homeostasis. They are often used in adjunct with rehydration or antibiotic therapy in enteric infections. Lactobacillus spp have been tested in infants for the prevention or treatment of various enteric conditions. However, to aid in rational strain selection for specific treatments, comprehensive studies are required to delineate and compare the specific molecules and pathways involved in a less complex but biologically relevant model (gnotobiotic pigs). Here we elucidated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) and L. acidophilus (LA) specific effects on gut transcriptome responses in a neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model to simulate responses in newly colonized infants. Whole genome microarray, followed by biological pathway reconstruction, was used to investigate the host-microbe interactions in duodenum and ileum at early (day 1) and later stages (day 7) of colonization. Both LA and LGG modulated common responses related to host metabolism, gut integrity, and immunity, as well as responses unique to each strain in Gn pigs. Our data indicated that probiotic establishment and beneficial effects in the host are guided by: (1) down-regulation or upregulation of immune function-related genes in the early and later stages of colonization, respectively, and (2) alternations in metabolism of small molecules (vitamins and/or minerals) and macromolecules (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). Pathways related to immune modulation and carbohydrate metabolism were more affected by LGG, whereas energy and lipid metabolism-related transcriptome responses were prominently modulated by LA. These findings imply that identification of probiotic strain-specific gut responses could facilitate the rational design of probiotic-based interventions to moderate specific enteric conditions. PMID:24637605

  17. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  18. Clinical Uses of Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Islam, Saif Ul

    2016-02-01

    Probiotics are live nonpathogenic microorganisms. Many of these microorganisms are part of the normal human gut flora, where they live in a symbiotic relationship. Probiotics have been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI medical conditions. However, the data supporting their use are often conflicting, especially for non-GI-associated illnesses. The strongest evidence supporting the use of probiotics is related to the treatment of acute diarrhea and pouchitis. Atopic eczema in children and genitourinary infections are the only non-GI-related medical conditions where probiotics may have some beneficial effects. Product selection and dosing are not the same in all conditions, and the beneficial effects of each probiotic strain cannot be generalized.The purpose of this article is to provide most recent information about probiotics and its uses. In contrast with previously published reviews on probiotics, we also discuss the composition of various products (Table 1), indications for their use (Table 2), product selection, and dosing of probiotics.Probiotics are safe and appear to exert some beneficial effects in GI-related illnesses. The use of probiotics in non-GI illnesses is not sufficiently supported by current data. PMID:26844491

  19. Antimicrobial potential for the combination of bovine lactoferrin or its hydrolysate with lactoferrin-resistant probiotics against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chen, P-W; Jheng, T T; Shyu, C-L; Mao, F C

    2013-03-01

    Previous reports have shown that several probiotic strains can resist the antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin (bLf), but the results are inconsistent. Moreover, a portion of orally administered apo-bLf is digested in vivo by pepsin to yield bLf hydrolysate, which produces stronger antibacterial activity than that observed with apo-bLf. However, whether bLf hydrolysate affects the growth of probiotic strains is unclear. Therefore, various probiotic strains in Taiwan were collected and evaluated for activity against apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate in vitro. Thirteen probiotic strains were evaluated, and the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707, and Bifidobacterium lactis BCRC 17394 were inhibited by both apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate. The growth of 8 strains were not affected by apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, including L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272, Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 11739, Lactobacillus coryniformis ATCC 25602, L. acidophilus BCRC 14065, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697, Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8081. However, apo-bLf and its hydrolysate inhibited the growth of foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, the supernatants produced by L. fermentum, B. lactis, and B. longum inhibited the growth of most pathogens. Importantly, a combination of apo-bLf or bLf hydrolysate with the supernatants of cultures of the organisms described above showed synergistic or partially synergistic effects against the growth of most of the selected pathogens. In conclusion, several probiotic strains are resistant to apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, warranting clinical studies to evaluate the antimicrobial potential for the combination of apo-bLf or its hydrolysate with specific probiotics. PMID:23332852

  20. Effects of Probiotics on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Factors in Petrochemical Workers: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Jazayeri, Shima; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Solati, Zahra; Mohammadpour, Nakisa; Asemi, Zatollah; Adab, Zohre; Djalali, Mahmoud; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Hosseini, Mostafa; Eghtesadi, Shahryar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the current study was to determine effects of probiotic yoghurt and multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in petrochemical workers. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done among petrochemical workers. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups to receive 100 g/day probiotic yogurt (n = 12) or one probiotic capsule daily (n = 13) or 100 g/day conventional yogurt (n = 10) for 6 weeks. The probiotic yoghurt was containing two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis with a total of min 1 × 107 CFU. Multispecies probiotic capsule contains seven probiotic bacteria spices Actobacillus casei 3 × 103, L. acidophilus 3 × 107, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 7 × 109, Lactobacillus bulgaricus 5 × 108, Bifidobacterium breve 2 × 1010, Bifidobacterium longum 1 × 109 and Streptococcus thermophilus 3 × 108 CFU/g. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the trial to quantify biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors. Results: Although a significant within-group decrease in plasma protein carbonyl levels was seen in the probiotic capsule group (326.0 ± 308.9 vs. 251.0 ± 176.3 ng/mL, P = 0.02), the changes were similar among the three groups. In addition, significant within-group decreases in plasma iso prostaglandin were observed in the probiotic supplements group (111.9 ± 85.4 vs. 88.0 ± 71.0 pg/mL, P = 0.003) and in the probiotic yogurt group (116.3 ± 93.0 vs. 92.0 ± 66.0 pg/mL, P = 0.02), nevertheless there were no significant change among the three groups. Conclusions: Taken together, consumption of probiotic yogurt or multispecies probiotic capsule had beneficial effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress in petrochemical workers. PMID:26445629

  1. Role of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    PubMed

    Sikorska, Hanna; Smoragiewicz, Wanda

    2013-12-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug-resistant micro-organism and is the principal nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Following initial in vitro experiments demonstrating that Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285() and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R() commercial strains exhibit antibacterial activity against clinical MRSA isolates, we conducted a literature search to find any evidence of probiotic efficacy in decolonisation or treatment of S. aureus infection. As summarised below, many strains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria isolated from a variety of sources inhibited the growth of S. aureus and clinical isolates of MRSA in vitro. The most active strains were Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Propionibacterium acnes, Lactobacillus paracasei, L. acidophilus, L. casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactococcus lactis. Their effects were mediated both by direct cell competitive exclusion as well as production of acids or bacteriocin-like inhibitors. L. acidophilus also inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation and lipase production. In vitro antimicrobial activity did not necessarily assure efficacy in vivo in animal infectious models, e.g. S. aureus 8325-4 was most sensitive in vitro to L. acidophilus, whilst in vivo Bifidobacterium bifidum best inhibited experimental intravaginal staphylococcosis in mice. On the other hand, L. plantarum, which showed the highest inhibition activity against S. aureus in vitro, was also very effective topically in preventing skin wound infection with S. aureus in mice. Very few clinical data were found on the interactions between probiotics and MRSA, but the few identified clinical cases pointed to the feasibility of elimination or reduction of MRSA colonisation with probiotic use. PMID:24071026

  2. Selection of lactic acid bacteria from Brazilian kefir grains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures.

    PubMed

    Zanirati, Débora Ferreira; Abatemarco, Mário; Sandes, Sávio Henrique de Cicco; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Neumann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian kefir is a homemade fermented beverage that is obtained by incubating milk or a brown sugar solution with kefir grains that contribute their different microbiological compositions. It is highly important to isolate and characterize microorganisms from Brazilian kefir grains to obtain starter cultures for the industrial production of a standardized commercial kefir. Thus, the present study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria from eight kefir grains that were propagated in milk or sugar solutions from five different locations in Brazil and to select Lactobacillus isolates based on desirable in vitro probiotic properties. One hundred eight isolates from both substrates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were determined to belong to the following 11 species from the genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus (L.), and Oenococcus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus kefiri, and Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens were isolated only from milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus perolens, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus diolivorans, and Oenococcus oeni were isolated exclusively from sugar water grains. When the microbial compositions of four kefir grains were evaluated with culture-independent analyses, L. kefiranofaciens was observed to predominant in milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus hilgardii was most abundant in sugar water kefir. Unfortunately, L. hilgardii was not isolated from any grain, although this bacteria was detected with a culture-independent methodology. Fifty-two isolated Lactobacilli were tested for gastric juice and bile salt tolerance, antagonism against pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. Three Lactobacillus strains (L. kefiranofaciens 8U, L. diolivorans 1Z, and Lactobacillus casei 17U) could be classified as potential probiotics. In conclusion, several lactic acid bacteria that could be used in combination with yeasts as starter cultures for both milk kefir and sugar water kefir were characterized, and the functional properties of several of the lactobacilli isolated from the kefir grains were suggestive of their possible use as probiotics in both kefir and other dairy products. PMID:25542841

  3. Genome instability in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    PubMed

    Sybesma, Wilbert; Molenaar, Douwe; van IJcken, Wilfred; Venema, Koen; Kort, Remco

    2013-04-01

    We describe here a comparative genome analysis of three dairy product isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the ATCC 53103 reference strain to the published genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG. The analysis showed that in two of three isolates, major DNA segments were missing from the genomic islands LGGISL1,2. The deleted DNA segments consist of 34 genes in one isolate and 84 genes in the other and are flanked by identical insertion elements. Among the missing genes are the spaCBA genes, which encode pilin subunits involved in adhesion to mucus and persistence of the strains in the human intestinal tract. Subsequent quantitative PCR analyses of six commercial probiotic products confirmed that two more products contain a heterogeneous population of L. rhamnosus GG variants, including genotypes with or without spaC. These results underline the relevance for quality assurance and control measures targeting genome stability in probiotic strains and justify research assessing the effect of genetic rearrangements in probiotics on the outcome of in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies. PMID:23354703

  4. Genome Instability in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    PubMed Central

    Molenaar, Douwe; van IJcken, Wilfred; Venema, Koen

    2013-01-01

    We describe here a comparative genome analysis of three dairy product isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the ATCC 53103 reference strain to the published genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG. The analysis showed that in two of three isolates, major DNA segments were missing from the genomic islands LGGISL1,2. The deleted DNA segments consist of 34 genes in one isolate and 84 genes in the other and are flanked by identical insertion elements. Among the missing genes are the spaCBA genes, which encode pilin subunits involved in adhesion to mucus and persistence of the strains in the human intestinal tract. Subsequent quantitative PCR analyses of six commercial probiotic products confirmed that two more products contain a heterogeneous population of L. rhamnosus GG variants, including genotypes with or without spaC. These results underline the relevance for quality assurance and control measures targeting genome stability in probiotic strains and justify research assessing the effect of genetic rearrangements in probiotics on the outcome of in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies. PMID:23354703

  5. Efficacy and safety of probiotics as adjuvant agents for Helicobacter pylori infection: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    LV, ZHIFA; WANG, BEN; ZHOU, XIAOJIANG; WANG, FUCAI; XIE, YONG; ZHENG, HUILIE; LV, NONGHUA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether probiotics could help to improve the eradication rates and reduce the side effects associated with anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment, and to investigate the optimal time and duration of probiotic administration during the treatment, thus providing clinical practice guidelines for eradication success worldwide. By searching Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Science Citation Index, all the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics as adjuvant agents of anti-H. pylori standard triple-therapy regimens with placebo or no treatment were selected. Statistical analysis was performed with the Comprehensive Meta Analysis Software. Subgroup, meta-regression and sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Twenty-one RCTs involving a total of 3,814 participants met the inclusion criteria. The pooled eradication rates of the probiotic group were 80.3% (1,709/2,128) by intention-to-treat (ITT) and 83.8% (1,709/2,039) by pro-protocol analyses; the pooled relative risk (RR) by ITT for probiotic supplementation versus treatment without probiotics was 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06–1.19]. A reduced risk of overall H. pylori therapy-related adverse effects was also found with probiotic supplementation (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40–0.91). The subgroup analyses showed that probiotic supplementation prior and subsequent to the treatment regimen both improved eradication rates for H. pylori infection. Furthermore, probiotic treatment lasting >2 weeks and including Lactobacillus or multiple probiotic strains significantly enhanced the efficacy. In conclusion, supplementation with probiotics for H. pylori eradication may be effective in increasing eradication rates and decreasing therapy-related side effects. Probiotic administration prior or subsequent to therapy and for a duration of >2 weeks may increase the eradication efficacy. PMID:25667617

  6. Allergen-free probiotics.

    PubMed

    Mogna, Giovanni; Strozzi, Gian Paolo; Mogna, Luca

    2008-09-01

    Food sensitivities are constantly increasing in "westernized" countries and may pose serious health risks to sensitized individuals. Severe allergy episodes have also been reported after the intake of probiotic products containing milk protein residues, especially in children. The need for safe and effective probiotic strains and food supplements, which contain them, is now emerging clearly. The present work describes the way of achieving this aim by the avoidance of any kind of raw materials at risk, both in probiotic strain industrial manufacturing and finished product formulation. Allergen-free probiotics represent, without any doubt, an innovative and safe tool for human health. PMID:18685500

  7. Taxonomy of Probiotic Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felis, Giovanna E.; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    When referring to probiotics, one refers to probiotic strains, i.e., the microbial individuals, sub-cultures of billion of almost identical cells ideally derived from the same mother cell. Therefore, beneficial effects attributed to probiotics are ascribed in fact to specific strains. However, these strains have to be, by law, clearly identified at the species level (Pineiro and Stanton, 2007). In fact, probiotics have to be safe for consumption, and the evaluation of QPS - qualified presumption of safety - status by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (Opinion, 2007) is discussed for species, not for single strains.

  8. Health aspects of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Arthur; Vesterlund, Satu

    2003-06-01

    Intestinal microbiota contribute in many different ways to our health; disturbances in the activity and/or composition of these microbiota may negatively influence health. In order to maintain a healthy intestinal microbiota, prebiotics and probiotics can be used. Selected probiotic strains safely shorten the duration of rotavirus diarrhea, relieve symptoms of lactose maldigestion and elicit beneficial immune-modulating effects. Other beneficial health effects have also been attributed to probiotics; however, these have not been sufficiently substantiated. Additional research into the mechanisms of probiotics is required. PMID:12811680

  9. Infectivity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei isolates in a rat model of experimental endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Vankerckhoven, Vanessa; Moreillon, Philippe; Piu, Stphane; Giddey, Marlyse; Huys, Geert; Vancanneyt, Marc; Goossens, Herman; Entenza, Jos M

    2007-08-01

    The potential pathogenicity of selected (potentially) probiotic and clinical isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei was investigated in a rat model of experimental endocarditis. In addition, adhesion properties of the lactobacilli for fibrinogen, fibronectin, collagen and laminin, as well as the killing activity of the platelet-microbicidal proteins fibrinopeptide A (FP-A) and connective tissue activating peptide 3 (CTAP-3), were assessed. The 90 % infective dose (ID(90)) of the L. rhamnosus endocarditis isolates varied between 10(6) and 10(7) c.f.u., whereas four of the six (potentially) probiotic L. rhamnosus isolates showed an ID(90) that was at least 10-fold higher (10(8) c.f.u.) (P<0.001). In contrast, the two other probiotic L. rhamnosus isolates exhibited an ID(90) (10(6) and 10(7) c.f.u.) comparable to the ID(90) of the clinical isolates of this species investigated (P>0.05). Importantly, these two probiotic isolates shared the same fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism cluster type as the clinical isolate showing the lowest ID(90) (10(6) c.f.u.). L. paracasei tended to have a lower infectivity than L. rhamnosus (ID(90) of 10(7) to > or =10(8) c.f.u.). All isolates had comparable bacterial counts in cardiac vegetations (P>0.05). Except for one L. paracasei strain adhering to all substrates, all tested lactobacilli adhered only weakly or not at all. The platelet peptide FP-A did not show any microbicidal activity against the tested lactobacilli, whereas CTAP-3 killed the majority of the isolates. In general, these results indicate that probiotic lactobacilli display a lower infectivity in experimental endocarditis compared with true endocarditis pathogens. However, the difference in infectivity between L. rhamnosus endocarditis and (potentially) probiotic isolates could not be explained by differences in adherence or platelet microbicidal protein susceptibility. Other disease-promoting factors may exist in these organisms and warrant further investigation. PMID:17644707

  10. Effect of addition of a probiotic micro-organism to broiler diet on intestinal mucosal architecture and electrophysiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Böhm, J

    2010-08-01

    Probiotics might be one of the solutions to reduce the effects of the recent ban on antimicrobial growth promoters in feed. However, the mode of action of probiotics still not fully understood. Therefore, evaluating probiotics (microbial feed additives) is essential. Thus the objective of this work was to investigate the efficacy of a new microbial feed additive (Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus reuteri) in broiler nutrition. The body weight (BW), average daily weight gain was relatively increased by the dietary inclusion of Lactobacillus sp. in broiler diets. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus feed additive influenced the histomorphological measurements of small intestinal villi. The addition of Lactobacillus sp. increased (p < 0.05) the villus height (VH)/crypt depth ratio and the VH was numerically increased in duodenum. The duodenal crypt depth remained unaffected (p > 0.05), while the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus sp. compared with the control. At the end of the feeding period, the basal and glucose stimulated short-circuit current (Isc) and electrical tissue conductivity were measured in the isolated gut mucosa to characterize the electrical properties of the gut. The addition of glucose on the mucosal side in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (p = 0.001) in Isc in both jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in Lactobacillus probiotic group. This increase in Isc for probiotic group in jejunum is equivalent to an increase of about two times that for the basal values, while in the control group is about half fold that for the basal value. In addition, the DeltaIsc after glucose addition to the large intestine was greater than the DeltaIsc in the small intestine in both control and probiotic group. Moreover in both jejunum and colon, the increase in Isc for birds fed Lactobacillus was higher than their control counterparts (p < or = 0.1). This result suggests that the addition of Lactobacillus sp. to broiler diets increased the glucose transport. Additionally, the results indicated that the conductivity of jejunal and colonic tissues remained unaffected by the dietary inclusion of Lactobacillus and support the concept that this additive enhances the maintenance and function of the epithelial barrier. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of a microbial feed additive (L. salivarius and L. reuteri) slightly increased the growth performance and improved intestinal nutrient absorption which was in association with the intestinal architecture improvement. PMID:19906141

  11. Probiotic Colonization of the Adherent Mucus Layer of HT29MTXE12 Cells Attenuates Campylobacter jejuni Virulence Properties▿

    PubMed Central

    Alemka, Abofu; Clyne, Marguerite; Shanahan, Fergus; Tompkins, Thomas; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Bourke, Billy

    2010-01-01

    The HT29MTXE12 (E12) cell line harbors an adherent mucus layer, providing a novel technique to model mucosal infection in vitro. In this study, we have characterized the interaction of Campylobacter jejuni with the E12 cell line and exploited its unique mucus layer to examine the potential efficacy of probiotic treatment to attenuate C. jejuni virulence properties. C. jejuni 81-176 colonized and reproduced in E12 mucus. Adhesion to and internalization of C. jejuni were enhanced in E12 cells harboring mucus compared to parental cells without mucus. Translocation of C. jejuni occurred at early time points following infection. C. jejuni aligned with tight junctions and colocalized with the tight junction protein occludin, suggesting a paracellular route of translocation. Probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, Lactobacillus salivarius AH102, Bifidobacterium longum AH1205, a commercial combination of L. rhamnosus R0011 and L. helveticus R0052 (Lacidofil), and a cocktail consisting of L. rhamnosus, L. helveticus, and L. salivarius (RhHeSa) colonized E12 mucus and bound to underlying cells. Probiotics attenuated C. jejuni association with and internalization into E12 cells and translocation to the basolateral medium of transwells. Live bacteria and prolonged precolonization of E12 cells with probiotics were necessary for probiotic action. These results demonstrate the potential for E12 cells as a model of mucosal pathogenesis and provide a rationale for the further investigation of probiotics as prophylaxis against human campylobacteriosis. PMID:20308300

  12. Cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula plus the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG compared to an extensively hydrolyzed formula alone or an amino acid formula as first-line dietary management for cow’s milk allergy in the US

    PubMed Central

    Ovcinnikova, Olga; Panca, Monica; Guest, Julian F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF) plus the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) compared to an eHCF alone (Nutramigen) and an amino acid formula (AAF; Neocate) as first-line dietary management for cow’s milk allergy (CMA) in the US. Methods Using a cohort study design, the analysis was based on the case records of 136 eHCF-fed, 59 eHCF + LGG-fed, and 217 matched AAF-fed infants extracted from the Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial Claims Database (a nationally representative database of the commercially insured population of the US). Clinical outcomes and health care resource use (with corresponding costs at 2012 prices), following first-line dietary management with each formula, were estimated over 12 months from the start of feeding. Differences in infants’ outcomes and resource use between groups were adjusted for any differences in baseline covariates. Results Infants were <6 months of age at presentation. Fifty-six percent of eHCF + LGG-fed infants were estimated to have been successfully managed by 9 months compared to 38% of eHCF-fed infants and 35% of AAF-fed infants (P<0.05 and P=0.003 respectively). Infants in the AAF group used significantly more health care resources and prescribed drugs than infants in the other two groups. The estimated cost of managing a CMA infant over the first 12 months following the start of feeding was $3,577, $3,781, and $6,255 for an eHCF + LGG-fed, eHCF-fed, and AAF-fed infant, respectively. Parents’ costs accounted for up to 10% of the total costs and the remainder was incurred by insurers. The analyses were robust to plausible changes in all variables. Conclusion Using real world evidence, initial dietary management with eHCF + LGG appears to afford a more cost-effective use of health care resources than initial dietary management with eHCF or AAF since it releases health care resources for alternative use within the system and reduces costs without impacting on the time needed to manage the allergy. PMID:25767400

  13. Physicochemical and hygienic effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Iranian white cheese

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Razzaqh; Tajik, Hossein; Ehsani, Ali; Zare, Payman

    2012-01-01

    Increasing incidence of food-borne disease along with its social and economic consequences have led to conducting extensive research in order to produce safer food and develop new antimicrobial agents; among them, extensive use of probiotics and bacteriocins as biological additives is of significant importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interactions (growth behavior and survival) of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus acidophilus in various stages of production, ripening and storage of Iranian white cheese. Changes in pH values at different stages of cheese ripening, along with changes in organoleptic properties of cheese were also assessed. Compared to other treatments, in the treatment of cheese with probiotic agent without starter, the most significant decrease in Listeria monocytogenes count at the end of ripening stage was observed (3.16 Log per gram cheese compared with the control group) (p < 0.05). Survival of probiotic bacteria in control samples of cheese were significantly higher when compared to cheese sample contaminated with Listeria (p < 0.05). White probiotic cheese with starter had the highest of sensory acceptability (p < 0.05). Listeria Monocytogenes count decreased during ripening period of probiotic white cheese but the bacteria survived in probiotic white cheese. Lactobacillus acidophilus count decreased during ripening period of white cheese but it did not lower to less than 106 CFU per g at the end of ripening and storage periods. PMID:25610568

  14. Physicochemical and hygienic effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Iranian white cheese.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Razzaqh; Tajik, Hossein; Ehsani, Ali; Zare, Payman

    2012-01-01

    Increasing incidence of food-borne disease along with its social and economic consequences have led to conducting extensive research in order to produce safer food and develop new antimicrobial agents; among them, extensive use of probiotics and bacteriocins as biological additives is of significant importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interactions (growth behavior and survival) of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus acidophilus in various stages of production, ripening and storage of Iranian white cheese. Changes in pH values at different stages of cheese ripening, along with changes in organoleptic properties of cheese were also assessed. Compared to other treatments, in the treatment of cheese with probiotic agent without starter, the most significant decrease in Listeria monocytogenes count at the end of ripening stage was observed (3.16 Log per gram cheese compared with the control group) (p < 0.05). Survival of probiotic bacteria in control samples of cheese were significantly higher when compared to cheese sample contaminated with Listeria (p < 0.05). White probiotic cheese with starter had the highest of sensory acceptability (p < 0.05). Listeria Monocytogenes count decreased during ripening period of probiotic white cheese but the bacteria survived in probiotic white cheese. Lactobacillus acidophilus count decreased during ripening period of white cheese but it did not lower to less than 10(6) CFU per g at the end of ripening and storage periods. PMID:25610568

  15. Probiotic modulation of symbiotic gut microbial–host metabolic interactions in a humanized microbiome mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Wang, Yulan; Sprenger, Norbert; Yap, Ivan K S; Lundstedt, Torbjörn; Lek, Per; Rezzi, Serge; Ramadan, Ziad; van Bladeren, Peter; Fay, Laurent B; Kochhar, Sunil; Lindon, John C; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2008-01-01

    The transgenomic metabolic effects of exposure to either Lactobacillus paracasei or Lactobacillus rhamnosus probiotics have been measured and mapped in humanized extended genome mice (germ-free mice colonized with human baby flora). Statistical analysis of the compartmental fluctuations in diverse metabolic compartments, including biofluids, tissue and cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in relation to microbial population modulation generated a novel top-down systems biology view of the host response to probiotic intervention. Probiotic exposure exerted microbiome modification and resulted in altered hepatic lipid metabolism coupled with lowered plasma lipoprotein levels and apparent stimulated glycolysis. Probiotic treatments also altered a diverse range of pathways outcomes, including amino-acid metabolism, methylamines and SCFAs. The novel application of hierarchical-principal component analysis allowed visualization of multicompartmental transgenomic metabolic interactions that could also be resolved at the compartment and pathway level. These integrated system investigations demonstrate the potential of metabolic profiling as a top-down systems biology driver for investigating the mechanistic basis of probiotic action and the therapeutic surveillance of the gut microbial activity related to dietary supplementation of probiotics. PMID:18197175

  16. Effect of probiotics on the expression of Barrett's oesophagus biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari namin, Behrooz; Daryani, Nasser Ebrahimi; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Yazdi, Mohammad Kazem Sharifi; Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan

    2015-04-01

    Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is a complicated condition at the gastroesophageal junction in which normal squamous epithelium is changed to columnar and leads to oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OA). In the past decades, the prevalence of Barrett's disease and mortality rate of adenocarcinoma has significantly increased throughout the word. Data has shown that molecular pathogenesis of disease has not been clearly identified. However, a wide-range and successful administration of probiotics in cancer and gastrointestinal diseases has lead to the investigation into the possible inhibitory role of probiotics in oesophageal cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effect of probiotics on the expression of biomarkers in an in vitro model. Two different Barrett's oesophageal cell lines were selected to co-culture with B. longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus to measure expression of IL-18, TNF?, p53 (tumour suppressor gene), cyclooxygenase 2 and CDX1 (caudal type homeobox 1) genes. In addition, two different aspects of probiotic administration, therapeutic and prophylactic test were also examined. Results showed that micro-organisms could inhibit expression of biomarkers and therapeutic culture conditions were more effective than prophylactic tests. The results obtained suggest that it is possible to incorporate the administration of probiotics in BO and OA prevention. PMID:25666837

  17. Aquaculture and stress management: a review of probiotic intervention.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S; Chakraborty, T; Kumar, V; DeBoeck, G; Mohanta, K N

    2013-06-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand for animal protein, aquaculture continuously requires new techniques to increase the production yield. However, with every step towards intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in stress level on the animal as well as on the environment. Feeding practices in aqua farming usually plays an important role, and the addition of various additives to a balanced feed formula to achieve better growth is a common practice among the fish and shrimp culturists. Probiotics, also known as 'bio-friendly agents', such as LAB (Lactobacillus), yeasts and Bacillus sp., can be introduced into the culture environment to control and compete with pathogenic bacteria as well as to promote the growth of the cultured organisms. In addition, probiotics are non-pathogenic and non-toxic micro-organisms, having no undesirable side effects when administered to aquatic organisms. Probiotics are also known to play an important role in developing innate immunity among the fishes, and hence help them to fight against any pathogenic bacterias as well as against environmental stressors. The present review is a brief but informative compilation of the different essential and desirable traits of probiotics, their mode of action and their useful effects on fishes. The review also highlights the role of probiotics in helping the fishes to combat against the different physical, chemical and biological stress. PMID:22512693

  18. Comparative Functional Genomics of Lactobacillus spp. Reveals Possible Mechanisms for Specialization of Vaginal Lactobacilli to Their Environment

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Haruo; Hickey, Roxana J.; Forney, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacilli are found in a wide variety of habitats. Four species, Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners, and L. jensenii, are common and abundant in the human vagina and absent from other habitats. These may be adapted to the vagina and possess characteristics enabling them to thrive in that environment. Furthermore, stable codominance of multiple Lactobacillus species in a single community is infrequently observed. Thus, it is possible that individual vaginal Lactobacillus species possess unique characteristics that confer to them host-specific competitive advantages. We performed comparative functional genomic analyses of representatives of 25 species of Lactobacillus, searching for habitat-specific traits in the genomes of the vaginal lactobacilli. We found that the genomes of the vaginal species were significantly smaller and had significantly lower GC content than those of the nonvaginal species. No protein families were found to be specific to the vaginal species analyzed, but some were either over- or underrepresented relative to nonvaginal species. We also found that within the vaginal species, each genome coded for species-specific protein families. Our results suggest that even though the vaginal species show no general signatures of adaptation to the vaginal environment, each species has specific and perhaps unique ways of interacting with its environment, be it the host or other microbes in the community. These findings will serve as a foundation for further exploring the role of lactobacilli in the ecological dynamics of vaginal microbial communities and their ultimate impact on host health. PMID:24488312

  19. Comparative functional genomics of Lactobacillus spp. reveals possible mechanisms for specialization of vaginal lactobacilli to their environment.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Soares, Helena; Suzuki, Haruo; Hickey, Roxana J; Forney, Larry J

    2014-04-01

    Lactobacilli are found in a wide variety of habitats. Four species, Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners, and L. jensenii, are common and abundant in the human vagina and absent from other habitats. These may be adapted to the vagina and possess characteristics enabling them to thrive in that environment. Furthermore, stable codominance of multiple Lactobacillus species in a single community is infrequently observed. Thus, it is possible that individual vaginal Lactobacillus species possess unique characteristics that confer to them host-specific competitive advantages. We performed comparative functional genomic analyses of representatives of 25 species of Lactobacillus, searching for habitat-specific traits in the genomes of the vaginal lactobacilli. We found that the genomes of the vaginal species were significantly smaller and had significantly lower GC content than those of the nonvaginal species. No protein families were found to be specific to the vaginal species analyzed, but some were either over- or underrepresented relative to nonvaginal species. We also found that within the vaginal species, each genome coded for species-specific protein families. Our results suggest that even though the vaginal species show no general signatures of adaptation to the vaginal environment, each species has specific and perhaps unique ways of interacting with its environment, be it the host or other microbes in the community. These findings will serve as a foundation for further exploring the role of lactobacilli in the ecological dynamics of vaginal microbial communities and their ultimate impact on host health. PMID:24488312

  20. Alteration of the Canine Small-Intestinal Lactic Acid Bacterium Microbiota by Feeding of Potential Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Manninen, Titta J. K.; Rinkinen, Minna L.; Beasley, Shea S.; Saris, Per E. J.

    2006-01-01

    Five potentially probiotic canine fecal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus fermentum LAB8, Lactobacillus salivarius LAB9, Weissella confusa LAB10, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LAB11, and Lactobacillus mucosae LAB12, were fed to five permanently fistulated beagles for 7 days. The survival of the strains and their potential effects on the indigenous intestinal LAB microbiota were monitored for 17 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated that the five fed LAB strains survived in the upper gastrointestinal tract and modified the dominant preexisting indigenous jejunal LAB microbiota of the dogs. When the LAB supplementation was ceased, DGGE analysis of jejunal chyme showed that all the fed LAB strains were undetectable after 7 days. However, the diversity of the intestinal indigenous microbiota of the dogs, as characterized from jejunal chyme plated on Lactobacillus selective medium without acetic acid, was reduced and did not return to the original level during the study period. In all but one dog, an indigenous Lactobacillus acidophilus strain emerged as the dominant LAB strain. In conclusion, strains LAB8 to LAB12 have potential as probiotic strains for dogs as they survive in and dominate the jejunal LAB microbiota during feeding and have the ability to modify the intestinal microbiota. PMID:17021203

  1. Probiotics in allergy management.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoof, Jon A

    2008-11-01

    The gut contains a diverse bacterial flora that is acquired at birth and has a number of physiological functions. Administration of prebiotics or probiotics may favourably alter this gut microflora. Prebiotics are poorly digested oligosaccharides that promote the growth of desirable bacteria and may have other beneficial gastrointestinal and systemic effects. Probiotics are "helpful" human bacteria that provide a variety of health benefits when administered exogenously. Probiotics produce beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of traveller's diarrhoea, viral diarrhoea, and diarrhoea in day care centres. Moreover, probiotics have been shown to reduce relapses associated with Clostridium difficile, and Lactobacilli are effective in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Probiotics may also be efficacious in the treatment of gastroenteritis. Clinical studies of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease have proved disappointing, but beneficial effects in adults with irritable bowel syndrome have been reported with Bifidobacterium infantis 35624. Lactobacilli GG reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms and gut permeability in patients with atopic dermatitis, and administration of probiotics reduces the frequency and severity of atopic eczema when administered to pregnant women and then to newborn infants. In conclusion, probiotics are effective in the treatment and/or prevention of a number of conditions, including diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome and atopic dermatitis, and the product used should be selected based on the particular indication. PMID:18931598

  2. Probiotics: Isolated bacteria strain or mixtures of different strains? Two different approaches in the use of probiotics as therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Karimi, O; Pena, A S

    2003-08-01

    Probiotics are cultures of beneficial bacteria from the healthy gut microflora that improve the balance of the intestinal milieu by modifying the intestinal microflora and suppressing enhanced inflammatory responses. Probiotics are currently the subject of intense and widespread research as functional foods since they are known to induce health benefits, may be used as pharmaceutical preparations, and have achieved a "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) status. Lactobacillus strains can also be genetically engineered for use in oral immunotherapeutic applications, such as vaccination and delivery of immunoregulatory substances. In the present review we evaluate the two different approaches to the therapeutic use of probiotics. We also focus on recent findings in the field of molecular biology and genetics of the intestinal immune response related to the microflora and intestinal ecology, in order to understand the mechanisms of action of probiotics and their present indications in gastrointestinal diseases. Finally, with a view to future perspectives we provide some examples of probiotics that are being assessed and have great potential in improving the health of animals and man. PMID:14566382

  3. Probiotic viability and storage stability of yogurts and fermented milks prepared with several mixtures of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mani-Lpez, E; Palou, E; Lpez-Malo, A

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the food industry wants to expand the range of probiotic yogurts but each probiotic bacteria offers different and specific health benefits. Little information exists on the influence of probiotic strains on physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of yogurts and fermented milks. Six probiotic yogurts or fermented milks and 1 control yogurt were prepared, and we evaluated several physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, and syneresis), microbial viability of starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus reuteri) during fermentation and storage (35 d at 5C), as well as sensory preference among them. Decreases in pH (0.17 to 0.50 units) and increases in titratable acidity (0.09 to 0.29%) were observed during storage. Only the yogurt with S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and L. reuteri differed in firmness. No differences in adhesiveness were determined among the tested yogurts, fermented milks, and the control. Syneresis was in the range of 45 to 58%. No changes in color during storage were observed and no color differences were detected among the evaluated fermented milk products. Counts of S. thermophilus decreased from 1.8 to 3.5 log during storage. Counts of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus also decreased in probiotic yogurts and varied from 30 to 50% of initial population. Probiotic bacteria also lost viability throughout storage, although the 3 probiotic fermented milks maintained counts ? 10(7)cfu/mL for 3 wk. Probiotic bacteria had variable viability in yogurts, maintaining counts of L. acidophilus ? 10(7) cfu/mL for 35 d, of L. casei for 7d, and of L. reuteri for 14 d. We found no significant sensory preference among the 6 probiotic yogurts and fermented milks or the control. However, the yogurt and fermented milk made with L. casei were better accepted. This study presents relevant information on physicochemical, sensory, and microbial properties of probiotic yogurts and fermented milks, which could guide the dairy industry in developing new probiotic products. PMID:24745665

  4. Characterization of bacterial isolates from the microbiota of mothers' breast milk and their infants.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Kimberly; Charbonneau, Duane; Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Klaenhammer, Todd

    2015-11-01

    This investigation assessed the potential of isolating novel probiotics from mothers and their infants. A subset of 21 isolates among 126 unique bacteria from breast milk and infant stools from 15 mother-infant pairs were examined for simulated GI transit survival, adherence to Caco-2 cells, bacteriocin production, and lack of antibiotic resistance. Of the 21 selected isolates a Lactobacillus crispatus isolate and 3 Lactobacillus gasseri isolates demonstrated good profiles of in vitro GI transit tolerance and Caco-2 cell adherence. Bacteriocin production was observed only by L. gasseri and Enterococcus faecalis isolates. Antibiotic resistance was widespread, although not universal, among isolates from infants. Highly similar isolates (? 97% similarity by barcode match) of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (1 match), Lactobacillus fermentum (2 matches), Lactobacillus gasseri (6 matches), and Enterococcus faecalis (1 match) were isolated from 5 infant-mother pairs. Antibiotic resistance profiles between these isolate matches were similar, except in one case where the L. gasseri isolate from the infant exhibited resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline, not observed in matching mother isolate. In a second case, L. gasseri isolates differed in resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and vancomycin between the mother and infant. In this study, gram positive bacteria isolated from mothers' breast milk as well as their infants exhibited diversity in GI transit survival and acid inhibition of pathogens, but demonstrated limited ability to produce bacteriocins. Mothers and their infants offer the potential for identification of probiotics; however, even in the early stages of development, healthy infants contain isolates with antibiotic resistance. PMID:26727418

  5. The role of probiotic cultures in the control of gastrointestinal health.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, R D

    2000-02-01

    The use of probiotics to enhance intestinal health has been proposed for many years. Probiotics are traditionally defined as viable microorganisms that have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of specific pathologic conditions when they are ingested. There is a relatively large volume of literature that supports the use of probiotics to prevent or treat intestinal disorders. However, the scientific basis of probiotic use has been firmly established only recently, and sound clinical studies have begun to be published. Currently, the best-studied probiotics are the lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium sp. However, other organisms used as probiotics in humans include Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Bacteroides sp., Bacillus sp., Propionibacterium sp. and various fungi. Some probiotic preparations contain mixtures of more than one bacterial strain. Probiotics have been examined for their effectiveness in the prevention and treatment of a diverse spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea (including Clostridium difficile-associated intestinal disease), infectious bacterial and viral diarrhea (including diarrhea caused by rotavirus, Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Vibrio cholerae and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency disorder, enteral feeding diarrhea, Helicobacter pylori gastroenteritis, sucrase maltase deficiency, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and lactose intolerance. Probiotics have been found to inhibit intestinal bacterial enzymes involved in the synthesis of colonic carcinogens. There are many mechanisms by which probiotics enhance intestinal health, including stimulation of immunity, competition for limited nutrients, inhibition of epithelial and mucosal adherence, inhibition of epithelial invasion and production of antimicrobial substances. Probiotics represent an exciting prophylactic and therapeutic advance, although additional investigations must be undertaken before their role in intestinal health can be delineated clearly. PMID:10721914

  6. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mikiko; Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol. Objective To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies. Methods Eligible reports were obtained